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Sample records for healthy newborn infants

  1. Hospital stay for healthy term newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Benitz, William E

    2015-05-01

    The hospital stay of the mother and her healthy term newborn infant should be long enough to allow identification of problems and to ensure that the mother is sufficiently recovered and prepared to care for herself and her newborn at home. The length of stay should be based on the unique characteristics of each mother-infant dyad, including the health of the mother, the health and stability of the newborn, the ability and confidence of the mother to care for herself and her newborn, the adequacy of support systems at home, and access to appropriate follow-up care in a medical home. Input from the mother and her obstetrical care provider should be considered before a decision to discharge a newborn is made, and all efforts should be made to keep a mother and her newborn together to ensure simultaneous discharge.

  2. Dual role of cerebral blood flow in regional brain temperature control in the healthy newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Sachiko; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Robertson, Nicola J; Iwata, Osuke

    2014-10-01

    Small shifts in brain temperature after hypoxia-ischaemia affect cell viability. The main determinants of brain temperature are cerebral metabolism, which contributes to local heat production, and brain perfusion, which removes heat. However, few studies have addressed the effect of cerebral metabolism and perfusion on regional brain temperature in human neonates because of the lack of non-invasive cot-side monitors. This study aimed (i) to determine non-invasive monitoring tools of cerebral metabolism and perfusion by combining near-infrared spectroscopy and echocardiography, and (ii) to investigate the dependence of brain temperature on cerebral metabolism and perfusion in unsedated newborn infants. Thirty-two healthy newborn infants were recruited. They were studied with cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy, echocardiography, and a zero-heat flux tissue thermometer. A surrogate of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using superior vena cava flow adjusted for cerebral volume (rSVC flow). The tissue oxygenation index, fractional oxygen extraction (FOE), and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen relative to rSVC flow (CMRO₂ index) were also estimated. A greater rSVC flow was positively associated with higher brain temperatures, particularly for superficial structures. The CMRO₂ index and rSVC flow were positively coupled. However, brain temperature was independent of FOE and the CMRO₂ index. A cooler ambient temperature was associated with a greater temperature gradient between the scalp surface and the body core. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and perfusion were monitored in newborn infants without using tracers. In these healthy newborn infants, cerebral perfusion and ambient temperature were significant independent variables of brain temperature. CBF has primarily been associated with heat removal from the brain. However, our results suggest that CBF is likely to deliver heat specifically to the superficial brain. Further studies are required to assess the

  3. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Elizabeth R; Anderson, Gene C; Bergman, Nils; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Mother-infant separation postbirth is common in Western culture. Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and involves placing the naked baby, head covered with a dry cap and a warm blanket across the back, prone on the mother’s bare chest. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neurobehaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs. This time may represent a psychophysiologically ‘sensitive period’ for programming future physiology and behavior. Objectives To assess the effects of early SSC on breastfeeding, physiological adaptation, and behavior in healthy mother-newborn dyads. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 November 2011), made personal contact with trialists, and consulted the bibliography on kangaroo mother care (KMC) maintained by Dr. Susan Ludington. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials comparing early SSC with usual hospital care. Data collection and analysis We independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Main results Thirty-four randomized controlled trials were included involving 2177 participants (mother-infant dyads). Data from more than two trials were available for only eight outcome measures. For primary outcomes, we found a statistically significant positive effect of early SSC on breastfeeding at one to four months postbirth (13 trials; 702 participants) (risk ratio (RR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06 to 1.53, and SSC increased breastfeeding duration (seven trials; 324 participants) (mean difference (MD) 42.55 days, 95% CI −1.69 to 86.79) but the results did not quite reach statistical significance (P = 0.06). Late preterm infants had better cardio-respiratory stability with early SSC (one trial; 31 participants) (MD 2.88, 95% CI 0.53 to 5.23). Blood glucose 75 to 90 minutes following the birth was

  4. Crying in Newborn and Young Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelsson, Katarina

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the reasons that newborns and young infants cry, the communicative effect and perception of crying, crying in sick and healthy infants, the sound spectograph, and crying for the use of clinical diagnostics. (RJC)

  5. Effect of position on pulmonary mechanics in healthy preterm newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Fox, R E; Viscardi, R M; Taciak, V L; Niknafs, H; Cinoman, M I

    1993-01-01

    Preterm infants are often placed in the supine position to facilitate care and observation. Prone positioning may positively affect later neurodevelopmental outcome, but it may also affect pulmonary function. Using a computerized system, we examined the effect of positioning on pulmonary mechanics in spontaneously breathing healthy preterm infants. Eleven infants with a mean birth weight (+/- SD) of 1523 +/- 171 gm and a mean gestational age (+/- SD) of 31.7 +/- 1.5 weeks were studied during the first 2 weeks of life. Pulmonary mechanic measurements were obtained in both supine and prone positions by mask pneumotachography and esophageal balloon technique. Respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were unaffected by positioning. There was a statistically, but not clinically, significant increase in heart rate in the prone position. However, there were no significant differences in tidal volume, minute ventilation, pulmonary resistance, or dynamic compliance between positions. The contribution of intrasubject variability of serial measurements was assessed in a separate group of four infants studied three times in the same position. There was no significant difference in respiratory rate, tidal volume, dynamic compliance per kilogram, or total pulmonary resistance in the same infant when studied in the same position over time (p > or = 0.24). The maximum variability (95% confidence limit) was 25.5% for tidal volume, 21% for dynamic compliance, and 44.3% for resistance. Because prone positioning did not adversely affect pulmonary mechanics or oxygen saturation in these healthy preterm infants, we suggest that prone position be used to facilitate the developmental needs of these infants.

  6. Measurement and correlates of ano-genital distance in healthy, newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, S.; Beard, L.; Zhou, C.; Grady, R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Ano-genital distance (AGD) is a sexually dimorphic trait that is a well established reproductive toxicity endpoint in animals. In male animals, a shortened AGD is associated with a variety of genital abnormalities including hypospadias and cryptorchidism. Consensus on the anatomical definition of AGD in humans remains to be established and few data exist on the determinants and normal variance in the general population. We implemented a standardized anthropometric protocol to measure AGD, ano-scrotal distance (ASD), and ano-fourchette distance (AFD) in 169 (82 male, 87 female) infants in the University of Washington newborn nursery in 2008. We collected data on the following characteristics: weight, length, and occipital head circumference, race and relevant gestational complications. Using linear regression modelling, we examined AGD⁄ASD⁄AFD for sexual dimorphism, normal population variance and predictors of the measurement in infants. The mean male and female AGD measurements were 52.0 mm (SD ± 5.5) and 37.2 mm (SD ± 3.7). The mean ASD and AFD were 23.0 mm (SD ± 3.8) and 15.1 mm (SD ± 2.9). Weight, length, occipital head circumference and gestational age were associated with AGD (p < 0.05). Weight and length were the most important correlates to AGD. We confirmed previous findings that AGD is a sexually dimorphic measurement that is most strongly predicted by infant weight. The application of this measurement to clinically relevant outcomes remains to be explored in further depth. PMID:20132349

  7. Warmth is Analgesic in Healthy Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Colleen W.; Porges, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies a behavioral and nonpharmacologic means of preventing and reducing newborn pain. Our objective was to determine whether warmth is analgesic in newborn infants undergoing vaccination—a routine painful hospital procedure. We used a prospective randomized controlled trial of 47 healthy full-term newborn infants. Infants were randomized into one of three conditions prior to vaccination: warmth exposure, pacifier suckling, or sucrose taste. Crying, grimacing, and heart rate differences were analyzed between groups before, during, and after vaccination as outcome measures. Warmer infants cried significantly less than sucrose taste or pacifier suckling after vaccination. Heart rate patterns reflected this analgesia. Core temperature did not differ between study groups. Providing natural warmth to newborn infants during a painful procedure decreases the crying and grimacing on par with the “gold” standard treatments of sucrose or pacifier. PMID:22424877

  8. Thrombosis in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Bacciedoni, Viviana; Attie, Myriam; Donato, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of thrombosis is higher among newborn infants than in any other stage of pediatric development. This fact is the consequence of labile characteristics of the neonatal hemostatic system, in addition to exposure to multiple risk factors and the wide use of vascular catheters. Venous thromboses, which mainly affect the limbs, the right atrium and renal veins, are more frequently seen than arterial thromboses. A stroke may be caused by the occlusion of the arterial flow entering the brain or by occlusion of its venous drainage system. Purpura fulminans is a very severe condition that should be treated as a medical emergency, and is secondary to severe protein C deficiency or, less frequently, protein S or antithrombin deficiency. Most thrombotic events should be managed with antithrombotic therapy, which is done with unfractionated and/or low molecular weight heparins. Purpura fulminans requires protein C replacement and/or fresh frozen plasma infusion. Thrombolytic therapy is done using tissue plasminogen activator and should only be used for life-, or limb-, or organ-threatening thrombosis.

  9. Thrombosis in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Bacciedoni, Viviana; Attie, Myriam; Donato, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of thrombosis is higher among newborn infants than in any other stage of pediatric development. This fact is the consequence of labile characteristics of the neonatal hemostatic system, in addition to exposure to multiple risk factors and the wide use of vascular catheters. Venous thromboses, which mainly affect the limbs, the right atrium and renal veins, are more frequently seen than arterial thromboses. A stroke may be caused by the occlusion of the arterial flow entering the brain or by occlusion of its venous drainage system. Purpura fulminans is a very severe condition that should be treated as a medical emergency, and is secondary to severe protein C deficiency or, less frequently, protein S or antithrombin deficiency. Most thrombotic events should be managed with antithrombotic therapy, which is done with unfractionated and/or low molecular weight heparins. Purpura fulminans requires protein C replacement and/or fresh frozen plasma infusion. Thrombolytic therapy is done using tissue plasminogen activator and should only be used for life-, or limb-, or organ-threatening thrombosis. PMID:27079395

  10. Newborn Infants Orient to Sounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Darwin; Field, Jeffrey

    1979-01-01

    In two experiments, the majority of 21 newborn infants who were maintained in an alert state consistently turned their heads toward a continuous sound source presented 90 degrees from midline. For most infants, this orientation response was rather slow, taking median latencies of 2.5 seconds to begin and 5.5 seconds to end. (JMB)

  11. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

  12. Infant and Newborn Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newborns have many needs, like frequent feedings and diaper changes. Babies can have health issues that are different from older children and adults, like diaper rash and cradle cap. Your baby will go ...

  13. Infant - newborn development

    MedlinePlus

    ... infant responds to rocking and changes of position LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Crying is a very important way to communicate. By the baby's third day of life, mothers can tell their own baby's cry from that ...

  14. Newborn infant skin: physiology, development, and care.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O; Adam, Ralf; Brink, Susanna; Odio, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Infant skin is critical to the newborn child's transition from the womb environment to the journey to self-sufficiency. This review provides an integrative perspective on the skin development in full term and premature infants. There is a particular focus on the role of vernix caseosa and on the implications of skin development for epidermal penetration of exogenous compounds. Healthy full-term newborn skin is well-developed and functional at birth, with a thick epidermis and well-formed stratum corneum (SC) layers. Transepidermal water loss is very low at birth, equal to, or lower than adults, indicating a highly effective skin barrier. Vernix facilitates SC development in full-term infants through a variety of mechanisms including physical protection from amniotic fluid and enzymes, antimicrobial effects, skin surface pH lowering, provision of lipids, and hydration. Premature infants, particularly those of very low birth weight, have a poor skin barrier with few cornified layers and deficient dermal proteins. They are at increased risk for skin damage, increased permeability to exogenous agents and infection. The SC barrier develops rapidly after birth but complete maturation requires weeks to months. The best methods for caring for infant skin, particularly in the diaper region, are described and related to these developmental changes. PMID:25889127

  15. Newborn infant skin: physiology, development, and care.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O; Adam, Ralf; Brink, Susanna; Odio, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Infant skin is critical to the newborn child's transition from the womb environment to the journey to self-sufficiency. This review provides an integrative perspective on the skin development in full term and premature infants. There is a particular focus on the role of vernix caseosa and on the implications of skin development for epidermal penetration of exogenous compounds. Healthy full-term newborn skin is well-developed and functional at birth, with a thick epidermis and well-formed stratum corneum (SC) layers. Transepidermal water loss is very low at birth, equal to, or lower than adults, indicating a highly effective skin barrier. Vernix facilitates SC development in full-term infants through a variety of mechanisms including physical protection from amniotic fluid and enzymes, antimicrobial effects, skin surface pH lowering, provision of lipids, and hydration. Premature infants, particularly those of very low birth weight, have a poor skin barrier with few cornified layers and deficient dermal proteins. They are at increased risk for skin damage, increased permeability to exogenous agents and infection. The SC barrier develops rapidly after birth but complete maturation requires weeks to months. The best methods for caring for infant skin, particularly in the diaper region, are described and related to these developmental changes.

  16. Healthy Start, Grow Smart: Your Newborn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet offers guidance to parents in caring for their newborn babies. Advice is given on the following topics: (1) newborn health screening; (2) what a healthy newborn looks like; (3) newborn reflexes; (4) baby checkups; (5) fathers' role; (6) the baby blues; (7) sleeping position; (8) breast milk; (9) breast feeding; (10) bottle feeding;…

  17. Development of Newborn and Infant Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Schmitz, Guzman; Levy, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines for early-life immunization are a crucial biomedical intervention to reduce global morbidity and mortality, yet their developmental path has been largely ad hoc, empiric, and inconsistent. Immune responses of human newborns and infants are distinct and cannot be predicted from those of human adults or animal models. Therefore, understanding and modeling age-specific human immune responses will be vital to the rational design and development of safe and effective vaccines for newborns and infants. PMID:21734174

  18. Inflammatory cytokines in newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Sarandakou, A; Giannaki, G; Malamitsi-Puchner, A; Rizos, D; Hourdaki, E; Protonotariou, E; Phocas, I

    1998-01-01

    Serum levels of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were measured in 48 healthy, termed neonates on the 1st (N1), 5th (N5) and 40th (N40) day after birth, compared with those in maternal serum (MS), umbilical cord (UC) and adult controls. Cytokine values in N1 and N5 were significantly elevated, than those in UC and in controls (P<0.0001). IL-1beta and IL-6 declined significantly from N1 to N40 (P<0.0001), while TNF-alpha increased significantly from N1 to N5 and declined thereafter. MS infinity IL-1beta and IL-6, but not MS infinity TNF-alpha, were significantly higher than those of controls (P<0.0001). IL-1beta values depended on the mode of delivery. In conclusion, the increased concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha during the perinatal period might suggest their involvement in an inflammation-like process during normal parturition, and reflect also a newborn immune response to the stress of delivery and environmental changes. PMID:9883964

  19. Inflammatory cytokines in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Sarandakou, A; Giannaki, G; Malamitsi-Puchner, A; Rizos, D; Hourdaki, E; Protonotariou, E; Phocas, I

    1998-01-01

    Serum levels of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were measured in 48 healthy, termed neonates on the 1st (N1), 5th (N5) and 40th (N40) day after birth, compared with those in maternal serum (MS), umbilical cord (UC) and adult controls. Cytokine values in N1 and N5 were significantly elevated, than those in UC and in controls (P<0.0001). IL-1beta and IL-6 declined significantly from N1 to N40 (P<0.0001), while TNF-alpha increased significantly from N1 to N5 and declined thereafter. MS infinity IL-1beta and IL-6, but not MS infinity TNF-alpha, were significantly higher than those of controls (P<0.0001). IL-1beta values depended on the mode of delivery. In conclusion, the increased concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha during the perinatal period might suggest their involvement in an inflammation-like process during normal parturition, and reflect also a newborn immune response to the stress of delivery and environmental changes.

  20. Can Newborns Discriminate between Their Own Cry and the Cry of Another Newborn Infant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dondi, Marco; Simion, Francesca; Caltran, Giovanna

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments tested whether newborns could discriminate their own and another newborn's cry. Results indicated that awake newborns expressed facial distress more frequently and longer to another newborn's cry than to their own. Sucking decreased significantly between pretest phase and first minute of another infant's cry. Asleep infants'…

  1. Perceptual Completion in Newborn Human Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Eloisa; Leo, Irene; Gava, Lucia; Simion, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Despite decades of studies of human infants, a still open question concerns the role of visual experience in the development of the ability to perceive complete shapes over partial occlusion. Previous studies show that newborns fail to manifest this ability, either because they lack the visual experience required for perceptual completion or…

  2. Metabolism of threonine in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Parimi, Prabhu S; Gruca, Lourdes L; Kalhan, Satish C

    2005-12-01

    Threonine kinetics, threonine oxidative pathway, and the relationship between threonine and whole body protein turnover were quantified in 10 healthy term infants during the first 48 h after birth. The kinetic data were obtained 6 h after the last feed (fasting) and in response to formula feeding, using [U-(13)C(4),(15)N]threonine, [(2)H(5)]phenylalanine, and [(15)N]glycine tracers. The rate of carbon dioxide production (Vco(2)) and (13)C enrichment of the expired CO(2) were measured to quantify the rate of oxidation of threonine. The rate of appearance (R(a)) of threonine (136 +/- 37 micromol.kg(-1).h(-1)) was higher in newborn infants than that reported in adults. Formula feeding resulted in a significant decrease in threonine R(a) (P < 0.05). A significant positive correlation was seen between phenylalanine R(a) and threonine R(a), both during fasting and after formula feeding (r(2) = 0.65). In contrast to a 1:1 ratio of threonine and phenylalanine in mixed muscle protein, threonine R(a) relative to phenylalanine R(a) was 2.2 +/- 0.4. The fractional rate of threonine flux oxidized was 20% during fasting and 26% (P < 0.05) in response to nutrient administration. There was a significant correlation between plasma threonine concentration and threonine oxidation (r(2) = 0.75). No measurable incorporation of threonine in plasma glycine was seen. These data suggest that threonine is exclusively degraded by the glycine-independent serine/threonine dehydratase pathway. A higher flux of threonine relative to phenylalanine indicates higher turnover of threonine enriched proteins.

  3. Sucrose and Warmth for Analgesia in Healthy Newborns: An RCT

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Elizabeth; Zageris, Danielle; Heilman, Keri J.; Porges, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Increasing data suggest that neonatal pain has long-term consequences. Nonpharmacologic techniques (sucrose taste, pacifier suckling, breastfeeding) are effective and now widely used to combat minor neonatal pain. This study examined the analgesic effect of sucrose combined with radiant warmth compared with the taste of sucrose alone during a painful procedure in healthy full-term newborns. METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial included 29 healthy, full-term newborns born at the University of Chicago Hospital. Both groups of infants were given 1.0 mL of 25% sucrose solution 2 minutes before the vaccination, and 1 group additionally was given radiant warmth from an infant warmer before the vaccination. We assessed pain by comparing differences in cry, grimace, heart rate variability (ie, respiratory sinus arrhythmia), and heart rate between the groups. RESULTS: The sucrose plus warmer group cried and grimaced for 50% less time after the vaccination than the sucrose alone group (P < .05, respectively). The sucrose plus warmer group had lower heart rate and heart rate variability (ie, respiratory sinus arrhythmia) responses compared with the sucrose alone group (P < .01), reflecting a greater ability to physiologically regulate in response to the painful vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of sucrose and radiant warmth is an effective analgesic in newborns and reduces pain better than sucrose alone. The ready availability of this practical nonpharmacologic technique has the potential to reduce the burden of newborn pain. PMID:25687147

  4. Timbre-independent extraction of pitch in newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    HÁDEN, GÁBOR P.; STEFANICS, GÁBOR; VESTERGAARD, MARTIN D.; DENHAM, SUSAN L.; SZILLER, ISTVÁN; WINKLER, ISTVÁN

    2010-01-01

    The ability to separate pitch from other spectral sound features, such as timbre, is an important prerequisite of veridical auditory perception underlying speech acquisition and music cognition. The current study investigated whether or not newborn infants generalize pitch across different timbres. Perceived resonator size is an aspect of timbre that informs the listener about the size of the sound source, a cue that may be important already at birth. Therefore, detection of infrequent pitch changes was tested by recording event-related brain potentials in healthy newborn infants to frequent standard and infrequent pitch-deviant sounds while the perceived resonator size of all sounds was randomly varied. The elicitation ofanearly negative andalater positive discriminative responsebydeviant sounds demonstrated that the neonate auditory system represents pitch separately from timbre, thus showing advanced pitch processing capabilities. PMID:19055501

  5. Pharmacology of some oral penicillins in the newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M D; Raeburn, J A; Devine, J; Kirkwood, J; Elliott, B; Cockburn, F; Forfar, J O

    1975-03-01

    Serum and urine concentrations of ampicillin, amoxycillin, and flucloxacillin achieved after oral administration have been measured in 27 newborn infants. Compared with adults and children, newborn infants show a delay in achieving adequate blood concentrations, presumably due to delayed absorption. However most infants achieve therapeutic concentrations in the serum. Infected newborn infants should be given these antibiotics by intramuscular injection for the first dose, but thereafter oral therapy (25 mg/lg every 6 hours begun concomitantly) should be satisfactory. The better absorption of amoxycillin compared with ampicillin reported in adults has not been confirmed in the newborn infant.

  6. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Gould, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have made direct radiographic magnification of the newborn infant clinically feasible. A microfocus radiographic tube and a rare-earth, high-speed recording system were combined to obtain more than 2,000 radiographs at magnifications of 2 to 2.5. Special positioning devices permitted imaging of even those infants confined to incubators and connected to life-supporting systems. When quantitatively compared with three conventional contact radiographic systems with respect to resolution, contrast, and noise, magnification radiography showed overall superiority of image characteristics. Definition of subtle abnormalities and anatomically small structures permitted diagnoses which could not be made from conventional images. Furthermore, infant radiation exposure was markedly less (15 mR (3.9 mC/kg) maximum skin exposure) as compared with conventional contact radiographic systems (24 mR(6.1 mC/kg) to 45 mR (11.6 mC/kg)).

  7. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Gould, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have made direct radiographic magnification of the newborn infant clinically feasible. A microfocus radiographic tube and a rare-earth, high-speed recording system were combined to obtain more than 2,000 radiographs at magnifications of 2-2.5. Special positioning devices permitted imaging of even those infants confined to incubators and connected to life-supporting systems. When quantitatively compared with three conventional contact radiographic systems with respect to resolution, contrast, and noise, magnification radiography showed overall superiority of image characteristics. Definition of subtle abnormalities and anatomically small structures permitted diagnoses which could not be made from conventional images. Furthermore, infant radiation exposure was markedly less (15 mR (3.9 mC/kg) maximum skin exposure) as compared with conventional contact radiographic systems (24 mR (6.1 mC/kg) to 45 mR (11.6 mC/kg)).

  8. Tissue carnitine reserves of newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Shenai, J P; Borum, P R

    1984-07-01

    This study assessed the tissue reserves of carnitine at birth in a group of neonates (n = 22) of varying gestational age dying within 24 h of birth, prior to possible changes in carnitine status induced by postnatal intervention. Tissue carnitine concentration was highest in the muscle in each infant. The mean (+/- SD) muscle carnitine concentration of 8.4 +/- 3.6 nmol/mg noncollagen protein (NCP) in very immature infants (less than or equal to 1000 g birth weight) was significantly lower than the corresponding mean (+/- SD) values of 14.0 +/- 3.2 nmol/mg NCP in larger preterm infants (1001-2500 g; P less than 0.01) and 19.4 +/- 2.6 nmol/mg NCP in term infants (greater than or equal to 2501 g; P less than 0.001). Muscle carnitine concentration correlated positively with gestational age (r = 0.832; P less than 0.001) and with body dimensions. Liver and heart carnitine concentrations did not correlate significantly with gestation or body dimensions. The mean (+/- SD) liver carnitine concentration for all the neonates as a group was 4.1 +/- 1.5 nmol/mg NCP. The mean (+/- SD) heart carnitine concentration was 4.7 +/- 1.3 nmol/mg NCP. In comparison to adult controls, tissue carnitine concentrations were markedly lower in neonates, particularly in immature newborns. These data suggest that newborn infants, especially premature babies, are born with limited tissue reserves of carnitine and are therefore at an increased risk for developing carnitine deficiency and its adverse effects in the postnatal period, particularly if maintained on carnitine-free intravenous nutrition for prolonged periods of time.

  9. Transcutaneous bilirubin measurement in healthy Saudi term newborns

    PubMed Central

    Alsaedi, Saad A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the accuracy of transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) measurement in healthy, jaundiced Saudi term newborns. Methods: This prospective, cohort study was carried out from January 2009 to December 2012 on jaundiced, term infants admitted at the King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Paired TcB and total serum bilirubin (TSB) from healthy jaundiced term newborns were obtained. The correlation and the mean difference between the 2 methods were calculated, and Bhutani nomogram for prediction of TSB by TcB was used. Any bilirubin level at low and above the intermediate risk zone was considered significant. Results: We obtained 665 paired TcB and TSB measurements from 665 newborns. The mean age at bilirubin measurement was 44.2 ± 21 hour. Mean TSB was 147 ± 45 µmol/L, and TcB was 156 ± 50 µmol/L. Linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation between TcB and TSB (r: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82-0.86; p<0.001). The TcB tends to overestimate TSB. The mean difference between paired TcB and TSB was 17 µmol /L with a 95% CI of 40 ± 77 µmol/L. The TcB was sensitive, but less specific. The TcB sensitivity was 83% and specificity was 71% to predict TSB during the first 72 hours of life for the whole study group. The positive predictive value was 63%, and negative predictive value was 87%. Conclusion: As found in this study, among the jaundiced healthy term Saudi newborns, TcB measurement provided accurate estimates of TSB values. The TcB measurements can be used effectively to screen newborns for significant jaundice. PMID:26837395

  10. Necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants and newborns.

    PubMed

    Mϋller, M J; Paul, T; Seeliger, S

    2016-09-16

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common acquired disease of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in premature infants and newborns. It is defined as an ulcerative inflammation of the intestinal wall. The clinical signs of incipient NEC are often very discrete, and range from localized intestinal symptoms to generalized signs of sepsis. NEC is classified depending on its severity into disease states according to the modified Bell's Classification. Treatment of NEC ranges, depending on its severity, from a conservative therapeutic approach to surgery with resection of the affected parts of the intestine. Mortality is considerably high in extremely small preterm infants reaching up to 42% of the affected children. Measures such as breastfeeding or alternatively nutrition with pasteurized human donor milk from a milk bank, administration of probiotics, avoidance of histamine type II receptor antagonists, and restrictive antibiotic treatment should be considered early on for prevention of NEC. PMID:27589549

  11. Newborn infants detect the beat in music.

    PubMed

    Winkler, István; Háden, Gábor P; Ladinig, Olivia; Sziller, István; Honing, Henkjan

    2009-02-17

    To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the origin of music. Theorists are divided on the issue whether this ability is innate or learned. We show that newborn infants develop expectation for the onset of rhythmic cycles (the downbeat), even when it is not marked by stress or other distinguishing spectral features. Omitting the downbeat elicits brain activity associated with violating sensory expectations. Thus, our results strongly support the view that beat perception is innate.

  12. Plasma Kisspeptin Levels in Newborn Infants with Breast Enlargement

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Avni; Orbak, Zerrin; Polat, Harun; Çayır, Atilla; Erdil, Abdullah; Döneray, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Kisspeptin levels have been reported in children with premature thelarche, precocious puberty and adolescent gynecomastia, but there are no reports on kisspeptin levels in the neonatal period. This study aimed to investigate plasma kisspeptin hormone levels in newborns with and without breast enlargement. Methods: Plasma kisspeptin levels and other related biochemical variables were investigated in this prospective study conducted on 40 (20 girls and 20 boys) newborn infants with breast enlargement and on 40 healthy control infants (20 girls and 20 boys). Two-milliliter venous blood samples were taken in hemogram tubes with K2EDTA. Kisspeptin assays were performed using the enzyme-immunoassay method. Results: Mean plasma kisspeptin levels were 0.6±0.2 ng/mL in the study group and 0.5±0.2 ng/mL in the control group. Plasma kisspeptin concentrations were significantly higher in the study group (p=0.039) and also showed a correlation with serum prolactin levels (p=0.006). Significant correlations were also determined between plasma kisspeptin and luteinizing hormone concentrations (p=0.05, r=0.312). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that plasma kisspeptin and serum prolactin levels may be involved in the physiopathology of breast enlargement in newborns. PMID:26831552

  13. [2 newborn infants with severe arrhythmia caused by hyperkalemia].

    PubMed

    Maclaine Pont, J; Hack, W W; Sobotka-Plojhar, M; Ekkelkamp, S

    1987-02-01

    Two newborn infants with ventricular arrhythmias secondary to hyperkalaemia are presented. One child also showed a decreased serum calcium concentration. There is scanty literature concerning the often life threatening cardiac arrhythmias due to hyperkalaemia in the newborn infants. Treatment of the cardiac arrhythmias require intravenous calcium gluconat and sodium bicarbonate infusion beside lowering the serum potassium level in the usual way.

  14. Non-invasive distress evaluation in preterm newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, C; Bocchi, L; Orlandi, S; Calisti, M; Spaccaterra, L; Donzelli, G P

    2008-01-01

    With the increased survival of very preterm infants, there is a growing concern for their developmental outcomes. Infant cry characteristics reflect the development and possibly the integrity of the central nervous system. In this paper, relationships between fundamental frequency (F(0)) and vocal tract resonance frequencies (F(1)-F(3)) are investigated for a set of preterm newborns, by means of a multi-purpose voice analysis tool (BioVoice), characterised by high-resolution and tracking capabilities. Also, first results about possible distress occurring during cry in preterm newborn infants, as related to the decrease of central blood oxygenation, are presented. To this aim, a recording system (Newborn Recorder) has been developed, that allows synchronised, non-invasive monitoring of blood oxygenation and audio recordings of newborn infant's cry. The method has been applied to preterm newborns at the Intensive Care Unit, A.Meyer Children Hospital, Firenze, Italy.

  15. [THE COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF KAOLIN-ACTIVATED THROMBOELASTOGRAPHY IN HEALTHY NEWBORNS AND NEWBORNS WITH HEART AILMENTS].

    PubMed

    Leonov, N P; Karas'kov, A M; Litasova, E E; Strunin, O V; Karmadonova, N A; Akopov, G D; Vishegorodtseva, L I

    2016-02-01

    The study was carried out to diferentiate reference values for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in newborns with congenital heart disease. The study included two groups ofpatients. The first one consisted of 62 newborns with congenital heart disease and the second one consisted of 35 healthy newborns. The results of kaolin-activated thromboelastography implemented in groups are evaluated as condition of normal coagulation. The valuable diferences of homeostasis system in healthy newborns and newborns with congenital heart disease (without severe concomitant pathology) are not established. They have similar indicators of kaolin-activated thromboelastography. The derived results can be applied as standards in full-term newborns with congenital heart disease. PMID:27455561

  16. Maternal Imitation of Their Newborn Infants: Momma See, Momma Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Patricia L.; And Others

    Mothers' imitation of their infants during the first 3 days of life is examined in this study. Twenty-four newborn infants (12 males, 12 females) and their mothers participated in the study. On each of the first 3 days following delivery, mother-infant pairs were videotaped in a non-feeding interaction for approximately 5 minutes while the infants…

  17. Red blood cell transfusion in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Robin K; Jefferies, Ann L

    2014-04-01

    Red blood cell transfusion is an important and frequent component of neonatal intensive care. The present position statement addresses the methods and indications for red blood cell transfusion of the newborn, based on a review of the current literature. The most frequent indications for blood transfusion in the newborn are the acute treatment of perinatal hemorrhagic shock and the recurrent correction of anemia of prematurity. Perinatal hemorrhagic shock requires immediate treatment with large quantities of red blood cells; the effects of massive transfusion on other blood components must be considered. Some guidelines are now available from clinical trials investigating transfusion in anemia of prematurity; however, considerable uncertainty remains. There is weak evidence that cognitive impairment may be more severe at follow-up in extremely low birth weight infants transfused at lower hemoglobin thresholds; therefore, these thresholds should be maintained by transfusion therapy. Although the risks of transfusion have declined considerably in recent years, they can be minimized further by carefully restricting neonatal blood sampling. PMID:24855419

  18. Can Conditioned Responses be Established in the Newborn Infant: 1971?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sameroff, Arnold J.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence indicates that the newborn infant must first develop cognitive systems, through his experience with various stimuli, to differentiate each modality separately before he can integrate any two modalities in classical conditioning. (Author/NH)

  19. Detecting the temporal structure of sound sequences in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Háden, Gábor P; Honing, Henkjan; Török, Miklós; Winkler, István

    2015-04-01

    Most high-level auditory functions require one to detect the onset and offset of sound sequences as well as registering the rate at which sounds are presented within the sound trains. By recording event-related brain potentials to onsets and offsets of tone trains as well as to changes in the presentation rate, we tested whether these fundamental auditory capabilities are functional at birth. Each of these events elicited significant event-related potential components in sleeping healthy neonates. The data thus demonstrate that the newborn brain is sensitive to these acoustic features suggesting that infants are geared towards the temporal aspects of segregating sound sources, speech and music perception already at birth.

