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Sample records for healthy korean population

  1. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration Is Independently Inversely Associated with Insulin Resistance in the Healthy, Non-Obese Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Ock, So Young; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Bu Kyung; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Shim, Jee-Seon; Lee, Myung Ha; Yoon, Young Me

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in serum and insulin resistance in the healthy Korean population. Methods We conducted this cross-sectional analysis in 1,807 healthy Korean people (628 men and 1,179 women) aged 30 to 64 years in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiologic Research Center study. All participants were assessed for 25(OH)D, fasting glucose, and insulin levels, and completed a health examination and lifestyle questionnaire according to standard procedures. Insulin resistance was defined as the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance higher than the 75 percentile. Results Compared to those in the highest tertile (≥14.3 ng/mL), the odds ratio (OR) for insulin resistance was 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.86) for the 1st tertile (<9.7 ng/mL) and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.08 to 1.62) for the 2nd tertile (9.7 to 14.3 ng/mL) after adjusting for age, gender, waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical exercise, season, and cohort. After stratification of the subjects by adiposity, these associations remained only in non-obese subjects (lowest tertile vs. highest tertile, multivariable OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.56). Conclusion Serum 25(OH)D has an independent inverse association with insulin resistance in the healthy, non-obese Korean population, even among people with vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:27535642

  2. Lack of functional KL-VS polymorphism of the KLOTHO gene in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Kwon; Jeong, Byung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The functional variant of the Klotho "KL-VS" stretch, which includes six polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium, is reportedly associated with healthy aging and longevity in European and American populations. Among Asian populations, this variant has been observed in the Indian population but not in the Iranian population. An association between KL-VS polymorphism and aging has not been reported in Koreans. To investigate whether the KL-VS polymorphism could be associated with healthy aging and longevity in a Korean population, we analyzed genotype and allele frequencies of the KL-VS variant in a large Korean population sample. The KL-VS variant was not found in 874 Korean individuals. Thus, it is not possible to test its association to aging in the East Asian populations. PMID:27560364

  3. Lack of functional KL-VS polymorphism of the KLOTHO gene in the Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Kwon; Jeong, Byung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The functional variant of the Klotho "KL-VS" stretch, which includes six polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium, is reportedly associated with healthy aging and longevity in European and American populations. Among Asian populations, this variant has been observed in the Indian population but not in the Iranian population. An association between KL-VS polymorphism and aging has not been reported in Koreans. To investigate whether the KL-VS polymorphism could be associated with healthy aging and longevity in a Korean population, we analyzed genotype and allele frequencies of the KL-VS variant in a large Korean population sample. The KL-VS variant was not found in 874 Korean individuals. Thus, it is not possible to test its association to aging in the East Asian populations. PMID:27560364

  4. Associations between food insecurity and healthy behaviors among Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chun, In-Ae; Park, Jong; Ro, Hee-Kyung; Han, Mi-Ah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Food insecurity has been suggested as being negatively associated with healthy behaviors and health status. This study was performed to identify the associations between food insecurity and healthy behaviors among Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data used were the 2011 Community Health Survey, cross-sectional representative samples of 253 communities in Korea. Food insecurity was defined as when participants reported that their family sometimes or often did not get enough food to eat in the past year. Healthy behaviors were considered as non-smoking, non-high risk drinking, participation in physical activities, eating a regular breakfast, and maintaining a normal weight. Multiple logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify the association between food insecurity and healthy behaviors. RESULTS The prevalence of food insecurity was 4.4% (men 3.9%, women 4.9%). Men with food insecurity had lower odds ratios (ORs) for non-smoking, 0.75 (95% CI: 0.68-0.82), participation in physical activities, 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76-0.90), and eating a regular breakfast, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.59-0.74), whereas they had a higher OR for maintaining a normal weight, 1.19 (95% CI: 1.09-1.30), than men with food security. Women with food insecurity had lower ORs for non-smoking, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.66-0.89), and eating a regular breakfast, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72-0.88). For men, ORs for obesity were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.70-0.87) for overweight and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.39-0.82) for mild obesity. For women, the OR for moderate obesity was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.14-3.63) as compared with normal weight. CONCLUSIONS Food insecurity has a different impact on healthy behaviors. Provision of coping strategies for food insecurity might be critical to improve healthy behaviors among the population. PMID:26244083

  5. Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young

    2013-01-01

    The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population. PMID:23424060

  6. Erythrocyte thiopurine methyltransferase activity in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jang, I J; Shin, S G; Lee, K H; Yim, D S; Lee, M S; Koo, H H; Kim, H K; Sohn, D R

    1996-11-01

    Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is the enzyme responsible for the S-methylation of thiopurine drugs. The enzyme, present in human red blood cells (RBC), is known to exhibit genetic polymorphism and interethnic differences in its activity have been demonstrated. We have studied the role of TPMT polymorphism in Koreans and compared enzyme activity between this and other ethnic groups. In a population of 360 unrelated healthy Korean subjects TPMT activity showed a large interindividual variation ranging from 3.2 to 22.9 nmol ml-1 packed RBC h-1 with a median value of 12.0 and mode of 11.0 nmol ml-1 packed RBC h-1. The enzyme activity was higher in male subjects than that in female (median values; 12.2 vs 11.2, 95% confidence interval of the difference; -2.1, 4.0 nmol ml-1 packed RBC h-1). All subjects had detectable TPMT activity, but contrary to previous reports in other ethnic groups, this was distributed unimodally. The median RBC TPMT activity was very similar to values found in Caucasian populations, higher than in Floridian blacks and lower than that of a Norwegian Saami population.

  7. Ultrasound Dimensions of the Rotator Cuff and Other Associated Structures in Korean Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongwon; Kim, Hong Geum; Song, Daeheon; Yoon, Jung Yoon; Chung, Myung Eun

    2016-09-01

    In evaluating patients complaining of shoulder pain, ultrasonography is an emerging imaging tool due to convenience, low cost, high sensitivity and specificity. However, normative values of ultrasound dimensions of the shoulder to be compared with pathologic findings in Korean adults are not provided yet. We evaluated the ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff, long head of biceps tendon, deltoid muscle and acromioclavicular joint in Korean healthy adults. Shoulder ultrasonography was performed on 200 shoulders from 100 healthy adults. The dimensions of the thickness of rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis tendon), deltoid muscle, long head of biceps tendon, subacromial subdeltoid bursa, and acromioclavicular joint interval were measured in a standardized manner. Differences in measurements among sex, age, and dominant arms were compared. The thickness of rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis) and deltoid muscle were significantly different between men and women. The thickness of subacromial subdeltoid bursa was significantly different between men and women for non-dominant side. In rotator cuff tendon measurements, the differences between dominant and non-dominant shoulders were not significant, which means the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder can be used to estimate the normal reference values. When stratified by age divided by 10 years, the measurements of supraspinatus, subscapularis and deltoid thickness showed tendency of increase with the age. The acromioclavicular joint interval, on the other hand, revealed decreasing tendency. This report suggests normative values of ultrasound dimensions of healthy Korean population with varying age, and can be useful as reference values in evaluating shoulder pathology, especially in rotator cuff tendon pathology. PMID:27510393

  8. Ultrasound Dimensions of the Rotator Cuff and Other Associated Structures in Korean Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating patients complaining of shoulder pain, ultrasonography is an emerging imaging tool due to convenience, low cost, high sensitivity and specificity. However, normative values of ultrasound dimensions of the shoulder to be compared with pathologic findings in Korean adults are not provided yet. We evaluated the ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff, long head of biceps tendon, deltoid muscle and acromioclavicular joint in Korean healthy adults. Shoulder ultrasonography was performed on 200 shoulders from 100 healthy adults. The dimensions of the thickness of rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis tendon), deltoid muscle, long head of biceps tendon, subacromial subdeltoid bursa, and acromioclavicular joint interval were measured in a standardized manner. Differences in measurements among sex, age, and dominant arms were compared. The thickness of rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis) and deltoid muscle were significantly different between men and women. The thickness of subacromial subdeltoid bursa was significantly different between men and women for non-dominant side. In rotator cuff tendon measurements, the differences between dominant and non-dominant shoulders were not significant, which means the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder can be used to estimate the normal reference values. When stratified by age divided by 10 years, the measurements of supraspinatus, subscapularis and deltoid thickness showed tendency of increase with the age. The acromioclavicular joint interval, on the other hand, revealed decreasing tendency. This report suggests normative values of ultrasound dimensions of healthy Korean population with varying age, and can be useful as reference values in evaluating shoulder pathology, especially in rotator cuff tendon pathology. PMID:27510393

  9. Abdominal obesity and structure and function of the heart in healthy male Koreans: The ARIRANG study.

    PubMed

    Son, Jung-Woo; Sung, Joong Kyung; Lee, Jun-Won; Youn, Young Jin; Ahn, Min-Soo; Ahn, Sung Gyun; Yoo, Byung-Su; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Junghan; Koh, Sang Baek; Kim, Jang-Young

    2016-09-01

    Although central obesity is a more powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than general obesity, there is limited information on structural and functional changes of the heart in central obesity. Therefore, we evaluated the association between abdominal obesity and geometric and functional changes of the heart in healthy males. A total of 1460 healthy males aged 40 to 70 years without known CVD from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population were included. All individuals underwent conventional 2-dimensional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging to measure left atrial (LA) and left ventricle (LV) geometry and function. Increasing tertiles of waist circumference (WC) were associated with stepwise increases in LA volume, LV end-diastolic dimension, LV mass to height, deceleration time of E wave, and lower E/A ratio (all P trends <0.001). In multivariable logistic regression models, the odds ratios for LA enlargement, LV hypertrophy, LV enlargement, and diastolic dysfunction comparing the upper tertile of WC (>89 cm) to the lowest tertile (<82 cm) were 2.81 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.24-3.54), 3.65 (95% CI 2.54-5.26), 4.23 (95% CI 2.61-6.87), and 1.75 (95% CI 1.37-2.22), respectively. LV ejection fraction and relative wall thickness were not increased with increasing WC. The association between WC and LA enlargement, LV enlargement, and diastolic dysfunction persisted after stratification by body mass index tertiles. Central obesity may be a stronger predictor than general obesity of geometric and functional changes in the LV and LA. PMID:27684832

  10. Assessment of caffeine intake in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ho Soo; Hwang, Ju Young; Choi, Jae Chon; Kim, Meehye

    2015-01-01

    An improved method for the analysis of caffeine in foods by HPLC was validated by measuring several analytical parameters. The caffeine contents of 1202 products available from Korean markets were analysed. A consumption study was conducted by using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010-12, to estimate the caffeine intakes of the Korean population. The mean intakes of caffeine from all sources in the general population and consumers were 67.8 and 102.6 mg day(-1) for all age groups, respectively. The 95th percentile intakes of the general population and consumers were 250.7 and 313.7 mg day(-1), respectively. In those aged 30-49 years, the caffeine intakes of the general population and consumers were highest at 25.5% (101.8 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 36.6% (0.9 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively, compared with the maximum recommended daily intake (400 mg day(-1)) for adults. In the general population, the main contributors to the total caffeine intake were carbonated beverage for the younger age groups and coffee for the adults. These data provide a current perspective on caffeine intake in the Korean population.

  11. Whole genome sequencing of 35 individuals provides insights into the genetic architecture of Korean population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to a significant decline in the costs associated with next-generation sequencing, it has become possible to decipher the genetic architecture of a population by sequencing a large number of individuals to a deep coverage. The Korean Personal Genomes Project (KPGP) recently sequenced 35 Korean genomes at high coverage using the Illumina Hiseq platform and made the deep sequencing data publicly available, providing the scientific community opportunities to decipher the genetic architecture of the Korean population. Methods In this study, we used two single nucleotide variant (SNV) calling pipelines: mapping the raw reads obtained from whole genome sequencing of 35 Korean individuals in KPGP using BWA and SOAP2 followed by SNV calling using SAMtools and SOAPsnp, respectively. The consensus SNVs obtained from the two SNV pipelines were used to represent the SNVs of the Korean population. We compared these SNVs to those from 17 other populations provided by the HapMap consortium and the 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP) and identified SNVs that were only present in the Korean population. We studied the mutation spectrum and analyzed the genes of non-synonymous SNVs only detected in the Korean population. Results We detected a total of 8,555,726 SNVs in the 35 Korean individuals and identified 1,213,613 SNVs detected in at least one Korean individual (SNV-1) and 12,640 in all of 35 Korean individuals (SNV-35) but not in 17 other populations. In contrast with the SNVs common to other populations in HapMap and 1KGP, the Korean only SNVs had high percentages of non-silent variants, emphasizing the unique roles of these Korean only SNVs in the Korean population. Specifically, we identified 8,361 non-synonymous Korean only SNVs, of which 58 SNVs existed in all 35 Korean individuals. The 5,754 genes of non-synonymous Korean only SNVs were highly enriched in some metabolic pathways. We found adhesion is the top disease term associated with SNV-1 and Nelson syndrome is

  12. Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Byung-Hoon; Nam, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Yun-Jung; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Jang, Myoung-Kuk; Carp, Richard I; Lee, Ho-Dong; Ju, Young-Ran; Ahn Jo, Sangmee; Park, Keun-Yong; Kim, Yong-Sun

    2004-01-01

    Human prion protein gene (PRNP) has been considered to be involved in the susceptibility of humans to prion diseases. Polymorphisms of methionine (Met)/valine (Val) at codon 129 and of glutamic acid (Glu)/lysine (Lys) at codon 219 are thought to play an important role in susceptibility to sporadic, iatrogenic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Although the genotype distribution of polymorphisms in PRNP open reading frame (ORF) has been reported in many European populations, among Asian groups, it has been reported only in the Japanese population. We examined the PRNP polymorphisms in 529 healthy Koreans. We observed that genotype frequencies at codon 129 was 94.33% Met/Met, 5.48% Met/Val, and 0.19% Val/Val with an allele frequency of 0.971:0.029 Met:Val, and that genotype frequencies at codon 219 was 92.06% Glu/Glu, 7.94% Glu/Lys, and 0% Lys/Lys with an allele frequency of 0.96:0.04 Glu:Lys. The frequencies of the Glu/Glu genotype ( chi(2)=10.075, P=0.0015) and of the Glu allele ( chi(2)=9.486, P=0.0021) at codon 219 were significantly higher in the Korean population than the Japanese population. In addition, the genotype frequency of heterozygotes (12.7%) at codons 129 or/and 219 was significantly lower in Koreans than in people from Great Britain ( chi(2)=89.52, P<0.0001). The deletion rate of one octarepeat (R2 deletion) was 0.38%, with 99.62% undeleted homozygotes and 0% deleted homozygote. To our knowledge, the R2 octarepeat deletion has never been found in people from countries other than Korea. The data of PRNP polymorphism at codon 219 suggest that Koreans may be more sensitive to sporadic CJD than the Japanese population.

  13. RARB and STMN2 polymorphisms are not associated with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Hae-Jung; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Carp, Richard I; Kim, Yong-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the prion protein gene (PRNP) can affect the susceptibility of humans to prion diseases. Recently, aside from PRNP, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of two candidate genes for susceptibility to human prion diseases have been identified by human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in the British population. One SNP of retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB), which is correlated with prion disease incubation time in mice, was associated with human prion diseases such as variant and iatrogenic CJD in the British population. The other SNP of the gene that encodes SCG10 (STMN2), which is related to clinical onset of sporadic CJD, was also associated with variant CJD and kuru. In order to investigate whether two polymorphisms located in upstream of RARB and STMN2 are associated with sporadic CJD in the Korean population, we compared genotype and allele frequencies of these polymorphisms in 217 sporadic CJD patients and 216 healthy Koreans. The genotype distribution and allele frequencies in upstream of the RARB and STMN2 polymorphisms were not significantly different between healthy controls and Korean sporadic CJD patients. This finding indicates that the two SNPs are not correlated with genetic susceptibility to sporadic CJD in the Korean population. This is the first genetic association study of RARB and STMN2 with sporadic CJD in an Asian population.

  14. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women) from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2). However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI. PMID:27255074

  15. Implication of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity on Lung Function in Healthy Elderly: Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Kong, Mi Hee; Kim, Hyeon Ju

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between obesity and decreased lung function. However, the effect of muscle and fat has not been fully assessed, especially in a healthy elderly population. In this study, we evaluated the impact of low muscle mass (LMM) and LMM with obesity on pulmonary impairment in healthy elderly subjects. Our study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Men and women aged 65 yr or older were included. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LMM was defined as two standard deviations below the sex-specific mean for young healthy adults. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2). The prevalence of LMM in individuals aged over 65 was 11.9%. LMM and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were independently associated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and frequency of exercise. LMM with obesity was also related to a decrease in pulmonary function. This study revealed that LMM is an independent risk factor of decreased pulmonary function in healthy Korean men and women over 65 yr of age. PMID:26539015

  16. Association of CACNA1C Variants with Bipolar Disorder in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soojin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Geum, Dongho

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have suggested an association between CACNA1C and susceptibility of bipolar disorder. In this study, we examined the association of CACNA1C variants with bipolar disorder in the Korean population. Methods We selected 2 CACNA1C single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely, rs723672 and rs1051375, based on their functions and minor allele frequencies described in previous studies. Genotypes of these 2 SNPs were analyzed by extracting DNA from blood samples collected from 287 patients with bipolar disorder and 340 healthy controls. Results Genotype frequencies of both rs723672 and rs1051375 SNPs were significantly different in patients and controls (p=0.0462 and 1.732E-14, respectively). Dominant, recessive, and allele models showed significant differences between patients and controls with respect to the rs1051375 SNP (p=1.72E-11, 4.17E-10, 4.95E-16, respectively). Conclusion Our results suggested that CACNA1C SNPs rs723672 and rs1051375 were associated with bipolar disorder in the Korean population. In addition, our results highlighted the importance of CACNA1C in determining susceptibility to bipolar disorder. PMID:27482248

  17. Evaluation of magnesium intake and its relation with bone quality in healthy young Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Yeon, Jee-Young; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Bae, Yun Jung

    2011-12-01

    Many studies have reported magnesium's role in nutrition as a vital factor involved in bone health. However, not enough studies have evaluated magnesium (Mg) intakes in young women. In this study, we evaluated Mg intake in healthy adults and its relation with bone quality. A total of 484 healthy young women in their early 20s were enrolled into the study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake survey using 3-day dietary records, and the bone quality of the calcaneus using quantitative ultrasounds were obtained and analyzed. Average age, height, and weight of the subjects were respectively 20.20 years, 161.37 cm, and 54.09 kg, respectively. Also, the average broadband ultrasound attenuation, speed of sound (SOS), stiffness index (SI), and calcaneus T scores were 114.32 dB/MHz, 1,568.45 m/s, 95.23, and 0.36 g/cm(2), respectively. The subject's average intake of energy was 1,543.19 kcal, and the average Mg intake was 185.87 mg/day. Mg intake per 1,000 kcal of consumed energy in our subjects was 119.85 mg. Subjects consumed 63.11% of the recommended intake for Mg. Food groups consumed with high Mg content in our subjects included cereals (38.62 mg), vegetables (36.97 mg), milk (16.82 mg), legumes (16.72 mg), and fish (16.50 mg). The level of Mg intake per 1,000 kcal showed significant correlation to the SOS in the calcaneus (r = 0.110, p < 0.05) after adjustment for age, BMI, and percent body fat. In addition, the intakes of Mg from potatoes (p < 0.001), legumes (p < 0.05), and fungi and mushrooms (p < 0.05) positively correlated with the SOS of the calcaneus. In conclusion, the magnesium intake status of young Korean women aged 19-25 years is unsatisfactory. Improving dietary intake of Mg may positively impact bone quality in this population.

  18. Fine-scale map of encyclopedia of DNA elements regions in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeon-Kyeong; Ke, Xiayi; Hong, Sungwoo; Jang, Hye-Yoon; Park, Kyunghee; Kim, Sook; Ahn, TaeJin; Lee, Yeun-Du; Song, Okryeol; Rho, Na-Young; Lee, Moon Sue; Lee, Yeon-Su; Kim, Jaeheup; Kim, Young J; Yang, Jun-Mo; Song, Kyuyoung; Kimm, Kyuchan; Weir, Bruce; Cardon, Lon R; Lee, Jong-Eun; Hwang, Jung-Joo

    2006-09-01

    The International HapMap Project aims to generate detailed human genome variation maps by densely genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CEPH, Chinese, Japanese, and Yoruba samples. This will undoubtedly become an important facility for genetic studies of diseases and complex traits in the four populations. To address how the genetic information contained in such variation maps is transferable to other populations, the Korean government, industries, and academics have launched the Korean HapMap project to genotype high-density Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) regions in 90 Korean individuals. Here we show that the LD pattern, block structure, haplotype diversity, and recombination rate are highly concordant between Korean and the two HapMap Asian samples, particularly Japanese. The availability of information from both Chinese and Japanese samples helps to predict more accurately the possible performance of HapMap markers in Korean disease-gene studies. Tagging SNPs selected from the two HapMap Asian maps, especially the Japanese map, were shown to be very effective for Korean samples. These results demonstrate that the HapMap variation maps are robust in related populations and will serve as an important resource for the studies of the Korean population in particular.

  19. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the major malignancies in Korea. Analyses of dietary patterns can provide insight into the complex interactions of foods, nutrients, and biologically active components within a diet, which vary among populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Koreans. In a study of 923 cases and 1846 controls, principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns based on 33 predefined food groups using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). The associations between dietary patterns and CRC risk were assessed using binary and polytomous logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three dietary patterns (traditional, Westernized, and prudent) were derived. The proportion of total variation explained by 3 patterns was 24.2% for men and 25.3% for women. The traditional and prudent patterns were inversely associated with CRC risk [OR and 95% CI for the highest intake tertile of pattern score vs. the lowest = 0.35 (0.27–0.46) and 0.37 (0.28–0.48), respectively], whereas the Westernized pattern showed a positive association, especially among women [OR = 2.13 (1.35–3.34) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest]. A decrease in CRC risk among those with the highest intake of the prudent pattern was observed in all anatomical subsites in both men [OR = 0.36 (0.19–0.68) for proximal colon; 0.21 (0.12–0.36) for distal colon; 0.28 (0.18–0.44) for rectum] and women [OR = 0.28 (0.11–0.71); 0.27 (0.13–0.54); 0.45 (0.25–0.83)]. Our results indicate that individuals who prefer the Westernized dietary pattern should be made aware of their increased CRC risk. The traditional dietary pattern and the prudent pattern, which are rich in fruits and dairy products, are recommended for the Korean population to prevent CRC. PMID:27336862

  20. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure

  1. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-11-01

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89-0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age-Z-score of the birthweight; r = -0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086-12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034-1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure through

  2. HLA-B*15 diversity in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Jeon, H; Park, J Y

    2000-11-01

    Alleles in the HLA-B*15 group encode molecules belonging to several serologic subgroups, B15 (B62, B63, B75, B76, B77) and B70 (B71, B72), representing many of the most problematic types to assign in routine clinical typing laboratories due to their serologic cross-reactivity resulting from structural similarity. More than 25% of Koreans express HLA-B molecules encoded by the HLA-B*15 alleles. To further characterize HLA-B*15 in this population, B*15-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (SSOP) hybridization analysis using 39 digoxigenin-labeled probes were applied to DNA samples obtained from 237 B15/B70 serologically positive unrelated individuals. Nine B*15 alleles were identified. B*1501 was the most frequent allele (64.8%) followed by B*1511 (14.1%), B*1507 (8.6%), and B*1518 (5.5%) comprising more than 90% of B*15-positive samples. B62 molecules encoded by 4 of the identified alleles (B*1501, B*1507, B*1525, and B*1527) could not be discriminated by serologic reaction patterns. Among the fifteen B15/B70 apparent homozygotes, eight were heterozygotes carrying two different B*15 alleles. Several B*15 alleles exhibited strong associations with specific Cw, DRB1, and A allelic types (e.g., B*1507-Cw3 (22/22); B*1507-DRB1*04 (21/22), B*1507-A24 (17/22)). The data obtained in this study confirmed B*15 diversity in the study population and will be useful in hematopoietic stem cell donor searches as well as in determining the supplementary DNA typing strategy for B15/B70-positive samples in this population.

  3. Retinal Oximetry in a Healthy Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Yuki; Shimazaki, Takeru; Kobayashi, Nobuko; Miyoshi, Yukiko; Ono, Aoi; Kobayashi, Mamoru; Shiragami, Chieko; Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Tsujikawa, Akitaka

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To establish the normative database of retinal oximetry using Oxymap T1 in a healthy Japanese population, and study the reproducibility of the measurements in Japanese. Methods We measured oxygen saturation in the major retinal vessels with Oxymap T1 in 252 eyes of 252 healthy Japanese subjects. Fundus images acquired using Oxymap T1 were processed using built-in Oxymap Analyzer software. Reproducibility of retinal oximetry was investigated using 20 eyes of 20 healthy subjects. Results The mean retinal oxygen saturation of 4 quadrants in healthy Japanese was 97.0 ± 6.9% in arteries and 52.8 ± 8.3% in veins. The mean arteriovenous difference in oxygen saturation was 44.2 ± 9.2%. Both arterial and venous oxygen saturation were significantly lower in the temporal side of the retina, especially in the temporal-inferior vessels. However, the arteriovenous difference in oxygen saturation was limited in the 4 quadrants. Interphotograph, intervisit, and interevaluator intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.936–0.979, 0.809–0.837, and 0.732–0.947, respectively. In the major retinal arteries, oxygen saturation increased with age (r = 0.18, p<0.01), at a rate of 0.67% per 10 years. However, venous oxygen saturation showed no correlation with age. Conclusions This study provides the normative database for the Japanese population. The arterial saturation value appears to be higher than other previous studies. Mean retinal oximetry in 4 quadrants with Oxymap T1 has high reproducibility. PMID:27434373

  4. Two-point discrimination of the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20's.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ja-Pung; Kim, Soon-Hee; An, Ho-Jung; Moon, Ok-Gon; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yun, Young-Dae; Park, Joo-Hyun; Min, Kyoung-Ok

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The present study attempted to measure two-point discrimination in the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20's. [Subjects and Methods] Using a three-point esthesiometer, we conducted an experiment with a group of 256 college students (128 male and 128 female), attending N University in Chonan, Republic of Korea. [Results] Females showed two-point discrimination at a shorter distance than males at the following points: (i) 5 cm above the elbow joint, the middle part, and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the anterior upper arm; (ii) 5 cm above the elbow joint and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the posterior upper arm; (iii) 5 cm above the front of the wrist joint of the forearm; 5 cm below the elbow joint, the palmar part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the thumb, the dorsal part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the middle and little fingers. It was also found that females showed greater two-point discrimination than males in distal regions rather than proximal regions. [Conclusion] The findings of this study will help establish normal values for two-point discrimination of upper extremities of young Koreans in their 20's.

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hwancheol; Kim, Soo Wong; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Choo, Myung-Soo; Kim, Seon-Ok; Lee, Moo Song

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Psychometric properties of the overactive bladder questionnaire (OAB-q) were recently examined. However, since the cross-cultural adaptation of a non-English version of the OAB-q has never been demonstrated, we evaluated the psychometric properties of a Korean version of the OAB-q in a Korean population with OAB. Methods A prospective cohort study involving 116 women with 58 OAB and 58 control subjects was performed and convergent validity was assessed. Total and subscale OAB-q scores of the control and OAB groups were compared to their sensitivity to score changes before and after administering anti-cholinergic medication for 12 weeks. Short form 36 and King's health questionnaire (KHQ) were also used for comparison or correlation. Results Assessment of face validity showed that the Korean version of the OAB-q was reasonable with OAB-q subscale scores being significantly different between the control and patient groups. Significant correlation (range, -0.29 to -0.81) was found between the OAB-q scores and KHQ results for the OAB patients. Cronbach's alpha coefficients (range, 0.77 to 0.95) indicated excellent internal consistency and test-retest analysis involving 35 OAB patients showed that each questions as well as subscale scores were reproducible. Each score of OAB-q also showed statistically significant sensitivity to changes following anti-muscarinic treatment for OAB (n=27, P<0.001 except for social, P=0.059). Conclusions The Korean version of the OAB-q is a valid and reliable instrument to measure outcomes in Korean patients with OAB. PMID:22816048

  6. Novel Anthropometry-Based Calculation of the Body Heat Capacity in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Pham, Duong Duc; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Young Boum; Park, Eun Seok; Kim, Ka Yul; Song, Ji Yeon; Kim, Ji Eun; Leem, Chae Hun

    2015-01-01

    Heat capacity (HC) has an important role in the temperature regulation process, particularly in dealing with the heat load. The actual measurement of the body HC is complicated and is generally estimated by body-composition-specific data. This study compared the previously known HC estimating equations and sought how to define HC using simple anthropometric indices such as weight and body surface area (BSA) in the Korean population. Six hundred participants were randomly selected from a pool of 902 healthy volunteers aged 20 to 70 years for the training set. The remaining 302 participants were used for the test set. Body composition analysis using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to access body components including body fat, water, protein, and mineral mass. Four different HCs were calculated and compared using a weight-based HC (HC_Eq1), two HCs estimated from fat and fat-free mass (HC_Eq2 and HC_Eq3), and an HC calculated from fat, protein, water, and mineral mass (HC_Eq4). HC_Eq1 generally produced a larger HC than the other HC equations and had a poorer correlation with the other HC equations. HC equations using body composition data were well-correlated to each other. If HC estimated with HC_Eq4 was regarded as a standard, interestingly, the BSA and weight independently contributed to the variation of HC. The model composed of weight, BSA, and gender was able to predict more than a 99% variation of HC_Eq4. Validation analysis on the test set showed a very high satisfactory level of the predictive model. In conclusion, our results suggest that gender, BSA, and weight are the independent factors for calculating HC. For the first time, a predictive equation based on anthropometry data was developed and this equation could be useful for estimating HC in the general Korean population without body-composition measurement.

  7. Novel Anthropometry-Based Calculation of the Body Heat Capacity in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Duong Duc; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Young Boum; Park, Eun Seok; Kim, Ka Yul; Song, Ji Yeon; Kim, Ji Eun; Leem, Chae Hun

    2015-01-01

    Heat capacity (HC) has an important role in the temperature regulation process, particularly in dealing with the heat load. The actual measurement of the body HC is complicated and is generally estimated by body-composition-specific data. This study compared the previously known HC estimating equations and sought how to define HC using simple anthropometric indices such as weight and body surface area (BSA) in the Korean population. Six hundred participants were randomly selected from a pool of 902 healthy volunteers aged 20 to 70 years for the training set. The remaining 302 participants were used for the test set. Body composition analysis using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to access body components including body fat, water, protein, and mineral mass. Four different HCs were calculated and compared using a weight-based HC (HC_Eq1), two HCs estimated from fat and fat-free mass (HC_Eq2 and HC_Eq3), and an HC calculated from fat, protein, water, and mineral mass (HC_Eq4). HC_Eq1 generally produced a larger HC than the other HC equations and had a poorer correlation with the other HC equations. HC equations using body composition data were well-correlated to each other. If HC estimated with HC_Eq4 was regarded as a standard, interestingly, the BSA and weight independently contributed to the variation of HC. The model composed of weight, BSA, and gender was able to predict more than a 99% variation of HC_Eq4. Validation analysis on the test set showed a very high satisfactory level of the predictive model. In conclusion, our results suggest that gender, BSA, and weight are the independent factors for calculating HC. For the first time, a predictive equation based on anthropometry data was developed and this equation could be useful for estimating HC in the general Korean population without body-composition measurement. PMID:26529594

  8. Novel Anthropometry-Based Calculation of the Body Heat Capacity in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Pham, Duong Duc; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Young Boum; Park, Eun Seok; Kim, Ka Yul; Song, Ji Yeon; Kim, Ji Eun; Leem, Chae Hun

    2015-01-01

    Heat capacity (HC) has an important role in the temperature regulation process, particularly in dealing with the heat load. The actual measurement of the body HC is complicated and is generally estimated by body-composition-specific data. This study compared the previously known HC estimating equations and sought how to define HC using simple anthropometric indices such as weight and body surface area (BSA) in the Korean population. Six hundred participants were randomly selected from a pool of 902 healthy volunteers aged 20 to 70 years for the training set. The remaining 302 participants were used for the test set. Body composition analysis using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to access body components including body fat, water, protein, and mineral mass. Four different HCs were calculated and compared using a weight-based HC (HC_Eq1), two HCs estimated from fat and fat-free mass (HC_Eq2 and HC_Eq3), and an HC calculated from fat, protein, water, and mineral mass (HC_Eq4). HC_Eq1 generally produced a larger HC than the other HC equations and had a poorer correlation with the other HC equations. HC equations using body composition data were well-correlated to each other. If HC estimated with HC_Eq4 was regarded as a standard, interestingly, the BSA and weight independently contributed to the variation of HC. The model composed of weight, BSA, and gender was able to predict more than a 99% variation of HC_Eq4. Validation analysis on the test set showed a very high satisfactory level of the predictive model. In conclusion, our results suggest that gender, BSA, and weight are the independent factors for calculating HC. For the first time, a predictive equation based on anthropometry data was developed and this equation could be useful for estimating HC in the general Korean population without body-composition measurement. PMID:26529594

  9. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. Methods The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. Results The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits—eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking—was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. Conclusion We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for

  10. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate against pathogen populations in poultry litters

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Tae Ho; Park, Chul; Choi, In Hag

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate as litter amendments on ammonia, soluble reactive phosphorus, and pathogen populations in poultry litters. Methods Increasing levels of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate were applied onto the surface of rice hull as a top-dress application; untreated rice hulls served as controls. Results: Treatment with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone resulted in lower litter pH (p < 0.05), as compared with that of the controls. There were some differences (p < 0.05) between treatments with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone and controls at 2–4 wk (not at 1 wk). Ammonia levels reduced on an average by 29%, 30%, and 32% for 10 g, 20 g Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate, and aluminum sulfate alone, respectively, as compared with controls at 4 wk. During the experiment, Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate treatment had an effect (p < 0.05) on soluble reactive phosphorus content, as compared with the controls (not at 4 wk). A decrease in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli was observed (p < 0.05) in litter amended with both Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate and aluminum sulfate alone, as compared with the control, except at 1–3 wk for Salmonella enterica and 1 wk and 4 wk for Escherichia coli, respectively. Conclusion The results showed that using Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate (blends), which act as acidifying agents by reducing the pH of the litter, was equally effective as aluminum sulfate in reducing the environmental impact. PMID:26869836

  11. Estimated intakes of isoflavones and coumestrol in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Surh, Jeonghee; Kim, Min-Jeong; Koh, Eunmi; Kim, Young-Kyung L; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2006-01-01

    The dietary intakes and sources of isoflavones and coumestrol were estimated for each age group of Koreans based on data from the Korean Nutrition Survey conducted in 1998. For quantitative data on the levels of isoflavones and coumestrol, our previous study monitoring phytoestrogens in 220 Korean leguminous foodstuffs was employed and the median value for each food was adopted. The total isoflavones and coumestrol intake per capita was estimated as 23.3 mg/day, which constituted 14.2 mg daidzein, 6.7 mg genistein, 0.9 mg glycitein, 1.0 mg formononetin, 0.2 mg biochanin A, and 0.3 mg coumestrol. The top five foods arrowroot, soybean paste, tofu, soybean, and soybean sprout contributed to 88.2% of isoflavone intake, with the corresponding intake from each food being 8.3 mg/day, 4.9 mg/day, 2.6 mg/day, 2.5 mg/day, and 2.0 mg/day, respectively. Starting at age 3-6, the contributions of fermented soy products to the isoflavones intakes were around 30%. Soybean sprout was a major source of coumestrol intake in Koreans. Slight differences in the preference of these foods were observed among the various age groups. As regards the total isoflavone intakes, the highest value was 33.6 mg/day for people age 30-49, followed by age 50-64 (26.4 mg/day), 20-29 (21.0 mg/day), >or=65 (18.8 mg/day), 1-2 (14.5 mg/day), 7-12 (12.4 mg/day), 13-19 (10.1 mg/day), and 3-6 (8.9 mg/day). The intake levels are likely to be exceeded in groups who have preferably consumed high phytoestrogen-containing foods such as soy-protein-based infant formula and arrowroot. PMID:17135023

  12. Estimated intakes of isoflavones and coumestrol in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Surh, Jeonghee; Kim, Min-Jeong; Koh, Eunmi; Kim, Young-Kyung L; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2006-01-01

    The dietary intakes and sources of isoflavones and coumestrol were estimated for each age group of Koreans based on data from the Korean Nutrition Survey conducted in 1998. For quantitative data on the levels of isoflavones and coumestrol, our previous study monitoring phytoestrogens in 220 Korean leguminous foodstuffs was employed and the median value for each food was adopted. The total isoflavones and coumestrol intake per capita was estimated as 23.3 mg/day, which constituted 14.2 mg daidzein, 6.7 mg genistein, 0.9 mg glycitein, 1.0 mg formononetin, 0.2 mg biochanin A, and 0.3 mg coumestrol. The top five foods arrowroot, soybean paste, tofu, soybean, and soybean sprout contributed to 88.2% of isoflavone intake, with the corresponding intake from each food being 8.3 mg/day, 4.9 mg/day, 2.6 mg/day, 2.5 mg/day, and 2.0 mg/day, respectively. Starting at age 3-6, the contributions of fermented soy products to the isoflavones intakes were around 30%. Soybean sprout was a major source of coumestrol intake in Koreans. Slight differences in the preference of these foods were observed among the various age groups. As regards the total isoflavone intakes, the highest value was 33.6 mg/day for people age 30-49, followed by age 50-64 (26.4 mg/day), 20-29 (21.0 mg/day), >or=65 (18.8 mg/day), 1-2 (14.5 mg/day), 7-12 (12.4 mg/day), 13-19 (10.1 mg/day), and 3-6 (8.9 mg/day). The intake levels are likely to be exceeded in groups who have preferably consumed high phytoestrogen-containing foods such as soy-protein-based infant formula and arrowroot.

  13. Association Between Obesity and Falls Among Korean Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between falls and obesity using Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications. Using the data from the Korean community health survey in 2011, a total of 229,226 participants ranging from 19 to 106 years old were included in this study. The BMI groups were classified as underweight (<18.5), healthy (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23), overweight (23 ≤ BMI <25), and obese (≥25) using Asian BMI classifications. The associations between BMI groups and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted according to age (19-40, 41-60, and ≥61 years) and the location of the fall (indoor and outdoor). Physical activity, household income, education level, alcohol consumption, smoking, stress level, and medical comorbidities were adjusted as confounders. In total, 16.8% and 6.1% of the participants experienced falls ≥1 time and ≥2 times per year, respectively. Compared to the healthy weight group, the other BMI groups showed a significant U-shaped relationship with falls ≥1 time (AOR underweight = 1.12, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.05-1.19; AOR obese = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02-1.10, P < 0.001) and ≥2 times (AOR underweight = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04-1.26; AOR obese = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99-1.10, P < 0.001). Obese status was significantly associated with falls (≥1 fall per year) in all age groups, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with falls in the 19 to 40 year age group only. In conclusion, both underweight and obese statuses were significantly associated with falls in this adult Korean population. However, the relationship between BMI group and falls varied according to age and the location of the falls. PMID:27015190

  14. Population structure of the Korean gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae) using multivariate morphometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, Se Hun; Kim, Jin-Koo

    2016-03-01

    The gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus, is one of the most important fish species in Korea, China, Japan and Taiwan, and therefore the implementation of an appropriate population structure analysis is both necessary and fitting. In order to clarify the current distribution range for the two lineages of the Korean gizzard shad (Myoung and Kim 2014), we conducted a multivariate morphometric analysis by locality and lineage. We analyzed 17 morphometric and 5 meristic characters of 173 individuals, which were sampled from eight localities in the East Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Korean Strait. Unlike population genetics studies, the canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) results showed that the two morphotypes were clearly segregated by the center value "0" of CAN1, of which morphotype A occurred from the Yellow Sea to the western Korean Strait with negative values, and morphotype B occurred from the East Sea to the eastern Korean Strait with positive values even though there exists an admixture zone in the eastern Korean Strait. Further studies using more sensitive markers such as microsatellite DNA are required in order to define the true relationship between the two lineages.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence evaluation of leflunomide tablets in Korean healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y-J; Shim, E-J; Kim, H-S; Oh, M; Shon, J-H; Shin, J-G; Moon, B-S; Song, G-S; Kim, E-Y

    2013-12-01

    Leflunomide is a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of a test drug (CJ leflunomide) and a commercially available reference drug (Arava®) at 2 doses (10 and 20 mg) in healthy Korean volunteers. This was a single-dose (28 individuals enrolled at each dose group), randomized, open-label, 2-way crossover study. The 2 treatment periods were separated by a 56-day wash-out interval. Blood sampling was conducted until 672 h after drug administration. Plasma teriflunomide (active metabolite of leflunomide) concentrations were determined, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Bioequivalence was evaluated using an ANOVA model, based on the AUCt and the Cmax after administration of leflunomide tablets. Bioequivalence was defined as the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios (GMRs) of AUCt and Cmax for the test and reference drugs being within the range of 0.80-1.25. The GMRs (90% CI) for AUCt and Cmax were 0.9506 (0.9091-0.9941) and 0.9861 (0.9360-1.0389), respectively, in the 10 mg study, and 0.9524 (0.9101-0.9968) and 0.9740 (0.9314-1.0186), respectively, in the 20 mg study. The 90% CIs of AUCt and Cmax at each dose were within the accepted range for bioequivalence. Based on the results, the test drug (CJ leflunomide) was bioequivalent to the commercially available reference drug (Arava®) at both doses. PMID:23884659

  16. Scrub Typhus Seroprevalence in Healthy Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Mallika; Anandan, Shalini; Daniel, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, a zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an important cause of acute febrile illness in India. This preliminary study determines the seroprevalence of scrub typhus in healthy Indian adults by measuring IgM and IgG antibodies to scrub typhus by ELISA in 100 healthy blood donors. Our study demonstrates a 15% seroprevalence of scrub typhus in adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings especially in children. PMID:26557523

  17. Estimation of carrier frequencies of six autosomal-recessive Mendelian disorders in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Jung; Lee, Seung-Tae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Ji, Yongick; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2012-02-01

    Although many studies have been performed to identify mutations in Korean patients with various autosomal-recessive Mendelian disorders (AR-MDs), little is known about the carrier frequencies of AR-MDs in the Korean population. Twenty common mutations from six AR-MDs, including Wilson disease (WD), non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL), glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia), phenylketonuria (PKU), congenital hypothyroidism (CH), and congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) were selected to screen for based on previous studies. A total of 3057 Koreans were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry followed by confirmation using the Sanger sequencing. We found 201 and 8 carriers with either one or two mutations in different genes, respectively, yielding a total carrier frequency of 1 in 15 (6.7%). Of the six AR-MDs, NSHL has the highest carrier frequency followed by WD, CH, CLAH, GSD Ia, and PKU. As carrier screening tests are becoming prevalent and the number of mutations known and tested is rising, a priori data on the carrier frequencies in different ethnic groups is mandatory to plan a population screening program and to estimate its efficiency. In light of this, the present results can be used as a basis to establish a screening policy for common AR-MRs in the Korean population. PMID:22170460

  18. P450 (Cytochrome) Oxidoreductase Gene (POR) Common Variant (POR*28) Significantly Alters CYP2C9 Activity in Swedish, But Not in Korean Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Fazleen H M; Aklillu, Eleni

    2015-12-01

    CYP2C9 enzyme contributes to the metabolism of several pharmaceuticals and xenobiotics and yet displays large person-to-person and interethnic variation. Understanding the mechanisms of CYP2C9 variation is thus of immense importance for personalized medicine and rational therapeutics. A genetic variant of P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (POR), a CYP450 redox partner, is reported to influence CYP2C9 metabolic activity in vitro. We investigated the impact of a common variant, POR*28, on CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. 148 healthy Swedish and 146 healthy Korean volunteers were genotyped for known CYP2C9 defective variant alleles (CYP2C9*2, *3). The CYP2C9 phenotype was determined using a single oral dose of 50 mg losartan. Excluding oral contraceptive (OC) users and carriers of 2C9*2 and *3 alleles, 117 Korean and 65 Swedish were genotyped for POR*5, *13 and *28 using Taqman assays. The urinary losartan to its metabolite E-3174 metabolic ratio (MR) was used as an index of CYP2C9 metabolic activity. The allele frequency of the POR*28 variant allele in Swedes and Koreans was 29% and 44%, respectively. POR*5 and *13 were absent in both study populations. Considering the CYP2C9*1/*1 genotypes only, the CYP2C9 metabolic activity was 1.40-fold higher in carriers of POR*28 allele than non-carriers among Swedes (p = 0.02). By contrast, no influence of the POR*28 on CYP2C9 activity was found in Koreans (p = 0.68). The multivariate analysis showed that ethnicity, POR genotype, and smoking were strong predictors of CYP2C9 MR (p < 0.05). This is the first report to implicate the importance of POR*28 genetic variation for CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. These findings contribute to current efforts for global personalized medicine and using medicines by taking into account pharmacogenetic and phenotypic variations. PMID:26669712

  19. Genetic analysis of ABCG2 and SLC2A9 gene polymorphisms in gouty arthritis in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun Sung; Kim, Yunsuek; Park, Geon; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Park, Byung Lae; Kim, Hyun Sook

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Gout is a common inf lammatory arthritis triggered by the crystallization of uric acid in the joints. Serum uric acid levels are highly heritable, suggesting a strong genetic component. Independent studies to confirm the genetic associations with gout in various ethnic populations are warranted. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in the ABCG2 and SLC2A9 genes with gout in Korean patients and healthy individuals. Methods: We consecutively enrolled 109 patients with gout and 102 healthy controls. The diagnosis of gout was based on the preliminary criteria of the America College of Rheumatology. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples. We identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) changes in the ABCG2 and SLC2A9 genes using a direct sequencing technique. rs2231142 in ABCG2 and rs6449213 and rs16890979 in SLC2A9 and nearby regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Results: Patients with gout had significantly higher A/A genotype (29.3% vs. 4.9%, respectively) and A allele (52.8% vs. 26.5%, respectively) frequencies of rs2231142 in ABCG2 than did controls (χ2 = 29.42, p < 0.001; odds ratio, 3.32; 95% confidence interval, 2.11 to 5.20). We found novel polymorphisms (c.881A>G and c.1002+78G>A) in the SLC2A9 gene. The univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the c.881A>G and c.1002+78G>A SNPs were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Conclusions: We demonstrated a significant association between rs2231142 in the ABCG2 gene and gout and identified novel SNPs, c.881A>G and c.1002+78G>A, in the SLC2A9 gene that may be associated with gout in a Korean population. PMID:26552468

  20. Analysis of extended haplotype in Korean cattle (Hanwoo) population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dajeong; Choi, Bong Hwan; Cho, Yong Min; Chai, Han Ha; Jang, Gul Won; Gondro, Cedric; Jeoung, Yeoung Ho; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2016-09-01

    Korean cattle (Hanwoo) are categorized into three breeds based on color: brown, brindle, and black. Among these breeds, brown Hanwoo has been subjected to intensive selection to improve meat traits. To identify genetic traces driven by recent selection in brown Hanwoo, we scanned the genomes of brown and brindle Hanwoo using a bovine SNP chip. We identified 17 candidate selection signatures in brown Hanwoo and sequenced four candidate regions from 10 individuals each of brown and brindle Hanwoo. In particular, non-synonymous SNPs in the ADSL gene (K88M, L189H, and R302Q) might have had mutational effects on protein structure as a result of altering the purine pathway during nucleotide breakdown. The ADSL gene was previously reported to affect meat quality and yield in livestock. Meat quality and yield are main breeding goals for brown Hanwoo, and our results support a potential causal influence of non-synonymous SNPs in the ADSL gene. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 514-519].

  1. Associations of visceral adiposity and exercise participation with C-reactive protein, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction in Korean healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kijin; Valentine, Rudy J; Shin, Yoonjung; Gong, Kyungmin

    2008-09-01

    correlated with BMI and percentage body fat (P < .05). Therefore, the relative importance of central adiposity as opposed to total body fatness in endothelial dysfunction is unclear. Compared with the nonexercise group, exercise participants had significantly lower (P < .05) WHR, visceral fat area, ratio of visceral fat area to subcutaneous area, hsCRP, hemoglobin A(1c), and HOMA, with no significant differences in BMI, percentage body fat, and physical fitness. Central obesity with high visceral fat is strongly associated with blood level of hsCRP, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction-related factors in healthy Korean adults. In addition, exercise participation, even in the absence of difference in physical fitness, may be protective against development of central obesity and insulin resistance in this understudied Korean population. PMID:18702942

  2. TERT Polymorphism rs2853669 Influences on Lung Cancer Risk in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Soo; Do, Sook Kyung; Choi, Jin Eun; Lee, Shin Yup; Lee, Jaehee; Cha, Seung Ick; Kim, Chang Ho; Park, Jae Yong

    2015-10-01

    Short telomeres are known as one of the risk factors for human cancers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the association between 6 polymorphisms, which were related with short telomere length in the Korean population, and lung cancer risk using 1,100 cases and 1,096 controls. Among the 6 polymorphisms, TERT rs2853669 was significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk under a recessive model (odds ratio [OR]=1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.05-1.81, P=0.02). The effect of rs2853669 on lung cancer risk was significant in younger individuals (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.18-2.54, P=0.005) and adenocarcinoma (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.07-2.07, P=0.02). Our results suggest that a common functional promoter polymorphism, TERT rs2853669, may influence both telomere length and lung cancer risk in the Korean population.

  3. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  4. Genetic analysis of TMPRSS3 gene in the Korean population with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwook; Baek, Jeong-In; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Un-Kyung; Lee, Sang-Heun; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2013-12-15

    The TMPRSS3 gene (DFNB8/10), which encodes a transmembrane serine protease, is a common hearing loss gene in several populations. Accurate functions of TMPRSS3 in the hearing pathway are still unknown, but TMPRSS3 has been reported to play a crucial role in inner ear development or maintenance. To date, 16 pathogenic mutations have been identified in many countries, but no mutational studies of the TMPRSS3 gene have been conducted in the Korean hearing loss population. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of TMPRSS3 in 40 unrelated Korean patients with autosomal recessive hearing loss to identify the aspect and frequency of TMPRSS3 gene mutations in the Korean population. A total of 22 variations were detected, including a novel variant (p.V291L) and a previously reported pathogenic mutation (p.A306T). The p.A306T mutation which has been detected in only compound heterozygous state in previous studies was identified in homozygous state for the first time in this study. Moreover, the clinical evaluation identified bilateral dilated vestibules in the patient with p.A306T mutation, and it suggested that p.A306T mutation of the TMPRSS3 gene might be associated with vestibular anomalies. In conclusion, this study investigated that only 2.5% of patients with autosomal recessive hearing loss were related to TMPRSS3 mutations suggesting low prevalence of TMPRSS3 gene in Korean hearing loss population. Also, it will provide the information of genotype-phenotype correlation to understand definite role of TMPRSS3 in the auditory system.

  5. Estimation of risk for diabetes according to the metabolically healthy status stratified by degree of obesity in Korean men.

    PubMed

    Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Park, Sung Keun; Ye, Sungmin; Choi, Joong-Myung; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kim, Sun Yong; Shin, Ju-Young; Park, Jai Hyung; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Ko, Taeg Su

    2015-12-01

    Although obesity is clearly identified as a risk factor for diabetes, the relationship between diabetes and metabolically healthy status of obesity is less clear. This study was aimed to evaluate the incidental risk of diabetes according to metabolically healthy status of obesity. 31,834 Korean men without diabetes categorized into six groups according to their metabolically healthy status stratified by degree of obesity were followed up for 5 years: metabolically healthy normal weight (MH-NW), metabolically healthy overweight (MH-OW), metabolically healthy obese (MHO), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MU-NW), metabolically unhealthy overweight (MU-OW), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to measure the risk for diabetes according to their categories. While overall incidence was 9.0 %, incidence of diabetes was in proportion to the degree of obesity and metabolically healthy status (MH-NW: 6.3 %, MH-OW: 7.5 %, MHO: 9.2 %, MU-NW: 11.8 %, MU-OW: 14.9 %, MUO: 20.1 %). When MH-NW was set as reference, the adjusted HRs (95 % CI) for diabetes of the MH-OW, MHO, MU-NW, MU-OW, MUO compared to MH-NW were 1.18 (1.06-1.32), 1.58 (1.03-2.41), 1.81 (1.61-2.04), 2.36 (2.11-2.63), and 3.47 (2.84-4.24), respectively. In conclusion, risk for diabetes was in proportion to the degree of obesity in both metabolically healthy and unhealthy group. Metabolically healthy status was more significant determinant for incident diabetes than obesity itself.

  6. Personality Traits and Body Mass Index in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Unjin; Roh, Seung-Ju; Cho, Nam H.; Shin, Chol; Ryu, Seungho; Sung, Yeon-Ah

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity is a serious problem worldwide related to cardiovascular and other diseases. Personality traits are associated with the abnormal body mass indices (BMIs) indicative of overweight and obesity. However, the links between personality traits and BMI have been little studied in Korea. Methods We evaluated the association between personality traits and BMI in men and women using the rural Ansung and urban Ansan cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, and the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Cohort Study datasets. A shorter version of the original Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was used to measure the five-factor model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). Results Data from a total of 1,495 men (mean age 60.0±9.8 years; mean BMI 24.3±3.0 kg/m2) and 2,547 women (mean age 47.0±15.5 years; mean BMI 22.8±3.4 kg/m2) were included in the analysis. Compared with the normal weight groups, overweight and obese men scored higher on openness to experience and lower on conscientiousness. Overweight and obese women scored lower on neuroticism and openness to experience and higher on agreeableness. Extraversion was positively associated with BMI in men (β = 0.032, P<0.05). BMI and waist circumference were significantly increased in individuals who were less dutiful. In women, neuroticism was inversely associated with BMI (β = −0.026, P<0.05). Openness to experience was negatively, and agreeableness was positively, associated with BMI (openness to experience: β = −0.072, agreeableness β = 0.068) and waist circumference (openness to experience: β = −0.202, agreeableness: β = 0.227) (P<0.05). Conclusion Personality traits were associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in men and women. Increased understanding of the underlying factors contributing to this association will aid in the prevention

  7. [Healthy lifestyles of the university population].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ojeda, María Angustias; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira

    2015-05-01

    The lifestyle is defined as the set of behavioral patterns and daily habits of a person, which maintained over time may become dimensions of risk or safety depending on their nature. The aim of this study was to know the lifestyles of university students in the following dimensions: diet, exercise, consumption of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, sex and road safety. We made a literature review in electronic databases: PubMed, SCIELO and CUIDEN, between 2002-2014; using as keywords habits, lifestyle, health behaviors, young adult and university students. From articles found, stand out as most relevant data that university students have a high presence of favorable beliefs about healthy lifestyles and nevertheless not put into practice. We could conclude that according to different authors, university students in general have not a good eating habits, eating unbalanced diets high in calories. Besides the physical exercise is null, knowing that a good diet and doing exercise have beneficial effects on health. To this must be added the high consumption of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana among university students.

  8. Background and Data Configuration Process of a Nationwide Population-Based Study Using the Korean National Health Insurance System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sun Ok; Jung, Chang Hee; Song, Young Duk; Park, Cheol-Young; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Cha, Bong Soo; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up

    2014-01-01

    Background The National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) recently signed an agreement to provide limited open access to the databases within the Korean Diabetes Association for the benefit of Korean subjects with diabetes. Here, we present the history, structure, contents, and way to use data procurement in the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) system for the benefit of Korean researchers. Methods The NHIS in Korea is a single-payer program and is mandatory for all residents in Korea. The three main healthcare programs of the NHI, Medical Aid, and long-term care insurance (LTCI) provide 100% coverage for the Korean population. The NHIS in Korea has adopted a fee-for-service system to pay health providers. Researchers can obtain health information from the four databases of the insured that contain data on health insurance claims, health check-ups and LTCI. Results Metabolic disease as chronic disease is increasing with aging society. NHIS data is based on mandatory, serial population data, so, this might show the time course of disease and predict some disease progress, and also be used in primary and secondary prevention of disease after data mining. Conclusion The NHIS database represents the entire Korean population and can be used as a population-based database. The integrated information technology of the NHIS database makes it a world-leading population-based epidemiology and disease research platform. PMID:25349827

  9. A multicenter retrospective analysis of the clinical features of pernicious anemia in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Song, Ik-Chan; Lee, Hyo Jin; Kim, Han-Jo; Bae, Sang-Byung; Lee, Kyu-Taek; Yang, Young-Jun; Park, Suk-Young; Cho, Do-Yeun; Kim, Nae Yu; Cho, In-Sung; Jo, Deog-Yeon

    2013-02-01

    To determine the approximate incidence and clinical features of pernicious anemia in a Korean population, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data for patients with pernicious anemia who were diagnosed between 1995 and 2010 at five hospitals in Chungnam province. Ninety-seven patients were enrolled, who accounted for 24% of patients with vitamin B(12) deficiency anemia. The approximate annual incidence of pernicious anemia was 0.3 per 100,000. The median age was 66 (range, 32-98) yr, and the male/female ratio was 1.25. Anemia-associated discomfort was the most common symptom (79.4%), followed by gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms (78.4% and 38.1%, respectively). Pancytopenia was found in 36 patients (37.1%), and autoimmune disorders were found in 15 patients (15.5%). Antibody to intrinsic factor was detected in 62 (77.5%) of 80 patients examined, and antibody to parietal cells was detected in 35 (43.2%) of 81 patients examined. Of the 34 patients who underwent tests for Helicobacter pylori, 7 (12.5%) were positive. The anemia-associated and gastrointestinal symptoms resolved completely in all patients after intramuscular injection of cobalamin, whereas neurological symptoms remained in some. In conclusion, pernicious anemia is less frequent in Koreans than in Western populations; however, the clinical features of this disorder in Koreans do not differ from those of Western cases. PMID:23400269

  10. A Multicenter Retrospective Analysis of the Clinical Features of Pernicious Anemia in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ik-Chan; Lee, Hyo Jin; Kim, Han-Jo; Bae, Sang-Byung; Lee, Kyu-Taek; Yang, Young-Jun; Park, Suk-Young; Cho, Do-Yeun; Kim, Nae Yu; Cho, In-Sung

    2013-01-01

    To determine the approximate incidence and clinical features of pernicious anemia in a Korean population, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data for patients with pernicious anemia who were diagnosed between 1995 and 2010 at five hospitals in Chungnam province. Ninety-seven patients were enrolled, who accounted for 24% of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. The approximate annual incidence of pernicious anemia was 0.3 per 100,000. The median age was 66 (range, 32-98) yr, and the male/female ratio was 1.25. Anemia-associated discomfort was the most common symptom (79.4%), followed by gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms (78.4% and 38.1%, respectively). Pancytopenia was found in 36 patients (37.1%), and autoimmune disorders were found in 15 patients (15.5%). Antibody to intrinsic factor was detected in 62 (77.5%) of 80 patients examined, and antibody to parietal cells was detected in 35 (43.2%) of 81 patients examined. Of the 34 patients who underwent tests for Helicobacter pylori, 7 (12.5%) were positive. The anemia-associated and gastrointestinal symptoms resolved completely in all patients after intramuscular injection of cobalamin, whereas neurological symptoms remained in some. In conclusion, pernicious anemia is less frequent in Koreans than in Western populations; however, the clinical features of this disorder in Koreans do not differ from those of Western cases. PMID:23400269

  11. The polymorphism of Knops blood group system in Korean population and their relationship with HLA system.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Hyun; Oh, Sohee; Shin, Sue; Park, Jeong Su; Roh, Eun Youn; Song, Eun Young; Park, Myoung Hee; Han, Kyou Sup; Chang, Ju Young

    2013-02-01

    The main purpose of this report is to provide baseline gene frequencies of Knops blood group in the complement receptor 1 gene (CR1) in Korean population. In addition, possible relationship between the CR1 polymorphism and HLA specificities were studied, because the two systems had principal importance in immunity. CR1, which contains Knops antigens, was investigated by PCR-direct sequencing from 238 cord blood from Koreans. HLA data was archived from the enrolled cord blood units. Among the 7 SNPs, only 4843 (for KCAM antigen) and 4223 (for Yk(a)) nucleotide positions showed polymorphism. The genotype frequencies of KCAM were A/A (62.2%), A/G (33.2%), and G/G (4.6%); Yk(a) were C/C (29.4%), C/T (50%), and T/T (20.6%). KCAM (A/A) associated with HLA-DRB1(∗)13 (p=0.003, P(c)=0.0513); KCAM (G/G) with HLA-A(∗)30 (p<0.001, P(c)=0.0012). The Knops blood group system in Korean population has no diversity, except SNPs for KCAM and Yk(a), and the genotype of KCAM related with specific HLA alleles.

  12. Mental-Physical Comorbidity in Korean Adults: Results from a Nationwide General Population Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. Methods Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI) was used in the survey. Prevalence of mental and physical disorders, and risk factors for physical health were calculated, and their associations were evaluated with adjustment for age and sex. Results Subjects with any mental disorder showed significantly higher prevalence of chronic physical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=1.5 to 2.8, p<0.001) and medical risk factors including smoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and hypertension (AOR=1.5 to 4.0, p<0.001). Of those with chronic physical conditions, 21.6% had one or more comorbid mental disorder compared with 10.5% of the subjects without chronic physical disorders (AOR=2.6, p<0.001). Contrary to expectations, depressive disorders did not show significant association with hypertension and prevalence of obesity was not influenced by presence of mental disorders. Further studies should assess these findings. Conclusion This is the first identification of significant mental-physical comorbidity in the general Korean population. Clinicians and health care officials should keep in mind of its potential adverse effects on treatment outcome and aggravated disease-related socioeconomic burden. PMID:27757127

  13. Association of serum ferritin with metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus in the South Korean general population according to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho; Kim, Young-Il

    2011-10-01

    We examined the association of serum ferritin levels with metabolic syndrome (MS) and diabetes mellitus in a representative sample of the adult South Korean population using data from the 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 6311 adults older than 20 years who participated in the 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of at least 3 of the following: elevated blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated serum triglycerides, elevated plasma glucose, and abdominal obesity. Diabetes mellitus was defined as fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was determined using the homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance. In a representative sample of the adult Korean population, MS was more prevalent in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of serum ferritin concentrations in women following adjustments for age, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Diabetes mellitus was more prevalent in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of serum ferritin concentrations in premenopausal women and men. The geometric means of fasting insulin and insulin resistance determined using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in the fourth serum ferritin quartiles of postmenopausal women and men were significantly higher compared with those in the first quartile of the respective groups. The present study demonstrates that elevated serum ferritin concentrations are associated with an increased risk of MS and diabetes mellitus in a representative sample of the adult South Korean population.

  14. Two-point discrimination of the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20’s

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Ja-Pung; Kim, Soon-Hee; An, Ho-Jung; Moon, Ok-Gon; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yun, Young-Dae; Park, Joo-Hyun; Min, Kyoung-Ok

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study attempted to measure two-point discrimination in the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20’s. [Subjects and Methods] Using a three-point esthesiometer, we conducted an experiment with a group of 256 college students (128 male and 128 female), attending N University in Chonan, Republic of Korea. [Results] Females showed two-point discrimination at a shorter distance than males at the following points: (i) 5 cm above the elbow joint, the middle part, and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the anterior upper arm; (ii) 5 cm above the elbow joint and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the posterior upper arm; (iii) 5 cm above the front of the wrist joint of the forearm; 5 cm below the elbow joint, the palmar part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the thumb, the dorsal part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the middle and little fingers. It was also found that females showed greater two-point discrimination than males in distal regions rather than proximal regions. [Conclusion] The findings of this study will help establish normal values for two-point discrimination of upper extremities of young Koreans in their 20’s. PMID:27134375

  15. Assessment of the dietary intake of propylene glycol in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ho Soo; Hwang, Ju Young; Choi, EunA; Lee, Gun Young; Yun, Sang Soon; Kang, TaeSeok

    2016-08-01

    An improved method for the analysis of propylene glycol (PG) in foods using a gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID), with confirmation by GC-MS, was validated by measuring several analytical parameters. The PG concentrations in 1073 products available in Korean markets were determined. PG was detected in 74.1% of the samples, in a concentration range from the limit of detection (n.d., 0.39 μg ml(-1)) to 12,819.9 mg kg(-1). The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2011-2013 reported the mean intake levels of PG from all sources by the general population and consumers were 26.3 mg day(-1) (0.52 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 34.3 mg day(-1) (0.67 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively. The 95th percentile intake levels of the general population and consumers were 123.6 mg day(-1) (2.39 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 146.3 mg day(-1) (2.86 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively. In all groups of the general population, breads were the main contributors to the total PG intake. These reports provide a current perspective on the daily intake of PG in the Korean population. PMID:27389111

  16. Prediction Model for Gastric Cancer Incidence in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sohee; Shin, Aesun; Yang, Hye-Ryung; Park, Junghyun; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Young-Woo; Kim, Jeongseon; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Predicting high risk groups for gastric cancer and motivating these groups to receive regular checkups is required for the early detection of gastric cancer. The aim of this study is was to develop a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence based on a large population-based cohort in Korea. Method Based on the National Health Insurance Corporation data, we analyzed 10 major risk factors for gastric cancer. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to develop gender specific prediction models for gastric cancer development, and the performance of the developed model in terms of discrimination and calibration was also validated using an independent cohort. Discrimination ability was evaluated using Harrell’s C-statistics, and the calibration was evaluated using a calibration plot and slope. Results During a median of 11.4 years of follow-up, 19,465 (1.4%) and 5,579 (0.7%) newly developed gastric cancer cases were observed among 1,372,424 men and 804,077 women, respectively. The prediction models included age, BMI, family history, meal regularity, salt preference, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity for men, and age, BMI, family history, salt preference, alcohol consumption, and smoking for women. This prediction model showed good accuracy and predictability in both the developing and validation cohorts (C-statistics: 0.764 for men, 0.706 for women). Conclusions In this study, a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence was developed that displayed a good performance. PMID:26186332

  17. Establishment of a resource population of SLA haplotype-defined Korean native pigs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han-Ok; Ho, Chak-Sum; Lee, Yu-Joo; Cho, In-Cheol; Lee, Sung-Soo; Ko, Moon-Suck; Park, Chankyu; Smith, Douglas M; Jeon, Jin-Tae; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2010-05-01

    The highly polymorphic porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC), or the swine leukocyte antigens (SLA), has been repeatedly associated with variations in swine immune response to pathogens and vaccines as well as with production traits. The SLA antigens are also important targets for immunological recognition of foreign tissue grafts. We recently established a resource population of Korean native pigs as models for human transplantation and xenotransplantation research. In this study, 115 animals derived from three generations of the Korean native pigs were genotyped for three SLA class I (SLA-2, SLA-3 and SLA-1) and three SLA class II loci (DRB1, DQB1, DQA) using PCR with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) at the allele group resolution. A total of seven SLA haplotypes (Lr-5.34, Lr-7.23, Lr-31.13, Lr-56.23, Lr-56.30, Lr-59.1, Lr-65.34), comprising six unique class I and five unique class II haplotypes, were characterized in the founding animals. Class I haplotype Lr-65.0 and class II haplotype Lr-0.34 were novel; and together with Lr-56.0 these haplotypes appeared to be breed-specific. In the progeny population, Lr-7.23 and Lr-56.30 appeared to be the most prevalent haplotypes with frequencies of 34.7% and 31.6%, respectively; the overall homozygosity was 27.4%. This resource population of SLA-defined Korean native pigs will be useful as large animal models for various transplantation and xenotransplantation experiments, as well as for dissecting the roles of SLA proteins in swine disease resistance and production traits.

  18. An analysis of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and its significance on osteoarthritis in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun-Tae; Kim, Hyun-Je; Ahn, Hee-Yun; Hong, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study was conducted in order to analyze the effects of sarcopenia on age-related osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee in a Korean population. Methods: All the Korean subjects who visited the Yeungnam University Medical Center Health Promotion Center between 2008 and 2012 in order to undergo a routine medical examination were enrolled. A total of 5,723 young, healthy people (2,959 males, 2,764 females) enrolled as normal subjects and 23,473 subjects (13,006 males and 10,467 females) were included for evaluation of the effects of sarcopenia on OA. There were 266 subjects who followed-up bioelectrical impedance analysis at a 4-year interval. Of 327 subjects enrolled in this study, knees with anteroposterior X-rays were assessed according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L) grade. Results: Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) showed a steady decrease with the advance of age (p < 0.01), but SMI showed strong positive correlation with BMR (r = 0.72, β = 30.96, p < 0.01). During the 4-year interval, BMR showed a significant decrease with aging (p < 0.01), consistently with the decrease of SMI. Knees with normal SMI were prone to be designated as K/L grade 0 or 1; however, subjects with sarcopenia showed a trend toward the higher K/L grade, classified as knee radiological osteoarthritis (ROA) (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results of this study may indicate that sarcopenia as age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass is interactively correlated with the presence and severity of age-related OA. PMID:26976151

  19. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among healthy Korean women: implications of multiplex PCR pathogen detection on antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoonjung; Kim, Juwon; Lee, Kyung-A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using multiplex real-time PCR assay in healthy Korean women. We also evaluated the risk factors of STIs, and compared the various factors between the STI-positive and the STI-negative groups. A total of 799 endocervical swab samples from healthy Korean women who visited our hospital for general medical check-ups during January 2012 to October 2012 were included. Eight STIs including Human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Ureaplasma parvum (UP), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) were detected using Anyplex II STI-7 Detection assay Detection (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) and Hybrid Capture 2 High-Risk HPV DNA test (Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) according manufacture's protocols. Ninety-seven (12.1%) subjects were positive for HPV. Of 393 (49.2%) subjects were infected with at least one microorganism and a total of 499 STIs were identified. Among the 393 STI-positive subjects, the proportion of single, double and triple infection was 76.3%, 20.4% and 3.3%, respectively. The median age of the STI-positive group (47 years, range 42-52) was younger than the STI-negative group (49 years, range 43-56; P < 0.001). The infection rate of HPV was significantly higher in the STI-positive group (15.8%, 62/393) than the STI-negative group (8.6%, 35/406) (P = 0.002). PMID:24462432

  20. Predictive Value of Antiviral Effects in the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the General Korean Population with Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jae-Jun; Oh, In Hwan; Kim, Sang Bae; Kim, Jung Wook; Lee, Chang Kyun; Jang, Jae Young; Lee, Ju-Seog; Kim, Byung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The benefit of oral antiviral therapy in preventing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the general population is not well understood. We used a novel prediction method to estimate the risk of HCC in the Korean population based on various treatment guidelines. Methods The 5-year risk of HCC following antiviral therapy was calculated using an HCC risk prediction model. A virtual cohort that represented Koreans (>40 years old) with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was established using the fifth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The antiviral indications tested were the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines as well as a new extended indication (serum HBV DNA >2,000 IU/mL regardless of serum aminotransferase level). Results A total of 993,872 subjects were infected with HBV in the general Korean population. Over a 5-year period, 2,725 HCC cases were predicted per 100,000 persons (0.55%/yr). When the cohort was treated based on the Korean NHI, the EASL, and the newly extended indications, HCC risks decreased to 2,531 (−7.1%), 2,089 (−23.3%), and 1,122 (−58.8%) cases per 100,000 persons, respectively (p<0.0001). Conclusions Simulated risk prediction suggests that extending of oral antiviral indication may reduce the HCC risk in the general population. PMID:27282260

  1. DUOX2 Mutations Are Frequently Associated With Congenital Hypothyroidism in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Young-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Ryul; Park, Jong-Ho; Park, June-Hee; Park, Hyung-Doo; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2016-01-01

    Background Most cases with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) are usually sporadic, while about 20% of the cases are caused by genetic defects. Little information is available regarding the mutation incidence and genetic heterogeneity of CH in Koreans. We aimed to determine the mutation incidence of CH in newborn screenings (NBS) and to evaluate the frequency and spectrum of mutations underlying CH. Methods A total of 112 newborns with thyroid dysfunction were enrolled from 256,624 consecutive NBS. Furthermore, 58 outpatients with primary CH were added from an endocrine clinic. All coding exons of TSHR, PAX8, TPO, DUOX2, DUOXA2, and SCL5A5 were sequenced. Results The mutation incidence of CH was estimated to be 1 in 6,580 newborns. A total of 36 different mutations were identified in 53 cases. The overall mutation positive rate was 31%. The DUOX2 mutations were the most prevalent in both newborns and outpatients. Seven different recurrent mutations [p.G488R (n=13), p.A649E (n=3), p.R885Q (n=3), p.I1080T (n=2), and p.A1206T (n=2) in DUOX2; p.Y138X (n=9) in DUOXA2; and p.R450H (n=5) in TSHR) were identified as the mutations underlying CH. Conclusions The mutation incidence of CH was considerably higher than expected in the Korean newborn population. This study revealed seven different recurrent mutations underlying CH. We conclude that DUOX2 mutations are a frequent cause of CH in the Korean population. PMID:26709262

  2. Association between Expression Quantitative Trait Loci and Metabolic Traits in Two Korean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Myungguen; Cho, Seong Beom

    2014-01-01

    Most genome-wide association studies consider genes that are located closest to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are highly significant for those studies. However, the significance of the associations between SNPs and candidate genes has not been fully determined. An alternative approach that used SNPs in expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) was reported previously for Crohn’s disease; it was shown that eQTL-based preselection for follow-up studies was a useful approach for identifying risk loci from the results of moderately sized GWAS. In this study, we propose an approach that uses eQTL SNPs to support the functional relationships between an SNP and a candidate gene in a genome-wide association study. The genome-wide SNP genotypes and 10 biochemical measures (fasting glucose levels, BUN, serum albumin levels, AST, ALT, gamma GTP, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol) were obtained from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) consortium. The eQTL SNPs were isolated from the SNP dataset based on the RegulomeDB eQTL-SNP data from the ENCODE projects and two recent eQTL reports. A total of 25,658 eQTL SNPs were tested for their association with the 10 metabolic traits in 2 Korean populations (Ansung and Ansan). The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by eQTL and non-eQTL SNPs showed that eQTL SNPs were more likely to be associated with the metabolic traits genetically compared with non-eQTL SNPs. Finally, via a meta-analysis of the two Korean populations, we identified 14 eQTL SNPs that were significantly associated with metabolic traits. These results suggest that our approach can be expanded to other genome-wide association studies. PMID:25493549

  3. Evidence for joint moment asymmetry in healthy populations during gait.

    PubMed

    Lathrop-Lambach, Rebecca L; Asay, Jessica L; Jamison, Steve T; Pan, Xueliang; Schmitt, Laura C; Blazek, Katerina; Siston, Robert A; Andriacchi, Thomas P; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and prevalence of asymmetry in lower extremity joint moments within and across healthy populations during overground walking. Bilateral gait data from several studies performed at two institutions were pooled from 182 healthy, pain-free subjects. Four distinct populations were identified based on age, activity level and body mass index. Mean peak external joint moments were calculated from three to six trials of level overground walking at self-selected speed for each subject. Right and left limb moments were reclassified as "greater" or "lesser" moment for each subject to prevent obscuring absolute asymmetry due to averaging over positive and negative asymmetries across subjects. A clinically relevant asymmetry measure was calculated from the peak joint moments with an initial chosen cutoff value of 10%. Confidence intervals for the proportion of subjects with greater than 10% asymmetry between limbs were estimated based on the binomial distribution. We found a high amount of asymmetry between the limbs in healthy populations. More than half of our overall population exceeded 10% asymmetry in peak hip and knee flexion and adduction moments. Group medians exceeded 10% asymmetry for all variables in all populations. This may have important implications on gait evaluations, particularly clinical evaluations or research studies where asymmetry is used as an outcome. Additional research is necessary to determine acceptable levels of joint moment asymmetry during gait and to determine whether asymmetrical joint moments influence the development of symptomatic pathology or success of lower extremity rehabilitation. PMID:25035185

  4. Healthy worker effect in the total Finnish population.

    PubMed Central

    Vinni, K; Hakama, M

    1980-01-01

    The selection due to the "healthy worker effect" was estimated from a random sample of the total Finnish population. The sample of 20 000 people was followed for changes in occupations from 1960 to 1970 and for deaths in 1971-5. Those entering the active work force had a standard mortality ratio of 70, indicating a healthy population selection effect. Those staying in the same occupational category from 1960 to 1970 had a 20% lower mortality than those who did not. This survivor population effect was due to changes to another occupational group and to early retirement. These factors had an inverse effect on the survival history of an occupational group. PMID:7426468

  5. Relationships of Mental Disorders and Weight Status in the Korean Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Sunwoo, Young-Kyung; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Jong-Ik; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Jin-Yeong; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Maeng Je

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between weight status and mental disorders, including depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder. A total of nationally representative 6,510 subjects aged 18-64 yr was interviewed in face-to-face household survey. Response rate was 81.7%. Mental disorders were diagnosed using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI). The subjects reported their heights and weights. After adjusting for age and gender, the lifetime diagnosis of depressive disorder had a significant association with only the underweight group (odds ratio [OR], 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-2.38). The association between underweight and depressive disorder was the strongest for subjects with a high education level (OR, 1.75, 95% CI, 1.2-2.56), subjects with a married/cohabiting status (OR, 1.94, 95% CI, 1.17-3.22) and smokers (OR, 2.58, 95% CI, 1.33-4.98). There was no significant association between obesity and depressive disorder in Korea. But there was a significant association between the underweight group and depressive disorder. The relationship between obesity and mental disorder in a Korean population was different from that in a Western population. These results suggest that the differences of traditional cultures and races might have an important effect on the associations between the weight status and mental disorders. PMID:21218038

  6. Recapitulation of genome-wide association studies on body mass index in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, K W; Oh, B

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for multiple disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Recently, a genome-wide association study for body mass index (BMI) was conducted in 249 796 individuals of European ancestry by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium. They identified 14 known obesity susceptibility loci and 18 new loci associated with BMI at the genome-wide significance level (P<5 × 10⁻⁸). Because the prevalence and severity of obesity vary among ethnic groups, it is worthy to investigate these results in another ethnic population. We examined the BMI association of 19 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) out of the 32 in 8842 individuals from the Korean Association Resource data, and found 12 SNPs to be associated with BMI in the Korean population. Eight loci, rs10968576 (BDNF), rs3817334 (MTCH2), rs1558902 (FTO), rs571312 (MC4R), rs543874 (SEC16B), rs987237 (TFAP2B), rs2867125 (TMEM18) and rs7138803 (FAIM2), were previously known obesity susceptibility loci, and the remaining four loci, rs1514175 (TNNI3K), rs206936 (NUDT3), rs4771122 (MTIF3) and rs2241423 (MAP2K5), were newly identified as BMI loci by the GIANT study. Further, all 12 SNPs showed the same direction of effect on BMI between the two ethnic groups, suggesting a similar genetic architecture governing the obesity.

  7. Magnetic resonance image-based cerebellar volumetry in healthy Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, I J; Cho, T H; Lee, N J; Uhm, C S; Kim, H; Suh, Y S

    1999-08-01

    The effects of age and gender on cerebellar size have not been established yet. To understand these effects, the area of cerebellar vermis and the volume of cerebellum were measured using serial magnetic resonance images of 124 Korean adults free of neurologic symptoms and signs. Cerebellar volume of male was significantly larger than that of female, although the size of vermis did not show significant gender difference. Correlation analysis revealed that cerebellar volume was not affected by aging. Regressional analysis demonstrated that female vermis had a tendency to shrink after age of 50, whereas male vermis and total cerebellar volume in both sexes were not altered with aging. The different response of vermis with aging and maintenance of cerebellum volume need to be more explored. PMID:10462116

  8. Genetic variants and signatures of selective sweep of Hanwoo population (Korean native cattle)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taeheon; Cho, Seoae; Seo, Kang Seok; Chang, Jongsoo

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been many studies of native Korean cattle, Hanwoo, there have been no selective sweep studies in these animals. This study was performed to characterize genetic variation and identify selective signatures. We sequencedthe genomes of 12 cattle, and identified 15125420 SNPs, 1768114 INDELs, and 3445 CNVs. The SNPs, INDELs, and CNVs were similarly distributed throughout the genome, and highly variable regions were shown to contain the BoLA family and GPR180, which are related to adaptive immunity. We also identified the domestication footprints of the Hanwoo population by searching for selective sweep signatures, which revealed the RCN2 gene related to BPV resistance. The results of this study may contribute to genetic improvement of the Hanwoo population in Korea. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(7):346-351] PMID:23884100

  9. Population and forensic genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA control region variation from six major provinces in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Beom; Kim, Ki Cheol; Kim, Wook

    2015-07-01

    We generated complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 704 unrelated individuals residing in six major provinces in Korea. In addition to our earlier survey of the distribution of mtDNA haplogroup variation, a total of 560 different haplotypes characterized by 271 polymorphic sites were identified, of which 473 haplotypes were unique. The gene diversity and random match probability were 0.9989 and 0.0025, respectively. According to the pairwise comparison of the 704 control region sequences, the mean number of pairwise differences between individuals was 13.47±6.06. Based on the result of mtDNA control region sequences, pairwise FST genetic distances revealed genetic homogeneity of the Korean provinces on a peninsular level, except in samples from Jeju Island. This result indicates there may be a need to formulate a local mtDNA database for Jeju Island, to avoid bias in forensic parameter estimates caused by genetic heterogeneity of the population. Thus, the present data may help not only in personal identification but also in determining maternal lineages to provide an expanded and reliable Korean mtDNA database. These data will be available on the EMPOP database via accession number EMP00661.

  10. Prevalence of immediate-type food allergy in Korean schoolchildren: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Hahm, Myung-Il; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Chae, Yoomi; Park, Yong Mean; Han, Man Yong; Lee, Kee-Jae; Kim, Ja Kyoung; Yang, Eun Seok; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2012-01-01

    Although the prevalence and causes of food allergy (FA) vary by geographic location, large well-designed epidemiological studies in Asia are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of immediate-type FA in the general population of Korean schoolchildren. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 using a stratified two-stage cluster-sampling design. In this survey, children aged 6-7 years and 12-13 years were randomly selected, and the presence of FA was determined by a questionnaire survey and assessment of specific IgE. After adjustment for missing data, 3907 children aged 6-7 years and 3975 students aged 12-13 years who completed the questionnaire were included in this study. In children aged 6-7 years, the prevalence of confirmed immediate-type FA was 0.3%, and the prevalence of possible immediate-type FA was 0.3%. By contrast, 0.6 and 1.0% of children aged 12-13 years had confirmed immediate-type FA and possible immediate-type FA, respectively. In 6- to 7-year-old children, egg was the most frequent causative food associated with a confirmed or possible immediate-type FA. In 12- to 13-year-old children, crustaceans were the most frequent cause of confirmed immediate-type FA, and fruit was most frequently involved in possible immediate-type FA. This is the first nationwide population-based study of FA in Korean schoolchildren. Unlike in western countries, the prevalence of immediate-type FA seems to be low. In 12- to 13 year-old children with confirmed immediate-type FA, peanuts/tree nuts are not common causes, whereas crustaceans are frequent triggers. PMID:23394505

  11. Hypocholesterolemic effect of sonication-killed Bifidobacterium longum isolated from healthy adult Koreans in high cholesterol fed rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hea Soon; Park, Shin Young; Lee, Do Kyung; Kim, Sun Ae; An, Hyang Mi; Kim, Jung Rae; Kim, Mi Jin; Cha, Min Gyeong; Lee, Si Won; Kim, Kyung Joo; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2010-09-01

    We have previously reported that live Bifidobacterium longum SPM1207, a strain isolated from healthy adult Koreans, significantly reduced serum cholesterol in broth and rat. We here examined the effect of oral administration of sonication-killed B. longum SPM1207 on serum cholesterol in rats in order to investigate whether this killed strain could be utilized as a potent probiotics for human and animals. Dietary treatments consisted of 3 treatment groups of 24 rats each randomly assigned to either normal diet, high cholesterol diet and saline (HCS), or high cholesterol diet and sonication-killed B. longum SPM1207 (HCKB) for 3 weeks. Although HDL-cholesterol levels in the serum were not significantly (p > 0.05) different between HCKB rats and HCS rats, total and LDL-cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (p < 0.05) less increased in HCKB (total: 177.71 mg/dL, LDL-: 60.50 mg/dL) rats when compared to HCS (total: 237.17 mg/dL, LDL-: 71.50 mg/dL) rats. AI was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in HCKB (4.95 mg/dL) rats when compared to HCS (9.22 mg/dL) rats. Body weight increase and relative liver weight were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in HCKB rats when compared to HCS rats. Over the time, high cholesterol diet caused dry feces accompanied by decreased fecal water content (66.00 to 61.94%) but sonication-killed B. longum SPM1207 administration increased fecal water content (71.58 to 74.25%). The results in the current study provide evidence that the sonication-killed cells of B. logum SPM1207 isolated from healthy adult Koreans have a greater potential to be used as a cholesterol-lowering agent. Furthermore, the current study suggest that this killed specific strain may play role in part in blocking the body weight increase and relieving or eliminating constipation.

  12. Vulnerability of Korean water resources to climate change and population growth.

    PubMed

    Chang, H; Franczyk, J; Im, E-S; Kwon, W-T; Bae, D-H; Jung, I-W

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater availability is affected by changes in climate and growth. We assessed the freshwater vulnerability for five major Korean river basins for 2015 and 2030. We used a regional climate model based on the IPCC SRES A2 scenario, US Geological Survey's Precipitation Rainfall Simulation Model, and population and industrial growth scenarios for impact assessment. The model simulation results suggest increasing spatial and temporal variations of water stress for the basins that are already developed. While freshwater is more vulnerable to growth scenarios than the climate change scenario, climate change alone could decrease mean annual runoff by 10% in four major river basins by 2030. As the first national assessment of climate change, we suggest possible adaptive water resource management and policy strategies for reducing climate related risks in Korea.

  13. Analysis of population structure among Korean and Japanese Legionella pneumophila isolates using hsp60 sequences.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Geun; Kim, Byoung Jun; Kim, Hee-Youn; Yun, Yeo-Jun; Ko, Kwan Soo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Kim, Bum-Joon; Kook, Yoon-Hoh

    2012-08-01

    The population structure of Korean (150 strains) and Japanese (92 strains) Legionella pneumophila isolates along with 18 reference strains were investigated using hsp60 sequence (1647 bp) analysis. Twelve clonal subgroups (hsP-I to hsP-X and hsF-I and hsF-II) were designated on the hsp60 tree, inferred from representative sequences using the neighbor-joining method. Some of the isolates showed unique subgroups depending on the source of isolates, including hsP-I, hsF-I, and hsF-II from cooling tower water, and subgroups hsP-VIII and hsP-X from circulating hot water bath. These subgroups may be useful for epidemiological studies to chase or specify sources of infection in Korea and Japan. PMID:22672106

  14. Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Piperacillin/Tazobactam in Korean Patients with Acute Infections 

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyang-Ki; Bae, In-Gyu; Choi, Won Suk; Hur, Jian; Jin, Sung Joon; Kim, Shin-Woo; Kwon, Ki Tae; Lee, Sang-Rok; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2016-01-01

    Background For more effective and safer usage of antibiotics, the dosing strategy should be individualized based on the patients’ characteristics, including race. The aim of this study was to investigate the population pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of piperacillin and tazobactam in Korean patients with acute infections. Materials and Methods At least four consecutive 2/0.25 g or 4/0.5 g doses of piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) were intravenously infused over 1 h every 8 h for patients with creatinine clearance (CLcr) ≤50 ml/min or CLcr >50 mL/min, respectively. Blood samples from 33 patients at a steady-state were taken pre-dose and at 0 min, 30 min, and 4-6 h after the fourth infusion. The population PK analysis was conducted using a non-linear mixed-effects method. A likelihood ratio test was used to select significant covariates, with significance levels of P <0.05 for selection and P <0.01 for elimination. Results Both piperacillin PK and tazobactam PK were well described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. Creatinine clearance and body weight, as covariates on clearance (CL) and volume of central compartment (V1), were selected among the covariates possibly affecting PK parameters of both drugs. CL was defined as CL = 2.9 + 4.03 × CLcr /47 for piperacillin and CL = 1.76 + 4.81 × CLcr /47 for tazobactam. V1 was defined as V1 = 19.5 × weight/60 for piperacillin and V1 = 22.6 × weight/60 for tazobactam. Conclusion The PK profiles of TZP at a steady-state in Korean patients with acute infections were well described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. Both piperacillin and tazobactam clearances were significantly influenced by creatinine clearance. PMID:27659435

  15. Normal Echocardiographic Measurements in a Korean Population Study: Part II. Doppler and Tissue Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Oh; Shin, Mi-Seung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jung, Hae Ok; Park, Jeong Rang; Sohn, Il Suk; Kim, Hyungseop; Park, Seong-Mi; Yoo, Nam Jin; Choi, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Lee, Mi-Rae; Park, Jin-Sun; Shim, Chi Young; Kim, Dae-Hee; Shin, Dae-Hee; Shin, Gil Ja; Shin, Sung Hee; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Lee, Sang Yeub; Kim, Woo-Shik

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemodynamic and functional evaluation with Doppler and tissue Doppler study as a part of comprehensive echocardiography is essential but normal reference values have never been reported from Korean normal population especially according to age and sex. Methods Using Normal echOcaRdiographic Measurements in a KoreAn popuLation study subjects, we obtained normal reference values for Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiography including tricuspid annular velocities according to current guidelines and compared values according to gender and age groups. Results Mitral early diastolic (E) and late diastolic (A) velocity as well as E/A ratio were significantly higher in women compared to those in men. Conversely, mitral peak systolic and late diastolic annular velocity in both septal and lateral mitral annulus were significantly lower in women compared to those in men. However, there were no significant differences in both septal and lateral mitral early diastolic annular (e') velocity between men and women. In both men and women, mitral E velocity and its deceleration time as well as both E/A and E/e' ratio considerably increased with age. There were no significant differences in tricuspid inflow velocities and tricuspid lateral annular velocities between men and women except e' velocity, which was significantly higher in women compared to that in men. However, changes in both tricuspid inflow and lateral annular velocities according to age were similar to those in mitral velocities. Conclusion Since there were significant differences in Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiographic variables between men and women and changes according to age were even more considerable in both gender groups, normal Doppler echocardiographic values should be differentially applied based on age and sex. PMID:27358707

  16. Diet and cancer risk in the Korean population: a meta- analysis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Park, Sohee; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyun Ja; Shin, Hae Rim; Moon, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have found links between diet and cancer. The summary estimates of the association between dietary factors and cancer risk were investigated using previously reported studies of the Korean population. Gastric cancer risk was inversely associated with the high intake of soy foods [OR (95% CI): 0.32 (0.25-0.40) for soybean, 0.56 (0.45-0.71) for soybean curd, and 0.67 (0.46-0.98) for soymilk], allium vegetables [OR (95% CI): 0.37 (0.26-0.53) for green onion, 0.54 (0.40-0.73) for garlic, and 0.54 (0.35-0.85) for onion], fruits [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.42-0.88)], and mushrooms [OR (95% CI): 0.43 (0.21-0.88)]. Salt and Kimchi were associated with an increased gastric cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 1.92 (1.52-2.43) and 2.21 (1.29-3.77), respectively]. Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with meat intake [OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.15-1.36)]. Total soy products, soybean curd, and soymilk showed an inverse association with breast cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.38-0.99), 0.47 (0.34-0.66), and 0.75 (0.57-0.98), respectively]. Green/yellow and light colored vegetables were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 0.34 (0.23-0.49) and 0.44 (0.21-0.90), respectively]. Mushroom intake was inversely associated in pre-menopausal women only [OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.26-0.86)]. In conclusion, soy foods, fruits and vegetables might reduce cancer risk in the Korean population. High salt food might be risk factor for gastric cancer, and intake of high amount of meat might cause colorectal cancer.

  17. Diet and cancer risk in the Korean population: a meta- analysis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Park, Sohee; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyun Ja; Shin, Hae Rim; Moon, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have found links between diet and cancer. The summary estimates of the association between dietary factors and cancer risk were investigated using previously reported studies of the Korean population. Gastric cancer risk was inversely associated with the high intake of soy foods [OR (95% CI): 0.32 (0.25-0.40) for soybean, 0.56 (0.45-0.71) for soybean curd, and 0.67 (0.46-0.98) for soymilk], allium vegetables [OR (95% CI): 0.37 (0.26-0.53) for green onion, 0.54 (0.40-0.73) for garlic, and 0.54 (0.35-0.85) for onion], fruits [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.42-0.88)], and mushrooms [OR (95% CI): 0.43 (0.21-0.88)]. Salt and Kimchi were associated with an increased gastric cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 1.92 (1.52-2.43) and 2.21 (1.29-3.77), respectively]. Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with meat intake [OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.15-1.36)]. Total soy products, soybean curd, and soymilk showed an inverse association with breast cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.38-0.99), 0.47 (0.34-0.66), and 0.75 (0.57-0.98), respectively]. Green/yellow and light colored vegetables were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 0.34 (0.23-0.49) and 0.44 (0.21-0.90), respectively]. Mushroom intake was inversely associated in pre-menopausal women only [OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.26-0.86)]. In conclusion, soy foods, fruits and vegetables might reduce cancer risk in the Korean population. High salt food might be risk factor for gastric cancer, and intake of high amount of meat might cause colorectal cancer. PMID:25339056

  18. CD58 polymorphisms associated with the risk of neuromyelitis optica in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a serious inflammatory demyelinating disease (IDD), characterized by the inflammation and demyelination of optic nerves and spinal cords, which subsequently leads to the loss of function. In a previous genome-wide association study, cluster of differentiation 58 (CD58) region was found to be susceptible for the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Caucasian, and the association between CD58 variants and MS was replicated in Americans. However, no study has been conducted to explore the possible association between CD58 and NMO yet. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association of CD58 polymorphisms with the risk of NMO in a Korean population. Methods Using TaqMan assay, 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 98 NMO patients and 237 normal controls (N = 336). Logistic regression analysis was conducted to find a possible association between CD58 polymorphisms and NMO. Results The analysis results showed that 6 variations (rs2300747, rs1335532, rs12044852, rs1016140, CD58_ht1, and CD58_ht3) showed significant associations (P = 0.002 ~ 0.008, Pcorr = 0.01 ~ 0.04). Conclusion The genetic variations in CD58 may be associated with the susceptibility of NMO in a Korean population. Based on previous studies, we suspect that the A allele of rs2300747 may decrease CD58 RNA expression, thus increasing NMO risk. Also, we deduced that the G allele of rs1016140 caused an increase of T cell activity, which in turn eased the access of AQP4 antibody into central nervous system (CNS) and ultimately leading to NMO development. PMID:24655566

  19. Urinary benzophenone concentrations and their association with demographic factors in a South Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hui-Seung; Ko, Ahra; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Kyung, Min-Sik; Moon, Gui Im; Park, Jae-Hong; Lee, Hee-Seok; Suh, Jin-Hyang; Lee, Jung-Mi; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Kim, Kisok; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Hwang, In Gyun

    2016-08-01

    Benzophenone (BP) and its derivatives are widely used in various cosmetics, personal care products, and food packaging ink. The use of BP has raised concerns about the potential health risks associated with its endocrine-disrupting effects. This study evaluated urinary concentrations of BP derivatives in a national sample of the South Koreans population aged 6-89 years. From July to September in each 2010 and 2011, 1576 urine samples were collected. Urinary concentrations of benzophenone-1 (BP-1), benzophenone-2 (BP-2), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4), benzophenone-8 (BP-8), and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4-OH-BP) were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The detection rate for BP-1 and 4-OH-BP were 56% [limit of detection (LOD) 0.59ng/mL] and 88% (LOD 0.04ng/mL), respectively, whereas those for BP-2, BP-3, BP-4, and BP-8 were all below 25%. The geometric means of urinary BP-1 and 4-OH-BP concentrations were 1.24ng/mL and 0.45ng/mL, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that concentrations of BP-1 in and of 4-OH-BP in adults were associated with sex and age. The BP-1 and 4-OH-BP concentration of children and adolescents was associated with sex, age, income, and current area of residence. The correlation was observed between urinary concentrations of BP derivatives, which is an important indication of exposure biomarkers and the metabolic pathways from BP-3. This is the first national study to evaluate the presence of BP derivatives in urine samples from the South Korean population, stratified by demographic factors. PMID:27155137

  20. Vitamin D in the healthy European paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamas; Domellof, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Hojsak, Iva; Mihatsch, Walter; Molgaard, Christian; Shamir, Raanan; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, reports suggesting a resurgence of vitamin D deficiency in the Western world, combined with various proposed health benefits for vitamin D supplementation, have resulted in increased interest from health care professionals, the media, and the public. The aim of this position paper is to summarise the published data on vitamin D intake and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the healthy European paediatric population, to discuss the health benefits of vitamin D and to provide recommendations for the prevention of vitamin D deficiency in this population. Vitamin D plays a key role in calcium and phosphate metabolism and is essential for bone health. There is insufficient evidence from interventional studies to support vitamin D supplementation for other health benefits in infants, children, and adolescents. The pragmatic use of a serum concentration >50 nmol/L to indicate sufficiency and a serum concentration <25 nmol/L to indicate severe deficiency is recommended. Vitamin D deficiency occurs commonly among healthy European infants, children, and adolescents, especially in certain risk groups, including breast-fed infants, not adhering to the present recommendation for vitamin D supplementation, children and adolescents with dark skin living in northern countries, children and adolescents without adequate sun exposure, and obese children. Infants should receive an oral supplementation of 400 IU/day of vitamin D. The implementation should be promoted and supervised by paediatricians and other health care professionals. Healthy children and adolescents should be encouraged to follow a healthy lifestyle associated with a normal body mass index, including a varied diet with vitamin D-containing foods (fish, eggs, dairy products) and adequate outdoor activities with associated sun exposure. For children in risk groups identified above, an oral supplementation of vitamin D must be considered beyond 1 year of age. National authorities should adopt

  1. What has made the population of Japan healthy?

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Nayu; Saito, Eiko; Kondo, Naoki; Inoue, Manami; Ikeda, Shunya; Satoh, Toshihiko; Wada, Koji; Stickley, Andrew; Katanoda, Kota; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Sobue, Tomotaka; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Naghavi, Mohsen; Ezzati, Majid; Shibuya, Kenji

    2011-09-17

    People in Japan have the longest life expectancy at birth in the world. Here, we compile the best available evidence about population health in Japan to investigate what has made the Japanese people healthy in the past 50 years. The Japanese population achieved longevity in a fairly short time through a rapid reduction in mortality rates for communicable diseases from the 1950s to the early 1960s, followed by a large reduction in stroke mortality rates. Japan had moderate mortality rates for non-communicable diseases, with the exception of stroke, in the 1950s. The improvement in population health continued after the mid-1960s through the implementation of primary and secondary preventive community public health measures for adult mortality from non-communicable diseases and an increased use of advanced medical technologies through the universal insurance scheme. Reduction in health inequalities with improved average population health was partly attributable to equal educational opportunities and financial access to care. With the achievement of success during the health transition since World War 2, Japan now needs to tackle major health challenges that are emanating from a rapidly ageing population, causes that are not amenable to health technologies, and the effects of increasing social disparities to sustain the improvement in population health.

  2. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  3. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jinheon; Paek, Domyung; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2009-08-15

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72 {mu}g/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.

  4. Cordyceps militaris Enhances Cell-Mediated Immunity in Healthy Korean Men.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho Joon; Baik, Hyun Wook; Kim, Sang Jung; Lee, Seong Gyu; Ahn, Hong Yup; Park, Ju Sang; Park, Sang Jong; Jang, Eun Jeong; Park, Sang Woon; Choi, Jin Young; Sung, Ji Hee; Lee, Seung Min

    2015-10-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a mushroom traditionally used for diverse pharmaceutical purposes in East Asia, including China, and has been found to be effective for enhancing immunity through various types of animal testing. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of C. militaris for enhancing cell-mediated immunity and its safety in healthy male adults. Healthy male adults were divided into the experimental group (n = 39), given 1.5 g/day of ethanol treated C. militaris in capsules, and the control group (n = 40), given the same number of identical placebo capsules filled with microcrystalline cellulose and lactose for 4 weeks from February 13 to March 14, 2012; the natural killer (NK) cell activity, lymphocyte proliferation index (PI), and T-helper cell 1 (Th1) cytokine cluster (interferon [IFN]-γ, interleukin [IL]-12, IL-2, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) were measured, along with stability test, at weeks 0, 2, and 4. The C. militaris group showed a statistically significant greater increase in NK200 (P = .0010), lymphocyte PI (P ≤ .0001), IL-2 (P = .0096), and IFN-γ (P = .0126), compared with the basal level, than the placebo group. There was no statistically significant adverse reaction. C. militaris enhanced the NK cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation and partially increased Th1 cytokine secretion. Therefore, C. militaris is safe and effective for enhancing cell-mediated immunity of healthy male adults. PMID:26284906

  5. Founder haplotype analysis of Fanconi anemia in the Korean population finds common ancestral haplotypes for a FANCG variant.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonhong; Kim, Myungshin; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Yonggoo; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Lee, Jae-Wook; Cho, Bin; Jeong, Dae-Chul; Park, In Yang; Park, Mi Sun

    2015-05-01

    A common ancestral haplotype is strongly suggested in the Korean and Japanese patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), because common mutations have been frequently found: c.2546delC and c.3720_3724delAAACA of FANCA; c.307+1G>C, c.1066C>T, and c.1589_1591delATA of FANCG. Our aim in this study was to investigate the origin of these common mutations of FANCA and FANCG. We genotyped 13 FA patients consisting of five FA-A patients and eight FA-G patients from the Korean FA population. Microsatellite markers used for haplotype analysis included four CA repeat markers which are closely linked with FANCA and eight CA repeat markers which are contiguous with FANCG. As a result, Korean FA-A patients carrying c.2546delC or c.3720_3724delAAACA did not share the same haplotypes. However, three unique haplotypes carrying c.307+1G>C, c.1066C > T, or c.1589_1591delATA, that consisted of eight polymorphic loci covering a flanking region were strongly associated with Korean FA-G, consistent with founder haplotypes reported previously in the Japanese FA-G population. Our finding confirmed the common ancestral haplotypes on the origins of the East Asian FA-G patients, which will improve our understanding of the molecular population genetics of FA-G. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association between disease-linked mutations and common ancestral haplotypes in the Korean FA population.

  6. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a Nonobese Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Chin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging problem in Asia, but little is known about the disease in the nonobese population. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD and the factors associated with it in a nonobese Korean population and to compare the clinical characteristics of nonobese and obese subjects with NAFLD. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from 2,058 subjects who participated in a medical checkup program. Results The prevalence of NAFLD was 12.4% (213/1,711) in the nonobese population. A higher body mass index (BMI), higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values, higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, triglyceride concentrations 150 mg/dL, and hyperuricemia were independently associated with the presence of NAFLD in the nonobese subjects. Compared with the obese subjects with NAFLD, the nonobese subjects with NAFLD were composed of a higher proportion of females and had lower BMIs, smaller waist circumferences, lower HOMA-IR values, and fewer metabolic irregularities. Conclusions Higher BMIs, HOMA-IR values, ALT levels, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperuricemia were associated with NAFLD in the nonobese subjects. Clinicians should be particularly aware of the possibility of NAFLD in nonobese Asian people. PMID:26260755

  7. Association between Self-Reported Smoking and Hemoglobin A1c in a Korean Population without Diabetes: The 2011–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Several Western studies have revealed that among non-diabetics, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are higher in smokers than non-smokers. While studies conducted in Western populations consistently support this association, a recent meta-analysis reported that studies carried out in non-Western populations, including studies of Chinese, Egyptian, and Japanese-Americans, did not detect any significant differences in HbA1c levels between smokers and non-smokers. Objectives We assessed the association between smoking habits and HbA1c levels in the general Korean adult population using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) performed in 2011–2012. Methods A total of 10,241 participants (weighted n=33,946,561 including 16,769,320 men and 17,177,241 women) without diabetes were divided into four categories according to their smoking habits: never smokers (unweighted n/ weighted n= 6,349/19,105,564), ex-smokers (unweighted n/ weighted n= 1,912/6,207,144), current light smokers (<15 cigarettes per day, unweighted n/ weighted n=1,205/5,130,073), and current heavy smokers (≥15 cigarettes per day, unweighted n/ weighted n=775/3,503,781). Results In age- and gender-adjusted comparisons, the HbA1c levels of each group were 5.52 ± 0.01% in non-smokers, 5.49 ± 0.01% in ex-smokers, 5.53 ± 0.01% in light smokers, and 5.61 ± 0.02% in heavy smokers. HbA1c levels were significantly higher in light smokers than in ex-smokers (p = 0.033), and in heavy smokers compared with light smokers (p < 0.001). The significant differences remained after adjusting for age, gender, fasting plasma glucose, heavy alcohol drinking, hematocrit, college graduation, and waist circumference. Linear regression analyses for HbA1c using the above-mentioned variables as covariates revealed that a significant association between current smoking and HbA1c (coefficient 0.021, 95% CI 0.003–0.039, p = 0.019). Conclusions Current smoking was

  8. Evaluation of Serum Cotinine Cut-Off to Distinguish Smokers From Nonsmokers in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kiwoong; Yang, Song-Hyun; Moon, Chul-Jin; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Hyosoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Cotinine has been widely used as an objective marker to identify current smokers. We conducted this study to address the absence of Korean studies investigating the efficacy of immunoassays and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the detection of serum cotinine and to determine the optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers. Methods Serum specimens were obtained from 120 subjects. They were randomly chosen to represent a broad distribution of urine cotinine levels based on a retrospective review of questionnaires and results of urine cotinine levels. We determined serum cotinine levels using the IMMULITE 2000 XPi Immunoassay System (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., USA) and LC-MS/MS (API-4000, Applied Biosystems, USA). Correlation was analyzed between IMMULITE serum cotinine, urine cotinine, and LC-MS/MS serum cotinine levels. ROC curve was analyzed to identify the optimal IMMULITE serum cotinine cut-off level for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers. Results IMMULITE serum cotinine levels correlated with both urine cotinine and LC-MS/MS serum cotinine levels, with correlation coefficients of 0.958 and 0.986, respectively. The optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for distinguishing current smokers from nonsmokers was 13.2 ng/mL (95.7% sensitivity, 94.1% specificity) using IMMULITE. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate the use of LC-MS/MS for the measurement of serum cotinine and to determine the optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for the IMMULITE immunoassay. Our results could provide guidelines for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers in the Korean population. PMID:27374707

  9. Allele Frequencies of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Related to the Body Burden of Heavy Metals in the Korean Population and Their Ethnic Differences

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Lim, Ji-Ae; Kim, Yong-Dae; Choi, Byung-Sun; Hwang, Myung Sil; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the body burden of heavy metals in Koreans, to provide Korean allele frequencies of selected SNPs, and to assess the difference in allele frequencies with other ethnicities. The candidate-gene approach method and genome-wide association screening were used to select SNPs related to the body burden of heavy metals. Genotyping analysis of the final 192 SNPs selected was performed on 1,483 subjects using the VeraCode Goldengate assay. Allele frequencies differences and genetic differentiations between the Korean population and Chinese (CHB), Japanese (JPT), Caucasian (CEU), and African (YIR) populations were tested by Fisher’s exact test and fixation index (FST), respectively. The Korean population was genetically similar to the CHB and JPT populations (FST < 0.05, for all SNPs in both populations). However, a significant difference in the allele frequencies between the Korean and CEU and YIR populations were observed in 99 SNPs (60.7%) and 120 SNPs (73.6%), respectively. Ten (6.1%) and 26 (16.0%) SNPs had genetic differentiation (FST > 0.05) among the Korean-CEU and Korean-YIR comparisons, respectively. The SNP with the largest FST value between the Korean and African populations was cystathionine-β-synthase rs234709 (FST: KOR-YIR, 0.309; KOR-CEU, 0.064). Our study suggests that interethnic differences exist in SNPs associated with heavy metals of Koreans, and it should be considered in future studies that address ethnic differences in heavy-metal concentrations in the body and genetic susceptibility to the body burden of heavy metals. PMID:27437086

  10. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis in a healthy Korean male: the first case report in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Min; Lee, Christopher Seungkyu

    2015-03-01

    A 52-yr-old male was referred for progressive visual loss in the left eye. The decimal best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.01. Fundus examination revealed diffuse retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, focal yellow-white, infiltrative subretinal lesion with fuzzy border and a live nematode within the retina. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) was diagnosed and the direct laser photocoagulation was performed to destroy the live nematode. During eight months after treatment, BCVA gradually improved to 0.2 along with the gradual restoration of outer retinal layers on SD-OCT. We report on the first case of DUSN in Korea. DUSN should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained unilateral visual loss in otherwise healthy subjects. PMID:25729261

  11. The prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Korean population: recent update of the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunyoung; Seong, Moon-Woo; Park, Sue K; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jihyoun; Kim, Lee Su; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Sung Yong; Jeong, Joon; Han, Sang Ah; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-05-01

    The Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study was established to evaluate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutations in Korean breast cancer patients at risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. A total of 2953 subjects (2403 index patients and 550 family members of affected carriers) from 36 centers participated in this study between May 2007 and December 2013. All participants received genetic counseling and BRCA genetic testing. In total, 378 mutation carriers among 2403 index patients were identified. The prevalence of BRCA mutations in specific subgroups was as follows: 22.3 % (274/1228) for breast cancer patients with a family history of breast/ovarian cancers, 8.8 % (39/441) for patients with early-onset (<35 years) breast cancer without a family history, 16.3 % (34/209) for patients with bilateral breast cancer, 4.8 % (1/21) for male patients with breast cancer, and 37.5 % (3/8) for patients with both breast and ovarian cancer. From an analysis of the mutation spectrum, 63 BRCA1 and 90 BRCA2 different mutations, including 44 novel mutations, were identified. The c.7480 (p.Arg2494Ter) mutation in BRCA2 (10.1 %) was the most commonly identified in this cohort. The KOHBRA study is the largest cohort to identify BRCA mutation carriers in Asia. The results suggest that the prevalence of BRCA mutations in familial breast cancer patients is similar to that among Western cohorts. However, some single risk factors without family histories (early-onset breast cancer, male breast cancer, or multiple organ cancers) may limit the utility of BRCA gene testing in the Korean population.

  12. Relationship between Social Network and Stage of Adoption of Gastric Cancer Screening among the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Ha; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Suh, Mina; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between social support and stages of adoption of cancer screening. Here we investigated associations between both structural and functional aspects of social support and stages of adoption of gastric cancer screening in the general population of Korea. The study population was derived from the 2011 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), an annual cross-sectional survey that uses nationally representative random sampling to investigate cancer screening rates. Data were analyzed from 3,477 randomly selected respondents aged 40-74 years. Respondents were classified according to their stage of adoption of gastric cancer screening: precontemplation (13.2%), contemplation (18.0%), action/maintenance (56.1%), relapse risk (8.5%), and relapse stage (4.1%). Respondents with larger social networks were more likely to be in the contemplation/action/maintenance, or the relapse risk/relapse stages versus the precontemplation stage (OR=1.91, 95%CI: 1.52-2.91; p for tend=0.025). Emotional and instrumental supports were not associated with any stage of adoption of gastric cancer screening. However, respondents who reported receiving sufficient informational support were more likely to be in the relapse risk/relapse stages versus the precontemplation, or the contemplation/action/maintenance stage (p for trend=0.016). Interventions involving interactions between social network members could play an important role in increasing participation in gastric cancer screening.

  13. Association between exonic polymorphism (rs629849, Gly1619Arg) of IGF2R gene and obesity in Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seung-Ae

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to obesity. A previous study suggested that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) may affect obesity and that IGFs regulate cellular signals by receptors that include the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and the insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R). In this research, the rs3743262 and rs2229765 SNPs of IGF1R gene and rs629849 and rs1805075 SNPs of IG-F2R gene were genotyped in 120 overweight and obese patients with a BMI≥23 kg/m2 (Body Mass Index) and 123 healthy controls with a BMI of 18.5–23.0 kg/m2. Genotyping of each SNP was performed by direct sequencing. Among tested SNPs in IGF1R and IGF2R genes, rs629849 SNP of IGF2R gene showed significant association with obesity (OR=1.86, 95% CI=1.02–3.40, P=0.044 in codominant1 model; OR=1.99, 95% CI=1.10–3.57, P=0.020 in dominant model; OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.13–3.31, P=0.013 in log-additive model). And allele distribution between the control group and overweight/obese group also showed significant difference (OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.14–3.28, P=0.015). In conclusion, these results indicate that rs629849 SNP of IGF2R might be contributed to development of obesity in the Korean population. PMID:26535220

  14. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in a Korean population: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the major malignancies in Korea. Analyses of dietary patterns can provide insight into the complex interactions of foods, nutrients, and biologically active components within a diet, which vary among populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Koreans. In a study of 923 cases and 1846 controls, principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns based on 33 predefined food groups using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). The associations between dietary patterns and CRC risk were assessed using binary and polytomous logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three dietary patterns (traditional, Westernized, and prudent) were derived. The proportion of total variation explained by 3 patterns was 24.2% for men and 25.3% for women. The traditional and prudent patterns were inversely associated with CRC risk [OR and 95% CI for the highest intake tertile of pattern score vs. the lowest = 0.35 (0.27-0.46) and 0.37 (0.28-0.48), respectively], whereas the Westernized pattern showed a positive association, especially among women [OR = 2.13 (1.35-3.34) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest]. A decrease in CRC risk among those with the highest intake of the prudent pattern was observed in all anatomical subsites in both men [OR = 0.36 (0.19-0.68) for proximal colon; 0.21 (0.12-0.36) for distal colon; 0.28 (0.18-0.44) for rectum] and women [OR = 0.28 (0.11-0.71); 0.27 (0.13-0.54); 0.45 (0.25-0.83)]. Our results indicate that individuals who prefer the Westernized dietary pattern should be made aware of their increased CRC risk. The traditional dietary pattern and the prudent pattern, which are rich in fruits and dairy products, are recommended for the Korean population to prevent CRC. PMID:27336862

  15. The Functionality of Facial Appearance and Its Importance to a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Jun; Park, Jang Wan; Kim, Jeong Min; Park, Sun Hyung; Hwang, Jae Ha; Lee, Sam Yong; Shin, Jun Ho

    2013-01-01

    Background Many people have an interest in the correction of facial scars or deformities caused by trauma. The increasing ability to correct such flaws has been one of the reasons for the increase in the popularity of facial plastic surgery. In addition to its roles in communication, breathing, eating, olfaction and vision, the appearance of the face also plays an important role in human interactions, including during social activities. However, studies on the importance of the functional role of facial appearance. As a function of the face are scare. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the importance of the functions of the face in Korea. Methods We conducted an online panel survey of 300 participants (age range, 20-70 years). Each respondent was administered the demographic data form, Facial Function Assessment Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and standard gamble questionnaires. Results In the evaluation on the importance of facial functions, a normal appearance was considered as important as communication, breathing, speech, and vision. Of the 300 participants, 85% stated that a normal appearance is important in social activities. Conclusions The results of this survey involving a cross-section of the Korean population indicated that a normal appearance was considered one of the principal facial functions. A normal appearance was considered more important than the functions of olfaction and expression. Moreover, a normal appearance was determined to be an important facial function for leading a normal life in Korea. PMID:24286044

  16. Genetic analysis of genes related to tight junction function in the Korean population with non-syndromic hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-A; Kim, Ye-Ri; Sagong, Borum; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Bae, Jae Woong; Kim, Jeongho; Lee, Jinwook; Park, Hong-Joon; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Kim, Un-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are essential components of eukaryotic cells, and serve as paracellular barriers and zippers between adjacent tissues. TJs are critical for normal functioning of the organ of Corti, a part of the inner ear that causes loss of sensorineural hearing when damaged. To investigate the relation between genes involved in TJ function and hereditary loss of sensorineural hearing in the Korean population, we selected the TJP2 and CLDN14 genes as candidates for gene screening of 135 Korean individuals. The TJP2 gene, mutation of which causes autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL), lies at the DFNA51 locus on chromosome 9. The CLDN14 gene, mutation of which causes autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL), lies at the DFNB29 locus on chromosome 21. In the present study, we conducted genetic analyses of the TJP2 and CLDN14 genes in 87 unrelated patients with ADNSHL and 48 unrelated patients with either ARNSHL or potentially sporadic hearing loss. We identified two pathogenic variations, c.334G>A (p.A112T) and c.3562A>G (p.T1188A), and ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TJP2 gene. We found eight non-pathogenic variations in the CLDN14 gene. These findings indicate that, whereas mutation of the TJP2 gene might cause ADNSHL, CLDN14 is not a major causative gene for ARNSHL in the Korean population studied. Our findings may improve the understanding of the genetic cause of non-syndromic hearing loss in the Korean population.

  17. Novel FLG null mutations in Korean patients with atopic dermatitis and comparison of the mutational spectra in Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonhong; Jekarl, Dong Wook; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Myungshin; Park, Young Min

    2015-09-01

    Filaggrin is essential for the development of the skin barrier. Mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin have been identified as major predisposing factors for atopic disorders. Molecular analysis of the FLG gene in this study showed nine null and one unclassified mutation in 13 of 81 Korean patients with atopic dermatitis (AD): five novel null mutations (i.e. p.S1405*, c.5671_5672delinsTA, p.W1947*, p.G2025* and p.E3070*); four reported null mutations (i.e. c.3321delA, p.S1515*, p.S3296* and p.K4022*); and one unclassified mutation (i.e. c.306delAAAGCACAG). These variants are nonsense, premature termination codon or in-frame deletion expected to cause loss-of-function of FLG. Genotype-phenotype correlation is not obvious in Korean AD patients with FLG null mutations. According to a review of the mutational spectra of the FLG gene in the Asian populations, FLG null mutations appeared to be unique in each population but some mutations such as p.R501*, c.3321delA, p.S1515*, p.S3296* and p.K4022* were commonly found in at least two of the selected Asian populations including Korean, Japanese, Chinese, Singaporean Chinese or Taiwanese. Further investigations on a larger group of Korean AD would be necessary to elucidate its clinical pathogenesis and mutational spectrum related to specific FLG null mutations for AD.

  18. Forensic and population genetic analyses of eighteen non-CODIS miniSTR loci in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jin, Han Jun; Kim, Ki Cheol; Yoon, Cha Eun; Kim, Wook

    2013-11-01

    We analyzed the variation of eighteen miniSTR loci in 411 randomly chosen individuals from Korea to increase the probability that a degraded sample can be typed, as well as to provide an expanded and reliable population database. Six multiplex PCR systems were developed (multiplex I: D1S1677, D2S441 and D4S2364; multiplex II: D10S1248, D14S1434 and D22S1045; multiplex III: D12S391, D16S3253 and D20S161; multiplex IV: D3S4529, D8S1115 and D18S853; multiplex V: D6S1017, D11S4463 and D17S1301; multiplex VI: D5S2500, D9S1122 and D21S1437). Allele frequencies and forensic parameters were calculated to evaluate the suitability and robustness of these non-CODIS miniSTR systems. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations were observed, except for D4S2364, D5S2500 and D20S161 loci. A multidimensional scaling plot based on allele frequencies of the six miniSTR loci (D1S1677, D2S441, D4S2364, D10S1248, D14S1434 and D22S1045) showed that Koreans appeared to have most genetic affinity with Chinese and Japanese than to other Eurasian populations compared here. The combined probability of match calculated from the 18 miniSTR loci was 2.902 × 10(-17), indicating a high degree of polymorphism. Thus, the 18 miniSTR loci can be suitable for recovering useful information for analyzing degraded forensic casework samples and for adding supplementary genetic information for a variety of analyses involving closely related individuals where there is a need for additional genetic information.

  19. Association between handgrip strength and cognitive impairment in elderly Koreans: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae Yong; Kim, Junghoon

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between handgrip strength and mild cognitive impairment in elderly adults. [Subjects] Study participants included 2,982 adults (1,366 males and 1,616 females), aged 65 years or older. [Methods] This population-based cross-sectional study used the baseline database from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. [Results] The odds ratio for mild cognitive impairment showed a significant linear decrease in relation to the quartile of handgrip strength, independent of potential covariates, in both men and women. Moreover, after excluding incident cases of mild cognitive impairment, the results showed that greater handgrip strength was associated with higher cognitive function scores in the elderly. [Conclusion] The findings presented here suggest that handgrip strength is associated with a risk of mild cognitive impairment in the Korean elderly. Moreover, greater handgrip strength is associated with higher cognitive function in cognitively normal elderly individuals.

  20. Development of the Perceived Stress Inventory: A New Questionnaire for Korean Population Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eon Sook; Lee, Jun Hyung; Yang, Yun Jun; Cho, Jung Jin; Ahn, Gwiyeoroo; Yoon, Yeong Sook; Sung, Eunju

    2015-01-01

    Background Given emerging evidence of the association between stress and disease, practitioners need a tool for measuring stress. Several instruments exist to measure perceived stress; however, none of them are applicable for population surveys because stress conceptualization can differ by population. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Perceived Stress Inventory (PSI) and its short version for use in population surveys and clinical practice in Korea. Methods From a pool of perceived stress items collected from three widely used instruments, 20 items were selected for the new measurement tool. Nine of these items were selected for the short version. We evaluated the validity of the items using exploratory factor analysis of the preliminary data. To evaluate the convergent validity of the PSI, 387 healthy people were recruited and stratified on the basis of age and sex. Confirmatory analyses and examination of structural stability were also carried out. To evaluate discriminatory validity, the PSI score of a group with depressive symptoms was compared with that of a healthy group. A similar comparison was also done for persons with anxious mood. Results Exploratory factor analysis supported a three-factor construct (tension, depression, and anger) for the PSI. Reliability values were satisfactory, ranging from 0.67 to 0.87. Convergent validity was confirmed through correlation with the Perceived Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. People with depressive or anxious mood had higher scores than the healthy group on the total PSI, all three dimensions, and the short version. Conclusion The long and short versions of the PSI are valid and reliable tools for measuring perceived stress. These instruments offer benefits for stress research using population-based surveys. PMID:26634094

  1. Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; Duque-López, María Ximena; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cortés-Núñez, Alma Rosa; Reyes-Beaman, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Background Anthropometric evaluation is an essential feature of geriatric nutritional evaluation for determining malnutrition, being overweight, obesity, muscular mass loss, fat mass gain and adipose tissue redistribution. Anthropometric indicators are used to evaluate the prognosis of chronic and acute diseases, and to guide medical intervention in the elderly. We evaluated anthropometric measurements and nutritional status as they relate to age and gender in healthy elderly people. Methods The study analyzed data from the national survey "Health needs and health service use by older-than-60-year-old beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS)". The present study included only individuals who reported no chronic disease in the last 20 years and had no hospital admission in the two months prior to the survey. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), body circumference (arm, waist, hip and calf), waist to hip ratio (WHR), elbow amplitude and knee-heel length. Results Application of the inclusion criteria resulted in a study population elderly of 1,968, representing 12.2% of the original number in the national survey in urban areas beneficiaries of the IMSS. The study population comprised 870 women and 1,098 men, with a mean age of 68.6 years. The average weights were 62.7 kg for women and 70.3 kg for men (p < 0.05), and the mean heights were 1.52 m for women and 1.63 m for men (p < 0.05). Age related changes in anthropometric values were identified. BMI values indicated that 62.3% of the population was overweight, and 73.6% of women and 16.5% of men had high fat tissue distribution. Conclusion Our findings suggest that applying the BMI thresholds that identify being overweight in the general adult population may lead to an overestimation in the number of overweight elderly Similar problems appear to exist when assessing waist circumference and WHR values. Prospective studies are required to determine the

  2. The Validity and Reliability of the Mini-Mental State Examination-2 for Detecting Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Min Jae; Kim, Karyeong; Park, Young Ho; Kim, SangYun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the validity and reliability of the MMSE-2 for assessing patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in a Korean population. Specifically, the usefulness of the MMSE-2 as a screening measure for detecting early cognitive change, which has not been detectable through the MMSE, was examined. Methods Two-hundred and twenty-six patients with MCI, 97 patients with AD, and 91 healthy older adults were recruited. All participants consented to examination with the MMSE-2, the MMSE, and other detailed neuropsychological assessments. Results The MMSE-2 performed well in discriminating participants across Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) stages and CDR-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB), and it showed excellent internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, high interrater reliability, and good concurrent validity with the MMSE and other detailed neuropsychological assessments. The MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests that are sensitive to decline in cognitive functions vs. tests that are not sensitive to decline in cognitive functions) in normal cognitive aging. Moreover, the MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests related overall cognitive functioning other than memory vs. tests related to episodic memory) in patients with AD. Finally, the MMSE-2 was divided into three factors (tests related to working memory and frontal lobe functioning vs. tests related to verbal memory vs. tests related to orientation and immediate recall) in patients with MCI. The sensitivity and specificity of the three versions of the MMSE-2 were relatively high in discriminating participants with normal cognitive aging from patients with MCI and AD. Conclusion The MMSE-2 is a valid and reliable cognitive screening instrument for assessing cognitive impairment in a Korean population, but its ability to distinguish patients with MCI from those with normal cognitive aging may not be as highly sensitive as expected. PMID:27668883

  3. Polymorphism of Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Affects the Clinical Phenotypes of Ischemic Stroke in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung Don; Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Hee-Sang; Kim, Su Kang; Kim, Dong Hwan; Chon, Jinmann; Je, Goun; Kim, Yoon-Seong; Chung, Joo-Ho; Chung, Seung Joon; Yeo, Jin Ah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2293054 [Ile734Ile], rs1047735 [His902His], rs2293044 [Val1353Val], rs2682826 (3'UTR) of nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) are associated with the development and clinical phenotypes of ischemic stroke. Methods We enrolled 120 ischemic stroke patients and 314 control subjects. Ischemic stroke patients were divided into subgroups according to the scores of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Survey (NIHSS, <6 and ≥6) and Modified Barthel Index (MBI, <60 and ≥60). SNPStats, SNPAnalyzer, and HelixTree programs were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and p-values. Multiple logistic regression models were performed to analyze genetic data. Results No SNPs of the NOS1 gene were found to be associated with ischemic stroke. However, in an analysis of clinical phenotypes, we found that rs2293054 was associated with the NIHSS scores of ischemic stroke patients in codominant (p=0.019), dominant (p=0.007), overdominant (p=0.033), and log-additive (p=0.0048) models. Also, rs2682826 revealed a significant association in the recessive model (p=0.034). In allele frequency analysis, we also found that the T alleles of rs2293054 were associated with lower NIHSS scores (p=0.007). Respectively, rs2293054 had a significant association in the MBI scores of ischemic stroke in codominant (p=0.038), dominant (p=0.031), overdominant (p=0.045), and log-additive (p=0.04) models. Conclusion These results suggest that NOS1 may be related to the clinical phenotypes of ischemic stroke in Korean population. PMID:26949676

  4. Seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) in a Korean population: comparison of two commercial anti-HEV assays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as an important cause of epidemic and sporadic acute viral hepatitis worldwide. This study investigated the seroprevalence of anti-HEV in a Korean population and compared the performance of two commercially available anti-HEV assays. Methods A total 147 health-check examinees were randomly sampled as matched to the age- and sex- adjusted standard population based on the Korean National Census of 2007. Serum immunoglobulin G anti-HEV was determined by using the Genelabs assay (Genelabs, Singapore) and the Wantai assay (Wantai, Beijing, China). Results The overall anti-HEV seroprevalence was 23.1% (95% CI, 16.1-30.1%) using the Wantai assay and 14.3% (95% CI, 8.3-20.3%) using the Genelabs assay. Only 12 samples (8.1%) were positive for anti-HEV as measured by both assays; agreement between the two assays was poor (kappa value of 0.315). The anti-HEV seroprevalence increased with age from 2% and 3% in the people younger than 20-years-of-age to 34.6% and 42.3% in those over 59-years-of-age by the Genelabs and Wantai assay, respectively. Conclusions The HEV seroprevalence in Korean population is about 20% overall, with seroprevalence increasing in this population with increasing age. There was poor concordance in the results of the Genelabs and Wantai assays, which warrants further study concerning a reliable diagnostic test for the diagnosis of hepatitis E. PMID:22726615

  5. 'Healthy skin': significance and results of an Italian study on healthy population with particular regard to 'sensitive' skin.

    PubMed

    Sparavigna, A; Di Pietro, A; Setaro, M

    2005-12-01

    There is an increasing demand in general population regarding skin healthiness and improvement of aesthetical appearance, indicating that people require more information about how to treat healthy skin and to prevent skin disease. This study is the result of a campaign on healthy skin organized by the International Society of Plastic Dermatology. This campaign was at the same time an occasion to perform an epidemiological study on Italian population and was conducted during only one month (March 2004) throughout Italy. In total, 462 dermatologists all over Italy joined the project. Study protocol and diagnostic kits were provided to all adhering dermatologists. After signing an informed consent, subjects were assigned to undergo anamnesis, medical examination and stinging test with 10% lactic acid at the level of nasolabial fold. A total of 2101 duly compiled case record forms were sent back by the dermatologists. The analysis of the demographic features and lifestyle of the subjects who were attracted by the campaign allows us to draw the identikit of people interested in the maintenance of a healthy skin, i.e. mainly young women, who already lead a healthy life and took care of their skin. Sensitive skin was common in this healthy population. PMID:18492170

  6. Pharmacokinetic comparison of sustained- and immediate-release formulations of cilostazol after multiple oral doses in fed healthy male Korean volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yo Han; Ghim, Jong-Lyul; Jung, Jin Ah; Cho, Sang-Heon; Choe, Sangmin; Choi, Hee Youn; Bae, Kyun-Seop; Lim, Hyeong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background A new extended-release form of cilostazol has recently been developed. This study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of sustained-release (SR) and immediate-release (IR) formulations of cilostazol after multiple oral doses in healthy male Korean volunteers. Methods This was an open-label, randomized, multiple-dose, crossover study conducted in 30 healthy Korean subjects. In each treatment period, subjects received oral doses of 200 mg SR formulation every 24 hours or 100 mg IR formulation every 12 hours for 5 consecutive days in a fed state, with a washout period of 9 days. The plasma concentrations of cilostazol and its metabolites were determined using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The area under the plasma concentration–time curve within a dosing interval (AUCT), the measured peak plasma concentration at steady state (Cmax,ss), and the time to reach Cmax,ss (tmax,ss) were analyzed using a noncompartmental method. Results A total of 24 healthy male subjects completed the study. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) AUCT (96–120 hours) values for SR and IR were 27,378.0 (10,301.6) ng·h/mL and 27,860.3 (7,152.3) ng·h/mL, respectively. The mean (SD) Cmax,ss values were 2,741.4 (836.0) ng/mL and 2,051.0 (433.2) ng/mL, respectively. The median tmax,ss values were 8.0 hours and 4.0 hours, respectively. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals) of the SR to IR formulations were 0.937 (0.863–1.017), 0.960 (0.883–1.043), and 0.935 (0.859–1.017) for AUCT and 0.644 (0.590–0.703), 0.586 (0.536–0.642), and 0.636 (0.577–0.702) for dose-normalized Cmax,ss of cilostazol, OPC-13015 (3,4-dehydro-cilostazol), and OPC-13213 (4′-trans-hydroxyl-cilostazol), respectively. All formulations were well tolerated. Conclusion At steady state, the AUCT of cilostazol SR 200 mg is comparable to that of cilostazol IR 100 mg twice a day in healthy male Korean subjects. Both formulations are well

  7. A rapid method for simultaneous screening of multi-gene mutations associated with hearing loss in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Sagong, Borum; Baek, Jeong-In; Oh, Se-Kyung; Na, Kyung Jin; Bae, Jae Woong; Choi, Soo Young; Jeong, Ji Yun; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Sang-Heun; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Kim, Un-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Hearing loss (HL) is a congenital disease with a high prevalence, and patients with hearing loss need early diagnosis for treatment and prevention. The GJB2, MT-RNR1, and SLC26A4 genes have been reported as common causative genes of hearing loss in the Korean population and some mutations of these genes are the most common mutations associated with hearing loss. Accordingly, we developed a method for the simultaneous detection of seven mutations (c.235delC of GJB2, c.439A>G, c.919-2A>G, c.1149+3A>G, c.1229C>T, c.2168A>G of SLC26A4, and m.1555A>G of the MT-RNR1 gene) using multiplex SNaPshot minisequencing to enable rapid diagnosis of hereditary hearing loss. This method was confirmed in patients with hearing loss and used for genetic diagnosis of controls with normal hearing and neonates. We found that 4.06% of individuals with normal hearing and 4.32% of neonates were heterozygous carriers. In addition, we detected that an individual is heterozygous for two different mutations of GJB2 and SLC26A4 gene, respectively and one normal hearing showing the heteroplasmy of m.1555A>G. These genotypes corresponded to those determined by direct sequencing. Overall, we successfully developed a robust and cost-effective diagnosis method that detects common causative mutations of hearing loss in the Korean population. This method will be possible to detect up to 40% causative mutations associated with prelingual HL in the Korean population and serve as a useful genetic technique for diagnosis of hearing loss for patients, carriers, neonates, and fetuses.