  20. Fathers' Affectionate Stimulation and Caregiving Behaviors with Newborn Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawin, Douglas B.; Parke, Ross D.

    1979-01-01

    Overall findings from this series of studies indicate that fathers are as competent as mothers in providing affection, stimulation, and the necessary care for newborn infants. During feeding in the neonatal period, fathers have been found to be just as active participants in dyadic interactions with their infants as are mothers. (Author)

  1. Dissociation between small and large numerosities in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Coubart, Aurélie; Izard, Véronique; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Marie, Julien; Streri, Arlette

    2014-01-01

    In the first year of life, infants possess two cognitive systems encoding numerical information: one for processing the numerosity of sets of 4 or more items, and the second for tracking up to 3 objects in parallel. While a previous study showed the former system to be already present a few hours after birth, it is unknown whether the latter system is functional at this age. Here, we adapt the auditory-visual matching paradigm that previously revealed sensitivity to large numerosities to test sensitivity to numerosities spanning the range from 2 to 12. Across studies, newborns discriminated pairs of large numerosities in a 3:1 ratio, even when the smaller numerosity was 3 (3 vs. 9). In contrast, newborn infants failed to discriminate pairs including the numerosity 2, even at the same ratio (2 vs. 6). These findings mirror the dissociation that has been reported with older infants, albeit with a discontinuity situated between numerosities 2 and 3. Two alternative explanations are compatible with our results: either newborn infants have a separate system for processing small sets, and the capacity of this system is limited to 2 objects; or newborn infants possess only one system to represent numerosities, and this system either is not functional or is extremely imprecise when it is applied to small numerosities.

  2. Factors influencing surfactant composition in the newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Obladen, M

    1978-07-01

    In order to evaluate the surfactant maturation of the neonate, tracheal aspirates were analyzed in 84 newborn infants with 12h of birth. Using 2-dimensional thin-layer chromatography, 9 different phospholipids were identified. Dynamic surface tension measurements were performed with a modified Wilhelmy balance. Five different groups of infants with typical phospholipid patterns were characterized: i.e., 1. Normal term newborn. 2. RDS in the preterm infant. 3. Acceleration of lung maturity in preterm infants without RDS. 4. Retardation in term infants with RDS. 5. Therapeutic induction of pulmonary maturity in preterm infants following maternal glucocorticoid administration. Mature lung effluent contains high concentrations of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phsophatidylglycerol (PG). In infants with RDS, PC is low and PG absent. Accelerated lung maturity was observed after chronic prenatal stress, such as prolonged rupture of the membranes, chronic vaginal bleeding, and maternal hepatitis or drug addiction. Retardation of pulmonary maturity was seen in infants with alpha-1-AT-deficiency, maternal diabetes and maternal hypothyroidism. Administration of methylprednisolone to the mother 24 h to 72h before birth induced both the synthesis of PC and PG in the preterm infants, resulting in an almost full-term phospholipid pattern as early as 31 weeks of gestation. The significance of these factors on the pathogenesis of RDS is discussed.

  3. Jaundice in Newborn Infants (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... infants The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/healthtopics.html ) ● American Academy of Pediatrics ( www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/pages/Jaundice.aspx ) ● Parents of Infants ...

  4. Management of Newborn Infants with Phenylketonuria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services Administration (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Community Health Services.

    The booklet covers the identification, diagnosis, and clinical treatment of newborns with Phenylketonuria (PKU), an inborn error of metabolism, which, if untreated, can lead to mental retardation. An initial section considers biochemical and genetic factors of PKU including a diagram of aromatic amino acid hydroxylation systems. Screening…

  5. [Newborn and infant fractures secondary to traditional massage].

    PubMed

    Mboutol-Mandavo, C; N'dour, O; Ouedraogo, S F; Missengue-Bosseba, R; Ndiaye, D; Ngom, G

    2016-09-01

    The traditional massage of the newborn and young infant is an ancient practice in Africa and other regions. It has many benefits that are currently recognized, even in Western societies. However, it can be dangerous. We report two cases of fractures of the femur and clavicle that occurred in a 17-day-old newborn and a 1-month-old infant secondary to a traditional massage. In both cases, there was no concept of trauma or a history of osteogenesis imperfecta in the family or the presence of other fractures suggesting abuse. We concluded in a fracture caused by traditional massage in both cases. Given its many benefits as described in the literature, the traditional massage of young infants cannot be considered a harmful practice. However, it should be practiced with care to prevent the occurrence of such complications. PMID:27364938

  6. Phospholipid Species in Newborn and 4 Month Old Infants after Consumption of Different Formulas or Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Olaf; Fleddermann, Manja; Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for neuronal and cognitive development and are ingredients of infant formulae that are recommended but there is no evidence based minimal supplementation level available. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the effect of supplemented AA and DHA on phospholipid metabolism. Methods Plasma samples of a randomized, double-blind infant feeding trial were used for the analyses of phospholipid species by flow-injection mass spectrometry. Healthy term infants consumed isoenergetic formulae (intervention formula with equal amounts of AA and DHA—IF, control formula without additional AA and DHA—CF) from the first month of life until the age of 120 days. A group of breast milk (BM) -fed infants was followed as a reference. Results The plasma profile detected in newborns was different from 4 month old infants, irrespective of study group. Most relevant changes were seen in higher level of LPC16:1, LPC20:4, PC32:1, PC34:1 and PC36:4 and lower level of LPC18:0, LPC18:2, PC32:2, PC36:2 and several ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in newborns. The sum of all AA and DHA species at 4 month old infants in the CF group showed level of 40% (AA) and 51% (DHA) of newborns. The supplemented amount of DHA resulted in phospholipid level comparable to BM infants, but AA phospholipids were lower than in BM infants. Interestingly, relative contribution of DHA was higher in ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in CF fed infants, but IF and BM fed infants showed higher overall ether-linked phosphatidylcholines levels. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that infant plasma phospholipid profile changes remarkably from newborn over time and is dependent on the dietary fatty acid composition. A supplementation of an infant formula with AA and DHA resulted in increased related phospholipid species. PMID:27571269

  7. Premedication for endotracheal intubation in the newborn infant

    PubMed Central

    Barrington, KJ

    2011-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation, a common procedure in newborn care, is associated with pain and cardiorespiratory instability. The use of premedication reduces the adverse physiological responses of bradycardia, systemic hypertension, intracranial hypertension and hypoxia. Perhaps more importantly, premedication decreases the pain and discomfort associated with the procedure. All newborn infants, therefore, should receive analgesic premedication for endotracheal intubation except in emergency situations. Based on current evidence, an optimal protocol for premedication is to administer a vagolytic (intravenous [IV] atropine 20 μg/kg), a rapid-acting analgesic (IV fentanyl 3 μg/kg to 5 μg/kg; slow infusion) and a short-duration muscle relaxant (IV succinylcholine 2 mg/kg). Intubations should be performed or supervised by trained staff, with close monitoring of the infant throughout. PMID:22379381

  8. Fetal distress and the condition of newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, G S; Molloy, P M; Johnson, P; Stirrat, G M; Turnbull, A C

    1983-01-01

    In a prospective audit of the obstetric management of 1210 consecutive deliveries the association was investigated between the need for operative delivery for fetal distress during labour and the condition of the newborn infant. Operative delivery was performed for only 11.5% of the newborn infants with severe acidosis at birth (umbilical artery pH less than 7.12, base deficit greater than 12 mmol (mEq)/1), 24.1% of those with an Apgar score less than 7 at one minute, and 15.8% of those with both severe acidosis and a one minute Apgar score less than 7. Most of the infants delivered operatively were in a vigorous condition at birth and did not have severe acidosis. Fetal blood sampling was done in 4.0% of labours. As none of the fetal blood values were less than 7.20 and only three of the infants sampled in utero suffered severe acidosis at birth, fetal blood sampling would have had to be performed much more often to provide a useful guide to metabolic state at birth. While the large majority of "at risk" fetuses had continuous fetal heart rate monitoring in labour, this had not been provided in 48.7% of the labours of infants with severe acidosis, 38.7% of infants with a one minute Apgar score less than 7, and 47.4% of infants with both severe acidosis and a one minute Apgar score less than 7. Continuous fetal heart rate monitoring was associated with a much higher incidence of operative delivery for fetal distress than was intermittent fetal heart rate auscultation. These results suggest an urgent need to review present methods for assessing the intrapartum condition of the fetus, making the diagnosis of fetal distress, and assessing the condition of the infant at birth. PMID:6412897

  9. Pityriasis rosea in pregnancy: report of a spousal occurrence and craniosynostosis in the healthy newborn

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Tiffany Y.; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pityriasis rosea is a papulosquamous disease. It may occur during pregnancy; in this setting, it has occasionally been associated with adverse outcomes. Purpose: A woman who developed pityriasis rosea at the beginning of her eighth week of gestation is described. The outcomes in newborns delivered by pregnant women who developed pityriasis rosea during gestation are summarized. Method: A 28-year-old woman developed pityriasis rosea during her eighth week of pregnancy. Her husband had pityriasis rosea two months earlier. PubMed was searched for the following terms: conjugal, craniosynostosis, newborn, pityriasis, pregnancy, rosea, sagittal, spouse. The papers were reviewed and the references cited were evaluated. Results: Our patient delivered a healthy male infant after 41 weeks of gestation. He had normal weight, height, and Apgar scores. Isolated sagittal craniosynostosis was diagnosed and was successfully treated at nine weeks after birth without complications. Conclusion: Several retrospective studies have investigated the possibility of adverse outcomes in infants born to women who developed pityriasis rosea during pregnancy, such as stillbirth, low gestational weight, hypotonia, and premature delivery. However, there are also reports of healthy newborns in women who have had pityriasis rosea during gestation. Our patient carried the fetus one week post-term and delivered a healthy boy via C-section; isolated sagittal craniosynostosis was later diagnosed and successfully repaired. The occurrence of craniosynostosis in a woman who developed pityriasis rosea during her first trimester of pregnancy may be two coincidental events.

  10. Pityriasis rosea in pregnancy: report of a spousal occurrence and craniosynostosis in the healthy newborn

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Tiffany Y.; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pityriasis rosea is a papulosquamous disease. It may occur during pregnancy; in this setting, it has occasionally been associated with adverse outcomes. Purpose: A woman who developed pityriasis rosea at the beginning of her eighth week of gestation is described. The outcomes in newborns delivered by pregnant women who developed pityriasis rosea during gestation are summarized. Method: A 28-year-old woman developed pityriasis rosea during her eighth week of pregnancy. Her husband had pityriasis rosea two months earlier. PubMed was searched for the following terms: conjugal, craniosynostosis, newborn, pityriasis, pregnancy, rosea, sagittal, spouse. The papers were reviewed and the references cited were evaluated. Results: Our patient delivered a healthy male infant after 41 weeks of gestation. He had normal weight, height, and Apgar scores. Isolated sagittal craniosynostosis was diagnosed and was successfully treated at nine weeks after birth without complications. Conclusion: Several retrospective studies have investigated the possibility of adverse outcomes in infants born to women who developed pityriasis rosea during pregnancy, such as stillbirth, low gestational weight, hypotonia, and premature delivery. However, there are also reports of healthy newborns in women who have had pityriasis rosea during gestation. Our patient carried the fetus one week post-term and delivered a healthy boy via C-section; isolated sagittal craniosynostosis was later diagnosed and successfully repaired. The occurrence of craniosynostosis in a woman who developed pityriasis rosea during her first trimester of pregnancy may be two coincidental events. PMID:27648382

  11. [Spinal sonography of a newborn infant with postpartal paraplegia].

    PubMed

    Sauter, R; Klemm, T

    1988-01-01

    Cranial ultrasonography is a well established diagnostic procedure. In contrast ultrasonography of the spine and the spinal cord is less frequently used. It is indicated in infants with spinal dysraphism and may help to diagnose patients with meningomyelocele, spinal lipoma or cord tethering. We present a newborn with parplectic symptoms as a result of an epidural hematoma, which could be demonstrated exclusively by ultrasonography. We want to stress that spinal ultrasonography is a method of high clinical value.

  12. Confirmation of correct tracheal tube placement in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Schmölzer, Georg M; O'Reilly, Megan; Davis, Peter G; Cheung, Po-Yin; Roehr, Charles Christoph

    2013-06-01

    Tracheal intubation remains a common procedure during neonatal intensive care. Rapid confirmation of correct tube placement is important because tube malposition is associated with serious adverse outcomes. The current gold standard test to confirm tube position is a chest radiograph, however this is often delayed until after ventilation has commenced. Hence, point of care methods to confirm correct tube placement have been developed. The aim of this article is to review the available literature on tube placement in newborn infants. We reviewed books, resuscitation manuals and articles from 1830 to the present with the search terms "Infant, Newborn", "Endotracheal intubation", "Resuscitation", "Clinical signs", "Radiography", "Respiratory Function Tests", "Laryngoscopy", "Ultrasonography", and "Bronchoscopy". Various techniques have been studied to help clinicians assess tube placement. However, despite 85 years of clinical practice, the search for higher success rates and quicker intubation continues. Currently, chest radiography remains the gold standard test to confirm tube position. However, rigorous evaluation of new techniques is required to ensure the safety of newborn infants.

  13. Safe Sleep and Skin-to-Skin Care in the Neonatal Period for Healthy Term Newborns.

    PubMed

    Feldman-Winter, Lori; Goldsmith, Jay P

    2016-09-01

    Skin-to-skin care (SSC) and rooming-in have become common practice in the newborn period for healthy newborns with the implementation of maternity care practices that support breastfeeding as delineated in the World Health Organization's "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding." SSC and rooming-in are supported by evidence that indicates that the implementation of these practices increases overall and exclusive breastfeeding, safer and healthier transitions, and improved maternal-infant bonding. In some cases, however, the practice of SSC and rooming-in may pose safety concerns, particularly with regard to sleep. There have been several recent case reports and case series of severe and sudden unexpected postnatal collapse in the neonatal period among otherwise healthy newborns and near fatal or fatal events related to sleep, suffocation, and falls from adult hospital beds. Although these are largely case reports, there are potential dangers of unobserved SSC immediately after birth and throughout the postpartum hospital period as well as with unobserved rooming-in for at-risk situations. Moreover, behaviors that are modeled in the hospital after birth, such as sleep position, are likely to influence sleeping practices after discharge. Hospitals and birthing centers have found it difficult to develop policies that will allow SSC and rooming-in to continue in a safe manner. This clinical report is intended for birthing centers and delivery hospitals caring for healthy newborns to assist in the establishment of appropriate SSC and safe sleep policies. PMID:27550975

  14. Metabolomic Research on Newborn Infants With Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Xin-Xin; Li, Xiang-Wen; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    , hydroxyacetyl carnitine, and hydroxyhexadecancenyl carnitine (P < 0.05). Among newborns with IUGR, metabolites differed among males and females, mainly in aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and hexacosenoic acid (P < 0.05). Birth weight had no significant effects on free carnitine concentration or on the ratios of free carnitine and acylcarnitine to total carnitine (P < 0.05). IUGR infants exhibit significant abnormalities in amino acid and acylcarnitine metabolism, especially those with birth weight below the third percentile. With increasing birth weight, amino acids and acylcarnitines showed compensatory increases or reductions, and when birth weight reached the 10th percentile, the newborns with IUGR resembled the AGA newborns. PMID:27124067

  15. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of neuroinfections in the newborn and infants].

    PubMed

    Filippkin, M A; Kal'naia, T V; Kal'noĭ, A M

    1993-01-01

    The authors discuss the potentialities of the ultrasonic method in the diagnosis of brain involvement in the newborns and infants with neuroinfections. Ultrasonic examination was carried out in 75 infants aged 4 days to 15 months. Fifteen infants suffered from specific neuroinfections that developed in utero (toxoplasmosis, cytomegalia, listerosis), the rest 60 developed inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (meningitis, meningoencephalitis, ventriculitis). The examinations were performed in the real time regimen with a frequency of 3.5-7.5 MHz. In all the cases the diagnosis was confirmed by clinical and laboratory findings. Specific changes in the brain morphology were detected at the early stages of inflammatory processes of various origins. Ultrasonic examinations help identify the type of the pathologic process, its dissemination and complications (dislocation, cerebral ventricles dilatation, abscesses, hygromas).

  16. Glutamine supplementation in the newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Parimi, Prabhu S; Kalhan, Satish C

    2007-02-01

    Glutamine is a non-essential amino acid that can be synthesized de novo from glutamate. This synthesis can be increased by intravenous infusion of carbon precursors (alpha-ketoglutarate or amino acids) in adults and in infants. The metabolism of glutamine is highly compartmentalized between the splanchnic tissues and the periphery, so that orally administered glutamine is completely metabolized in the splanchnic compartment. Data from studies in adults and children show that plasma levels of glutamine decline during acute stress and illness. Because of its importance in several physiological functions (the demonstrated benefits of supplemental glutamine in adult burns and trauma patients and the inhibitory effect on proteolysis in the skeletal muscle in vitro), it has been suggested that during 'acute stress' the demands of glutamine outweigh its de novo synthesis, resulting in a fall in plasma glutamine levels. As a consequence, glutamine has been considered a 'conditionally essential' amino acid. Because of its instability in solution, glutamine is not routinely added to the parenteral amino acid mixtures. A number of clinical trials of parenteral and enteral supplementation of glutamine have been performed. The outcome measures examined have varied between acute effects and long-term complex clinical events such as mortality and risk of infections. Although acute studies in LBW babies have shown some beneficial effects such as changes in protein metabolism and activation of immune system, these have not been translated into prolonged advantages such as reduction in mortality or in nosocomial infection. The reasons for these differences are discussed.

  17. Frequency of enzyme deficiency variants in erythrocytes of newborn infants

    SciTech Connect

    Mohrenweiser, H.W.

    1981-08-01

    The frequency of enzyme deficiency variants, defined as alleles whose products are either absent or almost devoid of normal activity in erythrocytes, was determined for nine erythrocyte enzymes in some 675 newborn infants and in approximately 200 adults. Examples of this type of genetic abnormality, which in the homozygous condition are often associated with significant health consequences, were detected for seven of the nine enzymes studied. Fifteen inherited enzyme deficiency variants in 1809 determinations from adults were identified. Seven of the deficiency variants involved triosephosphate isomerase, a frequency of 0.01 in the newborn population. The average frequency of 2.4/1000 is 2 to 3 times the frequency observed for rare electrophoretic variants of erythrocyte enzymes in this same population.

  18. Prevention of Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding in Newborn Infants: A Position Paper by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mihatsch, Walter A; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Mis, Nataša F; Hojsak, Iva; Hulst, Jessie; Indrio, Flavia; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Mlgaard, Christian; Embleton, Nicholas; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) due to physiologically low vitamin K plasma concentrations is a serious risk for newborn and young infants and can be largely prevented by adequate vitamin K supplementation. The aim of this position paper is to define the condition, describe the prevalence, discuss current prophylaxis practices and outcomes, and to provide recommendations for the prevention of VKDB in healthy term newborns and infants. All newborn infants should receive vitamin K prophylaxis and the date, dose, and mode of administration should be documented. Parental refusal of vitamin K prophylaxis after adequate information is provided should be recorded especially because of the risk of late VKDB. Healthy newborn infants should either receive 1 mg of vitamin K1 by intramuscular injection at birth; or 3 × 2 mg vitamin K1 orally at birth, at 4 to 6 days and at 4 to 6 weeks; or 2 mg vitamin K1 orally at birth, and a weekly dose of 1 mg orally for 3 months. Intramuscular application is the preferred route for efficiency and reliability of administration. The success of an oral policy depends on compliance with the protocol and this may vary between populations and healthcare settings. If the infant vomits or regurgitates the formulation within 1 hour of administration, repeating the oral dose may be appropriate. The oral route is not appropriate for preterm infants and for newborns who have cholestasis or impaired intestinal absorption or are too unwell to take oral vitamin K1, or those whose mothers have taken medications that interfere with vitamin K metabolism. Parents who receive prenatal education about the importance of vitamin K prophylaxis may be more likely to comply with local procedures.

  19. Prevention of Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding in Newborn Infants: A Position Paper by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mihatsch, Walter A; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Mis, Nataša F; Hojsak, Iva; Hulst, Jessie; Indrio, Flavia; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Mlgaard, Christian; Embleton, Nicholas; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) due to physiologically low vitamin K plasma concentrations is a serious risk for newborn and young infants and can be largely prevented by adequate vitamin K supplementation. The aim of this position paper is to define the condition, describe the prevalence, discuss current prophylaxis practices and outcomes, and to provide recommendations for the prevention of VKDB in healthy term newborns and infants. All newborn infants should receive vitamin K prophylaxis and the date, dose, and mode of administration should be documented. Parental refusal of vitamin K prophylaxis after adequate information is provided should be recorded especially because of the risk of late VKDB. Healthy newborn infants should either receive 1 mg of vitamin K1 by intramuscular injection at birth; or 3 × 2 mg vitamin K1 orally at birth, at 4 to 6 days and at 4 to 6 weeks; or 2 mg vitamin K1 orally at birth, and a weekly dose of 1 mg orally for 3 months. Intramuscular application is the preferred route for efficiency and reliability of administration. The success of an oral policy depends on compliance with the protocol and this may vary between populations and healthcare settings. If the infant vomits or regurgitates the formulation within 1 hour of administration, repeating the oral dose may be appropriate. The oral route is not appropriate for preterm infants and for newborns who have cholestasis or impaired intestinal absorption or are too unwell to take oral vitamin K1, or those whose mothers have taken medications that interfere with vitamin K metabolism. Parents who receive prenatal education about the importance of vitamin K prophylaxis may be more likely to comply with local procedures. PMID:27050049

  20. Soy protein-based infant formulas with supplemental fructooligosaccharides: gastrointestinal tolerance and hydration status in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Lasekan, John; Baggs, Geraldine; Acosta, Sonja; Mackey, Amy

    2015-04-22

    Unlike milk-based infant formulas, soy-based infant formulas containing supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have not been clinically evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, 28 day parallel feeding trial compared gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance and hydration in healthy term newborn infants fed either a commercialized soy formula (with history of safe use) containing sucrose as 20% of total carbohydrate, no supplemental short-chain FOS (scFOS) and no mixed carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene) as a control (CF, n = 62 infants) or one of two experimental soy-based formulas, EF1 (n = 64) and EF2 (n = 62) containing scFOS (2.5 g/L) and mixed carotenoids. EF1 differed from EF2 by containing sucrose. Results indicated no significant study group differences (p > 0.05) in study completion rates (CF = 81, EF1 = 86, & EF2 = 87%), growth, mean rank stool consistency, stool frequency, formula intake, spit-up/vomit, and safety measures (urine specific gravity, USG; hydration status and adverse events). Mean USGs for study groups were normal (<1.03). The EF1 > CF group in percent yellow stools (p < 0.01 at age 14 days). In conclusion, the study suggested that term infants fed soy-based formulas supplemented with scFOS and mixed carotenoids, with or without sucrose in the 1st 35 days of infancy demonstrated good tolerance and hydration comparable to the control soy-based formula with history of safe use.

  1. Soy Protein-Based Infant Formulas with Supplemental Fructooligosaccharides: Gastrointestinal Tolerance and Hydration Status in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lasekan, John; Baggs, Geraldine; Acosta, Sonja; Mackey, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Unlike milk-based infant formulas, soy-based infant formulas containing supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have not been clinically evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, 28 day parallel feeding trial compared gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance and hydration in healthy term newborn infants fed either a commercialized soy formula (with history of safe use) containing sucrose as 20% of total carbohydrate, no supplemental short-chain FOS (scFOS) and no mixed carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene) as a control (CF, n = 62 infants) or one of two experimental soy-based formulas, EF1 (n = 64) and EF2 (n = 62) containing scFOS (2.5 g/L) and mixed carotenoids. EF1 differed from EF2 by containing sucrose. Results indicated no significant study group differences (p > 0.05) in study completion rates (CF = 81, EF1 = 86, & EF2 = 87%), growth, mean rank stool consistency, stool frequency, formula intake, spit-up/vomit, and safety measures (urine specific gravity, USG; hydration status and adverse events). Mean USGs for study groups were normal (<1.03). The EF1 > CF group in percent yellow stools (p < 0.01 at age 14 days). In conclusion, the study suggested that term infants fed soy-based formulas supplemented with scFOS and mixed carotenoids, with or without sucrose in the 1st 35 days of infancy demonstrated good tolerance and hydration comparable to the control soy-based formula with history of safe use. PMID:25912040

  2. The significance of skin color of a newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Fuller, R L; Geis, S

    1985-07-01

    The concern for the health, development, and well-being of infants and children is one shared by pediatricians and child psychiatrists. At times, parents present issues to either one specialist or the other that need to be shared to meet the goal of fostering physical and psychological health in children. One of the seldom shared issues is the meaning of the skin color of a newborn in a minority (black) or interracial (black-white) family and the implications for the nonminority pediatrician. Through a description and discussion of four clinical cases, we delineate the parental, familial, and societal issues involved and suggest interventions.

  3. Serum leptin levels in preterm, healthy and sick-term newborns.

    PubMed

    Su, Pen-Hua; Wang, Shu-Li; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Lai, Cheng-Pin Chang; Jian, Shu-Hua

    2002-01-01

    Leptin, a hormone that signals the brain about the status of body (fat) energy stores, has recently been shown to play a role in the regulation of several hypothalamic pituitary axes, including the growth hormone axis. To investigate a potential association of serum leptin concentrations and clinical condition in preterm, sick term and healthy term newborns, serum leptin concentrations were evaluated in 104 newborns. Twenty-eight of them were healthy term (18 males and 10 females; gestational age, 37-42 weeks), 21 were sick term (12 males and 9 females; gestational age, 37-42 weeks) and 55 were preterm neonates (35 males and 20 females; gestational age: 26-37 weeks). Leptin values correlate positively with birth weight, birth length, head circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference, body surface, weight/length ratio, and gestational age (r = 0.38, 0.42, 0.29, 0.21, 0.29, 0.40, 0.31 and 0.28), respectively. The concentrations of leptin are statistically significantly higher (p < 0.05) in term neonates (3.02 +/- 2.94 ng/ml) than preterm neonates (1.93 +/- 2.21 ng/ml). Female infants also have significantly higher (p < 0.05) serum leptin values than male infants in preterm and healthy term groups. We also found leptin present in venous blood after 26 weeks of gestation. PMID:12607479

  4. Buen Comienzo, Buen Futuro: Su Recien Nacido. (Healthy Start, Grow Smart: Your Newborn).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet offers guidance to parents in caring for their newborn babies. Advice is given on the following topics: (1) newborn health screening; (2) what a healthy newborn looks like; (3) newborn reflexes; (4) baby checkups; (5) fathers' role; (6) the baby blues; (7) sleeping position; (8) breast milk; (9) breast feeding; (10) bottle feeding;…

  5. Nemaline myopathy in a newborn infant: a rare muscle disorder.

    PubMed

    Olukman, O; Calkavur, S; Diniz, G; Unalp, A; Atlihan, F

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous muscle disorder, defined by the presence of characteristic nemaline bodies on muscle biopsy. The disease has a wide spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from forms with neonatal onset and fatal outcome to asymptomatic forms. The neonatal form is severe and usually fatal. The clinical variability, with differing age of onset and severity of symptoms makes the diagnosis difficult during infancy. There is no curative treatment. L-tyrosine may prevent aspiration by reducing pharyngeal secretions and drooling. Most of the patients die from respiratory and cardiac failure. This article discusses a newborn infant who presented with generalized weakness and respiratory failure. Partial response to L-tyrosine treatment was noted. The case is worth presenting to remind clinicians of congenital myopathies in the differential diagnosis of floppy infant during neonatal period and to emphasize the importance of muscle biopsy in diagnosis. PMID:24166571

  6. Mother-Father-Newborn Interaction: Effects of Maternal Medication, Labor, and Sex of Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Ross D.; And Others

    A research study was conducted to: (1) compare mother and father interactions with their newborn infant; (2) examine the effects of maternal drugs on mother-father infant interaction; (3) explore the impact of variations in length of labor on parent interaction; and (4) examine sex of parent and sex of newborn interactions to determine the nature…

  7. Subfoveal fluid in healthy full term newborns observed by hand-held Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Michelle T; Maldonado, Ramiro S; Toth, Cynthia A; O’Connell, Rachelle V; Chen, Bei Bei; Chiu, Stephanie J; Farsiu, Sina; Wallace, David K; Stinnett, Sandra S; Panayotti, Gabriela M Maradiaga; Swamy, Geeta K; Freedman, Sharon F

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To report retinal findings for healthy newborn infants imaged with hand held Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT). Design Prospective observational case series. Methods Thirty-nine full term newborn infants had dilated retinal examinations by indirect ophthalmoscopy and retinal imaging by handheld SD-OCT, without sedation, at the Duke Birthing Center. Results Of the 39 infants imaged, 44% (17/39) were male. Race/ethnicity composition was 56% white, 38% black, 3% Asian, and 3% Hispanic. Median gestational age was 39 weeks (range 36 to 41). Six of the 39 infants (15%) had bilateral subfoveal fluid on SD-OCT not seen by indirect ophthalmoscopy. Eight infants (21%) had retinal hemorrhages noted on dilated retinal examination, 1 of which had subretinal fluid on SD-OCT. Subretinal fluid was noted on follow up examination to have resolved on SD-OCT 1 to 4 months later. Infants with bilateral subretinal fluid had an older gestational age compared to infants without subretinal fluid (median 40.4 vs. 39.1 weeks, respectively, P=0.03) and were more likely to have had mothers with diabetes (2/6 vs. 0/33, respectively, P=0.02). Vaginal versus C-section delivery was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions Some healthy full term infants have bilateral subfoveal fluid not obvious on dilated retinal examination. This fluid resolves within several months. The visual significance of this finding is unknown, but clinicians should be aware it is common when evaluating newborn infants for retinal pathology using SD-OCT. PMID:21925640

  8. Newborn primate infants are entrained by low intensity lighting

    PubMed Central

    Rivkees, Scott A.; Hofman, Paul L.; Fortman, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    At the present time we do not know when the circadian timing system of human infants becomes responsive to light. Because of human study limitations, it is not currently possible to address this issue in clinical studies. Therefore, to provide insights into when the circadian system of humans becomes responsive to light, baboons were studied. We first assessed if the biological clock located in suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) is responsive to light at birth. When term newborn infants were exposed to bright light at night (5000 lux), SCN metabolic activity and c-fos mRNA expression increased, indicating the presence of photic responsiveness. When photic entrainment of developing rhythmicity was examined in infants, low intensity (200 lux) cycled lighting was sufficient to entrain circadian phase. However, low intensity lighting was not sufficient to induce changes in SCN metabolic activity or c-fos mRNA expression. Phase–response studies indicated that light exposure (200 lux) before the onset of activity most effectively shifted circadian phase. These data provide direct evidence that the SCN are responsive to visually mediated light information in a primate at birth. Further consideration of lighting conditions that infants are exposed to is therefore warranted. PMID:8990202

  9. Infant Directed Speech Enhances Statistical Learning in Newborn Infants: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Bosseler, Alexis N; Teinonen, Tuomas; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2016-01-01

    Statistical learning and the social contexts of language addressed to infants are hypothesized to play important roles in early language development. Previous behavioral work has found that the exaggerated prosodic contours of infant-directed speech (IDS) facilitate statistical learning in 8-month-old infants. Here we examined the neural processes involved in on-line statistical learning and investigated whether the use of IDS facilitates statistical learning in sleeping newborns. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while newborns were exposed to12 pseudo-words, six spoken with exaggerated pitch contours of IDS and six spoken without exaggerated pitch contours (ADS) in ten alternating blocks. We examined whether ERP amplitudes for syllable position within a pseudo-word (word-initial vs. word-medial vs. word-final, indicating statistical word learning) and speech register (ADS vs. IDS) would interact. The ADS and IDS registers elicited similar ERP patterns for syllable position in an early 0-100 ms component but elicited different ERP effects in both the polarity and topographical distribution at 200-400 ms and 450-650 ms. These results provide the first evidence that the exaggerated pitch contours of IDS result in differences in brain activity linked to on-line statistical learning in sleeping newborns. PMID:27617967

  10. Infant Directed Speech Enhances Statistical Learning in Newborn Infants: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Bosseler, Alexis N; Teinonen, Tuomas; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2016-01-01

    Statistical learning and the social contexts of language addressed to infants are hypothesized to play important roles in early language development. Previous behavioral work has found that the exaggerated prosodic contours of infant-directed speech (IDS) facilitate statistical learning in 8-month-old infants. Here we examined the neural processes involved in on-line statistical learning and investigated whether the use of IDS facilitates statistical learning in sleeping newborns. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while newborns were exposed to12 pseudo-words, six spoken with exaggerated pitch contours of IDS and six spoken without exaggerated pitch contours (ADS) in ten alternating blocks. We examined whether ERP amplitudes for syllable position within a pseudo-word (word-initial vs. word-medial vs. word-final, indicating statistical word learning) and speech register (ADS vs. IDS) would interact. The ADS and IDS registers elicited similar ERP patterns for syllable position in an early 0-100 ms component but elicited different ERP effects in both the polarity and topographical distribution at 200-400 ms and 450-650 ms. These results provide the first evidence that the exaggerated pitch contours of IDS result in differences in brain activity linked to on-line statistical learning in sleeping newborns.

  11. Infant Directed Speech Enhances Statistical Learning in Newborn Infants: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Teinonen, Tuomas; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2016-01-01

    Statistical learning and the social contexts of language addressed to infants are hypothesized to play important roles in early language development. Previous behavioral work has found that the exaggerated prosodic contours of infant-directed speech (IDS) facilitate statistical learning in 8-month-old infants. Here we examined the neural processes involved in on-line statistical learning and investigated whether the use of IDS facilitates statistical learning in sleeping newborns. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while newborns were exposed to12 pseudo-words, six spoken with exaggerated pitch contours of IDS and six spoken without exaggerated pitch contours (ADS) in ten alternating blocks. We examined whether ERP amplitudes for syllable position within a pseudo-word (word-initial vs. word-medial vs. word-final, indicating statistical word learning) and speech register (ADS vs. IDS) would interact. The ADS and IDS registers elicited similar ERP patterns for syllable position in an early 0–100 ms component but elicited different ERP effects in both the polarity and topographical distribution at 200–400 ms and 450–650 ms. These results provide the first evidence that the exaggerated pitch contours of IDS result in differences in brain activity linked to on-line statistical learning in sleeping newborns. PMID:27617967

  12. GAMMA-EMITTING RADIONUCLIDES IN NEWBORNS, INFANTS, AND CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    MACDONALD, N S; HUTCHINSON, D L; MOYER, D L; CHEZ, R A

    1963-09-13

    During the period April 1962 to April 1963, 28 newborn infants, 7 stillborns, and 21 children from 4 to 15 years of age were examined for emission of gamma activity in a low-background, high-sensitivity, total-body counting facility. The 21 children contained traces of combined Zr(95) and Nb(95), Ru(103), (106), and Cs(137) in addition to the normal K(40). The greatest concentration of Cs(137) observed was 80 picocuries per kilogram of body weight, or about 4 percent of the natural K(40) radioactivity. Four of the seven stillborns, each counted for 10 hours, shoWed K(40) and traces of Zr(95), Nb(95), and Ru(103), (106). The ratios of Zr(95) to Nb(95) were lower in the stillborns than in their placentas which suggested placental discrimination against Zr(95). The ratios of Cs(137) to K(40) were lower in infants than in children or adults. Thyroid glands obtained atautopsy from 24 infants during April to September 1962 contained no detectable radioiodine ( less than 30 pc).

  13. GAMMA-EMITTING RADIONUCLIDES IN NEWBORNS, INFANTS, AND CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    MACDONALD, N S; HUTCHINSON, D L; MOYER, D L; CHEZ, R A

    1963-09-13

    During the period April 1962 to April 1963, 28 newborn infants, 7 stillborns, and 21 children from 4 to 15 years of age were examined for emission of gamma activity in a low-background, high-sensitivity, total-body counting facility. The 21 children contained traces of combined Zr(95) and Nb(95), Ru(103), (106), and Cs(137) in addition to the normal K(40). The greatest concentration of Cs(137) observed was 80 picocuries per kilogram of body weight, or about 4 percent of the natural K(40) radioactivity. Four of the seven stillborns, each counted for 10 hours, shoWed K(40) and traces of Zr(95), Nb(95), and Ru(103), (106). The ratios of Zr(95) to Nb(95) were lower in the stillborns than in their placentas which suggested placental discrimination against Zr(95). The ratios of Cs(137) to K(40) were lower in infants than in children or adults. Thyroid glands obtained atautopsy from 24 infants during April to September 1962 contained no detectable radioiodine ( less than 30 pc). PMID:14043343

  14. [TREATMENT OF EXTREMELY PREMATURE NEWBORN INFANT WITH INO. CLINICAL CASE].

    PubMed

    Radulova, P; Slancheva, B; Marinov, R

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) from birth in preterm neonates with BPD improves endogenous surfactant function as well as lung growth, angiogenesis, and alveologenesis. As a result there is a reduction in the frequency of the "new" form of BPD in neonates under 28 weeks of gestation and birth weight under 1000 gr. Delivery of inhaled nitric oxide is a new method of prevention of chronic lung disease. According to a large number of randomized trials iNO in premature neonates reduces pulmonary morbidity and leads to a reduction of the mortality in this population of patients. This new therapy does not have serious side effects. We represent a clinical case of extremely premature newborn infant with BPD treated with iNO.

  15. [MIKAMINOM ANTIFUNGAL THERAPY IN NEWBORNS AND INFANTS WITH SURGICAL PATHOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Melnikova, N I; Strogonov, I A; Kartseva, E V; Haritonova, G D; Gliznutsin, O E; Gabulaev, S V; Pulikova, E M

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged empiric and etiotropic therapy of multidrug-resistant or pan-resistant bacterial flora in different gestation age newborns has led to the growth of resistant fungalflora in intencive care units (ICU). According to risk factors and rating scales every child of ICU undergoing the abdominal cavity surgery is threatened the development of a fungal infection and requires antifungal therapy appointment or causal prophylactic. In recent years, before the advent of medications of the group of echinocandins, therapy of invasive fungal infections has been a challenge. Currently alternative drug to diflucane in neonates and infants is micafungine (mycamine) in the dose of 2-8 mg/kg/day, depending on the signs of infestation and severity of the condition. PMID:27192854

  16. Why do premature newborn infants display elevated blood adenosine levels?

    PubMed

    Panfoli, Isabella; Cassanello, Michela; Bruschettini, Matteo; Colella, Marina; Cerone, Roberto; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Candiano, Giovanni; Ramenghi, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary data show high levels of adenosine in the blood of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, positively correlating to their prematurity (i.e. body weight class). This prompted us to look for a mechanism promoting such impressive adenosine increase. We hypothesized a correlation with oxygen challenge. In fact, it is recognized that either oxygen lack or its excess contribute to the pathogenesis of the injuries of prematurity, such as retinopathy (ROP) and periventricular white matter lesions (PWMI). The optimal concentration of oxygen for resuscitation of VLBW infants is currently under revision. We propose that the elevated adenosine blood concentrations of VLBW infants recognizes two sources. The first could be its activity-dependent release from unmyelinated brain axons. Adenosine in this respect would be an end-product of the hypometabolic VLBW newborn unmyelinated axon intensely firing in response to the environmental stimuli consequent to premature birth. Adenosine would be eventually found in the blood due to blood-brain barrier immaturity. In fact, adenosine is the primary activity-dependent signal promoting differentiation of premyelinating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) into myelinating cells in the Central Nervous System, while inhibiting their proliferation and inhibiting synaptic function. The second, would be the ecto-cellular ATP synthesized by the endothelial cell plasmalemma exposed to ambient oxygen concentrations due to premature breathing, especially in lung. ATP would be rapidly transformed into adenosine by the ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase I (CD39), and NT5E (CD73). An ectopic extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP synthetic ability was reported in many cell plasma-membranes, among which endothelial cells. The potential implications of the cited hypotheses for the neonatology area would be great. The amount of oxygen administration for reviving of newborns would find a molecular basis for its assessment. VLBW

  17. Pharmacokinetics of free and total flucloxacillin in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Herngren, L; Ehrnebo, M; Broberger, U

    1987-01-01

    Flucloxacillin 50 mg/kg b.w. was administered intravenously (in combination with ampicillin/gentamicin) and orally (with amoxicillin) to 9 newborn infants (gestational age 33-41 weeks) to treat bacterial infections. The concentrations of flucloxacillin in plasma and urine after i.v. injection were analysed according to an open two-compartment model, and the plasma protein binding of flucloxacillin and its distribution to blood cells and plasma water in whole blood were determined. Considerable differences were found from values reported in adults. The terminal half-life averaged 4 h 38 min and was significantly correlated with gestational age. Plasma clearance was low (0.744 ml X min-1 X kg-1), due to the small renal clearance (0.182 ml X min-1 X kg-1), whilst non-renal clearance (0.563 ml X min-1 X kg-1) was approximately the same as in adults. The mean apparent volume of distribution of total drug (Vz) was 0.280 l/kg. The corresponding volume of distribution of unbound drug (Vu1 + Vu2) was 1.74 l/kg, which indicates considerable extravascular drug binding. The plasma protein binding of flucloxacillin (mean 86.3%) was significantly correlated with gestational age and the bilirubin/albumin concentration ratio. Bioavailability after oral administration, when corrected for changes in terminal half-life, was 47.7%, which is only slightly lower than that reported in adults. Since the plasma concentrations after both i.v. and oral administration were well above the MIC-values generally reported for Staphylococcus aureus, and since few side-effects were observed, intravenous injection or, in selected cases, orl administration of flucloxacillin appears to be a reliable therapy for the treatment of infections due to sensitive strains of S. aureus in premature newborn infants.

  18. Newborn infants detect cues of concurrent sound segregation.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Alexandra; Háden, Gábor P; Németh, Renáta; Farkas, Dávid; Török, Miklós; Winkler, István

    2015-01-01

    Separating concurrent sounds is fundamental for a veridical perception of one's auditory surroundings. Sound components that are harmonically related and start at the same time are usually grouped into a common perceptual object, whereas components that are not in harmonic relation or have different onset times are more likely to be perceived in terms of separate objects. Here we tested whether neonates are able to pick up the cues supporting this sound organization principle. We presented newborn infants with a series of complex tones with their harmonics in tune (creating the percept of a unitary sound object) and with manipulated variants, which gave the impression of two concurrently active sound sources. The manipulated variant had either one mistuned partial (single-cue condition) or the onset of this mistuned partial was also delayed (double-cue condition). Tuned and manipulated sounds were presented in random order with equal probabilities. Recording the neonates' electroencephalographic responses allowed us to evaluate their processing of the sounds. Results show that, in both conditions, mistuned sounds elicited a negative displacement of the event-related potential (ERP) relative to tuned sounds from 360 to 400 ms after sound onset. The mistuning-related ERP component resembles the object-related negativity (ORN) component in adults, which is associated with concurrent sound segregation. Delayed onset additionally led to a negative displacement from 160 to 200 ms, which was probably more related to the physical parameters of the sounds than to their perceptual segregation. The elicitation of an ORN-like response in newborn infants suggests that neonates possess the basic capabilities of segregating concurrent sounds by detecting inharmonic relations between the co-occurring sounds.

  19. Estimating outcomes in newborn infants using fuzzy logic

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Luciano Eustáquio; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To build a linguistic model using the properties of fuzzy logic to estimate the risk of death of neonates admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: Computational model using fuzzy logic. The input variables of the model were birth weight, gestational age, 5th-minute Apgar score and inspired fraction of oxygen in newborn infants admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Taubaté, Southeast Brazil. The output variable was the risk of death, estimated as a percentage. Three membership functions related to birth weight, gestational age and 5th-minute Apgar score were built, as well as two functions related to the inspired fraction of oxygen; the risk presented five membership functions. The model was developed using the Mandani inference by means of Matlab(r) software. The model values were compared with those provided by experts and their performance was estimated by ROC curve. RESULTS: 100 newborns were included, and eight of them died. The model estimated an average possibility of death of 49.7±29.3%, and the possibility of hospital discharge was 24±17.5%. These values are different when compared by Student's t-test (p<0.001). The correlation test revealed r=0.80 and the performance of the model was 81.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This predictive, non-invasive and low cost model showed a good accuracy and can be applied in neonatal care, given the easiness of its use. PMID:25119746

  20. [Influence of the technogenic environment on health new-borns infant children in Lugansk region].

    PubMed

    Kapranov, S V; Sapel'nikov, A Ia; Sapel'nikova, L Ia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to evaluate the health of new-borns born to mothers who lived constantly influenced of the technogenic environmentat on health infant children in Luhansk region. We exameded evaluation of the influence of the technogenic environmental factors on the health of 1119 children in Alchevsk city, Perevalsk town with mining towns and rural villages of Perevalsky area of Lugansk region and Zhovtnev district of Lugansk region. The children were measured in anthropometric studies conducted body length, body weight, chest circumference and the head. Evaluation of the physical development of the children carried tsentilnym method. Prior to discharge from the hospital new-borns divided into three main groups--healthy, risk group, pathology. Also we have done the analysis of the statistical information on the health status of all newborns administrative units Lugansk region. Found that the percentage of new-borns with normal anthropometric variables (from 3 to 97 centile), body length and head circumference was significantly higher in rural areas Perevalsky area with more favorable environmental conditions compared to the industrial city of Alchevsk. New-borns with abnormal significantly higher in women who are domiciled in the city of Alchevsk (19.01% ± 1.44%) under the impact of emissions components ferrous metallurgy and coke-chemical, compared with Perevalskiy and mining towns (13.82% ± 2.20%), as well as rural villages Perevalsky area (11.90% ± 2.89%). Over the period 2004-2011, the incidence of congenital anomalies of new-borns weighing 1000 g or more (per 1000 live births and stillbirths) were significantly higher in the industrial cities of Luhansk region--19.70 ± 0.61 compared with rural areas--15.51 ± 0.73. The incidence of this pathology is one of the highest in Alchevsk--31.88 ± 2.48, which was significantly higher than.in urban areas, as well as in the whole of Luhansk region--19.13 ± 0.55. Therefore, the health of new-born babies is

  1. Imitation in Newborn Infants: Exploring the Range of Gestures Imitated and the Underlying Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Moore, M. Keith

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated psychological mechanisms underlying imitation of facial actions in 40 newborn infants. Results showed imitation of head movement and a tongue-protrusion gesture. Subjects imitated from memory after displays had stopped. (RJC)

  2. The diving reflex in healthy infants in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Fleming S; Riesgo, Rudimar S; Gatiboni, Tanira; Rotta, Newra T

    2012-02-01

    A cohort study was conducted with a random sample of 33 healthy infants evaluated at birth and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12 months to determine the frequency of respiratory rate changes in response to air blown over the face (diving reflex) in the first year of life, and to standardize the description of diving reflex occurrence. All 33 infants remained neurologically normal throughout follow-up. Diving reflex was observed in 95.3% of newborns and in 100% of infants between 2 and 6 months of age. At 6 months, it started to decrease but persisted in 90% of the infants up to 12 months. The diving reflex is highly prevalent in the first year of life and can be easily elicited by applying a flow of air over the infant's face, particularly during crying.

  3. Neurobehaviors of Japanese Newborns in Relation to the Characteristics of Early Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Kek Khee; Ohgi, Shohei; Howard, Judy; Tyler, Rachelle; Hirose, Taiko

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between newborn neurobehavioral profiles and the characteristics of early mother-infant interaction in Nagasaki, Japan. The authors administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS; T. B. Brazelton & J. K. Nugent, 1995) in the newborn period and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale…

  4. Increased docosahexaenoic acid levels in human newborn infants by administration of sardines and fish oil during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Connor, W E; Lowensohn, R; Hatcher, L

    1996-03-01

    In rhesus monkeys, maternal n-3 fatty acid deficiency during pregnancy produces infant monkeys deficient in n-3 fatty acids at birth. These results stimulated current experiments to find out if n-3 fatty acids from fish in the diets of pregnant women would influence the concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) in the newborn human infant. Fifteen healthy pregnant women were enrolled to receive a 9-wk dietary supplementation of n-3 fatty acids from the 26th to the 35th wk of pregnancy. Sixteen pregnant women were not supplemented and served as controls. n-3 Fatty acid supplementation consisted of sardines and additional fish oil, which provided a total of 2.6 g of n-3 fatty acids per day (d) for the 9-wk period of supplementation. This included 1.01 g DHA. The end point of this study was the blood concentrations of DHA in the newborn infant. DHA in maternal red blood cells increased from 4.6% of total fatty acids to 7.15% at the end of the supplement period and at the time of delivery decreased (as expected) to 5.97% of total fatty acids. Maternal plasma showed a similar change from 2.12 to 3.51% of total fatty acids and then decreased to 2.35%. Levels of DHA in plasma and red blood cells of unsupplemented mothers did not change during the same time period. Levels of DHA in blood of newborn infants differed greatly in infants born from n-3-supplemented mothers compared with control infants. In red blood cells, DHA was 7.92% of total fatty acids compared with 5.86% (control infants). Plasma values showed a similar difference: 5.05% vs. 3.47% (controls). In n-3-supplemented infants, DHA concentrations were 35.2% higher than in control infants in red blood cells and 45.5% higher in plasma. These data indicate the importance of maternal dietary n-3 fatty acids and, in particular, maternal dietary DHA in promoting higher concentrations of DHA in the blood of the newborn infant.

  5. Tumor-Associated and Disease-Associated Autoantibody Repertoires in Healthy Colostrum and Maternal and Newborn Cord Sera

    PubMed Central

    Madi, Asaf; Bransburg-Zabary, Sharron; Maayan-Metzger, Ayala; Dar, Gittit; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we studied autoantibody repertoires and Ig isotypes in 71 mothers and their 104 healthy newborns (including twins and triplets delivered term or premature). Newborns receive maternal IgG Abs via the placenta before birth, but developing infants must produce their own IgM and IgA Abs. We used an Ag microarray analysis to detect binding to a selection of 295 self-Ags, compared with 27 standard foreign Ags. The magnitude of binding to specific self-Ags was found to be not less than that to the foreign Ags. As expected, each newborn shared with its mother a similar IgG repertoire—manifest as early as the 24th week of gestation. IgM and IgA autoantibody repertoires in cord sera were highly correlated among the newborns and differed from their mothers’ repertoires; the latter differed in sera and milk. The autoantibodies bound to self-Ags known to be associated with tumors and to autoimmune diseases. Thus, autoantibody repertoires in healthy humans—the immunological homunculus—arise congenitally, differ in maternal milk and sera, and mark the potential of the immune system to attack tumors, beneficially, or healthy tissues, harmfully; regulation of the tissue site, the dynamics, and the response phenotype of homuncular autoimmunity very likely affects health. PMID:25917091

  6. Favorable outcome in cerebral abscesses caused by Citrobacter koseri in a newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Algubaisi, Sarah; Bührer, Christoph; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm; Spors, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of brain abscesses in newborn infants is controversial. We report on a 6-week-old infant with multiple brain abscesses caused by Citrobacter koseri that resolved after treatment with combined surgical drainage and intravenous therapy with meropenem and fosfomycin.

  7. Maternal-infant interaction and autonomic function in healthy infants and infants with transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tondi M; Ferree, Allison

    2014-12-01

    The quality of maternal-infant interaction is a critical factor in the development of infants' autonomic function and social engagement skills. In this secondary data analysis, relationships among infant and maternal affect and behavior and quality of dyadic interaction, as measured by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment, and infant autonomic function, as measured by heart rate variability, were examined during feeding at 2 weeks and 2 months of age in 16 healthy infants and in 15 infants with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Contrary to previous research, at 2 weeks infant age, mothers of infants with TGA had significantly higher scores in affect and behavior than did mothers of healthy infants. The affect and behavior and quality of dyadic interaction of infants with TGA also did not differ from that of healthy infants. Although infants' social engagement skills did not differ by health condition (TGA or healthy), these skills did differ by parasympathetic nervous system function: infants better able to suppress vagal activity with challenge had more positive and less dysregulated affect and behavior, regardless of health status. These findings suggest that maternal-infant interactions for some cardiac disease subgroups may not differ from healthy dyads. Additional research is required to identify both healthy and ill infants with delayed autonomic maturation and to develop and test interventions to enhance critical interactive functions.

  8. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of Ibuprofen enantiomers in preterm newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Gregoire, Nicolas; Desfrere, Luc; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Kibleur, Yves; Koehne, Petra

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this pharmacokinetic analysis was to develop and validate a population pharmacokinetic model for R- and S-ibuprofen from samples obtained after 3 successive administrations of ibuprofen (10-5-5 mg/kg) at 24-hour intervals to preterm newborn infants aged from <6 hours to 8 days of life. A model including unilateral bioconversion of R-ibuprofen into S-ibuprofen was developed using the software NONMEM. R- and S-ibuprofen plasma concentrations were adequately fitted by this model. Estimated clearance and volume of distribution were 3.5 mL/h/kg and 173 mL/kg, respectively, with a calculated half-life (t((1/2))) of 34.3 hours for S-ibuprofen. Estimated clearance at birth and volume of distribution were 25.5 mL/h/kg and 306 mL/kg with a t((1/2)) at birth of 8.3 hours for R-ibuprofen. R-ibuprofen elimination increased during the first week of life, whereas S-ibuprofen pharmacokinetics were weakly modified. Therefore, because the activity of the 2 enantiomers differs, it is important that subsequent studies consider R- and S-enantiomers separately. Mean simulated ibuprofen concentrations at various dose regimens were in agreement with observed concentrations. The present analysis allows a more accurate estimation of the ibuprofen pharmacokinetics as parameters could be estimated separately for each enantiomer and the effect of postnatal age on the elimination of R-ibuprofen was elicited. PMID:18796580

  9. Effects of Fructans from Mexican Agave in Newborns Fed with Infant Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Parra-Ortiz, Minerva; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; García-Torres, Itzhel; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Alcántara-Ortigoza, Miguel Angel; González-del Angel, Ariadna; Velázquez-Aragón, José; Ortiz-Hernández, Rosario; Cruz-Rubio, José Manuel; Villa-Barragán, Pablo; Jiménez-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background: The importance of prebiotics consumption is increasing all over the world due to their beneficial effects on health. Production of better prebiotics from endemic plants raises possibilities to enhance nutritional effects in vulnerable population groups. Fructans derived from Agave Plant have demonstrated their safety and efficacy as prebiotics in animal models. Recently, the safety in humans of two fructans obtained from Agave tequilana (Metlin® and Metlos®) was demonstrated. Methods: This study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy as prebiotics of Metlin® and Metlos® in newborns of a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with a pilot study design. Biological samples were taken at 20 ± 7 days, and three months of age from healthy babies. Outcomes of efficacy include impact on immune response, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, bone metabolism, and gut bacteria changes. Results: There were differences statistically significant for the groups of infants fed only with infant formula and with formula enriched with Metlin® and Metlos®. Conclusions: Our results support the efficacy of Metlin® and Metlos® as prebiotics in humans, and stand the bases to recommend their consumption. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 01251783. PMID:26529006

  10. Cesarean section increases the risk of respiratory adaptive disorders in healthy late preterm and two groups of mature newborns.

    PubMed

    Offermann, H; Gebauer, C; Pulzer, F; Bläser, A; Thome, U; Knüpfer, M

    2015-12-01

    The rates of delivery by Cesarean section (CS) have been trending upwards in recent decades, perhaps leading to higher rates of dysfunction in respiratory adaptation in newborns. We present epidemiological data for pulmonary adaptation by mode of delivery for healthy late preterm and term infants born at a regional tertiary care center. The overall CS rate was 22% with the largest proportion of these in late preterms (39%). This drops to 30% in infants born after 37 weeks gestation and to 11% for those born after 40 weeks. Infants needing respiratory support decreased significantly as gestational age increased: 88% at 34 weeks, 67% at 35 weeks, 28% at 36 weeks, 17% at 37 weeks and 8% at 40 weeks. The risk of respiratory morbidity following CS as compared to vaginal delivery (VD) was substantially higher. 50% of infants born by CS needed respiratory support compared to only 12% following VD. 82% of all late preterm infants born by CS developed respiratory morbidity compared to 36% following VD. Comparable data for infants born after 37 and 40 weeks gestation were 33% compared to 9% and 26% compared to 6% respectively. Late preterm infants born after 36 weeks gestation showed the most marked difference by mode of birth with 66% needing respiratory support following CS as compared to only 9% following VD. Our data could be useful in counselling parents about risk associated with delivery by Cesarean section. A critical view should be taken of increasing CS rates worldwide because of a clear correlation in increased morbidity in infants, especially late preterm infants.

  11. Three-dimensional refractive index tomograms and deformability of individual human red blood cells from cord blood of newborn infants and maternal blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, HyunJoo; Ahn, Taegyu; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Sangyun; Kook, Song-yi; Lee, Dongheon; Suh, In Bum; Na, Sunghun; Park, YongKeun

    2015-11-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from the cord blood of newborn infants have distinctive functions in fetal and infant development. To systematically investigate the biophysical characteristics of individual cord RBCs in newborn infants, a comparative study was performed on RBCs from the cord blood of newborn infants and from adult mothers or nonpregnant women using optical holographic microtomography. Optical measurements of the distributions of the three-dimensional refractive indices and the dynamic membrane fluctuations of individual RBCs were used to investigate the morphological, biochemical, and mechanical properties of cord, maternal, and adult RBCs at the individual cell level. The volume and surface area of the cord RBCs were significantly larger than those of the RBCs from nonpregnant women, and the cord RBCs had more flattened shapes than that of the RBCs in adults. In addition, the hemoglobin (Hb) content in the cord RBCs from newborns was significantly higher. The Hb concentration in the cord RBCs was higher than that in the nonpregnant women or maternal RBCs, but they were within the physiological range of adults. Interestingly, the amplitudes of the dynamic membrane fluctuations in cord RBCs were comparable to those in nonpregnant women and maternal RBCs, suggesting that the deformability of cord RBCs is similar to that of healthy RBCs in adults.

  12. Three-dimensional refractive index tomograms and deformability of individual human red blood cells from cord blood of newborn infants and maternal blood.

    PubMed

    Park, HyunJoo; Ahn, Taegyu; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Sangyun; Kook, Song-Yi; Lee, Dongheon; Suh, In Bum; Na, Sunghun; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from the cord blood of newborn infants have distinctive functions in fetal and infant development. To systematically investigate the biophysical characteristics of individual cord RBCs in newborn infants, a comparative study was performed on RBCs from the cord blood of newborn infants and from adult mothers or nonpregnant women using optical holographic microtomography. Optical measurements of the distributions of the three-dimensional refractive indices and the dynamic membrane fluctuations of individual RBCs were used to investigate the morphological, biochemical, and mechanical properties of cord, maternal, and adult RBCs at the individual cell level. The volume and surface area of the cord RBCs were significantly larger than those of the RBCs from nonpregnant women, and the cord RBCs had more flattened shapes than that of the RBCs in adults. In addition, the hemoglobin (Hb) content in the cord RBCs from newborns was significantly higher. The Hb concentration in the cord RBCs was higher than that in the nonpregnant women or maternal RBCs, but they were within the physiological range of adults. Interestingly, the amplitudes of the dynamic membrane fluctuations in cord RBCs were comparable to those in nonpregnant women and maternal RBCs, suggesting that the deformability of cord RBCs is similar to that of healthy RBCs in adults. PMID:26259511

  13. Withdrawal of life sustaining treatment for newborn infants from a Jewish perspective.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Rabbi Gideon

    2012-02-01

    Jewish law covers all aspects of the Orthodox Jew's life, including questions of life and death. Talmudic texts already discussed the status of the newborn infant and this serves as a guide in modern times when faced with complex questions of withdrawing life from such infants when it is deemed that they will not survive. This paper reviews the essence of Jewish law and provides some directives in answering such questions.

  14. Newborn jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    Jaundice of the newborn; Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia; Bili lights - jaundice; Infant - yellow skin; Newborn - yellow skin ... lasts 1 to 2 days. Sometimes special blue lights are used on infants whose levels are very ...

  15. Fast and reproducible method for the direct quantitation of adipose tissue in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Harrington, T A M; Thomas, E L; Modi, N; Frost, G; Coutts, G A; Bell, J D

    2002-01-01

    The role of body fat content and distribution in infants is becoming an area of increasing interest, especially as perception of its function appears to be rapidly evolving. Although a number of methods are available to estimate body fat content in adults, many are of limited use in infants, especially in the context of regional distribution and internal depots. In this study we developed and implemented a whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based protocol that allows fast and reproducible measurements of adipose tissue content in newborn infants, with an intra-observer variability of <2.4% and an inter-observed variability of <7%. The percentage total body fat for this cohort of infants ranged from 13.3-22.6% (mean and standard deviation: 16.6 +/- 2.9%), which agrees closely with published data. Subcutaneous fat accounted for just over 89% of the total body fat, whereas internal fat corresponded to almost 11%, most of which was nonabdominal fat. There were no gender differences in total or regional body fat content. These results show that whole-body MRI can be readily applied to the study of adipose tissue content and distribution in newborn infants. Furthermore, its noninvasive nature makes it an ideal method for longitudinal and interventional studies in newborn infants. PMID:11878317

  16. Fast and reproducible method for the direct quantitation of adipose tissue in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Harrington, T A M; Thomas, E L; Modi, N; Frost, G; Coutts, G A; Bell, J D

    2002-01-01

    The role of body fat content and distribution in infants is becoming an area of increasing interest, especially as perception of its function appears to be rapidly evolving. Although a number of methods are available to estimate body fat content in adults, many are of limited use in infants, especially in the context of regional distribution and internal depots. In this study we developed and implemented a whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based protocol that allows fast and reproducible measurements of adipose tissue content in newborn infants, with an intra-observer variability of <2.4% and an inter-observed variability of <7%. The percentage total body fat for this cohort of infants ranged from 13.3-22.6% (mean and standard deviation: 16.6 +/- 2.9%), which agrees closely with published data. Subcutaneous fat accounted for just over 89% of the total body fat, whereas internal fat corresponded to almost 11%, most of which was nonabdominal fat. There were no gender differences in total or regional body fat content. These results show that whole-body MRI can be readily applied to the study of adipose tissue content and distribution in newborn infants. Furthermore, its noninvasive nature makes it an ideal method for longitudinal and interventional studies in newborn infants.