  8. [Species composition and main populations spatial distribution pattern in Korean pine broadleaved forest in Xiaoxing' An Mountains of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Hou, Hong-Ya; Wang, Li-Hai

    2013-11-01

    Taking the Korean pine broadleaved forest in Liangshui Nature Reserve of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China as test object, this paper studied the species composition and diameter class structure, and by using point pattern analysis, analyzed the spatial distribution pattern and spatial association of the main populations. In the Reserve, there were a total of 16 species with diameter greater than 1 cm in tree layer, and great differences were observed in the densities of main populations. Coniferous trees such as Pinus koraiensis and Abies nephrolepis were dominant. The diameter class structure of the populations presented as an inverse "J" curve, indicating a good regeneration across the community. The main populations were mostly in aggregated distribution pattern, except that the P. koraiensis populations at the scales of 19-21 m and 44 m as well as the Acer tegmentosum populations close to the largest research scale were in random distribution. The P. koraiensis populations at all research scales were approximately in random distribution, and had the minimum aggregation. A. nephrolepis, Tilia amurensis, and A. tegmentosum populations all presented a random distribution trend. Except that the P. koraiensis and A. nephrolepis at 2-3 m scale and the A. nephrolepis and A. tegmentosum populations at 37-81 m scale had significant positive association, no significant associations were observed between other populations. All the tree species presented an overall non-significant positive association. PMID:24564130

  9. National survey of prevalent HIV strains: limited genetic variation of Korean HIV-1 clade B within the population of Korean men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gab Jung; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Shin, Bo Gyeong; Kee, Mee Kyeong; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Joo-Shil; Kim, Sung Soon

    2008-06-01

    The evolution of HIV is the result of an explosive combination of factors-a high rate of mutation, replication dynamics, frequent recombination, and natural selection. To understand the evolution of the distinctive Korean HIV-1 B clade, we investigated the characteristics of the genetic variation of the HIV-1 subtype B env gene within the group of Korean men who have sex with men (MSM). From 1985 to 2005, 700 HIV-1-infected Koreans were sequenced at the V1 to V5 region of the HIV-1 env gene. In the phylogenetic analysis, 560 isolates were identified as HIV-1 subtype B, and 489 of the 560 isolates were HIV-1 Korean clade B. Based on epidemiologic investigation, 249 of 700 HIV-1-infected patients were HIV-1 subtype B-infected MSM. Interestingly, the proportion of the GPGS motif in MSM infected by Koreans was 1.6 times higher than in MSM infected by foreigners, and the genetic expansions of diversity and divergence for HIV-1 subtype B in Korean MSM were 2.1% and 2.5%, respectively. This was much lower than those observed in other countries. Therefore, our findings imply that the HIV strains in this group were closely related. This result may be helpful for understanding the evolution of the distinct HIV-1 Korean B clade.

  10. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination. PMID:23011092

  11. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following single- and multiple-dosing of oral artesunate in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The population pharmacokinetics of artesunate (AS) and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) were studied in healthy subjects receiving single- or multiple-dosing of AS orally either in combination with pyronaridine (PYR) or as a monotherapy with or without food. Methods Data from 118 concentration-time profiles arising from 91 healthy Korean subjects were pooled from four Phase I clinical studies. Subjects received 2-5 mg/kg of single- and multiple-dosing of oral AS either in combination with PYR or as a monotherapy with or without food. Plasma AS and DHA were measured simultaneously using a validated liquid chromatography- mass spectrometric method with a lower limit of quantification of 1 ng/mL for both AS and DHA. Nonlinear mixed-effect modelling was used to obtain the pharmacokinetic and variability (inter-individual and residual variability) parameter estimates. Results A novel parent-metabolite pharmacokinetic model consisting of a dosing compartment, a central compartment for AS, a central compartment and a peripheral compartment for DHA was developed. AS and DHA data were modelled simultaneously assuming stoichiometric conversion to DHA. AS was rapidly absorbed with a population estimate of absorption rate constant (Ka) of 3.85 h-1. The population estimates of apparent clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V2/F) for AS were 1190 L/h with 36.2% inter-individual variability (IIV) and 1210 L with 57.4% IIV, respectively. For DHA, the population estimates of apparent clearance (CLM/F) and central volume of distribution (V3/F) were 93.7 L/h with 28% IIV and 97.1 L with 30% IIV, respectively. The population estimates of apparent inter-compartmental clearance (Q/F) and peripheral volume of distribution (V4/F) for DHA were 5.74 L/h and 18.5 L, respectively. Intake of high-fat and high-caloric meal prior to the drug administration resulted in 84% reduction in Ka. Body weight impacted CLM/F, such that a unit change in weight resulted in 1

  12. Association of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with homozygous genotypes at PRNP codons 129 and 219 in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Nam-Ho; Jin, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Jae-Il; Carp, Richard I; Kim, Yong-Sun

    2005-12-01

    Human prion protein gene (PRNP) is considered an important gene in determining the incidence of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases. Polymorphisms of PRNP at codon 129 in Europeans and codon 219 in Japanese may play an important role in the susceptibility to sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD); data regarding codon 129 in the Japanese population have led to divergent interpretations. In order to determine which, if any, of the PRNP genotypes in Korean people are associated with sporadic CJD, we examined the genotype and allelic distributions of human PRNP polymorphisms in 150 patients with sporadic CJD. All Korean sporadic CJD patients were Met/Met at codon 129, Glu/Glu at codon 219 and undeleted at the octarepeat region of PRNP. Our study showed significant differences in genotype frequency of PRNP at codon 129 (chi 2=8.8998, P=0.0117) or 219 (chi 2=12.6945, P=0.0004) between sporadic CJD and normal controls. Furthermore, the genotype frequency of the heterozygotes for codons 129 and/or 219 showed a significant difference between the normal population and sporadic CJD patients (chi 2=21.0780, P<0.0001).

  13. Application of Short Screening Tools for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Korean Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yu Jin; Chung, Hae Gyung; Choi, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Yong; So, Hyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often missed or incorrectly diagnosed in primary care settings. Although brief screening instruments may be useful in detecting PTSD, an adequate validation study has not been conducted with older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the primary care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD) and single-item PTSD screener (SIPS) in elderly veterans. Methods The PC-PTSD and SIPS assessments were translated into Korean, with a back-translation to the original language to verify accuracy. Vietnamese war veterans [separated into a PTSD group (n=41) and a non-PTSD group (n=99)] participated in several psychometric assessments, including the Korean versions of the PC-PTSD (PC-PTSD-K), SIPS (SIPS-K), a structured clinical interview from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(SCID), and PTSD checklist(PCL). Results The PC-PTSD-K showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.76), and the test-retest reliability of the PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K were also high (r=0.97 and r=0.91, respectively). A total score of 3 from the PC-PTSD-K yielded the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. The 'bothered a lot' response level from the SIPS-K showed the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that both PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K have good psychometric properties with high validity and reliability for detecting PTSD symptoms in elderly Korean veterans. However, further research will be necessary to increase our understanding of PTSD characteristics in diverse groups with different types of trauma. PMID:27482241

  14. Etiology and Features of Eyes with Rubeosis Iridis among Korean Patients: A Population-Based Single Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yun Cheol; Hwang, Young Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the etiology and features of the eyes with rubeosis iridis among Korean patients. Materials and Methods This study is a retrospective review of 533 Korean patients with rubeosis iridis who visited an eye hospital in Seoul, Korea. We defined rubeosis iridis as visible blood vessels on the iris surface detected during a slit-lamp examination. All cases were reviewed for age at the time of diagnosis, medical history, the most likely cause of rubeosis iridis, visual acuity, and intraocular pressure. Results The most commonly observed cause of rubeosis iridis was diabetic retinopathy (DR; n = 337, 63.2%), followed by retinal vein occlusion (RVO; n = 101, 18.9%), ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS; n = 24, 4.5%), retinal detachment (n = 17, 3.2%), and uveitis (n = 15, 2.8%). The cause was classified as miscellaneous in 18 cases (3.4%); in 21 eyes (3.9%), the cause was not clear. Age at the time of rubeosis iridis diagnosis was lower in patients with DR (56.5 years) than in those with RVO (61.0 years) and OIS (64.8 years; P < 0.01). Intraocular pressure of the eyes with DR (37.3 mmHg) and RVO (39.5 mmHg) was higher than that of the eyes with OIS (25.8 mmHg; P < 0.01). Conclusion In our population-based single center study, DR was the leading cause of rubeosis iridis followed by RVO and OIS among Korean patients. The clinical characteristics of the eyes with rubeosis iridis differed according to etiology. This finding may be useful when assessing eyes with rubeosis iridis. PMID:27490797

  15. Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male = 1,994; female = 1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 μg/L in men and 3.7 μg/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved. PMID:24884916

  16. [Spatial autocorrelation of genetic structure of Prunus padus population in broadleaved Korean pine forest of Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiao-Min; Shi, Shuai; Wang, Zheng-Feng; Ye, Wan-Hui; Hao, Zhan-Qing

    2014-02-01

    All 396 Prunus padus individuals of the population with DBH (diameter at breast height) > or = 1 cm were sampled in a 25 hm2 broadleaved Korean pine forest plot of Changbai Mountains and divided into three DBH classes: 1-3 cm, 3-10 cm, and >10 cm. They were then genotyped using microsatellite loci. The spatial autocorrelation of their genetic structure was analyzed at different distance classes and life stages. The results showed that positive autocorrelation mainly occurred at scales less than 70 m, while negative autocorrelation occurred at scales larger than 110 m. The spatial genetic structure (SGS) at different life stages was similar due to limited pollen/seed dispersal and asexual reproduction. No significant self-thinning occurred in the studied population. PMID:24830226

  17. Reference ranges for urinary levels of testosterone and epitestosterone, which may reveal gonadal function, in a Korean male population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ju-Yeon; Kwon, Woonyong; Suh, Sungill; Cheong, Jae Chul; In, Moon Kyo; Chung, Bong Chul; Kim, Jin Young; Choi, Man Ho

    2014-03-01

    Cannabis, or marijuana, the most commonly used illicit drug in the world, has been shown to be responsible for suppressing the production and secretion of androgens, particularly testosterone. However, despite such findings in animals, the chronic effects of marijuana use on human endocrine systems have proved to be inconsistent. Here, we investigated the reference ranges of urinary levels of testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E) as well as their metabolic ratio of T/E in a Korean male population (n=337), which would enable an evaluation of abnormal changes in steroid metabolism induced by habitually administered cannabis. The T/E ratio was significantly decreased in the marijuana group (n=18), while the urinary testosterone concentrations were also tended to decrease. This study is the first to provide data for the reference values of two urinary androgens and T/E values among control Korean males, and, furthermore, suggests that the T/E ratio, though not testosterone levels, might be used to understand the suppression of human male gonadal function affected by smoking marijuana. PMID:24333796

  18. Genetic variations in KIFC1 and the risk of aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease in a Korean population: an association analysis.

    PubMed

    Pasaje, Charisse Flerida A; Bae, Joon Seol; Park, Byung-Lae; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Uh, Soo-Taek; Park, Choon-Sik; Shin, Hyoung Doo

    2012-05-01

    Modest effects of genes in various pathways are significant in the etiology of complex human diseases, including aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). By functioning as a relevant component of respiratory processes, the human kinesin family member C1 (KIFC1) is hypothesized to play a role in AERD pathogenesis. A case-control analysis was carried out by comparing the genotype distribution of six KIFC1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms between 93 AERD cases and 96 aspirin-tolerant asthma controls in a Korean population. After controlling for confounds, logistic and regression models via various modes of genetic inheritance facilitated the association analysis. Initial results revealed significant association at 0.05 level of significance between several KIFC1 variations and AERD (P = 0.01-0.05, OR = 1.81-1.90) as well as fall rate of forced expiratory volume in the 1st second, an important diagnostic marker of airways constriction (P = 0.04-0.05). However, the signals were not deemed significant after multiple testing corrections (P (corr) > 0.05). Although the results do not support a major role of KIFC1 in AERD pathogenesis in a Korean asthma cohort, further replication and validation studies are required to clarify the current findings. PMID:22201025

  19. Association of Diabetes Mellitus with a Combination of Vitamin D Deficiency and Arsenic Exposure in the Korean General Population: Analysis of 2008–2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008–2009 on the combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on diabetes mellitus (DM) in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the KNHANES 2008–2009, which was conducted for 3 years (2007–2009) using a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Results Data analysis revealed that subjects who showed both vitamin D levels in the 1st quartile (Q) and urinary arsenic levels in the 4th Q, had a 302% increased risk of having DM, as compared with those whose vitamin D and urinary arsenic levels were in the 4th Q and 1st Q, respectively. Conclusion The present study reconfirmed an association of DM with low vitamin D levels and arsenic exposure, and further showed a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM in the general Korean population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM. The present findings have important public health implications. PMID:24472185

  20. Healthy nature healthy people: 'contact with nature' as an upstream health promotion intervention for populations.

    PubMed

    Maller, Cecily; Townsend, Mardie; Pryor, Anita; Brown, Peter; St Leger, Lawrence

    2006-03-01

    Whilst urban-dwelling individuals who seek out parks and gardens appear to intuitively understand the personal health and well-being benefits arising from 'contact with nature', public health strategies are yet to maximize the untapped resource nature provides, including the benefits of nature contact as an upstream health promotion intervention for populations. This paper presents a summary of empirical, theoretical and anecdotal evidence drawn from a literature review of the human health benefits of contact with nature. Initial findings indicate that nature plays a vital role in human health and well-being, and that parks and nature reserves play a significant role by providing access to nature for individuals. Implications suggest contact with nature may provide an effective population-wide strategy in prevention of mental ill health, with potential application for sub-populations, communities and individuals at higher risk of ill health. Recommendations include further investigation of 'contact with nature' in population health, and examination of the benefits of nature-based interventions. To maximize use of 'contact with nature' in the health promotion of populations, collaborative strategies between researchers and primary health, social services, urban planning and environmental management sectors are required. This approach offers not only an augmentation of existing health promotion and prevention activities, but provides the basis for a socio-ecological approach to public health that incorporates environmental sustainability.

  1. New circulating biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular death in healthy population

    PubMed Central

    Melander, Olle; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, Jose J; Santos-Sancho, Juana M; Lahera, Vicente; López-Farré, Antonio J

    2015-01-01

    There is interest to analyse newer biomarkers to identify healthy individuals at risk to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidents and death. To determine in healthy individuals new circulating protein biomarkers, whose systemic levels may be associated with the risk of future development of CVD incidents and death. The study was performed in 82 individuals from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study cohort, free from CVD of whom 41 developed CVD and 41 did not. Plasma proteins related to inflammation and thrombo-coagulating processes were analysed. α1-antitrypsin isotype 3 plasma levels were significantly higher while apolipoprotein J plasma levels were lower in participants that developed CVD incidents than those that did not develop acute cardiovascular episode. Of 82 participants, 17 died by CVD causes. There were proteins whose expression in plasma was significantly higher in participants suffering CVD death as compared with those that did not die by CVD. These proteins included: fibrinogen β-chain isotypes 1 and 3, fibrinogen-γ-chain isotype 2, vitamin D-binding protein isotypes 1, 2 and 3, α1-antitrypsin isotypes 3 and 6, haptoglobin isotypes 3,4,5 and 5, haemopexin isotypes 1 and 2, and Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2. Moreover, apolipoprotein J plasma levels were found lower in participants that died by cardiovascular cause. Association between plasma levels of proteins and CVD death was independent of age, gender, conventional risk factors and plasma C-reactive protein levels. Several protein plasma levels and protein isotypes related to inflammation and thrombo-coagulating phenomena were independently associated with the risk of future CVD death. PMID:26258425

  2. Things Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Roberta

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Korean culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Korean clothing and accessories, dolls, fans, a Korean game called "yut," tape recordings of Korean music, a "buhk" (drum), and brass eating utensils. A map of Korea, some…

  3. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  4. Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H. J.; Lee, I. K.; Piao, M. Y.; Gu, M. J.; Yun, C. H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K. H.; Baik, M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1) was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2) was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean (8.7°C) and minimum (1.0°C) indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (p<0.001) than those (13.0°C and 6.2°C, respectively) during P2. Daily dry matter feed intake in both the concentrate diet and forage groups was higher (p<0.001) during P2 than P1. Average daily weight gain was higher (p<0.001) during P2 (1.38 kg/d) than P1 (1.13 kg/d). Feed efficiency during P2 was higher (p = 0.015) than P1. Blood was collected three times; on March 7, April 4, and May 2. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher on March 7 than April 4 and May 2. Blood cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ among months. Blood CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell percentages were higher, while CD8+CD25+ T cell percentage was lower, during the colder month of March than during May, suggesting that ambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March. PMID:26950877

  5. Correlation Between Personality Traits and Testosterone Concentrations in Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Bayón, Camila; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: High plasma testosterone levels have been associated with aggression, sexual behaviour and social status. The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and personality variables in healthy participants. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four participants were randomly enrolled into this study. Basal plasma testosterone levels were measured between 8:30 am and 10 am. After 24 hours of blood drawing, each subject completed personality questionnaires. Results: Positive correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and anti-social personality traits in both genders was observed (r = 0.336 and P < 0.018). Also, a positive correlation was observed between basal plasmatestosterone levels and criminal thinking traits (r = 0. 376, P < 0.05) and Millon compulsive (r = 0.386, P < 0.010) in both genders. In female participants, a positive correlation between basal plasmatestosterone levels and psychoticism (r = 0. 25, P < 0.019) and Cloninger AUTO TCI (r = 0.507, P < 0.004) was observed. In males participants positive correlation between baseline plasmatic Testosterone levels and Millon Antisocial trait (r = 0. 544, P < 0.19) and Millon Hypomania trait (r = 0. 485, P < 0.41) and Millon Drug Abuse trait (r = 0.632, P < 0.05) was reported. Conclusion: Our results suggest gender differences in clinical and personality variables related with basal plasma testosterone level. In men, high plasma testosterone levels were associated with clinical traits, substance abuse and hypomania. Women with higher basal testosterone levels showed higher scores on personality self-direction traits. PMID:26664080

  6. Population Pharmacokinetics of Peramivir in Healthy Volunteers and Influenza Patients

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yumiko; Ishibashi, Toru; Hollister, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    Peramivir is an intravenous anti-influenza agent that inhibits viral growth by selectively inhibiting neuraminidase in human influenza A and B viruses. To characterize its pharmacokinetics, a population pharmacokinetic analysis of peramivir was performed using 3,199 plasma concentration data samples from 332 subjects in six clinical studies in Japan and the United States, including studies with renal impairment subjects, elderly subjects, and influenza patients. A three-compartment model well described the plasma concentration data for peramivir, and creatinine clearance was found to be the most important factor influencing clearance. Age and body weight were also found to be covariates for clearance and the volume of distribution, respectively. No difference in pharmacokinetics was found between genders or between Japanese and U.S. subjects. Small differences in pharmacokinetics were observed between uninfected subjects and influenza patients (clearance was 18% higher and the volume of distribution was 6% lower in influenza patients). Monte Carlo simulations indicated that single adjusted doses of 1/3- and 1/6-fold for patients with moderate and severe renal impairment, respectively, would give areas under the curve comparable to those for patients with normal renal function. The population pharmacokinetic model developed for peramivir should be useful for understanding its pharmacokinetic characteristics and for dose adjustment on the basis of renal function. PMID:26282420

  7. Healthy People 2000 and population health improvement in the Department of Defense Military Health System.

    PubMed

    Bibb, Sandra C

    2002-07-01

    The historical review of the literature presented in this article traces the current emphasis on population health improvement in the Department of Defense (DoD) Military Health System (MHS) to the emphasis placed on health promotion, disease prevention, and population health in the landmark document, Healthy People 2000. This review of the literature is presented to provide DoD MHS health care professionals with an overview of the impact of Healthy People 2000 on health promotion and disease prevention policy and on generating population health improvement initiatives within the DoD MHS. DoD MHS health care professionals who understand the evolution of population health-oriented initiatives will be better equipped to facilitate the organizational transformation necessary to embed population health improvement in the culture of the DoD MHS.

  8. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were <19 years of age, there were missing data in the heavy metal data set, or they had diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, asthma, depression and/or under-the-eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; p<0.05). Conclusions High blood mercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  9. Development of Seven Microsatellite Markers Using Next Generation Sequencing for the Conservation on the Korean Population of Dorcus hopei (E. Saunders, 1854) (Coleoptera, Lucanidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae Hwa; Han, Sang Hoon; Park, Sun Jae

    2015-01-01

    We developed microsatellite markers for genetic structural analyses of Dorcus hopei, a stag beetle species, using next generation sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping for regional populations. A total of 407,070,351 base pairs of genomic DNA containing >4000 microsatellite loci except AT repeats were sequenced. From 76 loci selected for primer design, 27 were polymorphic. Of these 27 markers, 10 were tested on three regional populations: two Chinese (Shichuan and Guangxi) and one Korean (Wanju). Three markers were excluded due to inconsistent amplification, genotyping errors, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). By multi-locus genotyping, the allele number, observed heterozygosity and polymorphism information content of seven microsatellite loci were ranged 2-10, 0.1333-1.0000, and 0.1228-0.8509, respectively. In an analysis on the genetic differentiation among regional populations including one Japanese population and one cross-breeding population, the individual colored bar-plots showed that both Chinese populations were closer to each other than to the Far East Asian populations. In Far East Asian populations, Wanju and Nirasaki populations could not be distinguished from each other because the frequency of genetic contents was very similar in some individuals of two populations. Moreover, the cross-breeding population contained all patterns of genetic contents shown in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese populations, compared with the genetic content frequency of each regional population. As a result, we examined whether the cross-breeding population might be a hybrid population, and might contain a possibility of interbreeding with Chinese populations in parental generations. Therefore, these markers will be useful for analyses of genetic diversity in populations, genetic relationships between regional populations, genetic structure analyses, and origin tests. PMID:26370965

  10. Development of Seven Microsatellite Markers Using Next Generation Sequencing for the Conservation on the Korean Population of Dorcus hopei (E. Saunders, 1854) (Coleoptera, Lucanidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tae Hwa; Han, Sang Hoon; Park, Sun Jae

    2015-01-01

    We developed microsatellite markers for genetic structural analyses of Dorcus hopei, a stag beetle species, using next generation sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping for regional populations. A total of 407,070,351 base pairs of genomic DNA containing >4000 microsatellite loci except AT repeats were sequenced. From 76 loci selected for primer design, 27 were polymorphic. Of these 27 markers, 10 were tested on three regional populations: two Chinese (Shichuan and Guangxi) and one Korean (Wanju). Three markers were excluded due to inconsistent amplification, genotyping errors, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). By multi-locus genotyping, the allele number, observed heterozygosity and polymorphism information content of seven microsatellite loci were ranged 2‒10, 0.1333‒1.0000, and 0.1228‒0.8509, respectively. In an analysis on the genetic differentiation among regional populations including one Japanese population and one cross-breeding population, the individual colored bar-plots showed that both Chinese populations were closer to each other than to the Far East Asian populations. In Far East Asian populations, Wanju and Nirasaki populations could not be distinguished from each other because the frequency of genetic contents was very similar in some individuals of two populations. Moreover, the cross-breeding population contained all patterns of genetic contents shown in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese populations, compared with the genetic content frequency of each regional population. As a result, we examined whether the cross-breeding population might be a hybrid population, and might contain a possibility of interbreeding with Chinese populations in parental generations. Therefore, these markers will be useful for analyses of genetic diversity in populations, genetic relationships between regional populations, genetic structure analyses, and origin tests. PMID:26370965

  11. Association of a Missense ALDH2 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (Glu504Lys) With Benign Prostate Hyperplasia in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Hosik; Yoo, Koo Han; Kim, Young Ock

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a well-known gene involved in alcohol and aldehyde metabolism. Moreover, recent studies have reported associations between ALDH2 and age-related disorders. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related disorder and genetic factors may contribute to its onset. In this study, we investigated the association of a well-studied ALDH2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs671, with the onset and clinical features of BPH. Methods A total of 222 BPH patients and 214 control subjects were genotyped. The clinical features of the BPH patients (prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen level, and International Prostatic Symptom Score) were analyzed. Results The results show that rs671 was only associated with the volume of BPH in genotype and allele frequencies (P<0.05). Conclusion We propose that rs671 is an Asian-specific SNP in ALDH2 that may affect the disease progression of BPH in the Korean population. PMID:24466463

  12. [A review of the family planning program in the third stage of the Korean population transition].

    PubMed

    Kong, S K; Cho, A J

    1989-12-01

    The authors discuss the role of family planning in the fertility decline of the Republic of Korea. Age-specific fertility rates are presented for the years 1960-1985. Population projections for selected demographic indicators such as life expectancy, birth rate, death rate, and total fertility rate are projected up to the year 2020. The authors are concerned with below-replacement fertility, demographic aging, spatial distribution, population density, and implications for population policy and the direction of family planning programs. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  13. COMPARATIVE BIOAVAILABILITY OF A FIXED-DOSE COMBINATION TABLET OF OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL/HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN HEALTHY KOREAN VOLUNTEERS.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Renhua; Hwang, Ho Min; Kim, Bo-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Combination therapy with diuretics and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist is frequently recommended for the control of blood pressure in hypertensive patients. This study was targeted to compare pharmacokinetic profiles of a new generic fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet of olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide 20/12.5 mg and a reference formulation of Olmetec Plus 20/12.5 mg tablets in healthy volunteers. The study design was a randomized sequence and two-way crossover study in healthy subjects. They were to be randomly assigned to either one of the two sequence groups; each subject sequentially received a single oral dose of reference and test tablet with 7-day washout period. Blood sample was collected at pre-dose and at 0.33, 0.67, 1, 1.33, 1.67, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h post-dose. The blood concentrations were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Both of the 90% CI for the treatment ratios (test/reference) of C(max) and AUC(last) were to be in the range of 0.800-1.250 with regards to olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide; the geometric mean ratios (test/reference) for olmesartan C(max) and AUC(last) were 0.979 (90% CI, 0.934-1.027) and 0.992 (0.946-1.041), respectively, and those for hydrochlorothiazide C(max) and AUC(last) were 0.966 (0.975-1.110) and 0.999 (0.963-1.038), respectively. No serious adverse events were reported during the study. The generic formulation of olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide 20/12.5 mg tablet was bioequivalent with the reference formulation of Olmetec Plus 20/12.5 mg tablet in regards to the pharmacokinetic parameters of olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide. Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) Registration Number: KCT0001025. (https://cris.nih.go.kr/ Mar 18, 2014)

  14. Safety and immunogenicity of a single intramuscular dose of a tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccine (BR-TD-1001) in healthy Korean adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Hong, Taegon; Chung, Yong-Ju; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Ik-Hwan; Choe, Yong-Kyung; Lee, Jongtae; Jeon, Sangil; Han, Seunghoon; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    BR-TD-1001 was developed as a booster for the immunity maintenance of diphtheria and tetanus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of BR-TD-1001 (test vaccine) in comparison with placebo and an active comparator in healthy Korean adults. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active comparator, phase I clinical trial was conducted. Fifty subjects were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups in a ratio of 2:2:1, and were administered a single intramuscular dose of test vaccine, active comparator, or placebo, respectively. All subjects were monitored for 4 weeks after injection. The antibody titers of the patients 2 and 4 weeks after vaccination were compared with the baseline. The frequencies of all adverse events including adverse drug reactions in the test group were not statistically different from those of the other treatment groups (P = 0.4974, 0.3061). No serious adverse event occurred, and no subject was withdrawn from the study for safety. The seroprotection rates against both tetanus and diphtheria at 4 weeks after vaccination were over 0.95. For anti-tetanus antibody, the geometric mean titer in the test group was significantly higher than those of the other groups (P = 0.0364, 0.0033). The geometric mean titer of anti-diphtheria antibody in the test group was significantly higher than the value of the placebo (P = 0.0347) while it was not for the value of the active comparator (P = 0.8484). In conclusion, BR-TD-1001 was safe, well-tolerated, and showed sufficient immunogenicity as a booster for diphtheria and tetanus.

  15. Dietary intake of fats and fatty acids in the Korean population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Yeji; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Kirang; Moon, Hyun-Kyung; Kweon, Sanghui; Yang, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to estimate average total fat and fatty acid intakes as well as identify major food sources using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) VI-1 (2013). SUBJECTS/METHODS Total fat and fatty acid intakes were estimated using 24-hour dietary recall data on 7,048 participants aged ≥ 3 years from the KNHANES VI-1 (2013). Data included total fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA), and n-6 fatty acid (n-6 FA) levels. Population means and standard errors of the mean were weighted in order to produce national estimates and separated based on sex, age, income, as well as residential region. Major food sources of fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA were identified based on mean consumption amounts of fat and fatty acids in each food. RESULTS The mean intake of total fat was 48.0 g while mean intakes of SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA were 14.4 g, 15.3 g, 11.6 g, 1.6 g, and 10.1 g, respectively. Intakes of MUFA and SFA were each higher than that of PUFA in all age groups. Pork was the major source of total fat, SFA, and MUFA, and soybean oil was the major source of PUFA. Milk and pork were major sources of SFA in subjects aged 3-11 years and ≥ 12 years, respectively. Perilla seed oil and soybean oil were main sources of n-3 FA in subjects aged ≥ 50 years and aged < 50 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Estimation of mean fatty acid intakes of this study using nationally represented samples of the Korean population could be useful for developing and evaluating national nutritional policies. PMID:26634055

  16. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yangho; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  17. Effect of Rg3-enriched Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in healthy individuals: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jovanovski, Elena; Bateman, Emma A; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Fairgrieve, Chris; Mucalo, Iva; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2014-08-01

    Ginsenoside Rg3, present in steamed ginseng (Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer), is thought to be a potent modulator of vascular function. Our objective was to clinically evaluate acute effects of ginsenoside Rg3-enriched Korean red ginseng (Rg3-KRG) on measures of arterial stiffness and peripheral and central blood pressure (BP) parameters in healthy volunteers. Using a double-blind, randomized, crossover design, 23 individuals (9 males:14 females; age, 25 ± 2 years; body mass index, 22 ± 0.6 kg/m(2); systolic BP/diastolic BP, 113 ± 3/70 ± 2 mm Hg) were administered 400-mg Rg3-KRG extract or 400-mg wheat bran control on two separate visits with a 7-day washout period. Aortic augmentation index and central BP were measured using applanation tonometry by radial pulse wave analysis, and peripheral BP was evaluated oscillometrically. Measurements were taken at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 hours after intervention. Compared with control, there were significant reductions in augmentation index (-4.3 ± 8.9%, P = .03), central (-4.8 ± 6.8 mm Hg, P = .01) and brachial mean arterial pressure (-4.4 ± 6.6 mm Hg, P = .01), central systolic (-5.0 ± 7.9 mm Hg, P = .01) and diastolic BP (-3.9 ± 6.6 mm Hg, P = .01), and brachial systolic (-4.4 ± 10.0 mm Hg, P = .048) and diastolic BP (-3.6 ± 6.4 mm Hg, P = .01) at 3 hours after intervention compared with control. This study is the first to demonstrate Rg3-KRG extract acutely lowers central and peripheral arterial pressures in healthy adults. Further clinical evaluation is desired to quantify efficacy in higher risk individuals and in long-term settings.

  18. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79–5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  19. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-09-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79-5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77-5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  20. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79-5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77-5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  1. Rapid Global Expansion of the Fungal Disease Chytridiomycosis into Declining and Healthy Amphibian Populations

    PubMed Central

    James, Timothy Y.; Litvintseva, Anastasia P.; Vilgalys, Rytas; Morgan, Jess A. T.; Taylor, John W.; Fisher, Matthew C.; Berger, Lee; Weldon, Ché; du Preez, Louis; Longcore, Joyce E.

    2009-01-01

    The fungal disease chytridiomycosis, caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is enigmatic because it occurs globally in both declining and apparently healthy (non-declining) amphibian populations. This distribution has fueled debate concerning whether, in sites where it has recently been found, the pathogen was introduced or is endemic. In this study, we addressed the molecular population genetics of a global collection of fungal strains from both declining and healthy amphibian populations using DNA sequence variation from 17 nuclear loci and a large fragment from the mitochondrial genome. We found a low rate of DNA polymorphism, with only two sequence alleles detected at each locus, but a high diversity of diploid genotypes. Half of the loci displayed an excess of heterozygous genotypes, consistent with a primarily clonal mode of reproduction. Despite the absence of obvious sex, genotypic diversity was high (44 unique genotypes out of 59 strains). We provide evidence that the observed genotypic variation can be generated by loss of heterozygosity through mitotic recombination. One strain isolated from a bullfrog possessed as much allelic diversity as the entire global sample, suggesting the current epidemic can be traced back to the outbreak of a single clonal lineage. These data are consistent with the current chytridiomycosis epidemic resulting from a novel pathogen undergoing a rapid and recent range expansion. The widespread occurrence of the same lineage in both healthy and declining populations suggests that the outcome of the disease is contingent on environmental factors and host resistance. PMID:19478871

  2. Comparative morphometry of facial surface models obtained from a stereo vision system in a healthy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Leticia; Gastélum, Alfonso; Chan, Yuk Hin; Delmas, Patrice; Escorcia, Lilia; Márquez, Jorge

    2014-11-01

    Our goal is to obtain three-dimensional measurements of craniofacial morphology in a healthy population, using standard landmarks established by a physical-anthropology specialist and picked from computer reconstructions of the face of each subject. To do this, we designed a multi-stereo vision system that will be used to create a data base of human faces surfaces from a healthy population, for eventual applications in medicine, forensic sciences and anthropology. The acquisition process consists of obtaining the depth map information from three points of views, each depth map is obtained from a calibrated pair of cameras. The depth maps are used to build a complete, frontal, triangular-surface representation of the subject face. The triangular surface is used to locate the landmarks and the measurements are analyzed with a MATLAB script. The classification of the subjects was done with the aid of a specialist anthropologist that defines specific subject indices, according to the lengths, areas, ratios, etc., of the different structures and the relationships among facial features. We studied a healthy population and the indices from this population will be used to obtain representative averages that later help with the study and classification of possible pathologies.

  3. The association between lifetime cigarette smoking and dysphonia in the Korean general population: findings from a national survey

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between current smoking and lifetime amount smoked and the incidence of dysphonia using data from a national cross-sectional survey that represents the Korean population. Subjects were 3,600 non-institutionalised civilian adults over the age of 19 (1,501 males and 2,099 females) who completed the laryngeal examination of the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). For lifetime amount smoked, subjects were classified as light smokers (≤26.7 pack years), medium smokers (26.7–40.5 pack years), heavy smokers (40.5–55.5 pack years), and very heavy smokers (55.5–156 pack years) based on pack years (packs smoked per day × years as a smoker). The odds ratio (OR) for the statistical test was presented using hierarchical logistic regression. When adjusted for covariates (age, gender, level of education, income, occupation, alcohol consumption and pain/discomfort during the last two weeks), current smokers had a 1.8 times (OR = 1.77, 95% CI [1.17–2.68]) higher risk for self-reported voice problems than non-smokers. Moreover, current smokers had a 1.6 times (OR = 1.56, 95% CI [1.02–2.38]) higher risk of laryngeal disorder (p < 0.05). In terms of pack years, very heavy smokers were significantly more likely to have laryngeal disorder, while self-reported voice problems were significantly more likely for heavy smokers but not very heavy smokers. The results of this study imply that chronic smoking has a significant relationship with dysphonia. Longitudinal studies are required in future work to verify the causality between lifetime smoking amount and dysphonia. PMID:25945309

  4. Relationship of lean body mass with bone mass and bone mineral density in the general Korean population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-Su

    2014-09-01

    We investigated association of lean body mass with bone mass (BM) and bone mineral density (BMD) according to gender and menopausal status in the general Korean population. Participants included 4,299 males and 5,226 females who were 20 years of age or older from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (2009-2010). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used for measurement of BMD and body composition. BMD was measured in the femur and lumbar spine. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was defined as the sum of the lean soft tissue masses for the arms and legs. Analysis was performed after categorizing participants into four groups (males <50 years, males ≥ 50 years, premenopausal females, and postmenopausal females). In males, the highest ASM was observed in the 20-29-year group and then showed a gradual decrease as age increased, and BM and BMD showed similar patterns of change, while in females, ASM, BMD, and BM reached the peak level in the 40-49-year group and then decreased. In multiple regression analysis, after adjusting for confounding factors, the results showed an independent association of ASM with an increase in BM and BMD (P < 0.05). After adjusting for confounding factors, total fat mass showed a significant association with BM (P < 0.05). These aforementioned relationships were commonly observed on both femur and lumbar spine in every group. Lean body mass showed an independent association with increased BM and BMD, regardless of gender, age in men, and menopausal status in women. PMID:24415174

  5. Estimated dietary intake and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from fish consumption in the Korean general population.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-su; Kim, Jongchul; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kang, Young-Woon; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in samples from various fish species available at food markets in nine Korean cities. The estimated dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated from the raw concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in each sample and from the food consumption of the Korean general population, and a comparison was made with the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The average daily dietary exposure and the 95th percentile of intake of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 0.21 and 0.49 pg WHO05-toxic equivalents (TEQ) kg(-1) body weight d(-1) representing 5.27% and 12.26%, respectively, of the Korean tolerable daily intake (TDI). We applied the monthly fish consumption limits to the evaluation of improved risk assessment and concluded that unlimited consumption of most fish species does not contribute to the elevated cancer risk. This investigation was the first such large-scale study in Korea, and incorporated 37 species, including a species of whale, and 480 samples. The major aims of this study were to demonstrate the health risks associated with fish intake and to ensure food safety through total analysis of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS).

  6. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias. PMID:26488291

  7. Chinese Koreans complete demographic transition.

    PubMed

    Gu, Q; Zhao, F

    1992-02-01

    The 1990 national census disclosed that there were 1,920,597 Koreans in China. There number increased 21% from 1,110, 000 in 1953 to 1,350,000 in 1964. The transition to low birth rate, low mortality rate, and low growth rate started in the mid-1960s and it was completed by 1974. Chinese Korean population increased form 1,350,000 in 1964 to 1,770,000 in 1982, and to 1,920,000 in 1990. Between 1982 and 1990, the average annual growth rate of the Han population, with the promotion of the 1-child policy, was 1.3%, while that of the Korean population who were allowed to have 2 children was only 1.0%. The total fertility rate (TFR) of Korean women in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture decreased from 4.7 in 1965 to 1.9 in 1974, to 1.8 in 1981, and to 1.6 in 1983, and increasing to 1.9 in 1989. 89-90% of women were primiparas between 1973 and 1983. In 1989 in Jilin Province 71% of Korean women were primiparas, 26% were secundiparas, and 3% were tertiparas or had higher parity. The decelerated population growth of the Korean nationality is attributed to the popularization of compulsory education. Primary school became compulsory in 1952 and junior high school in 1958. The illiteracy rate of Koreans was only 11% in 1982, 21% lower than that of the Han nationality and 32% lower than that of other ethnic groups in China. The rate declined further to 7% in 1987. The illiteracy rate of Korean women in reproductive age was only 3%, while the national illiteracy rate of such women was 30%, and that of women in ethnic groups was 46%. The marriage age of Korean women was 20 in 1966 increasing to 23 by 1973 with the birth interval of over 5 years.

  8. Age- and Gender-Related Mean Hearing Threshold in a Highly-Screened Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun Hwi; Kim, Ju Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background In evaluating hearing disability in medicolegal work, the apportionment of age- and gender-related sensorineural hearing loss should be considered as a prior factor, especially for the elderly. However, in the literature written in the English language no studies have reported on the age- and gender-related mean hearing threshold for the South Korean population. Objective This study aimed to identify the mean hearing thresholds in the South Korean population to establish reference data and to identify the age- and gender-related characteristics. Methods This study is based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2012, which was conducted by the Korean government, the data of which was disclosed to the public. A total of 15,606 participants (unweighted) representing 33,011,778 Koreans (weighted) with normal tympanic membrane and no history of regular or occupational noise exposure were selected and analyzed in this study. The relationship between the hearing threshold level and frequency, age, and gender was investigated and analyzed in a highly-screened population by considering the sample weights of a complex survey design. Results A gender ratio difference was found between the unweighted and the weighted designs: male:female, 41.0%: 59.0% (unweighted, participants) vs. 47.2%:52.8% (weighted, representing population). As age increased, the hearing threshold increased for all frequencies. Hearing thresholds of 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz showed a statistical difference between both genders for people older than 30, with the 4 kHz frequency showing the largest difference. This paper presents details about the mean hearing threshold based on age and gender. Conclusions The data from KNHANES 2010–2012 showed gender differences at hearing thresholds of 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz in a highly-screened population. The most significant gender difference in relation to hearing threshold was observed at 4 kHz. The hearing

  9. C-reactive Protein Concentration Is Associated With a Higher Risk of Mortality in a Rural Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Shin, Min-Ho; Shin, Dong Hoon; Koh, Sang-Baek; Ahn, Song Vogue; Lee, Tae-Yong; Ryu, So Yeon; Song, Jae-Sok; Choe, Hong-Soon; Lee, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker, has been widely used as a preclinical marker predictive of morbidity and mortality. Although many studies have reported a positive association between CRP and mortality, uncertainty still remains about this association in various populations, especially in rural Korea. Methods A total of 23 233 middle-aged participants (8862 men and 14 371 women) who were free from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and acute inflammation (defined by a CRP level ≥10 mg/L) were drawn from 11 rural communities in Korea between 2005 and 2011. Blood CRP concentration was analyzed as a categorical variable (low: 0.0-0.9 mg/L; intermediate: 1.0-3.0 mg/L; high: 3.1-9.9 mg/L) as well as a continuous variable. Each participant’s vital status through December 2013 was confirmed by death statistics from the National Statistical Office. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the independent association between CRP and mortality after adjusting for other risk factors. Results The total quantity of observed person-years was 57 975 for men and 95 146 for women, and the number of deaths was 649 among men and 367 among women. Compared to the low-CRP group, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality of the intermediate group was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.40) for men and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.61) for women, and the corresponding values for the high-CRP group were 1.98 (95% CI, 1.61 to 2.42) for men and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.95) for women. Similar trends were found for CRP evaluated as a continuous variable and for cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions Higher CRP concentrations were associated with higher mortality in a rural Korean population, and this association was more prominent in men than in women. PMID:27744669

  10. Healthy Eating Habits among the Population of Serbia: Gender and Age Differences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks’ Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the ‘knowledge’ variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia. PMID:25995724

  11. Healthy eating habits among the population of Serbia: gender and age differences.

    PubMed

    Jovičić, Ana Đ

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks' Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the 'knowledge' variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia.

  12. Establishment of reference intervals for von Willebrand factor antigen and eight coagulation factors in a Korean population following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ja-Hyun; Seo, Ja-Young; Bang, Sung-Hwan; Park, In-Ae; Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2010-04-01

    Establishment of reference intervals for coagulation molecules is important but is costly and sometimes not feasible. Since reference intervals from manufacturers or the literature are mostly out of date or involved Western populations, the authors determined reference intervals for VWF: Ag and eight factors in a Korean population. VWF: Ag, factor VIII (FVIII), FII, FV, FVII, FIX, FX, FXI, and FXII were determined in Korean individuals visiting for routine checkup following the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) guidelines. Reagents by Diagnostica Stago were used on the STA Compact Analyzer (Diagnostica Stago). Exclusion criteria were medical history or laboratory findings that could affect the factor levels. Influence of demographic factors was analyzed. Mean +/- 2 x SD or central 95 percentile was used, as appropriate. We obtained data from 266 adults for VWF: Ag, 371 adults for FVIII, and minimum 136 adults for the rest. Reference interval for VWF was 51-176% (52-155% in blood group O and 71-186% for non-O). Reference interval for FVIII was 64-197% (55-150% in O and 77-205% in non-O). Reference interval for FII was 77-121%, FV 81-160%, FVII 68-149%, FIX 67-154%, FX 69-126%, FXI 59-138%, and FXII 48-177%. The medians of VWF: Ag, FVIII, and FIX were significantly higher in the elderly group (> or =60 years). We established local reference intervals for VWF: Ag and eight coagulation factors in a Korean population according to the CLSI guidelines. Significantly, different reference intervals were obtained in blood group O vs. non-O for VWF: Ag and FVIII. The reference intervals obtained in this study could be adopted in other clinical laboratories after appropriate validation.

  13. Population genetic study for 24 STR loci and Y indel (GlobalFiler™ PCR Amplification kit and PowerPlex® Fusion system) in 1000 Korean individuals.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Chul; Kim, Kicheol; Nam, Younhyoung; Park, Jihye; Lee, Jinmyung; Lee, Hyehyeon; Kwon, Hansol; Jin, Hanjun; Kim, Wook; Kim, Won; Lim, Sikeun

    2016-07-01

    Allele frequencies for 23 autosomal short tandem repeat loci (D3S1358, vWA, D16S539, CSF1PO, TPOX, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, TH01, FGA, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D2S441, D19S433, D22S1045, D10S1248, D1S1656, D12S391, D2S1338, SE33, Penta D, Penta E), 1 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat locus (DYS391) and Y indel were obtained from 1000 unrelated individuals of the Korean population. PMID:27497334

  14. Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bo Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In the early 2000s, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years in Korea was about 9% to 10%, and it remained stable. However, a nationwide survey showed that this prevalence increased over the past few years. After age-standardization using the Korean population of the year 2010, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years was 10.0% to 10.8% between 2001 and 2012, which increased to 12.5% in 2013 and 11.6% in 2014. During that period, there have been changes in the gender- and age-specific prevalence of diabetes in Korean adults. The prevalence of diabetes in the elderly population increased significantly, while this prevalence in young adults, especially in young women, did not change significantly. The contribution of each diabetic risk factor, such as obesity, β-cell dysfunction, sarcopenia, and socioeconomic status, in developing diabetes has also changed during that period in each gender and age group. For young women, obesity was the most important risk factor; by contrast, for elderly diabetic patients, sarcopenia was more important than obesity as a risk factor. Considering the economic burden of diabetes and its associated comorbidities, a public health policy targeting the major risk factors in each population might be more effective in preventing diabetes. PMID:27273907

  15. Defining Normal Liver Stiffness Range in a Normal Healthy Chinese Population without Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fung, James; Lee, Cheuk-kwong; Chan, Monica; Seto, Wai-kay; Wong, Danny Ka-ho; Lai, Ching-lung; Yuen, Man-fung

    2013-01-01

    Background For patients with chronic liver disease, different optimal liver stiffness cut-off values correspond to different stages of fibrosis, which are specific for the underlying liver disease and population. Aims To establish the normal ranges of liver stiffness in the healthy Chinese population without underlying liver disease. Methods This is a prospective cross sectional study of 2,528 healthy volunteers recruited from the general population and the Red Cross Transfusion Center in Hong Kong. All participants underwent a comprehensive questionnaire survey, measurement of weight, height, and blood pressure. Fasting liver function tests, glucose and cholesterol was performed. Abdominal ultrasound and transient elastography were performed on all participants. Results Of the 2,528 subjects, 1,998 were excluded with either abnormal liver parenchyma on ultrasound, chronic medical condition, abnormal blood tests including liver enzymes, fasting glucose, fasting cholesterol, high body mass index, high blood pressure, or invalid liver stiffness scan. The reference range for the 530 subjects without known liver disease was 2.3 to 5.9 kPa (mean 4.1, SD 0.89). The median liver stiffness was higher in males compared with females (4.3 vs 4.0 kPa respectively, p<0.001). There was also a decline in median Lliver stiffness in the older age group, from 4.2 kPa in those <25 years to 3.4 kPa for those >55 years (p=0.001). Conclusions The healthy reference range for liver stiffness in the Chinese population is 2.3 to 5.9 kPa. Female gender and older age group was associated with a lower median liver stiffness. PMID:24386446

  16. Pharmacogenetic association with early response to intravitreal ranibizumab for age-related macular degeneration in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Dong Hyoun; Sagong, Min; Kim, In Taek

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether genetic factors that influence age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have an early pharmacogenetic effect on treating exudative AMD with ranibizumab in a Korean population. Methods A retrospective study of 102 patients (70 with typical neovascular AMD and 32 with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy) with exudative AMD treated with intravitreal ranibizumab monotherapy was conducted. Optical coherence tomography, fluorescein, and indocyanine green angiography were taken at the baseline. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the central subfield macular thickness (CSMT) were recorded at the baseline and at each monthly visit. The genotypes of the polymorphisms in the known AMD susceptibility loci (CFH, AMRS2, HTRA1, VEGFA, and KDR) were determined, and association between their frequencies and the changes in the BCVA and the CSMT were evaluated. Results The mean baseline visual acuity was 0.96±0.59 logMAR (approximately 20/200 in the Snellen equivalent), and the mean number of injections was 3.87 before the month 6 visit. No association was observed between the change in BCVA and each genotype. For the changes in the CSMT, a significant difference was observed only with the VEGF-A (rs833069) gene. The decrease in the CSMT at month 3 for the major allele homozygote AA genotype, the heterozygote AG genotype, and the risk allele homozygote GG genotype was 25.66±85.40, 86.93±92.31, and 85.30±105.30 μm, respectively (p=0.012, p=0.044, and p=0.002 for AG, GG, and combined AG or GG genotype, respectively, compared to the AA genotype). This trend was maintained until month 6. Conclusions The VEGF-A (rs833069) polymorphism showed a significant association with the anatomic response to intravitreal ranibizumab. No significant difference was found between the genotype of the potential risk polymorphism for development of AMD and the early visual improvement after intravitreal ranibizumab. PMID:23559864

  17. Hematological and biochemical parameters in apparently healthy Indian population: defining reference intervals.

    PubMed

    Sairam, Shrilekha; Domalapalli, Suhasini; Muthu, Sundaram; Swaminathan, Jayanthi; Ramesh, Vivek A; Sekhar, Lalitha; Pandeya, Palak; Balasubramaniam, Udhaya

    2014-07-01

    Clinical reference intervals among Indian population are poorly defined. Therefore, there is an urgent need to establish local clinical laboratory reference intervals for healthy Indian population. The present study aimed to identify the 95 % reference interval for hematological and biochemical parameters in apparently healthy Indian population. We undertook a multicentric cross-sectional study conducted at Apollo Hospitals Educational and Research Foundation across India. Of which 10,665 reference individuals identified as healthy by physicians. The 95 % of the reference distribution was estimated using 2.5th and 97.5th percentile reference limits. The 95 % reference intervals for hemoglobin (Males: 12.3-17 g/dL; Females: 9.9-14.3 g/dL), platelet count (Males: 1.3-3.8; Females: 1.3-4.2 Lakhs/µL), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Males: 2-22; Females: 4-55 mm/h), serum uric acid in males: 3.5-8.2 mg/dL, gamma glutamyl transferase (Males: 13-61 U/L), fasting blood glucose (Males: 78-110 mg/dL), total cholesterol (Males: 115-254 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein (Males: 60-176 mg/dL) and triglycerides (Males: 55-267 mg/dL, Females: 52-207 mg/dL) were different from currently used reference values. Additionally need for gender based partitioning were observed for triglycerides and gamma glutamyl transferase. The observed findings are of clinical significance and it needs to be validated with additional community based studies. PMID:24966476

  18. Hematological and biochemical parameters in apparently healthy Indian population: defining reference intervals.

    PubMed

    Sairam, Shrilekha; Domalapalli, Suhasini; Muthu, Sundaram; Swaminathan, Jayanthi; Ramesh, Vivek A; Sekhar, Lalitha; Pandeya, Palak; Balasubramaniam, Udhaya

    2014-07-01

    Clinical reference intervals among Indian population are poorly defined. Therefore, there is an urgent need to establish local clinical laboratory reference intervals for healthy Indian population. The present study aimed to identify the 95 % reference interval for hematological and biochemical parameters in apparently healthy Indian population. We undertook a multicentric cross-sectional study conducted at Apollo Hospitals Educational and Research Foundation across India. Of which 10,665 reference individuals identified as healthy by physicians. The 95 % of the reference distribution was estimated using 2.5th and 97.5th percentile reference limits. The 95 % reference intervals for hemoglobin (Males: 12.3-17 g/dL; Females: 9.9-14.3 g/dL), platelet count (Males: 1.3-3.8; Females: 1.3-4.2 Lakhs/µL), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Males: 2-22; Females: 4-55 mm/h), serum uric acid in males: 3.5-8.2 mg/dL, gamma glutamyl transferase (Males: 13-61 U/L), fasting blood glucose (Males: 78-110 mg/dL), total cholesterol (Males: 115-254 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein (Males: 60-176 mg/dL) and triglycerides (Males: 55-267 mg/dL, Females: 52-207 mg/dL) were different from currently used reference values. Additionally need for gender based partitioning were observed for triglycerides and gamma glutamyl transferase. The observed findings are of clinical significance and it needs to be validated with additional community based studies.

  19. Genotype and allele frequency of CYP2C19*17 in a healthy Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Payan, Maryam; Tajik, Nader; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) is important in metabolism of wide range of drugs. CYP2C19*17 is a novel variant allele which increases gene transcription and therefore results in ultra-rapid metabolizer phenotype (URM). Distribution of this variant allele has not been well studied worldwide. The aim of present study was to investigate allele and genotype frequencies of CYP2C19*17 in a healthy Iranian population and compare them with other ethnic groups. Methods: One hundred eighty healthy unrelated Iranian volunteer took part in this study and were genotyped for CYP2C19 *2, *3, *17 (-3402) by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and CYP2C19*17 (-806) by a nested-PCR assays. The distribution of CYP2C19*17 polymorphism in Iranian population was then compared with other ethnic groups. Results: The CYP2C19*17 allele frequency was 21.6% in Iranian population. Among studied subjects 5.5% were homozygous for CYP2C19*17 and phenotyped as ultra-rapid metabolizers; 28.8% were genotyped as CYP2C19*1*17 (extensive metabolizers) and 3.3% as CYP2C19*2*17 (intermediate metabolizers). Conclusion: The CYP2C19*17 genetic distribution in Iranian population is similar to Middle East or European countries. The high frequency of CYP2C19*17 in Iranian population highlights the importance of this new variant allele in metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates. Thus, future association studies are required to reveal clinical consequence of this genetic polymorphism in carrier individuals. PMID:26793660

  20. Widespread nasal carriage of Mycobacterium lepraeamong a healthy population in a hyperendemic region of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa; Frota, Cristiane Cunha; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Almeida, Rosa Livia Freitas; Pontes, Maria Araci de Andrade; Gonçalves, Heitor de Sá; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia

    2015-11-01

    A case-control study was conducted to determine the presence ofMycobacterium lepraeDNA in nasal secretions of leprosy cases and nonleprosy individuals in Fortaleza, Brazil. It included 185 cases identified by physicians at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology (CDERM). A control group (Co) (n = 136) was identified among individuals from CDERM not diagnosed as leprosy cases. To augment the spatial analysis of M. leprae specific repetitive element (RLEP) positive prevalence, an external group (EG) (n = 121), a convenience sample of healthy students, were included. Polymerase chain reaction for the RLEP sequence was conducted for all participants. Prevalence of RLEP positivity for cases and Co were 69.2% and 66.9%, respectively, significantly higher than for EG (28.1%), and reported elsewhere. Male sex, belonging to a lower socioeconomic status (D/E), history of a previous contact with a case and being older, were associated with being a leprosy case. Our geographical analysis demonstrated that the bacillus is widespread among the healthy population, with clusters of RLEP positive multibacillary cases concentrated in distinct areas of the city. Our results suggest that in endemic areas, as in Fortaleza, surveillance for both nonhousehold leprosy contacts and members of the general population living in cluster areas should be implemented.

  1. Respiratory-cycle related analysis of the EEG-spectrum during sleep: a healthy population study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Molina, Gary; Bialas, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown the EEG's spectral changes that occur in synchrony with the respiratory-cycle. During wakefulness, and for healthy subjects it is reported that the EEG power in several frequency bands changes between the expiratory and inspiratory phases. For sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) patients, it is reported that the amplitude of changes in normalized EEG power (referred to as respiratory-cycle related EEG changes RCREC) within a respiratory-cycle decreases after a successful intervention to alleviate the SDB condition. In this paper, we focus on analyzing the changes in the sleep’s EEG spectrum related to the respiratory-cycle for a healthy population comprising 39 subjects. For 3 sleep stages (N2, N3, REM), 6 EEG channels, and 7 frequency bands, two types of EEG spectral analyzes were considered: 1) the ratio between the EEG power during expiration and that during inspiration, and 2) the RCREC. For the first type of analysis and at the population level, no statistically significant difference was found between the EEG power during expiration and that during inspiration. For the second type of analysis, the RCREC for all conditions is at a level that is statistically significantly larger than 0.1. The latter being the value at which the RCREC decreased after successful SDB intervention.

  2. Reference Values of Pulse Wave Velocity in Healthy People from an Urban and Rural Argentinean Population

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Alejandro; Galli, Cintia; Tringler, Matías; Ramírez, Agustín; Cabrera Fischer, Edmundo Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    In medical practice the reference values of arterial stiffness came from multicenter registries obtained in Asia, USA, Australia and Europe. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the gold standard method for arterial stiffness quantification; however, in South America, there are few population-based studies. In this research PWV was measured in healthy asymptomatic and normotensive subjects without history of hypertension in first-degree relatives. Normal PWV and the 95% confidence intervals values were obtained in 780 subjects (39.8 ± 18.5 years) divided into 7 age groups (10–98 years). The mean PWV found was 6.84 m/s ± 1.65. PWV increases linearly with aging with a high degree of correlation (r2 = 0.61; P < 0.05) with low dispersion in younger subjects. PWV progressively increases 6–8% with each decade of life; this tendency is more pronounced after 50 years. A significant increase of PWV over 50 years was demonstrated. This is the first population-based study from urban and rural people of Argentina that provides normal values of the PWV in healthy, normotensive subjects without family history of hypertension. Moreover, the age dependence of PWV values was confirmed. PMID:25215227

  3. Distribution of CD4 Lymphocyte Cells Among Apparently Healthy HIV Seropositive and Seronegative Populations

    PubMed Central

    Abubakar, Abdulazeez A

    2012-01-01

    Background: CD4 lymphocyte cells are often used as prognostic markers for monitoring the progression of immunosupression such as HIV infection. Aim: This study was conducted to assess the distribution of CD4 lymphocytes among apparently healthy human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seronegative and seropositive populations in a Nigerian state. Materials and Methods: A total of 1520 apparently healthy subjects aged 18–64 years, composed of 800 males and 720 females attending some selected health institutions in the state, participated in the study. Ten milliliters of blood was collected from each subject; 5 ml of this was used for HIV antibodies sero-typing while the remaining 5 ml was anticoagulated and used for CD4 lymphocytes level determination. Only samples tested positive both with Capillus and Determine HIV test kits were further differentiated into sero-types with a standard diagnostic HIV test kit. The CD4 lymphocyte levels of all the sample were determined; mean CD4 levels of 205.1±0.09 and 287.4±0.3 cells/μl were recorded among females seropositives and seronagatives respectively. Statistical analysis by the Student t-test showed a significant difference in the mean CD4 lymphocyte count by gender. Results: Findings showed a mean CD4 level of 311.7±1.2 cells/μl among seropositive males while 399.3±0.6 cells/μl was recorded among seronegatives (t=5.86). The study also recorded a CD4 lymphocyte range of 232–464 cells/μl among apparently healthy seronegative population in this locality. Conclusion: The findings showed a significantly higher mean CD4 lymphocyte count among adult male HIV seronegatives (χ2=9.22) and seropositives (χ2=15.07) than their female counterparts. Further research work using the automation technique is suggested to confirm this new range for monitoring HIV subjects on antiretroviral therapy. PMID:22454823

  4. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos

    2011-01-01

    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P < 0.001) from a linear combination of 5 independent variables: QRS elevation in the frontal plane (p<0.001), a new repolarization parameter QTcorr (p<0.001), mean high frequency QRS amplitude (p=0.009), the variability parameter % VLF of RRV (p=0.021) and the P-wave width (p=0.10). Here, QTcorr represents the correlation between the calculated QT and the measured QT signal. Conclusions: In apparently healthy subjects with normal conventional ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  5. Comparable Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic Breakpoints of Cefpirome in Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Volunteers▿

    PubMed Central

    Bulitta, J. B.; Kinzig, M.; Landersdorfer, C. B.; Holzgrabe, U.; Stephan, U.; Sörgel, F.

    2011-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are often reported to have higher clearances and larger volumes of distribution per kilogram of total body weight (WT) for beta-lactams than healthy volunteers. As pharmacokinetic (PK) data on cefpirome from studies of CF patients are lacking, we systematically compared its population PK and pharmacodynamic breakpoints for CF patients and healthy volunteers of similar body size. Twelve adult CF patients (median lean body mass [LBM] = 45.7 kg) and 12 healthy volunteers (LBM = 50.0 kg) received a single 10-min intravenous infusion of 2 g cefpirome. Plasma and urine concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Population PK and Monte Carlo simulations were performed using NONMEM and S-ADAPT and a duration of an unbound plasma concentration above the MIC ≥ 65% of the dosing interval as a pharmacodynamic target. Unscaled clearances for CF patients were similar to those seen with healthy volunteers, and the volume of distribution was 6% lower for CF patients. Linear scaling of total clearance by WT resulted in clearance that was 20% higher (P ≤ 0.001 [nonparametric bootstrap]) in CF patients. Allometric scaling by LBM explained the differences between the two subject groups with respect to average clearance and volume of distribution and reduced the unexplained between-subject variability of renal and nonrenal clearance by 10 to 14%. For the CF patients, robust (>90%) probabilities of target attainment (PTA) were achieved by the administration of a standard dose of 2 g/70 kg WT every 12 h (Q12h) given as 30-min infusions for MICs ≤ 1.5 mg/liter. As alternative dosage regimens, a 5-h infusion of 1.33 g/70 kg WT Q8h achieved robust PTAs for MICs ≤ 8 to 12 mg/liter and a continuous infusion of 4 g/day for MICs ≤ 12 mg/liter. Prolonged infusion of cefpirome is expected to be superior to short-term infusions for MICs between 2 and 12 mg/liter. PMID:21402834

  6. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Blepharoptosis in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Eun Young; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yongkyu; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence of blepharoptosis in a representative South Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 17,178 Korean adults (7,261 men and 9,917 women) aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MDR 1) lower than 2 mm. Household income and education level were used as indicators of SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis. Results Household income was inversely associated with the prevalence of blepharoptosis in women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 1.894 (1.336, 2.685)], and educational level was inversely associated with blepharoptosis in both men and women [aORs and 95% CIs were 1.572 (1.113, 2.219) and 1.973 (1.153, 3.376), respectively]. After adjusting for household income and educational level, low SES was associated with a high prevalence of blepharoptosis in women only. Conclusions Socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of blepharoptosis were found among women. Indeed, future research using a prospective design to determine the causal relationship between SES and blepharoptosis may identify SES as a risk factor for this condition. PMID:26727468

  7. Association between Maternal Characteristics and Neonatal Birth Weight in a Korean Population Living in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea: A Birth Cohort Study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Choi, Suk-Joo; Kim, Kyung Won; Yu, Jinho; Ahn, Kang Mo; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that maternal characteristics may be associated with neonatal outcomes. However, the influence of maternal characteristics on birth weight (BW) has not been adequately determined in Korean populations. We investigated associations between maternal characteristics and BW in a sample of 813 Korean women living in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea recruited using data from the prospective hospital-based COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) between 2007 and 2011. The mean maternal age at delivery was 32.3 ± 3.5 yr and prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) was 20.7 ± 2.5 kg/m2. The mean BW of infant was 3,196 ± 406 g. The overall prevalence of a maternal history of allergic disease was 32.9% and the overall prevalence of allergic symptoms was 65.1%. In multivariate regression models, prepregnancy maternal BMI and gestational age at delivery were positively and a maternal history of allergic disease and nulliparity were negatively associated with BW (all P < 0.05). Presence of allergic symptoms in the mother was not associated with BW. In conclusion, prepregnancy maternal BMI, gestational age at delivery, a maternal history of allergic disease, and nulliparity may be associated with BW, respectively. PMID:23579316

  8. Association between eNOS polymorphisms and risk of coronary artery disease in a Korean population: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sung, J H; Lee, B E; Kim, J O; Jeon, Y J; Kim, S H; Lim, S W; Moon, J Y; Cha, D H; Kim, O J; Kim, I J; Kim, N K

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD), a multifactorial disease, is a common cause of mortality in humans. Polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene (-786T>C, 4a4b, and 894G>T) have been previously associated with increased CAD risk. However, the sample size of this previous study was too small and limited to comprehensively define an association between eNOS polymorphisms and CAD; therefore, this analysis was duplicated with a larger population. The study was conducted on 559 patients with CAD and 574 healthy controls. Genetic DNA was extracted using the commercial G-DEX blood extraction kit and statistical analyses were performed on the GraphPad prism 4.0 and MedCalc 12.0 statistical software platforms. No single variant of the eNOS polymorphism was associated with CAD risk. The combination genotypes of eNOS -786TT/4a4b+4a4a [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.122; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.042-0.358] and eNOS -786TC+CC/4b4b (AOR = 0.379; 95%CI: 0.147-0.979) were associated with decreased CAD incidence. Haplotype analysis revealed that the T-4a haplotype of eNOS -786T>C and 4a4b exerted a protective effect against CAD. The association between eNOS -786T>C and increased CAD risk was not replicated in this (larger) population. However, some combined genotypes showed a meaningful association with CAD risk. PMID:26662450

  9. Additive effect of heavy metals on metabolic syndrome in the Korean population: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-Su

    2014-06-01

    There have been increasing concerns regarding health problems due to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We investigated association of heavy metals, including lead, mercury, and cadmium, with metabolic syndrome (MS) and its individual components in the Korean population. Participants included 1,961 males and 1,989 females 20 years of age or older from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys of the Korean population (2009 and 2010). We examined the relationship of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium levels with MS and the additive effect of three heavy metals on MS after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), region, smoking, alcohol consumption, and regular exercise. Blood concentration of lead showed a significant but modest association with prevalence of MS (P = 0.04). Other heavy metals did not show such a relationship with MS. When the participants were classified according to the sum of category numbers of the three heavy metals, adjusted odds ratios were 1.0, 1.355, 1.638, and 1.556 (P < 0.01). Among components of MS, significant relationship of the sum of heavy metals with hypertension and elevated triglyceride was demonstrated. Blood concentration of lead was positively associated with the prevalence of MS. Of particular interest, cumulative effect of a mixture of lead, mercury, and cadmium on prevalence of MS was stronger than the sum of effect of each heavy metal. Accumulative effect of exposure to heavy metals could be more additive or synergistic than individual exposure in the general population.

  10. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Lens Opacities in a Korean Adult Population with and without Diabetes: The 2008–2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Lee, Joo Eun; Lee, Eun Ju; Won, Jong Chul; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with lens opacities in a Korean adult population with and without diabetes. Research Design and Methods Among the 11,163 adults (≥19 years old) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2009, the data from laboratory tests, nutritional surveys, and slit-lamp examinations of 10,248 persons (4,397 men, 5,851 women) were examined. Cataract was defined as the presence of any nuclear, cortical, subcapsular, or mixed cataract in at least one eye, using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Results The weighted prevalence of cataracts were 23.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.7–25.4] in a Korean adult population (19–39 years old, 1.8% [1.3–2.5], 40–64 years old, 25.2% [22.5–28.1],≥65 years old, 87.8% [85.4–89.9])and 54.7% [50.1–59.2] in a diabetic population(19–39 years old, 11.6% [4.5–26.5], 40–64 years old, 41.1% [35.4–47.0], ≥65 years old, 88.3% [83.5–91.8]). In a logistic regression analysis, age, myopia, and the presence of diabetes were independent risk factors. For young (age 19–39 years) and middle aged (age 40–65 years) adults with diabetes, the OR of having a lens opacity is 5.04 [1.41–17.98] and 1.47 [1.11–1.94], respectively, as those without diabetes, whereas for adults aged 65 and older, there was no difference in the prevalence of cataract. Conclusions According to these national survey data, ∼ 24% of Korean adults and ∼ 55% of people with diabetes have cataracts. The presence of diabetes was independently associated with cataracts in young and middle aged adults. PMID:24718421

  11. [Lipid levels of a healthy population in the region of Extremadura].

    PubMed

    Sáenz, P; Fernández de los Ríos, A; Sanz, A; Cabanillas, A; Díaz, F; Rodilla, C S; Piñán, E

    1993-01-01

    We present the results of the first epidemiological study on lipidic levels among a healthy population from Extremadura. The study included 1.128 subjects, 520 males and 608 females, distributed by age and sex. Average total cholesterol levels were 228 +/- 40 mg/dl among middle-age and 215.6 +/- 43 mg/dl among women. We observed a significant reduction of these figures in ages above 60. In addition, we observed significant differences in HDL-Ch levels between men and women from all ages, with higher values among women and we only observed significant differences regarding total cholesterol levels between men and women in the 20-29 and 40-49 age-groups. Total cholesterol levels were higher than 220 mg/dl in more than half the studied population between 40 and 60 years of age and higher than 250 mg/dl in 20% of the subjects in such age groups. These data suggest the need for dietary changes in near 70% of the population if cholesterol levels are to approach the recommendations of the Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis.

  12. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of isoniazid, acetylisoniazid, and isonicotinic acid in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Hee, Kim-Hor; Soon, Gaik-Hong; Chew, Nicholas; Khoo, Saye H; Lee, Lawrence Soon-U

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) phenotype on isoniazid (INH) metabolism in vivo and identify other sources of pharmacokinetic variability following single-dose administration in healthy Asian adults. The concentrations of INH and its metabolites acetylisoniazid (AcINH) and isonicotinic acid (INA) in plasma were evaluated in 33 healthy Asians who were also given efavirenz and rifampin. The pharmacokinetics of INH, AcINH, and INA were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) to estimate the population pharmacokinetic parameters and evaluate the relationships between the parameters and the elimination status (fast, intermediate, and slow acetylators), demographic status, and measures of renal and hepatic function. A two-compartment model with first-order absorption best described the INH pharmacokinetics. AcINH and INA data were best described by a two- and a one-compartment model, respectively, linked to the INH model. In the final model for INH, the derived metabolic phenotypes for NAT2 were identified as a significant covariate in the INH clearance, reducing its interindividual variability from 86% to 14%. The INH clearance in fast eliminators was 1.9- and 7.7-fold higher than in intermediate and slow eliminators, respectively (65 versus 35 and 8 liters/h). Creatinine clearance was confirmed as a significant covariate for AcINH clearance. Simulations suggested that the current dosing guidelines (200 mg for 30 to 45 kg and 300 mg for >45 kg) may be suboptimal (3 mg/liter ≤ Cmax ≤ 6 mg/liter) irrespective of the acetylator class. The analysis established a model that adequately characterizes INH, AcINH, and INA pharmacokinetics in healthy Asians. Our results refine the NAT2 phenotype-based predictions of the pharmacokinetics for INH.

  13. Composition and stability of intestinal microbiota of healthy children within a Dutch population.

    PubMed

    de Meij, Tim G J; Budding, Andries E; de Groot, Evelien F J; Jansen, Fenna M; Frank Kneepkens, C M; Benninga, Marc A; Penders, John; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A; Savelkoul, Paul H M

    2016-04-01

    Numerous diseases linked to microbial imbalance can be traced back to childhood, illustrating the impact of the juvenile microbiota development from infancy toward adulthood. However, knowledge on this subject is currently very limited. The primary aim of this study was to characterize composition and short- and long-term stability of the intestinal microbiota in healthy children. Between November 2011 and June 2014, 61 children 2 to 18 yr of age from different areas in The Netherlands were included and instructed to collect fecal samples weekly, for 6 wk, and a follow-up sample after 18 mo. The intergenic spacer profiling technique (IS-pro) was used to analyze all available fecal samples. Microbial diversity was calculated by the Shannon diversity index and individual compositional stability by comparing all collection time points. Microbial stability varied per phylum (P< 0.0005), declined rapidly in a short time period, and subsequently stabilized on the long run with very gradual variation, leading to an overall compositional stability of 70% on average over a period of 18 mo. Higher species diversity was correlated to a higher overall compositional stability (P< 0.001). We observed an age-independent bacterial shared core consisting of a limited number of species. In conclusion, in this study, we showed that microbial composition stability in children varied per phylum, at both short-term and long-term intervals. Healthy children seem to share a microbiome core consisting of a limited number of species.-De Meij, T. G. J., Budding, A. E., de Groot, E. F. J., Jansen, F. M., Kneepkens, C. M. F., Benninga, M. A., Penders, J., van Bodegraven, A. A., Savelkoul, P. H. M. Composition and stability of intestinal microbiota of healthy children within a Dutch population. PMID:26655704

  14. Composition and stability of intestinal microbiota of healthy children within a Dutch population.

    PubMed

    de Meij, Tim G J; Budding, Andries E; de Groot, Evelien F J; Jansen, Fenna M; Frank Kneepkens, C M; Benninga, Marc A; Penders, John; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A; Savelkoul, Paul H M

    2016-04-01

    Numerous diseases linked to microbial imbalance can be traced back to childhood, illustrating the impact of the juvenile microbiota development from infancy toward adulthood. However, knowledge on this subject is currently very limited. The primary aim of this study was to characterize composition and short- and long-term stability of the intestinal microbiota in healthy children. Between November 2011 and June 2014, 61 children 2 to 18 yr of age from different areas in The Netherlands were included and instructed to collect fecal samples weekly, for 6 wk, and a follow-up sample after 18 mo. The intergenic spacer profiling technique (IS-pro) was used to analyze all available fecal samples. Microbial diversity was calculated by the Shannon diversity index and individual compositional stability by comparing all collection time points. Microbial stability varied per phylum (P< 0.0005), declined rapidly in a short time period, and subsequently stabilized on the long run with very gradual variation, leading to an overall compositional stability of 70% on average over a period of 18 mo. Higher species diversity was correlated to a higher overall compositional stability (P< 0.001). We observed an age-independent bacterial shared core consisting of a limited number of species. In conclusion, in this study, we showed that microbial composition stability in children varied per phylum, at both short-term and long-term intervals. Healthy children seem to share a microbiome core consisting of a limited number of species.-De Meij, T. G. J., Budding, A. E., de Groot, E. F. J., Jansen, F. M., Kneepkens, C. M. F., Benninga, M. A., Penders, J., van Bodegraven, A. A., Savelkoul, P. H. M. Composition and stability of intestinal microbiota of healthy children within a Dutch population.

  15. Influence of inflammatory and lipidic parameters on red blood cell distribution width in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Vayá, Amparo; Sarnago, Ana; Fuster, Oscar; Alis, Rafael; Romagnoli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a routine red blood cell count parameter which has been shown to be associated with inflammatory parameters. Recently, some authors proposed that RDW seems to be a marker of an adverse lipidic profile. In order to clarify whether RDW is related to inflammation, plasma lipids, or both, we determined anthropometric, hematimetric, inflammatory and lipidic parameters in 1111 healthy subjects. RDW correlated directly with age, body mass index (BMI), inflammatory parameters (plasma viscosity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, leukocyte and neutrophil count), and inversely with iron and hematimetric parameters (P <  0.05). When subjects were divided according to gender, RDW correlated inversely with triglycerides only in women (P <  0.05). When subjects were classified into RDW-quartiles, increased RDW values were accompanied by decreased serum iron levels and hematimetric indices (P <  0.01), whereas age and inflammatory markers increased according to RDW-quartiles (P <  0.001 and P <  0.05, respectively). However, plasma lipids did not change with increasing RDW-quartiles (P >  0.05). In the linear regression analysis, age, hemoglobin, MCV (beta coefficient: 0.202, -0.234, -0.316, P <  0.001) and fibrinogen (beta coefficient: 0.059, P = 0.048) were the only independent predictors of RDW. The present study indicates that RDW is associated with inflammatory markers and hematimetric indices, but not with plasma lipid levels in a healthy population. PMID:25159489

  16. Heart rate variability is related to self-reported physical activity in a healthy adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Henje Blom, Eva; Olsson, Erik M G; Serlachius, Eva; Ericson, Mats; Ingvar, Martin

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated whether there is a relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) versus lifestyle and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a population of healthy adolescents. HRV is as an index of tonic autonomic activity and in adults HRV is related to lifestyle and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but it is not known if this is the case in adolescents. HRV was registered for 4 min in sitting position in 99 healthy adolescents (age range 15 years 11 months-17 years 7 months) and repeated after 6 months. On both occasions there were significant correlations (P < 0.05) between physical activity and HRV, with respective r values: high frequency (HF) 0.26, 0.30; low frequency power (LF) 0.35, 0.29 and the standard deviation of inter-beat intervals (SDNN) 0.28, 0.37. There was no significant interaction between first and second measurements. In contrast, there were no correlations to sleeping patterns, eating habits and smoking. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease [body mass index (BMI = weight (kg)/length in m(2)), systolic blood pressure and p-glucose] did not show any repeatable significant correlations to HRV. Multiple regression models showed that physical activity was a predictor for HF, LF and SDNN in both measurements. In conclusion HF, LF and SDNN were reproducible after 6 months and were related to physical activity on both occasions.

  17. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    PubMed

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. PMID:26850856

  18. Evolutionary Analyses of Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)-Specific Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Genes Using Whole-Genome Resequencing Data of a Hanwoo Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daehwan; Cho, Minah; Hong, Woon-Young; Lim, Dajeong; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Cho, Yong-Min; Jeong, Jin-Young; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Ko, Younhee; Kim, Jaebum

    2016-09-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled population-level studies for many animals to unravel the relationships between genotypic differences and traits of specific populations. The objective of this study was to perform evolutionary analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes of Korean native cattle Hanwoo in comparison to SNP data from four other cattle breeds (Jersey, Simmental, Angus, and Holstein) and four related species (pig, horse, human, and mouse) obtained from public databases through NGS-based resequencing. We analyzed population structures and differentiation levels for the five cattle breeds and estimated species-specific SNPs with their origins and phylogenetic relationships among species. In addition, we identified Hanwoo-specific genes and proteins, and determined distinct changes in protein-protein interactions among five species (cattle, pig, horse, human, mouse) in the STRING network database by additionally considering indirect protein interactions. We found that the Hanwoo population was clearly different from the other four cattle populations. There were Hanwoo-specific genes related to its meat trait. Protein interaction rewiring analysis also confirmed that there were Hanwoo-specific protein-protein interactions that might have contributed to its unique meat quality. PMID:27640093

  19. Evolutionary Analyses of Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)-Specific Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Genes Using Whole-Genome Resequencing Data of a Hanwoo Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daehwan; Cho, Minah; Hong, Woon-Young; Lim, Dajeong; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Cho, Yong-Min; Jeong, Jin-Young; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Ko, Younhee; Kim, Jaebum

    2016-09-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled population-level studies for many animals to unravel the relationships between genotypic differences and traits of specific populations. The objective of this study was to perform evolutionary analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes of Korean native cattle Hanwoo in comparison to SNP data from four other cattle breeds (Jersey, Simmental, Angus, and Holstein) and four related species (pig, horse, human, and mouse) obtained from public databases through NGS-based resequencing. We analyzed population structures and differentiation levels for the five cattle breeds and estimated species-specific SNPs with their origins and phylogenetic relationships among species. In addition, we identified Hanwoo-specific genes and proteins, and determined distinct changes in protein-protein interactions among five species (cattle, pig, horse, human, mouse) in the STRING network database by additionally considering indirect protein interactions. We found that the Hanwoo population was clearly different from the other four cattle populations. There were Hanwoo-specific genes related to its meat trait. Protein interaction rewiring analysis also confirmed that there were Hanwoo-specific protein-protein interactions that might have contributed to its unique meat quality.

  20. Evolutionary Analyses of Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)-Specific Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Genes Using Whole-Genome Resequencing Data of a Hanwoo Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daehwan; Cho, Minah; Hong, Woon-young; Lim, Dajeong; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Cho, Yong-Min; Jeong, Jin-Young; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Ko, Younhee; Kim, Jaebum

    2016-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled population-level studies for many animals to unravel the relationships between genotypic differences and traits of specific populations. The objective of this study was to perform evolutionary analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes of Korean native cattle Hanwoo in comparison to SNP data from four other cattle breeds (Jersey, Simmental, Angus, and Holstein) and four related species (pig, horse, human, and mouse) obtained from public databases through NGS-based resequencing. We analyzed population structures and differentiation levels for the five cattle breeds and estimated species-specific SNPs with their origins and phylogenetic relationships among species. In addition, we identified Hanwoo-specific genes and proteins, and determined distinct changes in protein-protein interactions among five species (cattle, pig, horse, human, mouse) in the STRING network database by additionally considering indirect protein interactions. We found that the Hanwoo population was clearly different from the other four cattle populations. There were Hanwoo-specific genes related to its meat trait. Protein interaction rewiring analysis also confirmed that there were Hanwoo-specific protein-protein interactions that might have contributed to its unique meat quality. PMID:27640093

  1. Defining the Limits of Normal Conjunctival Fornix Anatomy in a Healthy South Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran J.; Ghauri, Abdul-Jabbar; Hodson, James; Edmunds, Matthew R.; Cottrell, Paul; Evans, Simon; Williams, Geraint P.; Rauz, Saaeha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Quantifying the extent of conjunctival fibrosis for documentation of progression in conjunctival scarring disease is a clinical challenge. Measurement of forniceal foreshortening facilitates monitoring of these disorders. This study aims (1) to define the limits of the normal human conjunctival fornices and how these alter with age and (2) to provide normative data for upper and lower fornix depths (FDs) and fornix intercanthal distance (FICD) within a healthy South Asian, racially distinct population. Design Epidemiologic, cross-sectional study. Participants A total of 240 subjects with national origins from South Asia, with no known ocular history and normal adnexal and conjunctival examination, aged 20 to 80 years. Methods An FICD modification of a custom-designed fornix depth measurer (FDM) was validated and used for measurement of both lower and upper FDs together with FICDs in 480 healthy eyes with no ocular comorbidities. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and presented as means with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Main Outcome Measures Mean lower and upper FDs and FICD for the entire cohort, stratified according to age decade and sex. Results For this South Asian population, the overall upper and lower FDs were 15.3 mm (95% CI, 14.9–15.6) and 10.9 mm (95% CI, 10.7–11.1), respectively, with FICD defined as 32.9 mm (95% CI, 32.5–33.4) (upper) and 31.7 mm (95% CI, 31.3–32.1) (lower). With increasing age, a progressive reduction of all measured parameters (P < 0.001) was noted, with female subjects having significantly shallower fornices (upper FD, P < 0.001; lower FD, P < 0.001; upper FICD, P = 0.081; and lower FICD, P = 0.015). Conclusions This is the first study to define the limits of normal upper FD and FICDs in any population group. Our study demonstrates sex variations and progressive conjunctival shrinkage with age. Although it provides important, objective data for normal forniceal anatomy

  2. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  3. Frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in healthy Bosniak population.

    PubMed

    Adler, Grażyna; Valjevac, Amina; Skonieczna-Żydecka, Karolina; Mackic-Djurovic, Mirela; Parczewski, Miłosz; Urbańska, Anna; Salkic, Nermin Nusret

    2014-08-28

    Recent evidence has demonstrated the role of CCR5Δ32 in a variety of human diseases: from infectious and inflammatory diseases to cancer. Several studies have confirmed that genetic variants in chemokine receptor CCR5 gene are correlated with susceptibility and resistance to HIV infection. A 32-nucleotide deletion within the CCR5 reading frame is associated with decreased susceptibility to HIV acquisition and a slower progression to AIDS. Mean frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in Europe is approximately 10%. The highest allele frequency is observed among Nordic populations (about 12%) and lower in the regions of Southeast Mediterranean (about 5%). Although the frequency of CCR5Δ32 was determined in numerous European populations, there is a lack of studies on this variant in the Bosnia and Hercegovina population. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in the cohort of Bosniaks and compare the results with European reports. CCR5Δ32 was detected by sequence-specific PCR in a sample of 100 healthy subjects from Bosnia and Herzegovina (DNA collected 2011-2013). Mean age of the cohort being 58.8 (± 10.7) years, with 82% of women. We identified 17 heterozygotes and one mutant homozygote in study group, with mean ∆32 allele frequency of 9.5%. CCR5∆32 allele frequency among Bosniaks is comparable to that found in Caucasian populations and follows the pattern of the north-southern gradient observed for Europe. Further studies on larger cohorts with adequate female-to-male ratio are necessary.

  4. Frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in healthy Bosniak population

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Grażyna; Valjevac, Amina; Skonieczna-Żydecka, Karolina; Mackic-Djurovic, Mirela; Parczewski, Miłosz; Urbańska, Anna; Salkic, Nermin N

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated the role of CCR5Δ32 in a variety of human diseases: from infectious and inflammatory diseases to cancer. Several studies have confirmed that genetic variants in chemokine receptor CCR5 gene are correlated with susceptibility and resistance to HIV infection. A 32-nucleotide deletion within the CCR5 reading frame is associated with decreased susceptibility to HIV acquisition and a slower progression to AIDS. Mean frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in Europe is approximately 10%. The highest allele frequency is observed among Nordic populations (about 12%) and the lowest in the regions of Southeast Mediterranean (about 5%). Although the frequency of CCR5Δ32 was determined in numerous European populations, there is a lack of studies on this variant in the Bosnia and Herzegovina population. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in the cohort of Bosniaks and compare the results with European reports. CCR5Δ32 was detected by sequence-specific PCR in a sample of 100 healthy Bosniaks (DNA collected 2011-2013). Mean age of the cohort being 58.8 (±10.7) years, with 82% of women. We identified 17 heterozygotes and one mutant homozygote in study group, with mean ∆32 allele frequency of 9.5%. CCR5∆32 allele frequency among Bosniaks is comparable to that found in Caucasian populations and follows the pattern of the north-southern gradient observed for Europe. Further studies on larger cohorts with adequate female-to-male ratio are necessary. PMID:25172974

  5. Cut-off value of FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kyung Soo; Jung, Ji Ye; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Song, Joo Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV6) has been proposed as an alternative to FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) for detecting airway obstruction. A fixed cut-off value for FEV1/FEV6 in a Korean population is lacking. We investigated a fixed cut-off for FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction. Materials and methods We used data obtained in the 5 years of the Fifth and Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 14,978 participants aged ≥40 years who underwent spirometry adequately were the study cohort. “Airway obstruction” was a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70% according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. We also used European Respiratory Society/Global Lung Initiative 2012 equations for the FEV1/FVC lower limit of normal. Results Among the 14,978 participants (43.5% male, 56.5% female; mean age: 56.9 years for men and 57.0 years for women), 14.0% had obstructive lung function according to a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70%. Optimal FEV1/FEV6 cut-off for predicting FEV1/FVC <70% was 75% using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses (area under receiver operating characteristic curve =0.989, 95% confidence interval 0.987–0.990). This fixed cut-off of FEV1/FEV6 showed 93.8% sensitivity, 94.8% specificity, 74.7% positive predictive value, 98.9% negative predictive value, and 0.8 Cohen’s kappa coefficient. When compared with FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal, FEV1/FEV6 <75% tended to over-diagnose airflow limitation (just like a fixed cut-off of FEV1/FVC <70%). When grouped according to age and FEV1 (%), FEV1/FEV6 <75% diagnosed more airway obstruction in older participants and mild–moderate stages compared with FEV1/FVC <70%. Conclusion A valid fixed cut-off for detecting airway obstruction in a Korean population is FEV1/FEV6 of 75%, but should be used with caution in older individuals and those with

  6. Analysis of C-shaped root canal configuration in maxillary molars in a Korean population using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyoung-Hoon; Min, Jeong-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of root fusion and C-shaped root canals in maxillary molars, and to classify the types of C-shaped canal by analyzing cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a Korean population. Materials and Methods Digitized CBCT images from 911 subjects were obtained in Chosun University Dental Hospital between February 2010 and July 2012 for orthodontic treatment. Among them, a total of selected 3,553 data of maxillary molars were analyzed retrospectively. Tomography sections in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes were displayed by PiViewstar and Rapidia MPR software (Infinitt Co.). The incidence and types of root fusion and C-shaped root canals were evaluated and the incidence between the first and the second molar was compared using Chi-square test. Results Root fusion was present in 3.2% of the first molars and 19.5% of the second molars, and fusion of mesiobuccal and palatal root was dominant. C-shaped root canals were present in 0.8% of the first molars and 2.7% of the second molars. The frequency of root fusion and C-shaped canal was significantly higher in the second molar than the first molar (p < 0.001). Conclusions In a Korean population, maxillary molars showed total 11.3% of root fusion and 1.8% of C-shaped root canals. Furthermore, root fusion and C-shaped root canals were seen more frequently in the maxillary second molars. PMID:26877991

  7. Determinants of Blood Pressure Response to Low Salt Intake in a Healthy Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Montasser, May E.; Douglas, Julie A.; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hèlène; Van Hout, Cristopher V.; Weir, Matthew R.; Vogel, Robert; Parsa, Afshin; Steinle, Nanette I.; Snitker, Soren; Brereton, Nga Hong; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.

    2011-01-01

    Although the beneficial effects of lowering salt intake in hypertensives are widely appreciated, the impact of promoting dietary salt restriction for BP reduction at the population level remains controversial. We used 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to characterize the determinants of systolic blood pressure (SBP) response to low salt intake in a large, relatively healthy Amish population. Subjects received a high and low sodium diet for 6 days each, separated by a 6–14 day washout period. Variance component analysis was used to assess the association of several variables with SBP response to low salt diet. Mean SBP was 0.7 ± 5.8 and 1.3 ± 6.1 mmHg lower on the low salt compared to the high salt diet during daytime (p=0.008) and nighttime (p<0.0001) respectively. SBP response to low salt diet was significantly associated with increasing age and pre-intervention SBP, in both daytime and nighttime, while the association with female gender and SBP response to cold pressor test (CPT) was significant only during nighttime. Our results suggest that salt reduction may have greater BP-lowering effects on females, older individuals, individuals with higher SBP, and individuals with higher SBP response to CPT. PMID:22051423

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity in an urban population of healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Colliard, Laurence; Paragon, Bernard-Marie; Lemuet, Béatrice; Bénet, Jean-Jacques; Blanchard, Géraldine

    2009-02-01

    The incidence of overweight in cats has been reported in various studies to range between 6 and 52% depending on such factors as gender, neutering, age, being cross-bred, living in a single or two-cat household, no dog living in the household, inactivity, feeding fresh meat or fish, eating a premium or therapeutic food, distribution of food on a free choice basis and owner underestimation of their cat's body weight or body condition (BC). The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight and to determine the risk factors associated with excess body weight, including owners' perception of their cat's BC in the studied population. Between March and June 2006, all owners presenting healthy cats for vaccination at the National Veterinary School of Alfort were questioned by a veterinarian using a standardised and validated questionnaire. Owners and veterinarians gave an oral evaluation of the cat's BC first verbally and then by comparison with a legend free visual scale. Univariate analysis was performed for all variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to variables strongly associated with overweight or regarded as major risk factors. On a total population of 385 cats, 19.0% were found to be overweight and 7.8% to be obese. The evaluation of overweight cats' BC by their owner was better with the visual scale than with the verbal description. This study confirmed earlier reports identifying being male, neutering, and underestimation of the cat's BC by the owner, as risk factors for being overweight.

  9. Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: a birth cohort study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Kyung Won; Ahn, Kangmo; Hong, Seo-Ah; Lee, Eun; Yang, Song-I; Jung, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Suh, Dong In; Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Kim, Bong Sung; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI) during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OH)D concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods The levels of 25(OH)D in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results The median concentration of 25(OH)D in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2). One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations of 25.0-74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1%) showed concentrations of ≥75.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OH)D concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend=0.0004). Conclusion The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively). Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants. PMID:24244212

  10. Human atlas of the cardiac fiber architecture: study on a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Lombaert, Herve; Peyrat, Jean-Marc; Croisille, Pierre; Rapacchi, Stanislas; Fanton, Laurent; Cheriet, Farida; Clarysse, Patrick; Magnin, Isabelle; Delingette, Hervé; Ayache, Nicholas

    2012-07-01

    Cardiac fibers, as well as their local arrangement in laminar sheets, have a complex spatial variation of their orientation that has an important role in mechanical and electrical cardiac functions. In this paper, a statistical atlas of this cardiac fiber architecture is built for the first time using human datasets. This atlas provides an average description of the human cardiac fiber architecture along with its variability within the population. In this study, the population is composed of ten healthy human hearts whose cardiac fiber architecture is imaged ex vivo with DT-MRI acquisitions. The atlas construction is based on a computational framework that minimizes user interactions and combines most recent advances in image analysis: graph cuts for segmentation, symmetric log-domain diffeomorphic demons for registration, and log-Euclidean metric for diffusion tensor processing and statistical analysis. Results show that the helix angle of the average fiber orientation is highly correlated to the transmural depth and ranges from -41° on the epicardium to +66° on the endocardium. Moreover, we find that the fiber orientation dispersion across the population (±13°) is lower than for the laminar sheets (±31°) . This study, based on human hearts, extends previous studies on other mammals with concurring conclusions and provides a description of the cardiac fiber architecture more specific to human and better suited for clinical applications. Indeed, this statistical atlas can help to improve the computational models used for radio-frequency ablation, cardiac resynchronization therapy, surgical ventricular restoration, or diagnosis and followups of heart diseases due to fiber architecture anomalies. PMID:22481815

  11. Copper concentration in a healthy urban adult population of southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Salehi, Narges Mohammad; Siadatan, Javad; Omrani, Gholamhossein Ranjbar

    2011-12-01

    Nutritional deficiencies are important and widespread problems in most developing countries. Preventing and correcting micronutrient deficiencies are important because of the multiple negative consequences of these deficiencies. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of copper deficiency in an adult population in Shiraz, southern Iran. We also determined the association between copper status and other factors such as age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). In this cross-sectional study, 416 adults residing in Shiraz were selected by two-stage sampling. Serum copper was measured by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry. The data were analyzed with SPSS software. Mean age in our sample was 39.33 ± 15.06 years, and mean BMI was 26.17 ± 4.81 kg/m(2). Mean serum copper concentration was 118.15 ± 54.33 μg/dL in the whole sample, 109.74 ± 56.22 μg/dL in men, and 122.15 ± 53.04 μg/dL in women. The overall prevalence of copper deficiency was 24%. The prevalence of copper deficiency differed significantly between men and women but not between different age groups. Serum copper concentration correlated significantly with BMI (p < 0.05). This study is the first to evaluate serum copper status in a healthy population in southern Iran. We show that the mean copper concentrations were higher than those reported for Iranian populations in northern cities and were also higher compared with studies in most other countries. We suggested more detailed studies to identify the etiological determinants of this nutritional deficiency in Iran and elsewhere.

  12. Human atlas of the cardiac fiber architecture: study on a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Lombaert, Herve; Peyrat, Jean-Marc; Croisille, Pierre; Rapacchi, Stanislas; Fanton, Laurent; Cheriet, Farida; Clarysse, Patrick; Magnin, Isabelle; Delingette, Hervé; Ayache, Nicholas

    2012-07-01

    Cardiac fibers, as well as their local arrangement in laminar sheets, have a complex spatial variation of their orientation that has an important role in mechanical and electrical cardiac functions. In this paper, a statistical atlas of this cardiac fiber architecture is built for the first time using human datasets. This atlas provides an average description of the human cardiac fiber architecture along with its variability within the population. In this study, the population is composed of ten healthy human hearts whose cardiac fiber architecture is imaged ex vivo with DT-MRI acquisitions. The atlas construction is based on a computational framework that minimizes user interactions and combines most recent advances in image analysis: graph cuts for segmentation, symmetric log-domain diffeomorphic demons for registration, and log-Euclidean metric for diffusion tensor processing and statistical analysis. Results show that the helix angle of the average fiber orientation is highly correlated to the transmural depth and ranges from -41° on the epicardium to +66° on the endocardium. Moreover, we find that the fiber orientation dispersion across the population (±13°) is lower than for the laminar sheets (±31°) . This study, based on human hearts, extends previous studies on other mammals with concurring conclusions and provides a description of the cardiac fiber architecture more specific to human and better suited for clinical applications. Indeed, this statistical atlas can help to improve the computational models used for radio-frequency ablation, cardiac resynchronization therapy, surgical ventricular restoration, or diagnosis and followups of heart diseases due to fiber architecture anomalies.

  13. A comparison of somatic mutational spectra in healthy study populations from Russia, Sweden and USA

    SciTech Connect

    Noori, P; Hou, S; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Lambert, B

    2004-10-27

    Comparison of mutation spectra at the hypoxanthine-phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene of peripheral blood T lymphocytes may provide insight into the aetiology of somatic mutation contributing to carcinogenesis and other diseases. To increase knowledge of mutation spectra in healthy people, we have analyzed HPRT mutant T-cells of 50 healthy Russians originally recruited as controls for a study of Chernobyl clean-up workers (Jones et al. Radiation Res. 158, 2002, 424). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions and DNA sequencing identified 161 independent mutations among 176 thioguanine resistant mutants. Forty (40) mutations affected splicing mechanisms and 27 deletions or insertions of 1 to 60 nucleotides were identified. Ninety four (94) single base substitutions were identified, including 62 different mutations at 55 different nucleotide positions, of which 19 had not previously been reported in human T-cells. Comparison of this base substitution spectrum with mutation spectra in a USA (Burkhart-Schultz et al. Carcinogenesis 17, 1996, 1871) and two Swedish populations (Podlutsky et al, Carcinogenesis 19, 1998, 557, Podlutsky et al. Mutation Res. 431, 1999, 325) revealed similarity in the type, frequency and distribution of mutations in the four spectra, consistent with aetiologies inherent in human metabolism. There were 15-19 identical mutations in the three pair-wise comparisons of Russian with USA and Swedish spectra. Intriguingly, there were 21 mutations unique to the Russian spectrum, and comparison by the Monte Carlo method of Adams and Skopek (J. Mol. Biol. 194, 1987, 391) indicated that the Russian spectrum was different from both Swedish spectra (P=0.007, 0.002) but not different from the USA spectrum (P=0.07), when Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was made (p < 0.008 required for significance). Age and smoking did not account for these differences. Other factors causing mutational differences need to be explored.

  14. [Beverage consumption for a healthy life: recommendations for the Mexican population].

    PubMed

    Rivera, Juan A; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Popkin, Barry M; Willett, Walter C

    2008-01-01

    The Expert Committee in charge of developing the Beverage Consumption Recommendations for the Mexican Population was convened by the Secretary of Health for the purpose of developing evidence-based guidelines for consumers, health professionals, and government officials. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and diabetes have dramatically increased in Mexico; beverages contribute a fifth of all calories consumed by Mexicans. Extensive research has found that caloric beverages increase the risk of obesity. Taking into consideration multiple factors, including the health benefits, risks, and nutritional implications associated with beverage consumption, as well as consumption patterns in Mexico, the committee classified beverages into six levels. Classifications were made based on caloric content, nutritional value, and health risks associated with the consumption of each type of beverage and range from the healthier (level 1) to least healthy (level 6) options, as follows: Level 1: water; Level 2: skim or low fat (1%) milk and sugar free soy beverages; Level 3: coffee and tea without sugar; Level 4: non-caloric beverages with artificial sweeteners; Level 5: beverages with high caloric content and limited health benefits (fruit juices, whole milk, and fruit smoothies with sugar or honey; alcoholic and sports drinks), and Level 6: beverages high in sugar and with low nutritional value (soft drinks and other beverages with significant amounts of added sugar like juices, flavored waters, coffee and tea). The committee recommends the consumption of water as a first choice, followed by no or low-calorie drinks, and skim milk. These beverages should be favored over beverages with high caloric value or sweetened beverages, including those containing artificial sweeteners. Portion size recommendations are included for each beverage category and healthy consumption patterns for men and women are illustrated.

  15. [Drink consumption for a healthy life: recommendations for the general population in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Rivera, Juan A; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Popkin, Barry M; Willett, Walter C

    2008-01-01

    The Expert Committee in charge of developing the Beverage Consumption Recommendations for the Mexican Population was convened by the Ministry of Health with the aim of drafting evidence-based guidelines for consumers, health professionals, and government officials. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and diabetes have dramatically increased in Mexico; beverages contribute a fifth of all calories consumed by Mexicans. Extensive research has documented that caloric beverages increase the risk of obesity. Taking into consideration multiple factors, including health benefits, risks, and nutritional implications associated with beverage consumption, as well as consumption patterns in Mexico, the committee classified beverages in six categories. Classifications were made based on caloric content, nutritional value, and health risks associated with the consumption of each type of beverage. Ranges included healthier (level 1) to least healthy (level 6) options as follows: Level 1: water; Level 2: skim or low fat (1%) milk and sugar free soy beverages; Level 3: coffee and tea without sugar; Level 4: non-caloric beverages with artificial sweeteners; Level 5: beverages with high caloric content and limited health benefits (fruit juices, whole milk, and fruit smoothies with sugar or honey; alcoholic and sports drinks), and Level 6: beverages high in sugar and with low nutritional value (soft drinks and other beverages with significant amounts of added sugar like juices, flavored waters, coffee and tea). The committee recommends the consumption of water as a first choice, followed by no or low-calorie drinks, and skim milk. These beverages should be favored over beverages with high caloric value or sweetened beverages, including those containing artificial sweeteners. Portion size recommendations are included for each beverage category together with healthy consumption patterns for men and women.

  16. Seasonal changes of 24-hour intraocular pressure rhythm in healthy Shanghai population

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jingyi; Xiao, Ming; Xu, Huan; Fang, Shaobin; Chen, Xu; Kong, Xiangmei; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythms in winter and summer in the healthy population of Shanghai, China. This is a cross-sectional study in which 24-hour IOP measurements were taken for all eligible healthy volunteers in winter and summer, respectively, and the temperature, hours of sunlight (sunlight time), and circulatory parameters, including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, were also recorded. The 24-hour IOP curves and IOP parameters (mean, peak, trough, and fluctuation of IOP together with the diurnal-to-nocturnal IOP change) in winter and summer were obtained and compared. The magnitude of IOP changes from summer to winter was also calculated. A total of 29 participants (58 eyes), 14 (48.28%) male and 15 (51.72%) female, aged 43.66 ± 12.20 (19–61) years, were considered eligible for this study. Generally, IOP decreased progressively before noon, increased notably in the nocturnal period, and peaked at 12:00 am in winter and at 2:00 am in summer. The pattern of 24-hour IOP in winter and summer was significantly different (P = 0.002). The average IOPs from 4:00 pm to 8:00 am, except for 6:00 am, were significantly higher in winter (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were shown after adjusting for temperature and/or sunlight time. From summer to winter, the extent of IOP increase was mostly around 0 to 3 mm Hg, and the IOPs increased more significantly in the nocturnal period than in the diurnal period (P = 0.05). The 24-hour IOP rhythms were different in winter and summer, with higher IOP level in winter. Temperature and sunlight time, which are independent of heart rate and blood pressure, affected the 24-hour IOP rhythms in healthy people in Shanghai, China. Further investigations are expected for the rhythm of some endogenous substance secretion and the inner mechanism of regulation of IOP. PMID:27495076

  17. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case–control, and intervention studies of a general healthy population in settings similar to the Nordic countries with protein intake from food-based sources were included. Out of a total of 301 abstracts, 152 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After careful scrutiny, 23 papers were quality graded as A (highest, n=1), B (n=18), or C (n=4). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement (EAR) of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance (N-balance) studies and the subsequent recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 0.83 g good-quality protein/kg BW/day representing the minimum dietary protein needs of virtually all healthy elderly persons. Regarding the optimal level of protein related to functional outcomes like maintenance of bone mass, muscle mass, and strength, as well as for morbidity and mortality, the evidence is ranging from suggestive to inconclusive. Results from particularly prospective cohort studies suggest a safe intake of up to at least 1.2–1.5 g protein/kg BW/day or approximately 15–20 E%. Overall, many of the included prospective cohort studies were difficult to fully evaluate since results mainly were obtained by food frequency questionnaires that were flawed by underreported intakes, although some studies were ‘calibrated’ to correct for under- or over-reporting. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the EAR based on N-balance studies and suggestive to inconclusive regarding an optimal protein intake higher than the estimated

  18. Arterial Stiffness and Trace Elements in Apparently Healthy Population- A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Subrahmanyam, Gangapatnam; Ramalingam, Krishnan; Indira, Selvam Armugam; Kantha, Katari; Soren, Bhemasen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stiffening of arteries is a natural ageing process. Any diseases/disorders or risk factors that escalate oxidative stress, microvascular inflammation and endothelial damage may promote to premature vascular stiffening. Any imbalance in these trace element levels may independently contribute to the changes in the components in the arterial wall and thus, arterial stiffness via one or more mechanisms. Aim To evaluate the severity of arterial stiffness in apparently healthy population and also to evaluate role of various risk factors and trace elements in the severity of arterial stiffness Materials and Methods Male and female subjects living in urban and rural areas of Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, India, between 20-60 years, apparently normal as judged by the clinician basing on clinical and laboratory findings, were studied. Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity (cf-PWV) a marker of arterial stiffness was assessed using non-invasive blood pressure curve monitoring (periscope). Furthermore, we also estimated serum levels of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), Aluminium (Al), silicon (Si), Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mb), Vanadium (Vn) and lead (Pb) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. ANOVA and Chi-Square test were used to study the clinical correlations between severity of arterial stiffness, risk factors and trace elements. Results A total of 737 apparently healthy subjects participated in this cross-sectional study. Of the total 542 (73.5%) were from rural and the remaining 195 (26.5%) were living in urban areas, 328 (44.5%) were males, and 409 (55.5%) were females. A 63.5% (468/737) had normal arterial stiffness followed by 14.5% (107/737) with mild stiffness, 7% (57/737) had moderate stiffness and 14.2% (105/737) had severe arterial stiffness. Smoking, alcohol, blood pressures, fasting blood sugar, and total cholesterol, Cu, Al and Vn correlated (p<0.05) with different grades of arterial stiffness. Conclusion A 36.5% had

  19. Association between Promoter Polymorphisms of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 and the Risk of Gastric and Diffuse Gastric Cancers in a Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Jin, Eun-Heui; Lee, Sang-Il; Kim, JaeWoo; Seo, Eun Young; Lee, Su Yel; Hur, Gang Min; Shin, Sanghee; Hong, Jang Hee

    2015-08-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between polymorphisms in TFF gene family, TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 and the risk of gastric cancer (GC) and GC subgroups in a Korean population via a case-control study. The eight polymorphisms in TFF gene family were identified by sequencing and genotyped with 377 GC patients and 396 controls by using TaqMan genotyping assay. The rs184432 TT genotype of TFF1 was significantly associated with a reduced risk of GC (odds ratio, [OR) = 0.45; 95% confidence interval, [CI] = 0.25-0.82; P = 0.009), more protective against diffuse-type GC (OR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.05-0.89; P = 0.035) than GC (OR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.14-0.82; P = 0.017) in subjects aged < 60 yr, and correlated with lymph node metastasis negative GC and diffuse-type GC (OR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.23-0.86; P = 0.016 and OR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.05-0.87; P = 0.031, respectively). In addition, a decreased risk of lymph node metastasis negative GC and diffuse-type GC was observed for rs225359 TT genotype of TFF1 (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.24-0.88; P = 0.020 and OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.05-0.88; P = 0.033, respectively). These findings suggest that the rs184432 and rs225359 polymorphisms in TFF1 have protective effects for GC and contribute to the development of GC in Korean individuals.

  20. [Hemostatic coronary risk factors in a healthy population of Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Diez-Ewald, María; Campos, Gilberto; Rivero, Francisco; Alvarez, Luis; Torres, Enrique; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L; Ryder, Elena; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, Melvis; Vizcaíno, Gilberto; Fernández, Nelson

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of the present work was to determine the plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) as well as platelet aggregation, in an apparently healthy population of 306 men and 41 women, 33 to 65 years of age, workers of the national oil industry (PDVSA, Maracaibo), as a base investigation in a 5-year prospective national collaborative study. The participants were previously subjected to a thorough clinical examination with cardiovascular evaluation and laboratory tests. Clottable fibrinogen and VWF concentrations were determined in platelet poor plasma, the last one by immunoclectrophoresis, and a multimeric analysis of VWF was performed on those plasmas with concentrations higher than 150 U/dL by SDS agarose electrophoresis, followed by cellulose membrane transference. Platelet aggregation was studied in platelet rich plasma with no addition of stimulants and after collagen and ristocetin were added. Forty per cent of men and 65.8% of women, showed fibrinogen concentrations above 300 mg/dL (p < 0.01) and 12.2% of men and 15.4% of women had VWF values higher than 150 U/dL, with normal multimeric distribution. Fourteen individuals presented spontancous platelet aggregation and increased aggregation in 12 and 13 of them, after induction with collagen and ristocetin respectively. Comparing these findings with those of previous collaborative studies from other countries, the present results could mean that an important proportion of the population here studied, could be at risk for a future coronary event; however, as these are the base findings in Maracaibo, the significance of our results will be better evaluated at the end of the five year study.

  1. [Hemostatic coronary risk factors in a healthy population of Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Diez-Ewald, María; Campos, Gilberto; Rivero, Francisco; Alvarez, Luis; Torres, Enrique; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L; Ryder, Elena; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, Melvis; Vizcaíno, Gilberto; Fernández, Nelson

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of the present work was to determine the plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) as well as platelet aggregation, in an apparently healthy population of 306 men and 41 women, 33 to 65 years of age, workers of the national oil industry (PDVSA, Maracaibo), as a base investigation in a 5-year prospective national collaborative study. The participants were previously subjected to a thorough clinical examination with cardiovascular evaluation and laboratory tests. Clottable fibrinogen and VWF concentrations were determined in platelet poor plasma, the last one by immunoclectrophoresis, and a multimeric analysis of VWF was performed on those plasmas with concentrations higher than 150 U/dL by SDS agarose electrophoresis, followed by cellulose membrane transference. Platelet aggregation was studied in platelet rich plasma with no addition of stimulants and after collagen and ristocetin were added. Forty per cent of men and 65.8% of women, showed fibrinogen concentrations above 300 mg/dL (p < 0.01) and 12.2% of men and 15.4% of women had VWF values higher than 150 U/dL, with normal multimeric distribution. Fourteen individuals presented spontancous platelet aggregation and increased aggregation in 12 and 13 of them, after induction with collagen and ristocetin respectively. Comparing these findings with those of previous collaborative studies from other countries, the present results could mean that an important proportion of the population here studied, could be at risk for a future coronary event; however, as these are the base findings in Maracaibo, the significance of our results will be better evaluated at the end of the five year study. PMID:12703180

  2. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging-Statement from an Expert Workshop.

    PubMed

    Péter, Szabolcs; Saris, Wim H M; Mathers, John C; Feskens, Edith; Schols, Annemie; Navis, Gerjan; Kuipers, Folkert; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-16

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status) and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations.

  3. Epitope specific T-cell responses against influenza A in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Savic, Miloje; Dembinski, Jennifer L; Kim, Yohan; Tunheim, Gro; Cox, Rebecca J; Oftung, Fredrik; Peters, Bjoern; Mjaaland, Siri

    2016-02-01

    Pre-existing human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immunity may be a useful correlate of protection against severe influenza disease. Identification and evaluation of common epitopes recognized by T cells with broad cross-reactivity is therefore important to guide universal influenza vaccine development, and to monitor immunological preparedness against pandemics. We have retrieved an optimal combination of MHC class I and class II restricted epitopes from the Immune Epitope Database (www.iedb.org), by defining a fitness score function depending on prevalence, sequence conservancy and HLA super-type coverage. Optimized libraries of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell epitopes were selected from influenza antigens commonly present in seasonal and pandemic influenza strains from 1934 to 2009. These epitope pools were used to characterize human T-cell responses in healthy donors using interferon-γ ELISPOT assays. Upon stimulation, significant CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses were induced, primarily recognizing epitopes from the conserved viral core proteins. Furthermore, the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were phenotypically characterized regarding functionality, cytotoxic potential and memory phenotype using flow cytometry. Optimized sets of T-cell peptide epitopes may be a useful tool to monitor the efficacy of clinical trials, the immune status of a population to predict immunological preparedness against pandemics, as well as being candidates for universal influenza vaccines.

  4. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging—Statement from an Expert Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Péter, Szabolcs; Saris, Wim H. M.; Mathers, John C.; Feskens, Edith; Schols, Annemie; Navis, Gerjan; Kuipers, Folkert; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status) and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations. PMID:26694458

  5. Prevalence of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Healthy Population, Livestock and Ticks in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Fajs, Luka; Humolli, Isme; Saksida, Ana; Knap, Nataša; Jelovšek, Mateja; Korva, Miša; Dedushaj, Isuf; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute, tick borne disease often associated with hemorrhagic presentations and high case fatality rate. Kosovo is a highly endemic area for CCHF, with a significant case fatality rate. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of CCHF in Kosovo. We tested 1105 serum samples from healthy population in both endemic and non-endemic areas in the country. Our results revealed a seroprevalence of 4.0% (range 0–9.3%) which is comparable to the seroprevalence in other countries. We show that seroprevalence is correlated to the disease incidence in each studied municipality. We also tested 401 animal sera (353 cow, 30 sheep, 10 goat and 8 chicken) in four endemic municipalities in Kosovo. We detected specific antibodies in all animals except in chicken. Seroprevalence in cows is comparable to other endemic areas and correlates to the seroprevalence in humans. No CCHF RNA could be detected in 105 tick samples obtained in 2012 and 2013. Sequencing of CCHFV positive ticks from 2001 revealed that the virus is most closely related to viral strains that were detected in CCHF patients from Kosovo. Results suggest that mild CCHF cases are most probably underdiagnosed and consequently that the burden of disease is higher than reported. Our study provides key information for CCHF surveillance and raises awareness for possible imported cases in CCHF non-endemic countries. PMID:25393542

  6. Antibodies among healthy population of developing countries against enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Chaowana, Chitamas; Perepat, Prarin; Iida, Tetsuya; Honda, Takeshi

    2005-12-01

    In Thailand, no reports are available on Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7, a causative agent of severe bloody diarrhoea, sometimes associated with haemolytic-uraemic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. The reason for the non-identification of infection due to E. coli O157 in this country and in other developing countries has not been rigorously discussed. The aim of this study was to determine the humoral response against the infectious organism. The IgM and IgG antibody responses against E. coli O157 lipopolysaccharide were studied using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Three hundred and thirty-two serum samples obtained from healthy blood donors and patients with diseases unrelated to diarrhoea were investigated. With a cut-off value of mean +2 SDs for each age-group, the frequency of the IgM and IgG responses to O157 lipopolysaccharide was 11.74% (39 of 332 samples) and 22.59% (75 of 332 samples) respectively. Furthermore, agglutination test of 173 subjects revealed titres ranging from 10 to 40 in all the samples. The results suggest possible exposure of the Thai population to cross-reacting antigens from other intestinal organisms in addition to infection due to E. coli O157:H7.

  7. Prevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in healthy population, livestock and ticks in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Fajs, Luka; Humolli, Isme; Saksida, Ana; Knap, Nataša; Jelovšek, Mateja; Korva, Miša; Dedushaj, Isuf; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute, tick borne disease often associated with hemorrhagic presentations and high case fatality rate. Kosovo is a highly endemic area for CCHF, with a significant case fatality rate. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of CCHF in Kosovo. We tested 1105 serum samples from healthy population in both endemic and non-endemic areas in the country. Our results revealed a seroprevalence of 4.0% (range 0-9.3%) which is comparable to the seroprevalence in other countries. We show that seroprevalence is correlated to the disease incidence in each studied municipality. We also tested 401 animal sera (353 cow, 30 sheep, 10 goat and 8 chicken) in four endemic municipalities in Kosovo. We detected specific antibodies in all animals except in chicken. Seroprevalence in cows is comparable to other endemic areas and correlates to the seroprevalence in humans. No CCHF RNA could be detected in 105 tick samples obtained in 2012 and 2013. Sequencing of CCHFV positive ticks from 2001 revealed that the virus is most closely related to viral strains that were detected in CCHF patients from Kosovo. Results suggest that mild CCHF cases are most probably underdiagnosed and consequently that the burden of disease is higher than reported. Our study provides key information for CCHF surveillance and raises awareness for possible imported cases in CCHF non-endemic countries. PMID:25393542

  8. The Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Cancer Survivors in a Nationwide Survey of the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Myueng Guen; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that inadequate vitamin D levels are associated with a poor cancer prognosis, but data regarding actual vitamin D levels in cancer survivors are limited. This study investigated the vitamin D levels and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Korean cancer survivors compared with non-cancer controls, and identified the factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 915 cancer survivors and 29,694 controls without a history of cancer were selected. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured; vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D levels less than 20 ng/mL. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and associated factors. Results Vitamin D deficiency was observed in 62.7% of cancer survivors and 67.1% of controls. Among cancer survivors, vitamin D deficiency was most prevalent among 19–44 year olds (76.2%) and among managers, professionals, and related workers (79.3%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that younger cancer survivors and those who work indoors were predisposed to vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent among both cancer survivors and controls in Korea. The regular evaluation and management of vitamin D levels is needed for both bone health and general health in cancer survivors. PMID:26047013

  9. Fermented and non-fermented soy food consumption and gastric cancer in Japanese and Korean populations: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongseon; Kang, Moonsu; Lee, Jung-Sug; Inoue, Manami; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Soy food is known to contribute greatly to a reduction in the risk of gastric cancer (GC). However, both Japanese and Korean populations have high incidence rates of GC despite the consumption of a wide variety of soy foods. One primary reason is that they consume fermented rather than non-fermented soy foods. In order to assess the varying effects of fermented and non-fermented soy intake on GC risk in these populations, we conducted a meta-analysis of published reports. Twenty studies assessing the effect of the consumption of fermented soy food on GC risk were included, and 17 studies assessing the effect of the consumption of non-fermented soy food on GC risk were included. We found that a high intake of fermented soy foods was significantly associated with an increased risk of GC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.44, I(2) = 71.48), whereas an increased intake of non-fermented soy foods was significantly associated with a decreased risk of GC (overall summary OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.54-0.77, I(2) = 64.27). These findings show that a high level of consumption of non-fermented soy foods, rather than fermented soy foods, is important in reducing GC risk.

  10. Frequency distribution of DNA repair genes ERCC1 and ERCC2 polymorphisms in South Indian healthy population.

    PubMed

    Rao, Katiboina Srinivasa; SureshKumar, Srinivasamurthy; Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Paul, Abialbon; Dubashi, Biswajit; Gunaseelan, Karunanithi; Dkhar, Steven Aibor

    2014-09-01

    DNA repair genes are crucial in maintaining the integrity of the whole genome. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes have been attributed to the development of various cancers. SNPs of DNA repair genes (ERCC1 and ERCC2) have been implicated in the causation of various cancers as well as inter-individual variability in the therapeutic outcomes of platinum based therapy. Thus establishing the frequency of these functional SNPs in the healthy population is of significance. The present study was aimed to establish the allele and genotype frequencies of ERCC1 (19007C>T, rs11615; 8092C>A, rs3212986) and ERCC2 (Asp312Asn, rs1799793) genes in South Indian healthy population and to compare the data from HapMap populations. The study population consisted of 128 healthy South Indian unrelated individuals of either sex aged between 18 and 60 years. Standard phenol-chloroform method was used to extract DNA from peripheral leukocytes. The genotype of DNA repair gene polymorphisms was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan genotyping assay. The observed frequency of the studied polymorphisms followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p>0.05). The frequencies of the minor alleles of the SNPs rs11615 (T), rs3212986 (A) and rs1799793 (A) were 43.8%, 29.3% and 35.6%, respectively. Gender-based analysis showed no significant difference in the frequency pattern. The observed allele and genotype frequencies showed significant ethnic difference between South Indians and other HapMap populations. This is the first study to provide the normative frequency data of allele and genotype distribution of three SNPs of ERCC1 and ERCC2 in South Indian healthy population. It might be useful in future genotype-phenotype association studies, especially for predicting the efficacy and adverse events of platinum based drugs. PMID:25155628

  11. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and its major metabolite, salicylic acid, in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to pharmacokinetic study of Astrix in Korean healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Soo Kyung; Seo, Kyung Ah; Jung, Eun Ji; Kim, Ho-Sook; Yeo, Chang-Woo; Shon, Ji-Hong; Park, Kyung-Mi; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2008-06-01

    The first liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for determination of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) and one of its major metabolites, salicylic acid (SA), in human plasma using simvastatin as an internal standard has been developed and validated. For ASA analysis, a plasma sample containing potassium fluoride was extracted using a mixture of ethyl acetate and diethyl ether in the presence of 0.5% formic acid. SA, a major metabolite of ASA, was extracted from plasma using protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The compounds were separated on a reversed-phase column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid (8:2, v/v). The ion transitions recorded in multiple reaction monitoring mode were m/z 179 --> 137, 137 --> 93 and 435 --> 319 for ASA, SA and IS, respectively. The coefficient of variation of the assay precision was less than 9.3%, and the accuracy exceeded 86.5%. The lower limits of quantification for ASA and SA were 5 and 50 ng/mL, respectively. The developed assay method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetics of ASA and SA after single oral administration of Astrix (entero-coated pellet, 100 mg of aspirin) to 10 Korean healthy male volunteers.

  12. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and its major metabolite, salicylic acid, in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to pharmacokinetic study of Astrix in Korean healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Soo Kyung; Seo, Kyung Ah; Jung, Eun Ji; Kim, Ho-Sook; Yeo, Chang-Woo; Shon, Ji-Hong; Park, Kyung-Mi; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2008-06-01

    The first liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for determination of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) and one of its major metabolites, salicylic acid (SA), in human plasma using simvastatin as an internal standard has been developed and validated. For ASA analysis, a plasma sample containing potassium fluoride was extracted using a mixture of ethyl acetate and diethyl ether in the presence of 0.5% formic acid. SA, a major metabolite of ASA, was extracted from plasma using protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The compounds were separated on a reversed-phase column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid (8:2, v/v). The ion transitions recorded in multiple reaction monitoring mode were m/z 179 --> 137, 137 --> 93 and 435 --> 319 for ASA, SA and IS, respectively. The coefficient of variation of the assay precision was less than 9.3%, and the accuracy exceeded 86.5%. The lower limits of quantification for ASA and SA were 5 and 50 ng/mL, respectively. The developed assay method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetics of ASA and SA after single oral administration of Astrix (entero-coated pellet, 100 mg of aspirin) to 10 Korean healthy male volunteers. PMID:18254152

  13. Awareness and knowledge of sepsis in the general Korean population: comparison with the awareness and knowledge of acute myocardial infarction and stroke

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minji; Kim, Kyuseok; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Kang, Changwoo; Jo, You Hwan; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kang, Kyeong Won; Lee, Soo Hoon; Park, Chanjong; Kim, Joonghee; Chung, Heajin; Park, Hyunmi; Jang, Sujin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with severe sepsis or septic shock require timely, aggressive management to improve their outcomes, and early presentation of patients to the hospital may also be important. Thus, public awareness about sepsis may be important for improved outcomes. However, there are no studies regarding the public awareness of sepsis in the general Korean population. Therefore, the objective of this survey was to gain insight into the public awareness of sepsis. Methods Prospective paper-based and web-based surveys were issued between May and June 2013 to adults aged ≥18 years. Results A total of 1,081 participants responded to the survey (394 paper-based and 687 web-based). Mean age was 38.7±11.4 years, and 541 participants (50%) were men. Of the 1,081 participants, 831 (76.9%) had heard of the term “sepsis.” Of these participants, only 295 (35%) responded correctly regarding the definition of sepsis. However, 1,019 participants (94.3%) had heard of acute myocardial infarction, and 817 of these (80%) correctly defined acute myocardial infarction. Regarding stroke, 1,047 (96.9%) had heard of stroke, and 975 of these responded (93.1%) correctly to the definition of stroke. Conclusion There is poor public awareness about sepsis compared with that of acute myocardial infarction and stroke. This may limit the timely management of severe sepsis and septic shock. PMID:27752551

  14. An integrative study identifies KCNC2 as a novel predisposing factor for childhood obesity and the risk of diabetes in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Hyo Jung; Go, Min Jin; Jang, Han Byul; Park, Sang Ick; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, Hye-Ja

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. To unravel the genetic determinants of obesity-associated diabetes, we performed a genome-wide study using the 1,000 Genomes-based imputation in a Korean childhood cohort (KoCAS-1, n = 484) and carried out de novo replication in an independent population (KoCAS-2, n = 1,548). A novel variant (rs10879834) with multiple diverse associations for obesity-related traits was also found to be replicated in an adult cohort (KARE, n = 8,842). Functional annotations using integrative epigenetic analyses identified biological significance and regulatory effects with an inverse methylation-expression correlation (cg27154343 in the 5'-UTR of the KCNC2 gene), tissue-specific enhancer mark (H3K4me1), and pathway enrichment (insulin signaling). Further functional studies in cellular and mouse models demonstrated that KCNC2 is associated with anti-obesogenic effects in the regulation of obesity-induced insulin resistance. KCNC2 shRNA transfection induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Overproduction of KCNC2 decreased ER stress, and treatment with metformin enhanced KCNC2 expression. Taken together, these data suggest that reduction of KCNC2 is associated with modified hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased ER stress on obesity-mediated diabetic risk. An integrative multi-omics analysis might reveal new functional and clinical implications related to the control of energy and metabolic homeostasis in humans. PMID:27623749

  15. Socioeconomic Status and Other Related Factors of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu-Chong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Jin Yong; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Shin, Koh-Eun; Lee, Anna; Ko, Byung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between seasonal influenza vaccination in South Korea and socioeconomic status (SES) as well as other potential related factors. Methods The study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2011. Education level and household income were used as indicators for SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate SES and other demographic variables as related factors for influenza vaccination, the primary outcome. Results Higher household income was positively associated with higher vaccine uptake in the younger (19–49 years) group [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.23], whereas the low-income and low-education group had increased vaccination coverage than the middle-income and middle-education group in the older (≥ 50 years) group (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09–1.69). Current smokers tend to be unvaccinated in all age groups. Among individuals aged ≥ 50, older age, mild to moderate alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and having co-morbidities were positively associated with vaccination, while those who self-reported their health status as good were less likely to be vaccinated. Conclusions The relationship between SES and seasonal influenza vaccination coverage differed between the age groups throughout the adult South Korean population. Public health policies need to address these inequalities. PMID:25646847

  16. An integrative study identifies KCNC2 as a novel predisposing factor for childhood obesity and the risk of diabetes in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Hyo Jung; Go, Min Jin; Jang, Han Byul; Park, Sang Ick; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, Hye-Ja

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. To unravel the genetic determinants of obesity-associated diabetes, we performed a genome-wide study using the 1,000 Genomes-based imputation in a Korean childhood cohort (KoCAS-1, n = 484) and carried out de novo replication in an independent population (KoCAS-2, n = 1,548). A novel variant (rs10879834) with multiple diverse associations for obesity-related traits was also found to be replicated in an adult cohort (KARE, n = 8,842). Functional annotations using integrative epigenetic analyses identified biological significance and regulatory effects with an inverse methylation-expression correlation (cg27154343 in the 5'-UTR of the KCNC2 gene), tissue-specific enhancer mark (H3K4me1), and pathway enrichment (insulin signaling). Further functional studies in cellular and mouse models demonstrated that KCNC2 is associated with anti-obesogenic effects in the regulation of obesity-induced insulin resistance. KCNC2 shRNA transfection induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Overproduction of KCNC2 decreased ER stress, and treatment with metformin enhanced KCNC2 expression. Taken together, these data suggest that reduction of KCNC2 is associated with modified hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased ER stress on obesity-mediated diabetic risk. An integrative multi-omics analysis might reveal new functional and clinical implications related to the control of energy and metabolic homeostasis in humans.

  17. Frequency, body distribution, and population size of Malassezia species in healthy dogs and in dogs with localized cutaneous lesions.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Gallo, Sabrina; Romito, Diana; Capelli, Gioia; Chermette, René; Guillot, Jacques; Otranto, Domenico

    2005-07-01

    Malassezia species are commensal organisms of human and animal skin that occasionally act as opportunistic pathogens. The lipid-dependent species are associated with human skin disorders, whereas the non-lipid-dependent species (Malassezia pachydermatis) is considered as an opportunistic secondary pathogen affecting the canine skin surface and ear canal. This study evaluated the relationship between Malassezia yeasts, their population size, and the occurrence of skin lesions from healthy and skin-diseased dogs. The efficiency of cytological examination and fungal culture for Malassezia detection was also evaluated. From March 2002 to July 2003, 33 healthy dogs and 54 dogs with pruritic localized skin diseases were examined; skin swabs (1218) were collected from 7 anatomical sites for culture and cytological examination. Malassezia prevalence according to anatomical site and the agreement between cytological results and fungal cultures were statistically analyzed. Differences in mean colony forming unit counts between positive healthy and diseased dogs were evaluated using the Bonferroni test for post hoc pair-wise comparisons. In healthy dogs, Malassezia yeasts were most frequently isolated in the perianal and perioral areas. The frequency of isolation and population size of Malassezia species were higher in dogs with localized dermatitis, especially in affected areas, indicating a role for Malassezia in the occurrence of skin lesions. Malassezia pachydermatis was the species most commonly cultured from the skin and external ear canal of healthy and diseased dogs; isolation of lipid-dependent yeasts from healthy dogs was less frequent. Using fungal culture as the gold standard, cytological examination showed good relative specificity (95%) but very low relative sensitivity (30%). PMID:16130988

  18. [Live longer and better? Estimates of healthy life expectancy in the Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Gonzaga, Marcos Roberto

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed differences in healthy life expectancy in the elderly based on three health dimensions in Brazil from 1998 to 2008: disability-free life expectancy, healthy life expectancy based on self-rated health, and chronic disease-free life expectancy. The Sullivan method was used, combining life tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and interval estimates of the prevalence of functional disability, self-rated health, and chronic diseases according to the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD, 1998 and 2008). Besides the increase in life expectancy, the study showed significant and similar increases in disability-free life expectancy and healthy life expectancy based on self-rated health at almost all ages. Women had higher life expectancies than men, but expected to live longer with poor health, regardless of the indicator used to measure health. Although the studies measured health differently (making comparisons difficult), women showed a consistent disadvantage in healthy life expectancy.