  17. Maternal prefrontal cortex activation by newborn infant odors.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Shota; Kuwamoto, Saori; Takahira, Asuka; Miyamura, Tsunetake; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2014-03-01

    Mothers are attracted by infant cues of a variety of different modalities. To clarify the possible neural mechanisms underlying maternal attraction to infant odor cues, we used near-infrared spectroscopy to examine prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during odor detection tasks in which 19 mothers and 19 nulliparous females (nonmothers) were presented with infant or adult male odors. They were instructed to make a judgment about whether they smelled an odor during each task. We estimated the PFC activity by measuring the relative oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) concentrations. The results showed that while detecting the infant odors, bilateral PFC activities were increased in mothers but not in nonmothers. In contrast, adult male odors activated the PFC similarly in mothers and nonmothers. These findings suggest that maternal activation of the PFC in response to infant odors explains a part of the neural mechanisms for maternal attraction to infant odors.

  18. Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parent Information Pregnancy Infants (Ages 0-3) Diseases & Conditions Safety in the Home & ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Information For... Media Policy Makers Infants & Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children Recommend on Facebook ...

  19. [Newborn sleep positioners and sudden infant death syndrome risk].

    PubMed

    Rossato, Norma Elena

    2013-01-01

    The rate of sudden infant death decreased after the publication of the first guidelines regarding infant sleep position and safe environment in 1992. From 2005 onwards, infant deaths by suffocation, choking or entrapment have increased. Some of them were associated with wedges, positioning devices, and bumper pads. Media and manufacturers should follow safe sleep guidelines in their messaging and advertising, but there is a lack of control over this. We emphasize the important role of health professionals in disseminating the recommendation for a safe infant sleep environment. PMID:23381706

  20. A Comparison of Developmental Assessments of the Newborn and Young Infant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majnemer, Annette; Snider, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    Neonatal neurobehavioral assessments describe a newborn's spontaneous behavioural repertoire and observable responses to environmental stimuli. Infant developmental assessments document the range of developmental skills that emerge and develop over the first years of life. This review highlights two neonatal assessments (Einstein Neonatal…

  1. Newborn Irritability Moderates the Association between Infant Attachment Security and Toddler Exploration and Sociability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupica, Brandi; Sherman, Laura J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation of 84 infants examined whether the effect of 12-month attachment on 18- and 24-month exploration and sociability with unfamiliar adults varied as a function of newborn irritability. As expected, results revealed an interaction between attachment (secure vs. insecure) and irritability (highly irritable vs. moderately…

  2. The Effects of Hunger on Hand-Mouth Coordination in Newborn Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Adina R.; Butterworth, George

    1995-01-01

    Examined the effects of hunger on the hand-mouth (HM) behavior of a group of newborn infants. Found that significantly more mouth opening before contacts to the mouth than those to the face occurred before but not after feeding, suggesting some link between HM behavior and hunger state. (MDM)

  3. Heart Rate Conditioning in Newborn Infants: Relationships Among Conditionability, Heart Rate Variability, and Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamps, Leighton E.; Porges, Stephen W.

    1975-01-01

    Trace conditioning was evaluated in newborn infants by measurements of heart rate responses to a conditioned stimulus in anticipation of or in absence of the unconditioned stimulus. Data suggest females have higher levels of heart rate variability than males, which parallels their greater conditionability. (GO)

  4. PHENYLKETONURIA, DETECTION IN THE NEWBORN INFANT AS A ROUTINE HOSPITAL PROCEDURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GUTHRIE, ROBERT; WHITNEY, STEWART

    A FIELD TRIAL OF AN INHIBITION ASSAY METHOD FOR SCREENING FOR PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU) TESTED MORE THAN 400,000 NEWBORN INFANTS PRIOR TO DISCHARGE FROM THE HOSPTIAL. IN ALL, 39 CASES WERE FOUND, A HIGHER INCIDENCE THAN HAD PREVIOUSLY BEEN EXPECTED. THE PRACTICALITY OF THE INHIBITION ASSAY METHOD WAS ALSO DEMONSTRATED. THE REPORT DETAILS THE TRIAL'S…

  5. Serum Zinc in Mothers and from Cord Blood of Appropriate Birth-Weight Full Term and Preterm Newborn Infants, and of Low-Birth-Weight Full Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trindade, Cleide Enoir Petean; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Studied the maternal plasmatic zinc behavior at delivery time and the cord blood zinc concentration from appropriate and low-birth-weight full-term infants and appropriate preterm infants. Findings indicated that neither prematurity nor fetal growth delay interfere in maternal or newborn infants' zinc levels. (BJD)

  6. Newborn Infants and the Moral Significance of Intellectual Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vehmas, Simo

    1999-01-01

    Presents moral philosophical arguments regarding life-saving medical treatment that may be more available to infants without disabilities than to infants with intellectual disabilities. Argues that human well-being is not based merely on individual characteristics, but is a result of the individual's relation to other people. (Author/CR)

  7. Evaluation and treatment of developmental hip dysplasia in the newborn and infant.

    PubMed

    Schwend, Richard M; Shaw, Brian A; Segal, Lee S

    2014-12-01

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) encompasses a spectrum of physical and imaging findings. The child's hip will not develop normally if it remains unstable and anatomically abnormal by walking age. Therefore, careful physical examination of all infants to diagnosis and treat significant DDH is critical to provide the best possible functional outcome. Regardless of the practice setting, all health professionals who care for newborns and infants should be trained to evaluate the infant hip for instability and to provide appropriate and early conservative treatment or referral. PMID:25439013

  8. Phonotactic Acquisition in Healthy Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that preterm infants are at higher risk for cognitive/language delays than full-term infants. Recent studies, focusing on prosody (i.e. rhythm, intonation), have suggested that prosodic perception development in preterms is indexed by maturational rather than postnatal/listening age. However, because prosody is heard…

  9. When courts intervene: public health, legal and ethical issues surrounding HIV, pregnant women, and newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Tessmer-Tuck, Jennifer A; Poku, Joseph K; Burkle, Christopher M

    2014-11-01

    Ninety-three percent of pediatric AIDS cases are the result of perinatal HIV transmission, a disease that is almost entirely preventable with early intervention, which reduces the risk of perinatal HIV infection from 25% to <2%. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics both recommend routine HIV testing of all pregnant women and at-risk newborn infants. When pregnant women decline HIV testing and/or treatment, public health, legal, and ethical dilemmas can result. Federal courts consistently uphold a woman's right to refuse medical testing and treatment, even though it may benefit her fetus/newborn infant. Federal courts also reliably respect the rights of parents to make health care decisions for their newborn infants, which may include declining medical testing and treatment. Confusing the issue of HIV testing and treatment, however, is the fact that there is no definitive United States Supreme Court ruling on the issue. State laws and standards vary widely and serve as guiding principles for practicing clinicians, who must be vigilant of ongoing legal challenges and changes in the states in which they practice. We present a case of an HIV-positive pregnant woman who declined treatment and then testing or treatment of her newborn infant. Ultimately, the legal system intervened. Given the rarity of such cases, we use this as a primer for the practicing clinician to highlight the public health, legal, and ethical issues surrounding prenatal and newborn infant HIV testing and treatment in the United States, including summarizing key state-to-state regulatory differences.

  10. Frightened versus not frightened disorganized infant attachment: Newborn characteristics and maternal caregiving.

    PubMed

    Padrón, Elena; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Sroufe, L Alan

    2014-03-01

    The disorganized infant has been described as experiencing "fright without solution" (Hesse & Main, 1999, p. 484) within the attachment relationship. Using a sample at risk because of poverty (n = 157), this study evaluated the role of newborn characteristics in predicting disorganized attachment and explored the existence of 2 subgroups of disorganized infants, based on whether they display direct indices of fear. For the entire sample, regression analyses revealed that newborn characteristics did not predict ratings of disorganization directly or via moderation by caregiving. Regarding subgroups, it was hypothesized that, if direct expressions of fear resulted from interaction with a frightening or frightened caregiver, it could be expected that infants in the Not Frightened subgroup would become disorganized in part because of other factors, such as compromised regulatory abilities at birth. Results supported this hypothesis for emotional regulation, but not for orientation; infants in the Not Frightened subgroup displayed limited emotional regulation as newborns. Findings suggest that the disorganized attachment category may be comprised of 2 subgroups, with direct expressions of fear as the key differentiating factor. Specifically, disorganized infants who do not display direct fear in the presence of the caregiver may have started out with compromised emotional regulation abilities at birth.

  11. Hospitalization of newborns and young infants for chickenpox in France.

    PubMed

    Lécuyer, Aurélie; Levy, Corinne; Gaudelus, Joel; Floret, Daniel; Soubeyrand, Benoit; Caulin, Evelyne; Cohen, Robert; Grimprel, Emmanuel

    2010-10-01

    Chickenpox is often considered more severe during the first year of life, but its course is usually mild during the first 3 months of life, presumably owing to the persistence of maternal antibodies. Hospitalization and intravenous acyclovir therapy are generally restricted to severe cases but also systematically recommended in newborns in France, irrespective of the clinical severity of the infection. This recommendation was launched in 1998 when Varicella zoster virus (VZV)-specific immunoglobulins were not available in the country and has remained unchanged since. The aim of this prospective observational study was to describe complications of varicella infection in a population of 745 children hospitalized for varicella before 1 year of age, with a specific focus on newborns. Complications occurred in 65% of cases. They were very rare before the age of 1 month (10%) but their incidence then increased progressively with age and probably the disappearance of maternal antibodies: 42% (1-2 months), 66% (3-5 months), 70% (6-8 months), and 79% (9-12 months). Conclusion Chickenpox is usually mild in newborns because most of them are protected by VZV maternal antibodies. Unless the absence of maternal VZV immunity is demonstrated, newborns with mild chickenpox should not require antiviral therapy.

  12. [A mobile reanimation model (reanimationmobile) for initial newborn infant care].

    PubMed

    Lang, N; Hansmann, M; Niesen, M

    1976-12-01

    A mobile unit for reanimation of the newborn is reported to be used alternatively in the deliveryroom or in the surgical tract. The following adventages are achieved: a large working plate easily accessible from three sides, a complete and variable instrumentation, an efficent warmth supply and the possibility for easy cleaning and desinfection.

  13. Early severe dehydration in young breast-fed newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Sofer, S; Ben-Ezer, D; Dagan, R

    1993-01-01

    Six breast-fed infants living in a dry desert climate area presented at ages 4-11 days with severe dehydration. In all cases, dehydration was associated with inadequate breast milk production by the mothers. In contrast to earlier reports on dehydration in breast-fed infants, five of the mothers were from a low socioeconomic background and three were multiparas, including two mothers who had previous experience with breast-feeding. In two infants severe bacterial infections were documented. Two mothers had small retracted nipples. As in earlier reported instances, sodium concentration in breast milk was elevated in all five mothers in whom it was measured, and three babies had severe hypernatremia. Successful relactation was achieved in three cases with a decrease in the milk sodium concentration. These data demonstrate that severe dehydration in breast-fed infants may occur as early as the first week of life and may affect even infants of experienced multiparous mothers who are well motivated for breast-feeding. It seems that hypernatremia in these infants is secondary to poor fluid intake and increased insensible water loss rather than to elevated milk sodium, since there was no direct correlation between milk sodium concentration and serum sodium levels. Following fluid resuscitation, relactation can be achieved in motivated mothers. PMID:8468176

  14. Trained immunity in newborn infants of HBV-infected mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Michelle; Sandalova, Elena; Low, Diana; Gehring, Adam J.; Fieni, Stefania; Amadei, Barbara; Urbani, Simonetta; Chong, Yap-Seng; Guccione, Ernesto; Bertoletti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The newborn immune system is characterized by an impaired Th1-associated immune response. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmitted from infected mothers to newborns is thought to exploit the newborns’ immune system immaturity by inducing a state of immune tolerance that facilitates HBV persistence. Contrary to this hypothesis, we demonstrate here that HBV exposure in utero triggers a state of trained immunity, characterized by innate immune cell maturation and Th1 development, which in turn enhances the ability of cord blood immune cells to respond to bacterial infection in vitro. These training effects are associated with an alteration of the cytokine environment characterized by low IL-10 and, in most cases, high IL-12p40 and IFN-α2. Our data uncover a potentially symbiotic relationship between HBV and its natural host, and highlight the plasticity of the fetal immune system following viral exposure in utero. PMID:25807344

  15. Infant and Newborn Care - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arabic) العناية بالطفل - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Coping with Your Baby's Crying (Arabic) التعايش مع صراخ طفلك - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations How to Bath Your Newborn Baby (Arabic) كيفية ...

  16. Retrograde flow detection in the radial artery as a means to assess palmar collateral circulation in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Hack, W W; Leenhoven, T; vd Lei, J; Okken, A

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to determine whether Doppler ultrasound can be used in newborn infants to assess the adequacy of palmar collateral circulation. Retrograde flow in the radial artery, distal to the site of manual occlusion of the vessel, was studied by Doppler technique. Forty-seven newborn infants, who underwent percutaneous radial artery cannulation were studied. Prior to cannulation palmar collateral circulation was tested in each infant, using the timed Allen test and was considered to be adequate. Pulsatile retrograde flow could be demonstrated in 11 out of 47 infants, but not in 36 of the 47 studied. During the period of cannulation none of the infants showed any sign of vascular insufficiency of the hand. It can be concluded that in newborn infants, the detection of pulsatile retrograde flow in the radial artery, using a Doppler flow meter, does not appear to have advantages over the Allen test as an indicator of adequate palmar collateral circulation.

  17. Incidence of forearm and hand ischaemia related to radial artery cannulation in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Hack, W W; Vos, A; Okken, A

    1990-01-01

    We report the incidence of transient and permanent ischaemia of the forearm and hand caused by radial artery cannulation in a series of 98 newborn infants. Birth weight ranged from 550 to 3920 g (median 1600 g) and gestational age ranged from 26 to 40 weeks (median 31 weeks). In 4 of the 98 infants transient ischaemia of the forearm and/or hand occurred. In three infants the onset of ischaemia was probably related to thrombo-embolic events and in one infant to inadequate palmar collateral circulation. Permanent ischaemic damage with tissue loss did not occur in any infant. It is concluded that permanent ischaemic damage to the forearm and/or the hand with tissue loss, attributable to radial artery cannulation, is seldom encountered in newborn infants. In minimizing the risk of ischaemia, careful assessment of palmar collateral circulation prior to cannulation and of all factors predisposing to the onset of ischaemia is essential. Immediate removal of the catheter at the earliest signs of ischaemia, is essential to prevent ensuing tissue loss.

  18. [Prematurity risk according to prematurity risk score and postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Coradello, H; Lubec, G; Simbruner, G

    1981-02-01

    Risk of premature birth was evaluated retrospectively in 610 women in the first days after delivery using the prematurity risk score published by Thalhammer 1973. The calculated risk of premature birth was compared than prospectively to postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants as determined by duration of hospital stay, incidence of respiratory distress syndrome, need of artificial ventilation and mortality. A positive correlation could be found between risk of premature birth and postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants especially in small premature infants with birthweights of 2000 grams and less. The same correlation existed also in two groups of infants out of two different obstetric clinics which showed the same distribution of prenatal risks and the same prenatal care frequencies. It clearly becomes evident that infants with the same prenatal risks but good prenatal care during pregnancy had much lower hospital stays, lower respiratory distress frequencies and lower mortality rates than babies delivered from pregnancies badly cared for. These prenatal care related differences in postpartum morbidity again were much more evident in infants out of lower birth weight classes.

  19. NORMATIVE STANDARDS AND COMPARISON OF ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA OF WHITE AND BLACK NEWBORN INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Jon M.; Allen, G. Andrew; Haynes, Judy L.; Butler, Merlin G.

    2016-01-01

    We report normative standards for length, weight, 17 craniofacial dimensions, 5 hand and foot measurements, 7 circumferences, 9 skinfold thicknesses, penile length, and testicular volume in black and white newborns. No significant differences in these variables were found between black males and females. White males had greatest craniofacial height, head length, head breadth, minimum frontal diameter, bizygomatic diameter, and head circumference, whereas white females had largest medial calf, thigh, forearm, and subscapular skinfolds. White infants had largest weight, head circumference, head length, head breadth, calf and chest circumferences, and medial calf and forearm skinfolds, whereas nose breadth, mouth breadth, and penile length were greatest in black newborns.

  20. Reference standard of penile size and prevalence of buried penis in Japanese newborn male infants.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Nobutake; Ishii, Tomohiro; Takayama, John I; Miwa, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

    2014-01-01

    The present study set forth the reference values for penile size and determined the prevalence of buried penis in Japanese full-term newborns. The stretched penile length was measured and the presence of buried penis was assessed at 1-7 days of age in 547 Japanese full-term newborn infants born between 2008 and 2012 in Tokyo. The stretched penile lengths were compared at 1-12 hours and 1-7 days of age in 63 infants and by two observers in 73 infants to estimate postnatal changes and interobserver variation, respectively. The mean stretched penile length was 3.06 cm (SD, 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-3.08) and the mean ratio of penile length to body length was 6.24 × 100(-1) (SD, 0.55 × 100(-1)), both of which were significantly smaller than those in Caucasian newborn infants. Buried penis was identified in 20 of 547 infants (3.7%; 95% CI, 2.1-5.2%). The first measurements of penile length at 1-12 hours were significantly smaller than the next measurements at 1-7 days (95% CI of the difference, 0.22-0.34). The 95% CI for the limits of agreement in the penile lengths measured by the two observers was -0.58 to -0.40 for the lower limit and 0.33 to 0.51 for the upper limit. These findings indicate that the penile length should be assessed after 24 hours of age by the reference standard of the same ethnicity for identifying micropenis and that buried penis is not uncommon in Japanese full-term newborns.

  1. Standard of hygiene and immune adaptation in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Kallionpää, Henna; Laajala, Essi; Öling, Viveka; Härkönen, Taina; Tillmann, Vallo; Dorshakova, Natalya V; Ilonen, Jorma; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Knip, Mikael; Lahesmaa, Riitta

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of immune-mediated diseases, such as allergies and type 1 diabetes, is on the rise in the developed world. In order to explore differences in the gene expression patterns induced in utero in infants born in contrasting standards of living and hygiene, we collected umbilical cord blood RNA samples from infants born in Finland (modern society), Estonia (rapidly developing society) and the Republic of Karelia, Russia (poor economic conditions). The whole blood transcriptome of Finnish and Estonian neonates differed from their Karelian counterparts, suggesting exposure to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and a more matured immune response in infants born in Karelia. These results further support the concept of a conspicuous plasticity in the developing immune system: the environmental factors that play a role in the susceptibility/protection towards immune-mediated diseases begin to shape the neonatal immunity already in utero and direct the maturation in accordance with the surrounding microbial milieu. PMID:25245264

  2. Postpartum factors related to mother's attraction to newborn infant odors.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A S; Corter, C; Franks, P; Surbey, M; Schneider, B; Steiner, M

    1993-03-01

    Hedonic responses to a variety of infant (general body, urine, and feces) and noninfant (lotion, cheese, and spice) odorants were compared in four groups of subjects: new mothers, mothers a 1-month postpartum, and female and male nonparents. Using standard scaling procedures, subjects rated each of the odorants twice on a scale from extremely unpleasant (-20.5) to extremely pleasant (+20.5). In addition, all subjects completed a set of attitude questionnaires, and mothers also answered a childbirth questionnaire and were observed while feeding their infants.

  3. Single-incision pediatric endosurgery in newborns and infants

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Yury; Novozhilov, Vladimir; Baradieva, Polina; Krasnov, Pavel; Kovalkov, Konstantin; Muensterer, Oliver J

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the successful application of single-incision pediatric endosurgery in the treatment of congenital anomalies and acquired diseases in neonates and infants. The purpose of this scientific review consists in highlighting the spectrum, indications, applicability, and effectiveness of single-port endosurgery in children during the first 3 postnatal months. PMID:26566478

  4. Dissociation between Small and Large Numerosities in Newborn Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coubart, Aurélie; Izard, Véronique; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Marie, Julien; Streri, Arlette

    2014-01-01

    In the first year of life, infants possess two cognitive systems encoding numerical information: one for processing the numerosity of sets of 4 or more items, and the second for tracking up to 3 objects in parallel. While a previous study showed the former system to be already present a few hours after birth, it is unknown whether the latter…

  5. Cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics in the foetus and newborn infant.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, J S

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative techniques have been derived for the measurement of global cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, its response to changing arterial carbon dioxide tension and mixed cerebral venous saturation in the human newborn undergoing intensive care. Normal ranges have been established and significant disturbances of cerebral oxygenation and perfusion have been demonstrated in a variety of pathological conditions. Recently, absolute cerebral deoxyhaemoglobin concentration has been obtained in the newborn using second differential spectroscopy. When combined with the measurement of total cerebral haemoglobin concentration, the mean saturation of cerebral blood (SmcO2) may be obtained, allowing global cerebral oxygenation to be determined continuously in the intensive care unit. Marked changes in the concentrations of cerebral oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin have been observed in foetuses undergoing labour. Measurements of SmcO2 from the foetal brain prior to delivery have shown the expected close correlation with acid-base status at birth. Although movement artefact remains a theoretical risk during uterine contractions, preliminary measurements of optical path length by intensity-modulated spectroscopy have demonstrated only small fluctuations. In future the clinical application of time, phase and spatially resolved spectroscopy is likely to improve both the quantitative accuracy and the regional specificity of physiological measurements in the foetal and neonatal brain. PMID:9232857

  6. Cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics in the foetus and newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, J S

    1997-06-29

    Quantitative techniques have been derived for the measurement of global cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, its response to changing arterial carbon dioxide tension and mixed cerebral venous saturation in the human newborn undergoing intensive care. Normal ranges have been established and significant disturbances of cerebral oxygenation and perfusion have been demonstrated in a variety of pathological conditions. Recently, absolute cerebral deoxyhaemoglobin concentration has been obtained in the newborn using second differential spectroscopy. When combined with the measurement of total cerebral haemoglobin concentration, the mean saturation of cerebral blood (SmcO2) may be obtained, allowing global cerebral oxygenation to be determined continuously in the intensive care unit. Marked changes in the concentrations of cerebral oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin have been observed in foetuses undergoing labour. Measurements of SmcO2 from the foetal brain prior to delivery have shown the expected close correlation with acid-base status at birth. Although movement artefact remains a theoretical risk during uterine contractions, preliminary measurements of optical path length by intensity-modulated spectroscopy have demonstrated only small fluctuations. In future the clinical application of time, phase and spatially resolved spectroscopy is likely to improve both the quantitative accuracy and the regional specificity of physiological measurements in the foetal and neonatal brain. PMID:9232857

  7. Exosomes from human mesenchymal stem cells conduct aerobic metabolism in term and preterm newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Panfoli, Isabella; Ravera, Silvia; Podestà, Marina; Cossu, Claudia; Santucci, Laura; Bartolucci, Martina; Bruschi, Maurizio; Calzia, Daniela; Sabatini, Federica; Bruschettini, Matteo; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio; Romantsik, Olga; Marimpietri, Danilo; Pistoia, Vito; Ghiggeri, Gianmarco; Frassoni, Francesco; Candiano, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Exosomes are secreted nanovesicles that are able to transfer RNA and proteins to target cells. The emerging role of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) exosomes as promoters of aerobic ATP synthesis restoration in damaged cells, prompted us to assess whether they contain an extramitochondrial aerobic respiration capacity. Exosomes were isolated from culture medium of human MSCs from umbilical cord of ≥37-wk-old newborns or between 28- to 30-wk-old newborns (i.e.,term or preterm infants). Characterization of samples was conducted by cytofluorometry. Oxidative phosphorylation capacity was assessed by Western blot analysis, oximetry, and luminometric and fluorometric analyses. MSC exosomes express functional respiratory complexes I, IV, and V, consuming oxygen. ATP synthesis was only detectable in exosomes from term newborns, suggestive of a specific mechanism that is not completed at an early gestational age. Activities are outward facing and comparable to those detected in mitochondria isolated from term MSCs. MSC exosomes display an unsuspected aerobic respiratory ability independent of whole mitochondria. This may be relevant for their ability to rescue cell bioenergetics. The differential oxidative metabolism of pretermvs.term exosomes sheds new light on the preterm newborn's clinical vulnerability. A reduced ability to repair damaged tissue and an increased capability to cope with anoxic environment for preterm infants can be envisaged.-Panfoli, I., Ravera, S., Podestà, M., Cossu, C., Santucci, L., Bartolucci, M., Bruschi, M., Calzia, D., Sabatini, F., Bruschettini, M., Ramenghi, L. A., Romantsik, O., Marimpietri, D., Pistoia, V., Ghiggeri, G., Frassoni, F., Candiano, G. Exosomes from human mesenchymal stem cells conduct aerobic metabolism in term and preterm newborn infants.

  8. Temperature drop in normal term newborn infants born at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Raman, S; Shahla, A

    1992-05-01

    A prospective study of temperature drop in 141 normal term newborn infants delivered vaginally at the labour ward, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur were studied. The effect of various manoeuvres on the temperature drop were also studied. They were randomized into 3 study groups, 63 cases where the babies were wiped with dry cloth alone, 37 cases where the babies were put into a plastic bag immediately after birth and lastly 41 cases where the babies were wiped with dry cloth and then inserted into a plastic bag. There was significant temperature drop in all the 3 groups maximum in the first 15 minutes and the fall continued for 1 hour after delivery (p less than 0.001). This shows that in an air-conditioned labour ward in a tropical country the temperature fall in newborn infants can be significant. This study also showed that plastic is a poor insulator against significant temperature drop.

  9. [Diagnostics and treatment of congenital malformations of the lung and mediastinum in newborn children and infants].

    PubMed

    Karavaeva, S A; Nemilova, T K; Kotin, A N; Patrikeeva, T V; Starevskaya, S V; Il'ina, N A; Borisova, N A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the experience of treatment of newborn children and infants with congenital malformations of the lung and mediastinum, which required a surgery. Children (138 cases) were treated during recent 18 years. There was a prevalence of full-term infants (73%). Fetal malformations were diagnosed in prenatal period in majority of cases. Computed tomography was the main method of diagnostics after delivery. Children (110 cases) were operated out of 138. Children with extrapulmonary sequestration didn't undergo surgery in case of absence of clinical manifestations. The authors made a conclusion that malformations of the lung and mediastinum should be included in number of differentiated diseases in case of respiratory distress syndrome in newborn children. The indications to early surgery should be the danger of contamination and malignant transformation, presence of intrathoracic tension syndrome in neonatal period.

  10. Temperature drop in normal term newborn infants born at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Raman, S; Shahla, A

    1992-05-01

    A prospective study of temperature drop in 141 normal term newborn infants delivered vaginally at the labour ward, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur were studied. The effect of various manoeuvres on the temperature drop were also studied. They were randomized into 3 study groups, 63 cases where the babies were wiped with dry cloth alone, 37 cases where the babies were put into a plastic bag immediately after birth and lastly 41 cases where the babies were wiped with dry cloth and then inserted into a plastic bag. There was significant temperature drop in all the 3 groups maximum in the first 15 minutes and the fall continued for 1 hour after delivery (p less than 0.001). This shows that in an air-conditioned labour ward in a tropical country the temperature fall in newborn infants can be significant. This study also showed that plastic is a poor insulator against significant temperature drop. PMID:1520194

  11. Treatable newborn and infant seizures due to inborn errors of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Campistol, Jaume; Plecko, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    About 25% of seizures in the neonatal period have causes other than asphyxia, ischaemia or intracranial bleeding. Among these are primary genetic epileptic encephalopathies with sometimes poor prognosis and high mortality. In addition, some forms of neonatal infant seizures are due to inborn errors of metabolism that do not respond to common AEDs, but are amenable to specific treatment. In this situation, early recognition can allow seizure control and will prevent neurological deterioration and long-term sequelae. We review the group of inborn errors of metabolism that lead to newborn/infant seizures and epilepsy, of which the treatment with cofactors is very different to that used in typical epilepsy management.

  12. Incidence and duration of total occlusion of the radial artery in newborn infants after catheter removal.

    PubMed

    Hack, W W; Vos, A; van der Lei, J; Okken, A

    1990-01-01

    The incidence and duration of total occlusion of the radial artery after catheter removal was determined using repeated Doppler flow measurements. Thirty-two newborn infants with birthweights ranging from 945 g to 3890 g (median 1935 g) and gestational age ranging from 26 to 40 weeks (median 32 weeks) were studied. In 20 out of 32 infants (63%), complete occlusion of the radial artery occurred. The number of occlusions were not related to birthweight, gestational age or duration of cannulation. In all infants, blood flow in the radial artery resumed within 1-29 days after catheter removal. The duration of occlusion was directly related to the duration of cannulation and inversely related to birthweight. This study demonstrates a high frequency of total occlusion of the radial artery in newborn infants after percutaneous radial artery cannulation. In the majority of infants with a radial artery catheter, blood flow to the tissue distal to the cannulation site is dependent solely on the existence of an adequate arterial palmar collateral circulation.

  13. Overlap of clinical features of Smith-Magenis & Down Syndrome in newborns and infants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, K.A.; Finucane, B.M.; Bauer, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) frequently goes unrecognized in newborns and infants as these patients do not yet demonstrate the characteristic behavioral phenotype and may only present with developmental delay and physical dysmorphism. Six of Hall`s ten cardinal features of trisomy 21 in the newborn are also frequently found in newborns with SMS, leading to an early presumptive diagnosis of DS in many of these patients. CASE No. 1: Based on clinical findings, a presumptive diagnosis of DS was given to the patient in the newborn period. Chromosome analysis of peripheral blood revealed a normal 46,XX karyotype. Given this result, the possibility of mosaic DS was raised, and a skin fibroblast study done. Again, the karyotype was reported as normal. Clinical features and cytogenetic analysis confirmed a diagnosis of SMS when the patient was 8 years old. CASE No. 2: A presumptive diagnosis of DS was made in an infant with hypotonia, facial dysmorphisms and congenital heart defects. A routine chromosome analysis was ordered, which revealed a 46,XY,del(17)(p11.2p11.2) karyotype. Indeed, approximately 38% of blood samples referred to our laboratory to rule out DS in an infant failed to demonstrate trisomy for chromosome 21. Given the high degree of clinical overlap with Down Syndrome, the diagnosis of SMS should be considered in all such patients. Additional analysis should be done to look for deletion 17p11.2 when faced with a {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} karyotype in an infant referred to rule out DS.

  14. In Vivo Effect of Pneumonia on Surfactant Disaturated-Phosphatidylcholine Kinetics in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Facco, Maddalena; Nespeca, Matteo; Simonato, Manuela; Isak, Ilena; Verlato, Giovanna; Ciambra, Gianluca; Giorgetti, Chiara; Carnielli, Virgilio P.; Cogo, Paola E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial pneumonia in newborns often leads to surfactant deficiency or dysfunction, as surfactant is inactivated or its production/turnover impaired. No data are available in vivo in humans on the mechanism of surfactant depletion in neonatal pneumonia. We studied the kinetics of surfactant's major component, disaturated-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), in neonatal pneumonia, and we compared our findings with those obtained from control newborn lungs. Methods We studied thirty-one term or near-term newborns (gestational age 39.7±1.7 weeks, birth weight 3185±529 g) requiring mechanical ventilation. Fifteen newborns had pneumonia, while 16 newborns were on mechanical ventilation but had no lung disease. Infants received an intratracheal dose of 13C labeled dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine at the study start. We measured the amount and the isotopic enrichment of DSPC-palmitate from serial tracheal aspirates by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively, and we calculated the DSPC half-life (HL) and pool size (PS) from the isotopic enrichment curves of surfactant DSPC-palmitate. Results The mean DSPC amount obtained from all tracheal aspirates did not differ between the two groups. DSPC HL was 12.7 (6.5–20.2) h and 25.6 (17.9–60.6) h in infants with pneumonia compared with control infants (p = 0.003). DSPC PS was 14.1 (6.6–30.9) mg/kg in infants with pneumonia and 34.1 (25.6–65.0) mg/kg in controls, p = 0.042. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as a marker of lung inflammation, was 1322 (531–2821) mU/ml of Epithelial Lining Fluid (ELF) and 371(174–1080) mU/ml ELF in infants with pneumonia and in controls, p = 0.047. In infants with pneumonia, DSPC PS and HL significantly and inversely correlated with mean Oxygenation Index (OI) during the study (DSPC PS vs. OI R = −0.710, p = 0.004 and HL vs. OI R = −0.525, p = 0.044, respectively). Conclusions We demonstrated for the first time in vivo in

  15. [Mechanical stress of newborn infants caused by incubator transport].