  19. Land use in Korean tidal wetlands: impacts and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sun-Kee; Koh, Chul-Hwan; Harris, Richard R; Kim, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jeom-Sook; Ihm, Byung-Sun

    2010-05-01

    The coastal landscapes in southwestern Korea include a diverse array of tidal wetlands and salt marshes. These coastal zones link the ecological functions of marine tidal wetlands and freshwater ecosystems with terrestrial ecosystems. They are rich in biological diversity and play important roles in sustaining ecological health and processing environmental pollutants. Korean tidal wetlands are particularly important as nurseries for economically important fishes and habitats for migratory birds. Diking, draining, tourism, and conversion to agricultural and urban uses have adversely affected Korean tidal wetlands. Recent large development projects have contributed to further losses. Environmental impact assessments conducted for projects affecting tidal wetlands and their surrounding landscapes should be customized for application to these special settings. Adequate environmental impact assessments will include classification of hydrogeomorphic units and consideration of their responses to biological and environmental stressors. As is true worldwide, Korean laws and regulations are changing to be more favorable to the conservation and protection of tidal wetlands. More public education needs to be done at the local level to build support for tidal wetland conservation. Some key public education points include the role of tidal wetlands in maintaining healthy fish populations and reducing impacts of nonpoint source pollution. There is also a need to develop procedures for integrating economic and environmental objectives within the overall context of sustainable management and land uses. PMID:18523822

  20. Land use in Korean tidal wetlands: impacts and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sun-Kee; Koh, Chul-Hwan; Harris, Richard R; Kim, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jeom-Sook; Ihm, Byung-Sun

    2010-05-01

    The coastal landscapes in southwestern Korea include a diverse array of tidal wetlands and salt marshes. These coastal zones link the ecological functions of marine tidal wetlands and freshwater ecosystems with terrestrial ecosystems. They are rich in biological diversity and play important roles in sustaining ecological health and processing environmental pollutants. Korean tidal wetlands are particularly important as nurseries for economically important fishes and habitats for migratory birds. Diking, draining, tourism, and conversion to agricultural and urban uses have adversely affected Korean tidal wetlands. Recent large development projects have contributed to further losses. Environmental impact assessments conducted for projects affecting tidal wetlands and their surrounding landscapes should be customized for application to these special settings. Adequate environmental impact assessments will include classification of hydrogeomorphic units and consideration of their responses to biological and environmental stressors. As is true worldwide, Korean laws and regulations are changing to be more favorable to the conservation and protection of tidal wetlands. More public education needs to be done at the local level to build support for tidal wetland conservation. Some key public education points include the role of tidal wetlands in maintaining healthy fish populations and reducing impacts of nonpoint source pollution. There is also a need to develop procedures for integrating economic and environmental objectives within the overall context of sustainable management and land uses.

  1. Land Use in Korean Tidal Wetlands: Impacts and Management Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sun-Kee; Koh, Chul-Hwan; Harris, Richard R.; Kim, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jeom-Sook; Ihm, Byung-Sun

    2010-05-01

    The coastal landscapes in southwestern Korea include a diverse array of tidal wetlands and salt marshes. These coastal zones link the ecological functions of marine tidal wetlands and freshwater ecosystems with terrestrial ecosystems. They are rich in biological diversity and play important roles in sustaining ecological health and processing environmental pollutants. Korean tidal wetlands are particularly important as nurseries for economically important fishes and habitats for migratory birds. Diking, draining, tourism, and conversion to agricultural and urban uses have adversely affected Korean tidal wetlands. Recent large development projects have contributed to further losses. Environmental impact assessments conducted for projects affecting tidal wetlands and their surrounding landscapes should be customized for application to these special settings. Adequate environmental impact assessments will include classification of hydrogeomorphic units and consideration of their responses to biological and environmental stressors. As is true worldwide, Korean laws and regulations are changing to be more favorable to the conservation and protection of tidal wetlands. More public education needs to be done at the local level to build support for tidal wetland conservation. Some key public education points include the role of tidal wetlands in maintaining healthy fish populations and reducing impacts of nonpoint source pollution. There is also a need to develop procedures for integrating economic and environmental objectives within the overall context of sustainable management and land uses.

  2. [Vitamin D deficiency is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in a healthy population].

    PubMed

    Seropian, Ignacio M; Perez Soriano, María L; Kriemer, Hernán; Valdizan, Marcia; Seijo, Mariana; Cohen Arazi, Hernán

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D (VitD) deficiency is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the association of VitD deficiency (<50 mmol/l) and cardiovascular risk factors in a healthy population, from July-November 2012, in a private center at Buenos Aires province. 333 people were included, aged 41.6±12.4 years (58.6% men), 49.2% practiced no physical activity, 56.8% were overweight (70.3% man vs 37.7% women, p<0.001), 12.5% with systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mmHg and 6% diastolic blood pressure (DBP) >90 mmHg. VitD deficiency was observed in 29.1% (31.3% man vs 26.1% women, p=0.3), more frequent with obesity (OR 1.85, IC95:1.05-3.25, p=0.02), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C)<50 mg/dl (OR 1.71, IC95:1.06-2.76, p=0.02) and triglycerides>150 mg/dl (OR 1.77, IC95:1.02-3.06, p=0.03). A trend towards VitD deficiency and SBP>140 mmHg (OR 1.88, IC95:0.93-3.77, p=0.07) or DBP>90 mmHg (OR 1.39, IC95:0.5-3.65, p=0.5) was observed. Lineal correlation between VitD and HDL-C (p<0.001) or triglycerides (p<0.001) was observed. Multiple logistic regression showed that VitD deficiency association with low HDL-C was independent of age, female sex, obesity and physical activity. Association of VitD deficiency with hypetriglyceridemia was independent of age, female sex and obesity. This study shows an association between VitD deficiency and cardiovascular risk factors like obesity, low HDL <50 mg/dl and hypertriglyceridemia. A trend toward higher SBP was also observed. Experimental studies are granted in order to establish a cause-effect relationship.

  3. [Autonomic, cardio- and hemodynamic indices of healthy men, representatives of the native and nonnative population of Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    Veber, V R; Gaevskiĭ, Iu G; Karibaev, K R

    1985-01-01

    Healthy men, representatives of the indigenous population and newcomers, have some differences on the part of the vegetative and cardiovascular system. The newcomers mostly show coronary atherosclerosis and predominance of the tone of the ergotropic system. The cardio- and hemodynamic differences manifest by more pronounced shifts on making orthostatic and exercise tests, by an appreciable rise of myocardial contractility and energy expenditure for blood translocation.

  4. The Prevalence of Activated Protein C Resistance and F V Leiden in Healthy Population of Edirne, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Vurkun, Mutlu; Vural, Özden; Demir, Muzaffer; Turgut, Burhan; Gürgey, Aytemiz; Parlak, Hülya; Duran, Nesrin

    2002-06-01

    Activated protein C (APC) resistance has been found to be an important cause of venous thrombosis. The prevalence of F V Leiden (FVL) in general population is variable according to the region and the ethnic group. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of APC resistance and FVL in healthy population in Edirne as a representative sample of province of Edirne. Total 467 healthy subjects were studied. There were 238 males (50.96%) and 229 females (49.04%). APC resistance was studied by functional and DNA methods. There were a total 22/476 subjects (4.7%) were APC resistance. There were 20/476 subjects (4.28%) who had FVL by DNA test. Of these, there were 18 heterozygous and 2 homozygous FVL and other two subjects have no FVL mutation but have the high levels of FVIII to explain acquired APC resistance. The coexistence of FVL and the deficiencies of protein C (1/22), protein S (2/22) and antithrombin (1/22) were also studied. No one of subjects had prothrombin gene mutation. The data showed that the prevalence of APC resitance and FVL in healthy Turkish population were similar to the previously reported publications in Turkey and Europe. One thing is a keeping in mind to be the coexistence of FVL and the other known thrombophilic risk factors.

  5. Association Between a Polymorphism (rs2071214) in Baculoviral IAP Repeat Containing 5 Gene (BIRC5) and Ischemic Stroke in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Jinmann; Kim, Hee-Sang; Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Dong Hwan; Kim, Su Kang; Park, Hae Jeong; Chung, Joo-Ho; Chung, Sungjoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) repeat containing 5 gene (BIRC5) polymorphisms are associated with the development and clinical phenotypes of ischemic stroke in Korea population. Methods We enrolled 121 ischemic stroke patients and 291 control subjects. Ischemic stroke patients were divided into subgroups according to the scores of National Institutes of Health Stroke Survey (<6 or ≥6) and Modified Barthel Index (<60 or ≥60). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of BIRC5 (rs3764383 and rs2071214) were selected and genotyped by direct sequencing for all subjects. Multiple logistic regression models (codominant 1 and 2, dominant, recessive, overdominant and log-additive) were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and p-values. Results In analysis of stroke susceptibility, the genotype and allele frequencies of rs3764383 exhibited no difference between the control group and the ischemic stroke group. SNP rs2071214 was associated with ischemic stroke in the codominant (p=0.003), dominant (p=0.002), overdominant (p=0.005), and log-additive (p=0.008) models, respectively. The G allele frequency of rs2071214 was significantly (p=0.009) associated with susceptibility for ischemic stroke (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.12–2.21). However, in the analysis for clinical phenotype, no SNP of the BIRC5 gene was found to be associated with ischemic stroke. Conclusion These results suggest that a missense SNP (rs2071214) of BIRC5 may be associated with the development of ischemic stroke in the Korean population. PMID:27446775

  6. Integrated population pharmacokinetics of etanercept in healthy subjects and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Simon Y; Shu, Cathye; Korth-Bradley, Joan; Raible, Donald; Palmisano, Maria; Wadjula, Joseph; Fatenejad, Saeed; Bjornsson, Thorir

    2011-06-01

    Etanercept pharmacokinetics in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and psoriasis were assessed separately with distinct models using population pharmacokinetics methods of limited precision. The different model structures and associated significant covariates identified by these earlier methods made it difficult to compare etanercept pharmacokinetics among disease groups. This integrated analysis aimed to establish a framework to evaluate previously established population pharmacokinetic models of etanercept, and to identify consistent and important demographic and disease factors that affected etanercept pharmacokinetics in a diverse population of healthy subjects and patients with RA and AS. In this integrated analysis, cumulative rich and sparse etanercept concentration data from 53 healthy volunteers, 212 patients with RA, and 346 patients with AS were examined and compared using nonlinear mixed effect methodology implemented the in NONMEM VI software package. A more precise estimation method (FOCEi) was employed and compared with the first-order method in population pharmacokinetics model building and evaluation. The integrated analysis found that an optimal population pharmacokinetics model with a 2-compartment structure adequately characterized etanercept pharmacokinetics in all subject groups. Health status or disease type did not significantly affect etanercept pharmacokinetics. In adult patients with RA and AS, age and body weight do not significantly affect etanercept pharmacokinetics. PMID:20852002

  7. Korean women's attitudes toward physical activity.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Choe, Myoung-Ae

    2004-02-01

    In this study attitudes toward physical activity of three groups of Korean women were explored using a feminist qualitative research design. Seventeen healthy Korean women, 11 Korean women at risk of muscular atrophy, and 16 Korean immigrant women were recruited using a purposive sampling method. In-depth interviews using an interview guide were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that the women viewed physical activity holistically, that death was viewed as the opposite of physical activity, that exercise was differentiated from physical activity, that exercise was connected to health, and that the women rarely participated in exercise because of their busy lives. The findings confirm the importance of considering the psychosocial contexts of attitudes toward health behavior.

  8. Effective Population Size and Signatures of Selection Using Bovine 50K SNP Chips in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Inferring the effective population size and the pattern of selection signatures is of interest both from an evolutionary perspective and to improve models for mapping of quantitative trait genes. We used DNA samples of 61 sires and 486 progeny of the Hanwoo, genotyped by the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip, to analyze the genetic structure. Our study showed a persistent decline in effective population size throughout the period considered, but suggested a marked decline at one distinctive time point (100th generation) and two sharp decline intervals (50th–25th generation and 25th–10th generation). This pattern can be explained by Hanwoo formation and the modern breeding program. Our results revealed 95 regions exhibiting the footprint of recent positive selection at a threshold level of 0.01. We found an overlap of the 11 core regions presenting top P-values and those that had previously been identified as harboring quantitative trait loci from other breeds. The information generated from this study can be used to better understand the mechanism of selection in Hanwoo breeding, and provide important implications for the design and application of association studies in the Hanwoo population. PMID:26244003

  9. Significant association of periodontal disease with anti-citrullinated peptide antibody in a Japanese healthy population - The Nagahama study.

    PubMed

    Terao, Chikashi; Asai, Keita; Hashimoto, Motomu; Yamazaki, Toru; Ohmura, Koichiro; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Takahashi, Katsu; Takei, Noriko; Ishii, Takanori; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Meiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Fujii, Takao; Yamada, Ryo; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2015-05-01

    Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) is a highly specific autoantibody to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies have revealed that periodontal disease (PD) is closely associated with RA and production of ACPA in RA. Analyses of associations between PD and ACPA production in a healthy population may deepen our understandings. Here, we analyzed a total of 9554 adult healthy subjects. ACPA and IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) was quantified and PD status was evaluated using the number of missing teeth (MT), the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Loss of Attachment (LA) for these subjects. PD status was analyzed for its association with the positivity and categorical levels of ACPA and RF conditioned for covariates which were shown to be associated with PD, ACPA or RF. As a result, all of MT, CPI and LA showed suggestive or significant associations with positivity (p = 0.024, 0.0042 and 0.037, respectively) and levels of ACPA (p ≤ 0.00031), but none of the PD parameters were associated with those of RF. These association patterns were also observed when we analyzed 6206 non-smokers of the participants. The significant associations between PD parameters and positivity and levels of ACPA in healthy population support the fundamental involvement of PD with ACPA production.

  10. Vitamin-D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms (Taq-I & Apa-I) in Syrian healthy population.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Shaden

    2014-12-01

    The vitamin D endocrine system regulates bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis as well as cellular proliferation and differentiation. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates Vit-D activity, thus VDR gene polymorphisms may correlate with different diseases. This study aimed to determine the distribution of VDR gene (Taq-I and Apa-I) polymorphisms using a RFLP in unrelated normal healthy individuals of Syrian population. Allelic frequencies were 65% vs 35% and 66% vs 34% for T vs t and A vs a alleles, respectively. Genotype distribution was 36%, 58% and 6% for TT, Tt and tt and 42%, 47% and 10% for AA, Aa and aa, respectively. These results demonstrate that the frequency and distribution of the VDR polymorphisms in Syrian population are different from other populations worldwide.

  11. Long-term Prognosis of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation and Predictors for Progression to Persistnt or Chronic Atrial Fibrillation in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Im, Sung Ii; Chun, Kwang Jin; Park, Seung-Jung; Park, Kyoung-Min; Kim, June Soo; On, Young Keun

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the long-term prognosis of or predictors for the different clinical types of atrial fibrillation (AF) in Korean populations. The aim of this study was to validate a risk stratification to assess the probability of AF progression from paroxysmal AF (PAF) to persistent AF (PeAF) or permanent AF. A total of 434 patients with PAF were consecutively enrolled (mean age; 71.7 ± 10.7 yr, 60.6% male). PeAF was defined as episodes that are sustained > 7 days and not self-terminating, while permanent AF was defined as an ongoing long-term episode. Atrial arrhythmia during follow-up was defined as atrial premature complex, atrial tachycardia, and atrial flutter. During a mean follow-up of 72.7 ± 58.3 months, 168 patients (38.7%) with PAF progressed to PeAF or permanent AF. The mean annual AF progression was 10.7% per year. In univariate analysis, age at diagnosis, body mass index, atrial arrhythmia during follow-up, left ventricular ejection fraction, concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, left atrial diameter (LAD), and severe mitral regurgitation (MR) were significantly associated with AF progression. In multivariate analysis, age at diagnosis (P = 0.009), atrial arrhythmia during follow-up (P = 0.015), LAD (P = 0.002) and MR grade (P = 0.026) were independent risk factors for AF progression. Patients with younger age at diagnosis, atrial arrhythmia during follow-up, larger left atrial chamber size, and severe MR grade are more likely to progress to PeAF or permanent AF, suggesting more intensive medical therapy with close clinical follow-up would be required in those patients.

  12. Evaluation of the Bio-Rad Geenius HIV 1/2 Confirmation Assay as an Alternative to Western Blot in the Korean Population: A Multi-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hee-Won; Huh, Hee Jin; Oh, Gwi Young; Lee, Sang Gon; Lee, Anna; Yun, Yeo-Min; Hur, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Recently updated recommendations for diagnosis of HIV infection suggest a new diagnostic algorithm including HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation immunoassay instead of western blot (WB) as a confirmatory testing. We evaluated Bio-Rad Geenius HIV1/2 confirmation assay as a simple and reliable alternative to WB in the Korean population with low HIV prevalence. The Geenius HIV1/2 was performed in a total of 192 serum specimens (140 reactive and 52 nonreactive specimens by ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay) that were prospectively collected from five institutions. HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) was performed in negative or indeterminate specimens by Geenius HIV1/2 or WB. Among 140 reactive specimens by HIV Ag/Ab assay, 82 (58.6%) were positive for HIV-1 Ab by Geenius HIV1/2. Among 58 negative or indeterminate specimens by Geenius HIV1/2, four specimens (6.9%) were positive by HIV-1 NAT. The sensitivity and specificity of Geenius HIV1/2 were 95.3% and 100.0%, respectively. When we considered only WB, the sensitivity and specificity of Geenius HIV1/2 were 100.0% and 99.1%, respectively. Agreement between Geenius HIV1/2 and WB was excellent (weighted Kappa = 0.89). The Geenius HIV1/2 is simple and time-saving compared with WB. It has an excellent performance and can be a reliable alternative to WB. HIV-1 NAT should be performed in negative or indeterminate specimens by Geenius HIV1/2 to detect acute HIV infection as recommended in new HIV testing algorithms.

  13. An integrative study identifies KCNC2 as a novel predisposing factor for childhood obesity and the risk of diabetes in the Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Hyo Jung; Go, Min Jin; Jang, Han Byul; Park, Sang Ick; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, Hye-Ja

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. To unravel the genetic determinants of obesity-associated diabetes, we performed a genome-wide study using the 1,000 Genomes-based imputation in a Korean childhood cohort (KoCAS-1, n = 484) and carried out de novo replication in an independent population (KoCAS-2, n = 1,548). A novel variant (rs10879834) with multiple diverse associations for obesity-related traits was also found to be replicated in an adult cohort (KARE, n = 8,842). Functional annotations using integrative epigenetic analyses identified biological significance and regulatory effects with an inverse methylation-expression correlation (cg27154343 in the 5′-UTR of the KCNC2 gene), tissue-specific enhancer mark (H3K4me1), and pathway enrichment (insulin signaling). Further functional studies in cellular and mouse models demonstrated that KCNC2 is associated with anti-obesogenic effects in the regulation of obesity-induced insulin resistance. KCNC2 shRNA transfection induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Overproduction of KCNC2 decreased ER stress, and treatment with metformin enhanced KCNC2 expression. Taken together, these data suggest that reduction of KCNC2 is associated with modified hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased ER stress on obesity-mediated diabetic risk. An integrative multi-omics analysis might reveal new functional and clinical implications related to the control of energy and metabolic homeostasis in humans. PMID:27623749

  14. Monitoring of PBDEs concentration in umbilical cord blood and breast milk from Korean population and estimating the effects of various parameters on accumulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Un-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Kim, Hyung Sik; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we investigated concentration, congener distribution pattern, and effects of potential environmental factors that affect PBDE accumulation. We also estimated correlation between PBDE concentration and health status or thyroid function by analyzing 90 cord blood and 21 breast milk samples obtained from Korean population. Seven from tri- to hepta-BDEs were analyzed by solid phase extraction-high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (SPE-HRGC/HRMS). The total concentration of 7 PBDEs in cord blood was 2.786-94.64 ng g(-1) lipid and that in breast milk was 1.076-8.664 ng g(-1) lipid. Tetra-BDE (#47) was the predominant type of PBDE and was present at concentrations of over 40% in both sample types. A weak correlation was observed between the concentration of BDE28 and 153 and thyroid hormone concentration only in the breast milk samples. In children, a weak negative correlation was observed between free thyroxine (FT4) concentration and BDE28 concentration (0.302, p<0.05), while in mothers, a weak positive correlation was observed between thyroid hormone concentration and BDE153 concentration (0.403, p<0.05). No significant correlations between PBDE concentration and work and residential environments were found in this study, but a weak correlation between BDE concentration in cord blood and potential PBDE sources was confirmed by investigating the frequency of oil paint usage (0.510, p<0.001). A weak correlation was also found between PBDE concentration in breast milk during pregnancy and dietary habits such as green tea drinking (0.541, p=0.025) and Trichiuridae intake (0.565, p=0.015). PMID:21890170

  15. Association of tripartite motif family-like 2 (TRIML2) polymorphisms with late-onset Alzheimer's disease risk in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kang, Won Sub; Park, Jin Kyung; Kim, Young Jong; Cho, Ah Rang; Park, Hae Jeong; Kim, Su Kang; Paik, Jong-Woo; Lee, Kang Joon; Na, Hae Ri; Kim, Young Youl; Lim, Hyun Kook; Jeong, Hyun-Ghang; Kim, Jong Woo

    2016-09-01

    Apoptosis is a prominent feature in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), regulated in part by the activity of p53. As tripartite motif family-like 2 (TRIML2), a member of the TRIM family of proteins, has been implicated in the regulation of p53-mediated apoptosis, we hypothesized that TRIML2 polymorphisms may result in an increased AD susceptibility. Here, we investigated the association between coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs) in TRIML2 and AD in a Korean population. Two cSNPs (rs79698746 and rs2279551) were genotyped using the Sequenom iPLEX(®) Gold assay and direct sequencing in 162 AD patients and 191 controls. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and p-values. Significant associations were observed between AD and the allelic frequencies of two SNPs (rs79698746, p=0.007; rs2279551, p=0.01); genotype frequencies were also significantly different between the two groups [rs79698746: p=0.003 in the codominant 2 model (CC vs. TT), p=0.01 in the dominant model (TC/CC vs. TT), p=0.016 in the recessive model (CC vs. TT/TC), and p=0.0025 in the log-additive model (TC vs. CC vs. TT); rs2279551: p=0.003 in the codominant 2 model (CC vs. TT), p=0.011 in the dominant model (TC/CC vs. TT), p=0.019 in the recessive model (CC vs. TT/TC), and p=0.0028 in the log-additive model (TC vs. CC vs. TT)]. In the haplotype analyses, CC haplotypes containing two cSNPs were significantly associated with AD (p=0.013). Taken together, these findings indicate that the C allele of both SNPs was associated with an increased risk of AD. These results suggest that TRIML2 may contribute to AD susceptibility. PMID:27471163

  16. Prevalence of chronic cough and possible causes in the general population based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Jeong, Ina; Lee, Sei Won; Park, Jinkyeong; Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, So Young; Park, Hye Yun; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Yee Hyung; Jung, Ji Ye; Kim, Sung-Kyoung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Choi, Eun Young; Moon, Ji-Yong; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jin Woo; Min, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Sei Won; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Kim, Je Hyeong; Jang, Seung Hun; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Hui Jung; Jung, Ki-Suck; Kim, Deog Kyeom

    2016-09-01

    Although chronic cough is very common, its prevalence and causes have been rarely reported in the large general population including smokers. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of possible causes of chronic cough and their clinical impact.From Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data including 119,280 adults aged over 40 years, 302 individuals with chronic cough were recruited irrespective of smoking status. Data from questionnaire, laboratory tests including spirometry, chest radiographs, and otorhinolaryngologic examination were analyzed.The prevalence of chronic cough in adults was 2.5% ± 0.2%. Current smokers occupied 47.7% ± 3.8% of study population and 46.8% ± 3.9% of the subjects showed upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). Based on spirometry, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was identified in 26.4% ± 3.5%. Asthma explained for 14.5% ± 2.8% of chronic cough. Only 4.1% ± 1.6% showed chronic laryngitis suggesting gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough. Abnormalities on chest radiography were found in 4.0% ± 1.2%. Interestingly, 50.3% ± 4.5% of study subjects had coexisting causes. In multivariate analysis, only current smoking (odds ratio [OR] 3.16, P < 0.001), UACS (OR 2.50, P < 0.001), COPD (OR 2.41, P < 0.001), asthma (OR 8.89, P < 0.001), and chest radiographic abnormalities (OR 2.74, P = 0.003) were independent risk factor for chronic cough. This pattern was not different according to smoking status excepting the prevalence of COPD.Smoking, COPD, and chest radiographic abnormalities should be considered as causes of chronic cough, along with UACS and asthma. Gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough is not prevalent in study population. PMID:27631208

  17. Frequency of rs731236 (Taql), rs2228570 (Fok1) of Vitamin-D Receptor (VDR) gene in Emirati healthy population

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Enas; Al Anouti, Fatme; El ghazali, Gehad; Haq, Afrozul; Mirgani, Rajaa; Al Safar, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is getting more attention everyday due to its importance in maintaining bone and calcium homeostasis, cellular proliferation, differentiation and immune response. Vitamin D is derived from diet or elicited in the skin by the activation of 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is an inert molecule that must be activated by ultraviolet light to form pre-vitamin D3. Recent studies connected the gene encoding for vitamin D (VDR) to the genetic control of bone mass and other diseases. As VDR SNPs have been associated with several disorders and diseases, it's important to investigate the allelic and genotypic distribution among populations. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) variants in healthy Emirati individuals and compare their genotype and allele distribution with other populations. In this study 282 (female, 187; male, 95) unrelated healthy UAE nationals were involved. Two hundreds and eight two DNA samples been collected to genotype rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) VDR SNPs. Our results indicate that the distribution of the alleles and genotypes of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) vary considerably in different populations. In the Emirati population the distribution of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) were AA 38%, AG 42%, GG 20% and AA 27%, AG 42%, GG 31% respectively. The Emirati population genotype and allele distribution of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) had no difference with Caucasians from USA and France. However, there was significant difference with Asian populations. PMID:26504744

  18. Frequency of rs731236 (Taql), rs2228570 (Fok1) of Vitamin-D Receptor (VDR) gene in Emirati healthy population.

    PubMed

    Osman, Enas; Al Anouti, Fatme; El Ghazali, Gehad; Haq, Afrozul; Mirgani, Rajaa; Al Safar, Habiba

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin D is getting more attention everyday due to its importance in maintaining bone and calcium homeostasis, cellular proliferation, differentiation and immune response. Vitamin D is derived from diet or elicited in the skin by the activation of 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is an inert molecule that must be activated by ultraviolet light to form pre-vitamin D3. Recent studies connected the gene encoding for vitamin D (VDR) to the genetic control of bone mass and other diseases. As VDR SNPs have been associated with several disorders and diseases, it's important to investigate the allelic and genotypic distribution among populations. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) variants in healthy Emirati individuals and compare their genotype and allele distribution with other populations. In this study 282 (female, 187; male, 95) unrelated healthy UAE nationals were involved. Two hundreds and eight two DNA samples been collected to genotype rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) VDR SNPs. Our results indicate that the distribution of the alleles and genotypes of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) vary considerably in different populations. In the Emirati population the distribution of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) were AA 38%, AG 42%, GG 20% and AA 27%, AG 42%, GG 31% respectively. The Emirati population genotype and allele distribution of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) had no difference with Caucasians from USA and France. However, there was significant difference with Asian populations.

  19. Population structure and domestication revealed by high-depth resequencing of Korean cultivated and wild soybean genomes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeong, Namhee; Kim, Jiwoong; Lee, Woo Kyu; Lee, Yun-Gyeong; Lee, Sang-Heon; Yoon, Woongchang; Kim, Jin-Hyun; Choi, Ik-Young; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Kim, Namshin; Jeong, Soon-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of soybean as a major crop, genome-wide variation and evolution of cultivated soybeans are largely unknown. Here, we catalogued genome variation in an annual soybean population by high-depth resequencing of 10 cultivated and 6 wild accessions and obtained 3.87 million high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after excluding the sites with missing data in any accession. Nuclear genome phylogeny supported a single origin for the cultivated soybeans. We identified 10-fold longer linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the wild soybean relative to wild maize and rice. Despite the small population size, the long LD and large SNP data allowed us to identify 206 candidate domestication regions with significantly lower diversity in the cultivated, but not in the wild, soybeans. Some of the genes in these candidate regions were associated with soybean homologues of canonical domestication genes. However, several examples, which are likely specific to soybean or eudicot crop plants, were also observed. Consequently, the variation data identified in this study should be valuable for breeding and for identifying agronomically important genes in soybeans. However, the long LD of wild soybeans may hinder pinpointing causal gene(s) in the candidate regions.

  20. Resected femoral anthropometry for design of the femoral component of the total knee prosthesis in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Dai-Soon; Han, Suhyoun; Han, Chang Whan

    2010-01-01

    We measured the mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) length, height and widths of the anterior, posterior and inferior section of the resected distal femurs using three dimensional computer tomographic measurements in 200 knees from 100 cadavers. We also calculated the aspect ratio (ML/AP) and compared the measured parameters with that of six conventionally used total knee femoral prostheses. We found that the average ML (70.2±5.5 mm) and AP (53.9±3.8 mm) dimensions from our study were lower than those reported from Western populations. The aspect ratio showed a progressive decline with an increasing antero-posterior dimension. All of the compared designs showed undersizing for the mediolateral dimension distally and for the widths of the resected medial and lateral posterior femoral condyles. But some of the compared designs showed oversizing for the height of the resected medial and lateral posterior femoral condyles. This study provides guidelines for designing a suitable femoral component for total knee prostheses that fit Asian populations. PMID:21212865

  1. Arterial blood pressure measurement in a population of healthy geriatric dogs.

    PubMed

    Meurs, K M; Miller, M W; Slater, M R; Glaze, K

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate healthy geriatric dogs for the presence of systemic hypertension. Thirty-three geriatric dogs (i.e., dogs exceeding the geriatric age range for their weight group) and 22 control dogs (i.e., dogs less than six years of age) were evaluated by measuring blood pressure with an oscillometric monitor. Five consecutive blood pressure measurements were taken in each dog, averaged, and compared. Diastolic and mean blood pressure measurements were significantly lower in the geriatric group as compared to the control group. Systolic blood pressure measurements were not significantly different between the two groups. Systemic hypertension does not appear to be a common clinical problem in the healthy geriatric dog.

  2. Immunogenicity and Safety of Trivalent Split Influenza Vaccine in Healthy Korean Adults with Low Pre-Existing Antibody Levels: An Open Phase I Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyuri; Han, Seunghoon; Hong, Taegon; Jeon, Sangil; Paek, Jeongki; Kang, Jin Han

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A phase I clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of newly developed egg-cultivated trivalent inactivated split influenza vaccine (TIV) in Korea. Materials and Methods The TIV was administered to 43 healthy male adults. Subjects with high pre-existing titers were excluded in a screening step. Immune response was measured by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Results The seroprotection rates against A/California/7/2009 (H1N1), A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2) and B/Brisbane/60/2009 were 74.42% [95% confidence interval (CI): 61.38–87.46], 72.09% (95% CI: 58.69–85.50), and 86.05% (95% CI: 75.69–96.40), respectively. Calculated seroconversion rates were 74.42% (95% CI: 61.38–87.46), 74.42% (95% CI: 61.38–87.46), and 79.07% (95% CI: 66.91–91.23), respectively. There were 25 episodes of solicited local adverse events in 21 subjects (47.73%), 21 episodes of solicited general adverse events in 16 subjects (36.36%) and 5 episodes of unsolicited adverse events in 5 subjects (11.36%). All adverse events were grade 1 or 2 and disappeared within three days. Conclusion The immunogenicity and safety of TIV established in this phase I trial are sufficient to plan a larger scale clinical trial. PMID:27593862

  3. Enhanced Absorption Study of Ginsenoside Compound K (20-O-β-(D-Glucopyranosyl)-20(S)-protopanaxadiol) after Oral Administration of Fermented Red Ginseng Extract (HYFRG™) in Healthy Korean Volunteers and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Il-Dong; Ryu, Ju-Hee; Lee, Dong-Eun; Lee, Myoung-Hee; Shim, Jae-Joong; Ahn, Young-Tae; Sim, Jae-Hun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Shim, Wang-Seob; Yim, Sung-Vin; Chung, Eun-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of compound K after oral administration of HYFRG and RG in humans, an open-label, randomized, single-dose, fasting, and one-period pharmacokinetic study was conducted. After oral administration of a single 3 g dose of HYFRG and RG to 24 healthy Korean males, the mean (±SD) of AUC0–t and Cmax of compound K from HYFRG were 1466.83 ± 295.89 ng·h/mL and 254.45 ± 51.20 ng/mL, being 115.2- and 80-fold higher than those for RG (12.73 ± 7.83 ng·h/mL and 3.18 ± 1.70 ng/mL), respectively; in case of Sprague Dawley rats the mean (±SD) of AUC0–t and Cmax of compound K from HYFRG was 58.03 ± 32.53 ng·h/mL and 15.19 ± 10.69 ng/mL, being 6.3- and 6.0-fold higher than those from RG (9.21 ± 7.52 ng·h/mL and 2.55 ± 0.99 ng/mL), respectively. Tmax of compound K in humans and rats was 2.54 ± 0.92 and 3.33 ± 0.50 h for HYFRG and 9.11 ± 1.45 and 6.75 ± 3.97 hours for RG, respectively. In conclusion, the administration of HYFRG resulted in a higher and faster absorption of compound K in both humans and rats compared to RG. PMID:27516803

  4. Hypovitaminosis D in an Italian population of healthy subjects and hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, E; Caravella, P; Scarnecchia, L; Martinez, P; Minisola, S

    1999-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and seasonal variation of hypovitaminosis D (defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level below 30 nmol/l) among healthy subjects and hospitalized patients living in central Italy. We studied 297 subjects, 131 in February 1997 and 166 in July 1997, subdivided into four groups: (a) young healthy blood donors; (b) healthy postmenopausal women; (c) inpatients with various medical diseases and (d) inpatients engaged in long-term rehabilitation programmes because of various neurological disorders. In all subjects and patients serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured by radioimmunoassay. We found a significant seasonal variation (P < 0.0001) of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, mean values being higher in summer in all groups, except in patients with a longer hospitalization time (group (d)). In each group, a significantly higher prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was found in winter compared with summer time (P < 0.001), being unexpectedly high in postmenopausal women (winter 32% and summer 4.5%); furthermore, in both seasons, inpatients were characterized by the highest incidences of hypovitaminosis, particularly those in group (d) (winter 82.3% and summer 57.8%). The results of the present study emphasize the importance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurement, and the need to increase vitamin D intake in Italy; foodstuff fortification and supplement use must be considered in order to prevent negative effects of vitamin D deficiency on skeletal integrity.

  5. Association between muscle hydration measures acquired using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging in healthy and hemodialysis population

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Anuradha; House, Andrew A.; Chesworth, Bert M.; Connelly, Denise M.; Lindsay, Robert; Gati, Joe; Bartha, Robert; Overend, Tom J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Establishing the effect of fluctuating extracellular fluid (ECF) volume on muscle strength in people with end‐stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis (HD) is essential, as inadequate hydration of the skeletal muscles impacts its strength and endurance. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) has been a widely used method for estimating ECF volume of a limb or calf segment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)‐acquired transverse relaxation times (T2) has also been used for estimating ECF volumes of individual skeletal muscles. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between T2 (gold standard) of tibialis anterior (TA), medial (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and soleus muscles and calf BIS ECF, in healthy and in people with ESRD/HD. Calf BIS and MRI measures were collected on two occasions before and after HD session in people with ESRD/HD and on a single occasion for the healthy participants. Linear regression analysis was used to establish the association between these measures. Thirty‐two healthy and 22 participants on HD were recruited. The association between T2 of TA, LG, MG, and soleus muscles and ratio of calf BIS‐acquired ECF and intracellular fluids (ICF) were: TA: β = 0.30, P > 0.05; LG: β = 0.37, P = 0.035; MG: β = 0.43, P = 0.014; soleus: β = 0.60, P < 0.001. For the HD group, calf ECF was significantly associated with T2 of TA (β = 0.44, P = 0.042), and medial gastrocnemius (β = 0.47, P = 0.027) following HD only. Hence BIS‐acquired measures cannot be used to measure ECF volumes of a single muscle in the ESRD/HD population; however, BIS could be utilized to estimate ratio of ECF: ICF in healthy population for the LG, MG, and soleus muscles. PMID:25626863

  6. Korean Thanksgiving. Chusongnal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    This bilingual reader in Korean and English is intended for elementary school children in a bilingual education setting. Pen-and-ink drawings illustrate the story about a family's celebration of a traditional Korean Thanksgiving. (NCR)

  7. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980.

  8. Associations between Physical Activity and Obesity Defined by Waist-To-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, On; Lee, Duck-chul; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the associations between physical activity and the prevalence of obesity determined by waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI). Methods This is the first study to our knowledge on physical activity and obesity using a nationally representative sample of South Korean population from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We categorized individuals into either non-obese or obese defined by WHtR and BMI. Levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were classified as ‘Inactive’, ‘Active’, and ‘Very active’ groups based on the World Health Organization physical activity guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between physical activity and the prevalence of obesity. Results Physical activity was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of obesity using both WHtR and BMI. Compared to inactive men, odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for obesity by WHtR ≥0.50 were 0.69 (0.53–0.89) in active men and 0.76 (0.63–0.91) in very active men (p for trend = 0.007). The ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by BMI ≥25 kg/m2 were 0.78 (0.59–1.03) in active men and 0.82 (0.67–0.99) in very active men (p for trend = 0.060). The ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were 0.40 (0.15–0.98) in active men and 0.90 (0.52–1.56) in very active men (p for trend = 0.978). Compared to inactive women, the ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by WHtR ≥0.50 were 0.94 (0.75–1.18) in active women and 0.84 (0.71–0.998) in very active women (p for trend = 0.046). However, no significant associations were found between physical activity and obesity by BMI in women. Conclusions We found more significant associations between physical activity and obesity defined by WHtR than BMI. However, intervention studies are warranted to investigate and compare causal associations between physical activity and different obesity measures in various populations

  9. Perfusion Neuroimaging Abnormalities Alone Distinguish National Football League Players from a Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Amen, Daniel G.; Willeumier, Kristen; Omalu, Bennet; Newberg, Andrew; Raghavendra, Cauligi; Raji, Cyrus A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: National Football League (NFL) players are exposed to multiple head collisions during their careers. Increasing awareness of the adverse long-term effects of repetitive head trauma has raised substantial concern among players, medical professionals, and the general public. Objective: To determine whether low perfusion in specific brain regions on neuroimaging can accurately separate professional football players from healthy controls. Method: A cohort of retired and current NFL players (n = 161) were recruited in a longitudinal study starting in 2009 with ongoing interval follow up. A healthy control group (n = 124) was separately recruited for comparison. Assessments included medical examinations, neuropsychological tests, and perfusion neuroimaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Perfusion estimates of each scan were quantified using a standard atlas. We hypothesized that hypoperfusion particularly in the orbital frontal, anterior cingulate, anterior temporal, hippocampal, amygdala, insular, caudate, superior/mid occipital, and cerebellar sub-regions alone would reliably separate controls from NFL players. Cerebral perfusion differences were calculated using a one-way ANOVA and diagnostic separation was determined with discriminant and automatic linear regression predictive models. Results: NFL players showed lower cerebral perfusion on average (p < 0.01) in 36 brain regions. The discriminant analysis subsequently distinguished NFL players from controls with 90% sensitivity, 86% specificity, and 94% accuracy (95% CI 95-99). Automatic linear modeling achieved similar results. Inclusion of age and clinical co-morbidities did not improve diagnostic classification. Conclusion: Specific brain regions commonly damaged in traumatic brain injury show abnormally low perfusion on SPECT in professional NFL players. These same regions alone can distinguish this group from healthy subjects with high diagnostic accuracy. This

  10. Genotyping of 22 blood group antigen polymorphisms and establishing a national recipient registry in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yun Ji; Chung, Yousun; Hwang, Sang Mee; Park, Jeong Su; Kwon, Jeong-Ran; Choi, Young Sill; Kim, Jun Nyun; Lee, Dong Han; Kwon, So-Yong; Cho, Nam-Sun; Song, Eun Young; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Han, Kyou Sup

    2016-05-01

    It is often difficult for standard blood banks in Korea to supply adequate amounts of blood for patients with rare phenotype. Moreover, the definition of a blood in need is ambiguous, and much remains to be learned. In this study, we determined the prevalence of various red blood cell (RBC) antigens from a donor viewpoint and estimated the demand for specific antigen-negative blood from a patient viewpoint. Our data will aid the establishment of a Rare Blood Program in Korea (KRBP). RBC genotyping of 419 blood donors was performed using a Lifecodes RBC/RBC-R typing kit (Immucor, Norcross, GA). A national recipient registry website has been established. Each hospital-based blood bank voluntarily enters data on antibodies detected and identified and the outcomes of specific antigen testing. We calculated the availabilities of specific antigen-negative blood components based on these registry data and predicted the prevalence of RBC antigens via RBC genotyping. The prevalences of various RBC antigens in the D-negative population were determined for the first time, and the Cartwright, Scianna, Dombrock, Colton, Landsteiner-Wiener, Cromer, and Knops blood group systems were identified. The availabilities of specific antigen-negative units differed when calculations were based on serotyping or genotyping, especially in the D-negative group. Data on the prevalences of various blood antigens are essential for estimating the availabilities of blood components that are appropriate for use by patients expressing relevant antibodies. Then, blood banks would be able to efficiently supply safe blood products. PMID:27021300

  11. SMN1 gene copy number analyses for SMA healthy carriers in Italian population

    PubMed Central

    Patitucci, Alessandra; Magariello, Angela; Ungaro, Carmine; Muglia, Maria; Conforti, Francesca L.; Gabriele, Anna L.; Citrigno, Luigi; Sproviero, William; Mazzei, Rosalucia

    2012-01-01

    The routine molecular test for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) diagnosis is based on the detection of a homozygous deletion of exons 7 and 8 of the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron gene (SMN1). The presence of the centromeric copy of the SMN gene (SMN2) does not allow the detection of the hemizygous absence of the SMN1 gene, which characterizes the disease carriers. The demand for a quantitative SMN1 test is permanently growing because there is a high incidence of carriers. The disease is severe and to date there are no effective pharmacological treatments. Here, we present a non-radioactive assay based on real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We analyzed eight SMA patients, 14 SMA relatives and 50 health individuals from Southern Italy by real time quantitative method in order to identify haploid deletion occurring in SMA carriers. SMN1 copy number was determined by the comparative threshold cycle method (ΔΔCt). The results confirmed the deletion in all homozygous patients and permitted an evaluation of the number of alleles in the healthy carriers. This method is fast, reproducible, and enables us to discriminate carriers from healthy homozygous, which is impossible with normal techniques.

  12. SMN1 gene copy number analyses for SMA healthy carriers in Italian population.

    PubMed

    Patitucci, Alessandra; Magariello, Angela; Ungaro, Carmine; Muglia, Maria; Conforti, Francesca L; Gabriele, Anna L; Citrigno, Luigi; Sproviero, William; Mazzei, Rosalucia

    2012-06-01

    The routine molecular test for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) diagnosis is based on the detection of a homozygous deletion of exons 7 and 8 of the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron gene (SMN1). The presence of the centromeric copy of the SMN gene (SMN2) does not allow the detection of the hemizygous absence of the SMN1 gene, which characterizes the disease carriers. The demand for a quantitative SMN1 test is permanently growing because there is a high incidence of carriers. The disease is severe and to date there are no effective pharmacological treatments. Here, we present a non-radioactive assay based on real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We analyzed eight SMA patients, 14 SMA relatives and 50 health individuals from Southern Italy by real time quantitative method in order to identify haploid deletion occurring in SMA carriers. SMN1 copy number was determined by the comparative threshold cycle method (ΔΔCt). The results confirmed the deletion in all homozygous patients and permitted an evaluation of the number of alleles in the healthy carriers. This method is fast, reproducible, and enables us to discriminate carriers from healthy homozygous, which is impossible with normal techniques. PMID:27625809

  13. Thyroid Volume and Its Relation to Anthropometric Measures in a Healthy Cuban Population

    PubMed Central

    Turcios, Silvia; Lence-Anta, Juan J.; Santana, Jose-Luis; Pereda, Celia M.; Velasco, Milagros; Chappe, Mae; Infante, Idalmis; Bustillo, Marlene; García, Anabel; Clero, Enora; Maillard, Stephane; Rodriguez, Regla; Xhaard, Constance; Ren, Yan; Rubino, Carole; Ortiz, Rosa M.; de Vathaire, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the thyroid volume in healthy adults by ultrasound and to correlate this volume with some anthropometric measures and other differentiated thyroid cancer risk factors. Study Design Thyroid volume and anthropometric measures were recorded in a sample of 100 healthy adults, including 21 men and 79 women aged 18-50 years, living in a non-iodine-deficient area of Havana city. Results The average thyroid volume was 6.6 ± 0.26 ml; it was higher in men (7.3 ml) than in women (6.4 ml; p = 0.15). In the univariate analysis, thyroid volume was correlated with all anthropometric measures, but in the multivariate analysis, body surface area was found to be the only significant anthropometric parameter. Thyroid volume was also higher in current or former smokers and in persons with blood group AB or B. Conclusion Specific reference values of thyroid volume as a function of body surface area could be used for evaluating thyroid volume in clinical practice. The relation between body surface area and thyroid volume is coherent with what is known about the relation of thyroid volume to thyroid cancer risk, but the same is not true about the relation between thyroid volume and smoking habit. PMID:25960963

  14. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. Methods This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH) and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006 are used. Results The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as “excellent or good” and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. Conclusion The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality. PMID:22989200

  15. Comparative analysis of the frequency, distribution and population sizes of yeasts associated with canine seborrheic dermatitis and healthy skin.

    PubMed

    Yurayart, Chompoonek; Chindamporn, Ariya; Suradhat, Sanipa; Tummaruk, Padet; Kajiwara, Susumu; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2011-03-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of yeast associated with the degree of canine seborrheic dermatitis (SD) by anatomical sites. Fifty-seven samples were divided as 17 healthy skin, 20 with primary seborrheic dermatitis (PSD), and 20 with secondary seborrheic dermatitis (SSD). Yeast isolation and characterization were carried out based on microscopical features and biochemical properties. DNA analysis at the internal transcribed spacer I of 26S rDNA region was utilized for species confirmation. Four species of yeast consisting Malassezia pachydermatis, Malassezia furfur, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis recovered from examined dogs. M. pachydermatis and C. parapsilosis were isolated from all dogs, but C. tropicalis and M. furfur were recovered from 3 healthy dogs and one diseased dog, respectively. The number of M. pachydermatis and C. parapsilosis in diseased dogs was higher than that of healthy specimens (P<0.01). High frequency and population size of C. parapsilosis were closely associated to PSD, while those of M. pachydermatis were associated with both PSD and SSD (P<0.01). C. parapsilosis were predominant at the perianal area. This study demonstrated the co-colonization of M. pachydermatis and C. parapsilosis in large amounts and frequency associated with stage of disease and anatomical site. PMID:20961712

  16. Identification of a New Cell Population Constitutively Circulating in Healthy Conditions and Endowed with a Homing Ability Toward Injured Sites

    PubMed Central

    Lo Sicco, Claudia; Tasso, Roberta; Reverberi, Daniele; Cilli, Michele; Pfeffer, Ulrich; Cancedda, Ranieri

    2015-01-01

    Stem and progenitor cells are the critical units for tissue maintenance, regeneration, and repair. The activation of regenerative events in response to tissue injury has been correlated with mobilization of tissue-resident progenitor cells, which is functional to the wound healing process. However, until now there has been no evidence for the presence of cells with a healing capacity circulating in healthy conditions. We identified a rare cell population present in the peripheral blood of healthy mice that actively participates in tissue repair. These Circulating cells, with a Homing ability and involved in the Healing process (CH cells), were identified by an innovative flowcytometry strategy as small cells not expressing CD45 and lineage markers. Their transcriptome profile revealed that CH cells are unique and present a high expression of key pluripotency- and epiblast-associated genes. More importantly, CH-labeled cells derived from healthy Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP)-transgenic mice and systemically injected into syngeneic fractured wild-type mice migrated and engrafted in wounded tissues, ultimately differentiating into tissue-specific cells. Accordingly, the number of CH cells in the peripheral blood rapidly decreased following femoral fracture. These findings uncover the existence of constitutively circulating cells that may represent novel, accessible, and versatile effectors of therapeutic tissue regeneration. PMID:26560420

  17. Genotypic distribution of common variants of endosomal toll like receptors in healthy Spanish women. A comparative study with other populations.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Robles, Elena; Yebra-Bango, Miguel; Mellor-Pita, Susana; Tutor-Ureta, Pablo; Vargas, Juan A; Citores, Maria J

    2016-03-01

    Genetic variants of endosomal toll like receptors (TLR) have been associated with many infectious, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but few studies have been reported in the Spanish population. The aim of this study was to describe the allelic and genotypic distributions of some common nucleotide substitutions of endosomal TLRs in healthy Spanish women and to compare them with those already published in other population groups. Nine substitutions were analysed in 150 DNA samples from 150 Spanish, non-related healthy females: TLR3 rs3775291 and rs5743305; TLR7 rs179008 and rs5743781; TLR8 rs3764880 and TLR9 rs187084, rs5743836, rs352139 and rs352140. Genotyping was carried out by real time PCR and melting curve analysis in a LightCycler 480. A systematic review was performed in order to compare the genotypic distributions in our cohort with those previously published in other population groups. The comparative study was performed with the two tailed Fisher's test or the Yates continuity correction for the Chi-square test when appropriate. No homozygotes for rs5743781 in TLR7 were found, and rs352139 and rs352140 of TLR9 were in strong linkage disequilibrium. Genotype distributions in endosomal TLR are similar to other Spanish series previously reported. As expected, most differences were found when comparing our distributions with Asiatics, but differences were also found with other Caucasian populations. Since there are significant variations in genotypic distributions of TLRs in both interracial groups and within the same ethnic group, to carry out studies of disease susceptibility in more restricted groups is mandatory.

  18. [Comparative study of the volume difference vs. healthy limb, morphological and population description in transfemoral amputees].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cruz, Felipe; Rodríguez-Reyes, Gerardo; Galván Duque-Gastélum, Carlos; Alvarez-Camacho, Michelín

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of the general characteristics and physical condition that keeps the transfemoral amputation stump to select and adapt appropriate type of prosthesis to restore a walking pattern amputee patient acceptable and useful design parameters set to propose new prosthetic systems. In this paper, the degree of difference between the volumes of the limb stump and healthy as well as morphological features occurred more frequently in the stumps of transfemoral amputees who were treated at the Laboratory of Orthotics and Prosthetics (LOP), Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (INR) in 2008. It captured all patients with unilateral transfemoral amputation left and right, over 18 years old, both sexes, use of hearing candidates were evaluated clinically and took three measurements of the circumferences at different wavelengths and the limb stump healthy, were calculated volumes of both sides using the mathematical model of the truncated cone and analyzed in three groups according to the level of amputation (proximal, middle and distal third). We obtained 49 patients, 39 men and 10 women, the difference stump volume compared to healthy limb volume per group were: 44.9% proximal third, middle third and distal 26.5%, 21.1%, the frequency of diagnostic data showed a stump right transfemoral amputees, due to metabolic, without use of prostheses, the most common morphological features indicate that the stump has a conical shape and size distal third, whose tissue is semi-flaccid consistency, the scar is not adhered to deep planes and shows a negative tinel, the mattress soft tissue is 2.15 ± 1.3 cm and physically presents a force level 4 in the clinical rating scale Daniels. The data are consistent with other studies comparing the percentage of the volume change with the percentages of reduced diameters transfemoral stump muscle, likewise agrees most amputees incidence of diabetes mellitus with other studies, cataloging it eat first cause amputation. The general description

  19. [Comparative study of the volume difference vs. healthy limb, morphological and population description in transfemoral amputees].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cruz, Felipe; Rodríguez-Reyes, Gerardo; Galván Duque-Gastélum, Carlos; Alvarez-Camacho, Michelín

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of the general characteristics and physical condition that keeps the transfemoral amputation stump to select and adapt appropriate type of prosthesis to restore a walking pattern amputee patient acceptable and useful design parameters set to propose new prosthetic systems. In this paper, the degree of difference between the volumes of the limb stump and healthy as well as morphological features occurred more frequently in the stumps of transfemoral amputees who were treated at the Laboratory of Orthotics and Prosthetics (LOP), Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (INR) in 2008. It captured all patients with unilateral transfemoral amputation left and right, over 18 years old, both sexes, use of hearing candidates were evaluated clinically and took three measurements of the circumferences at different wavelengths and the limb stump healthy, were calculated volumes of both sides using the mathematical model of the truncated cone and analyzed in three groups according to the level of amputation (proximal, middle and distal third). We obtained 49 patients, 39 men and 10 women, the difference stump volume compared to healthy limb volume per group were: 44.9% proximal third, middle third and distal 26.5%, 21.1%, the frequency of diagnostic data showed a stump right transfemoral amputees, due to metabolic, without use of prostheses, the most common morphological features indicate that the stump has a conical shape and size distal third, whose tissue is semi-flaccid consistency, the scar is not adhered to deep planes and shows a negative tinel, the mattress soft tissue is 2.15 ± 1.3 cm and physically presents a force level 4 in the clinical rating scale Daniels. The data are consistent with other studies comparing the percentage of the volume change with the percentages of reduced diameters transfemoral stump muscle, likewise agrees most amputees incidence of diabetes mellitus with other studies, cataloging it eat first cause amputation. The general description

  20. Effects of healthy dietary pattern and other lifestyle factors on incidence of diabetes in a rural Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Akiko; Ohno, Yuko; Tatsumi, Yukako; Mizuno, Shoichi; Watanabe, Shaw

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of dietary habits and other lifestyle factors on the incidence of diabetes in a rural Japanese population. This 10.3-year study investigated a cohort of 1,995 men and 3,670 women aged 40-69 years without diabetes at baseline who underwent health check-ups between April 1990 and March 1992. Participants were followed up until diabetes was confirmed or until the end of 2006. The incidence of diabetes was determined from fasting and random levels of plasma glucose, HbA1c levels or being under medical treatment for diabetes. Principal component analysis identified a major dietary pattern characterized by more frequent consumption of vegetables, potatoes, seaweeds, fruits and soybean products that we labeled "healthy". Diabetes developed in 446 of the participants during 58,151 person-years of follow-up. Consuming a healthy diet was associated with a lower risk of diabetes (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for highest vs lowest quartiles, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.61- 0.95]. In addition, scores for a healthy diet were associated with a lower risk for diabetes among persons who consumed regular meals (0.76 [0.58-0.96]), persons with an exercise habit (0.65 [0.44-0.96]) and non- and ex-smokers (0.72 [0.53-0.96]). Our findings suggest that consuming a healthy diet is associated with a lower risk for diabetes among the Japanese, particularly among those who eat regularly, those who habitually exercise and non- and ex-smokers. PMID:23017319

  1. Effects of healthy dietary pattern and other lifestyle factors on incidence of diabetes in a rural Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Akiko; Ohno, Yuko; Tatsumi, Yukako; Mizuno, Shoichi; Watanabe, Shaw

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of dietary habits and other lifestyle factors on the incidence of diabetes in a rural Japanese population. This 10.3-year study investigated a cohort of 1,995 men and 3,670 women aged 40-69 years without diabetes at baseline who underwent health check-ups between April 1990 and March 1992. Participants were followed up until diabetes was confirmed or until the end of 2006. The incidence of diabetes was determined from fasting and random levels of plasma glucose, HbA1c levels or being under medical treatment for diabetes. Principal component analysis identified a major dietary pattern characterized by more frequent consumption of vegetables, potatoes, seaweeds, fruits and soybean products that we labeled "healthy". Diabetes developed in 446 of the participants during 58,151 person-years of follow-up. Consuming a healthy diet was associated with a lower risk of diabetes (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for highest vs lowest quartiles, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.61- 0.95]. In addition, scores for a healthy diet were associated with a lower risk for diabetes among persons who consumed regular meals (0.76 [0.58-0.96]), persons with an exercise habit (0.65 [0.44-0.96]) and non- and ex-smokers (0.72 [0.53-0.96]). Our findings suggest that consuming a healthy diet is associated with a lower risk for diabetes among the Japanese, particularly among those who eat regularly, those who habitually exercise and non- and ex-smokers.

  2. Investigation of the effects of solid lipid curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population.

    PubMed

    Cox, Katherine H M; Pipingas, Andrew; Scholey, Andrew B

    2015-05-01

    Curcumin possesses many properties which may prevent or ameliorate pathological processes underlying age-related cognitive decline, dementia or mood disorders. These benefits in preclinical studies have not been established in humans. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined the acute (1 and 3 h after a single dose), chronic (4 weeks) and acute-on-chronic (1 and 3 h after single dose following chronic treatment) effects of solid lipid curcumin formulation (400 mg as Longvida®) on cognitive function, mood and blood biomarkers in 60 healthy adults aged 60-85. One hour after administration curcumin significantly improved performance on sustained attention and working memory tasks, compared with placebo. Working memory and mood (general fatigue and change in state calmness, contentedness and fatigue induced by psychological stress) were significantly better following chronic treatment. A significant acute-on-chronic treatment effect on alertness and contentedness was also observed. Curcumin was associated with significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol and had no effect on hematological safety measures. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the effects of curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population or to examine any acute behavioral effects in humans. Results highlight the need for further investigation of the potential psychological and cognitive benefits of curcumin in an older population.

  3. Widespread nasal carriage of Mycobacterium leprae among a healthy population in a hyperendemic region of northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa; Frota, Cristiane Cunha; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Almeida, Rosa Livia Freitas; Pontes, Maria Araci de Andrade; Gonçalves, Heitor de Sá; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia

    2015-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to determine the presence of Mycobacterium leprae DNA in nasal secretions of leprosy cases and nonleprosy individuals in Fortaleza, Brazil. It included 185 cases identified by physicians at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology (CDERM). A control group (Co) (n = 136) was identified among individuals from CDERM not diagnosed as leprosy cases. To augment the spatial analysis of M. leprae specific repetitive element (RLEP) positive prevalence, an external group (EG) (n = 121), a convenience sample of healthy students, were included. Polymerase chain reaction for the RLEP sequence was conducted for all participants. Prevalence of RLEP positivity for cases and Co were 69.2% and 66.9%, respectively, significantly higher than for EG (28.1%), and reported elsewhere. Male sex, belonging to a lower socioeconomic status (D/E), history of a previous contact with a case and being older, were associated with being a leprosy case. Our geographical analysis demonstrated that the bacillus is widespread among the healthy population, with clusters of RLEP positive multibacillary cases concentrated in distinct areas of the city. Our results suggest that in endemic areas, as in Fortaleza, surveillance for both nonhousehold leprosy contacts and members of the general population living in cluster areas should be implemented. PMID:26560980

  4. Gender-related differences in basal DNA damage in lymphocytes of a healthy Indian population using the alkaline Comet assay.

    PubMed

    Bajpayee, Mahima; Dhawan, Alok; Parmar, Devendra; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Mathur, Neeraj; Seth, Prahlad K

    2002-09-26

    The Comet assay, a sensitive, rapid and non-invasive technique, measures DNA damage in individual cells and has found wide acceptance in epidemiological and biomonitoring studies to determine the DNA damage resulting from lifestyle, occupational and environmental exposure. The present study was undertaken to measure the basal level of DNA damage in a normal, healthy Indian male and female population. Out of the 230 volunteers included in this study, 124 were male and 106 were female. All the individuals belonged to a comparable socio-economic background and aged between 20 and 30 years. They were also matched for their smoking and dietary habits. The period of sample collection was also matched. The results revealed a statistically significant higher level of DNA damage in males when compared to females as evident by an increase in the Olive tail moment [3.76+/-1.21 (arbitrary units) for males as compared to 3.37+/-1.47 for females (P<0.05)], tail DNA (%) [10.2+/-2.96 for males as compared to 9.40+/-2.83 for females (P<0.05)] and tail length (microm) [59.65+/-9.23 for males and 49.57+/-14.68 for females (P<0.001)]. To our knowledge, this report has, for the first time demonstrated significant differences in the basal level of DNA damage between males and females in a normal healthy Indian population.

  5. Influence of dietary habits, age and gender on plasma fatty acids levels in a population of healthy Tunisian subjects.

    PubMed

    Sfar, Sonia; Laporte, François; Braham, Hamadi; Jawed, Abdelhafidh; Amor, Salah; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2010-09-01

    The fatty acids composition of circulating blood lipids is expected to be altered by many factors (ageing, dietary intake, lifestyle...). In addition to the ageing consequences on their lipid status, elderly subjects represent a population at risk of nutritional imbalance. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between dietary habits and the plasma fatty acids patterns in a healthy Tunisian population with an emphasis on the gender and ageing differences for the 6-desaturase activity and the EFA proportions. Nutritional habits and plasma fatty acids compositions have been therefore evaluated in 200 healthy volunteers (104 women and 96 men) aged between 40 and 82years old. The findings revealed that the 6-desaturase activity was reduced in elderly subjects (by 24% and 10% in women and men respectively). Moreover, DHA (C22:6n-3) and AA (C20:4n-6) were found to increase respectively in high fish and meat consumers. Plasma fatty acids composition could be sensitive to dietary habits according to particular food items and should then help for the establishment of optimal nutritional proportions.

  6. Effect of seasons upon intraocular pressure in healthy population of China.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, I A; Xi, X R; Lu, H J; Wu, X D; Huang, Y B; Shiarkar, E

    1996-06-01

    Studies have been shown that intraocular pressure (IOP) shows a seasonal variation, but amount of change differs from study to study. The variability in their results may be due to negligence of factors that can affect IOP. Due to differences in environmental conditions of China than other countries, we investigated seasonal variations in IOP of 103 healthy male Chinese of Shanghai. IOP was measured each month over the course of fourteen months with the Goldmann applanation tonometer. The average intraocular pressures in the winter months were higher than those in the spring, summer, and autumn months. The IOP difference between winter and summer months was found to be 1.4 +/- 0.7 mmHg. This study confirms that season influences IOP. As compared to other nations, effect of seasons on IOP seems to be somewhat less pronounced in Chinese. The possible mechanisms, responsible for the seasonal variation of intraocular pressure, are also postulated.

  7. Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy chinese population sample

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macular pigment may protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by its capability to absorb blue light and scavenge free radicals. Current information on human macular pigment density has been largely from studies on Caucasians populations. The purpose of this study was to assess macular ...

  8. Translating research on healthy lifestyles for children: meeting the needs of diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Christine; Floriani, Victoria

    2008-09-01

    This article provides two examples of approaches nursing can take to reach diverse populations of children and their families to enhance health lifestyles. First, a descriptive summary of a brief after-school intervention program aimed at influencing 8- and 9-year-old children's media habits and the prevention of negative health behaviors is presented. Design consideration for translating health lifestyles research findings into a nurse-managed inner city primary care practice is reviewed in the second example.

  9. The Effect of a Diving Mask on Intraocular Pressure in a Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Goenadi, Catherina Josephine; Law, David Zhiwei; Lee, Jia Wen; Ong, Ee Lin; Chee, Wai Kitt; Cheng, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Swimming goggles increase the intraocular pressure (IOP) via the periorbital frame pressure and suction effect. In comparison, diving masks have a larger frame rim and incorporate the nose. The exact effect(s) of diving masks on IOP is unknown. This study evaluates the influence of diving masks on IOP in normal, healthy subjects. Methods Tonometry was performed in both eyes of all subjects with an AVIA®Tono-Pen by a single investigator. Measurements were taken at baseline without the diving mask and with the subjects wearing a small-volume, double-window diving mask, but with the mask lenses removed. Two IOP readings in each eye were measured, and an additional reading was measured if the difference between the initial 2 was ≥2 mm Hg. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was also measured in each eye, using a contact pachymeter (OcuScan®Alcon). Results Forty eyes of 20 healthy volunteers (age 29.7 ± 9.3 years; range 21–52) were included. The mean CCT was 544.4 ± 43.5 µm. The mean IOP before the diving mask was worn had been 17.23 ± 2.18 mm Hg (n = 40). The IOP decreased by 0.43 mm Hg (p $1003c; 0.05) to 16.80 ± 2.57 mm Hg after the diving mask had been put on. There was no correlation between IOP change and age (r = 0.143, p = 0.337), gender (r = −0.174, p = 0.283) or CCT (r = −0.123, p = 0.445). Conclusion There was no increase in IOP after the diving mask had been worn. A small but statistically significant decrease in IOP was observed. This study demonstrates that unlike swimming goggles, the strap tension and frame pressure on the periorbital tissue from a diving mask does not increase IOP. Diving masks may be a suitable alternative to swimming goggles for patients with advanced glaucoma or glaucoma filtration surgery. PMID:27462262

  10. Current Scenario of Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Ostensibly Healthy Indian Population: A Hospital Based Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kirtikar; Sharma, Shikha; Gupta, Aditi; Raizada, Arun; Vinayak, Kamini

    2016-10-01

    25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) vit D] deficiency is a serious public health problem, particularly in the Indian sub-continent. The objective of the present study was to study the prevalence of 25(OH) vit D in different age groups. The data of 25(OH) vit D assay of 26,346 ostensibly healthy individuals, enrolled under executive health checkup at Medanta The Medicity, Gurgaon, over a period of 3 years, were extracted from the hospital information system and reviewed extensively. 25(OH) vit D deficiency (VDD) was defined as 25(OH) vit D < 20 ng/ml, insufficiency (VDI) as 25(OH) vit D between 20 and 40 ng/ml and 25(OH) vit D sufficiency (VDS) as 25(OH) D > 40 ng/mL. 25(OH) vit D deficiency (VDD + VDI) was observed in 93 % of the subject population. Maximum number of the subjects belonged to the age group of 41-60 years. 59 % had frank 25(OH) vit D deficiency when cut off level was <20 ng/mL. Mean value of 25(OH) vit D in our subjects was 21.4 ± 14.4 ng/mL. Significant difference in 25(OH) vit D level was observed in between male and female subjects. Simultaneously 25(OH) vit D levels were significantly lower in the patient visited hospital in winter-spring season than the summer-autumn season (p > 0.001). Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of 25(OH) vit D deficiency in an ostensibly healthy Indian population. There is a need for redefining our reference ranges according to our population and extensively improving the status of vitamin D. PMID:27605743

  11. Cardiovascular health among healthy population of Northeast region of India: a cross-sectional study comparing urban-tribal difference.