    PubMed

    Boenisch, H; Gaden, W; Mau, G; Gohrbandt, U; Teuteberg, H O; Braun, H; Beermann, H J

    1985-07-01

    Newborn babies transported in an incubator are obviously exposed to considerable mechanical vibrations. We measured these vibrations with the aim to improve these conditions. The vibrations measured on transportation by R.T.W. ambulance (Daimler-Benz 508 with an "anti-vibration platform") are almost tolerable; however on the K.T.W. ambulance (Volkswagen Type 2) the registered vertical accelerations were much greater and gave an unacceptable level of gravitational forces. Small constructive corrections to the stretcher and the connection between stretcher and incubator lead to a marked decrease in peak acceleration and the value of effective acceleration. We also found that it is of great importance to drive smoothly and that the vibrations are more pronounced with hasty driving. The influence of these vibrations as a possible co-factor in the pathogenesis of intracranial haemorrhage is discussed. PMID:4047059

  16. Achieving skin to skin contact in theatre for healthy newborns.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The evidence base is supportive of early skin to skin contact (SSC) for optimal newborn-physiological adaptation, bonding and breastfeeding, and national guidelines encourage SSC as soon as possible, regardless of mode of birth. With an ever-rising caesarean (CS) rate, implementing SSC in theatre stands to benefit an increasing number of mothers and babies. While it may be best practice, in reality there is a lot of variation from trust to trust, and many hospitals do not facilitate it, citing numerous reasons as to why it is not possible. Midwives may feel that they should focus on norma birth, but it is our role to provide holistic care and normalise birth in all settings. This article looks at current evidence and the role of the midwife around facilitating SSC in theatre with an example from practice of how change has been implemented so that mothers and babies get the best start in life. PMID:26320329

  17. Nipple units for newborn infants: a functional comparison.

    PubMed

    Mathew, O P

    1988-05-01

    Milk flow characteristics of nipple units commonly used in the neonatal period were compared in the laboratory using a mechanical system. The number of simulated sucks required to empty 120 mL of formula was determined for each nipple unit. In general, the number of simulated sucks required to empty the bottle decreased when the applied negative pressure was increased from -60 to -120 cm of H2O except for SMA nipple units for premature infants. The Nuk type required less sucks (ie, higher flow) than standard nipple units. Among the Nuk-type nipple units, the SMA nipple had the highest mean flow and Enfamil Natural the lowest mean flow; among the standard nipple units, SMA single-hole had the highest flow and Ross Twist-on had the lowest flow. However, wide variability in performance was observed not only between different types of nipple units but also within the same type. Flow characteristics of nipple units for preterm infants overlapped markedly, with that for term neonates with Enfamil nipples exhibiting the highest flow. Clinical relevance of these differences in flow characteristics among the nipple units is discussed.

  18. Infant dental care (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Even though newborns and infants do not have teeth, care of the mouth and gums is important. ... sugar water. As the child grows, establishing proper dental hygiene will promote healthy teeth and gums which ...

  19. Metabolism of methionine in the newborn infant: response to the parenteral and enteral administration of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Biju; Gruca, Lourdes L; Bennett, Carole; Parimi, Prabhu S; Hanson, Richard W; Kalhan, Satish C

    2008-10-01

    The rates of transmethylation and transsulfuration of methionine were quantified using [1-(13)C]methionine and [C2H3]methionine tracers in newborn infants born at term gestation and in prematurely born low birth weight infants. Whole body rate of protein breakdown was also measured using [2H5]phenylalanine. The response to enteral formula feeding and parenteral nutrition was examined in full term and prematurely born babies, respectively. The relative rates of appearance of methionine and phenylalanine were comparable to the amino acid composition of mixed body proteins. Rates of transmethylation were high, both in full term infants (fast 32 +/- 14 micromol kg(-1) x h(-1); fed 21.7 +/- 3.2) and in preterm infants (57.2 +/- 14.8). Significant flux through the transsulfuration pathway was evident (full term: fast 6.0 +/- 4.4, fed 4.1 +/- 2.1; preterm: 24.9 +/- 9.9 micromol kg(-1) x h(-1)). Transsulfuration of methionine is evident in the human newborn in the immediate neonatal period, suggesting that cysteine may not be considered a "conditionally" essential amino acid for the neonate. The high rate of transmethylation may reflect the high methylation demand, whereas high rates of transsulfuration in premature babies may be related to high demands for glutathione and to the amounts of methionine in parenteral amino acid mixtures.

  20. Newborn Irritability Moderates the Association between Infant Attachment Security and Toddler Exploration and Sociability

    PubMed Central

    Stupica, Brandi; Sherman, Laura J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation of 84 infants examined whether the effect of 12-month attachment on 18- and 24-month exploration and sociability with unfamiliar adults varied as a function of newborn irritability. As expected, results revealed an interaction between attachment (secure vs. insecure) and irritability (highly irritable vs. moderately irritable) in predicting both exploration and sociability with unfamiliar adults. For exploration, results supported a dual-risk model; that is, toddlers who had been both highly irritable and insecurely attached were less exploratory than other toddlers. For sociability, results supported the differential-susceptibility hypothesis; that is, highly irritable infants, compared to moderately irritable infants, were both less sociable as toddlers when they had been insecurely attached and more sociable when they had been securely attached. PMID:21883159

  1. Temperament of Low Birth Weight Infants and Child-Rearing Stress: Comparison with Full-Term Healthy Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honjo, Shuji; Mizuno, Rie; Jechiyama, Haya; Sasaki, Yasuko; Kaneko, Hitoshi; Nishide, Takonori; Nagata, Masako; Sobajima, Hisanori; Nagai, Yukiyo; Ando, Tsunesaburo; Nishide, Yumie

    2002-01-01

    Studied infant temperament in low birth weight (LBW) and full-term (FT) healthy infants in relation to infant temperament and child-rearing stress. Found that although differences between child-rearing stress scores were not significant between mothers of LBW and FT infants, a higher proportion of child-rearing stress could be explained by the…

  2. Levels of 25 cytokines in the first seven days of life in newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Novel methods for cytokine analysis allow for the simultaneous measurement of 25 cytokines in 50 μL serum or plasma. Data on values of most of these cytokines in non-infected newborn infants are lacking. We analyzed levels of 25 cytokines in the first week of life in non-infected preterm and term infants and related them to gestational age. Findings During the first week after birth, no trend over time was found in any of the cytokines, except for IL-1Ra and IL-6 where higher values were found in the first four hours. Between 24 and 72 hrs levels of IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-8, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, IFNγ, MIP-1a, MCP-1, TNFα were lower in infants born after 30-32 wks compared to infants ≥36 wks; levels of IL-6, IL-10, IP-10 were lower in preterm infants of both 30–32 and 33–36 weeks. No difference between groups for any of the levels was found for IL-1b, IL-2r, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IFNa, MIP-1b, GM-CSF, Eotaxin and RANTES. Conclusions Levels of 25 interleukines are stable in the first week of life in non-infected infants. Infants born after 30-32 wks showed lower levels of fourteen cytokines compared to infants born after more then 36 wks. This indicates a lower stimulation or activation of Th-1 cells, monocytes and dendritic cells in these infants. PMID:24359685

  3. Estimation of tidal ventilation in preterm and term newborn infants using electromagnetic inductance plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Williams, E M; Pickerd, N; Eriksen, M; Øygarden, K; Kotecha, S

    2011-11-01

    Tidal volume (VT) measurements in newborn infants remain largely a research tool. Tidal ventilation and breathing pattern were measured using a new device, FloRight, which uses electromagnetic inductive plethysmography,and compared simultaneously with pneumotachography in 43 infants either receiving no respiratory support or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).Twenty-three infants were receiving CPAP (gestational age 28 ± 2 weeks, mean ± SD) and 20 were breathing spontaneously (gestational age 34 ± 4 weeks). The two methods were in reasonable agreement, with VT (r2 = 0.69) ranging from 5 to 23 ml (4–11 ml kg−1) with a mean difference of 0.4 ml and limit of agreement of −4.7 to + 5.5 ml. For respiratory rate, minute ventilation,peak flow and breathing pattern indices, the mean difference between the two methods ranged between 0.7% and 5.8%. The facemask increased the respiratory rate (P < 0.001) in both groups with the change in VT being more pronounced in the infants receiving no respiratory support. Thus, FloRight provides an easy to use technique to measure term and preterm infants in the clinical environment without altering the infant's breathing pattern.

  4. [Molecular weight analysis of physiological proteinuria in newborn infants (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Thanner, F; Wartha, R; Gekle, D

    1979-03-15

    The physiological protien and glycoprotein excretions in the urine samples of a larger group of newborn infants were separated according to the molecular weights by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and compared with the protein excretions of older children. We found higher proportions of albumin, of high molecular weight (MW = molecular weight greater than or equal to 150 000 dt) and of lower molecular weight (MW less than albumin 6800 dt) proteins in the first 24-h urine samples after birth. One week after birth the low molecular weight proteins predominated because there was a substantial decrease in the excretion of albumin and of high molecular weight proteins (MW greater than or equal to 150 000 dt). We compared the patterns of protein excretion of the newborn infants with those of children aged from 2 1/2 to 15 years. These urines samples showed a typical pattern of protein excretion not correlated to the age. These findings express a transitory immaturity of the glomerular filter and of the tubular protein reabsorbing system of the newborn kidney. Apparently, the tubular protein handling normalizes later than the glomerular filtration of proteins.

  5. Definitions of cardiovascular insufficiency and relation to outcomes in critically ill newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Erika; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Faix, Roger G.; Yoder, Bradley A.; Walsh, Michele C.; Lacy, Conra Backstrom; Osborne, Karen A.; Das, Abhik; Kendrick, Douglas E.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Schibler, Kurt; Bell, Edward F.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Frantz, Ivan D.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Shankaran, Seetha; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Sanchez, Pablo J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously reported on the overall incidence, management and outcomes in infants with cardiovascular insufficiency (CVI). However, there are limited data on the relationship of the specific different definitions of CVI to short term outcomes in term and late preterm newborn infants. Objective To evaluate how 4 definitions of CVI relate to short term outcomes and death. Study Design The previously reported study was a multicenter, prospective cohort study of 647 infants ≥ 34 weeks gestation admitted to a Neonatal Research Network (NRN) newborn intensive care unit (NICU) and mechanically ventilated (MV) during their first 72 hours. The relationship of five short term outcomes at discharge and 4 different definitions of CVI were further analyzed. Results All 4 definitions were associated with greater number of days on MV & days on O2. The definition using a threshold blood pressure (BP) measurement alone was not associated with days to full feeding, days in the NICU or death. The definition based on treatment of CVI was associated with all outcomes including death. Conclusions The definition using a threshold BP alone was not consistently associated with adverse short term outcomes. Using only a threshold BP to determine therapy may not improve outcomes. PMID:25825962

  6. Transplant Tolerance Induction in Newborn Infants: Mechanisms, Advantages, and Potential Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hua; Gazarian, Aram; Dubernard, Jean-Michel; Belot, Alexandre; Michallet, Marie-Cécile; Michallet, Mauricette

    2016-01-01

    Although several tolerance induction protocols have been successfully implemented in adult renal transplantation, no tolerance induction approach has, as yet, been defined for solid organ transplantations in young infants. Pediatric transplant recipients have a pressing demand for the elaboration of tolerance induction regimens. Indeed, since they display a longer survival time, they are exposed to a higher level of risks linked to long-term immunosuppression (IS) and to chronic rejection. Interestingly, central tolerance induction may be of great interest in newborns, because of their immunological immaturity and the important role of the thymus at this early stage in life. The present review aims to clarify mechanisms and strategies of tolerance induction in these immunologically premature recipients. We first introduce the discovery and mechanisms of neonatal tolerance in murine experimental models and subsequently analyze tolerance induction in human newborn infants. Hematopoietic mixed chimerism in neonates is also discussed based on in utero hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant studies. Then, we review the recent advances in tolerance induction approaches in adults, including the infusion of HSCs associated with less toxic conditioning regimens, regulatory T cells/facilitating cells/mesenchymal stem cells transplantation, costimulatory blockade, and thymus manipulation. Finally, IS withdrawal in pediatric solid organ transplant is discussed. In conclusion, the establishment of transplant tolerance induction in infants is promising and deserves further investigations. Future studies could focus on the selection of patients, on less toxic conditioning regimens, and on biomarkers for IS minimization or withdrawal. PMID:27092138

  7. Transplant Tolerance Induction in Newborn Infants: Mechanisms, Advantages, and Potential Strategies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hua; Gazarian, Aram; Dubernard, Jean-Michel; Belot, Alexandre; Michallet, Marie-Cécile; Michallet, Mauricette

    2016-01-01

    Although several tolerance induction protocols have been successfully implemented in adult renal transplantation, no tolerance induction approach has, as yet, been defined for solid organ transplantations in young infants. Pediatric transplant recipients have a pressing demand for the elaboration of tolerance induction regimens. Indeed, since they display a longer survival time, they are exposed to a higher level of risks linked to long-term immunosuppression (IS) and to chronic rejection. Interestingly, central tolerance induction may be of great interest in newborns, because of their immunological immaturity and the important role of the thymus at this early stage in life. The present review aims to clarify mechanisms and strategies of tolerance induction in these immunologically premature recipients. We first introduce the discovery and mechanisms of neonatal tolerance in murine experimental models and subsequently analyze tolerance induction in human newborn infants. Hematopoietic mixed chimerism in neonates is also discussed based on in utero hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant studies. Then, we review the recent advances in tolerance induction approaches in adults, including the infusion of HSCs associated with less toxic conditioning regimens, regulatory T cells/facilitating cells/mesenchymal stem cells transplantation, costimulatory blockade, and thymus manipulation. Finally, IS withdrawal in pediatric solid organ transplant is discussed. In conclusion, the establishment of transplant tolerance induction in infants is promising and deserves further investigations. Future studies could focus on the selection of patients, on less toxic conditioning regimens, and on biomarkers for IS minimization or withdrawal.

  8. Transplant Tolerance Induction in Newborn Infants: Mechanisms, Advantages, and Potential Strategies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hua; Gazarian, Aram; Dubernard, Jean-Michel; Belot, Alexandre; Michallet, Marie-Cécile; Michallet, Mauricette

    2016-01-01

    Although several tolerance induction protocols have been successfully implemented in adult renal transplantation, no tolerance induction approach has, as yet, been defined for solid organ transplantations in young infants. Pediatric transplant recipients have a pressing demand for the elaboration of tolerance induction regimens. Indeed, since they display a longer survival time, they are exposed to a higher level of risks linked to long-term immunosuppression (IS) and to chronic rejection. Interestingly, central tolerance induction may be of great interest in newborns, because of their immunological immaturity and the important role of the thymus at this early stage in life. The present review aims to clarify mechanisms and strategies of tolerance induction in these immunologically premature recipients. We first introduce the discovery and mechanisms of neonatal tolerance in murine experimental models and subsequently analyze tolerance induction in human newborn infants. Hematopoietic mixed chimerism in neonates is also discussed based on in utero hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant studies. Then, we review the recent advances in tolerance induction approaches in adults, including the infusion of HSCs associated with less toxic conditioning regimens, regulatory T cells/facilitating cells/mesenchymal stem cells transplantation, costimulatory blockade, and thymus manipulation. Finally, IS withdrawal in pediatric solid organ transplant is discussed. In conclusion, the establishment of transplant tolerance induction in infants is promising and deserves further investigations. Future studies could focus on the selection of patients, on less toxic conditioning regimens, and on biomarkers for IS minimization or withdrawal. PMID:27092138

  9. Advanced extrauterine pregnancy at 33 weeks with a healthy newborn.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, Tajudeen; Marroquin, Guillermo A; Bendek, Boleslaw; Agamasu, Enyonam; Mikhail, Magdy

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a very rare form of ectopic pregnancy, associated with high morbidity and mortality for both fetus and mother. It is, and often, seen in poor resource nations, where early diagnosis is often a major challenge due to poor prenatal care and lack of medical resources. An advanced abdominal pregnancy with a good fetal and maternal outcome is therefore a more extraordinary occurrence in the modern developed world. We present a case of an abdominal pregnancy at 33.4 weeks in an individual with no documented prenatal care, who arrived in a hospital in the Bronx, in June 25th 2014, with symptoms of generalized, severe lower abdominal pain. Upon examination it was found that due to category III fetal tracing an emergent cesarean section was performed. At the time of laparotomy the fetus was located in the pelvis covered by the uterine serosa, with distortion of the entire right adnexa and invasion to the right parametrium. The placenta invaded the pouch of Douglas and the lower part of the sigmoid colon. A massive hemorrhage followed, followed by a supracervical hysterectomy. A viable infant was delivered and mother discharged on postoperative day 4.

  10. Pregnancy at high altitude in the Andes leads to increased total vessel density in healthy newborns.

    PubMed

    Gassmann, Norina N; van Elteren, Hugo A; Goos, Tom G; Morales, Claudia R; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Martin, Daniel S; Cabala Peralta, Patricia; Passano Del Carpio, Agustin; Aranibar Machaca, Saul; Huicho, Luis; Reiss, Irwin K M; Gassmann, Max; de Jonge, Rogier C J

    2016-09-01

    The developing human fetus is able to cope with the physiological reduction in oxygen supply occurring in utero. However, it is not known if microvascularization of the fetus is augmented when pregnancy occurs at high altitude. Fifty-three healthy term newborns in Puno, Peru (3,840 m) were compared with sea-level controls. Pre- and postductal arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) was determined. Cerebral and calf muscle regional tissue oxygenation was measured using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Skin microcirculation was noninvasively measured using incident dark field imaging. Pre- and postductal SpO2 in Peruvian babies was 88.1 and 88.4%, respectively, which was 10.4 and 9.7% lower than in newborns at sea level (P < 0.001). Cerebral and regional oxygen saturation was significantly lower in the Peruvian newborns (cerebral: 71.0 vs. 74.9%; regional: 68.5 vs. 76.0%, P < 0.001). Transcutaneously measured total vessel density in the Peruvian newborns was 14% higher than that in the newborns born at sea level (29.7 vs. 26.0 mm/mm(2); P ≤ 0.001). This study demonstrates that microvascular vessel density in neonates born to mothers living at high altitude is higher than that in neonates born at sea level. PMID:27445300

  11. Thyroxine values from newborn screening of 919 infants born before 29 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed Central

    Reuss, M L; Leviton, A; Paneth, N; Susser, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Severe transient hypothyroxinemia in premature infants is associated with cerebral palsy and mental retardation: this study assessed its prevalence in very premature infants. METHODS: Congenital hypothyroidism screening programs in three states provided thyroxine values for 919 newborn infants younger than 29 weeks who were enrolled in a multicenter study. RESULTS: Thyroxine values were lower than 4.0 micrograms/dL in 21% of survivors and increased each week by 0.6 microgram/dL (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.4, 0.7). At tests done 1 to 2 days after birth, levels were 2.5 micrograms/dL higher (95% CI = 1.8, 3.3) than at tests done at 8 to 14 days. In New York, levels were 1.0 microgram/dL higher (95% CI = 0.3, 1.6) than elsewhere. The levels of infants who died were 1.3 micrograms/dL lower (95% CI = 0.6, 2.0) than those of survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Severe transient hypothyroxinemia is common in very premature infants and deserves further study. PMID:9357357

  12. Automated, real-time calibration of the respiratory inductance plethysmograph and its application in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Bar-Yishay, Ephraim; Putilov, Alexander; Einav, Shmuel

    2003-02-01

    Respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) is widely used in infants, children and adults. The technique is well accepted as it provides important qualitative information on the pattern of breathing, although its ability to record volume accurately was questioned due to calibration uncertainties. Existing calibration methods require two-position calibration, or patient cooperation in performing various breathing manoeuvres, or prolonged calibration paradigms. The disadvantages from calibration difficulties are even more pronounced in infants. We present a computer system that is capable of performing a single-posture, real-time RIP calibration during natural breathing and is suitable for use in newborns. The calibration algorithm is based on interactive, point-by-point calculations of maximal correlation between airflow at the mouth, Vao, and summed differentiated RIP signals. The quantities are calculated interactively at every sample point, and the process continues until stable results are reached and convergence criteria met. A graphic user interface was developed to assist in the rapid implementation and ease of use. Validation schemes were evaluated in 33 newborn infants against actual Vao. Calibration factors were obtained within 21 +/- 11 s with a mean correlation coefficient of 0.97 +/- 0.03. All RIP-derived values were similar to actual airflow signals, with error values ranging from 0.4 +/- 3.0% for respiratory rate to 1.8 +/- 7.3% for tidal volume. Calibration was found to be stable and reliable for up to 3.5 h and in changing sleep states. It is concluded that the new single-posture real-time RIP calibration system is safe and simple to use, and also quick, accurate and stable. The system was found to be suitable for use in newborns during natural breathing while asleep.

  13. Parent perception of healthy infant and toddler growth.

    PubMed

    Laraway, Kelly A; Birch, Leann L; Shaffer, Michele L; Paul, Ian M

    2010-04-01

    We hypothesized that parents of infants prefer growth at higher percentiles and are averse to growth at lower percentiles. Of 279 participating parents, only 10% desired their child's weight to be in the lowest quartile. For children weighing in the lowest quartile, 57% of parents thought their child's weight was "too low." In contrast, 66% of parents whose child's weight was in the top quartile preferred their child weigh that much. When viewing hypothetical infant growth trajectories, 47% ranked a growth chart demonstrating growth along the 10th percentile for weight as "least healthy" of 6 growth patterns, and 29% chose charts showing an infant at the 90th percentile for weight at age 1 as "healthiest." In conclusion, parents are averse to growth at the bottom of the weight growth chart but are much less likely to feel negatively about growth at higher percentiles. This is troubling given the childhood obesity epidemic. PMID:19745095

  14. Melatonin production in healthy infants: evidence for seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Y; Laudon, M; Tauman, R; Zisapel, N

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the normal range of nocturnal urinary excretion of the major melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6SMT) in a large sample of healthy full-term infants (8 and 16 wk old) and assess whether the endogenous production of melatonin changes with season. 6SMT was assessed in urine samples extracted from disposable diapers removed from full-term, 8- (n = 317) and 16-wk-old (n = 93) infants over the nocturnal period (19:00-08:00 h). In addition, 6SMT was assessed in 8-wk-old (n = 35) healthy infants over the entire 24-h period. 6SMT was determined by an ELISA assay. 6SMT excretion at 8 wk of age exhibited diurnal variations with (mean +/- SD) 61 +/- 18% of the daily production excreted during the nocturnal period regardless of season. The nocturnal 6SMT values in the entire cohort (at 8 as well as 16 wk of age) were found to significantly depart from normal distribution (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). A normal distribution was obtained using a natural base logarithmic (ln) transformation of the data. The normal range (2.5-97.5 percentile of the ln 6SMT excretion per night) was thus defined as 4.66-8.64 (106-5646 ng/night) for 8-wk-old and 5.19-9.67 (180-15,820 ng/night) for 16-wk-old infants. A significant effect of the month of birth on 6SMT production at the age of 8 wk was found (ANOVA, p < 0.002) with maximal levels produced by infants born in June (summer solstice) and minimal excretion in infants born in December (winter solstice). Short-photoperiod-born infants excreted on average about threefold less 6SMT compared with long-photoperiod-born infants (t test, p = 0. 01). The seasonal variations were no longer present at 16 wk of age. No effect of breast-feeding at the time of sampling on seasonality of 6SMT was found. Normal ranges for the nocturnal urinary excretion of 6SMT in full-term infants at 8 and 16 wk of age are defined. This enables the evaluation of nocturnal 6SMT excretion as a prognostic and diagnostic factor

  15. Combined treatment with chlorhexidine and 0·9% saline in a newborn infant with an infected surgical wound.

    PubMed

    Tekgündüz, Kadir Şerafettin; Kepenekli, Eda; Demirelli, Yaşar; Caner, İbrahim; Kara, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    Newborns are more susceptible to infection; this makes proper wound care extremely important in them. Unfortunately, in spite of successful surgery, patients can die as a result of wound area infections. Herein, we report a case in which a combined therapy of chlorhexidine (a disinfectant) and saline (a cleansing agent used in wound care) was used effectively to treat the wound in a newborn infant with an antibiotic-resistant, Gram-negative, bacteria-related surgical site infection.

  16. Thrombopoietin concentration in umbilical cord blood of healthy term newborns is higher than in adult controls.

    PubMed

    Walka, M M; Sonntag, J; Dudenhausen, J W; Obladen, M

    1999-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) concentrations were determined in umbilical cord plasma of 121 healthy term newborns. The lower detection limit of the enzyme immunoassay employed was 32.5 pg/ml. Median cord plasma TPO concentration was 78 (interquartile range 55-107) pg/ml. 95th percentile was 255 pg/ml. In only 8% (10/121), TPO was below the detection limit compared to 81% of healthy adults (25/31). In cord blood and adult controls, there were no significant correlations of TPO with platelet count or mass.

  17. Preventing obesity in infants: the Growing healthy feasibility trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Laws, Rachel; Russell, Catherine Georgina; Ong, Kok-leong; Taki, Sarah; Elliot, Roz; Azadi, Leva; Lymer, Sharyn; Taylor, Rachael; Lynch, John; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie; Askew, Deborah; Litterbach, Eloise Kate; J Campbell, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Early childhood is an important period for establishing behaviours that will affect weight gain and health across the life course. Early feeding choices, including breast and/or formula, timing of introduction of solids, physical activity and electronic media use among infants and young children are considered likely determinants of childhood obesity. Parents play a primary role in shaping these behaviours through parental modelling, feeding styles, and the food and physical activity environments provided. Children from low socio-economic backgrounds have higher rates of obesity, making early intervention particularly important. However, such families are often more difficult to reach and may be less likely to participate in traditional programs that support healthy behaviours. Parents across all socio-demographic groups frequently access primary health care (PHC) services, including nurses in community health services and general medical practices, providing unparalleled opportunity for engagement to influence family behaviours. One emerging and promising area that might maximise engagement at a low cost is the provision of support for healthy parenting through electronic media such as the Internet or smart phones. The Growing healthy study explores the feasibility of delivering such support via primary health care services. Methods This paper describes the Growing healthy study, a non-randomised quasi experimental study examining the feasibility of an intervention delivered via a smartphone app (or website) for parents living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, for promoting infant feeding and parenting behaviours that promote healthy rather than excessive weight gain. Participants will be recruited via their primary health care practitioner and followed until their infant is 9 months old. Data will be collected via web-based questionnaires and the data collected inherently by the app itself. Ethics and dissemination This study received

  18. [Effect of very early kangaroo care on extrauterine temperature adaptation in newborn infants with hypothermia problems].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Huang, Ching-Yi; Lin, Shiu-Mei; Wu, Shu-Chuan

    2006-08-01

    Increased morbidity and mortality has been associated with neonates admitted with body temperatures below 36 degrees C. We employed an experimental design in a randomized control trial to compare the effectiveness of using early kangaroo care (KC) for extrauterine temperature adaptation against that of using radiant warmers. Trial subjects included 78 consecutive cesarean newborn infants with hypothermia problems. The KC group received skin-to-skin contact with their mothers in the post-operative room, while infants in the control group received routine care under radiant warmers. The mean temperature of the KC group was slightly higher than that of the control group (36.29 degrees C vs. 36.22 degrees C, p = .044). After four hours, 97.43% of KC group infants had reached normal body temperatures, compared with 82.05% in the radiant warmer group. Results demonstrate the positive effects of KC for extrauterine temperature adaptation in hypothermia infants. In the course of evidence-based practice, KC could be incorporated into the standard care regimen in order to improve hypothermia care. PMID:16874601

  19. Anesthetic use in newborn infants: the urgent need for rigorous evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Viviane G.; Davis, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 1.5 million neonates receive general anesthesia each year for a surgical procedure. Despite this being an essential practice, a number of recent studies now indicate that anesthetic exposure could cause toxicity and neuronal apoptosis in the developing brain. This could potentially influence long-term neurodevelopmental outcome, especially premature infants in need of multiple surgical procedures. Most anesthetic drugs routinely administered to neonates have not been adequately tested for safety or efficacy. Given the number of confounders, dosing is often extrapolated from adults. This is concerning since many different drugs can be administered concurrently, with few of these agents actually approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration. Since 1997, legislation has been passed in the United States and abroad encouraging more drug investigation in infants and children. This has resulted in over 500 labeling changes to products regarding safety and efficacy in various pediatric age groups. However, only three drugs routinely used as anesthetic agents in newborn infants have had any updated labeling (none in very premature infants). This “off-label” use without adequate testing must be addressed. Therefore, more clinical trials of common anesthetic agents used alone and in combination in neonates are urgently needed. PMID:25790274

  20. [A clinical study on 106 infant cases who received detailed hearing tests after newborn hearing screening].

    PubMed

    Okano, Takayuki; Iwai, Noriko; Taniguchi, Mirei; Ito, Juichi

    2014-10-01

    Newborn hearing screening (NHS) has been conducted widely in Japan in the last decade, however, there seems to be some confusion regarding the significance of NHS or management of the results obtained from NHS among clinics and practitioners. The system of NHS in Japan should be improved and refined through continuous evaluation of NHS, in terms of cost effectiveness in particular, so that NHS can be conducted more efficiently and effectively. To achieve this goal, the authors thought it important to clarify the current status and roles of our department as a facility for infants with congenital hearing impairment. In the present study, we studied 106 infant cases who were referred to the Department of Otolaryngology in Kyoto University Hospital after NHS before the age of twelve months in a period of seven years from 2006 to 2012 via retrospective chart reviewing. 79.2% of 96 infants who were qualified as referred either unilaterally or bilaterally following NHS were diagnosed as having hearing impairment in any form, either unilateral or bilateral, or conductive and/or sensorineural. The positive agreement rate was 88.7% in 53 cases who were qualified as referred bilaterally in NHS, demonstrating a high reliability of the NHS system. Twenty-four cases were diagnosed as having the need for hearing aids and were assigned to treatment and education. All the infants who underwent cochlear implantation in our department had severe bilateral hearing impairment of more than 105 dBnHL in both ears at the first examination. Moreover, a number of infants who were qualified as having passed in both ears in NHS or who had failed to receive NHS at birth were revealed as having hearing impairment and needed treatment later in the first year of their life, suggesting that NHS should be conducted in combination with periodical health checkups by family practitioners in order to identify infants with hearing impairment earlier in their life with higher efficacy.

  1. Interatrial shunt flow profiles in newborn infants: a colour flow and pulsed Doppler echocardiographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Hiraishi, S; Agata, Y; Saito, K; Oguchi, K; Misawa, H; Fujino, N; Horiguchi, Y; Yashiro, K

    1991-01-01

    Interatrial shunt flow profiles in 36 normal term infants were examined serially by colour flow and pulsed Doppler echocardiographic techniques from within an hour of birth to four or five days after birth. Shunt flow across the foramen ovale was detected in 33 normal infants (92%) within an hour of birth (mean 40 minutes). The occurrence of interatrial shunting decreased with age, but a shunt signal was still detected in 17 infants (47%) on the fourth or fifth day of life, by then the ductus arteriosus had already closed in all the normal infants. The direction of interatrial shunt flow was predominantly left-to-right, but in 64% there was a coexistent small right-to-left shunt in diastole within an hour of birth; by four to five days it was found in 19%. In the six patients with persistent fetal circulation the direction of the interatrial shunt flow was predominantly right-to-left with biphasic peaks in diastole and systole at the early stage of the disease, and the period of right-to-left shunt flow during each cardiac cycle was significantly longer than that in normal infants examined within 1 hour of birth. In all patients the ductus closed before the foramen ovale. At the time of ductal closure in all patients with persistent fetal circulation right-to-left shunt flow was seen during diastole and its period was still prolonged. These findings suggest that interatrial shunting, predominantly left-to-right, is common in normal newborn infants. Evaluation of the characteristics of the interatrial shunt by Doppler echocardiography may be useful for predicting the progress of or improvement in neonates with persistent fetal circulation. Images PMID:1993129

  2. The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Because early life growth has long-lasting metabolic and behavioral consequences, intervention during this period of developmental plasticity may alter long-term obesity risk. While modifiable factors during infancy have been identified, until recently, preventive interventions had not been tested. The Intervention Nurses Starting Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT). Study is a longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial evaluating a responsive parenting intervention designed for the primary prevention of obesity. This “parenting” intervention is being compared with a home safety control among first-born infants and their parents. INSIGHT’s central hypothesis is that responsive parenting and specifically responsive feeding promotes self-regulation and shared parent–child responsibility for feeding, reducing subsequent risk for overeating and overweight. Methods/Design 316 first-time mothers and their full-term newborns were enrolled from one maternity ward. Two weeks following delivery, dyads were randomly assigned to the “parenting” or “safety” groups. Subsequently, research nurses conduct study visits for both groups consisting of home visits at infant age 3–4, 16, 28, and 40 weeks, followed by annual clinic-based visits at 1, 2, and 3 years. Both groups receive intervention components framed around four behavior states: Sleeping, Fussy, Alert and Calm, and Drowsy. The main study outcome is BMI z-score at age 3 years; additional outcomes include those related to patterns of infant weight gain, infant sleep hygiene and duration, maternal responsiveness and soothing strategies for infant/toddler distress and fussiness, maternal feeding style and infant dietary content and physical activity. Maternal outcomes related to weight status, diet, mental health, and parenting sense of competence are being collected. Infant temperament will be explored as a moderator of parenting effects, and blood is collected to obtain genetic

  3. Variables associated with peripherally inserted central catheter related infection in high risk newborn infants 1

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Uesliz Vianna; Gomes, Saint Clair dos Santos; Costa, Ana Maria Aranha Magalhães; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to relate the variables from a surveillance form for intravenous devices in high risk newborn infants with peripherally inserted central catheter related infection. METHODOLOGY: approximately 15 variables were studied, being associated with peripherally inserted central catheter related infection, this being defined by blood culture results. The variables analyzed were obtained from the surveillance forms used with intravenous devices, attached to the medical records of newborn infants weighing between 500 and 1,499 g. The statistical association was defined using the Chi-squared and Student t tests. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Instituto Fernandes Figueira under process N. 140.703/12. RESULTS: 63 medical records were analyzed. The infection rate observed was 25.4%. Of the variables analyzed, only three had a statistically-significant relationship with the blood culture - the use of drugs capable of inhibiting acid secretion, post-natal steroid use, and undertaking more than one invasive procedure (p-value of 0.0141, 0.0472 and 0.0277, respectively). CONCLUSION: the absence of significance of the variables of the form may be related to the quality of the records and to the absence of standardization. It is recommended that the teams be encouraged to adhere to the protocol and fill out the form. PMID:25493681

  4. Prospective cohort study of factors influencing the relative weights of the placenta and the newborn infant.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, L. A.; Evans, S. F.; Newnham, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the demographic, environmental, and medical factors that influence the relative weights of the newborn infant and the placenta and compare this ratio with other factors known to predispose to adult ill health. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The tertiary referral centre for perinatal care in Perth, Western Australia. SUBJECTS: 2507 pregnant women who delivered a single live infant at term. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Placental weight, birth weight, and the ratio of placental weight to birth weight. RESULTS: By multiple regression analysis the placental weight to birthweight ratio was significantly and positively associated with gestational age, female sex, Asian parentage, increasing maternal body mass index, increased maternal weight at booking, lower socioeconomic status, maternal anaemia, and increasing number of cigarettes smoked daily. There were no consistent relations between the placental weight to birthweight ratio and measures of newborn size. CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of placental weight to birth weight is not an accurate marker of fetal growth. In its role as a predictor of adult disease the ratio may be acting as a surrogate for other factors which are already known to influence health and may act before or after birth. Determining the role that relative growth rates of the fetus and placenta have in predisposing to adult disease requires prospective study to account for the many confounding variables which complicate this hypothesis. PMID:9224128

  5. When Will Life Be Normal? The Healthy Beginnings Program for Parents of Premature Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sledden, Elizabeth

    The Healthy Beginnings program is designed to help parents of prematurely born infants adjust to parenting challenges and opportunities of the first 2 years of the infant's life. The Healthy Beginnings Program provides parents of premature infants with support and guidance by offering: (1) monthly education and support meetings; (2) evaluations…

  6. The Healthy Infant Nasal Transcriptome: A Benchmark Study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chin-Yi; Qiu, Xing; Wang, Lu; Bhattacharya, Soumyaroop; Lofthus, Gerry; Corbett, Anthony; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Grier, Alex; Tesini, Brenda; Gill, Steven R.; Falsey, Ann R.; Caserta, Mary T.; Walsh, Edward E.; Mariani, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Responses by resident cells are likely to play a key role in determining the severity of respiratory disease. However, sampling of the airways poses a significant challenge, particularly in infants and children. Here, we report a reliable method for obtaining nasal epithelial cell RNA from infants for genome-wide transcriptomic analysis, and describe baseline expression characteristics in an asymptomatic cohort. Nasal epithelial cells were collected by brushing of the inferior turbinates, and gene expression was interrogated by RNA-seq analysis. Reliable recovery of RNA occurred in the absence of adverse events. We observed high expression of epithelial cell markers and similarity to the transcriptome for intrapulmonary airway epithelial cells. We identified genes displaying low and high expression variability, both inherently, and in response to environmental exposures. The greatest gene expression differences in this asymptomatic cohort were associated with the presence of known pathogenic viruses and/or bacteria. Robust bacteria-associated gene expression patterns were significantly associated with the presence of Moraxella. In summary, we have developed a reliable method for interrogating the infant airway transcriptome by sampling the nasal epithelium. Our data demonstrates both the fidelity and feasibility of our methodology, and describes normal gene expression and variation within a healthy infant cohort. PMID:27658638

  7. The Clinical Aspects of Newborn Screening: Importance of Newborn Screening Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Philip M.; Levy, Harvey L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of newborn screening is to identify presymptomatic healthy infants that will develop significant metabolic or endocrine derangements if left undiagnosed and untreated. The goal of ultimately reducing or eliminating irreversible sequelae is reached by maximizing test sensitivity of the primary newborn screening that measures specific…

  8. Transcutaneous Pco2 Monitoring in Newborn Infants During General Anesthesia Is Technically Feasible

    PubMed Central

    Sporre, Bengt; Ågren, Johan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous (TC) measurement of Pco2 (TC Pco2) is a well-established method to monitor assisted ventilation in neonatal intensive care, but its use in the operating room is limited, and the data regarding its performance during general anesthesia of the newborn are lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of continuous TC Pco2 monitoring during general anesthesia in newborn infants. METHODS: Infants (n = 25) with a gestational age of 23 to 41 weeks and a birth weight of 548 to 4114 g were prospectively enrolled. During general anesthesia and surgery, TC Pco2 was measured continuously and recorded at 1-minute intervals. Five-minute mean values were compared with simultaneously obtained blood gas (BG) analyses of Pco2. Only the first paired TC and BG samples were used in this analysis. We defined precision as 2.1 times the standard deviation of the difference of the 2 samples. P < .01 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: We obtained samples from 25 infants. The difference between TC and BG was 0.3 ± 0.7 kPa (mean ± standard deviation) giving a precision of 1.47 kPa. Nineteen of twenty-five (76%) sample pairs displayed a difference of <1 kPa (99% confidence interval, 48%–92%, P = .016). The difference in paired samples was similar for different gestational and postnatal ages and did not appear to be affected by electrocautery. CONCLUSIONS: In this small study, we did not demonstrate that TC CO2 monitoring was accurate at P < .01. This partly reflects the small size of the study, resulting in wide 99% confidence bounds. PMID:27464976

  9. Gut microbiota of healthy Canadian infants: profiles by mode of delivery and infant diet at 4 months

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Meghan B.; Konya, Theodore; Maughan, Heather; Guttman, David S.; Field, Catherine J.; Chari, Radha S.; Sears, Malcolm R.; Becker, Allan B.; Scott, James A.; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The gut microbiota is essential to human health throughout life, yet the acquisition and development of this microbial community during infancy remains poorly understood. Meanwhile, there is increasing concern over rising rates of cesarean delivery and insufficient exclusive breastfeeding of infants in developed countries. In this article, we characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Canadian infants and describe the influence of cesarean delivery and formula feeding. Methods: We included a subset of 24 term infants from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort. Mode of delivery was obtained from medical records, and mothers were asked to report on infant diet and medication use. Fecal samples were collected at 4 months of age, and we characterized the microbiota composition using high-throughput DNA sequencing. Results: We observed high variability in the profiles of fecal microbiota among the infants. The profiles were generally dominated by Actinobacteria (mainly the genus Bifidobacterium) and Firmicutes (with diverse representation from numerous genera). Compared with breastfed infants, formula-fed infants had increased richness of species, with overrepresentation of Clostridium difficile. Escherichia–Shigella and Bacteroides species were underrepresented in infants born by cesarean delivery. Infants born by elective cesarean delivery had particularly low bacterial richness and diversity. Interpretation: These findings advance our understanding of the gut microbiota in healthy infants. They also provide new evidence for the effects of delivery mode and infant diet as determinants of this essential microbial community in early life. PMID:23401405

  10. Holistic Face Processing in Newborns, 3-Month-Old Infants, and Adults: Evidence from the Composite Face Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turati, Chiara; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Bardi, Lara; Simion, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Holistic face processing was investigated in newborns, 3-month-old infants, and adults through a modified version of the composite face paradigm and the recording of eye movements. After familiarization to the top portion of a face, participants (N = 70) were shown 2 aligned or misaligned faces, 1 of which comprised the familiar top part. In the…

  11. Arterial blood pressure wave forms in radial and posterior tibial arteries in critically ill newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Gevers, M; Hack, W W; Ree, E F; Lafeber, H N; Westerhof, N

    1993-04-01

    The aim of this study was to document arterial blood pressure wave forms at two sites along the arterial tree of the neonate: in the radial and posterior tibial arteries. Using a high-fidelity catheter tip-transducer system, peripheral arterial blood pressure wave forms in 26 critically newborn infants were studied. In 14 infants the radial artery and in 12 infants the posterior tibial artery was cannulated. Radial artery blood pressure waves resembled those of proximal aortic rather than those of the radial artery in adults. Quantitative analysis of the waves was performed to reassure this finding. Blood pressure waves obtained from posterior tibial artery resembled those of femoral artery rather than those of posterior tibial artery waves in adults. We conclude that radial and posterior tibial artery wave forms in neonates appear to have a central appearance. This phenomenon might be explained by the close proximity of the radial and posterior tibial artery to the central aorta and femoral artery respectively, due to the small and short limbs of the neonate. The finding allows an "easy central pressure look" at both ends of the neonatal aorta.

  12. Glutamine and leucine nitrogen kinetics and their relation to urea nitrogen in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Parimi, Prabhu S; Devapatla, Srisatish; Gruca, Lourdes; O'Brien, Alicia M; Hanson, Richard W; Kalhan, Satish C

    2002-03-01

    Glutamine kinetics and its relation to transamination of leucine and urea synthesis were quantified in 16 appropriate-for-gestational-age infants, four small-for-gestational-age infants, and seven infants of diabetic mothers. Kinetics were measured between 4 and 5 h after the last feed (fasting) and in response to formula feeding using [5-(15)N]glutamine, [1-(13)C,(15)N]leucine, [(2)H(5)]phenylalanine, and [(15)N(2)]urea tracers. Leucine nitrogen and glutamine kinetics during fasting were significantly higher than those reported in adults. De novo synthesis accounted for approximately 85% of glutamine turnover. In response to formula feeding, a significant increase (P = 0.04) in leucine nitrogen turnover was observed, whereas a significant decrease (P = 0.002) in glutamine and urea rate of appearance was seen. The rate of appearance of leucine nitrogen was positively correlated (r(2) = 0.59, P = 0.001) with glutamine turnover. Glutamine flux was negatively correlated (r(2) = 0.39, P = 0.02) with the rate of urea synthesis. These data suggest that, in the human newborn, glutamine turnover is related to a high anaplerotic flux into the tricarboxylic acid cycle as a consequence of a high rate of protein turnover. The negative relationship between glutamine turnover and the irreversible oxidation of protein (urea synthesis) suggests an important role of glutamine as a nitrogen source for other synthetic processes and accretion of body proteins.

  13. Acute posterior fossa epidural hematoma in a newborn infant with Menkes disease.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Horikawa, Masahiro; Wakamatsu, Hajime; Hashimoto, Jyunya; Nawashiro, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    Epidural hematoma (EDH) in newborn infants is rare compared with other types of intracranial hemorrhages. Furthermore, posterior fossa EDH is extremely rare. We present a case of posterior fossa EDH in an infant with Menkes disease with accessory bones in the occiput. A male infant with a condition diagnosed with Menkes disease by prenatal testing was born at 39 weeks via vacuum extraction. The patient presented with a mild tremor at 2 days after delivery. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan showed an acute EDH in the posterior fossa, extending into the occipitoparietal area. Three-dimensional CT and bone window CT scan revealed several accessory bones, diastasis of 1 accessory suture, a communicated fracture, and a linear fracture in the occipital bone. Furthermore, a bone fragment from a communicated fracture displaced toward the inside. The patient was treated conservatively for EDH because of his good general condition. The hematoma gradually resolved, and his tremor did not recur. We suggest the following mechanism of posterior fossa EDH development in our patient: (1) external force was applied to the occiput inside the birth canal during delivery, resulting in diastasis; (2) a communicated fracture occurred, and a bone fragment displaced toward the inside (linear fracture was caused indirectly by the force); (3) a transverse sinus was injured by the fragment; and (4) EDH developed in both the posterior fossa and supratentorial region. Copper deficiency can also cause fragility of connective tissues, vessels, and bones.

  14. Predictors of extubation failure and reintubation in newborn infants subjected to mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Ana Cristina de Oliveira; Schettino, Renata de Carvalho; Ferreira, Sandra Clecêncio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for extubation failure and reintubation in newborn infants subjected to mechanical ventilation and to establish whether ventilation parameters and blood gas analysis behave as predictors of those outcomes. Methods Prospective study conducted at a neonatal intensive care unit from May to November 2011. A total of 176 infants of both genders subjected to mechanical ventilation were assessed after extubation. Extubation failure was defined as the need to resume mechanical ventilation within less than 72 hours. Reintubation was defined as the need to reintubate the infants any time after the first 72 hours. Results Based on the univariate analysis, the variables gestational age <28 weeks, birth weight <1,000g and low Apgar scores were associated with extubation failure and reintubation. Based on the multivariate analysis, the variables length of mechanical ventilation (days), potential of hydrogen (pH) and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) remained associated with extubation failure, and the five-minute Apgar score and age at extubation were associated with reintubation. Conclusion Low five-minute Apgar scores, age at extubation, length of mechanical ventilation, acid-base disorders and hyperoxia exhibited associations with the investigated outcomes of extubation failure and reintubation. PMID:24770689

  15. Development of a finite element/multi-body model of a newborn infant for restraint analysis and design.

    PubMed

    Bondy, Matthew; Altenhof, William; Chen, Xilin; Snowdon, Anne; Vrkljan, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    A finite element/multi-body model of a newborn infant has been developed by researchers at the University of Windsor. The geometry of this model is derived from a Nita newborn hospital training mannequin. It consists of 17 parts: eight upper and lower limb segments, the torso, head, and a seven-segment neck with seven translational and eight rotational joints. Anthropometry is consistent with hospital growth charts, measurements requested from health professionals and data from the open literature. The biomechanical properties of the model (i.e. joint stiffnesses) are implementations of data identified in the open literature. The model has been validated with respect to studies of the biomechanics of shaken baby syndrome, infant falls and the Q0 anthropomorphic testing device. A significant conclusion of this study is that the kinetics of the Q0 neck is not biofidelic. This model is currently used in an analysis of airway patency for infants in modern automotive child restraints.

  16. An audit of the effect of two cord-care regimens on bacterial colonization in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Paes, B; Jones, C C

    1987-03-01

    Proper care of the umbilical cord of newborn infants may prevent later infections. When St Joseph's Hospital in Hamilton, Ontario, started using alcohol instead of triple dye for umbilical cord care, there was a dramatic increase in the incidence of bacterial colonization in newborns in the nursery and, later, in the number of cases of staphylococcus-related skin infections in infants born at the hospital. Follow-up on 1,545 infants revealed that triple dye was significantly more effective than alcohol in reducing the growth of gram-positive organisms, especially Staphylococcus aureus and group B streptococcus, and several gram-negative organisms. Because hospital medical staff had carefully collected data on bacterial colonization, they were quickly aware of the problem and could justify resuming the use of triple dye.

  17. [Pancreas structure in fetuses and newborn infants who died in the perinatal period].

    PubMed

    Uliyanovskaya, S A; Tiukhtina, T G; Stukov, N V; Ankudinov, V V

    2014-01-01

    In the pancreas of fetuses at weeks 22-40 of prenatal development (n = 111) and of newborn infants who died during the first week of postnatal life (n = 38) the changes were detected that were characterized by exocrine part hypoplasia, retardation of acinar pancreatocyte differentiation, connective tissue outgrowth, pancreatic (Langerhans) islet hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The results of the study have shown that with the increase of the total risk sum of the perinatal period pathology development (expressed in balls), the relative content of the insular part of the organ and the number of large pancreatic islets (larger than 100 microm in diameter) decreased. The morphological features detected in this study indirectly reflect endo-ecologically discomfortable conditions of fetus development within the fetoplacental unit which increase the risk of polyendocrinopathy development and fetal intrauterine growth retardation. These polyendocrinopathies increase further the risk of endocrine disturbance occurence in childhood.

  18. Case of 46,XX/47,XY, +21 chimerism in a newborn infant with ambiguous genitalia

    SciTech Connect

    Sawai, Tomoko; Yoshimoto, Masaaki; Kinoshita, Ei-ichi; Baba, Tsuneyoshi; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Tsuji, Yoshiro, Niikawa, Norio; Fukuda, Shinpei; Harada, Naoki

    1994-02-15

    The authors describe the whole-body chimerism in a newborn infant with small phallus, pseudo-vaginal perineal hypospadias, and a bifid scrotum containing gonads. The human testis determining factor gene (SRY) was detected by PCR amplification. GTG-banding chromosome analysis in peripheral blood lymphocytes and cultured fibroblasts derived from right cubital skin showed a 46,XX/47,XY, +21 karyotype. Their ratios in each cell line were 294:5 and 178:7, respectively. QFQ-banding chromosome analysis documented 3 heteromorphic satellites on trisomic chromsomes 21 in the 47,XY,+21 cell line and a homozygous satellite pattern in the 46,XX cell line. Heteromorphic patterns of chromsomes 4, 13, 14, and 22 were also different between the two cell lines. To our knowledge, such disomy/trisomy chimeras have not been described previously. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  19. The Methodology of Doppler-Derived Central Blood Flow Measurements in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    de Waal, Koert A.

    2012-01-01

    Central blood flow (CBF) measurements are measurements in and around the heart. It incorporates cardiac output, but also measurements of cardiac input and assessment of intra- and extracardiac shunts. CBF can be measured in the central circulation as right or left ventricular output (RVO or LVO) and/or as cardiac input measured at the superior vena cava (SVC flow). Assessment of shunts incorporates evaluation of the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale. This paper describes the methodology of CBF measurements in newborn infants. It provides a brief overview of the evolution of Doppler ultrasound blood flow measurements, basic principles of Doppler ultrasound, and an overview of all used methodology in the literature. A general guide for interpretation and normal values with suggested cutoffs of CBFs are provided for clinical use. PMID:22291718

  20. Skin findings in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics; Neonatal care - skin ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  1. Maternal and infant characteristics influencing the anogenital distance and penile length in newborns.

    PubMed

    Singal, Arbinder Kumar; Jain, Viral G

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that maternal characteristics can affect reproductive health of offspring, possibly through pre-natal hormonal influence. Anogenital distance (AGD) is an anthropometric measure which is a sensitive reproductive endpoint of masculinisation. It provides a read-out of pre-natal androgen exposure and has been associated with several reproductive health outcomes in humans. We studied AGD and stretched penile length (SPL) in a large, racially homogenous sample of consecutive newborns to understand their association with maternal and infant characteristics. A prospective cross-sectional study involving measurement of AGD and SPL at birth was performed by a single trained observer. A total of 1077 newborns (553 males and 524 females) were included in final anthropometric analysis. The mean AGD of males was 2.56 ± 0.31 cm, and the mean AGD of females was 1.54 ± 0.17 cm. The mean SPL of males was 3.31 ± 0.38 cm. On multiple regression analysis, for both males and females, birthweight (β = 0.229, P < 0.001 and β = 0.135, P < 0.001, respectively) was modest but significant predictor for AGD. For SPL, only gestational age (β = 0.054, P < 0.001) was found to be statistically significant predictor. There was no significant association observed for gravidity, parity and maternal age with both AGD and SPL. Thus, no maternal characteristics (age, gravidity, parity) influence AGD or SPL in human infants.

  2. Sugaring the pill: ethics and uncertainties in the use of sucrose for newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dominic J C; Savulescu, Julian; Slater, Rebeccah

    2012-07-01

    Sucrose is widely used for the management of procedural pain in newborn infants, including capillary blood sampling, venepuncture, and vascular cannulation. Multiple randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that sweet-tasting solutions reduce behavioral responses to acute painful stimuli. It has been claimed that sucrose should be a standard of care in neonatal units and that further placebo-controlled trials of sucrose are unnecessary and unethical. However, recently published data cast doubt on the analgesic properties of sucrose. We review this new evidence and analyze the philosophical and ethical questions that it raises, including the "problem of other minds." Sugar may be better understood not as an analgesic, removing or relieving pain, but as a compensating pleasure. There is a need for further research on the mechanism of sucrose's effect on pain behavior and on the long-term effects of sucrose treatment. Such trials will require comparison with placebo or with other interventions. Given uncertainty about the benefit of sucrose, it may be wise to use alternative analgesics or nonpharmacological interventions where these are available and appropriate. Sucrose may not be the answer to procedural pain in newborns.

  3. Abuse and Neglect of Healthy Newborn by Parents: A Social Problem with a Long History

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Ahmadshah; Ghasemi, Ali; Mohammadzadeh, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    A Two-day-old girl who was found in garbage by police and transferred to hospital. She was irritable and dehydrated; also there were burn injuries around her knees and right cheek. Her weight was 3100 grams and physical examinations were normal. Opium was found in urine. Phenobarbital (4 mg/kg/day intravenous every 12 hours) was started for her irritability. After 20 days, infant was entrusted to a welfare organization with coordination of social support of hospital. The prevention of child abuse and neglect is an urgent public health concern. Home visit by welfare organization has been proposed as a promising approach to prevent health and developmental problems among children. We report this case of an abused and neglected newborn. PMID:26675006

  4. Abuse and Neglect of Healthy Newborn by Parents: A Social Problem with a Long History.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Ahmadshah; Ghasemi, Ali; Mohammadzadeh, Ashraf; Sezavar, Majid

    2015-11-01

    A Two-day-old girl who was found in garbage by police and transferred to hospital. She was irritable and dehydrated; also there were burn injuries around her knees and right cheek. Her weight was 3100 grams and physical examinations were normal. Opium was found in urine. Phenobarbital (4 mg/kg/day intravenous every 12 hours) was started for her irritability. After 20 days, infant was entrusted to a welfare organization with coordination of social support of hospital. The prevention of child abuse and neglect is an urgent public health concern. Home visit by welfare organization has been proposed as a promising approach to prevent health and developmental problems among children. We report this case of an abused and neglected newborn. PMID:26675006

  5. Tackling Health Inequities in Chile: Maternal, Newborn, Infant, and Child Mortality Between 1990 and 2004

    PubMed Central

    Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Nien, Jyh Kae; Merialdi, Mario; Bustreo, Flavia; Betran, Ana Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed trends in maternal, newborn, and child mortality in Chile between 1990 and 2004, after the introduction of national interventions and reforms, and examined associations between trends and interventions. Methods. Data were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health on all pregnancies between 1990 and 2004 (approximately 4 000 000). We calculated yearly maternal mortality ratios, stillbirth rates, and mortality rates for neonates, infants (aged > 28 days and < 1 year), and children aged 1 to 4 years. We also calculated these statistics by 5-year intervals for Chile's poorest to richest district quintiles. Results. During the study period, the maternal mortality ratio decreased from 42.1 to 18.5 per 100 000 live births. The mortality rate for neonates decreased from 9.0 to 5.7 per 1000 births, for infants from 7.8 to 3.1 per 1000 births, and for young children from 3.1 to 1.7 per 1000 live births. The stillbirth rate declined from 6.0 to 5.0 per 1000 births. Disparities in these mortality statistics between the poorest and richest district quintiles also decreased, with the largest mortality reductions in the poorest quintile. Conclusions. During a period of socioeconomic development and health sector reforms, Chile experienced significant mortality and inequity reductions. PMID:19443831

  6. Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenny, Carmen; Biallas, Martin; Trajkovic, Ivo; Fauchère, Jean-Claude; Bucher, Hans Ulrich; Wolf, Martin

    2011-09-01

    Early detection of cerebral hypoxemia is an important aim in neonatology. A relevant parameter to assess brain oxygenation may be the cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). So far the reproducibility of StO2 measurements was too low for clinical application, probably due to inhomogeneities. The aim of this study was to test a novel sensor geometry which reduces the influence of inhomogeneities. Thirty clinically stable newborn infants, with a gestational age of median 33.9 (range 26.9 to 41.9) weeks, birth weight of 2220 (820 to 4230) g, postnatal age of 5 (1 to 71) days were studied. At least four StO2 measurements of 1 min duration were carried out using NIRS on the lateral head. The sensor was repositioned between measurements. Reproducibility was calculated by a linear mixed effects model. The mean StO2 was 79.99 +/- 4.47% with a reproducibility of 2.76% and a between-infant variability of 4.20%. Thus, the error of measurement only accounts for 30.1% of the variability. The novel sensor geometry leads to considerably more precise measurements compared to previous studies with, e.g., ~5% reproducibility for the NIRO 300. The novel StO2 values hence have a higher clinical relevance.

  7. Cerebral blood flow in the newborn infant: comparison of Doppler ultrasound and /sup 133/xenon clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Greisen, G.; Johansen, K.; Ellison, P.H.; Fredriksen, P.S.; Mali, J.; Friis-Hansen, B.

    1984-03-01

    Two techniques of Doppler ultrasound examination, continuous-wave and range-gated, applied to the anterior cerebral artery and to the internal carotid artery, were compared with /sup 133/xenon clearance after intravenous injection. Thirty-two sets of measurements were obtained in 16 newborn infants. The pulsatility index, the mean flow velocity, and the end-diastolic flow velocity were read from the Doppler recordings. Mean cerebral blood flow was estimated from the /sup 133/Xe clearance curves. The correlation coefficients between the Doppler and the /sup 133/Xe measurements ranged from 0.41 to 0.82. In the subset of 16 first measurements in each infant, there were no statistically significant differences between the correlation coefficients of the various Doppler ultrasound variables, but the correlation coefficients were consistently lower for the pulsatility index than for mean flow velocity or end-diastolic flow velocity, and they were consistently higher for the range-gated than for the continuous-wave Doppler technique.

  8. Relationship Between Serum Albumin Levels and Infections in Newborn Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunyan; Liu, Zhaoguo; Tian, Min; Xu, Ping; Li, Baoyun; Yang, Qiaozhi; Yang, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the clinical value of serum albumin levels for the evaluation and prognosis of late preterm infants with infections. Material/Methods This was a retrospective study performed in late preterm infants admitted at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Liaocheng People’s Hospital between July 2012 and March 2013. Data, including laboratory test results, neonatal critical illness score (NCIS), perinatal complications and prognosis, were analyzed. The newborn infants were divided into 3 groups according to their serum albumin levels, (≥30 g/L, 25–30 g/L and ≤25 g/L for high, moderate, and low, respectively). Results Among 257 patients, birth weight was 2003±348 g, gestational age was 35.7±2.3 weeks, and 59.1% were male. In addition, 127 (49.4%) were in the low albumin group. There were 32 patients with sepsis, 190 with infections, and 35 without infection, and their rates of hypoalbuminemia were 86.0%, 50.5%, and 30.7%, respectively (P<0.05). Albumin levels of the patients who survived were higher than those of the patients who died. In the low albumin group, the number of individual-event-critical NCIS cases and the frequency of multiple organs injuries were 63.8% and 28.3%, respectively, and were higher than in the 2 other groups. Mortality was higher in patients with sepsis. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with severe adverse outcomes (odds ratio=6.3, 95% confidence interval: 3.7–10.9, P<0.001). Conclusions Hypoalbuminemia was frequent among neonates with sepsis. Lower albumin levels might be associated with a poorer prognosis. Albumin levels could be appropriate for the diagnosis and prognosis of late preterm neonates with infections. PMID:26747243

  9. [The significance of fucosylated glycoconjugates of human milk in nutrition of newborns and infants].

    PubMed

    Lis-Kuberka, Jolanta; Orczyk-Pawiłowicz, Magdalena

    2015-07-22

    Human milk is extremely complex secretion rich in biologically active glycoconjugates including free oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, and glycosaminoglycans. Alpha1-2-fucosylated glycoconjugates of human milk are component of the innate immune system and provide an additional defense for infants. Participation of fucosylated glycotopes in the inhibition of infections caused by some bacteria and/or viruses rely on blocking of lectin-receptors of pathogen. Free fucosylated glycoconjugates present in milk are recognized and bound by the lectin-receptors of bacteria and/or viruses, and prevent pathogens adhesion to host epithelial cells and development of infection. So far, the efficacy of fucosylated glycoconjugates of human milk in the inhibition of adhesion has been confirmed for Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica, Rotaviruses, HIV, and Noroviruses. In this process the secretor/nonsecretor status of mother plays an important role. This is particularly important for the women who are nonsecretors and whose milk does not contain α1-2-fucosylated glycoconjugates and has reduced anti-microbial properties. Fucosylated glycoconjugates of milk are also one of the energy sources for physiological bacterial flora (Bifidobacterium), and have a positive impact on the intestinal peristalsis, and indirectly stimulate the central nervous system of infants. Furthermore, compared to human milk, the content of fucosylated glycoconjugates of cow’s milk is very low and does not provide adequate protection. This fact is particularly important in terms of nutrition and should be taken into consideration when artificial mixtures based on cows’ milk are used. The paper presents the current state of knowledge on human milk glycoconjugates, particularly on α1-2-fucosylated free oligosaccharides and glycoproteins, and discusses the significance of fucosylated glycoconjugates of human milk in the nutrition of newborns and infants.