    PubMed

    Saha, Soma; Gupta, Kinnari; Kumar, Soumitra

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of adult mortality in India but data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors are scarce, especially from North-east region of India. This study aims to assess the prevalence and the urban/tribal gradient of cardiovascular disease risk factors among healthy population of Tripura. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 238 healthy individuals (140 urban and 98 tribal) in one urban and five tribal areas of Tripura. Data was collected on sociodemographic profile, medical history, anthropometry, dietary patterns and addiction. Fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and short-term cardiovascular disease risk score was calculated. The association of independent variables with 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score were examined by using multiple regression model. Prevalence of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome and short-term cardiovascular disease risk score were higher in urban group. Urban people had higher salt, calories and fat intake. No difference was found in the addiction patterns of tobacco and alcohol but frequency and quantity being higher in tribal area. Dyslipidaemia and alcohol consumption showed significant positive association with 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score in both groups. While the non-sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits (low salt, low fat, carbohydrate predominant) of tribal population need to be promoted as a whole across the nation, they need to be protected from the adverse effects of rampant prevalence of tobacco and alcohol addiction among them. Urban population need to be extricated from adverse effects of sedentary lifestyle, modern food habits (high salt, high fat) and tobacco-alcohol addiction.

  12. Current Scenario of Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Ostensibly Healthy Indian Population: A Hospital Based Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kirtikar; Sharma, Shikha; Gupta, Aditi; Raizada, Arun; Vinayak, Kamini

    2016-10-01

    25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) vit D] deficiency is a serious public health problem, particularly in the Indian sub-continent. The objective of the present study was to study the prevalence of 25(OH) vit D in different age groups. The data of 25(OH) vit D assay of 26,346 ostensibly healthy individuals, enrolled under executive health checkup at Medanta The Medicity, Gurgaon, over a period of 3 years, were extracted from the hospital information system and reviewed extensively. 25(OH) vit D deficiency (VDD) was defined as 25(OH) vit D < 20 ng/ml, insufficiency (VDI) as 25(OH) vit D between 20 and 40 ng/ml and 25(OH) vit D sufficiency (VDS) as 25(OH) D > 40 ng/mL. 25(OH) vit D deficiency (VDD + VDI) was observed in 93 % of the subject population. Maximum number of the subjects belonged to the age group of 41-60 years. 59 % had frank 25(OH) vit D deficiency when cut off level was <20 ng/mL. Mean value of 25(OH) vit D in our subjects was 21.4 ± 14.4 ng/mL. Significant difference in 25(OH) vit D level was observed in between male and female subjects. Simultaneously 25(OH) vit D levels were significantly lower in the patient visited hospital in winter-spring season than the summer-autumn season (p > 0.001). Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of 25(OH) vit D deficiency in an ostensibly healthy Indian population. There is a need for redefining our reference ranges according to our population and extensively improving the status of vitamin D.

  13. The traditional Korean dietary pattern is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2009.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Cho, Mi Sook

    2014-01-01

    The traditional Korean diet has several healthy components, including abundant vegetables, fermented foods, a variety of foodstuffs, and a balance of animal and vegetable food intake. Although the traditional Korean diet has many healthy components, few studies have been conducted on the health advantages of the Korean dietary pattern. This study is intended to clarify the relationship between Korean dietary patterns and chronic diseases using the Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score (I-KDPS). I-KDPS is an index for measuring Korean dietary patterns based on traditional Korean meals and reflects the complex and multifaceted characteristics of Korean food culture. I-KDPS is composed of seven items to measure the level of balance and adequacy of Korean food consumption, with a maximum score of 60. When I-KDPS was applied to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2009), a nationwide survey, I-KDPS was closely related to the risk of metabolic syndrome. Even though there were a few differences among the years surveyed, the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased as I-KDPS increased. These results indicate that risk of diseases, including metabolic syndrome, decreases in individuals adhering to traditional Korean dietary patterns in adequate levels and those who eat a balanced diet. The result of this study shows that the traditional Korean table setting, which comprises side dishes, including seasoned vegetables, grilled dishes, and fermented products with cooked rice (bap), soup (guk), and kimchi, contains traits that help prevent metabolic syndrome. I-KDPS coupled with the basic study of the healthfulness of the Korean dietary lifestyle is expected to help establish a foundation for continuous development of health promoting Korean foods and dietary culture.

  14. Korean Language Maintenance in Los Angeles. Professional Papers K-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kenneth Kong-On; And Others

    Characteristics of the Korean population in Los Angeles, intergenerational cultural problems, and efforts to promote language maintenance are described. The majority of Koreans in Los Angeles have been in the United States less than 10 years. A high percentage are from middle class and professional backgrounds. The traditional hierarchical family…

  15. A Study of Korean EFL Learners' WTC and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yachao; Park, Hyesook

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among Willingness to Communicate (WTC), motivation and English proficiency within a population of Korean college students learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Based on previous studies, questionnaires were used to collect data. Two hundred one Korean college students of…

  16. Occupational exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins during Florida red tide events: effects on a healthy worker population.

    PubMed

    Backer, Lorraine C; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Fleming, Lora E; Cheng, Yung Sung; Pierce, Richard; Bean, Judy A; Clark, Richard; Johnson, David; Wanner, Adam; Tamer, Robert; Zhou, Yue; Baden, Daniel G

    2005-05-01

    Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) is a marine dinoflagellate responsible for red tides that form in the Gulf of Mexico. K. brevis produces brevetoxins, the potent toxins that cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. There is also limited information describing human health effects from environmental exposures to brevetoxins. Our objective was to examine the impact of inhaling aerosolized brevetoxins during red tide events on self-reported symptoms and pulmonary function. We recruited a group of 28 healthy lifeguards who are occupationally exposed to red tide toxins during their daily work-related activities. They performed spirometry tests and reported symptoms before and after their 8-hr shifts during a time when there was no red tide (unexposed period) and again when there was a red tide (exposed period). We also examined how mild exercise affected the reported symptoms and spirometry tests during unexposed and exposed periods with a subgroup of the same lifeguards. Environmental sampling (K. brevis cell concentrations in seawater and brevetoxin concentrations in seawater and air) was used to confirm unexposed/exposed status. Compared with unexposed periods, the group of lifeguards reported more upper respiratory symptoms during the exposed periods. We did not observe any impact of exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins, with or without mild exercise, on pulmonary function.

  17. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and diet in a healthy elderly population.

    PubMed

    Hooper, P L; Garry, P J; Goodwin, J S; Hooper, E M; Leonard, A G

    1982-01-01

    This study examined how high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) correlated with a 3-day food record of fat, protein, carbohydrate, and alcohol consumption in a group of 270 healthy subjects over age 60. HDL-C concentrations correlated with alcohol consumption (expressed as grams/day) (r = + .25, P less than .001), and inversely with total carbohydrate (r = - .18, P less than .01) and refined carbohydrate (r = - .17, P less than .01) ingestion (expressed as a percent of total caloric intake). Subjects consuming diets low in either total carbohydrate or refined carbohydrate had 10 to 20% higher HDL-C levels than did those consuming diets high in these food substances. The relationships between HDL-C levels and alcohol and carbohydrate ingestion were independent of other variables which correlated with HDL-C levels. Dietary fat (total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and cholesterol) did not correlate with HDL-C. LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not correlate with any dietary variable measured.

  18. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Uğur; Küçük, Hilal Olgun; Cüce, Ferhat; Balta, Sevket

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI), but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. Objective: We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Results: Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Conclusion: Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness. PMID:27509093

  19. Translating Research on Healthy Lifestyles for Children: Meeting the Needs of Diverse Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Christine; Floriani, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis This paper provides two examples of approaches nursing can take to reach diverse populations of children and their families to enhance health lifestyles. First a descriptive summary of a brief after-school intervention program aimed at influencing 8 and 9 year-old children’s media habits and the prevention of negative health behaviors will be presented. Design consideration for translating health lifestyles research findings into a Nurse managed inner city primary care practice will be reviewed in the 2nd example. PMID:18674672

  20. A cross sectional assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice towards Hepatitis B among healthy population of Quetta, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B (HB) is a serious global public health problem. This study aims to evaluate Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) towards Hepatitis B (HB) among healthy population of Quetta city, Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional, descriptive study was undertaken. One thousand healthy individuals (aged 18 years and above) were approached for the study. KAP towards HB was assessed by using a pre validated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used for elaborating patients’ demographic characteristics. Inferential statistics (Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test) were used for comparison while Spearman’s rho correlation was used to identify association between the study variables. All analyses were performed using SPSS 16.0. Results Out of 1000 distributed questionnaires, 780 were returned with a response rate of 78.0%. Four hundred and twenty (53.8%) respondents were male with mean age of 32.76 ± 9.40 year. Two hundred and eight (26.7%) had intermediate level of education and 354 (45.4%) were unemployed. Mean scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 8.74 ± 2.7, 3.72 ± 1.2 and 2.76 ± 1.1 respectively. Significant and positive linear correlations between knowledge-attitude (r = 0.296, p < 0.01) knowledge-practice (r = 0.324, p < 0.01) and attitude-practice (r = 0.331, p < 0.01) were observed. Area of residence (locality) was the only variables significantly associated with mean KAP of the study respondents. Conclusion Results from the current study heighted poor KAP of healthy population towards HB. The positive linear correlations reaffirms that better knowledge can lead to positive attitude and subsequently in good practices. This will further help in prevention and management of HB. Therefore, extensive health educational campaign should be provided to general population and especially to the residents of rural areas. PMID:22917489

  1. The effect of geographical indices on left ventricular structure in healthy Han Chinese population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Minyi; Ge, Miao; Liu, Yonglin; Wang, Congxia; Yang, Shaofang

    2016-07-01

    The left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT) and interventricular septum thickness (IVST) are generally regarded as the functional parts of the left ventricular (LV) structure. This paper aims to examine the effects of geographical indices on healthy Han adults' LV structural indices and to offer a scientific basis for developing a unified standard for the reference values of adults' LV structural indices in China. Fifteen terrain, climate, and soil indices were examined as geographical explanatory variables. Statistical analysis was performed using correlation analysis. Moreover, a back propagation neural network (BPNN) and a support vector regression (SVR) were applied to developing models to predict the values of two indices. After the prediction models were built, distribution maps were produced. The results show that LV structural indices are characteristically associated with latitude, longitude, altitude, average temperature, average wind velocity, topsoil sand fraction, topsoil silt fraction, topsoil organic carbon, and topsoil sodicity. The model test analyses show the BPNN model possesses better simulative and predictive ability in comparison with the SVR model. The distribution maps of the LV structural indices show that, in China, the values are higher in the west and lower in the east. These results demonstrate that the reference values of the adults' LV structural indices will be different affected by different geographical environment. The reference values of LV structural indices in one region can be calculated by setting up a BPNN, which showed better applicability in this study. The distribution of the reference values of the LV structural indices can be seen clearly on the geographical distribution map.

  2. Metabolic syndrome in menopausal transition: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, a population based study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction There is a remarkable increase in cardiovascular disease after menopause. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome as a collection of risk factors has a known effect on cardiovascular diseases. Hormone changes are considered as one of the main relevant factor regarding cardiovascular disease as well as some recognized relationship with metabolic syndrome's components. This study was carried out in order to search for prevalence of metabolic syndrome during menopausal transition. Method In a cross sectional study in urban and rural areas of Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak cities, 1596 women aged more than 45 years were investigated using Isfahan Healthy Heart Program's (IHHP) samples. Participants were categorized into three groups of pre-menopause, menopause and post-menopause. Leisure time physical activity and global dietary index were included as life style factors. The association of metabolic syndrome and its components with menopausal transition considering other factors such as age and life style was analyzed. Results there were 303, 233 and 987 women in premenopausal, early menopausal and postmenopausal groups respectively. Metabolic syndrome was found in 136(44.9%) premenopausal participants and significantly increased to 135(57.9%) and 634(64.3%) in early menopausal and postmenopausal participants respectively, when age was considered (P = 0.010). Except for hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia, there was no significant difference between three groups of menopausal transition when metabolic syndrome's components were considered. Conclusion In contrary to the claims regarding the role of waist circumference and blood glucose in increasing of metabolic syndrome during the menopausal transition, this study showed this phenomenon could be independence of them. PMID:20923542

  3. Correlates of high fat/calorie food intake in a worksite population: the Healthy Worker Project.

    PubMed

    Shah, M; French, S A; Jeffery, R W; McGovern, P G; Forster, J L; Lando, H A

    1993-01-01

    Behavioral and sociodemographic correlates of high fat/calorie food consumption were examined in a population-based sample of working adults (N = 2038 men; N = 2335 women). Relative weight, dieting history, and cigarette smoking were significantly related to total energy intake from high fat/calorie foods. Relative weight was positively related to the intake of meat, eggs, fried potatoes, and fats. Current dieting to lose weight was associated with a lower intake of all foods, except alcohol and fats. These foods were unrelated to dieting status in men and positively related to dieting status in women. Physical activity and smoking were related to higher intake of high fat/calorie foods. Smokers consumed fewer sweet foods than nonsmokers, however. These results underscore the importance of controlling for dieting status, as well as other behavioral and demographic variables, in population studies of dietary intake. They also suggest factors that may be important in the etiology of unhealthy eating patterns and potential targets for dietary intervention.

  4. Bio-mimetic drug delivery systems designed to help the senior population reconstruct melatonin plasma profiles similar to those of the healthy younger population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Wang, Liuyi; Wu, Li; Zhang, Xueju; Li, Xue; Guo, Zhen; Li, Haiyan; York, Peter; Gui, Shuangying; Zhang, Jiwen

    2014-01-01

    The secretion of melatonin (MT) is obviously different in the younger and the senior sectors of the population, and the maximum plasma concentration of seniors is only half of that in the younger population group. If exogenous MT can be supplied to senior citizens based on the secretion rate and amount of endogenous MT in the younger population by a bio-mimetic drug delivery system (DDS), an improved therapeutic effect and reduced side effects can be expected. Based upon this hypothesis, the pharmacokinetic parameters of MT, namely, the absorption rate constant (ka), the elimination rate constant (ke), and the ratio of absorption rate (F) to the apparent volume of distribution (V) were obtained by a residual method depending on the plasma concentration curve of immediate release preparations in the healthy younger population. The dose-division method was applied to calculate the cumulative release profiles of MT achieved by oral administration of a controlled release drug delivery system (DDS) to generate plasma MT profiles similar to the physiological level-time profiles. The in vivo release of MT deduced from the healthy younger population physiological MT profiles as the pharmacokinetic output of the bio-mimetic DDS showed a two-phase profile with two different zero order release rates, namely, 4.919 μg/h during 0–4 h (r=0.9992), and 11.097 μg/h during 4–12 h (r=0.9886), respectively. Since the osmotic pump type of DDS generally exhibits a good correlation between in vivo and in vitro release behaviors, an osmotic pump controlled delivery system was designed in combination with dry coating technology targeting on the cumulative release characteristics to mimic the physiological MT profiles in the healthy younger population. The high similarity between the experimental drug release profiles and the theoretical profiles (similarity factor f2>50) and the high correlation between the predicted plasma concentration profiles and the theoretical plasma

  5. A Lack of Correlation between Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Level and Verbal Memory Performance in Healthy Polish Population.

    PubMed

    Wilkosc, Monika; Markowska, Anita; Zajac-Lamparska, Ludmila; Skibinska, Maria; Szalkowska, Agnieszka; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is considered to be connected with memory and learning through the processes of long term synaptic potentiation and synaptic plasticity. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between precursor BDNF (proBNDF) and mature BDNF (mBDNF) serum levels and performance on Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in 150 healthy volunteers. In addition, we have verified the relationships between serum concentration of both forms of BDNF and RAVLT with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.We found no strong evidence for the correlation of proBDNF and mBDNF serum levels with performance on RAVLT in healthy Polish population in early and middle adulthood. We observed the mBDNF serum concentration to be higher in women compared with men. Moreover, we revealed higher mBDNF level to be connected with lower body mass index (BMI). In turn, the results of RAVLT correlated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, such as: age, education, gender, BMI and smoking. PMID:27242447

  6. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population

    PubMed Central

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S.; Kachanathu, Shaji John

    2016-01-01

    Foot biomechanics and core stability (CS) play significant roles in the quality of standing and walking. Minor alterations in body composition may influence base support or CS strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the foot posture index (FPI) and CS in a healthy adult population. A total of 39 healthy adult subjects with a mean age of 24.3±6.4 years and over-weight BMI values between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (27.43±6.1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Foot biomechanics were analyzed using the FPI. CS was assessed using a plank test with a time-to-failure trial. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant correlation between BMI and both the FPI (r=0.504, P=0.001) and CS (r= −0.34, P=0.036). Present study concluded that an overweight BMI influences foot posture alignment and body stability. Consequently, BMI should be considered during rehabilitation management for lower extremity injuries and body balance. PMID:27419113

  7. 'Aussie normals': an a priori study to develop clinical chemistry reference intervals in a healthy Australian population.

    PubMed

    Koerbin, G; Cavanaugh, J A; Potter, J M; Abhayaratna, W P; West, N P; Glasgow, N; Hawkins, C; Armbruster, D; Oakman, C; Hickman, P E

    2015-02-01

    Development of reference intervals is difficult, time consuming, expensive and beyond the scope of most laboratories. The Aussie Normals study is a direct a priori study to determine reference intervals in healthy Australian adults. All volunteers completed a health and lifestyle questionnaire and exclusion was based on conditions such as pregnancy, diabetes, renal or cardiovascular disease. Up to 91 biochemical analyses were undertaken on a variety of analytical platforms using serum samples collected from 1856 volunteers. We report on our findings for 40 of these analytes and two calculated parameters performed on the Abbott ARCHITECTci8200/ci16200 analysers. Not all samples were analysed for all assays due to volume requirements or assay/instrument availability. Results with elevated interference indices and those deemed unsuitable after clinical evaluation were removed from the database. Reference intervals were partitioned based on the method of Harris and Boyd into three scenarios, combined gender, males and females and age and gender. We have performed a detailed reference interval study on a healthy Australian population considering the effects of sex, age and body mass. These reference intervals may be adapted to other manufacturer's analytical methods using method transference.

  8. Population structure and uropathogenic virulence-associated genes of faecal Escherichia coli from healthy young and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Vollmerhausen, Tara L; Ramos, Nubia L; Gündogdu, Aycan; Robinson, Wayne; Brauner, Annelie; Katouli, Mohammad

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the population structures of faecal Escherichia coli in 30 healthy young adults (13 males and 17 females) aged between 20 and 45 years and 29 elderly adults (14 females and 15 males) aged between 65 and 77 years. In all, 1566 strains were typed with the PhPlate system and grouped into biochemical phenotypes (BPTs). Strains with shared BPTs were further typed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Forty-four per cent of the strains were shared between two or more age and gender groups. Elders had a significantly higher (P<0.001) number of BPTs (mean±standard error 3.3±0.27) than younger groups (1.82±0.27). Phylogenetic affiliation and virulence-associated genes (VAGs) of the strains showed that more than 80 % of the strains belonging to dominant types belonged to phylogroups B2 and D. Amongst dominant BPTs, phylogenetic group A was significantly associated with females (P<0.0001), and elders were more likely to carry group D (P<0.0124). Elderly males had a higher prevalence of VAGs than young males (P<0.0001) and young females (P<0.0005). We conclude that there is a lower prevalence of E. coli with uropathogenic properties in healthy young adults than in elders. PMID:21292854

  9. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population.

    PubMed

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John

    2016-06-01

    Foot biomechanics and core stability (CS) play significant roles in the quality of standing and walking. Minor alterations in body composition may influence base support or CS strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the foot posture index (FPI) and CS in a healthy adult population. A total of 39 healthy adult subjects with a mean age of 24.3±6.4 years and over-weight BMI values between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (27.43±6.1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Foot biomechanics were analyzed using the FPI. CS was assessed using a plank test with a time-to-failure trial. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant correlation between BMI and both the FPI (r=0.504, P=0.001) and CS (r= -0.34, P=0.036). Present study concluded that an overweight BMI influences foot posture alignment and body stability. Consequently, BMI should be considered during rehabilitation management for lower extremity injuries and body balance.

  10. A Lack of Correlation between Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Level and Verbal Memory Performance in Healthy Polish Population

    PubMed Central

    Wilkosc, Monika; Markowska, Anita; Zajac-Lamparska, Ludmila; Skibinska, Maria; Szalkowska, Agnieszka; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is considered to be connected with memory and learning through the processes of long term synaptic potentiation and synaptic plasticity. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between precursor BDNF (proBNDF) and mature BDNF (mBDNF) serum levels and performance on Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in 150 healthy volunteers. In addition, we have verified the relationships between serum concentration of both forms of BDNF and RAVLT with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.We found no strong evidence for the correlation of proBDNF and mBDNF serum levels with performance on RAVLT in healthy Polish population in early and middle adulthood. We observed the mBDNF serum concentration to be higher in women compared with men. Moreover, we revealed higher mBDNF level to be connected with lower body mass index (BMI). In turn, the results of RAVLT correlated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, such as: age, education, gender, BMI and smoking. PMID:27242447

  11. Population pharmacokinetics of ritonavir-boosted atazanavir in HIV-infected patients and healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Laura; Boffito, Marta; Back, David; Waters, Laura; Else, Laura; Davies, Geraint; Khoo, Saye; Pozniak, Anton; Aarons, Leon

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to develop and validate a population pharmacokinetic model to: (i) describe ritonavir-boosted atazanavir concentrations (300/100 mg once daily) and identify important covariates; and (ii) evaluate the predictive performance of the model for lower, unlicensed atazanavir doses (150 and 200 mg once daily) boosted with ritonavir (100 mg once daily). Methods Non-linear mixed effects modelling was applied to determine atazanavir pharmacokinetic parameters, inter-individual variability (IIV) and residual error. Covariates potentially related to atazanavir pharmacokinetics were explored. The final model was assessed by means of a visual predictive check for 300/100, 200/100 and 150/100 mg once daily. Results Forty-six individuals were included (30 HIV-infected). A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and lag-time best described the data. Final estimates of apparent oral clearance (CL/F), volume of distribution (V/F) and absorption rate constant [relative standard error (%) and IIV (%)] were 7.7 L/h (5, 29), 103 L (13, 48) and 3.4 h−1 (34, 154); a lag-time of 0.96 h (1) was determined. Ritonavir area under the curve (AUC0–24) was the only significant covariate. Overall, 94%–97% of observed concentrations were within the 95% prediction intervals for all three regimens. Conclusions A population pharmacokinetic model for ritonavir-boosted atazanavir has been developed and validated. Ritonavir AUC0–24 was significantly associated with atazanavir CL/F. The model was used to investigate other, particularly lower, ritonavir-boosted atazanavir dosing strategies. PMID:19329800

  12. Education effects on cognitive function in a healthy aged Arab population

    PubMed Central

    Inzelberg, Rivka; Schechtman, Edna; Abuful, Amin; Masarwa, Magda; Mazarib, Aziz; Strugatsky, Rosa; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Green, Robert C.; Friedland, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Minimental State Examination (MMSE) has not been validated in Arabic speaking populations. The Brookdale Cognitive Screening Test (BCST) has been developed for use in low schooling populations. We investigated the influence of gender, education and occupation in a cognitively normal community sample assessed with an Arabic translation of the MMSE and the BCST. Methods Cognitively normal subjects (n=266, 59.4 % males, mean age (SD): 72.4 (5.5) years) from an Arab community in northern Israel (Wadi Ara) were evaluated. Education was categorized into levels: 1=0–4 years, 2=5–8 years, 3=9–12 years. Effects of gender, education and occupation on MMSE and BCST were analyzed by ANOVA, taking age as a covariate. Results The mean MMSE score of males [26.3 (4.1)] was higher than that of females [23.6 (4.2) points]. Two-way ANOVA showed a significant interaction between gender and education on MMSE (p=0.0017) and BCST scores (p=0.0002). The effect of gender on MMSE and BCST was significant in education level 1 (p<0.0001, both tests) and level 2 (p<0.05, both tests). For education level 1, MMSE and BCST scores were higher for males, while both scores were higher for females in education level 2. The effect of occupation was not significant for both genders. Conclusion Education and gender influence performance on the Arabic translation of the MMSE and BCST in cognitively normal elderly. Cognitively normal females with 0–4 years of education score lower than males. These results should be taken into consideration in the daily use of these instruments in Arabic. PMID:17052375

  13. Gene frequencies of ABO and Rh (D) blood group alleles in a healthy infant population in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omotade, O O; Adeyemo, A A; Kayode, C M; Falade, S L; Ikpeme, S

    1999-01-01

    The ABO and Rhesus blood group systems remain the most important blood group systems clinically. In order to provide gene frequency values for the ABO and Rh (D) alleles in a healthy infant population in south west Nigeria, 4748 healthy infants were typed for ABO and Rh (D) blood groups over a five year period (1988-1992). Overall, 2575 (54.2%) were blood group O, 1023 (21.6%) were blood group A, 1017 (21.4%) were blood group B and 133 (2.8%) were blood group AB. The distribution of the ABO blood groups did not differ significantly from those expected under the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (Goodness-of-fit X2 = 6.09, df = 3, p = 0.1075). The proportions of the infants belonging to the various ABO blood groups did not vary significantly over the period of the study (X2 = 14.53, df = 12, p = 0.268). Overall gene frequencies for the O, A and B genes were 0.7398, 0.1305 and 0.1298 respectively. For the Rh (D) gene, 4520 (95.2%) were Rh-positive while 228 (4.8%) were Rh-negative. However, the proportions of Rh (D) negative infants varied significantly over the period of the study, with a particular year (1991) having nearly twice the usual frequency of Rh-negative individuals (X2 = 31.17, df =, p < 0.001). The frequency of the Rh (D) gene was 0.7809. These figures are reported in the hope that they may find some use as reference for studies of ABO blood groups in health and disease, especially since they were obtained in an infant population in which it is expected that selection pressures should not have started to act to any significant extent.

  14. [Relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and C677T polymorphism of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene in a healthy Algerian population].

    PubMed

    Hambaba, L; Abdessemed, S; Yahia, M; Laroui, S; Rouabah, F

    2008-01-01

    Plasmatic homocysteine concentration depends mostly on 5,10 methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms, a key enzyme in folate metabolism. The most common point mutation C677T is associated to cardiovascular and neurological pathologies; its ethnic repartition is quite heterogenic. In the present study, we proposed to describe the genotypic and allelic frequencies of C677T polymorphism and its influence on plasmatic homocysteine level in a healthy Algerian population. The investigation was turned on 100 apparently healthy voluntary subjects. Homocysteine concentration was determined using an immunoassay by fluorescence polarisation on IMx. Genotypes were determined by RT-PCR (Light cycle 480). Mean homocysteine concentration value was 14,69 +/- 7,30 micromol/L. 41% of people sample show a moderate hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 micromol/L). For the MTHFR C677T, estimated frequency of the allele T in the 100 people sample was about 35,5% with genotypic frequency of 6%. Plasmatic homocysteine is significantly higher in people carrying allele T: (CC vs CT: 11,8 +/- 2,97 micromol/L vs 15,47 +/- 6,74 micromol/L, p = 0,0004); (CC vs TT: 11,8 +/- 2,97 micromol/L vs 30,05 +/- 13,35 micromol/L, p = 0,01) and (CT vs TT: 15,47 +/- 6,74 micromol/L vs 30,05 +/- 13,35 micromol/L, p = 0,021). Our study shows an intermediate allelic frequency that joins the North-South world gradient and a high hyperhomocysteinemia prevalence. C677T polymorphism of MTHFR seems playing a predominant role in the moderate hyperhomocyteinemia. These two observations should be taken into consideration in the evaluation of morbid and/or lethal pathologies predisposition in the Algerian population.

  15. Population specific reference ranges of CD3, CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte subsets among healthy Kenyans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The enumeration of absolute CD4 counts is of primary importance for many medical conditions especially HIV infection where therapeutic initiation depends on the count. These ranges tend to vary across populations. However, these ranges have not been comprehensively established in the Kenyan population. Therefore, this study aimed at establishing the reference ranges for the CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in normal healthy individuals in Kenya. Methods A total of 315 individuals of the ages between 16 and 60 years old, in 5 different regions of the country, were recruited into the study. They were screened for diseases that potentially cause lymphocyte homeostasis perturbation. CD4/CD8 Counts were performed by use of a FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton-Dickinson, NJ) equipped with automated acquisition and analysis software. Results were analysed according to age, sex and region. Results Results were presented as means and ranges (in parenthesis) generated non parametrically as 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles as follows; In general population; CD3 1655 (614-2685 cells/μL ), CD4 920 (343-1493 cells/μL), and CD8 646 (187-1139 cells/μL), while according to sex, females; CD3 1787 (697-2841 cells/μL), CD4 1010 (422-1572 cells/μL), CD8 659 (187-1180 cells/μL); males; CD3 1610 (581-2641 cells/μL), CD4 889(320-1459 cells/μL) and CD8 644 (185-1140 cells/μL). The general reference ranges for CD4/CD8 ratios were as follows; general population 1.57(0.50-2.74), males 1.51(0.49-2.64) and females 1.69(0.55-2.95). Conclusion The lymphocyte reference ranges for the Kenyan population are fairly comparable to those established in other African populations. The ranges also differ appreciably from those established in Germany, Italy and Switzerland. Furthermore, the study reported significant differences in the ranges of different population clusters within Kenya, as well us between males and females. PMID:24199645

  16. A Unique Patient Population? Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Athletes Versus General, Healthy Adolescent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kenneth C.; Valier, Alison R. Snyder; Bay, R. Curtis; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2013-01-01

    Context: Normative scores for patient-rated outcome (PRO) instruments are important for providing patient-centered, whole-person care and making informed clinical decisions. Although normative values for the Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Scale (PedsQL) have been established in the general, healthy adolescent population, whether adolescent athletes demonstrate similar values is unclear. Objective: To compare PedsQL scores between adolescent athletes and general, healthy adolescent individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Secondary schools. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of 2659 interscholastic athletes (males = 2059, females = 600, age = 15.7 ± 1.1 years) represented the athlete group (ATH), and a previously published normative dataset represented the general, healthy adolescent group (GEN). Intervention(s): All participants completed the PedsQL during 1 testing session. Main Outcome Measure(s): The PedsQL consists of 2 summary scores (total, psychosocial) and 4 subscale scores (physical, emotional, social, school), with higher scores indicating better health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Groups were stratified by age (14, 15, or 16 years old). Independent-samples t tests were conducted to compare between-groups and sex differences. Results: The ATH group scored higher than the GEN group across all ages for total and psychosocial summary scores and for emotional and social functioning subscale scores (P ≤ .005). For physical functioning, scores of the 15-year-old ATH were higher than for their GEN counterparts (P = .001). Both 14- and 15-year-old ATH scored higher than their GEN counterparts for the school functioning subscale (P ≤ .013), but differences between 16-year olds were not significant (P = .228). Male adolescent athletes reported higher scores than female adolescent athletes across all scores (P ≤ .001) except for social functioning (P = .229). Conclusions: Adolescent athletes reported better HRQOL than

  17. Korean American mother and daughter communication on women's health topics.

    PubMed

    Park, Wansoo; Grindel, Cecelia Gatson

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore communication patterns about health behaviors and lifestyles between Korean mothers and daughters living in the United States. Demographic and general health information was also collected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine Korean mother and daughter dyads. Korean mothers talked with their daughters about healthy diets and exercise but relied on daughters' schools to provide much of their daughters'health education information related to growth and developmental changes and women's health issues such as screening and HIV prevention practice. Intervention models to enhance mother/daughter health communication and to improve mothers' self care need to be investigated.

  18. A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of the Arthroplasty Options for Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures in the Active, Healthy, Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Slover, James; Hoffman, Michael V.; Malchau, Henrik; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Koval, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to explore the cost-effectiveness of total hip replacement compared with hemiarthroplasty in the treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in active otherwise healthy older patients in whom the optimum treatment is believed to be an arthroplasty procedure. Methods: A Markov decision model was used to determine whether total hip arthroplasty or hemiarthroplasty was most cost-effective for the management of a displaced femoral neck fracture in this patient population. Results: Total hip arthroplasty was associated with an average cost $3,000 more than hemiarthroplasty, and the average quality-adjusted life year gain was 1.53. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio associated with the total hip replacement treatment strategy is $1960 per quality-adjusted life-year. Conclusion: Currently available data support the use of total hip arthroplasty as the more cost-effective treatment strategy in this specific population. The increased upfront cost appears to be offset by the improved functional results when compared with hemiarthroplasty in this select patient group. PMID:18701245

  19. Immigration patterns, social support, and adaptation among Korean immigrant women and Korean American women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Grant, D

    1997-01-01

    There are little empirical data available on the mental health and social functioning of Korean American Women (both native U.S. born and foreign Korean-born U.S. residents, inclusive). State-of-the-art research used to inform social work practice is exploratory descriptive. With the goal of contributing to the social work knowledge base regarding this understudied population, this article uses an emic understanding and approach to examine immigration patterns, social support networks, and issues around adaptation experienced by Korean American women. Issues examined include gender role disruption, limited use of social services, and evidence of depressive symptoms in Korean American women and subsequent risk of substance abuse, suicide, battering, loss of employment, deficits in parenting, and mental health problems. Focus on these areas of functioning suggests the need for development of culturally competent community, family, individual, and organizational-level intervention strategies. PMID:9409069

  20. A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Disposition in Plasma, Saliva and Urine of Scopolamine after Intranasal Administration to Healthy Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND) protocol. The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trials with INSCOP. Methods: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min and 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on the likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. Results: The best structural model for INSCOP (minimal -2LL= 502.8) was established. It consisted of one compartment each for plasma, saliva and urine, respectively, which were connected with linear transport processes except the nonlinear PK process from plasma to saliva compartment. The best-fit estimates of PK parameters from individual PK compartmental analysis and Population PK model analysis were shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: A population PK model that could predict population and individual PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after dosing was developed and validated. Incorporating a non-linear transfer from plasma to saliva compartments resulted in a significantly improved model fitting. The model could be used to predict scopolamine plasma concentrations from salivary and urinary drug levels, allowing non-invasive therapeutic monitoring of scopolamine in space and other remote environments.

  1. Utilization of Western and Traditional Korean Medicine for Children and Adolescents with Mental Disorders: a Nationwide Population-based Study from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Young Sik; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2016-05-01

    When in need of medical treatment, Korean citizens have a choice of practitioners of western medicine (WM) or Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM). However, the two branches frequently conflict with one another, particularly with regard to mental disorders. This study was designed to compare the utilization of WM and TKM, focusing on child/adolescent patients with mental disorders. We analyzed F-code (Mental and behavioral disorders) claims from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, including data from 0-18-year-old patients from 2010 to 2012. Slightly more men than women utilized WM, while TKM use was almost evenly balanced. WM claims increased with advancing age, whereas utilization of TKM was common for the 0-6 age group. In WM and TKM, the total number of claims relying on the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) was 331,154 (92.78%) and 73,282 (97.85%), respectively, and the number of claims relying on medical aid was 25,753 (7.22%) and 1,610 (2.15%), respectively. The most frequent F-coded claim in WM was F90 (Hyperkinetic disorders), with 64,088 claims (17.96%), and that in TKM was F45 (Somatoform disorders), with 28,852 claims (38.52%). The prevalence of a single disorder without comorbidities was 168,764 (47.29%) in WM and 52,615 (70.25%) in TKM. From these data, we conclude that WM takes prevalence over TKM in cases of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as in psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. On the other hand, patients utilizing TKM more commonly present with physical health problems including somatoform problems, sleep, and eating disorders. PMID:27134500

  2. Utilization of Western and Traditional Korean Medicine for Children and Adolescents with Mental Disorders: a Nationwide Population-based Study from 2010 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    When in need of medical treatment, Korean citizens have a choice of practitioners of western medicine (WM) or Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM). However, the two branches frequently conflict with one another, particularly with regard to mental disorders. This study was designed to compare the utilization of WM and TKM, focusing on child/adolescent patients with mental disorders. We analyzed F-code (Mental and behavioral disorders) claims from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, including data from 0–18-year-old patients from 2010 to 2012. Slightly more men than women utilized WM, while TKM use was almost evenly balanced. WM claims increased with advancing age, whereas utilization of TKM was common for the 0-6 age group. In WM and TKM, the total number of claims relying on the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) was 331,154 (92.78%) and 73,282 (97.85%), respectively, and the number of claims relying on medical aid was 25,753 (7.22%) and 1,610 (2.15%), respectively. The most frequent F-coded claim in WM was F90 (Hyperkinetic disorders), with 64,088 claims (17.96%), and that in TKM was F45 (Somatoform disorders), with 28,852 claims (38.52%). The prevalence of a single disorder without comorbidities was 168,764 (47.29%) in WM and 52,615 (70.25%) in TKM. From these data, we conclude that WM takes prevalence over TKM in cases of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as in psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. On the other hand, patients utilizing TKM more commonly present with physical health problems including somatoform problems, sleep, and eating disorders. PMID:27134500

  3. Utilization of Western and Traditional Korean Medicine for Children and Adolescents with Mental Disorders: a Nationwide Population-based Study from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Young Sik; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2016-05-01

    When in need of medical treatment, Korean citizens have a choice of practitioners of western medicine (WM) or Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM). However, the two branches frequently conflict with one another, particularly with regard to mental disorders. This study was designed to compare the utilization of WM and TKM, focusing on child/adolescent patients with mental disorders. We analyzed F-code (Mental and behavioral disorders) claims from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, including data from 0-18-year-old patients from 2010 to 2012. Slightly more men than women utilized WM, while TKM use was almost evenly balanced. WM claims increased with advancing age, whereas utilization of TKM was common for the 0-6 age group. In WM and TKM, the total number of claims relying on the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) was 331,154 (92.78%) and 73,282 (97.85%), respectively, and the number of claims relying on medical aid was 25,753 (7.22%) and 1,610 (2.15%), respectively. The most frequent F-coded claim in WM was F90 (Hyperkinetic disorders), with 64,088 claims (17.96%), and that in TKM was F45 (Somatoform disorders), with 28,852 claims (38.52%). The prevalence of a single disorder without comorbidities was 168,764 (47.29%) in WM and 52,615 (70.25%) in TKM. From these data, we conclude that WM takes prevalence over TKM in cases of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as in psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. On the other hand, patients utilizing TKM more commonly present with physical health problems including somatoform problems, sleep, and eating disorders.

  4. C-reactive protein is associated with cigarette smoking-induced hyperfiltration and proteinuria in an apparently healthy population.

    PubMed

    Sauriasari, Rani; Sakano, Noriko; Wang, Da-Hong; Takaki, Jiro; Takemoto, Kei; Wang, BingLing; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Sato, Yoshie; Takigawa, Tomoko; Takahashi, Noriko; Kanbara, Sakiko; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Ogino, Keiki

    2010-11-01

    Although cigarette smoking is known to be an important risk factor for renal disease, the mechanism by which smoking induces progressive renal disease in a healthy population has not been established. We hypothesized that oxidative stress (measured as 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α), 8-iso-PGF2a), inflammation (highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), hs-CRP) and nitric oxide may be associated with an alteration in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria in otherwise healthy smokers. A total of 649 eligible subjects were classified according to their smoking status. Plasma NOx was measured using ozone-based chemiluminescence, urinary 8-iso-PGF2a was measured using enzyme immunoassay and serum hs-CRP was measured using a latex aggregation nephelometry method. The levels of 8-iso-PGF2a and hs-CRP increased in current smokers (P=0.001 and P=0.029, respectively), although there was not an increase in the NOx level. The prevalence of a high eGFR increased in light smokers (odds ratio (OR) 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.61-2.17)) and heavy smokers (OR 2.33 (95% CI, 1.06-5.10)) when compared with non- and past smokers (P for trend=0.024). The multivariable-adjusted mean values of the eGFR in current smokers, reported from the lowest to the highest quintiles of hs-CRP levels, were 82.1, 85.1, 86.4 and 88.5 ml per min per 1.73 m² (P for trend=0.027). The mean values of proteinuria were 28.6, 34.6, 37.2 and 39.5 mg g⁻¹ creatinine (P for trend=0.003). The correlation coefficient between hs-CRP and eGFR was increased significantly (P=0.03) across non- (r=0.03), past (r=-0.17), light (r=0.13) and heavy smokers (r=0.31). In conclusion, cigarette smoking is a risk factor for renal function alteration in healthy smokers and is characterized by a high eGFR and a high urinary protein associated with an increase in the hs-CRP. This finding suggests that hs-CRP may help mediate the alteration of renal function in smokers. PMID:20703235

  5. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  6. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  7. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  8. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.

  9. Species-level core oral bacteriome identified by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing in a healthy young Arab population

    PubMed Central

    Al-hebshi, Nezar Noor; Abdulhaq, Ahmed; Albarrag, Ahmed; Basode, Vinod Kumar; Chen, Tsute

    2016-01-01

    Background Reports on the composition of oral bacteriome in Arabs are lacking. In addition, the majority of previous studies on other ethnic groups have been limited by low-resolution taxonomic assignment of next-generation sequencing reads. Furthermore, there has been a conflict about the existence of a ‘core’ bacteriome. Objective The objective of this study was to characterize the healthy core oral bacteriome in a young Arab population at the species level. Methods Oral rinse DNA samples obtained from 12 stringently selected healthy young subjects of Arab origin were pyrosequenced (454's FLX chemistry) for the bacterial 16S V1–V3 hypervariable region at an average depth of 11,500 reads. High-quality, non-chimeric reads ≥380 bp were classified to the species level using the recently described, prioritized, multistage assignment algorithm. A core bacteriome was defined as taxa present in at least 11 samples. The Chao2, abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE), and Shannon indices were computed to assess species richness and diversity. Results Overall, 557 species-level taxa (211±42 per subject) were identified, representing 122 genera and 13 phyla. The core bacteriome comprised 55 species-level taxa belonging to 30 genera and 7 phyla, namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Saccharibacteria, and SR1. The core species constituted between 67 and 87% of the individual bacteriomes. However, the abundances differed by up to three orders of magnitude among the study subjects. On average, Streptococcus mitis, Rothia mucilaginosa, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Neisseria flavescence/subflava group, Prevotella melaninogenica, and Veillonella parvula group were the most abundant. Streptococcus sp. C300, a taxon never reported in the oral cavity, was identified as a core species. Species richness was estimated at 586 (Chao2) and 614 (ACE) species, whereas diversity (Shannon index) averaged at 3.99. Conclusions A species

  10. Physical Activity, Study Sitting Time, Leisure Sitting Time, and Sleep Time Are Differently Associated With Obesity in Korean Adolescents: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Kong, Il Gyu; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-11-01

    Low physical activity, long leisure sitting time, and short sleep time are risk factors for obesity, but the association with study sitting time is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between these factors and obesity.We analyzed the association between physical activity, study sitting time, leisure sitting time, and sleep time and subject weight (underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese), using data from a large population-based survey, the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Data from 53,769 participants were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, region of residence, economic level, smoking, stress level, physical activity, sitting time for study, sitting time for leisure, and sleep time were adjusted as the confounders.Low physical activity (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] = 1.03, 1.12) and long leisure sitting time (AORs = 1.15, 1.32) were positively associated with overweight and obese. Low physical activity (AOR = 1.33) and long leisure sitting time (AOR = 1.12) were also associated with underweight. Study sitting time was negatively associated with underweight (AOR = 0.86) but was unrelated to overweight (AOR = 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91-1.03) and obese (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.84-1.04). Sleep time (<6 hours; ≥6 hours, <7 hours; ≥7 hours, <8 hours) was adversely associated with underweight (AORs = 0.67, 0.79, and 0.88) but positively associated with overweight (AORs = 1.19, 1.17, and 1.08) and obese (AORs = 1.33, 1.36, and 1.30) in a dose-response relationship.In adolescents, increasing physical activity, decreasing leisure sitting time, and obtaining sufficient sleep would be beneficial in maintaining a healthy weight. However, study sitting time was not associated with overweight or obese. PMID:26554807

  11. The Prevalence of Erosive Esophagitis Is Not Significantly Increased in a Healthy Korean Population - Could It Be Explained?: A Multi-center Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Geom Seog; Jeon, Byung Jun; Chung, Jin Soo; Joo, Young-Eun; Kim, Dae Yong; Shin, Jeong Eun; Kim, Heung Up; Park, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Nayoung

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Researches on the potential risk factors for the development of erosive esophagitis have been conducted extensively, however, the results are conflicting. The aim of this multicenter study was to identify the prevalence rate and risk factors of erosive esophagitis and their interactions with residency status. Methods A total of 4,023 eligible subjects at 8 tertiary health care centers were evaluated using questionnaires, laboratory tests and endoscopy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify independent risk factors for erosive esophagitis. Results The prevalence rate of reflux esophagitis was 8.8%. Los Angeles grade A was common type of erosive esophagitis. Residence in a large urban areas was negatively associated with the development of erosive esophagitis (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40-0.90). The high body mass index (≥ 25 kg/m2) was more frequent in residents of small and medium-sized cities than those in big cities (38.8% and 26.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). Seronegativity of Helicobacter pylori was associated with increased erosive esophagitis (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.48-2.46). Triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dL (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.08-2.07), fasting glucose level ≥ 126 mg/dL (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.06-2.81), and hiatal hernia (OR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.87-5.16) were also associated with erosive esophagitis. Conclusions The prevalence rate of erosive esophagitis and its risk factors in this study were similar to the result of 8.0% of nationwide study in 2006. Residency and obesity are more important independent risk factors than H. pylori infection status for development of erosive esophagitis in Korea. These results suggest that the prevalence rate of erosive esophagitis in Korea might not increase as in the Western countries. PMID:23350050

  12. Oritavancin Population Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections or Bacteremia▿

    PubMed Central

    Rubino, Christopher M.; Van Wart, Scott A.; Bhavnani, Sujata M.; Ambrose, Paul G.; McCollam, Jill S.; Forrest, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Oritavancin is a novel glycopeptide antimicrobial agent with potent in vitro activity against a wide variety of gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains of staphylococci and enterococci. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to describe the disposition of oritavancin with data from a pooled population of phase 1 healthy subjects and phase 2 and 3 patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections or Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. In addition, the potential influence of factors such as the subject's age, gender, and clinical laboratory measures on oritavancin disposition was evaluated. Oritavancin was administered as both single- and multiple-dose intravenous (i.v.) infusions in fixed doses ranging from 100 to 800 mg or weight-based doses ranging from 0.02 to 10 mg/kg of body weight, with infusion durations ranging from 0.13 to 6.5 h across all studies. The most robust fit to the data (n = 6,290 oritavancin plasma concentrations from 560 subjects) was obtained using a three-compartment model with zero-order i.v. infusion and first-order elimination. The model was parameterized using total clearance (CL), volume of central compartment (Vc), distributional clearances from the central to both the first and second peripheral compartments, and volumes of distribution for both the first and second peripheral compartments. Weight and study phase (phase 1 versus phase 2/3) were identified as significant predictors of the interindividual variability in CL, while body surface area and age were significant for Vc. These results suggest that dose modification may be warranted in patients weighing >110 kg. However, the mild nature of the observed relationships for Vc suggest that dosing adjustments are not necessary for elderly patients. PMID:19635952

  13. Glutathione peroxidase activity in a healthy Canadian population. Effects of age, smoking and drinking habits, exercise and oral contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    L'abbe, M R; Collins, M W; Trick, K D; Laffey, P J

    1992-01-01

    The activity of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHPx) has been suggested as an indicator of selenium status. The purpose of this study was to measure the activity of this enzyme in a large sample of healthy, free-living Canadians to determine normal distributions and the effects of age, smoking, and drinking habits, exercise, and the use of oral contraceptives (OCs) or estrogen replacement therapy. The population consisted of 386 self-selected subjects between the ages of 24 and 75. Erythrocyte SeGSHPx activity was 21.5 +or- 7 (Mean +or- SD) and 33.6 +or- 8U/g Hb and plasma activity was 226 +or- 31 and 214 +or- 38 U/L for males (n=239) and females (n=147), respectively. Erythrocyte activity was significantly higher in females and males (p0.01). The Se form of GSHPx accounted for 76% and 54% of total activity in plasma and erythrocytes, respectively. No differences due to age were seen in males, although plasma SeGSHPx, non-SeGSHPx, and total GSHPx activities were elevated in females 65 years of age and older. Cigarette smoking significantly elevated erythrocyte SeGSHPx and total activity in male subjects. This elevation did not vary with the amount smoked and was not seen in ex-smokers. Drinking elevated erythrocyte non-SeGSHPx and total activity in male subjects with the highest activity seen in drinkers who also smoked. No significant differences were seen with level of exercise except for a slight elevation with vigorous exercise. Estrogen use significantly elevated erythrocyte SeGSHPx, non-SeGSHPx, and total activities in both pre- and postmenopausal women. These data suggest that some lifestyle factors can have small but significant effects of GSHPx activity and must be controlled for when population-based surveys are being conducted.

  14. RT-qPCR comparison of mast cell populations in whole blood from healthy horses and those with laminitis.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S A; Bailey, E

    2010-12-01

    Inflammatory damage to the digital laminae, a structure responsible for suspension of the distal skeleton within the hoof capsule, results in a painful and often life-threatening disease in horses called laminitis. There can be many diverse causes of laminitis; however, previous work in the horse has suggested that in each case, the inflammation and resulting tissue damage is consistent with the action of mediators released from mast cells (MC), as well as the downstream consequences of their activation. The recent development of molecular genetics tools to characterize cells based on their transcriptional activity makes a new approach for measuring MCs possible. Healthy thoroughbred horses from a variety of age groups were used to assess the amount of variation in KIT (encoding mast cell growth factor receptor) and TPSB2 (encoding mast cell tryptase beta 2) gene expression present in the population and to establish "normal" values. Horses (n=9) with a wider range of body condition scores (3-8), because of a more lax management setting that could predispose them to laminitis, had significantly higher KIT expression in circulating peripheral blood cells than horses under individualized management conditions (n=10) that produced ideal body condition scores (4-6) (mean 2.573-fold, P<0.0005). Likewise, horses affected with acute laminitis (n=11) had elevated expression of TPSB2 (2.760-fold, P=0.0011) relative to control horses (n=15). These data suggest that investigation of MC-related genes KIT and TPSB2 may be effective to assay MC population and activity. More work is needed to refine the diagnostic criteria to better describe at what point MC activation occurs and illustrate the use of gene expression assays in clinical cases of laminitis. Additionally, MC activation is associated with inflammatory disease in several mammalian species and may prove a valuable therapeutic target in the horse.

  15. Fecal Microbiota in Healthy Subjects Following Omnivore, Vegetarian and Vegan Diets: Culturable Populations and rRNA DGGE Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria; Turroni, Silvia; Vannini, Lucia; Bancalari, Elena; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Neviani, Erasmo; Cocolin, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the fecal microbiota of 153 healthy volunteers, recruited from four different locations in Italy, has been studied by coupling viable counts, on different microbiological media, with ribosomal RNA Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (rRNA-DGGE). The volunteers followed three different diets, namely omnivore, ovo-lacto-vegetarian and vegan. The results obtained from culture-dependent and -independent methods have underlined a high level of similarity of the viable fecal microbiota for the three investigated diets. The rRNA DGGE profiles were very complex and comprised a total number of bands that varied from 67 to 64 for the V3 and V9 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Only a few bands were specific in/of all three diets, and the presence of common taxa associated with the dietary habits was found. As far as the viable counts are concerned, the high similarity of the fecal microbiota was once again confirmed, with only a few of the investigated groups showing significant differences. Interestingly, the samples grouped differently, according to the recruitment site, thus highlighting a higher impact of the food consumed by the volunteers in the specific geographical locations than that of the type of diet. Lastly, it should be mentioned that the fecal microbiota DGGE profiles obtained from the DNA were clearly separated from those produced using RNA, thus underlining a difference between the total and viable populations in the fecal samples. PMID:26035837

  16. Fecal Microbiota in Healthy Subjects Following Omnivore, Vegetarian and Vegan Diets: Culturable Populations and rRNA DGGE Profiling.

    PubMed

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria; Turroni, Silvia; Vannini, Lucia; Bancalari, Elena; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Neviani, Erasmo; Cocolin, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the fecal microbiota of 153 healthy volunteers, recruited from four different locations in Italy, has been studied by coupling viable counts, on different microbiological media, with ribosomal RNA Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (rRNA-DGGE). The volunteers followed three different diets, namely omnivore, ovo-lacto-vegetarian and vegan. The results obtained from culture-dependent and -independent methods have underlined a high level of similarity of the viable fecal microbiota for the three investigated diets. The rRNA DGGE profiles were very complex and comprised a total number of bands that varied from 67 to 64 for the V3 and V9 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Only a few bands were specific in/of all three diets, and the presence of common taxa associated with the dietary habits was found. As far as the viable counts are concerned, the high similarity of the fecal microbiota was once again confirmed, with only a few of the investigated groups showing significant differences. Interestingly, the samples grouped differently, according to the recruitment site, thus highlighting a higher impact of the food consumed by the volunteers in the specific geographical locations than that of the type of diet. Lastly, it should be mentioned that the fecal microbiota DGGE profiles obtained from the DNA were clearly separated from those produced using RNA, thus underlining a difference between the total and viable populations in the fecal samples.

  17. Resting mechanomyographic amplitude for the erector spinae and trapezius muscles following resistance exercise in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Wages, Nathan P; Beck, Travis W; Ye, Xin; Hofford, Craig W

    2013-10-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are some of the most commonly occurring chronic conditions affecting the US population, with the most self-reported and diagnosed disorder being low back pain. Low back pain is often due to suboptimal back muscle function, at least in part, as a result of muscle inactivity and disuse. Resistance exercise has been shown to be successful in the treatment of low back pain. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine resting mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude for the erector spinae and trapezius muscles prior to and following resistance exercise. Twenty healthy, college-aged men were measured for resting MMG amplitude levels prior to, and following a resistance training workout. The workout consisted of three sets of ten repetitions on the conventional deadlift, bent-over row, and lat pulldown exercises, with 1 min of rest between all sets and exercises. The results showed that there were approximate 10% and 15% decreases in normalized MMG amplitude after exercise for the erector spinae and trapezius muscles, respectively. These findings demonstrate a relaxation effect in the back muscles after exercise that could potentially be helpful in alleviating low back pain. PMID:24045398

  18. Fecal Microbiota in Healthy Subjects Following Omnivore, Vegetarian and Vegan Diets: Culturable Populations and rRNA DGGE Profiling.

    PubMed

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria; Turroni, Silvia; Vannini, Lucia; Bancalari, Elena; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Neviani, Erasmo; Cocolin, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the fecal microbiota of 153 healthy volunteers, recruited from four different locations in Italy, has been studied by coupling viable counts, on different microbiological media, with ribosomal RNA Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (rRNA-DGGE). The volunteers followed three different diets, namely omnivore, ovo-lacto-vegetarian and vegan. The results obtained from culture-dependent and -independent methods have underlined a high level of similarity of the viable fecal microbiota for the three investigated diets. The rRNA DGGE profiles were very complex and comprised a total number of bands that varied from 67 to 64 for the V3 and V9 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Only a few bands were specific in/of all three diets, and the presence of common taxa associated with the dietary habits was found. As far as the viable counts are concerned, the high similarity of the fecal microbiota was once again confirmed, with only a few of the investigated groups showing significant differences. Interestingly, the samples grouped differently, according to the recruitment site, thus highlighting a higher impact of the food consumed by the volunteers in the specific geographical locations than that of the type of diet. Lastly, it should be mentioned that the fecal microbiota DGGE profiles obtained from the DNA were clearly separated from those produced using RNA, thus underlining a difference between the total and viable populations in the fecal samples. PMID:26035837

  19. A pilot exome-wide association study of age-related cataract in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Joo-Byung; Kim, Yong-Dae; Kim, Heon

    2016-05-01

    Age-related cataract (ARC) is the most common cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. A previous study reported that genetic factors could explain approximately 50% of the heritability of cataract. However, a genetic predisposition to ARC and the contributing factors have not yet been elucidated in the Korean population. In this study, we assessed the influence of genetic polymorphisms on the risk of ARC in Koreans, including 156 cataract cases and 138 healthy adults. We conducted an exome-wide association study using Illumina Human Exome-12v1.2 platform to screen 244,770 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). No SNPs reached exome-wide significance level of association (P < 1×10(-6)). B3GNT4 rs7136356 showed the most significant association with ARC (P = 6.54×10(-5)). Two loci (MUC16 and P2RY2) among the top 20 ARC-associated SNPs were recognized as probably linked to cataractogenesis. Functions of these genes were potentially related to regulating dehydration or homeostasis of the eyes, and showed a potential association with dry eye disease. This finding suggests that mucin- and dry eye disease-related genes may play a significant role in cataractogenesis. Our study provides insight into the genetic predisposition of ARC in Koreans. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are required to confirm the results of this study. PMID:27533928

  20. Differential diagnosis of breast masses in South Korean premenopausal women using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leproux, Anaïs; Kim, You Me; Min, Jun Won; McLaren, Christine E.; Chen, Wen-Pin; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Lee, Seung-ha; Chung, Phil-Sang; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-07-01

    Young patients with dense breasts have a relatively low-positive biopsy rate for breast cancer (˜1 in 7). South Korean women have higher breast density than Westerners. We investigated the benefit of using a functional and metabolic imaging technique, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), to help the standard of care imaging tools to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in premenopausal Korean women. DOSI uses near-infrared light to measure breast tissue composition by quantifying tissue concentrations of water (ctH2O), bulk lipid (ctLipid), deoxygenated (ctHHb), and oxygenated (ctHbO2) hemoglobin. DOSI spectral signatures specific to abnormal tissue and absent in healthy tissue were also used to form a malignancy index. This study included 19 premenopausal subjects (average age 41±9), corresponding to 11 benign and 10 malignant lesions. Elevated lesion to normal ratio of ctH2O, ctHHb, ctHbO2, total hemoglobin (THb=ctHHb+ctHbO2), and tissue optical index (ctHHb×ctH2O/ctLipid) were observed in the malignant lesions compared to the benign lesions (p<0.02). THb and malignancy index were the two best single predictors of malignancy, with >90% sensitivity and specificity. Malignant lesions showed significantly higher metabolism and perfusion than benign lesions. DOSI spectral features showed high discriminatory power for distinguishing malignant and benign lesions in dense breasts of the Korean population.

  1. A Community-Based, Environmental Chronic Disease Prevention Intervention to Improve Healthy Eating Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors in Indigenous Populations in the Canadian Arctic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Erin L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention--Healthy Foods North--was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two…

  2. Why are Korean American Physicians Reluctant to Recommend Colorectal Cancer Screening to Korean American Patients? Exploratory Interview Findings

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Annette E.; Rick, Albert J.; Cha, Jennifer; Bastani, Roshan

    2009-01-01

    Background Korean Americans have one of the lowest screening rates for colorectal cancer. Although physician recommendation is one of the most important predictors of cancer screening across populations, only few Korean American patients receive such a recommendation. Methods We interviewed 14 Korean American physicians in Los Angeles area who primarily serve Korean Americans to explore why they are reluctant to recommend colorectal cancer screening to their Korean patients. Results Physicians identified barriers attributable to themselves (i.e., lack of knowledge, fear of medicolegal liability), their patients (i.e., patient’s unfamiliarity with the concept of screening), and the health care system (i.e., lack of referral network, poor reimbursement). Discussion Our results suggest the need for multi-faceted interventions directed at the physicians, their patients, and the health care system. Further research is needed to validate our results and to assess the extent to which they apply to physicians from other racial/ethnic groups. PMID:18607728

  3. Chinese and Korean characters engage the same visual word form area in proficient early Chinese-Korean bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jian'e; Shi, Jinfu; Jiang, Yi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

    2011-01-01

    A number of recent studies consistently show an area, known as the visual word form area (VWFA), in the left fusiform gyrus that is selectively responsive for visual words in alphabetic scripts as well as in logographic scripts, such as Chinese characters. However, given the large difference between Chinese characters and alphabetic scripts in terms of their orthographic rules, it is not clear at a fine spatial scale, whether Chinese characters engage the same VWFA in the occipito-temporal cortex as alphabetic scripts. We specifically compared Chinese with Korean script, with Korean script serving as a good example of alphabetic writing system, but matched to Chinese in the overall square shape. Sixteen proficient early Chinese-Korean bilinguals took part in the fMRI experiment. Four types of stimuli (Chinese characters, Korean characters, line drawings and unfamiliar Chinese faces) were presented in a block-design paradigm. By contrasting characters (Chinese or Korean) to faces, presumed VWFAs could be identified for both Chinese and Korean characters in the left occipito-temporal sulcus in each subject. The location of peak response point in these two VWFAs were essentially the same. Further analysis revealed a substantial overlap between the VWFA identified for Chinese and that for Korean. At the group level, there was no significant difference in amplitude of response to Chinese and Korean characters. Spatial patterns of response to Chinese and Korean are similar. In addition to confirming that there is an area in the left occipito-temporal cortex that selectively responds to scripts in both Korean and Chinese in early Chinese-Korean bilinguals, our results show that these two scripts engage essentially the same VWFA, even at the level of fine spatial patterns of activation across voxels. These results suggest that similar populations of neurons are engaged in processing the different scripts within the same VWFA in early bilinguals.

  4. Korean Immigrant Motherhood: Child-Rearing and Child Weight.

    PubMed

    Park, So Hyun; Patil, Crystal L; Norr, Kathleen F

    2016-01-01

    Health problems among immigrant children may persist not only throughout childhood but also into adulthood. The purpose of this study was to elicit information about Korean immigrant mothers' experiences with parenting, immigration, and raising their children in the United States. Four focus group interviews were conducted in the Chicago metropolitan area. Content analysis showed that Korean immigrant mothers practice intensive parenting and worry about it. They described the strategies they use to raise healthy children. Culturally appropriate intervention programs are needed to reduce stress, encourage a healthy lifestyle, and link this to the health of their children. PMID:26605950

  5. Free Prostate-Specific Antigen Provides More Precise Data on Benign Prostate Volume Than Total Prostate-Specific Antigen in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon; Park, Jae Young; Shim, Ji Sung; Kim, Jae Heon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the efficacy of total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) and free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA) for the estimation of prostate volume (PV) in pathologically-proven benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. Methods From January 2010 to March 2013, 165 Korean men with a PSA less than 10 ng/mL who were diagnosed without prostate cancer by prostate biopsy were enrolled. Patients were classified into three age groups: ≤60, 61-70, and >70 years old. The results were organized to estimate and compare the ability of serum tPSA and fPSA to assess the PV. Results Enrolled patients had a median age of 63.5 years (44 to 80), a median tPSA of 5.72 ng/mL, a median fPSA of 0.98 ng/mL and a median PV of 53.68 mL, respectively. Among the associations between tPSA, fPSA, age, and PV, the highest correlation was verified between fPSA and PV (r=0.377, P<0.0001); the correlation coefficient between tPSA and PV was much lower (r=0.262, P<0.001). All stratified age cohorts showed the same findings. The ROC curves (for PV greater than 30, 40, and 50 mL) showed that fPSA (area under the curve [AUC]=0.781, 0.718, and 0.700) outperformed tPSA (AUC=0.657, 0.583, and 0.67) in its ability to predict clinically significant PV enlargement. Conclusion Both tPSA and fPSA significantly correlated with PV in Korean men, while the correlation efficiency between fPSA and PV was more powerful. fPSA may be a useful tool in making therapeutic decisions and follow-up management in BPH patients. PMID:23869271

  6. Replication of Early B-cell Factor 1 (EBF1) Gene-by-psychosocial Stress Interaction Effects on Central Adiposity in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jin-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Central obesity plays a major role in the development of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Chronic stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of central obesity. Although several large-scale genome-wide association studies have reported susceptibility genes for central adiposity, the effects of interactions between genes and psychosocial stress on central adiposity have rarely been examined. A recent study focusing on Caucasians discovered the novel gene early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1), which was associated with central obesity-related traits via interactions with stress levels. We aimed to evaluate EBF1 gene-by-stress interaction effects on central adiposity traits, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), in Korean adults. Methods A total of 1467 Korean adults were included in this study. We selected 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the EBF1 gene and analyzed their interactions with stress on central adiposity using additive, dominant, and recessive genetic modeling. Results The four SNPs that had strong linkage disequilibrium relationships (rs10061900, rs10070743, rs4704967, and rs10056564) demonstrated significant interactions with the waist-hip ratio in the dominant model (pint<0.007). In addition, two other SNPs (rs6556377 and rs13180086) were associated with VAT by interactions with stress levels, especially in the recessive genetic model (pint<0.007). As stress levels increased, the mean values of central adiposity traits according to SNP genotypes exhibited gradual but significant changes (p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that the common genetic variants for EBF1 are associated with central adiposity through interactions with stress levels, emphasizing the importance of managing stress in the prevention of central obesity. PMID:27744667

  7. The novel association between red complex of oral microbe and body mass index in healthy Japanese: a population based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Kanae; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hashimoto, Motomu; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Toru; Asai, Keita; Yamori, Masashi; Bessho, Kazuhisa; Toda, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2015-09-01

    Microbiota has been thought to be one of important environmental factors for obesity or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among oral microbe, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannellera forsythia are known as risk factors, so called red complex, for periodontitis. Red complex could also be a risk factor for obesity. However, recent study indicated that obesity was not improved by periodontal therapy. Thus, we performed a cross sectional study to reveal the association of oral microbe with body mass index in a healthy population. Healthy individuals were randomly recruited. The infections of oral microbe were identified by Taqman polymerase chain reaction. The relationships between number of red complex and body mass index or waist circumference were analyzed. Two hundred and twenty-two apparently healthy Japanese were enrolled. BMI and waist circumference as well as age, periodontitis, number of brushing teeth were significantly associated with the number of red complex after adjusting covariance. The effect size of body mass index or waist circumference was 0.023 (p = 0.028) or 0.024 (p = 0.024), respectively. Body mass index and waist circumference were independently associated with the number of red complex among apparently healthy Japanese. The current observation implies the possibility that oral microbe was associated with obesity in healthy population.