  10. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Hospitalizations in Healthy Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Margulis, Andrea V.; Samuel, Miny; Lohr, Kathleen N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have explored the risk for and impact of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection requiring hospitalization among healthy preterm infants born at 29–35 weeks of gestational age not given RSV immunoprophylaxis. We performed a systematic review and qualitative synthesis of these studies. Methods: Two experienced reviewers used prespecified inclusion/exclusion criteria to screen titles/abstracts and full-text studies using MEDLINE, Embase, BIOSIS and Cochrane Library (January 1, 1985, to November 6, 2014). We abstracted data on risk factors for RSV hospitalization, incidence and short- and long-term outcomes of RSV hospitalization. Using standard procedures, we assessed study risk of bias and graded strength of evidence (SOE). Results: We identified 4754 records and reviewed 27. Important risk factors for RSV hospitalization included young age during the RSV season, having school-age siblings and day-care attendance, with odds ratios >2.5 in at least one study (high SOE). Incidence rates for RSV hospitalizations ranged from 2.3% to 10% (low SOE). Length of hospital stays ranged from 3.8 to 6.1 days (low SOE). Recurrent wheezing rates ranged from 20.7% to 42.8% 1 to 2 years after RSV hospitalization (low SOE). Conclusions: Young chronological age and some environmental risk factors are important clinical indicators of an increased risk of RSV hospitalization in healthy preterm infants 32 to 35 weeks of gestational age. SOE was low for estimates of incidence of RSV hospitalizations, in-hospital resource use and recurrent wheezing in this population. Studies were inconsistent in study characteristics, including weeks of gestational age, age during RSV season and control for confounding factors. PMID:27093166

  11. Posture as a Determinant of Visual Behavior in Newborns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, W. Timm; Brown, Josephine V.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of posture on the visual behavior of 15 3-day-old healthy, black, newborn infants were assessed. Findings suggest that the vestibular, proprioceptive, and contact stimulation provided by the on-shoulder position affects the newborn's ability to follow and process visual stimuli. (Author/CS)

  12. Atrioventricular reciprocal rhythm and chronic reciprocating tachycardia in a newborn infant with concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, R J; Ferrer, P; Garcia, O L; Castellanos, A; Gelband, H

    1977-01-01

    A case of atrioventricular reciprocal rhythm and chronic reciprocating tachycardia in a newborn infant is presented. Electrophysiological studies suggest that these rhythm disturbances are related to the presence of a right-sided atrioventricular accessory pathway capable only of retrograde conduction (concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome). The technique of recording the sequence of atrial activation during the tachycardia is described and its clinical importance emphasised. PMID:884032

  13. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for oxygen-15 radiopharmaceuticals (H2( V)O, C VO, O VO) in newborn infants

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, W.J.; Stabin, M.; Howse, D.; Eichling, J.O.; Herscovitch, P.

    1988-12-01

    In preparation for measurement of regional cerebral oxygen metabolism by positron emission tomography, radiation absorbed dose estimates for 19 internal organs, blood, and total body were calculated for newborn infants following bolus intravenous administration of H2( V)O and brief inhalation of C VO and O VO. Cumulated activity for each radiopharmaceutical was calculated from a compartmental model based on the known biologic behavior of the compound. Values for mean absorbed dose/unit cumulated activity (S) for internal organs and total body were based on a newborn phantom. S was separately calculated for blood. Total radiopharmaceutical absorbed dose estimates necessary to measure cerebral oxygen metabolism in a 3.51-kg infant based on 0.7 mCi/kg H2( V)O and 1 mCi/kg C VO and O VO were determined to be 1.6 rad to the lung (maximum organ dose), 0.28 rad to the marrow, 0.46 rad to the gonads, and 0.22 rad to total body. These values are similar to those for current clinical nuclear medicine procedures employing /sup 99m/Tc in newborn infants.

  14. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) with Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC): Comprehensive Care for Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Als, Heidelise; McAnulty, Gloria B.

    2014-01-01

    State-of-the-art Newborn Intensive Care Units (NICUs), instrumental in the survival of high-risk and ever-earlier-born preterm infants, often have costly human repercussions. The developmental sequelae of newborn intensive care are largely misunderstood. Developed countries eager to export their technologies must also transfer the knowledge-base that encompasses all high-risk and preterm infants’ personhood as well as the neuro-essential importance of their parents. Without such understanding, the best medical care, while assuring survival jeopardizes infants’ long-term potential and deprives parents of their critical role. Exchanging the womb for the NICU environment at a time of rapid brain growth compromises preterm infants’ early development, which results in long-term physical and mental health problems and developmental disabilities. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) aims to prevent the iatrogenic sequelae of intensive care and to maintain the intimate connection between parent and infant, one expression of which is Kangaroo Mother Care. NIDCAP embeds the infant in the natural parent niche, avoids over-stimulation, stress, pain, and isolation while it supports self-regulation, competence, and goal orientation. Research demonstrates that NIDCAP improves brain development, functional competence, health, and life quality. It is cost effective, humane, and ethical, and promises to become the standard for all NICU care. PMID:25473384

  15. A critical assessment of uncalibrated respiratory inductance plethysmography (Respitrace) for the measurement of tidal breathing parameters in newborns and infants.

    PubMed

    Jackson, E; Stocks, J; Pilgrim, L; Dundas, I; Dezateux, C

    1995-08-01

    We have compared results obtained with an uncalibrated respiratory inductance plethysmograph (RIP) with those of a face mask and pneumotachograph (PNT) for the computerized measurement of the time to reach peak tidal expiratory flow as a ratio of total expiratory time (tPTEF:tE). Simultaneous measurements were made in 32 healthy neonates aged 0-3 weeks, 35 healthy infants aged 5-82 weeks, and 28 infants aged 15-94 weeks with physician diagnosed recurrent wheeze. The group mean (+/- SD) values of tPTEF:TE determined using a PNT were 0.455 (+/- 0.129), 0.263 (+/- 0.077), and 0.232 (+/- 0.089) for the neonates, healthy infants and infants with recurrent wheeze respectively. RIP gave mean (+/- SD) values that were 0.055 (+/- 0.044) and 0.025 (+/- 0.104) lower than the PNT in healthy neonates and infants with recurrent wheeze respectively; RIP values were 0.002 (+/- 0.073) higher in the healthy infants over 4 weeks of age than measurements by PNT. Although the difference between the two measurements was not related to the thoracoabdominal phase angle, as measured from Lissajous figures, examination of the RIP ribcage and abdominal signals revealed that many healthy subjects, while appearing clinically in phase, had ribcage and abdominal signals that differed markedly from each other in terms of convexity/concavity during early expiration. This may explain the lack of agreement between the two methods. We conclude that uncalibrated RIP should be used with caution for the determination of tPTEF:tE, even in subjects whose ribcage and abdomen appear to move synchronously. The measurement of tPTEF:tE did not differentiate between the healthy infants and infants with recurrent wheezing.

  16. Klebsiella pneumonia: An unusual cause of ophthalmia neonatorum in a healthy newborn.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jaya B; Silverstein, Evan; Wallace, David K

    2015-12-01

    Ophthalmia neonatorum is one of the most common infections during the neonatal period. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea must be ruled out, given their high virulence and systemic complications. We describe a case of ophthalmia neonatroum from Klebsiella pneumonia. Gram-negative organisms have been reported in hospital-acquired conjunctivitis (HAC), but we are unaware of any published reports of K. pneumonia conjunctivitis in an otherwise healthy full-term infant born in the United States who has received prophylaxis. It is important to promptly identify and treat Klebsiella conjunctivitis because it can lead to severe complications. PMID:26691043

  17. The relationship between thyroxine level and short term clinical outcome among sick newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Kadivar, Maliheh; Parsaei, Reza; Setoudeh, Arya

    2011-01-01

    Premature and critically sick infants frequently experience several interventions, including blood transfusions, parentral nutrition, and prescriptions during hospitalization that could affect the result of thyroid function test. This study aims to investigate the correlation between thyroxine level and clinical short term outcome among the newborn infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We assessed serum levels of thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone of 99 neonates who were admitted in the NICU from September 1(st) 2004 to March 30(th) 2005. Number of patients with low thyroxin level (less than 6.5 µg/dl) was determined and the relation between serum total thyroxine level and birth weight, gestational age, duration of hospitalization, clinical diagnosis, and final outcome was investigated. Short term outcome was considered as duration of hospitalization and discharge alive from hospital. Prevalence of hypothyroxinemia was 26 percent. Later assessment of thyroxine level within 3 weeks revealed normal level of this parameter (8.12 µg/dl ±1.36). Patients with lower gestational age and lower birth weight had lower thyroxine level (7.15 µg/dl ±2.56, and P=0.03, 6.72 µg/dl ±3.03, and P=0.08). Low thyroxine level was not associated with adverse short-term clinical outcome (mortality rates; 3(11%) and 9(12%), and duration of hospitalization among 17.7±9.8 vs 16.7± 13.0 in patients with hypothyroxinemia and low thyroxine level respectively). Hypothyroxinemia has considerable prevalence in neonatal intensive care setting and is related with lower birth weight and gestational age. Whether thyroxin levels are a marker or mediator of short term clinical outcome remains to be determined by further studies.

  18. Bisferiens peaks in the radial artery pressure wave in newborn infants: a sign of patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Gevers, M; Van Genderingen, H R; Van der Mooren, K; Lafeber, H N; Hack, W W; Westerhof, N

    1995-06-01

    Previously, we found evidence that radial artery pressure wave forms in newborns represent central aortic wave forms, provided that pressure is measured with adequate accuracy. Therefore, we postulated that the neonatal radial artery wave form, like the adult aortic wave form, may contribute to cardiovascular diagnosis. We investigated whether radial artery wave forms in infants suffering from patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) are different from the wave forms as seen without the presence of PDA. We studied 34 newborn infants with a radial artery line and with the possible clinical diagnosis of PDA with left-to-right shunt. On the basis of echocardiographic examination to assess PDA, these infants were divided in two groups: infants with PDA (n = 24) and without PDA (n = 10). In 15 out of 24 infants with PDA, recordings were repeated after ductal closure. Blood pressure measurement was performed with a high fidelity cathetermanometer system using a tip-transducer (natural frequency 95 Hz, damping coefficient 0.15). Contour analysis was performed by describing morphology of the waves during PDA and without PDA. In 23 out of 24 infants with PDA, a pulsus bisferiens was present: two peaks separated by a deep cleft. The average pressure difference between the first pressure peak and the cleft [delta Ppeak1] was 0.35 +/- 0.19 kPa, and the average difference between the cleft and the second pressure peak [delta Ppeak2] was 0.44 +/- 0.23 kPa. the ratio of mean magnitude of delta Ppeak1 and delta Ppeak2 was 0.81 +/- 0.26. None of the 10 infants without PDA showed pulsus bisferiens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Screening of newborn infants for cholestatic hepatobiliary disease with tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Imran; Logan, Stuart; Morris, Michael; Johnson, Andrew W; Wade, Angie M; Kelly, Deirdre; Clayton, Peter T

    1999-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of screening for cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and extrahepatic biliary atresia by using tandem mass spectrometry to measure conjugated bile acids in dried blood spots obtained from newborn infants at 7-10 days of age for the Guthrie test. Setting Three tertiary referral clinics and regional neonatal screening laboratories. Design Unused blood spots from the Guthrie test were retrieved for infants presenting with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and from the two cards stored on either side of each card from an index child. Concentrations of conjugated bile acids measured by tandem mass spectrometry in the two groups were compared. Main outcome measures Concentrations of glycodihydroxycholanoates, glycotrihydroxycholanoates, taurodihydroxycholanoates, and taurotrihydroxycholanoates. Receiver operator curves were plotted to determine which parameter (or combination of parameters) would best predict the cases of cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and extrahepatic biliary atresia. The sensitivity and specificity at a selection of cut off values for each bile acid species and for total bile acid concentrations for the detection of the two conditions were calculated. Results 218 children with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease were eligible for inclusion in the study. Two children without a final diagnosis and five who presented at <14 days of age were excluded. Usable blood spots were obtained from 177 index children and 708 comparison children. Mean concentrations of all four bile acid species were significantly raised in children with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and extrahepatic biliary atresia compared with the unaffected children (P<0.0001). Of 177 children with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease, 104 (59%) had a total bile acid concentration >33 μmol/l (97.5th centile value for comparison group). Of the 61 with extrahepatic biliary atresia, 47 (77%) had total bile acid concentrations >33

  20. Tolerance of a standard intact protein formula versus a partially hydrolyzed formula in healthy, term infants

    PubMed Central

    Berseth, Carol Lynn; Mitmesser, Susan Hazels; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Marunycz, John D; Vanderhoof, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Background Parents who perceive common infant behaviors as formula intolerance-related often switch formulas without consulting a health professional. Up to one-half of formula-fed infants experience a formula change during the first six months of life. Methods The objective of this study was to assess discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance in healthy, term infants. Infants (335) were randomized to receive either a standard intact cow milk protein formula (INTACT) or a partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formula (PH) in a 60 day non-inferiority trial. Discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included number of infants who discontinued for any reason, including parent-assessed. Results Formula intolerance between groups (INTACT, 12.3% vs. PH, 13.7%) was similar for infants who completed the study or discontinued due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance. Overall study discontinuance based on parent- vs. study physician-assessed intolerance for all infants (14.4 vs.11.1%) was significantly different (P = 0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated no difference in infant tolerance of intact vs. partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formulas for healthy, term infants over a 60-day feeding trial, suggesting nonstandard partially hydrolyzed formulas are not necessary as a first-choice for healthy infants. Parents frequently perceived infant behavior as formula intolerance, paralleling previous reports of unnecessary formula changes. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00666120 PMID:19545360

  1. The window of opportunity: decision theory and the timing of prognostic tests for newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dominic

    2009-11-01

    In many forms of severe acute brain injury there is an early phase when prognosis is uncertain, followed later by physiological recovery and the possibility of more certain predictions of future impairment. There may be a window of opportunity for withdrawal of life support early, but if decisions are delayed there is the risk that the patient will survive with severe impairment. In this paper I focus on the example of neonatal encephalopathy and the question of the timing of prognostic tests and decisions to continue or to withdraw life-sustaining treatment. Should testing be performed early or later; and how should parents decide what to do given the conflicting values at stake? I apply decision theory to the problem, using sensitivity analysis to assess how different features of the tests or different values would affect a decision to perform early or late prognostic testing. I draw some general conclusions from this model for decisions about the timing of testing in neonatal encephalopathy. Finally I consider possible solutions to the problem posed by the window of opportunity. Decision theory highlights the costs of uncertainty. This may prompt further research into improving prognostic tests. But it may also prompt us to reconsider our current attitudes towards the palliative care of newborn infants predicted to be severely impaired.

  2. Conservation of the fourth gene among rotaviruses recovered from asymptomatic newborn infants and its possible role in attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, J.; Midthun, K.; Hoshino, Y.; Green, K.; Gorziglia, M.; Kapikian, A.Z.; Chanock, R.M.

    1986-11-01

    RNA-RNA hybridization was performed to assess the extent of genetic relatedness among human rotaviruses isolated from children with gastroenteritis and from asymptomatic newborn infants. /sup 32/P-labeled single-stranded RNAs produced by in vitro transcription from viral cores of the different strains tested were used as probes in two different hybridization assays: (1) undenatured genomic RNAs were resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, denatured in situ, electrophoretically transferred to diazobenzyloxymethyl-paper (Northern blots), and then hybridized to the probes under two different conditions of stringency; and (ii) denatured genomic double-stranded RNAs were hybridized to the probes in solution and the hybrids which formed were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When analyzed by Northern blot hybridization at a low level of stringency, all genes from the strains tested cross-hybridized, providing evidence for some sequence homology in each of the corresponding genes. However, when hybridization stringency was increased, a difference in gene 4 sequence was detected between strains recovered from asymptomatic newborn infants (nursery strains) and strains recovered from infants and young children with diarrhea. Although the nursery strains exhibited serotypic diversity, the fourth gene appeared to be highly conversed. These results were confirmed and extended during experiments in which the RNA-RNA hybridization was carried out in solution and the resulting hybrids were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Full-length hybrids did not form between the fourth genes from the nursery strains and the corresponding genes from the strains recovered from symptomatic infants and young children.

  3. Surfactant therapy in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome and in near-term or term newborns with acute RDS.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, R

    2006-05-01

    Many different surfactant preparations derived from animal sources, as well as synthetic surfactants, are available for the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Natural, modified surfactants containing surfactant-associated proteins appear to be more effective than non-protein-containing synthetic surfactants. Comparative trials with poractant alfa at a higher initial dose of 200 mg/kg appear to be associated with rapid weaning of FiO2, less need for additional doses, and decreased mortality in infants <32 weeks gestation when compared with beractant. Early rescue (<30 min of age) surfactant therapy is an effective method to minimize over treatment of some preterm infants who may not develop RDS. Surfactant therapy followed by rapid extubation to nasal ventilation appears to be more beneficial than continued mechanical ventilation. In near-term or term newborns with acute RDS, surfactant therapy has been shown to be 70% effective in improving respiratory failure.

  4. Thyroid function in healthy normal, low birthweight and preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Bongers-Schokking, J J; Schopman, W

    1984-12-01

    To delineate more precisely the role of gestational age, weight at birth and thyroid status at birth on the postnatal changes in thyroid hormone levels, serum T4, T3, TSH and in some cases FT3I were measured at birth and at 3-4 h, 24-30 h, 6-9 days and 13-20 days. Subjects studied were healthy appropriate-for-date (AFD) and small-for-date (SFD) term neonates and healthy AFD and SFD preterm children. At birth T4 and T3 are related to both gestational age and weight with T4 and T3 showing lower values in preterm and SFD term neonates than in AFD term children. After birth T4 and T3 concentrations show a better correlation with gestational age than with weight at birth. For TSH no correlation was found at birth, a positive correlation at 24-30 h, no correlation at 6-9 days and a negative correlation at 13-20 days both with gestational age and weight at birth. In term and close-to-term infants (36 weeks) individual T4 levels at 6-7 days show a close relationship with those at birth; in the younger children (34 and 35 weeks) lower T4 values are found, despite equal cord blood values. The individual cord blood FT3I/TSH values correlate well with those at 6-7 days of age. It is concluded that after birth all children have changing T4 and T3 values, but the pattern and level are influenced by the maturity of the child and its thyroid status at birth measured by T4 and by the FT3I/TSH ratio.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6335089

  5. Pre-Discharge Screening Trans-Cutaneous Bilirubinometry in Healthy Newborns in Mahdieh Hospital, Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Afjeh, Abolfazl; Fallahi, Minoo; Jahanbeen, Mehrnoosh; Basiri, Azita; Allaee, Mastaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Incidence of jaundice is high in newborn infants. Since well appearing newborns are rapidly and routinely discharged from hospital, performing an inexpensive noninvasive pre-discharge screening test for evaluation of jaundice seems to be necessary. Objectives: This study was conducted to compare the accuracy of cutaneous v/s serum bilirubin measurements in this regard. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective cross sectional study conducted in Mahdieh hospital, Tehran. 613 neonates weighing ≥ 1,800 g with gestational age of ≥ 35 weeks were enrolled. A pre discharge transcutaneous bilirubin test (TcB) was performed in all. Serum samples were taken from neonates with TcB ≥ 5 mg/dL in first and > 8 mg/dL in second 24 hours. Decision for treatment or recheck of bilirubin level after discharge was made based on serum bilirubin results. Results: Based on the study protocol, among 613 studied neonates, 491 (80%) revealed high TcB, of them 240 (49%) cases showed TBC ≥ 5 mg/dL in first and 251 (51 %) in second pre-discharge 24 hours. TcB ranged 3.3 - 17.1, mean TcB in first 24 hours was 6.9 ± 1 .7 (mode 6) and in second 24 hours 9.1 ± 2.1 (mode 10). Of 491 neonates with high TcB, capillary serum sample was taken as the second step and 398 neonates revealed high total serum bilirubin (TsB) with the same protocol for TcB. 108 (27.1%) neonates showed TsB ≥ 5 mg/dL in first and 290 (72.9%) in second 24 hours. According to the study results TcB has a 81% positive predictive value (PPV) in diagnosis of hyperbilirubinemia. Correlation coefficient of TcB and TsB in highest rate is equal to 72% (P value < 0.001). Conclusions: TcB is an inexpensive, noninvasive and precise pre-discharge screening test for evaluation of hyperbilirubinemia, with a high PPV. It is highly recommended to be performed routinely due to high incidence of hyperbilirubinemia in neonates. PMID:26396699

  6. Impact on maternal parenting stress of receipt of genetic information regarding risk of diabetes in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Yu, M S; Norris, J M; Mitchell, C M; Butler-Simon, N; Groshek, M; Follansbee, D; Erlich, H; Rewers, M; Klingensmith, G J

    1999-09-17

    Our objective was to investigate whether notification of high-risk status for type 1 diabetes in newborn infants results in an increased maternal-parenting stress level when compared with notification of low-risk status for type 1 diabetes. Maternal parenting stress level was assessed at 5-7 weeks postpartum (baseline) and was reassessed 4-5 months after parents were informed of their newborn infants' genetic screening results (follow-up). Parenting stress level was measured using the total stress score (TSS) of the Parenting Stress Index/Short Form. The outcome variable, change in TSS, was calculated by subtracting the baseline TSS from the follow-up TSS. Demographic variables such as maternal race, maternal age, maternal education level, maternal marital status, child's birth order, and total family income were assessed through a structured phone interview at the time of baseline assessment. The risk factor of interest was the child's human leukocyte antigen (HLA) status for type 1 diabetes, i.e., whether child was at a high or moderate (combined into "high") genetic risk or at a low genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. A sample of 88 mothers (23 with a high-risk child and 65 with a low-risk child) was evaluated. Baseline median TSSs were 65 and 74 for mothers of low-risk infants and mothers of high-risk infants, respectively. Both groups' median TSS decreased between baseline and follow-up. No significant differences were found between change in TSS and maternal age, race, education level, marital status, total family income, or child's birth order. Although the median decrease in TSS was smaller in mothers with a high-risk child when compared with mothers of a low-risk child, this difference was not statistically significant. We did not find an association between newborn's HLA status and change in maternal TSS. The results of this study suggest that notification of high-risk status for type 1 diabetes in newborn infants may not result in an increased level of

  7. Newborns' sensitivity to the visual aspects of infant-directed speech: Evidence from point-line displays of talking faces.

    PubMed

    Guellaï, Bahia; Streri, Arlette; Chopin, Adrien; Rider, Delphine; Kitamura, Christine

    2016-09-01

    The first time a newborn is held, he is attracted by the human's face. A talking face is even more captivating, as it is the first time he or she hears and sees another human talking. Older infants are relatively good at detecting the relationship between images and sounds when someone is addressing to them, but it is unclear whether this ability is dependent on experience or not. Using an intermodal matching procedure, we presented newborns with 2 silent point-line displays representing the same face uttering different sentences while they were hearing a vocal-only utterance that matched 1 of the 2 stimuli. Nearly all of the newborns looked longer at the matching point-line face than at the mismatching 1, with prior exposure to the stimuli (Experiment 1) or without (Experiment 2). These results are interpreted in terms of newborns' ability to extract common visual and auditory information of continuous speech events despite a short experience with talking faces. The implications are discussed in the light of the language processing and acquisition literature. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Calculated mean arterial pressure in the posterior tibial and radial artery pressure wave in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Gevers, M; Hack, M W; van Genderingen, H R; Lafeber, H N; Westerhof, N

    1995-01-01

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is the area under the pressure wave averaged over the cardiac cycle, and therefore depends on pressure wave contour. A generally used rule of thumb to estimate MAP of peripheral arteries in adults is adding one-third of the arterial pulse pressure (PP) to diastolic arterial pressure (DAP). As peripheral pressure wave forms in neonates do not resemble adult peripheral wave forms, it may be expected that this rule of thumb does not hold for neonates. Previously, we found that MAP can be calculated by adding 50% PP to DAP in radial artery waves in neonates. In the present study, we investigated in neonates how MAP in the posterior tibial artery depends on systolic and diastolic pressure and we compared these findings to those found in the radial artery. Forty infants admitted for intensive care were studied. We analyzed 5000 invasively and accurately obtained blood pressure waves in the posterior tibial artery of 20 neonates and another 5000 waves similarly obtained from the radial artery in another group of 20 neonates. We found that MAP in posterior tibial artery waves is well approximated by adding 41.5 +/- 2.0% of PP to DAP, whereas MAP in radial artery waves can be calculated by adding 46.7 +/- 1.7% of PP to DAP. These values are significantly different (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the rule of thumb as used in the adult to find MAP, where 33% PP is added to DAP, does not hold for the newborn. We recommend to calculate MAP in the tibial artery by adding 40% of PP to DAP and in the radial artery by adding 50% of PP to DAP.

  9. Continuous glucose monitoring in newborn infants: how do errors in calibration measurements affect detected hypoglycemia?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Felicity; Signal, Mathew; Harris, Deborah L; Weston, Philip J; Harding, Jane E; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and can cause serious brain injury. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) could improve hypoglycemia detection, while reducing blood glucose (BG) measurements. Calibration algorithms use BG measurements to convert sensor signals into CGM data. Thus, inaccuracies in calibration BG measurements directly affect CGM values and any metrics calculated from them. The aim was to quantify the effect of timing delays and calibration BG measurement errors on hypoglycemia metrics in newborn infants. Data from 155 babies were used. Two timing and 3 BG meter error models (Abbott Optium Xceed, Roche Accu-Chek Inform II, Nova Statstrip) were created using empirical data. Monte-Carlo methods were employed, and each simulation was run 1000 times. Each set of patient data in each simulation had randomly selected timing and/or measurement error added to BG measurements before CGM data were calibrated. The number of hypoglycemic events, duration of hypoglycemia, and hypoglycemic index were then calculated using the CGM data and compared to baseline values. Timing error alone had little effect on hypoglycemia metrics, but measurement error caused substantial variation. Abbott results underreported the number of hypoglycemic events by up to 8 and Roche overreported by up to 4 where the original number reported was 2. Nova results were closest to baseline. Similar trends were observed in the other hypoglycemia metrics. Errors in blood glucose concentration measurements used for calibration of CGM devices can have a clinically important impact on detection of hypoglycemia. If CGM devices are going to be used for assessing hypoglycemia it is important to understand of the impact of these errors on CGM data.

  10. Levels of the glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase of erythrocytes of pregnant women and of cord bloods of newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Kishi, H; Azuma, J; Williams, R H; Watanabe, T; Folkers, K; Stahl, M L

    1978-01-01

    The mean basal specific activity (S.A.) of the glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase of erythrocytes (EGOT) for a group of 64 pregnant women was lower (p less than 0.001) than the value for the cord bloods of newborn infants, and lower (p less than 0.001) than the value for adults who had a top limit of S.A. of EGOT. In establishing the top limit of the S.A., it is important that the mean basal S.A. of the cord bloods from 49 newborn infants was identical to the mean basal S.A. of adults who had an adequate supplement of pyridoxine. There were no differences in the mean basal S.A.'s of the cord bloods between asymptomatic mothers and mothers who had anemia, edema, hypertension, proteinuria and glucosuria. An infant may be born with a top limit of S.A. which is non-deficient in pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, but a mother can have a low level of the transaminase, and which is deficient in the coenzyme. PMID:276565

  11. Lung function and exhaled nitric oxide in healthy unsedated African infants

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Diane; Willemse, Lauren; Visagie, Ane; Smith, Emilee; Czövek, Dorottya; Sly, Peter D; Hantos, Zoltán; Hall, Graham L; Zar, Heather J

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Population-appropriate lung function reference data are essential to accurately identify respiratory disease and measure response to interventions. There are currently no reference data in African infants. The aim was to describe normal lung function in healthy African infants. Methods Lung function was performed on healthy South African infants enrolled in a birth cohort study, the Drakenstein child health study. Infants were excluded if they were born preterm or had a history of neonatal respiratory distress or prior respiratory tract infection. Measurements, made during natural sleep, included the forced oscillation technique, tidal breathing, exhaled nitric oxide and multiple breath washout measures. Results Three hundred sixty-three infants were tested. Acceptable and repeatable measurements were obtained in 356 (98%) and 352 (97%) infants for tidal breathing analysis and exhaled nitric oxide outcomes, 345 (95%) infants for multiple breath washout and 293 of the 333 (88%) infants for the forced oscillation technique. Age, sex and weight-for-age z score were significantly associated with lung function measures. Conclusions This study provides reference data for unsedated infant lung function in African infants and highlights the importance of using population-specific data. PMID:26134556

  12. Palatal development of preterm and low birthweight infants compared to term infants – What do we know? Part 1: The palate of the term newborn

    PubMed Central

    Hohoff, Ariane; Rabe, Heike; Ehmer, Ulrike; Harms, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Background The evidence on prematurity as 'a priori' a risk for palatal disturbances that increase the need for orthodontic or orthognathic treatment is still weak. Further well-designed clinical studies are needed. The objective of this review is to provide a fundamental analysis of methodologies, confounding factors, and outcomes of studies on palatal development. One focus of this review is the analysis of studies on the palate of the term newborn, since knowing what is 'normal' is a precondition of being able to assess abnormalities. Methods A search profile based on Cochrane search strategies applied to 10 medical databases was used to identify existing studies. Articles, mainly those published before 1960, were identified from hand searches in textbooks, encyclopedias, reference lists and bibliographies. Sources in English, German, and French of more than a century were included. Data for term infants were recalculated if particular information about weight, length, or maturity was given. The extracted values, especially those from non-English paper sources, were provided unfiltered for comparison. Results The search strategy yielded 182 articles, of which 155 articles remained for final analysis. Morphology of the term newborn's palate was of great interest in the first half of the last century. Two general methodologies were used to assess palatal morphology: visual and metrical descriptions. Most of the studies on term infants suffer from lack of reliability tests. The groove system was recognized as the distinctive feature of the infant palate. The shape of the palate of the term infant may vary considerably, both visually and metrically. Gender, race, mode of delivery, and nasal deformities were identified as causes contributing to altered palatal morphology. Until today, anatomical features of the newborn's palate are subject to a non-uniform nomenclature. Conclusion Today's knowledge of a newborn's 'normal' palatal morphology is based on non

  13. [The Russian and international experience with the implementation of the programs of universal audiological screening of the newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Tavartkiladze, G A; Markova, T G; Chibisova, S S; Al'shardzhabi, I; Tsygankova, E R

    2016-01-01

    The problem of diagnostics of congenital hearing impairment has acquired special importance in the light of new possibilities for the early rehabilitation of the patients presenting with this condition. The implementation of the programs of universal audiological screening into the clinical practice of Russia and many other countries made it possible to significantly reducethe time necessary to confirm congenital impairment of hearing and begin the rehabilitative treatment. The present paper was designed to analyze the international experience with the implementation of the programs of universal audiological screening of the newborn infants as exemplified by such countries as Great Britain, USA, Germany, and Poland. The main indicators of the quality and the efficiency of such programs are considered taking into account the results of the epidemiological studies on the prevalence of congenital hearing impairment. A total of 1.8 mln newborn infants were examined in Russia during 2013. The first stage of screening involved 96.7% of the children, and only 2.9% of them remained uncovered by the examination. As many as 5,659 children were found to present with the congenital loss of hearing,with the prevalence of this condition being 3 per 1.000 newborn infants and the prevalence of deafness 0.6 per 1.000. The principal problem to be resolved for the organization of the management of these patients, both in Russia and other countries, remains the enhancement of the availability of comprehensive diagnostic examination and the timelyreferral of the patients to such examination (if appropriate based on the results of the screening). The successful solution of this problem requires personalized recording of the screening data with the use of the commonly accepted medical information systems. PMID:27213647

  14. [The Russian and international experience with the implementation of the programs of universal audiological screening of the newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Tavartkiladze, G A; Markova, T G; Chibisova, S S; Al'shardzhabi, I; Tsygankova, E R

    2016-01-01

    The problem of diagnostics of congenital hearing impairment has acquired special importance in the light of new possibilities for the early rehabilitation of the patients presenting with this condition. The implementation of the programs of universal audiological screening into the clinical practice of Russia and many other countries made it possible to significantly reducethe time necessary to confirm congenital impairment of hearing and begin the rehabilitative treatment. The present paper was designed to analyze the international experience with the implementation of the programs of universal audiological screening of the newborn infants as exemplified by such countries as Great Britain, USA, Germany, and Poland. The main indicators of the quality and the efficiency of such programs are considered taking into account the results of the epidemiological studies on the prevalence of congenital hearing impairment. A total of 1.8 mln newborn infants were examined in Russia during 2013. The first stage of screening involved 96.7% of the children, and only 2.9% of them remained uncovered by the examination. As many as 5,659 children were found to present with the congenital loss of hearing,with the prevalence of this condition being 3 per 1.000 newborn infants and the prevalence of deafness 0.6 per 1.000. The principal problem to be resolved for the organization of the management of these patients, both in Russia and other countries, remains the enhancement of the availability of comprehensive diagnostic examination and the timelyreferral of the patients to such examination (if appropriate based on the results of the screening). The successful solution of this problem requires personalized recording of the screening data with the use of the commonly accepted medical information systems.