  8. The Impact of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms on Quality of Life, Work Productivity, Depressive Symptoms, and Sexuality in Korean Men Aged 40 Years and Older: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Heon; Han, Deok Hyun; Ryu, Dong-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean men aged ≥40 years. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional door-to-door survey was conducted among men aged ≥40 years. Individuals with LUTS were defined as men reporting at least one LUTS using 2002 International Continence Society definitions. Structuredquestionnaires were used to assess several dimensions of HRQoL, including generic health status (EuroQoL-five-dimensions questionnaire), work productivity (work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire), depressive symptoms (center for epidemiologic studies depression scale), and sexual health (sexual satisfaction and erectile dysfunction). The impact of LUTS was assessed by comparing several dimensions of HRQoL among men with and without LUTS. Results: Of the 1,842 participants, 1,536 (83.4%) reported having at least one LUTS. The prevalence of LUTS increased with age (78.3% among those aged 40–49 years to 89.6% among those aged 60 years or older). Those with LUTS reported a significantlylower level of generic health status and worse work productivity compared with those without LUTS. Significantly more individuals with LUTS reported having a higher level of major depressive symptoms compared with those without LUTS.Those with LUTS reported worse sexual activity and enjoyment, and were significantly more likely to have erectile dysfunction than those without LUTS. Conclusions: LUTS seem to have a substantial impact on several dimensions of HRQoL in Korean men aged ≥40 years. PMID:26126442

  9. A Commentary on Cultural Influences Impacting the Education of Korean American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Adrian Woo; Stang, Kristin; Ferko, Doreen; Han, Shin-Il

    2011-01-01

    Korean American adolescents may find themselves caught between traditional Korean culture and demands for Americanization. Subsequently this population of students and parents may have very distinct needs in our schools as they are a growing population of students. This commentary discusses important considerations for teachers and administrators…

  10. Isolation and characterization of orf viruses from Korean black goats.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kim, Yong-Joo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Jung, Byeong-Yeal; Hyun, Bang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Five cases of orf virus infection in Korean black goats were diagnosed in our laboratory between 2010 and 2011. One orf virus (ORF/2011) was isolated from an ovine testis cell line (OA3.Ts) for use as a vaccine candidate. Sequences of the major envelope protein and orf virus interferon resistance genes were determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that orf viruses from Korean black goats were most closely related to an isolate (ORF/09/Korea) from dairy goats in Korea. This result indicates that the orf viruses might have been introduced from dairy goats into the Korean black goat population.

  11. Kinematic and kinetic comparisons between American and Korean professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael; Fleisig, Glen; Barrentine, Steven; Andrews, James; Moorman, Claude

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare kinematic, temporal, and kinetic characteristics of American and Korean professional pitchers in order to investigate differences in pitching mechanics, performance, and injury risks among two different cultures and populations of baseball pitchers. Eleven American and eight Korean healthy professional baseball pitchers threw multiple fastball pitches off an indoor throwing mound positioned at regulation distance from home plate. A Motion Analysis three-dimensional automatic digitizing system was used to collect 200 Hz video data from four electronically synchronized cameras. Twenty kinematic, six temporal, and 11 kinetic variables were analyzed at lead foot contact, during the arm cocking and arm acceleration phases, at ball release, and during the arm deceleration phase. A radar gun was used to quantify ball velocity. At lead foot contact, the American pitchers had significantly greater horizontal abduction of the throwing shoulder, while Korean pitchers exhibited significantly greater abduction and external rotation of the throwing shoulder. During arm cocking, the American pitchers displayed significantly greater maximum shoulder external rotation and maximum pelvis angular velocity. At the instant of ball release, the American pitchers had significantly greater forward trunk tilt and ball velocity and significantly less knee flexion, which help explain why the American pitchers had 10% greater ball velocity compared to the Korean pitchers. The American pitchers had significantly greater maximum shoulder internal rotation torque and maximum elbow varus torque during arm cocking, significantly greater elbow flexion torque during arm acceleration, and significantly greater shoulder and elbow proximal forces during arm deceleration. While greater shoulder and elbow forces and torques generated in the American pitchers helped generate greater ball velocity for the American group, these greater kinetics may

  12. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  13. Cultural Perspectives on Korean American Cancer Control

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Hesung Chun

    2006-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the importance of sociocultural research for successful ethnic-based cancer control. The article first delineates some demographic characteristics of Korean Americans and then describes six subcultural groups within this population, illuminating that Korean Americans are a diverse people. The author emphasizes that any cancer control program needs to acknowledge these cultural differences in selecting the target population, identifying intervention strategies, and training a team of health-care professionals, as well as in determining psychological factors related to cancer. The author also suggests that the traditional Korean American notion of health, the preventive approach to illness by using food as medicine, the traditional classification of body types, and the sasang theory for the treatment of illness are all important factors worthy of further research. Finally, the synchronistic and holistic approach to health common among Korean Americans is described by citing recent studies of cancer control that combine the use of Western medicine together with proper physical exercise, diet control, and psychological and family counseling. PMID:17031420

  14. A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Mead, Erin L; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-10-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention-Healthy Foods North-was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two comparison communities) in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, Canada, in 2008. The 12-month program was developed from theory (social cognitive theory and social ecological models), formative research, and a community participatory process. It included an environmental component to increase healthy food availability in local stores and activities consisting of community-wide and point-of-purchase interactive educational taste tests and cooking demonstrations, media (e.g., radio ads, posters, shelf labels), and events held in multiple venues, including recreation centers and schools. The intervention was evaluated using pre- and postassessments with 246 adults from intervention and 133 from comparison communities (311 women, 68 men; mean age 42.4 years; 78.3% retention rate). Outcomes included psychosocial constructs (healthy eating knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions), frequency of healthy and unhealthy food acquisition, healthiness of commonly used food preparation methods, and body mass index (kg/m(2)). After adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic status, and body mass index variables, respondents living in intervention communities showed significant improvements in food-related self-efficacy (β = 0.15, p = .003) and intentions (β = 0.16, p = .001) compared with comparison communities. More improvements from the intervention were seen in overweight, obese, and high socioeconomic status respondents. A community-based, multilevel intervention is an effective strategy to improve psychosocial factors for healthy nutritional behavior change to reduce chronic disease in indigenous Arctic populations.

  15. How Does Neighborhood Quality Moderate the Association Between Online Video Game Play and Depression? A Population-Level Analysis of Korean Students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Harris Hyun-Soo; Ahn, Sun Joo Grace

    2016-10-01

    The main objective of our study is to assess the relationship between playing online video games and mental wellbeing of adolescents based on a nationally representative sample. Data come from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS), a government-funded multiyear research project. Through a secondary analysis of W2 and W3 of data collected in 2011 and 2012, we examine the extent to which time spent playing online games is related to depression, as measured by a battery of items modeled after the abridged version of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised (CESD-R). For proper temporal ordering, the outcome variable is drawn from the latter wave (W3), whereas all time-lagged covariates are taken from the earlier wave (W2). Multilevel regression models show that more game playing is associated with greater depression. Findings also indicate that, net of individual-level variables (e.g., gender, health, family background), living in a community with more divorced families adds to adolescent depression. Finally, a cross-level interaction is observed: the positive association between game playing and depression is more pronounced in an area characterized by a lower aggregate divorce rate.

  16. Profile of Individuals Who Are Metabolically Healthy Obese Using Different Definition Criteria. A Population-Based Analysis in the Spanish Population

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Larrad, María Teresa; Corbatón Anchuelo, Arturo; Del Prado, Náyade; Ibarra Rueda, José María; Gabriel, Rafael; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with numerous metabolic complications such as diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and several forms of cancer. Our goal was to compare different criteria to define the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) with metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO) subjects. We applied Wildman (W), Wildman modified (WM) with insulin resistance (IR) with cut-off point ≥3.8 and levels of C- Reactive Protein (CRP) ≥3 mg/l; and Consensus Societies (CS) criteria. In these subjects cardiovascular-risk (CV-risk) was estimated by Framingham score and SCORE for MHO and MUHO. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Spanish Caucasian adults. A total of 3,844 subjects completed the study, 45% males, aged 35–74 years. Anthropometric/biochemical variables were measured. Obesity was defined as BMI: ≥30 Kg/m2. Results The overall prevalence of obesity in our population was 27.5%, (23.7%/males and 30.2%/females). MHO prevalence according to W, WM, and CS definition criteria were: 9.65%, 16.29%, 39.94% respectively in obese participants. MHO has lower waist circumference (WC) measurements than MUHO. The estimated CV-risks by Framingham and SCORE Project charts were lower in MHO than MUHO subjects. WC showed high specificity and sensitivity in detecting high estimated CV risk by Framingham. However, WHR showed high specificity and sensitivity in detecting CV risk according to SCORE Project. MHO subjects as defined by any of the three criteria had higher adiponectin levels after adjustment by sex, age, WC, HOMA IR and Framingham or SCORE risks. This relationship was not found for CRP circulating levels neither leptin levels. Conclusions MHO prevalence is highly dependent on the definition criteria used to define those individuals. Results showed that MHO subjects had less WC, and a lower estimated CV-risk than MUHO subjects. Additionally, the high adiponectin circulating levels in MHO may suggest a protective role

  17. The Influences of Immigration on Health Information Seeking Behaviors among Korean Americans and Native Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary; Kim, Wonsun

    2014-01-01

    Korean Americans (KAs) have low screening rates for cancer and are often not well informed about their chronic diseases. Reduced access to health-related information is one reason for gaps in knowledge and the widening health disparities among minority populations. However, little research exists about KAs' health information seeking…

  18. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity.

  19. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 allele and haplotype frequencies in a population of 432 healthy unrelated individuals from Albania.

    PubMed

    Sulcebe, Genc; Shyti, Erkena

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 allele and haplotype polymorphism in a population of 432 healthy individuals from Albania. First-field HLA genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific priming and/or oligonucleotide methods. The data were analyzed statistically using gene counting and Arlequin software packages. No deviation from Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium was detected at any of the loci studied. The HLA genotypic data of the population sample reported here are available publicly in the Allele Frequencies Net Database and they can serve as a reference database for further HLA-based population genetics studies including the Albanian population. PMID:27262454

  20. Body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly men but elderly women had a higher prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a population of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chorong; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between sarcopenic obesity (SO) and nutrition status, according to sex in Korean adults who were 60 years or older. Body composition was categorized as SO, sarcopenic nonobesity, nonsarcopenic obesity, and nonsarcopenic nonobesity. Obesity was defined by body mass index. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (Wt) of less than 1 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Subjects included 1433 subjects (658 men and 775 women) who were 60 years or older and who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2010. Sarcopenic obesity was more prevalent in women (31.3%) than in men (19.6%). Individuals with SO had significantly higher fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (male: 3.2 ± 1.4, female: 3.4 ± 2.1), and triglycerides (male: 167.3 ± 90.6 mg/dL, female: 160.7 ± 85.0 mg/dL). High-density lipoprotein was under the normal criteria (50 mg/dL) in women. Intake of nutrients associated with muscle loss (protein, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin C) was significantly different among the male but not the female groups. Although protein intake was normal, calcium and vitamin D intakes were insufficient in all groups. In conclusion, body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly (60 years or older) men but not elderly women. Women had a higher prevalence of SO than did men, suggesting that early nutritional intervention in elderly women may help them address age-associated body composition changes. PMID:25524331

  1. 3'-UTR Polymorphisms in the MiRNA Machinery Genes DROSHA, DICER1, RAN, and XPO5 Are Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk in a Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Ko, Jung Jae; Kim, Jung Oh; Jeon, Young Joo; Yoo, Jung Ki; Oh, Jisu; Oh, Doyeun; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Nam Keun

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs play an important role in cancer initiation and development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in miRNA machinery genes are associated with the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). RAN rs14035 CT heterozygotes and T allele carriers (CT + TT) genotypes had lower risk of CRC, while the DICER1 rs3742330, DROSHA rs10719, and XPO5 rs11077 polymorphisms were not associated with CRC in the full study sample. Specifically, male RAN rs14035 CT heterozygotes and XPO5 rs11077 AA genotype (CT/AA) carriers experienced reduced CRC susceptibility (both colon and rectal). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the combined RAN rs14035 CT + TT genotype was associated with rectal cancer, but not colon cancer. In addition, the DICER1 rs3742330 AG genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of colon cancer. Stratified analysis revealed the RAN rs14035 combined CT+TT genotype was associated with decreased CRC risk in male patients without diabetes mellitus (DM) and in patients with rectal cancer. In addition, we found the RAN rs14035 CC genotype was related to a decreased risk of CRC with respect to tumor size and metabolism of homocysteine and folate. Furthermore, patients diagnosed with hypertension or DM who carried the DROSHA rs10719 CC genotype showed increased CRC risk, while the XPO5 rs11077 AC+CC genotype led to increased CRC risk in patients with hypertension only. Our results indicate variations in RAN rs14035, DICER1 rs3742330, XPO5 rs11077, and DROSHA rs10719 of Korean patients are significantly associated with their risk of CRC.

  2. Higher Prevalence and Awareness, but Lower Control Rate of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes than General Population: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Nan Hee; Kim, Chul Sik; Song, Kee-Ho; Won, Jong Chul; Lim, Soo; Choi, Sung Hee; Han, Kyungdo

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data. Methods Using data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM]), 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM), and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM), we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication) and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg). Results The prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively) compared with non-DM adults (26.2%). Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001) and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020) rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%), compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001) and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004). Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%), compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001) and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001). Conclusion Higher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients. PMID:24627828

  3. A Population-Wide Screening and Tailored Intervention Platform for Eating Disorders on College Campuses: The Healthy Body Image Program

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Megan; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Glass, Alan I.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper presents a new approach to intervention for eating disorders and body image concerns on college campuses, using a model of integrated eating disorder screening and intervention. Formative data on implementation feasibility are presented. Participants College students enrolled at two universities between 2011–2012. Methods The Healthy Body Image program is an evidence-based screening and intervention platform, enacted via community and online resources. An online screen was used to identify students at varying levels of risk or eating disorder symptom status; responses were used to direct students to universal or targeted online interventions or further evaluation. Universal prevention programs to improve healthy weight regulation and body image culture were offered to all students. Results Formative data from 1,551 students illustrates the application of this model. Conclusions The Healthy Body Image program is feasible to deliver and provides a comprehensive system of screening, evidence-based intervention, and community culture change. PMID:24621000

  4. Framing risks and benefits of medical tourism: a content analysis of medical tourism coverage in Korean American community newspapers.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jungmi; Oh, Kyeung Mi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines Korean American community newspapers' representation of risks and benefits involved with medical tourism offered in Korea. Using framing theory, this research attempts to explain Korean Americans' highly positive perceptions and high willingness to use health and medical services in Korea through medical tourism rather than using such services in the United States. The result of content analyses indicated that Korean American community newspapers are rarely engaged in risk communication and lack sufficient information about potential risks of medical tourism while emphasizing diverse benefits. Korean ethnic media, as the primary source of health communication for Korean Americans, should provide more reliable health and medical information for the population's appropriate health management.

  5. Developing Korean-specific equations of stature estimation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yangseung; Jantz, Lee Meadows

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to develop Korean-specific equations for stature estimation and compare their performance to existing techniques. Due to a lack of appropriate reference samples in Korea, equations were generated using a hybrid method on 113 Korean unknown skeletons. In this approach, estimates using the anatomical method [1] were regarded as actual stature. Results revealed that new equations produced more accurate and precise estimates than previous techniques. In addition, due to consistent body proportions of Korean populations through time and space, new equations are applicable to Korean skeletons regardless of their temporal and geographic origins. For obtaining statures at death, particularly in a forensic context, an age correction factor, 0.0426 cm/year, should be applied.

  6. Overview of the Development of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, So-Yeon; Myung, Hyung-Nam

    2014-01-01

    A set of exposure factors that reflects the characteristics of individual behavior capable of influencing exposure is essential for risk and exposure assessment. In 2007, the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook was, therefore, issued, driven by the need to develop reliable exposure factors representing the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to overview the development process of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook and major recommended exposure values for the Korean population to allow information exchanges and comparison of recommended values among nations. The researchers reviewed the domestic data that could be used in the development of exposure factors, confirmed a knowledge gap, and set a priority of development by phases. A methodology to measure exposure factors was established to develop measuring techniques and test their validity. Data were processed or a survey was conducted according to the availability of data. The study thus produced recommended values for 24 exposure factors grouped by general exposure factors, food ingestion factors, and activity factors by setting up a database of exposure factors and carrying out statistical analysis. The study has significantly contributed to reducing the potential uncertainty of the risk and exposure assessment derived by the application of foreign data or research findings lacking representativeness or grounds by developing a set of exposure factors reflecting the characteristics of the Korean people. It will be necessary to conduct revisions in light of the changing statistical values of national data and the exposure factors based on Korean characteristics. PMID:24570801

  7. The influence of gender and self-efficacy on healthy eating in a low-income urban population affected by structural changes to the food environment.

    PubMed

    Robles, Brenda; Smith, Lisa V; Ponce, Mirna; Piron, Jennifer; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Although U.S. obesity prevention efforts have begun to implement a variety of system and environmental change strategies to address the underlying socioecological barriers to healthy eating, factors which can impede or facilitate community acceptance of such interventions are often poorly understood. This is due, in part, to the paucity of subpopulation health data that are available to help guide local planning and decision-making. We contribute to this gap in practice by examining area-specific health data for a population targeted by federally funded nutrition interventions in Los Angeles County. Using data from a local health assessment that collected information on sociodemographics, self-reported health behaviors, and objectively measured height, weight, and blood pressure for a subset of low-income adults (n = 720), we compared health risks and predictors of healthy eating across at-risk groups using multivariable modeling analyses. Our main findings indicate being a woman and having high self-efficacy in reading Nutrition Facts labels were strong predictors of healthy eating (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that intervening with women may help increase the reach of these nutrition interventions, and that improving self-efficacy in healthy eating through public education and/or by other means can help prime at-risk groups to accept and take advantage of these food environment changes.

  8. The influence of gender and self-efficacy on healthy eating in a low-income urban population affected by structural changes to the food environment.

    PubMed

    Robles, Brenda; Smith, Lisa V; Ponce, Mirna; Piron, Jennifer; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Although U.S. obesity prevention efforts have begun to implement a variety of system and environmental change strategies to address the underlying socioecological barriers to healthy eating, factors which can impede or facilitate community acceptance of such interventions are often poorly understood. This is due, in part, to the paucity of subpopulation health data that are available to help guide local planning and decision-making. We contribute to this gap in practice by examining area-specific health data for a population targeted by federally funded nutrition interventions in Los Angeles County. Using data from a local health assessment that collected information on sociodemographics, self-reported health behaviors, and objectively measured height, weight, and blood pressure for a subset of low-income adults (n = 720), we compared health risks and predictors of healthy eating across at-risk groups using multivariable modeling analyses. Our main findings indicate being a woman and having high self-efficacy in reading Nutrition Facts labels were strong predictors of healthy eating (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that intervening with women may help increase the reach of these nutrition interventions, and that improving self-efficacy in healthy eating through public education and/or by other means can help prime at-risk groups to accept and take advantage of these food environment changes. PMID:24800064

  9. Rapid increase of health care utilization and cost due to benign prostatic hyperplasia in Korean men: retrospective population-based analysis using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service data.

    PubMed

    Son, Hwancheol; Park, Juhyun; Song, Sang Hoon; Kang, Jung Yoon; Hong, Sung Kyu; Lee, Hyun Moo; Kim, Sun-Hee; Park, Byung-Joo; Lee, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Kyung Seop

    2015-02-01

    Using the Korean public health insurance database, we analyzed patients diagnosed as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) from 2004 to 2008. Age and year-specific amount and seasonal variation of hospital visits (HV), duration of treatment (DT), the total and per capita amount of insurance payment (TAIP, PCIP) were evaluated. A total of 12,088,995 HV were studied. Total HV increased 1.7 times and DT almost doubled in 2008 compared to those in 2004. HV, DT, and TAIP showed linearly increasing patterns year by year. In a time series analysis, HV increased in winter and demonstrated seasonality in a 12-month cycle. In a Poisson regression analysis, the annual variations of HV, DT, TAIP, and PCIP were different by age groups. In patients older than 40 yr, HV significantly increased 1.10-1.16 times compared to that of the previous year. DT markedly increased in their 60s and 80s patients. The rate of increase in PCIP was steeper in patients 50 yr and older than in the others.Health care utilization due to BPH was rapidly increasing in Korea and it was remarkable in the elderly population. Seasonal variation of HV demonstrated that health care utilization increased in winter.

  10. Impact of statins on risk of new onset diabetes mellitus: a population-based cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance claims database

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jimin; Noh, Yoojin; Shin, Sooyoung; Lim, Hong-Seok; Park, Rae Woong; Bae, Soo Kyung; Oh, Euichaul; Kim, Grace Juyun; Kim, Ju Han; Lee, Sukhyang

    2016-01-01

    Statin therapy is beneficial in reducing cardiovascular events and mortalities in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Yet, there have been concerns of increased risk of diabetes with statin use. This study was aimed to evaluate the association between statins and new onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) utilizing the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service claims database. Among adult patients with preexisting IHD, new statin users and matched nonstatin users were identified on a 1:1 ratio using proportionate stratified random sampling by sex and age. They were subsequently propensity score matched further with age and comorbidities to reduce the selection bias. Overall incidence rates, cumulative rates and hazard ratios (HRs) between statin use and occurrence of NODM were estimated. The subgroup analyses were performed according to sex, age groups, and the individual agents and intensities of statins. A total of 156,360 patients (94,370 in the statin users and 61,990 in the nonstatin users) were included in the analysis. The incidence rates of NODM were 7.8% and 4.8% in the statin users and nonstatin users, respectively. The risk of NODM was higher among statin users (crude HR 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.93–2.10; adjusted HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.63–2.09). Pravastatin had the lowest risk (adjusted HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32–1.81) while those who were exposed to more than one statin were at the highest risk of NODM (adjusted HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.93–2.37). It has been concluded that all statins are associated with the risk of NODM in patients with IHD, and it is believed that our study would contribute to a better understanding of statin and NODM association by analyzing statin use in the real-world setting. Periodic screening and monitoring for diabetes are warranted during prolonged statin therapy in patients with IHD. PMID:27785041

  11. Detection of bovine papillomavirus DNA in sarcoid-affected and healthy free-roaming zebra (Equus zebra) populations in South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Enette; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Bosman, Anna-Marie; Nel, Pierre J; Zimmerman, David; Venter, Estelle H

    2009-06-01

    The endangered Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) is protected in small numbers in a few isolated populations in South African game parks. Since 1995, sarcoid lesions appeared in zebras in two of the parks. This study was undertaken to investigate if bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is associated with sarcoids in these zebras. A conventional PCR, targeting the E5 ORF of BPV, and subsequent RFLP analysis were initially used to demonstrate the presence of BPV-1 and -2 DNAs in zebra sarcoid tumours. A rapid, sensitive and reliable real-time PCR to detect and distinguish between BPV-1 and -2 infections in zebras was developed. With this assay it was demonstrated that BPV-1 and -2 DNA (either single or mixed infections) are present in sarcoid tumour, healthy skin and blood of sarcoid-affected and healthy zebras from sarcoid-affected parks as well as in the blood of zebras from parks where no sarcoid has been observed before.

  12. Phonological Transcribing of English Utterances in Teaching Listening Comprehension for Korean Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Yun Kul

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to discuss the importance of listening and to examine whether or not transcribing utterances in English using the Korean alphabet improved the accuracy in English sentences produced by a group of Korean college students. A total population of 120 students was divided into two groups, control and experiment. The…

  13. A Silence That Wants to Be Heard: Suburban Korean American Students in Dialogue with Invisibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Dawan; Park, Hye-Young; Fecho, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Korean American students experience invisibility and silence as their culture and presence remain outwardly invisible in the mainstream culture of US high schools. This is further exacerbated by the silent response of the dominant population of the school towards these issues. Yet, to an extent, Korean American students find a sense of comfort…

  14. Application of Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci Identified in the Korean Pacific Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta (Haliotidae)) in the Genetic Characterization of Wild and Released Populations

    PubMed Central

    An, Hye Suck; Lee, Jang Wook; Hong, Seong Wan

    2012-01-01

    The small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, of the family Haliotidae, is one of the most important species of marine shellfish in eastern Asia. Over the past few decades, this species has drastically declined in Korea. Thus, hatchery-bred seeds have been released into natural coastal areas to compensate for the reduced fishery resources. However, information on the genetic background of the small abalone is scarce. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and used to compare allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations in Korea. Using high-throughput genomic sequencing, a total of 1516 (2.26%; average length of 385 bp) reads containing simple sequence repeats were obtained from 86,011 raw reads. Among the 99 loci screened, 28 amplified successfully, and 20 were polymorphic. When comparing allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations, a total of 243 different alleles were observed, with 18.7 alleles per locus. High genetic diversity (mean heterozygosity = 0.81; mean allelic number = 15.5) was observed in both populations. A statistical analysis of the fixation index (FST) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated limited genetic differences between the two populations (FST = 0.002, p > 0.05). Although no significant reductions in the genetic diversity were found in the released population compared with the wild population (p > 0.05), the genetic diversity parameters revealed that the seeds released for stock abundance had a different genetic composition. These differences are likely a result of hatchery selection and inbreeding. Additionally, all the primer pair sets were effectively amplified in another congeneric species, H. diversicolor diversicolor, indicating that these primers are useful for both abalone species. These microsatellite loci may be valuable for future aquaculture and population genetic studies aimed at developing

  15. Finite Control in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kum Young

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores finite control in Korean. An overview of the previous studies of control shows that the mainstream literature on control has consistently argued that referential dependence between an overt matrix argument and an embedded null subject is characteristic of non-finite clauses which contain a PRO subject. Moreover, although some…

  16. Genetic differences between the wild and hatchery-produced populations of Korean short barbeled grunter (Hapalogenys nitens) determined with microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    An, H S; Kang, H W; Han, H S; Park, J Y; Hong, C G; Park, J; Myeong, J I; An, C M

    2014-01-01

    Short barbeled grunter, Hapalogenys nitens, is an economically important fishery resource. In Korea, this fish is in the early stage of domestication, and it has been regarded as the candidate marine fish species for prospective aquaculture diversification. This study presents a preliminary investigation of the future viability of sustainable fry production from short barbeled grunter. We used 12 polymorphic nuclear microsatellite DNA loci to analyze the possible genetic variability between the wild and hatchery-produced populations of short barbeled grunter from Korea and identified 91 alleles. Compared to the wild population, significant genetic changes including reduced genetic diversity (average allele number: 7.42 vs 3.75; average expected heterozygosity: 0.713 vs 0.598, Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P < 0.05) and differentiation [overall fixation index (FST) = 0.088, P < 0.01] occurred in the hatchery-produced population, as indicated by the observation of allele richness, unique allele, heterozygosity, FST, and results of molecular analysis of variance. These findings indicate that genetic drift may have promoted the differentiation between these 2 populations, which may have negative effects on sustainable fry production. Therefore, genetic variations of the wild and hatchery-produced populations should be monitored and subjected to control inbreeding through a commercial breeding program. The information presented by this paper would provide a useful genetic basis for future sustainable culturing planning and management of H. nitens.

  17. Assessing maternal risk for fetal-infant mortality: a population-based study to prioritize risk reduction in a healthy start community.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Catherine L; Wendt, Annie; Liggins, Oemeeka; Overton, Jacqueline; Sweezy, Luz del Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Study goals were to distinguish between maternal risk factors for fetal versus infant mortality, and to identify which maternal characteristics contributed the greatest risk of mortality overall. This case-control retrospective study abstracted data on more than forty maternal characteristics from 261 prenatal and delivery records: all 26 fetal deaths, all 40 infant deaths and 195 randomly selected surviving births in a high-mortality Healthy Start community. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. The fetal-mortality population was significantly more likely than the infant-mortality population to have no insurance (P = .047), inadequate prenatal care (P = .039) and previous fetal death (P = .021). Comparing the combined mortality population with the surviving sample, two tiers of risk emerged: Rare-but-lethal risks, including no prenatal care (P < .001) and Child-Protective-Service involvement (P = .001), and common-and-dangerous risks, including inadequate maternal weight gain (OR = 13.55), drug or alcohol abuse (OR = 8.67), obesity (OR = 2.77) and anemia (OR = 3.61). Both fetal and infant mortality groups must be considered when identifying maternal risks. Inadequate prenatal weight gain, obesity and anemia contribute as much to feto-infant mortality as substance abuse. Public health efforts to improve maternal nutrition and healthy weight should be redoubled. PMID:20082128

  18. An untold story in labor health: Korean women workers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Hyun-joo

    2007-01-01

    Very little is known about labor health among Korean women workers, who have been left behind by the occupational safety and health institutions. In this article, we examine, from a gender perspective, the occupational safety and health (OSH) statistics, institutions, and the struggles of women workers, and discuss how to make a society where women workers become and stay healthy. The problems Korean women workers face have both universal and unique aspects. On the one hand, they tend to be exposed to "invisible hazards" and to disproportionately suffer from neo-liberal policies, as do women workers in other countries. On the other hand, Korean women workers are still positioned under the strong patriarchy found in pre-modern societies. The examples of struggle presented here come out of this condition; those struggles by women workers and support from concerned specialists have played an important role in overcoming patriarchy and protecting health rights for women workers.

  19. Comparison of age-related changes in anti-Müllerian hormone levels and other ovarian reserve tests between healthy fertile and infertile population.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Banu; Erdem, Mehmet; Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Erdem, Ahmet; Guler, Ismail; Mutlu, Ilknur; Oktem, Mesut

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine whether anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels vary between fertile and infertile populations and compare them with basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and antral follicle count (AFC). This was a prospective study that included 177 primarily infertile patients who underwent IVF treatment and 162 healthy fertile patients admitted to our clinic for benign diseases. FSH and AMH levels and the AFC of the infertile and fertile populations were compared between the age categories <30, 30-39 and ≥40. Correlations between AMH, basal FSH, and AFC with age were evaluated. AFC and AMH levels did not differ between the fertile and infertile groups in all age categories. AMH was inversely correlated with age in both the fertile and infertile populations. However, AFC revealed a stronger correlation with age in both the fertile and infertile populations compared with basal FSH and AMH. Age was positively correlated with basal FSH and inversely correlated with AMH and AFC. In conclusion, there was no significant difference between the fertile and infertile populations in terms of AMH or AFC. The decrease in ovarian reserve in infertile patients is directly related to age, not infertility.

  20. Trace element status and fatty acids metabolism during healthy ageing: an example of a population from the Tunisian eastern coast.

    PubMed

    Sfar, Sonia; El Heni, Jihen; Laporte, François; Braham, Hamadi; Jawed, Abdelhafidh; Amor, Salah; Sfar, Mohamed Tahar; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2012-03-01

    Micronutrients as well as essential fatty acids are indispensable for the correct functioning of the organism. The risk of disturbance in the associated nutrition and metabolism is expected to increase during ageing. In addition, it seems that trace elements are involved in the fatty acids metabolism. The aim of the present study was then to assess age-related changes in trace elements status and in plasma essential fatty acids composition with an emphasis on the desaturase activity estimation. Two hundred healthy Tunisian subjects (30-85 years old) were recruited and separated into two subgroups: elderly (65-85 years old) and middle-aged (30-60 years old). The findings revealed that plasma zinc and calcium concentrations significantly decreased according to age. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was therefore shown to increase in old age (over 60% of elderly subjects were deficient or at risk of deficiency). No age-related changes were obtained for copper or magnesium status. The Δ6 desaturase, involved in the EFAs conversion, was shown to decrease according to age and to be associated with the plasma zinc level. Since elderly subjects were at risk of nutritional imbalance, it would be interesting to set optimal dietary proportion. This will help to prevent age-associated alterations and diseases for a better and healthy ageing. PMID:22222317

  1. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA analyses showed comparative genetic diversity between parent and offspring populations of Korean black rockfish in a hatchery facility.

    PubMed

    An, H S; Lee, J W; Park, J Y; Myeong, J I; An, C M

    2013-01-01

    The black rockfish, Sebastes inermis (Sebastidae), is an important commercial fishery resource in Korea. As a preliminary investigation into the effect of artificial reproduction in a hatchery facility, the genetic divergence between parent and offspring populations of black rockfish was accessed using 10 polymorphic nuclear microsatellite DNA loci and a mitochondrial (mt) control gene. All loci that were screened showed marked polymorphisms. mtDNA control region sequences were also highly variable. Of approximately 350 base pairs (bp) sequenced, 52 variable sites, comprising 56 base substitutions, were found among 233 individuals. Offspring populations showed less genetic variability than the parent population in terms of numbers of microsatellite alleles and mtDNA haplotypes, as well as mtDNA haplotype diversity. Statistical analysis of the fixation index (ΦST and F(ST)) and analysis of molecular variance using both DNA markers showed significant genetic differences between the parent and offspring populations. These results suggest that random genetic drift and/or inbreeding events, as well as artificial selection and founder effects, occurred when the offspring strain was reproduced in a hatchery facility despite thousands of males and females from different hatcheries being maintained for artificial reproduction. Therefore, it is necessary to improve current hatchery programs by monitoring genetic variation in both the broodstock and progeny and controlling inbreeding within stocks in commercial breeding facilities to maintain the production of high-quality black rockfish. This information will be useful for determining suitable guidelines for establishing and maintaining cultured stocks and the aquaculture industry of S. inermis. PMID:24390988

  2. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  3. The Factors Affecting the Development of National Identity as South Korean in North Korean Refugees Living in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shi-Eun; Eom, Jin-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims to observe the factors that influence the development of national identity of North Korean refugees who have resettled in South Korea. Methods The study population was comprised of 500 North Korean refugees who immigrated to South Korea in 2007. The variables measured national identity as South Korean, a scale for discrimination perceived during daily life, a social for supporting social network, a for childhood trauma experience, traumatic experiences in North Korea, and traumatic experiences during the escape process. Factor analysis was conducted on the result from the scale for national identity as South Korean which produced 4 factors including national consciousness, positive emotions, positive values, and negative values. Multiple regression was done to identify how variables such as demographic data, discrimination, social network, and past trauma had influenced each of 4 factors. Results National identity was negatively related by traumatic experience during childhood, perceived discrimination, and positively influenced by social networks. Positive emotion was related negatively to education level in North Korea and perceived discrimination, but positively related to traumatic experiences in North Korea. Negative value was related positively age and perceived discrimination but negatively related to supporting social network. Conclusion The results of this study suggests that promoting social networks, decreasing discrimination and healing past traumas were important factors for North Korean refugees in South Korea to facilitate a new national identity as a South Korean. PMID:22993518

  4. Comparative study of IgA VH 3 gene usage in healthy TST(-) and TST(+) population exposed to tuberculosis: deep sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Chin, Siang Tean; Ignatius, Joshua; Suraiya, Siti; Tye, Gee Jun; Sarmiento, Maria E; Acosta, Armando; Norazmi, Mohd Nor; Lim, Theam Soon

    2015-02-01

    The acquired immune response against tuberculosis is commonly associated with T-cell responses with little known about the role of B cells or antibodies. There have been suggestions that B cells and humoral immunity can modulate the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the mechanisms involving B-cell responses in M. tuberculosis are not fully understood, in particular the antibody gene preferences. We hypothesized that a preferential use of V genes can be seen associated with resistance to infection mainly in the IgA isotype, which is of prominent importance for infection by pathogens via the mucosal route. We studied healthy individuals with long-term exposure to tuberculosis, infected (TST(+) ) and uninfected TST(-) ) with M. tuberculosis. From a total of 22 V genes analysed, the TST(-) population preferred the VH 3-23 and Vκ1 genes. The VH 3-23 genes were subsequently subjected to 454 amplicon sequencing. The TST(-) population showed a higher frequency of the D3-10 segment compared with the D3-22 segment for the TST(+) population. The J segment usage pattern was similar for both populations with J4 segment being used the most. A preferential pairing of J4 segments to D3-3 was seen for the TST(-) population. The antibodyome difference between both populations suggests a preference for antibodies with VH 3-23, D3-3, JH 4 gene usage by the TST(-) population that could be associated with resistance to infection with M. tuberculosis.

  5. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Prashanth; Abraham, Georgi; Reddy, Yuvaram NV; Lakshmanasami, Ravivarman; Prakash, ML; Reddy, Yogesh NV

    2016-01-01

    This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) by the Cockcroft–Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 18.5–24.99 kg/m2, 25–29.99 kg/m2, and ≥30 kg/m2 were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex. PMID:27729810

  6. Development of a Population Pharmacokinetic Model To Describe Azithromycin Whole-Blood and Plasma Concentrations over Time in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Anic-Milic, T.; Oreskovic, K.; Padovan, J.; Brouwer, K. L. R.; Zuo, P.; Schmith, V. D.

    2013-01-01

    Azithromycin (AZI), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, accumulates in polymorphonuclear cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The distribution of AZI in proinflammatory cells may be important to the anti-inflammatory properties. Previous studies have described plasma AZI pharmacokinetics. The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of AZI in whole blood (concentration in whole blood [Cb]) and plasma (concentration in plasma [Cp]) of healthy subjects. In this study, 12 subjects received AZI (500 mg once a day for 3 days). AZI Cb and Cp were quantified in serial samples collected up to 3 weeks after the last dose and analyzed using noncompartmental and compartmental methods. After the last dose, Cb was greater than Cp. Importantly, Cb, but not Cp, was quantifiable in all but one subject at 3 weeks. The blood area under the curve during a 24-h dosing interval (AUC24) was ∼2-fold greater than the plasma AUC24, but simulations suggested that Cb was not at steady state by day 3. Upon exploration of numerous models, an empirical 3-compartment model adequately described Cp and Cb, but Cp was somewhat underestimated. Intercompartmental clearance (CL; likely representing cells) was lower than apparent oral CL (18 versus 118 liters/h). Plasma, peripheral, and cell compartmental volumes were 439 liters, 2,980 liters, and 3,084 liters, respectively. Interindividual variability in CL was low (26.2%), while the volume of distribution variability was high (107%). This is the first report to describe AZI Cb in healthy subjects, the distribution parameters between Cp and Cb, and AZI retention in blood for up to 3 weeks following 3 daily doses. The model can be used to predict Cb from Cp for AZI under various dosing regimens. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01026064.) PMID:23629714

  7. Residential Mobility Across Local Areas in the United States and the Geographic Distribution of the Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, Arline T.; Bound, John; Ro, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Determining whether population dynamics provide competing explanations to place effects for observed geographic patterns of population health is critical for understanding health inequality. We focus on the working-age population—the period of adulthood when health disparities are greatest—and analyze detailed data on residential mobility collected for the first time in the 2000 U.S. census. Residential mobility over a five-year period is frequent and selective, with some variation by race and gender. Even so, we found little evidence that mobility biases cross-sectional snapshots of local population health. Areas undergoing large or rapid population growth or decline may be exceptions. Overall, place of residence is an important health indicator; yet, the frequency of residential mobility raises questions of interpretation from etiological or policy perspectives, complicating simple understandings that residential exposures alone explain the association between place and health. Psychosocial stressors related to contingencies of social identity associated with being black, urban, or poor in the United States may also have adverse health impacts that track with structural location even with movement across residential areas. PMID:24781651

  8. Population-based evaluation of the ‘LiveLighter’ healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign

    PubMed Central

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) ‘LiveLighter’ (LL) mass media campaign ran during June–August and September–October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual (‘why’ change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier (‘how’ to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25–49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N = 2012) and following the two media waves (N = 2005 and N = 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The ‘why’ message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than ‘how’ messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P < 0.05) and physical activity intentions (P < 0.05). Endorsement of stereotypes of overweight individuals did not increase after LL aired. LL was associated with some population-level improvements in proximal and intermediate markers of campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. PMID:26956039

  9. Ethnicity, health and medical care: towards a critical realist analysis of general practice in the Korean community in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Han, Gil-Soo; Davies, Carmel

    2006-11-01

    This paper investigates the use and provision of biomedicine among Korean-Australian men on the basis of interview data from all of the eight Korean-speaking doctors practising in the Korean community in Sydney in 1995. From the viewpoint of these general practitioners, an analysis is made of the processes Korean men go through in adjusting to a new country, being involved in constant hard manual work and long working hours, and explores how they make use of all available resources to stay healthy. The Korean men have fully utilized the 'freely' available medical services under government-subsidized Medicare, bearing in mind that health is a capacity to work under the current environment, although illegal migrants restrained themselves from using it until they obtained legal status. Korean-speaking medical practitioners have been able to provide their fellow Koreans with 'culturally appropriate' health care, with the key factor being the absence of a language barrier. The level of patient satisfaction is high, possibly due to the excellent understanding the doctors have of the social aspects of illnesses, although the doctors do not go beyond curative medicine in their practice. However, the increasing number of Korean-speaking doctors in the small Korean community means that there is competition for patients. Consequently, the medical care is highly entrepreneurial. Referral by Korean doctors to practitioners of Korean herbal medicine is also a notable feature of the health care sector of the Korean community, especially as this offers Korean patients 'satisfactory' health relief for problems that are not easily relieved by doctors in the biomedical system.

  10. Ethnicity, health and medical care: towards a critical realist analysis of general practice in the Korean community in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Han, Gil-Soo; Davies, Carmel

    2006-11-01

    This paper investigates the use and provision of biomedicine among Korean-Australian men on the basis of interview data from all of the eight Korean-speaking doctors practising in the Korean community in Sydney in 1995. From the viewpoint of these general practitioners, an analysis is made of the processes Korean men go through in adjusting to a new country, being involved in constant hard manual work and long working hours, and explores how they make use of all available resources to stay healthy. The Korean men have fully utilized the 'freely' available medical services under government-subsidized Medicare, bearing in mind that health is a capacity to work under the current environment, although illegal migrants restrained themselves from using it until they obtained legal status. Korean-speaking medical practitioners have been able to provide their fellow Koreans with 'culturally appropriate' health care, with the key factor being the absence of a language barrier. The level of patient satisfaction is high, possibly due to the excellent understanding the doctors have of the social aspects of illnesses, although the doctors do not go beyond curative medicine in their practice. However, the increasing number of Korean-speaking doctors in the small Korean community means that there is competition for patients. Consequently, the medical care is highly entrepreneurial. Referral by Korean doctors to practitioners of Korean herbal medicine is also a notable feature of the health care sector of the Korean community, especially as this offers Korean patients 'satisfactory' health relief for problems that are not easily relieved by doctors in the biomedical system. PMID:17060035

  11. Association Between Obesity and Falls Among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between falls and obesity using Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications. Using the data from the Korean community health survey in 2011, a total of 229,226 participants ranging from 19 to 106 years old were included in this study. The BMI groups were classified as underweight (<18.5), healthy (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23), overweight (23 ≤ BMI <25), and obese (≥25) using Asian BMI classifications. The associations between BMI groups and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted according to age (19–40, 41–60, and ≥61 years) and the location of the fall (indoor and outdoor). Physical activity, household income, education level, alcohol consumption, smoking, stress level, and medical comorbidities were adjusted as confounders. In total, 16.8% and 6.1% of the participants experienced falls ≥1 time and ≥2 times per year, respectively. Compared to the healthy weight group, the other BMI groups showed a significant U-shaped relationship with falls ≥1 time (AOR underweight = 1.12, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.05–1.19; AOR obese = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02–1.10, P < 0.001) and ≥2 times (AOR underweight = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04–1.26; AOR obese = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99–1.10, P < 0.001). Obese status was significantly associated with falls (≥1 fall per year) in all age groups, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with falls in the 19 to 40 year age group only. In conclusion, both underweight and obese statuses were significantly associated with falls in this adult Korean population. However, the relationship between BMI group and falls varied according to age and the location of the falls. PMID:27015190

  12. [Plasma concentration of lipoprotein(a) and distribution of its subtypes in the healthy population of Hungary].

    PubMed

    Császár, A; Romics, L; Lackner, C; Dieplinger, H; Karádi, I; Utermann, G

    1990-09-23

    Authors determined the plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, apoprotein B-100 (apo B-100), apoprotein A-I (apo A-I) and lipoprotein(a) in 202 (139 female and 63 male) randomized blood donors. The phenotypes of lipoprotein(a) were detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis and Western blotting. The average plasma total cholesterol concentration of this Hungarian population was 5.7 +/- 1.1 mmol/l. The other lipoprotein parameters were HDL-cholesterol: 1.36 +/- 0.04 mmol/l; and the apoprotein B-100 concentration: 70 +/- 17.4 mg/dl. In these parameters no difference between males and females could be found. The average plasma apoprotein A-I in females was 156.3 +/- 23.6 mg/dl and in males 143.8 +/- 26.8 mg/dl and the difference was statistically significant (p less than 0.01). The average lipoprotein(a) concentration of this population was 10.5 +/- 13.5 mg/dl and there was no significant difference between males and females (9.0 +/- 10.7 and 13.9 +/- 17.7 mg/dl, respectively). The distribution of plasma Lp(a) was highly skewed in the direction of low concentration values. In females a moderate bimodial distribution could be demonstrated. Documented by several authors lipoprotein(a) level higher than 30 mg/dl serves as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. In this population only 9.4% of subjects had lipoprotein(a) concentrations over this limit (5.9% female and 3.5% male). The relative alle frequency of different phenotypes showed the following distribution: B 0.007, S1 0.015, S2 0.154, S3 0.231, S4 0.230 and null 0.362. In this population the F phenotype could not be detected. PMID:2145542

  13. Epigenome-Wide Scans Identify Differentially Methylated Regions for Age and Age-Related Phenotypes in a Healthy Ageing Population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tsun-Po; Pidsley, Ruth; Nisbet, James; Glass, Daniel; Mangino, Massimo; Zhai, Guangju; Zhang, Feng; Valdes, Ana; Shin, So-Youn; Dempster, Emma L.; Murray, Robin M.; Grundberg, Elin; Hedman, Asa K.; Nica, Alexandra; Small, Kerrin S.; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mill, Jonathan; Spector, Tim D.; Deloukas, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Age-related changes in DNA methylation have been implicated in cellular senescence and longevity, yet the causes and functional consequences of these variants remain unclear. To elucidate the role of age-related epigenetic changes in healthy ageing and potential longevity, we tested for association between whole-blood DNA methylation patterns in 172 female twins aged 32 to 80 with age and age-related phenotypes. Twin-based DNA methylation levels at 26,690 CpG-sites showed evidence for mean genome-wide heritability of 18%, which was supported by the identification of 1,537 CpG-sites with methylation QTLs in cis at FDR 5%. We performed genome-wide analyses to discover differentially methylated regions (DMRs) for sixteen age-related phenotypes (ap-DMRs) and chronological age (a-DMRs). Epigenome-wide association scans (EWAS) identified age-related phenotype DMRs (ap-DMRs) associated with LDL (STAT5A), lung function (WT1), and maternal longevity (ARL4A, TBX20). In contrast, EWAS for chronological age identified hundreds of predominantly hyper-methylated age DMRs (490 a-DMRs at FDR 5%), of which only one (TBX20) was also associated with an age-related phenotype. Therefore, the majority of age-related changes in DNA methylation are not associated with phenotypic measures of healthy ageing in later life. We replicated a large proportion of a-DMRs in a sample of 44 younger adult MZ twins aged 20 to 61, suggesting that a-DMRs may initiate at an earlier age. We next explored potential genetic and environmental mechanisms underlying a-DMRs and ap-DMRs. Genome-wide overlap across cis-meQTLs, genotype-phenotype associations, and EWAS ap-DMRs identified CpG-sites that had cis-meQTLs with evidence for genotype–phenotype association, where the CpG-site was also an ap-DMR for the same phenotype. Monozygotic twin methylation difference analyses identified one potential environmentally-mediated ap-DMR associated with total cholesterol and LDL (CSMD1). Our results suggest that in a

  14. Polymorphisms of anti-Müllerian hormone signaling pathway in healthy Singapore women: population differences, endocrine effects and reproductive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Esther Dawen; Zhu, Huili; Li, Yu; Chua, Seok Eng; Indran, Inthrani Raja; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the association of genetic polymorphisms of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) signaling pathway with endocrine changes and pregnancy outcomes, a total of 213 women of reproductive ages were recruited according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria between November 2011 and September 2014 in Singapore. Genotyping studies were performed using a minor groove binder primer/probe Taqman assay. The allele frequencies of the AMH Ile(49)Ser and AMHR2 -482A > G polymorphisms were analyzed in relation to female reproductive hormone levels, ovarian parameters, menstrual cycle lengths and pregnancy outcomes. AMH Ser allele frequency and AMHR2 G allele frequency of our Singapore population were compared with those of other populations reported in HapMap. The genotype distributions and allele frequencies for the AMH Ile(49)Ser and AMHR2 -482A > G polymorphisms were not associated with estradiol (E2) levels, ovarian parameters, menstrual cycle length, or pregnancy outcomes in our cohort. Our findings suggest that genetic variants in the AMH signal transduction pathway have population differences but do not appear to have significant effects on ovarian, endocrine, metabolic parameters and reproductive outcomes. PMID:26633196

  15. Who Is the Authentic Korean American? Korean-Born Korean American High School Students' Negotiations of Ascribed and Achieved Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, John D.

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the identity negotiations of a group of Korean-born Korean American (KBKA) high school students. One of the major tensions that arise from within the Korean American community is who should be considered an "authentic" member. Therefore, in this article I illustrate (a) the way American-born Korean Americans' (ABKAs')…

  16. Production and Comprehension of Time Reference in Korean Nonfluent Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyeon; Kwon, Miseon; Na, Hae Ri; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Individuals with nonfluent agrammatic aphasia show impaired production and comprehension of time reference via verbal morphology. However, cross-linguistic findings to date suggest inconsistent evidence as to whether tense processing in general is impaired or time reference to the past is selectively difficult in this population. This study examined production and comprehension of time reference via verb morphology in Korean-speaking individuals with nonfluent aphasia. Methods A group of 9 healthy controls and 8 individuals with nonfluent aphasia (5 for the production task) participated in the study. Sentence priming production and auditory sentence to picture matching tasks were used, parallel with the previous cross-linguistic experiments in English, Chinese, Turkish, and others. Results The participants with nonfluent aphasia showed different patterns of impairment in production and comprehension. In production, they were impaired in all time references with errors being dominated by substitution of incorrect time references and other morpho-phonologically well-formed errors, indicating a largely intact morphological affixation process. In comprehension, they showed selective impairment of the past, consistent with the cross-linguistic evidence from English, Chinese, Turkish, and others. Conclusion The findings suggest that interpretation of past time reference poses particular difficulty in nonfluent aphasia irrespective of typological characteristics of languages; however, in production, language-specific morpho-semantic functions of verbal morphology may play a significant role in selective breakdowns of time reference. PMID:26290861

  17. An indirect means of assessing potential nutritional effects of dietary olestra in healthy subgroups of the general population.

    PubMed

    Middleton, S J; Dwyer, J; Peters, J C

    1997-08-01

    The potential for olestra to affect the absorption of dietary components was measured in 18- to 44-y-old humans and the weanling pig. Results from the studies were assessed to determine if they were relevant to subgroups of the population not included in the studies. Hypothetrically, two factors that might cause the study results not to be relevant to certain subgroups are dietary pattern and metabolic need. A dietary pattern resulting in olestra-to-nutrient intake ratios greater than those tested in the studies might produce effects greater than those measured. Metabolic needs (i.e., nutrient requirements) among subgroups greater than those of the study population might mean that any effects on nutrient absorption seen in the studies would be larger among subgroups. If olestra-to-nutrient ratios and nutrient requirements of a subgroup were less than those covered in the studies, then the effects of olestra on the nutritional status of the subgroup should be no different than the effects measured in the studies. Subgroups with high olestra-to-nutrient intake ratios were identified by calculating the ratios for those nutrients assessed in the studies [i.e., macronutrients, vitamins A (including beta-carotene), D, E and K, folate, vitamin B12, calcium, iron and zinc]. Subgroups with the greatest olestra-to-nutrient intake ratios for one or more nutrients included children, teenagers and young adults, women from low income families and vegetarians. Subgroups with the greatest metabolic need for one or more nutrients included children, teenagers, and pregnant and lactating women. The olestra-to-nutrient ratios and nutrient requirements of the subgroups having the greatest ratios and requirements were compared with those of the test population. The olestra-to-nutrient intake ratios fed in the studies were greater than those for any subgroup for all nutrients except calcium, which is not affected by olestra. Metabolic needs of the test population were greater than those

  18. HPV Population Profiling in Healthy Men by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing Coupled with HPV-QUEST

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jin; Chang, Kaifen; Gardner, Brent P.; Yu, Fahong; Giuliano, Anna R.; Goodenow, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-type human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection presents a greater risk for persistence in asymptomatic individuals and may accelerate cancer development. To extend the scope of HPV types defined by probe-based assays, multiplexing deep sequencing of HPV L1, coupled with an HPV-QUEST genotyping server and a bioinformatic pipeline, was established and applied to survey the diversity of HPV genotypes among a subset of healthy men from the HPV in Men (HIM) Multinational Study. Twenty-one HPV genotypes (12 high-risk and 9 low-risk) were detected in the genital area from 18 asymptomatic individuals. A single HPV type, either HPV16, HPV6b or HPV83, was detected in 7 individuals, while coinfection by 2 to 5 high-risk and/or low-risk genotypes was identified in the other 11 participants. In two individuals studied for over one year, HPV16 persisted, while fluctuations of coinfecting genotypes occurred. HPV L1 regions were generally identical between query and reference sequences, although nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms of HPV16, 18, 31, 35h, 59, 70, 73, cand85, 6b, 62, 81, 83, cand89 or JEB2 L1 genotypes, mostly unidentified by linear array, were evident. Deep sequencing coupled with HPV-QUEST provides efficient and unambiguous classification of HPV genotypes in multiple-type HPV infection in host ecosystems. PMID:26821041

  19. HPV Population Profiling in Healthy Men by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing Coupled with HPV-QUEST.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jin; Chang, Kaifen; Gardner, Brent P; Yu, Fahong; Giuliano, Anna R; Goodenow, Maureen M

    2016-01-25

    Multiple-type human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection presents a greater risk for persistence in asymptomatic individuals and may accelerate cancer development. To extend the scope of HPV types defined by probe-based assays, multiplexing deep sequencing of HPV L1, coupled with an HPV-QUEST genotyping server and a bioinformatic pipeline, was established and applied to survey the diversity of HPV genotypes among a subset of healthy men from the HPV in Men (HIM) Multinational Study. Twenty-one HPV genotypes (12 high-risk and 9 low-risk) were detected in the genital area from 18 asymptomatic individuals. A single HPV type, either HPV16, HPV6b or HPV83, was detected in 7 individuals, while coinfection by 2 to 5 high-risk and/or low-risk genotypes was identified in the other 11 participants. In two individuals studied for over one year, HPV16 persisted, while fluctuations of coinfecting genotypes occurred. HPV L1 regions were generally identical between query and reference sequences, although nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms of HPV16, 18, 31, 35h, 59, 70, 73, cand85, 6b, 62, 81, 83, cand89 or JEB2 L1 genotypes, mostly unidentified by linear array, were evident. Deep sequencing coupled with HPV-QUEST provides efficient and unambiguous classification of HPV genotypes in multiple-type HPV infection in host ecosystems.

  20. A mechanism-based model for the population pharmacokinetics of free and bound aflibercept in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Hoai-Thu; Veyrat-Follet, Christine; Vivier, Nicole; Dubruc, Catherine; Sanderink, Gerard; Mentré, France; Comets, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    AIM Aflibercept (VEGF-Trap), a novel anti-angiogenic agent that binds to VEGF, has been investigated for the treatment of cancer. The aim of this study was to develop a mechanism-based pharmacokinetic (PK) model for aflibercept to characterize its binding to VEGF and its PK properties in healthy subjects. METHODS Data from two phase I clinical studies with aflibercept administered as a single intravenous infusion were included in the analysis. Free and bound aflibercept concentration−time data were analysed using a nonlinear mixed-effects modelling approach with MONOLIX 3.1. RESULTS The best structural model involved two compartments for free aflibercept and one for bound aflibercept, with a Michaelis–Menten type binding of free aflibercept to VEGF from the peripheral compartment. The typical estimated clearances for free and bound aflibercept were 0.88 l day−1 and 0.14 l day−1, respectively. The central volume of distribution of free aflibercept was 4.94 l. The maximum binding capacity was 0.99 mg day−1 and the concentration of aflibercept corresponding to half of maximum binding capacity was 2.91 µg ml−1. Interindividual variability of model parameters was moderate, ranging from 13.6% (Vmax) to 49.8% (Q). CONCLUSION The present PK model for aflibercept adequately characterizes the underlying mechanism of disposition of aflibercept and its nonlinear binding to VEGF. PMID:21575034

  1. Korean Advanced Course, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the first of 7 readers for continuation training in Korean after the completion of the "Korean Basic Course" prepared by the Defense Language Institute. Units 1-11 are practical situation dialogues written for the course and center on topics related to sports, social events, police administration, and dialects. Interviews with key…

  2. Demonstratives and Number in Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ree, Joe J.

    It is a generally held view that Korean lacks articles and that the category "number" in this language is unproductive. That is, the nouns in Korean can be used freely as definite and indefinite, and as singular and plural, without overt grammatical markers. Contrary to this view, the claim is made in this paper that non-unique nouns, i.e., nouns…

  3. Korean Advanced Course: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the second of seven readers, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, for continuation training in Korean after the Basic Course. The 20 reading lessons, printed in Korean script, have been drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970. Each unit concludes with a set of questions and…

  4. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  5. Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.

    2013-01-01

    Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared, confused, and…

  6. The influences of immigration on health information seeking behaviors among Korean Americans and Native Koreans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Zhou, Qiuping Pearl; Kreps, Gary; Kim, Wonsun

    2014-04-01

    Korean Americans (KAs) have low screening rates for cancer and are often not well informed about their chronic diseases. Reduced access to health-related information is one reason for gaps in knowledge and the widening health disparities among minority populations. However, little research exists about KAs' health information seeking behaviors. Guided by the Structural Influence Model, this study examines the influence of immigration status on KAs' trust in health information sources and health information seeking behaviors. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area as well as in the Gwangju metropolitan city in South Korea during 2006-2007. Two hundred and fifty-four KAs and 208 native Koreans who were 40 years of age or older completed the surveys. When comparing native Koreans to KAs, we found KAs were 3 times more likely to trust health information from newspapers or magazines (odds ratio [OR] = 3.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-6.54) and 11 times more likely to read the health sections of newspapers or magazines (OR = 11.35; 95% CI = 3.92-32.91) in multivariate adjusted models. However, they were less likely to look for health information from TV (OR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.12-0.72) than native Koreans. Our results indicate that immigration status has profound influences on KAs' health information seeking behaviors. Increasing the availability of reliable and valid health information from printed Korean language magazines or newspapers could have a positive influence on increasing awareness and promoting screening behaviors among KAs.

  7. Digital Technology Ownership, Usage, and Factors Predicting Downloading Health Apps Among Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans: The Digital Link to Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions using mobile health (mHealth) apps have been effective in promoting healthy lifestyle behavior change and hold promise in improving health outcomes to thereby reduce health disparities among diverse racial/ethnic populations, particularly Latino and Asian American subgroups (Filipinos and Koreans) at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Latinos and Asian Americans are avid digital technology owners and users. However, limited datasets exist regarding digital technology ownership and use, especially among specific racial/ethnic subgroups. Such information is needed to inform development of culturally tailored mHealth tools for use with lifestyle interventions promoting healthy behaviors for these at-risk racial/ethnic populations. Objective The intent of the study was to examine (1) digital technology ownership and usage, and (2) factors predicting downloading health apps for Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino American subgroups. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in August 2013 through December 2013 recruited 904 participants (Caucasians n=172, Filipinos n=250, Koreans n=234, and Latinos n=248), age >18 years, from California community events, clinics, churches, and online. English, Spanish, and Korean surveys were administered via paper or online. Descriptive statistics characterized the sociodemographics and digital technology ownership/usage of the 904 participants. Differences among groups in categorical variables were examined using chi-square statistics. Logistic regression was used to determine factors predicting downloading health apps. Results Overall, mean age was 44 years (SD 16.1), with 64.3% (581/904) female. Only 44.7% (404/904) of all participants reported English as their primary language (Caucasian 98.3%, 169/172; Filipino 67.6%, 169/250; Korean 9.4%, 22/234, and Latino 17.7%, 44/248. Overall, mobile phone ownership was 92.8% (839/904). Compared to all groups, Koreans were more likely to own a

  8. Reduced coenzyme Q10 in female smokers and its association with lipid profile in a young healthy adult population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bazi, Maha M.; Elshal, Mohamed F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking has a negative effect on body reserve of antioxidants and cholesterol metabolism. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a potent antioxidant synthesized as part of the cholesterol pathway, is a potential biomarker for systemic oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate gender variation in plasma lipid profile and CoQ10 concentrations in healthy non-smokers and in smokers. Material and methods The study included 55 cigarette smokers (25 females and 30 males) and 51 non-smokers (25 females and 26 males) with the age range from 21 to 45 years, and who had no history of alcohol abuse or chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus or obesity. Coenzyme Q10 plasma concentrations were measured by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. Fasting plasma glucose and lipid levels were determined by standard colorimetric methods. Results Our results showed that CoQ10 concentrations were significantly decreased in smokers, especially in females, than their non-smoker counterparts. Female smokers also exhibited a significant decrease in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C, and atherogenic ratios HDL-C/TC and CoQ10/LDL-C than male counterparts. Plasma triglyceride concentrations were increased in smokers irrespective of gender. Plasma CoQ10 was relatively more associated with TC and LDL-C in female smokers than male smokers. Conclusions The adverse effects of smoking on body reserve of antioxidants and cholesterol metabolism are greater in females than in males, partially as a result of decreased CoQ10 plasma concentrations, HDL-C and total-cholesterol and abnormal atherogenicity indices. PMID:22328876

  9. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  10. Healthy shiftwork, healthy shiftworks.

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    2001-12-01

    Reflecting diversifying shift systems, extensive effort is put into managing shiftwork and reducing safety and health risks. It is accepted that shiftworkers are exposed to particular risks inherent in their irregular work schedules. This raises the question of how and to what extent we can ensure healthy work life for shiftworkers. In answering the question, we need to identify effective measures to improve both shiftworking conditions and the health of shiftworkers. Based on recent experiences in managing shiftwork, we note three directions of such measures: (a) comprehensive action to avoid risk-enhancing conditions based on general guidelines, (b) risk control as to workload, worksite ergonomics and risk reduction, and (c) support for flexible and restful working life. International standards are obviously relevant to these three aspects. Our own experiences in applying a set of ergonomic checkpoints to plant maintenance shiftwork demonstrate the usefulness of focusing on flexible work schedules and on multiple job-related factors such as night workload, ergonomic environment, resting conditions and training. There is a strong need for participatory planning and implementation of multi-area improvements as well as for relying on flexible schedules and autonomic teamwork. We may conclude that healthy shiftwork and healthy shiftworkers are compatible with each other only when certain conditions are met. In achieving this end, we need to combine (a) comprehensive measures to improve work schedules and job life, (b) strict risk management and (c) locally adjusted participatory steps for continual improvement.

  11. The prevalence of Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C mutations in healthy Turkish population

    PubMed Central

    Ekim, M; Ekim, H; Yılmaz, YK

    2015-01-01

    Background: Factor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin gene (PT G20210A) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphisms are the main biomarkers used in the evaluation of tendency to venous thromboembolism. Our study aimed to investigate the distribution frequencies of these polymorphisms in healthy Turks living in the urban Yozgat region.  Material and Methods: This study included 90 blood donor candidates. All the donors were apparently healthy, and there was no family relationship between them. Mutations including FVL, PT G20210A, and MTHFR (C677T, A1298C) were investigated in all participants. Screening of polymorphisms was carried out using the SNaPshot® multiplex system. Results: There were 42 male and 48 female individuals with age range 17-78 years and mean age 47.5 ± 13.6 years. The heterozygous FVL mutation was noted in 17 (10 male and seven female) donors (19%). FVL mutation was more frequently encountered in males than in females (23.8% vs. 12.5%). The heterozygous PT G20210A mutation was observed in five (5.5%) of the 90 (three male, two female) donors. The prevalence of homozygous polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T was 8.8% and of MTHFR A1298C 13.3%. On the other hand, four of the 90 participants (4.4%) carried none of these polymorphisms. Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of FVL, PT G20210A, MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms is quite high, and the coexistence of FVL with other genotypes is not rare in a healthy Turkish population living in the Yozgat region. Of course, further detailed studies should be performed to support these findings. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (4): 309-313. PMID:27688694

  12. [Distribution of allelic variants of promotor sites of cytokine genes and endothelial growth factor gene among healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis in a Russian Europeoid population].

    PubMed

    Konenkov, V I; Golovanova, O V; Prokof'ev, V F; Shevchenko, A V; Zonova, E V; Korolev, M A; Leonova, Iu B; Khalaĭdzhi, N A; Lapsina, S A

    2010-01-01

    The article reports results of the first study of cytokine gene polymorphic sites and analysis of distribution of their complexes among healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) representative of the Russian Europeoid population; their possible prognostic significance is evaluated. Comprehensive analysis of the frequency of allelic variants of cytokine genes IL1B C-31T, IL6 G-174C, TNFA A-238G, TNFA A-308G, TNFA A-863C, IL4 C-590T, IL10 A-592C and VEGF C-2578A was performed for 513 residents of the Novosibirsk region showing no obvious signs of any diseases and 125 RA patients. The results suggest association of RA with certain alleles of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes. Complex indices reflecting combinations of genotypes of two, three, four, five, six and seven loci of the explored cytokine genes found in individual patient demonstrate their high specificity for RA. It is supposed that these findings can be used in further clinical studies for the development of algorithm designed to detect risk groups among clinically healthy subjects.

  13. Choroidal vascularity index as a measure of vascular status of the choroid: Measurements in healthy eyes from a population-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Gupta, Preeti; Tan, Kara-Anne; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Wong, Tien-Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2016-02-01

    The vascularity of the choroid has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various eye diseases. To date, no established quantifiable parameters to estimate vascular status of the choroid exists. Choroidal vascularity index (CVI) may potentially be used to assess vascular status of the choroid. We aimed to establish normative database for CVI and identify factors associated with CVI in healthy eyes. In this population-based study on 345 healthy eyes, choroidal enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography scans were segmented by modified image binarization technique. Total subfoveal choroidal area (TCA) was segmented into luminal (LA) and stromal (SA) area. CVI was calculated as the proportion of LA to TCA. Linear regression was used to identify ocular and systemic factors associated with CVI and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT). Subfoveal CVI ranged from 60.07 to 71.27% with a mean value of 65.61 ± 2.33%. CVI was less variable than SFCT (coefficient of variation for CVI was 3.55 vs 40.30 for SFCT). Higher CVI was associated with thicker SFCT, but not associated with most physiological variables. CVI was elucidated as a significant determinant of SFCT. While SFCT was affected by many factors, CVI remained unaffected suggesting CVI to be a more robust marker of choroidal diseases.

  14. A Population-based Prospective Birth Cohort Study of Childhood Neurocognitive and Psychological Functioning in Healthy Survivors of Early-life Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Khandaker, Golam M.; Stochl, Jan; Zammit, Stanley; Lewis, Glyn; Jones, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine neurocognitive, educational and psychological functioning during childhood and early-adolescence among survivors of early-life meningitis who are apparently healthy. METHODS In the general population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort, meningitis exposure was determined at age 18 months. The outcomes of IQ, short-term memory, working memory, reading and spelling abilities, psychological and behavioural problems, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and psychotic experiences at ages 9 to 13 years were compared between those exposed and unexposed to meningitis. Individuals with special educational needs were excluded. RESULTS By age 18 months, 67 out of 11,035 children were reported to have suffered from meningitis (0.61%). These children, compared with the unexposed, performed worse on all neurocognitive and educational measures; mean difference in total IQ 7.36 (95% CI 1.60-13.11). Meningitis was associated with higher depressive and anxiety symptoms (p=0.02), psychological and behavioural problems (p=0.09), and increased risk of psychotic experiences; risk ratio 2.22 (95% CI 1.12-4.38). CONCLUSIONS Exposure to meningitis in the early-life is associated with neurocognitive, educational and psychological difficulties during childhood and early-adolescence among survivors who are apparently healthy. Therefore, focusing only on serious neurologic disabilities may underestimate the true impact of early-life meningitis. PMID:25794764

  15. General factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun-Ja; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Eun-Hye; Choi, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Young-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment considers the situations and characteristics of the exposure environment and host. Various physiological variables of the human body reflects the characteristics of the population that can directly influence risk exposure. Therefore, identification of exposure factors based on the Korean population is required for appropriate risk assessment. It is expected that a handbook about general exposure factors will be used by professionals in many fields as well as the risk assessors of the health department. The process of developing the exposure factors handbook for the Korean population will be introduced in this article, with a specific focus on the general exposure factors including life expectancy, body weight, surface area, inhalation rates, amount of water intake, and soil ingestion targeting the Korean population. The researchers used national databases including the Life Table and the 2005 Time Use Survey from the National Statistical Office. The anthropometric study of size in Korea used the resources provided by the Korean Agency for Technology and Standards. In addition, direct measurement and questionnaire surveys of representative samples were performed to calculate the inhalation rate, drinking water intake, and soil ingestion.

  16. Unpacking Parent Involvement: Korean American Parents' Collective Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Minjung

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which a group of Korean American parents perceived and responded to institutional inequalities in a family-school partnership. In their school, which had a growing Asian population, the dominant group's middle-class perspective on parent involvement became normal and operated as an overarching structure. Drawing…

  17. General Factors of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun-Ja; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Eun-Hye; Choi, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Young-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment considers the situations and characteristics of the exposure environment and host. Various physiological variables of the human body reflects the characteristics of the population that can directly influence risk exposure. Therefore, identification of exposure factors based on the Korean population is required for appropriate risk assessment. It is expected that a handbook about general exposure factors will be used by professionals in many fields as well as the risk assessors of the health department. The process of developing the exposure factors handbook for the Korean population will be introduced in this article, with a specific focus on the general exposure factors including life expectancy, body weight, surface area, inhalation rates, amount of water intake, and soil ingestion targeting the Korean population. The researchers used national databases including the Life Table and the 2005 Time Use Survey from the National Statistical Office. The anthropometric study of size in Korea used the resources provided by the Korean Agency for Technology and Standards. In addition, direct measurement and questionnaire surveys of representative samples were performed to calculate the inhalation rate, drinking water intake, and soil ingestion. PMID:24570802

  18. Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling Analysis of GCC‐4401C, a Novel Direct Factor Xa Inhibitor, in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, HY; Choi, S; Kim, YH

    2016-01-01

    GCC‐4401C, an orally active direct factor Xa inhibitor that is similar to rivaroxaban, is currently under development for venous thromboembolic disease (VTE). The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and pharmacodynamics (PDs) of GCC‐4401C by population modeling analysis and to predict proper dosage regimens compared to rivaroxaban using data from two phase I clinical studies. Plasma GCC‐4401C concentrations over time were best described by a two‐compartment linear model and body weight was associated with central volume of distribution. Relevant PD markers generally changed in a dose‐dependent manner and were described well with sigmoid, simple maximum effect, or linear models. GCC‐4401C was absorbed more rapidly than rivaroxaban. Comparisons based on simulations of PD marker changes over time suggest that 20 mg and 40 mg of GCC‐4401C administered under fasted status are comparable to 10 mg and 20 mg of rivaroxaban under fed status. PMID:27511836

  19. Addressing healthy aging populations in developing countries: unlocking the opportunity of eHealth and mHealth.

    PubMed

    Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar; Losa, Juan; Miranda, J Jaime; Cheyne, Natalie E

    2014-01-01

    Aging societies worldwide propose a significant challenge to the model and organisation of the delivery of healthcare services. In developing countries, communicable and non-communicable diseases are affecting how the ageing population access healthcare; this could be due to varying reasons such as geographical barriers, limited financial support and poor literacy. New information and communication technology, such as eHealth have the potential to improve access to healthcare, information exchange and improving public and personalised medicine for elderly groups. In this article we will first frame the context of information and communication technologies in light of an aging landscape. We will also discuss the problems related to implementing the needed infrastructure for uptake of new technology, with particular emphasis on developing countries. In so doing, we highlight areas where newer technologies can serve as promising tools or vehicles to address health and healthcare-related gaps and needs of elderly people living in resource-constrained settings.

  20. "Healthy Men" and High Mortality: Contributions from a Population-Based Study for the Gender Paradox Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Tássia Fraga; Canesqui, Ana Maria; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Background Inequalities between men and women in morbidity and mortality show a contrast, which has been called gender paradox. Most studies evaluating this paradox were conducted in high-income countries and, until now, few investigations have been performed in Brazil. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of inequalities between adult men and women in several dimensions: demographic and socioeconomic, health behaviors, morbidity, use of health services and mortality. Methods The data were obtained from population-based household survey carried out in Campinas (Campinas Health Survey 2008/09) corresponding to 957 people, and data from the Mortality Information System (MIS) between 2009 and 2011. Prevalences and prevalence ratios were analyzed in order to verify the differences between men and women regarding socioeconomic and demographic variables, health behaviors, morbidities and consultations in the last two weeks. Mortality rates and the ratio between coefficients considering the underlying causes of death were calculated. Results Women had a greater disadvantage in socioeconomic indicators, chronic diseases diagnosed by a health professional and referred health problems as well as make more use of health services, while men presented higher frequency of most unhealthy behaviors and excessive mortality for all causes investigated. Conclusions The findings contribute to the discussion of gender paradox and demonstrate the need to employ health actions that consider the differences between men and women in the various health dimensions analyzed. The premature male mortality from preventable causes was outstanding, making clear the need for more effective prevention and health promotion directed to this segment of the population. PMID:26641245

  1. Hand-to-Hand Model for Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimate Fat Free Mass in a Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Chiang, Li-Ming; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Dwyer, Gregory B.; Hsu, Ying-Lin; Chen, Chun-Hao; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a hand-to-hand (HH) model for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) fat free mass (FFM) estimation by comparing with a standing position hand-to-foot (HF) BIA model and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); we also verified the reliability of the newly developed model. A total of 704 healthy Chinese individuals (403 men and 301 women) participated. FFM (FFMDXA) reference variables were measured using DXA and segmental BIA. Further, regression analysis, Bland–Altman plots, and cross-validation (2/3 participants as the modeling group, 1/3 as the validation group; three turns were repeated for validation grouping) were conducted to compare tests of agreement with FFMDXA reference variables. In male participants, the hand-to-hand BIA model estimation equation was calculated as follows: FFMmHH = 0.537 h2/ZHH − 0.126 year + 0.217 weight + 18.235 (r2 = 0.919, standard estimate of error (SEE) = 2.164 kg, n = 269). The mean validated correlation coefficients and limits of agreement (LOAs) of the Bland–Altman analysis of the calculated values for FFMmHH and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.369–4.343 kg, respectively, for hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for men; the FFM (FFMmHF) and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.356–4.375 kg, respectively. The hand-to-hand BIA model estimating equation for female participants was FFMFHH = 0.615 h2/ZHH − 0.144 year + 0.132 weight + 16.507 (r2 = 0.870, SEE = 1.884 kg, n = 201); the three mean validated correlation coefficient and LOA for the hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for female participants (FFMFHH and FFMDXA) were 0.929 and −3.880–3.886 kg, respectively. The FFMHF and FFMDXA were 0.942 and −3.511–3.489 kg, respectively. The results of both hand-to-hand and hand-to-foot BIA models demonstrated similar reliability, and the hand-to-hand BIA models are practical for assessing FFM. PMID:27775642

  2. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection among the healthy population in Iran and countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: A systematic review of prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghian, Ahad

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection among the healthy asymptomatic population in Iran and countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. METHODS: A computerized English language literature search of PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar was performed in September 2013. The terms, “Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO)” and “Helicobacter pylori”, “H. pylori” and “prevalence” were used as key words in titles and/or abstracts. A complementary literature search was also performed in the following countries: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, The United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. RESULTS: In the electronic search, a total of 308 articles were initially identified. Of these articles, 26 relevant articles were identified and included in the study. There were 10 studies from Iran, 5 studies from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 4 studies from Egypt, 2 from the United Arab Emirates, and one study from Libya, Oman, Tunisia, and Lebanon, respectively. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection in Iran, irrespective of time and age group, ranged from 30.6% to 82%. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection, irrespective of time and age group, in other EMRO countries ranged from 22% to 87.6%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H. pylori in EMRO countries is still high in the healthy asymptomatic population. Strategies to improve sanitary facilities, educational status, and socioeconomic status should be implemented to minimize H. pylori infection. PMID:25516677

  3. Effect of increased intake of fish and mussels on exposure to toxic trace elements in a healthy, middle-aged population.

    PubMed

    Outzen, Malene; Tjønneland, Anne; Larsen, Erik H; Hansen, Max; Andersen, Klaus K; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Fish and shellfish are rich in essential nutrients, but are also a source of exposure to environmental contaminants. We aimed to investigate the effect of increased fish and mussel intake on mercury, arsenic, lead and cadmium blood concentrations. We randomly assigned 102 healthy men and women (all non-smokers) aged 48-76 years to an intervention group (n = 51) or a control group (n = 51). Intervention participants received a high amount of fish and mussels for 26 weeks (1 kg week(-1)). Controls received no intervention and were expected to eat less than 300 g of fish and mussels per week. Whole-blood concentrations of mercury, arsenic, lead and cadmium were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. All available observations were included in linear multiple regression analysis to evaluate the effect of the intervention. The difference in mean change for intervention compared with control persons was 5.1 ng ml(-1) (95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.4, 5.8) for mercury, 7.1 ng ml(-1) (95% CI = 5.0, 9.2) for arsenic, and 2.6 ng ml(-1) (95% CI = 0.0, 5.2) for lead. For cadmium, the majority (65%) of the measured concentrations were below the limit of detection of 0.4 ng ml(-1), and the results are therefore not presented. In conclusion, whole-blood concentrations of mercury, arsenic and lead were significantly increased after 26 weeks intervention in this healthy, middle-aged population. The concentrations were not of health concern in this population, except for lead. For lead both the baseline and the post-intervention concentrations were high and exceeded the tolerable concentration levels.

  4. [Physical activity and healthy diet, weight perception and stress in adult population in Chile: analysis of the second quality of life and health survey 2006].

    PubMed

    Pablo Zavala, Juan; Leraç, Lydia; Vio, Fernando

    2010-12-01

    Chile had a rapid epidemiological and nutritional transition with an increase in risk factors for chronic diseases and obesity. Dietary changes have occurred, mostly an increase in consumption of foods high in fat, sugar and salt, as well as a decrease in physical activity. This has led to a marked increase in obesity rates. To learn more on these risk factors for chronic diseases, obesity and physical activity, the First Quality of Life and Health Survey (ECVS) was carried out in 2000, with a second version in 2006. The objective of this paper is to analyze, from data collected by the 2006 survey, the relationship of physical activity with the consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy products, weight perception and stress. The 2006 survey included 6.210 subjects with a 10.8% of active population and 89.2% of sedentary people. The relationship of activity was determined with the consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, weight perception and stress, by sex and socioeconomic levels. Results show that more than 50% of the active subjects consume fruits and vegetables, and 50% consume dairy products every day, with a higher probability of active persons of consuming healthy foods than the sedentary ones. Besides, sedentary people perceive themselves with more overweight and obesity than the active subjects. There was no relationship between physical activity and stress. People with a higher socioeconomic level are more active and consume more healthy products. These results permit to elaborate targeted policies and programs to improve diet and physical activity in the Chilean population.

  5. Global health care trends and innovation in Korean hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jun, Lee Wang

    2013-01-01

    Health care is one of the most significant global issues. The Korean health care systems, which has both good and bad features, is grabbing international attention because of its cost effectiveness. However, it is also facing a lot of challenges such as a rapidly ageing population, increases in expenditure and too many competing acute hospitals. Therefore, many Korean hospitals have been trying to find innovative ways to survive. This article introduces some possible answers such as expansion and consolidation strategies, quality assureance, converging ICT and health care, attracting foreign patients, research-driven hospitals, public-private partnerships and a focus on service design and patient experience.

  6. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  7. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). PMID:20521424

  8. Rivaroxaban and other novel oral anticoagulants: pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects, specific patient populations and relevance of coagulation monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Unlike traditional anticoagulants, the more recently developed agents rivaroxaban, dabigatran and apixaban target specific factors in the coagulation cascade to attenuate thrombosis. Rivaroxaban and apixaban directly inhibit Factor Xa, whereas dabigatran directly inhibits thrombin. All three drugs exhibit predictable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics that allow for fixed oral doses in a variety of settings. The population pharmacokinetics of rivaroxaban, and also dabigatran, have been evaluated in a series of models using patient data from phase II and III clinical studies. These models point towards a consistent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile, even when extreme demographic factors are taken into account, meaning that doses rarely need to be adjusted. The exception is in certain patients with renal impairment, for whom pharmacokinetic modelling provided the rationale for reduced doses as part of some regimens. Although not routinely required, the ability to measure plasma concentrations of these agents could be advantageous in emergency situations, such as overdose. Specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics must be taken into account when selecting an appropriate assay for monitoring. The anti-Factor Xa chromogenic assays now available are likely to provide the most appropriate means of determining plasma concentrations of rivaroxaban and apixaban, and specific assays for dabigatran are in development. PMID:23809871

  9. Osteoporosis and milk intake among Korean women in California: relationship with acculturation to U.S. lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Irvin, Veronica L; Nichols, Jeanne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D; Song, Yoon Ju; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-12-01

    The Korean population in the US increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the US report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity.

  10. Osteoporosis and Milk Intake among Korean Women in California: Relationship with Acculturation to U.S. Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Veronica L.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Song, YoonJu; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Korean population in the U.S. increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the U.S. report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Methods Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Results Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Discussion Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

  11. Empowerment for Healthy Cities and communities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Young; Nam, Eun Woo; Dhakal, Sarita

    2014-10-01

    The Healthy Cities project started in 1998 in Korea. Around the world, public health and healthy cities are becoming bigger and bigger priorities. Capacity mapping is an important tool for improving a country's health status. This study aims to review the initiation of the Korean "Healthy City" project. Korea follows a bottom-up approach for the development of Healthy City policies and has implemented plans accordingly. Korea has created a unique program through Healthy Cities; it has developed a Healthy City act, indicators for evaluating the program, a health impact assessment program, an award system, and a domestic networking system.

  12. Empowerment for Healthy Cities and communities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Young; Nam, Eun Woo; Dhakal, Sarita

    2014-10-01

    The Healthy Cities project started in 1998 in Korea. Around the world, public health and healthy cities are becoming bigger and bigger priorities. Capacity mapping is an important tool for improving a country's health status. This study aims to review the initiation of the Korean "Healthy City" project. Korea follows a bottom-up approach for the development of Healthy City policies and has implemented plans accordingly. Korea has created a unique program through Healthy Cities; it has developed a Healthy City act, indicators for evaluating the program, a health impact assessment program, an award system, and a domestic networking system. PMID:25216789

  13. [Scientific evidence about the role of yogurt and other fermented milks in the healthy diet for the Spanish population].

    PubMed

    Moreno Aznar, Luis A; Cervera Ral, Pilar; Ortega Anta, Rosa M; Díaz Martín, Juan José; Baladia, Eduard; Basulto, Julio; Bel Serrat, Silvia; Iglesia Altaba, Iris; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Manera, María; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Santaliestra Pasías, Alba M; Babio, Nancy; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-11-01

    Milk products contain proteins of high biologic value and digestibility; they also contain fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, specially calcium and phosphorus. Diversification of milk products consumption allows a high consumptiom of the above mentioned products, optimizing nutrient intake. In Spain, food consumption of milk products lower than the recommended amounts was observed in 20 to 40 % of the children and 30 to 45 % of the adults. Milk products represent 44 to 70 % of calcium intake in the Spanish population. Milk products consumption is positively associated with a high bone mineral density. More than 35 % of children and adults in Spain had calcium intakes below the national recommendations. Yogur contains less lactose than regular milk and fermenting milk bacteries express functioning lactase. Yogur intake is recommended to improve lactose digestion in individuals having lactose maldigestion. It seems reasonable to recommend yogur to improve calcium absorption, at least in post-menopausal women, and also for decreasing incidence and duration of infectious gastrointestinal disorders in children. Fermented milk products consumption, before, during and after medical eradication of Helicobacter Pylori, increases 5 to 10 % the effect of the specific drug therapy. Its consumption before, during and after antibiotic treatment, could also reduce the risk of diarrhea associated with the use of the above mentioned drugs. The Spanish Federation of Nutrition, Feeding and Dietetic Societies (FESNAD) recommend the following consumption of milk and milk products: Adults, 2-3 portions/day; school-age children, 2-3 portions/day; adolescents, 3-4 portions/day; pregnant and lactating women and during menopause, 3-4 portions/day; elderly, 2-4 portions/day. Considering yogur and fermented milk consumption show some advantages when compared with other milk products, we can recommend yogur within a daily and varied consumption of milk products.

  14. Correlates of Sense of Control among Older Korean-American Immigrants: Financial Status, Physical Health Constraints, and Environmental Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yuri; Kim, Giyeon; Chiriboga, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Responding to the need for more research on minority older populations, the present study assessed sense of control among older Korean-American immigrants. The association of sense of control with financial status, physical health constraints, and environmental challenges was examined with a sample of 230 older Korean-Americans (M[age] = 69.8,…

  15. Examining the Types of Social Support and the Actual Sources of Support in Older Chinese and Korean Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Sabrina T.; Yoo, Grace J.; Stewart, Anita L.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored social support domains and actual sources of support for older Chinese and Korean immigrants and compared them to the traditional domains based on mainly White, middle class populations. Fifty-two older Cantonese and Korean speaking immigrants participated in one of eight focus groups. We identified four similar domains:…

  16. Polymorphisms associated with the risk of lung cancer in a healthy Mexican Mestizo population: Application of the additive model for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Morales, Rebeca; Méndez-Ramírez, Ignacio; Castro-Hernández, Clementina; Martínez-Ramírez, Ollin C.; Gonsebatt, María Eugenia; Rubio, Julieta

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in Mexico and worldwide. In the past decade, there has been an increase in the number of lung cancer cases in young people, which suggests an important role for genetic background in the etiology of this disease. In this study, we genetically characterized 16 polymorphisms in 12 low penetrance genes (AhR, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTPI, XRCC1, ERCC2, MGMT, CCND1 and TP53) in 382 healthy Mexican Mestizos as the first step in elucidating the genetic structure of this population and identifying high risk individuals. All of the genotypes analyzed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, but different degrees of linkage were observed for polymorphisms in the CYP1A1 and EPHX1 genes. The genetic variability of this population was distributed in six clusters that were defined based on their genetic characteristics. The use of a polygenic model to assess the additive effect of low penetrance risk alleles identified combinations of risk genotypes that could be useful in predicting a predisposition to lung cancer. Estimation of the level of genetic susceptibility showed that the individual calculated risk value (iCRV) ranged from 1 to 16, with a higher iCRV indicating a greater genetic susceptibility to lung cancer. PMID:22215955

  17. Influence of age, sex, and education on the Visual Object and Space Perception Battery (VOSP) in a healthy normal elderly population.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Guzmán, I; Peña-Casanova, J; Lara, J P; Gudayol-Ferré, E; Böhm, P

    2004-08-01

    The assessment of visual perception and cognition forms an important part of any general cognitive evaluation. We have studied the possible influence of age, sex, and education on a normal elderly Spanish population (90 healthy subjects) in performance in visual perception tasks. To evaluate visual perception and cognition, we have used the subjects performance with The Visual Object and Space Perception Battery (VOSP). The test consists of 8 subtests: 4 measure visual object perception (Incomplete Letters, Silhouettes, Object Decision, and Progressive Silhouettes) while the other 4 measure visual space perception (Dot Counting, Position Discrimination, Number Location, and Cube Analysis). The statistical procedures employed were either simple or multiple linear regression analyses (subtests with normal distribution) and Mann-Whitney tests, followed by ANOVA with Scheffe correction (subtests without normal distribution). Age and sex were found to be significant modifying factors in the Silhouettes, Object Decision, Progressive Silhouettes, Position Discrimination, and Cube Analysis subtests. Educational level was found to be a significant predictor of function for the Silhouettes and Object Decision subtests. The results of the sample were adjusted in line with the differences observed. Our study also offers preliminary normative data for the administration of the VOSP to an elderly Spanish population. The results are discussed and compared with similar studies performed in different cultural backgrounds.

  18. Factors associated with perceived health among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chun, JongSerl; Nam, Sunghee; Chung, Ick-Joong; Kang, Hyunah; Nho, Choong Rai; Woo, Seokjin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influences of personal, social, and environmental-structural factors on the perceived health of Korean adolescents. Using a two-stage generalized hierarchical logistic linear multilevel model, this study found that general high school enrollment, younger age, normal weight, and frequent exercise increased the likelihood of a positive self-perception of health. Higher levels of parental concern and quality of school life also contributed to the likelihood of students perceiving themselves as healthy. In contrast, psychological symptoms and negative self-esteem decreased the likelihood that students perceived themselves as healthy. The results provide implications for disease prevention and health promotion programs. PMID:25144695

  19. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  20. Evaluation of immunogenicity and safety of the new tetanus-reduced diphtheria (Td) vaccines (GC1107) in healthy Korean adolescents: a phase II, double-blind, randomized, multicenter clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rhim, Jung-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Hwang Min; Choi, Young-Youn; Ma, Sang-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Ho; Ahn, Dong Ho; Kang, Jin-Han

    2013-04-01

    This phase II clinical trial was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of a newly developed tetanus-reduced diphtheria (Td) vaccine (GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-T7.5) and control vaccine. This study was also performed to select the proper dose of tetanus toxoid in the new Td vaccines. Healthy adolescents aged between 11 and 12 yr participated in this study. A total of 130 subjects (44 GC1107-T5.0, 42 GC1107-T7.5 and 44 control vaccine) completed a single dose of vaccination. Blood samples were collected from the subjects before and 4 weeks after the vaccination. In this study, all subjects (100%) in both GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-T7.5 groups showed seroprotective antibody levels (≥ 0.1 U/mL) against diphtheria or tetanus toxoids. After the vaccination, the geometric mean titer (GMT) against diphtheria was significantly higher in Group GC1107-T5.0 (6.53) and GC1107-T7.5 (6.11) than in the control group (3.96). The GMT against tetanus was 18.6 in Group GC1107-T5.0, 19.94 in GC1107-T7.5 and 19.01 in the control group after the vaccination. In this study, the rates of local adverse reactions were 67.3% and 59.1% in GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-7.5, respectively. No significant differences in the number of adverse reactions, prevalence and degree of severity of the solicited and unsolicited adverse reactions were observed among the three groups. Thus, both newly developed Td vaccines appear to be safe and show good immunogenicity. GC1107-T5.0, which contains relatively small amounts of tetanus toxoid, has been selected for a phase III clinical trial.

  1. Using mass-media communications to increase population usage of Australia’s Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service®

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Global obesity prevalence is increasing and population health programs are required to support changes to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Such interventions benefit from mass-communications to promote their use. The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service ® (GHS) utilised mass-reach media advertising to recruit participants to an Australian state-wide program. Methods A stand alone population survey collected awareness, knowledge and behavioural variables before the first advertising phase, (n = 1,544; August -September 2010), during (n = 1,500; February - March 2011) and after the advertising period (n = 1,500; June-July 2011). GHS usage data (n = 6,375) was collated during July 2010 – June 2011. Results The results showed that television-lead mass-media significantly increased unprompted awareness (0% to 31.8%, p < 0.001); prompted awareness (2.5% to 23.7%, p < 0.001); and understanding (10.2% to 32.2%, p < 0.001). Mass-media (television, print and mail out information) was more often cited as the source of referral by males, those aged 18 – 49 years, employed, and from the lowest socio-economic groups. During the weeks when mass-media advertising was present, 4 and 2.5 times more information and coaching participants respectively registered than when there was no advertising present. Participants who cited television and print were less likely to enrol in GHS coaching, but this was not the case for mail out information and secondary referral sources. Conclusions GHS mass-communications campaigns are effective at increasing awareness and usage of the GHS, especially among hard-to-reach population groups. Television advertising provides universal reach, but should be supplemented by health professional referrals and targeted mail-out information to recruit participants to the intensive GHS coaching program. PMID:22967230

  2. Parotid gland tumors in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Man; Choi, Hwan Jun; Kim, Joo Won; Kim, Jun Hyuk

    2012-05-01

    Salivary gland tumors occur in about 3% of the head and neck tumors, and among the salivary gland tumors, parotid gland tumor occurs in about 80%. Because of its low frequency and small cases, it is hard to establish the epidemiologic characteristics of the tumors. This study was performed retrospectively from February 1987 to August 2010. There were 95 male, and 76 female patients. Most of the patients complained of the painless and progressively enlarged mass in the preauricular area. Peak incidence of benign parotid gland tumor was at the fifth decade of life. In the malignant tumors, peak age in males was the eighth decade, and peak age in females was from the third to the fifth decade of life, which was relatively younger and has a broad range of spectrum. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor of the 93 cases (61.6%) followed by Warthin tumor, occurring in 20 cases (13.2%). Squamous cell carcinoma, reported in 6 cases (30%), is the most frequent. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the second leading tumor. In conclusion, parotid gland tumor incidence was found to be higher in males. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most commonly encountered type of parotid gland neoplasms, which is in agreement with findings from all of the published literature from all over world. In contrast to most of the previous studies, squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequent malignant tumor found. Based on the data in this study, it has significant clinical respect and is helpful in the management of parotid gland tumors in Orientals.

  3. Caring for childbearing Korean women.

    PubMed

    Howard, J Y; Berbiglia, V A

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the traditional and modern cultural elements that may influence the health behaviors of the childbearing Korean woman and suggests ways to provide culturally sensitive care. The first author, born and raised in Korea, shares her reflections of culture and examples of clinical situations in Korea. Implications for nursing care are addressed through specific cultural prescriptions. Do's and don'ts are presented to foster culturally appropriate care for Korean childbearing women.

  4. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  5. Religious Attendance, Health-Promoting Lifestyle Behaviors, and Depressive Symptoms Among Koreans in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jun; Pearce, Michelle; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2015-08-01

    Migrants, who comprise 80 % of the population in the United Arab Emirates, are at risk of developing mental health disorders. To test associations among religious attendance, health-promoting lifestyle behaviors (HPLB), and depressive symptoms, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in Dubai. Measures included frequency of religious attendance, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to explore relationships among religious attendance, HPLB, and depressive symptoms. Religious attendance was significantly associated with self-actualization, stress management, and depressive symptoms. Self-actualization and stress management mediated the relationships between religious attendance and depressive symptoms for both males and females, and interpersonal support mediated the relationship for females, controlling for age and education. The facilitation of positive internal and external resources generated by participating in religious activities may have increased the likelihood that the Korean migrants would engage in psychosocial healthy lifestyle behaviors, and may have decreased depressive symptoms.

  6. Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2014-01-01

    How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

  7. Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Itraconazole and Hydroxyitraconazole for Oral SUBA-Itraconazole and Sporanox Capsule Formulations in Healthy Subjects in Fed and Fasted States

    PubMed Central

    Foster, David J. R.; Mudge, Stuart; Hayes, David

    2015-01-01

    Itraconazole is an orally active antifungal agent that has complex and highly variable absorption kinetics that is highly affected by food. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for itraconazole and the active metabolite hydroxyitraconazole, in particular, quantifying the effects of food and formulation on oral absorption. Plasma pharmacokinetic data were collected from seven phase I crossover trials comparing the SUBA-itraconazole and Sporanox formulations of itraconazole. First, a model of single-dose itraconazole data was developed, which was then extended to the multidose data. Covariate effects on itraconazole were then examined before extending the model to describe hydroxyitraconazole. The final itraconazole model was a 2-compartment model with oral absorption described by 4-transit compartments. Multidose kinetics was described by total effective daily dose- and time-dependent changes in clearance and bioavailability. Hydroxyitraconazole was best described by a 1-compartment model with mixed first-order and Michaelis-Menten elimination for the single-dose data and a time-dependent clearance for the multidose data. The relative bioavailability of SUBA-itraconazole compared to that of Sporanox was 173% and was 21% less variable between subjects. Food resulted in a 27% reduction in bioavailability and 58% reduction in the transit absorption rate constant compared to that with the fasted state, irrespective of the formulation. This analysis presents the most extensive population pharmacokinetic model of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole in the literature performed in healthy subjects. The presented model can be used for simulating food effects on itraconazole exposure and for performing prestudy power analysis and sample size estimation, which are important aspects of clinical trial design of bioequivalence studies. PMID:26149987

  8. Long-Term Impact of Preterm Birth on Exercise Capacity in Healthy Young Men: A National Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Svedenkrans, Jenny; Henckel, Ewa; Kowalski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of survivors of preterm birth are growing into adulthood today. Long-term health-effects of prematurity are still poorly understood, but include increased risk for diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases in adult life. To test if reduced physical fitness may be a link in the causal chain of preterm birth and diseases in later life, the association of preterm birth and adult exercise capacity was investigated. The hypothesis was that preterm birth contributes independently of other risk factors to lower physical fitness in adulthood. Methods and Findings Population-based national cohort study of all males conscripting for military service in 1993–2001 and born in Sweden 1973–1983, n = 218,820. Data were retrieved from the Swedish Conscript Register, the Medical Birth Register and the Population and Housing Census 1990. Primary outcome was the results from maximal exercise test (Wmax in Watt) performed at conscription. Association to perinatal and socioeconomic risk factors, other co-variates and confounders were analysed. General linear modelling showed that preterm birth predicted low Wmax in a dose-response related pattern, with 25 Watt reduction in Wmax for the lowest gestational ages, those born ≤27 weeks. Low birth weight for gestational age also independently predicted low Wmax compared to normal and high birth weight (32 Watt reduction for those with a birth weight Standard Deviation Score <2). Low parental education was significantly associated with reduced Wmax (range 17 Watt), as well as both low and high current BMI, with severe obesity resulting in a 16 Watt deficit compared to Wmax top performance. Conclusion Being born preterm as well as being born small for gestational age predicts low exercise capacity in otherwise healthy young men. The effect size of being born preterm equal or exceed that of other known risk factors for unfitness in adults, such as low parental education and overweight. PMID:24324639

  9. Evaluation of cytochrome P450 2C9 activity in normal, healthy, adult Western Indian population by both phenotyping and genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Swar, Balkrishna D.; Bendkhale, Shital R.; Rupawala, Abbas; Sridharan, Kannan; Gogtay, Nithya J.; Thatte, Urmila M.; Kshirsagar, Nilima A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) is a member of cytochrome P450 (CYP) family that accounts for nearly 18% of the total CYP protein content in the human liver microsomes and catalyzes almost 15–20% of the drugs. Considering the paucity of data on the polymorphisms of CYP2C9 in Western Indian population, the present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of CYP2C9 polymorphisms (*1, *2 and *3) and correlate it with the activity using flurbiprofen (FLB) as a probe drug. Materials and Methods: A 100 mg FLB capsule was administered to 298 healthy adult participants. Venous blood samples were analyzed at 2 h postdose for the estimation of FLB and 4-hydroxy FLB. Metabolic ratio (MR) was calculated to determine the extent of poor metabolizer (PM) and rapid metabolizer status using probit plot. Genotyping of CYP2C9 polymorphism was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Results: Of the total 298 participants, phenotype was assessable in 288 and genotype was performed in 289 participants. The median (range) MR of the study population was 6.6 (1.65–66.05). Five participants were found to be PMs by phenotype. Of the total 289 participants, 209 (72.3%) (66.7, 77.2) had CYP2C9*1/*1, 25 (8.7%) (5.8, 12.7) with CYP2C9*1/*2, 55 (19%) (14.8, 24.1) had CYP2C9*1/*3, 3 (1%) (0.3, 3.3) had CYP2C9*2/*3 genotype. A significant association between phenotype and genotype was observed. Conclusion: To conclude, the present study found significant association of CYP2C9 activity by both phenotype and genotype and these findings have to be corroborated in different kinds of patients. PMID:27298492

  10. Population pharmacokinetic modeling of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole for oral SUBA-itraconazole and sporanox capsule formulations in healthy subjects in fed and fasted states.

    PubMed

    Abuhelwa, Ahmad Y; Foster, David J R; Mudge, Stuart; Hayes, David; Upton, Richard N

    2015-09-01

    Itraconazole is an orally active antifungal agent that has complex and highly variable absorption kinetics that is highly affected by food. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for itraconazole and the active metabolite hydroxyitraconazole, in particular, quantifying the effects of food and formulation on oral absorption. Plasma pharmacokinetic data were collected from seven phase I crossover trials comparing the SUBA-itraconazole and Sporanox formulations of itraconazole. First, a model of single-dose itraconazole data was developed, which was then extended to the multidose data. Covariate effects on itraconazole were then examined before extending the model to describe hydroxyitraconazole. The final itraconazole model was a 2-compartment model with oral absorption described by 4-transit compartments. Multidose kinetics was described by total effective daily dose- and time-dependent changes in clearance and bioavailability. Hydroxyitraconazole was best described by a 1-compartment model with mixed first-order and Michaelis-Menten elimination for the single-dose data and a time-dependent clearance for the multidose data. The relative bioavailability of SUBA-itraconazole compared to that of Sporanox was 173% and was 21% less variable between subjects. Food resulted in a 27% reduction in bioavailability and 58% reduction in the transit absorption rate constant compared to that with the fasted state, irrespective of the formulation. This analysis presents the most extensive population pharmacokinetic model of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole in the literature performed in healthy subjects. The presented model can be used for simulating food effects on itraconazole exposure and for performing prestudy power analysis and sample size estimation, which are important aspects of clinical trial design of bioequivalence studies. PMID:26149987

  11. The fertility of Korean minority women in China: 1950-1985.

    PubMed

    Han, J; Cho, L; Choe, M K; Tuan, C

    1988-03-01

    Korean minority women in China have registered dramatic declines in fertility since 1950. The annual growth rate of the Chinese population averaged 2.1% in the 1964-82 period and that for the Han majority was 2.0%. The growth rates for all other ethnic groups were higher than the national average, except for the Korean minority (1.5%). Between the mid-1960s and mid-1970s the fertility decline was particularly marked among Yanbian Korean women; the total fertility rate dropped from 4.8 in 1965 to 1.9 in 1975. With small fluctuations, fertility has remained at or slightly below replacement level since 1975. The observation that Yanbian Koreans began and completed the fertility transition earlier than the rest of China is puzzling given the fact that government family planning programs have less stringent requirements for minorities. Since 1975, the childbearing of Korean women in China has been virtually limited to ages 20-29 years and there are relatively small differences in fertility for women with different levels of education. It is speculated that the migrant Koreans are a selected group of people who place less value on traditional norms and thus are more receptive to the small family size ideal. The fact that this minority has its own language schools and mass communication systems has meant that new norms adopted by the elite are spread to the rest of the Korean population at a pace faster than that in typical Chinese communities. When China introduced its ambitious national family planning program in the 1970s, the Koreans who had already begun the fertility transition were given the means to complete it at a very rapid pace. Overall, the fertility transition of Yanbian Korean women shows that rapid economic progress is not essential to a rapid decline in fertility if other conditions are favorable.

  12. Intake and home use of olive oil or mixed oils in relation to healthy lifestyles in a Mediterranean population. Findings from the prospective Pizarra study.

    PubMed

    Soriguer, Federico; Almaraz, M Cruz; García-Almeida, J M; Cardona, Isabel; Linares, Francisca; Morcillo, Sonsoles; García-Escobar, Eva; Dobarganes, M Carmen; Olveira, Gabriel; Hernando, Virginia; Valdes, Sergio; Ruiz-de-Adana, M Soledad; Esteva, Isabel; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma

    2010-01-01

    Discordances exist in epidemiological studies regarding the association between the intake of nutrients and death and disease. We evaluated the social and health profile of persons who consumed olive oil in a prospective population cohort investigation (Pizarra study) with a 6-year follow-up. A food frequency questionnaire and a 7 d quantitative questionnaire were administered to 538 persons. The type of oil used in food preparation was determined by direct measurement of the fatty acids in samples obtained from the kitchens of the participants at baseline and after follow-up for 6 years. The fatty acid composition of the serum phospholipids was used as an endogenous marker of the type of oil consumed. Total fat intake accounted for a mean 40 % of the energy (at baseline and after follow-up). The concordance in intake of MUFA over the study period was high. The fatty acid composition of the serum phospholipids was significantly associated with the type of oil consumed and with fish intake. The concentration of polar compounds and polymers, indicative of degradation, was greater in oils from the kitchens where sunflower oil or refined olive oil was used, in oils used for deep frying and in oils that had been reused for frying five times or more. Consumption of olive oil was directly associated with educational level. Part of the discordance found in epidemiological studies between diet and health may be due to the handling of oils during food preparation. The intake of olive oil is associated with other healthy habits.

  13. Social consequences of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are limited: a population-based comparison of young adult patients vs healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Ingberg, C M; Palmér, M; Aman, J; Larsson, S

    1996-08-01

    In a population-based study, the social situation of 91 young adult patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDDM) since childhood was compared to that of an age- and sex-matched group of 189 healthy persons. Their mean age was 37.2 years, duration of diabetes 28.7 years and severe complications were present in 13 of the 91 patients. A nearly 10-fold increased mortality rate was found in diabetic patients, mainly due to diabetic nephropathy and trauma, including suicide. The employment rate was lower in diabetic patients (71% vs 85%, p < 0.05); the need for welfare benefits was greater (15% vs 3%, p < 0.01). These differences were mainly the consequence of diabetic late complications. Education, housing conditions, life style, civil state, alcohol and smoking habits were similar in both groups. Confidence in the future was slightly less in diabetic patients (p < 0.05). In conclusion, besides an increased mortality rate, the present study has shown no serious social consequences in adult Type 1 diabetic patients without severe late complications, as compared to matched controls. Our results indicate that IDDM affects social life only to a limited extent, in the absence of severe vascular complications.

  14. The influence of obesity on the effects of spirulina supplementation in the human metabolic response of Korean elderly

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee-Jung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Spirulina, a blue-green alga, is widely produced and commercialized as a dietary supplement with bio- and immune-modulatory functions. We have previously shown that spirulina had favorable effects on lipid profiles, immune functions, and antioxidant capacity in healthy Korean elderly. Despite favorable effect of spirulina supplementation, some sub-populations have shown a poor response to supplementation. Obesity is a factor related to poor-response. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the immuno-modulation, antioxidant capacity, and lipid-lowering effect of spirulina in obese and non-obese Korean elderly. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were 78 elderly aged 60-87 years. In a randomized double blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects were fed either placebo or spirulina daily, at 8 g for 12 weeks. Subjects were divided into the non-obese group and the obese group based on body mass index (BMI) criteria for Asians suggested by the International Obesity Task Force: BMI < 25 kg/m2 (non-obese) and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (obese). RESULTS In the non-obese group, spirulina supplementation showed a significant lowering effect on plasma concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, a significant increase in interleukin (IL)-2 concentration (P < 0.01) and a significant increment (P < 0.05) in IL-2/IL-6 ratio, and a significant increase in total antioxidant status level and a significant decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level. However, these effects were not observed in the obese group. CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrated that blood lipid lowering and immune and antioxidant improving response for spirulina supplement was affected by obesity in Korean elderly. PMID:27478549

  15. Hereditary Cerebellar Ataxias: A Korean Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Sun; Cho, Jin Whan

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary ataxia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by progressive ataxia combined with/without peripheral neuropathy, extrapyramidal symptoms, pyramidal symptoms, seizure, and multiple systematic involvements. More than 35 autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias have been designated as spinocerebellar ataxia, and there are 55 recessive ataxias that have not been named systematically. Conducting genetic sequencing to confirm a diagnosis is difficult due to the large amount of subtypes with phenotypic overlap. The prevalence of hereditary ataxia can vary among countries, and estimations of prevalence and subtype frequencies are necessary for planning a diagnostic strategy in a specific population. This review covers the various hereditary ataxias reported in the Korean population with a focus on the prevalence and subtype frequencies as the clinical characteristics of the various subtypes. PMID:26090078

  16. Production of Korean Idiomatic Utterances Following Left- and Right-Hemisphere Damage: Acoustic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Seung-yun; Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the effects of left- and right-hemisphere damage (LHD and RHD) on the production of idiomatic or literal expressions utilizing acoustic analyses. Method: Twenty-one native speakers of Korean with LHD or RHD and in a healthy control (HC) group produced 6 ditropically ambiguous (idiomatic or literal) sentences in 2…

  17. Korean Risk Assessment Model for Breast Cancer Risk Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Ma, Seung Hyun; Shin, Aesun; Chang, Myung-Chul; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Sungwan; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the performance of the Gail model for a Korean population and developed a Korean breast cancer risk assessment tool (KoBCRAT) based upon equations developed for the Gail model for predicting breast cancer risk. Methods Using 3,789 sets of cases and controls, risk factors for breast cancer among Koreans were identified. Individual probabilities were projected using Gail's equations and Korean hazard data. We compared the 5-year and lifetime risk produced using the modified Gail model which applied Korean incidence and mortality data and the parameter estimators from the original Gail model with those produced using the KoBCRAT. We validated the KoBCRAT based on the expected/observed breast cancer incidence and area under the curve (AUC) using two Korean cohorts: the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort (KMCC) and National Cancer Center (NCC) cohort. Results The major risk factors under the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, menopausal status, breastfeeding duration, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise, while those at and over the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at menopause, pregnancy experience, body mass index, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise. The modified Gail model produced lower 5-year risk for the cases than for the controls (p = 0.017), while the KoBCRAT produced higher 5-year and lifetime risk for the cases than for the controls (p<0.001 and <0.001, respectively). The observed incidence of breast cancer in the two cohorts was similar to the expected incidence from the KoBCRAT (KMCC, p = 0.880; NCC, p = 0.878). The AUC using the KoBCRAT was 0.61 for the KMCC and 0.89 for the NCC cohort. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the KoBCRAT is a better tool for predicting the risk of breast cancer in Korean women, especially urban women. PMID:24204664

  18. Are Korean Patients Different from Other Ethnic Groups in Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Kyoon; Seo, Min-Chul; Song, Sang-Joon; Kim, Kang-Il

    2015-12-01

    Most of the implants used for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Asian patients have been produced based on anthropometry of Western people. Since anatomic features and life styles are different between Western and Eastern people, there would be ethnic differences in terms of conformity of implants to the patient's anatomy or clinical results after TKA. Therefore, surgeons in Asia are particularly interested in related surgical techniques and implant designs used in TKA for improved clinical results and patient satisfaction. In this review, we investigated the anthropometric differences of Koreans from Westerners. Koreans are of shorter stature, less weight, and smaller skeletal structure and have a higher incidence of constitutional varus alignment of the lower extremity. Moreover, compared to Westerner TKA populations, the proportion of female patients was large and primary osteoarthritis was prevalent in preoperative diagnosis in Korean TKA patients. Culturally, Koreans have life styles that demand high flexion positions of the knee such as squatting, kneeling, and cross-legged sitting. Although there were no notable differences in the complication and revision rates following TKA between Westerners and Koreans, the incidence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism was lower in Koreans than Westerners. We hope that further research on implant designs and more interest in TKA will improve outcomes in Korean patients.

  19. Are Korean Patients Different from Other Ethnic Groups in Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Kyoon; Seo, Min-Chul; Song, Sang-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Most of the implants used for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Asian patients have been produced based on anthropometry of Western people. Since anatomic features and life styles are different between Western and Eastern people, there would be ethnic differences in terms of conformity of implants to the patient's anatomy or clinical results after TKA. Therefore, surgeons in Asia are particularly interested in related surgical techniques and implant designs used in TKA for improved clinical results and patient satisfaction. In this review, we investigated the anthropometric differences of Koreans from Westerners. Koreans are of shorter stature, less weight, and smaller skeletal structure and have a higher incidence of constitutional varus alignment of the lower extremity. Moreover, compared to Westerner TKA populations, the proportion of female patients was large and primary osteoarthritis was prevalent in preoperative diagnosis in Korean TKA patients. Culturally, Koreans have life styles that demand high flexion positions of the knee such as squatting, kneeling, and cross-legged sitting. Although there were no notable differences in the complication and revision rates following TKA between Westerners and Koreans, the incidence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism was lower in Koreans than Westerners. We hope that further research on implant designs and more interest in TKA will improve outcomes in Korean patients. PMID:26675374

  20. Korean Geodetic VLBI Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Kim, T.; Han, S.; Kwak, Y.; Oh, H.; Yi, S.; Bae, M.; Kim, K.; Moon, J.; Park, J.

    2009-04-01

    A permanent geodetic VLBI station with a 22-m diameter antenna will be newly constructed in Korea by the National Geographic Information Institute, Korea (NGII) for the project named Korea VLBI system for Geodesy (KVG) that aims at maintaining the Korean geodetic datum accurately. The KVG has started officially since October, 2008. The construction of all system will be completed by the end of 2011. In Korea, the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has already promoted Korean VLBI Network (KVN) project dedicated to radio astronomy since 2001, and three 21-m diameter antennas have been constructed at Seoul, Ulsan, and Jeju Island. Although their receivers have not yet been fully installed, the antenna is designed to be able to receive 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz bands simultaneously. In parallel with the KVN project, the National Geographic Information Institute, Korea (NGII) has been planning to construct their own VLBI antenna dedicated to geodetic measurements since 2001 to maintain the Korean Geodetic Datum accurately on the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). It also aims at a fundamental station in East Asia and will contribute to the better determination of the ITRF there. A grand design for KVG project realizing NGII's plan has been proposed by the Ajou University under the collaborations with the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan (NICT), National Astronomical Observatory, Japan (NAO), and the Geographical Survey Institute, Japan (GSI). The design of KVG antenna follows the VLBI2010 except for receiving frequencies and the diameter; VLBI2010 is the guideline for next generation's geodetic VLBI system compiled by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). The antenna is designed to be able to receive 2, 8, 22, and 43 GHz bands simultaneously in order to carry out geodetic VLBI observations not only with current geodetic VLBI stations equipped with 2/8 GHz receivers but also

  1. Korean Folk Music in Your Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Barbara G.

    2008-01-01

    Koreans are a growing minority in the United States. Worldwide, it is believed that more than seventy million people speak Korean, approximately as many as who speak Italian. The music of Korea offers a delightful addition to the general music classroom. There are several reasons why Korean music is not readily accessible to most general music…

  2. Korean Books and FRBR: An Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong-Hyen; Moon, Ji-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of Korean books by analysing their "work types" based on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) model. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 1,000 Korean books were randomly chosen from the Korean National Bibliography (KNB) 2008 at the National…

  3. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  4. Obesity and Metabolic Phenotypes (Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Variants) Are Significantly Associated with Prevalence of Elevated C-Reactive Protein and Hepatic Steatosis in a Large Healthy Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Shaharyar, Sameer; Roberson, Lara L.; Jamal, Omar; Younus, Adnan; Blaha, Michael J.; Ali, Shozab S.; Zide, Kenneth; Agatston, Arthur A.; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Conceição, Raquel D.; Santos, Raul D.; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Background. Among the obese, the so-called metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype is thought to confer a lower CVD risk as compared to obesity with typical associated metabolic changes. The present study aims to determine the relationship of different subtypes of obesity with inflammatory-cardiometabolic abnormalities. Methods. We evaluated 5,519 healthy, Brazilian subjects (43 ± 10 years, 78% males), free of known cardiovascular disease. Those with <2 metabolic risk factors (MRF) were considered metabolically healthy, and those with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and/or waist circumference meeting NCEP criteria for metabolic syndrome as overweight/obese (OW). High sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured to assess underlying inflammation and hepatic steatosis (HS) was determined via abdominal ultrasound. Results. Overall, 40% of OW individuals were metabolically healthy, and 12% normal-weight had ≥2 MRF. The prevalence of elevated CRP (≥3 mg/dL) and HS in MHO versus normal weight metabolically healthy group was 22% versus 12%, and 40% versus 8% respectively (P < 0.001). Both MHO individuals and metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW) phenotypes were associated with elevated hsCRP and HS. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MHO and MUNW phenotypes may not be benign and physicians should strive to treat individuals in these subgroups to reverse these conditions. PMID:25838943

  5. Effect of Korean pear (Pyruspyrifolia cv. Shingo) juice on hangover severity following alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyohi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Baik, Hyun Wook; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2013-08-01

    Korean pear has been used as a traditional prophylactic agent for alcohol hangover. However, its mechanism was not investigated in human yet. Therefore, we performed a randomized single blind crossover trial with 14 healthy young men to examine effects of Korean pear juice on alcohol hangover. All subjects consumed 540 ml of spirits (alcohol conc. 20.1 v/v%) after 30 min from the intervention, i.e. placebo or Korean pear juice treatment. Blood and urine specimens were collected in time-courses (9 time-points for 15 h after alcohol consumption). The total and average of hangover severity were alleviated to 16% and 21% by Korean pear juice at 15 h after the alcohol consumption, respectively (ps<0.05). Particularly, 'trouble concentrating' was significantly improved by the pear juice treatment (p<0.05). Impaired memory, and sensitivity to light and sound were significantly improved by Korean pear juice among the subjects with ALDH2*1/*1 or ALDH2*1/*2 genotypes (ps<0.05) but not in the subjects with ALDH2*2/*2 genotype. In addition, the pear juice treatment lowered levels of blood alcohol (p<0.01). Therefore, Korean pear juice may alleviate alcohol-hangover and its detoxification of alcohol seems to be modified by the genetic variation of ALDH2.

  6. Healthy world, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Mcmichael, T

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the challenges to human health from environmental degradation. The environment includes the social environment as well as the physical and chemical environment. Housing quality, recreation, population growth, density and mobility, social networks, and political and distributive equity also impact on health. There are well known examples of man-made disasters, such as in Bhopal, Chernobyl, and the Love Canal. What are less understood are the general conditions of poor health, low life expectancy, and early death due to polluted air, contaminated drinking water, and pesticide and other chemical contamination. An estimated 66% of diarrhea episodes are attributed to contaminated food or water. Health and vital statistics do not measure public health problems, such as declines in intelligence from lead ingestion from auto emissions. Epidemiological tracking of cause and effect of environmental contaminants is elusive. Some key features of environmental impact are the threshold effect, indirect pathways, and long-term and systems effects. Environmental hazards may deplete or disrupt natural biophysical processes that are the basic source of sustained good health. These basic systems include the food production system, the vector borne disease routes, global hydrological cycles, and the stratosphere. Gains in life expectancy have been due to declines in infectious disease mortality in early life, food security, improved hygiene and water sanitation, vaccination, and antibiotics and other medical treatments. Rapid technological change, acquisitive consumerism, ignorance of distant and deferred environmental impacts, and a free market ethic limit social advancement and ignore public health and environmental stresses. The scale of today's environmental problems requires priority setting and socially and ecologically sustainable ways of living. PMID:12321048

  7. The Korean Neonatal Network: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in the Republic of Korea, despite the very-low-birth rate, the birth rate and number of preterm infants are markedly increasing. Neonatal deaths and major complications mostly occur in premature infants, especially very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWIs). VLBWIs weigh less than 1,500 g at birth and require intensive treatment in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The operation of the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) officially started on April 15, 2013, by the Korean Society of Neonatology with support from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The KNN is a national multicenter neonatal network based on a prospective web-based registry for VLBWIs. About 2,000 VLBWIs from 60 participating hospital NICUs are registered annually in the KNN. The KNN has built unique systems such as a web-based real-time data display on the web site and a site-visit monitoring system for data quality surveillance. The KNN should be maintained and developed further in order to generate appropriate, population-based, data-driven, health-care policies; facilitate active multicenter neonatal research, including quality improvement of neonatal care; and ultimately lead to improvement in the prognosis of high-risk newborns and subsequent reduction in health-care costs through the development of evidence-based neonatal medicine in Korea. PMID:26566355

  8. Implementing a Mentally Healthy Schools Framework Based on the Population Wide Act-Belong-Commit Mental Health Promotion Campaign: A Process Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar-McHenry, Julia; Donovan, Robert John; Nicholas, Amberlee; Kerrigan, Simone; Francas, Stephanie; Phan, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Mentally Healthy WA developed and implemented the Mentally Healthy Schools Framework in 2010 in response to demand from schools wanting to promote the community-based Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion message within a school setting. Schools are an important setting for mental health promotion, therefore, the Framework encourages…

  9. Ancient-to-modern secular changes in Korean stature.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Oh, Chang Seok; Kim, Yi-Suk; Hwang, Young-Il

    2012-03-01

    Statural growth in human populations is a sensitive indicator of socio-economic well-being, and improvements in socio-economic status are reflected in secular increases in adult height. In the present study, we investigated the statures of historical Korean societies to show how stature changed over time. Applying Fujii's equation, derived from modern Japanese, to the measurement of femora removed from 15th- to 19th-century Joseon tombs, the average heights of Korean adults during the Joseon dynasty were estimated to be 161.1 ± 5.6 cm and 148.9 ± 4.6 cm for males and females, respectively. Plotting statures for successive historical societies against time revealed that Korean heights remained relatively unchanged through to the end of the 19th century, a pattern that differs from that seen in many Western countries in which stature transiently decreases after the Middle Ages. In contrast, a sharp increase in Korean stature was observed at the beginning of the 20th century, similar to trends seen in other nations (although exact timing varies in different countries). There were no accompanying changes of stature sexual dimorphism. The data reported in this study reflect the unique historical experience of Korea; the relative isolation of Joseon society, the late onset of modernization (at the end of the 19th century), and the later occurrence of industrialization (during the 1960s). PMID:22270697

  10. Skin Barrier Function and Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Vestibulum Nasi and Fauces in Healthy Infants and Infants with Eczema: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Berents, Teresa Løvold; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup; Mowinckel, Petter; Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Kvenshagen, Bente; Rolfsjord, Leif Bjarte; Bradley, Maria; Lieden, Agne; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Gaustad, Peter; Gjersvik, Petter

    2015-01-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is associated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization and skin barrier dysfunction, often measured by increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL). In the present study, the primary aim was to see whether S. aureus colonization in the vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was associated with increased TEWL in infants with healthy skin and infants with eczema. Secondarily, we aimed to investigate whether TEWL measurements on non-lesional skin on the lateral upper arm is equivalent to volar forearm in infants. In 167 of 240 infants, recruited from the general population, TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm, using a DermaLab USB, fulfilled our environmental requirements. The mean of three TEWL measurements from each site was used for analysis. The infants were diagnosed with no eczema (n = 110), possible AE (n = 28) or AE (n = 29). DNA samples were analysed for mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG). Bacterial cultures were reported positive with the identification of at least one culture with S. aureus from vestibulum nasi and/or fauces. S. aureus colonization, found in 89 infants (53%), was not associated with increased TEWL (i.e. TEWL in the upper quartile), neither on the lateral upper arm or volar forearm (p = 0.08 and p = 0.98, respectively), nor with AE (p = 0.10) or FLG mutation (p = 0.17). TEWL was significantly higher on both measuring sites in infants with AE compared to infants with possible AE and no eczema. FLG mutation was significantly associated with increased TEWL, with a 47% difference in TEWL. We conclude that S. aureus in vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was not associated with TEWL, whereas TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm appear equally appropriate in infants.

  11. Skin Barrier Function and Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Vestibulum Nasi and Fauces in Healthy Infants and Infants with Eczema: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Berents, Teresa Løvold; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup; Mowinckel, Petter; Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Kvenshagen, Bente; Rolfsjord, Leif Bjarte; Bradley, Maria; Lieden, Agne; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Gaustad, Peter; Gjersvik, Petter

    2015-01-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is associated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization and skin barrier dysfunction, often measured by increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL). In the present study, the primary aim was to see whether S. aureus colonization in the vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was associated with increased TEWL in infants with healthy skin and infants with eczema. Secondarily, we aimed to investigate whether TEWL measurements on non-lesional skin on the lateral upper arm is equivalent to volar forearm in infants. In 167 of 240 infants, recruited from the general population, TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm, using a DermaLab USB, fulfilled our environmental requirements. The mean of three TEWL measurements from each site was used for analysis. The infants were diagnosed with no eczema (n = 110), possible AE (n = 28) or AE (n = 29). DNA samples were analysed for mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG). Bacterial cultures were reported positive with the identification of at least one culture with S. aureus from vestibulum nasi and/or fauces. S. aureus colonization, found in 89 infants (53%), was not associated with increased TEWL (i.e. TEWL in the upper quartile), neither on the lateral upper arm or volar forearm (p = 0.08 and p = 0.98, respectively), nor with AE (p = 0.10) or FLG mutation (p = 0.17). TEWL was significantly higher on both measuring sites in infants with AE compared to infants with possible AE and no eczema. FLG mutation was significantly associated with increased TEWL, with a 47% difference in TEWL. We conclude that S. aureus in vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was not associated with TEWL, whereas TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm appear equally appropriate in infants. PMID:26070153

  12. Framing risks and benefits of medical tourism: a content analysis of medical tourism coverage in Korean American community newspapers.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jungmi; Oh, Kyeung Mi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines Korean American community newspapers' representation of risks and benefits involved with medical tourism offered in Korea. Using framing theory, this research attempts to explain Korean Americans' highly positive perceptions and high willingness to use health and medical services in Korea through medical tourism rather than using such services in the United States. The result of content analyses indicated that Korean American community newspapers are rarely engaged in risk communication and lack sufficient information about potential risks of medical tourism while emphasizing diverse benefits. Korean ethnic media, as the primary source of health communication for Korean Americans, should provide more reliable health and medical information for the population's appropriate health management. PMID:25942506

  13. Estimation of Total and Inorganic Arsenic Intake from the Diet in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mi-Na; Lee, Seul-Gi; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Jeongseon; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kim, Heon; Choi, Byung-Sun; Yu, Il-Je; Park, Jung-Duck

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a major environmental pollutant and a known human carcinogen that is widely distributed in the air, soil, and water. General population is mainly exposed to As through drinking water and food from the contaminated water and soil. Arsenic in drinking water is generally well controlled now. This study was performed to estimate total and inorganic As intake and to determine the major contributing source in the Korean adult diet. The study subjects were 2117 healthy adults (922 males and 1195 females) who had not been occupationally exposed to As. Total dietary intake was studied using the 24-h recall method, which included 138 specific food items. The estimates of total As and inorganic As intake were based on total and inorganic As contents in each food item consumed during the last 24 h. Daily dietary intake was estimated to be 1373.6 g. Total As intake was estimated to be 145.4 µg As/day. Total dietary As intake was correlated with consumption of fish/shellfish, seaweeds, and grains. Approximately 87% of total dietary As intake was attributed to seafood, such as 105.5 µg As/day from fish/shellfish and 20.5 µg As/day from seaweeds. Inorganic As intake was estimated to be 10.4 µg As per day. Inorganic As intake was mainly provided by grains (6.4 µg As/day), followed by seaweeds and fish/shellfish. Our results indicate that seafood and grains are the main As dietary sources in Korean adults and that dietary As exposure may be associated with individual dietary habits and environmental As contamination among countries. PMID:26706926

  14. Prevalence of cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus-6, and Epstein-Barr virus in periodontitis patients and healthy subjects in the Thai population.

    PubMed

    Tantivanich, Surang; Laohapand, Penpan; Thaweeboon, Sroisiri; Desakorn, Varunee; Wuthinuntiwong, Preeda; Chalermtaranukul, Sompoj; Pansri, Potjamas; Amarapal, Pornsawan; Balachandra, Kruavan; Chantratita, Wasun; Dhepakson, Panadda

    2004-09-01

    Fifty periodontitis patients and 30 healthy patients with oral cavities were selected from the Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, from March 2001 to November 2002. Their ages varied between 15 and 70 years. Among the periodontitis patients, specimens were collected from both disease and healthy sites. All samples were evaluated for the presence of CMV, HHV-6, and EBV-1 by nested PCR. Among the periodontitis patients, CMV was found in 34%, of which 8% were at the disease sites, 10% were at the healthy sites, and 16% were from both sites. EBV was not found in this group of the patients, while HHV-6 was found in 4%, at the disease sites only. CMV was found in one (3.3%) healthy control while HHV-6 and EBV-1 were not found. The depth of sample sites, various demographic and baseline characteristics eg sex, age, occupation and root planning were not associated with the presence of these viruses.

  15. Challenges of Discourses on "Model Minority" and "South Korean Wind" for Ethnic Koreans' Schooling in Northeast China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Gao

    2009-01-01

    The educational success of ethnic Koreans in China has been achieved through Mandarin-Korean bilingual education, with the Korean language as the medium of instruction. Using the data collected as part of an ethnographic research on Korean elementary school students in a national Korean school in China, this article examines the relation between…

  16. Frequency of CYP2C9 alleles in Koreans and their effects on losartan pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jung-woo; Choi, Chang-ik; Kim, Mi-jeong; Oh, Da-hee; Keum, Seul-ki; Park, Jung-in; Kim, Bo-hye; Bang, Hye-kyoung; Oh, Sung-gon; Kang, Byung-sung; Park, Hyun-joo; Kim, Hae-deun; Ha, Ji-hey; Shin, Hee-jung; Kim, Young-hoon; Na, Han-sung; Chung, Myeon-woo; Jang, Choon-gon; Lee, Seok-yong

    2011-01-01

    Aim: CYP2C9 enzyme metabolizes numerous clinically important drugs. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequencies of CYP2C9 genotypes and the effects of selected alleles on losartan pharmacokinetics in a large sample of the Korean population. Methods: The CYP2C9 gene was genotyped in 1796 healthy Korean subjects. CYP2C9 alleles (CYP2C9*1, *2, *3 and *13 alleles) were measured using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay and direct sequencing assay. The enzymatic activity of each CYP2C9 genotype was evaluated using losartan as the substrate. Results: The frequencies of CYP2C9*1, *3 and *13 allele were 0.952 (95% confidence interval 0.945–0.959), 0.044 (95% CI 0.037–0.051) and 0.005 (95% CI 0.003–0.007), respectively. The frequencies of the CYP2C9*1/*1, *1/*3, *1/*13 and *3/*3 genotypes were 0.904 (95% CI 0.890–0.918), 0.085 (95% CI 0.072–0.098), 0.009 (95% CI 0.005–0.013) and 0.001 (95% CI 0.000–0.002), respectively. In the pharmacokinetics studies, the AUC0–∞ of losartan in CYP2C9*3/*3 subjects was 1.42-fold larger than that in CYP2C9*1/*1 subjects, and the AUC0–∞ of E-3174, a more active metabolite of losartan, in CYP2C9*3/*3 subjects was only 12% of that in CYP2C9*1/*1 subjects. Conclusion: The results confirmed the frequencies of CYP2C9 genotypes in a large cohort of Koreans, and detected the CYP2C9*3/*3 genotype. CYP2C9*3/*3 subjects metabolized much less losartan into E-3174 than CYP2C9*1/*1 subjects. PMID:21841812

  17. Structural Case Assignment in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koak, Heeshin

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I aim to provide a theory on the distribution of structural Case in Korean. I propose the following Structural Case Assignment Hypothesis (SCAH) regarding the assignment of structural Case: "Structural Case is assigned by phase heads (C: nominative; v: accusative) to every argument in the c-command domain of the phase…

  18. Two Causative Constructions in Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Dong-Ik

    1993-01-01

    Two types of causative constructions in Korean behave differently both syntactically and semantically. This paper presents the syntactic differences between syntactic causative constructions and morphological causative constructions in terms of merger process of argument structures, and in the Case assignment in the two constructions in terms of…

  19. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Korean Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Korean Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included about early immigrants, the second generation, student groups, war brides, recent immigrants, and third and fourth generations. A chart of traditional and modified…

  20. Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.