  15. The Foundations of Social Cognition: Studies on Face/Voice Integration in Newborn Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streri, Arlette; Coulon, Marion; Guellai, Bahia

    2013-01-01

    A series of studies on newborns' abilities for recognizing speaking faces has been performed in order to identify the fundamental cues of social cognition. We used audiovisual dynamic faces rather than photographs or patterns of faces. Direct eye gaze and speech addressed to newborns, in interactive situations, appear to be two good…

  16. Fetal brain disruption sequence in a newborn infant with a history of cordocentesis at 21 weeks gestation

    PubMed Central

    Villo, N; Beceiro, J; Cebrero, M; de Frias, E G.

    2001-01-01

    The case is reported of a full term infant with severe microcephaly, overlapping sutures, prominence of the occipital bone, and scalp rugae. No other associated malformations were observed. The only obstetric history of interest was the performance of cordocentesis at 21 weeks gestational age because of low maternal α fetoprotein levels. Ultrasound scans performed until then were normal. Cranial growth retardation was detected on ultrasound scanning at 25 weeks and intrauterine growth retardation as well as severe microcephaly at 34 weeks. Neuroimaging studies performed on the newborn infant showed intense cerebral atrophy in both hemispheres. Other complementary investigations gave negative results. A relation is proposed between the cordocentesis and the development of vascular disruption, which could have caused the fetal brain disruption sequence in this case.

 PMID:11124930

  17. Feasibility, diagnostic validity and limits of postmortem evaluation of a newborn infant following an extremely prolonged freezing interval: a thanatological case study.

    PubMed

    Krajčovič, Jozef; Janík, Martin; Novomeský, František; Straka, Lubomír; Hejna, Petr

    2014-11-01

    In forensic assessment, denial and concealment of pregnancy has wide-ranging implications including criminal abortions, extramural deliveries, concealment of birth, newborn infant abandonment or even neonaticide. Clarification of whether a newborn was born alive is the most important factor when evaluating an abandoned neonate or concealment of birth. Other points that need to be addressed are determination of viability and maturity of the newborn infant, and the identity of the mother. A prolonged postmortem interval following illegal disposal of a dead body often leads to advanced decomposition, making postmortem elucidation difficult. We report an exceptionally uncommon autopsy case of a well-preserved female newborn, which was accidentally found after eight years in a home freezer. Despite the prolonged postmortem interval, tissue preservation was sufficient for a meaningful autopsy including a comprehensive histopathological study. The purpose of the present investigations was to expand our understanding of thanatological processes, as well as detectability of particular histological findings on the remains of a newborn after extremely prolonged storage in an artificially frozen environment. In addition, this article discusses forensically important issues regarding concealment of newborn infant under specific conditions.

  18. Acute Hepatitis and Pancytopenia in Healthy Infant with Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Matoq, Amr; Salahuddin, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses are a common cause of respiratory infection, pharyngitis, and conjunctivitis in infants and young children. They are known to cause hepatitis and liver failure in immunocompromised patients; they are a rare cause of hepatitis in immunocompetent patients and have been known to cause fulminant hepatic failure. We present a 23-month-old immunocompetent infant who presented with acute noncholestatic hepatitis, hypoalbuminemia, generalized anasarca, and pancytopenia secondary to adenovirus infection. PMID:27340581

  19. Simultaneous EEG and diffuse optical imaging of seizure-related hemodynamic activity in the newborn infant brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Cooper, Robert J.; Gibson, Adam; Everdell, Nick; Austin, Topun

    2012-06-01

    An optical imaging system has been developed which uses measurements of diffusely reflected near-infrared light to produce maps of changes in blood flow and oxygenation occurring within the cerebral cortex. Optical sources and detectors are coupled to the head via an array of optical fibers, on a probe held in contact with the scalp, and data is collected at a rate of 10 Hz. A clinical electroencephalography (EEG) system has been integrated with the optical system to enable simultaneous observation of electrical and hemodynamic activity in the cortex of neurologically compromised newborn infants diagnosed with seizures. Studies have made a potentially critically important discovery of previously unknown transient hemodynamic events in infants treated with anticonvulsant medication. We observed repeated episodes of small increases in cortical oxyhemoglobin concentration followed by a profound decrease in 3 of 4 infants studied, each with cerebral injury who presented with neonatal seizures. This was not accompanied by clinical or EEG seizure activity and was not present in nineteen matched controls. The underlying cause of these changes is currently unknown. We tentatively suggest that our results may be associated with a phenomenon known as cortical spreading depolarization, not previously observed in the infant brain.

  20. Noninvasive monitoring of gas in the lungs and intestines of newborn infants using diode lasers: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Emilie Krite; Cocola, Lorenzo; Lewander Xu, Märta; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Jahr, John; Fellman, Vineta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2013-12-01

    Preterm newborn infants have a high morbidity rate. The most frequently affected organs where free gas is involved are the lungs and intestines. In respiratory distress syndrome, both hyperexpanded and atelectatic (collapsed) areas occur, and in necrotizing enterocolitis, intramural gas may appear in the intestine. Today, these conditions are diagnosed with x-ray radiography. A bed-side, rapid, nonintrusive, and gas-specific technique for in vivo gas sensing would improve diagnosis. We report the use of noninvasive laser spectroscopy, for the first time, to assess gas content in the lungs and intestines of three full-term infants. Water vapor and oxygen were studied with two low-power diode lasers, illuminating the skin and detecting light a few centimeters away. Water vapor was easily detected in the intestines and was also observed in the lungs. The relatively thick chest walls of the infants prevented detection of the weaker oxygen signal in this study. However, results from a previous phantom study, together with scaling of the results presented here to the typical chest-wall thickness of preterm infants, suggest that oxygen also should be detectable in their lungs.

  1. The relationship between cardiac output, cerebral electrical activity, cerebral fractional oxygen extraction and peripheral blood flow in premature newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Victor, Suresh; Appleton, Richard E; Beirne, Margaret; Marson, Anthony G; Weindling, A Michael

    2006-10-01

    Cardiac output is a determinant of systemic blood flow and its measurement may therefore be a useful indicator of abnormal hemodynamics and tissue oxygen delivery. The purpose of this study was to investigate in very premature newborn infants the relationships between cardiac output (left and right ventricular outputs), systemic blood pressure, peripheral blood flow (PBF) and two indicators of cerebral oxygen delivery (cerebral electrical activity and cerebral fractional oxygen extraction (CFOE)). This was a prospective observational study performed on 40 infants of less than 30 wk gestation. Digital electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded for one hour every day during the first four days after birth and subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Left and right ventricular outputs, mean blood pressure (MBP), CFOE, PBF and arterial blood gases were measured at the same time. Within the ranges studied, there was no apparent relationship between left or right ventricular output (RVO), PBF and indicators of cerebral perfusion (cerebral electrical activity and CFOE). The EEG was normal in infants with low left and right ventricular outputs (<150 mL/kg/min) and MBP > 30 mm Hg. Infants with low cardiac output and normal MBP seem able to maintain cerebral perfusion, possibly through vasodilatation of the cerebral microvasculature. PMID:16940235

  2. Noninvasive monitoring of gas in the lungs and intestines of newborn infants using diode lasers: feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Emilie Krite; Cocola, Lorenzo; Xu, Märta Lewander; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Jahr, John; Fellman, Vineta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2013-12-01

    Preterm newborn infants have a high morbidity rate. The most frequently affected organs where free gas is involved are the lungs and intestines. In respiratory distress syndrome, both hyperexpanded and atelectatic (collapsed) areas occur, and in necrotizing enterocolitis, intramural gas may appear in the intestine. Today, these conditions are diagnosed with x-ray radiography. A bed-side, rapid, nonintrusive, and gas-specific technique for in vivo gas sensing would improve diagnosis. We report the use of noninvasive laser spectroscopy, for the first time, to assess gas content in the lungs and intestines of three full-term infants. Water vapor and oxygen were studied with two low-power diode lasers, illuminating the skin and detecting light a few centimeters away. Water vapor was easily detected in the intestines and was also observed in the lungs. The relatively thick chest walls of the infants prevented detection of the weaker oxygen signal in this study. However, results from a previous phantom study, together with scaling of the results presented here to the typical chest-wall thickness of preterm infants, suggest that oxygen also should be detectable in their lungs.

  3. Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells for the measurement of red cell mass in newborn infants: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Linderkamp, O.; Betke, K.; Fendel, H.; Klemm, J.; Lorenzen, K.; Riegel, K.P.

    1980-07-01

    In vitro and in vivo investigations were performed to examine the binding of Tc-99m to neonatal red blood cells (RBC). Labeling efficiency was about 90%, and unbound Tc-99m less than 3% after one washing, in premature and full-term newborns and in children. Thus presence of high percentages of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) did not influence the labeling of RBCs with Tc-99m. RBCs of 11 newborns were hemolysed and the distribution of Tc-99m on RBC components was analyzed. Although Hb F percentage averaged (60.0 +- 8.10)% (s.d.), only (11.9 +- 3.7)% of Tc-99m was bound by Hb F, whereas (45.0 +- 6.1)% was associated with Hb A. RBC membranes bound (13.7 +- 4.3)% and (29.3 +- 4.0)% were found unbound in hemolysates. These results indicate that Tc-99m preferentially binds to beta chains. In vivo equilibration of Tc-99m RBCs and of albumin labeled with Evans blue was investigated in five newborn infants. Tc-99m RBCs were stable in each case during the first hour after injection. Elution of Tc-99m from RBCs was (3.4 +- 1.5)% per h. Body-to-venous hematocrit ratio averaged 0.86 +- 0.03.

  4. The effect of newborn vitamin A supplementation on infant immune functions: trial design, interventions, and baseline data.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin; Raqib, Rubhana; Qadri, Firdausi; Stephensen, Charles B

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, neonatal vitamin A supplementation is considered as an essential infant-survival intervention but the evidence is not conclusive. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of vitamin A on immune competence in early infancy. Results would provide a mechanistic basis for understanding the effect of this intervention on infant survival. Within 2 days of birth, infants born at one maternity clinic located in a poor slum area of Dhaka city were supplemented with either 50,000 IU vitamin A or placebo. Live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) and BCG vaccine were provided after supplementation. Infants also receive diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (TT), hepatitis B (HBV) and Haemophilus influenzae B vaccines (pentavalent combination) along with OPV at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Infant thymus size, anthropometry, feeding practice and morbidity data were collected at regular interval. Infant blood samples were collected to determine T-cell-receptor excision circle (TREC), total, naïve and memory T cells and mucosal targeting lymphocytes including Treg cells. TT-, HBV-, BCG- and OPV-specific T cell blastogenic, cytokine and plasma cell antibody responses were also measured. In 16 mo enrollment period, 306 newborns, equal number of boys and girls, were enrolled. ~95% completed the 4-month follow-up period. Baseline characteristics are presented here. Anthropometry and immune assays with fresh blood samples were completed immediately while stored samples were analyzed in single batches at the end of the trial. Connecting different aspects of immunological data in early infancy will help elucidate immune competence for protecting infection. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01583972.

  5. The effect of newborn vitamin A supplementation on infant immune functions: trial design, interventions, and baseline data.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin; Raqib, Rubhana; Qadri, Firdausi; Stephensen, Charles B

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, neonatal vitamin A supplementation is considered as an essential infant-survival intervention but the evidence is not conclusive. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of vitamin A on immune competence in early infancy. Results would provide a mechanistic basis for understanding the effect of this intervention on infant survival. Within 2 days of birth, infants born at one maternity clinic located in a poor slum area of Dhaka city were supplemented with either 50,000 IU vitamin A or placebo. Live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) and BCG vaccine were provided after supplementation. Infants also receive diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (TT), hepatitis B (HBV) and Haemophilus influenzae B vaccines (pentavalent combination) along with OPV at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Infant thymus size, anthropometry, feeding practice and morbidity data were collected at regular interval. Infant blood samples were collected to determine T-cell-receptor excision circle (TREC), total, naïve and memory T cells and mucosal targeting lymphocytes including Treg cells. TT-, HBV-, BCG- and OPV-specific T cell blastogenic, cytokine and plasma cell antibody responses were also measured. In 16 mo enrollment period, 306 newborns, equal number of boys and girls, were enrolled. ~95% completed the 4-month follow-up period. Baseline characteristics are presented here. Anthropometry and immune assays with fresh blood samples were completed immediately while stored samples were analyzed in single batches at the end of the trial. Connecting different aspects of immunological data in early infancy will help elucidate immune competence for protecting infection. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01583972. PMID:25269669

  6. Age-Related 1H NMR Characterization of Cerebrospinal Fluid in Newborn and Young Healthy Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Francesca; Elmi, Alberto; Romagnoli, Noemi; Bacci, Maria Laura

    2016-01-01

    When it comes to neuroscience, pigs represent an important animal model due to their resemblance with humans’ brains for several patterns including anatomy and developmental stages. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a relatively easy-to-collect specimen that can provide important information about neurological health and function, proving its importance as both a diagnostic and biomedical monitoring tool. Consequently, it would be of high scientific interest and value to obtain more standard physiological information regarding its composition and dynamics for both swine pathology and the refinement of experimental protocols. Recently, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy has been applied in order to analyze the metabolomic profile of this biological fluid, and results showed the technique to be highly reproducible and reliable. The aim of the present study was to investigate in both qualitative and quantitative manner the composition of Cerebrospinal Fluid harvested form healthy newborn (5 days old-P5) and young (30-P30 and 50-P50 days old) piglets using 1H NMR Spectroscopy, and to analyze any possible difference in metabolites concentration between age groups, related to age and Blood-Brain-Barrier maturation. On each of the analyzed samples, 30 molecules could be observed above their limit of quantification, accounting for 95–98% of the total area of the spectra. The concentrations of adenine, tyrosine, leucine, valine, 3-hydroxyvalerate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate were found to decrease between P05 and P50, while the concentrations of glutamine, creatinine, methanol, trimethylamine and myo-inositol were found to increase. The P05-P30 comparison was also significant for glutamine, creatinine, adenine, tyrosine, leucine, valine, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate, while for the P30-P50 comparison we found significant differences for glutamine, myo-inositol, leucine and trimethylamine. None of these molecules showed at P30 concentrations

  7. Age-Related 1H NMR Characterization of Cerebrospinal Fluid in Newborn and Young Healthy Piglets.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, Domenico; Laghi, Luca; Barone, Francesca; Elmi, Alberto; Romagnoli, Noemi; Bacci, Maria Laura

    2016-01-01

    When it comes to neuroscience, pigs represent an important animal model due to their resemblance with humans' brains for several patterns including anatomy and developmental stages. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a relatively easy-to-collect specimen that can provide important information about neurological health and function, proving its importance as both a diagnostic and biomedical monitoring tool. Consequently, it would be of high scientific interest and value to obtain more standard physiological information regarding its composition and dynamics for both swine pathology and the refinement of experimental protocols. Recently, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy has been applied in order to analyze the metabolomic profile of this biological fluid, and results showed the technique to be highly reproducible and reliable. The aim of the present study was to investigate in both qualitative and quantitative manner the composition of Cerebrospinal Fluid harvested form healthy newborn (5 days old-P5) and young (30-P30 and 50-P50 days old) piglets using 1H NMR Spectroscopy, and to analyze any possible difference in metabolites concentration between age groups, related to age and Blood-Brain-Barrier maturation. On each of the analyzed samples, 30 molecules could be observed above their limit of quantification, accounting for 95-98% of the total area of the spectra. The concentrations of adenine, tyrosine, leucine, valine, 3-hydroxyvalerate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate were found to decrease between P05 and P50, while the concentrations of glutamine, creatinine, methanol, trimethylamine and myo-inositol were found to increase. The P05-P30 comparison was also significant for glutamine, creatinine, adenine, tyrosine, leucine, valine, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate, while for the P30-P50 comparison we found significant differences for glutamine, myo-inositol, leucine and trimethylamine. None of these molecules showed at P30 concentrations outside

  8. Isolated group B streptococcal endogenous endophthalmitis simulating retinoblastoma or persistent fetal vasculature in a healthy full-term infant.

    PubMed

    McCourt, Emily A; Hink, Eric M; Durairaj, Vikram D; Oliver, Scott C N

    2010-08-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a potentially devastating neonatal pathogen that most commonly causes meningitis, sepsis, and pneumonia. It is also a very rare cause of endogenous endophthalmitis. We present the second case of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by GBS in a healthy newborn and the first case of endogenous endophthalmitis by GBS in a newborn mimicking retinoblastoma and resulting in enucleation. PMID:20637664

  9. Rates of Acquisition of Pneumococcal Colonization and Transmission Probabilities, by Serotype, Among Newborn Infants in Kilifi District, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Tigoi, Caroline C.; Gatakaa, Hellen; Karani, Angela; Mugo, Daisy; Kungu, Stella; Wanjiru, Eva; Jomo, Jane; Musyimi, Robert; Ojal, John; Glass, Nina E.; Abdullahi, Osman; Scott, J. Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Herd protection and serotype replacement disease following introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) are attributable to the vaccine's impact on colonization. Prior to vaccine introduction in Kenya, we did an epidemiological study to estimate the rate of pneumococcal acquisition, by serotype, in an uncolonized population. Methods. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens were taken from newborns aged ≤7 days and weekly thereafter for 13 weeks. Parents, and siblings aged <10 years, were swabbed at monthly intervals. Swabs were transported in skim milk-tryptone-glucose-glycerin and cultured on gentamicin blood agar. Pneumococci were serotyped by the Quellung reaction. We used survival analysis and Cox regression analysis to examine serotype-specific acquisition rates and risk factors and calculated transmission probabilities from the pattern of acquisitions within the family. Results. Of 1404 infants recruited, 887 were colonized by 3 months of age, with the earliest acquisition detected on the first day of life. The median time to acquisition was 38.5 days. The pneumococcal acquisition rate was 0.0189 acquisitions/day (95% confidence interval, .0177–.0202 acquisitions/day). Serotype-specific acquisition rates varied from 0.00002–0.0025 acquisitions/day among 49 different serotypes. Season, coryza, and exposure to cigarettes, cooking fumes, and other children in the home were each significant risk factors for acquisition. The transmission probability per 30-day duration of contact with a carrier was 0.23 (95% CI, .20–.26). Conclusions. Newborn infants in Kilifi have high rates of nasopharyngeal acquisition of pneumococci. Half of these acquisitions involve serotypes not included in any current vaccine. Several risk factors are modifiable through intervention. Newborns represent a consistent population of pneumococcus-naive individuals in which to estimate the impact of PCV on transmission. PMID:22523268

  10. Differential Growth Patterns Among Healthy Infants Fed Protein Hydrolysate or Cow-Milk Formulas

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Alison K.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Infant formulas differ considerably in composition and sensory profiles. In this randomized study, we examined whether healthy infants fed an extensively protein hydrolysate formula (PHF) would differ in feeding behavior and growth from those fed cow-milk formula (CMF). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Infants were randomly assigned to be fed CMF or PHF between 0.5 and 7.5 months of age. Each month for 7 months, infants were weighed and measured and then videotaped while being fed their assigned formula. Anthropometric z scores were calculated by using World Health Organization growth standards. Multilevel linear growth and piecewise mixed-effects models compared trajectories for growth measures and formula acceptance. RESULTS: When compared with infants fed CMF, infants fed PHF had significantly lower weight-for-length z scores across ages 2.5 to 7.5 months. There were no differences in length-for-age z scores, which indicate that group differences resulted from gains in weight, not length. Infants fed PHF also had significantly slower weight gain velocity compared with infants fed CMF. During the monthly assessments, PHF-fed infants consumed less formula to satiation than did CMF-fed infants across the study period. Maternal ratings of infants' acceptance of the formula did not differ at any age. CONCLUSIONS: z-score trajectories indicate that CMF-fed infants' weight gain was accelerated, whereas PHF-fed infants' weight gain was normative. Whether such differences in growth are because of differences in the protein content or amino acid profile of the formulas and, in turn, metabolism is unknown. Research on the long-term consequences of these early growth differences is needed. PMID:21187303

  11. Personal and professional support for mothers of NICU and healthy newborns.

    PubMed

    Coffman, S; Levitt, M J; Deets, C

    1991-01-01

    Personal support provided by close social network members and professional support provided by nurses were studied in 83 postpartum mothers and newborns in neonatal intensive care units and newborn nurseries. Mothers perceived each type of support differently in terms of outcomes. Only personal support was significantly related to emotional affect and life satisfaction outcomes. Both personal and professional support were related to relationship satisfaction outcomes. Findings suggest that personal support and professional support be treated as separate concepts.

  12. Infant formula with galacto-oligosaccharides (OM55N) stimulates the growth of indigenous bifidobacteria in healthy term infants.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, T; Tajima, S; Hara, T; Yahagi, K; Ogawa, E; Kodama, H

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether an infant formula supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS; OM55N) was able to stimulate the growth of indigenous bifidobacteria and to establish microbiota similar to that of breastfed infants. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed using 35 healthy term infants (31-54 days of age; 42±6 days) to determine whether infant formula with 0.3 g/dl GOS (OM55N) stimulated the growth of bifidobacteria in the infants' guts. At the trial onset and 2 weeks after, the infants' faecal samples were examined for microbiota composition (bacterial abundance and α-diversity) and faecal characteristics. Among the 35 infants, 5 were withdrawn and 8 were excluded from the final evaluation before breaking the blinding since the indigenous bifidobacteria were not detected at the trial onset. After 2 weeks, the abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae was significantly increased in the GOS feeding group compared to the control (+11.6±24.1% vs -3.9±13.0%; P=0.043). The Shannon index, which accounts for both abundance and evenness of the present species, was significantly decreased with GOS supplementation (-0.1±0.4 vs +0.4±0.4; P=0.014). Faecal characteristics such as pH and organic acids were similar in both groups, with no statistical differences. No adverse side effects related to the formula consumption were reported. Although the concentration of GOS was relatively low, the infant formula with GOS increased the abundance of bifidobacteria and resulted in a reduced α-diversity of the microbiota.

  13. Use of 2% 2-phenoxyethanol and 0.1% octenidine as antiseptic in premature newborn infants of 23-26 weeks gestation.

    PubMed

    Bührer, C; Bahr, S; Siebert, J; Wettstein, R; Geffers, C; Obladen, M

    2002-08-01

    In preterm newborn infants, topical iodine-containing antiseptics disturb thyroid hormone regulation while alcohol-based disinfectants may cause local burns. We therefore investigated the use of an aqueous solution containing 0.1% octenidine and 2% 2-phenoxyethanol for skin disinfection during the first seven days of life in premature newborns with a gestational age <27 weeks who were consecutively admitted to our level III neonatal intensive care unit between November 1, 2000 and December 31, 2001 (N=24). In boys. (N=13) the renal excretion of absorbed 2-phenoxyethanol and its metabolite 2-phenoxyacetic acid was quantitated by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In the most immature newborn (gestational age 23 6/7 weeks), a transient erythematous reaction was observed following application of the octenidine/phenoxyethanol solution prior to umbilical vessel catheterization. No other local reactions were observed. The urinary concentration of 2-phenoxyethanol was <2 ppm in all samples, while urinary 2-phenoxyacetic acid concentrations reached 5-95 ppm (median 24 ppm). One infant had a culture-proven septicaemia (Bacillus species) during the first seven days of life. We conclude that, in contrast to alcohol-based antiseptics, an aqueous solution of 0.1% octenidine and 2-phenoxyethanol does not cause major skin damage in premature newborn infants <27 weeks' gestation. 2-Phenoxyethanol is readily absorbed by the newborn's skin but apparently undergoes extensive oxidative metabolization to 2-phenoxyacetic acid.

  14. Ascending in utero herpes simplex virus infection in an initially healthy-appearing premature infant.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Morven S; Popek, Edwina J; Wise, Brittany; Hatzenbuehler, Lindsay; Arunachalam, Athis R; Hair, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    The usual route of acquisition for intrauterine herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is transplacental. We evaluated a premature infant with in utero acquisition of HSV resulting from ascending infection. Histopathologic evidence of chronic chorioamnionitis and positive staining with immunohistochemistry for HSV in the placenta and umbilical cord established the diagnosis. The clinical presentation was also of interest in that the infant was initially healthy appearing.

  15. Association between Several Persistent Organic Pollutants and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Cord Blood Serum and Bloodspot of the Newborn Infants of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-01-01

    Current knowledge on adverse endocrine disruption effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) among newborn infants is limited and often controversial. To investigate the associations between prenatal exposure to major POPs and thyroid hormone levels among newborn infants, both cord serum or maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were compared with five thyroid hormones in cord serum of newborn infants as well as TSH in bloodspot collected at 2 day after birth (n=104). Since cord serum thyroid hormones could be affected by those of mothers, thyroid hormone concentrations of the matching mothers at delivery were adjusted. In cord serum, BDE-47, -99, and Σchlordane (CHD) showed significant positive associations with cord or bloodspot TSH. At the same time, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorbenzene (HCB) showed negative associations with total T3 and total T4 in cord serum, respectively. Maternal exposure to β-hexachlorhexane (β-HCH), ΣCHD, ΣDDT, or p,p'-DDE were also associated with neonatal thyroid hormones. Although the sample size is small and the thyroid hormone levels of the subjects were within the reference range, our observation supports thyroid disrupting potential of several POPs among newborn infants, at the levels occurring in the general population. Considering the importance of thyroid hormones during gestation and early life stages, health implication of thyroid hormone effects by low level POPs exposure deserves further follow up investigations. PMID:25965908

  16. Association between Several Persistent Organic Pollutants and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Cord Blood Serum and Bloodspot of the Newborn Infants of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-01-01

    Current knowledge on adverse endocrine disruption effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) among newborn infants is limited and often controversial. To investigate the associations between prenatal exposure to major POPs and thyroid hormone levels among newborn infants, both cord serum or maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were compared with five thyroid hormones in cord serum of newborn infants as well as TSH in bloodspot collected at 2 day after birth (n=104). Since cord serum thyroid hormones could be affected by those of mothers, thyroid hormone concentrations of the matching mothers at delivery were adjusted. In cord serum, BDE-47, -99, and Σchlordane (CHD) showed significant positive associations with cord or bloodspot TSH. At the same time, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorbenzene (HCB) showed negative associations with total T3 and total T4 in cord serum, respectively. Maternal exposure to β-hexachlorhexane (β-HCH), ΣCHD, ΣDDT, or p,p'-DDE were also associated with neonatal thyroid hormones. Although the sample size is small and the thyroid hormone levels of the subjects were within the reference range, our observation supports thyroid disrupting potential of several POPs among newborn infants, at the levels occurring in the general population. Considering the importance of thyroid hormones during gestation and early life stages, health implication of thyroid hormone effects by low level POPs exposure deserves further follow up investigations.

  17. Association between Several Persistent Organic Pollutants and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Cord Blood Serum and Bloodspot of the Newborn Infants of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-01-01

    Current knowledge on adverse endocrine disruption effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) among newborn infants is limited and often controversial. To investigate the associations between prenatal exposure to major POPs and thyroid hormone levels among newborn infants, both cord serum or maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were compared with five thyroid hormones in cord serum of newborn infants as well as TSH in bloodspot collected at 2 day after birth (n=104). Since cord serum thyroid hormones could be affected by those of mothers, thyroid hormone concentrations of the matching mothers at delivery were adjusted. In cord serum, BDE-47, -99, and Σchlordane (CHD) showed significant positive associations with cord or bloodspot TSH. At the same time, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorbenzene (HCB) showed negative associations with total T3 and total T4 in cord serum, respectively. Maternal exposure to β-hexachlorhexane (β-HCH), ΣCHD, ΣDDT, or p,p'-DDE were also associated with neonatal thyroid hormones. Although the sample size is small and the thyroid hormone levels of the subjects were within the reference range, our observation supports thyroid disrupting potential of several POPs among newborn infants, at the levels occurring in the general population. Considering the importance of thyroid hormones during gestation and early life stages, health implication of thyroid hormone effects by low level POPs exposure deserves further follow up investigations. PMID:25965908

  18. Persistent coagulopathy during Escherichia coli sepsis in a previously healthy infant revealed undiagnosed tyrosinaemia type 1.

    PubMed

    Georgouli, H; Schulpis, K H; Michelakaki, H; Kaltsa, M; Sdogou, T; Kossiva, L

    2010-12-29

    Hereditary tyrosinaemia type 1 (HT1) is caused by an enzymatic defect in tyrosine metabolism. It is an autosomal recessive disorder and affects both sexes equally. In young infants HT1 can present as severe liver involvement and in older infants as liver failure and renal tubular dysfunction together with growth failure and rickets. The authors report the case of a 5-month-old, previously healthy, male infant who presented with Escherichia coli sepsis and severe coagulopathy due to liver dysfunction. Despite the early diagnosis of HT1 and treatment with 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1, 3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC), the patient died from severe coagulopathy and multi-organ failure.

  19. Is the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) effective for preterm infants with intrauterine growth restriction?

    PubMed Central

    Als, H; Duffy, FH; McAnulty, GB; Fischer, CB; Kosta, S; Butler, SC; Parad, RB; Blickman, JG; Zurakowski, D; Ringer, SA

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the effectiveness of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) on neurobehavioral and electrophysiological functioning of preterm infants with severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Study Design Thirty IUGR infants, 28 to 33 weeks gestational age, randomized to standard care (control/C = 18), or NIDCAP (experimental/E = 12), were assessed at 2 weeks corrected age (2wCA) and 9 months corrected age (9mCA) in regard to health, anthropometrics, and neurobehavior, and additionally at 2wCA in regard to electrophysiology (EEG). Result The two groups were comparable in health and anthropometrics at 2wCA and 9mCA. The E-group at 2wCA showed significantly better autonomic, motor, and self-regulation functioning, improved motility, intensity and response thresholds, and reduced EEG connectivity among several adjacent brain regions. At 9mCA, the E-group showed significantly better mental performance. Conclusion This is the first study to show NIDCAP effectiveness for IUGR preterm infants. PMID:20651694

  20. Effect of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow in newborn infants

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, D.P.; Reivich, M.; Jaggi, J.L.; Obrist, W.D.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow were measured in 15 stable, low birth weight babies. CBF was measured with a modification of the xenon-133 (/sup 133/Xe) clearance technique, which uses an intravenous bolus of /sup 133/Xe, an external chest detector to estimate arterial /sup 133/Xe concentration, eight external cranial detectors to measure cephalic /sup 133/Xe clearance curves, and a two-compartmental analysis of the cephalic /sup 133/Xe clearance curves to estimate CBF. There was a significant inverse correlation between hematocrit and CBF, presumably due to alterations in arterial oxygen content and blood viscosity. Newborn CBF varied independently of systolic blood pressure between 60 and 84 mm Hg, suggesting an intact cerebrovascular autoregulatory mechanism. These results indicate that at least two of the factors that affect newborn animal CBF are operational in human newborns and may have important clinical implications.

  1. A Followup of Twenty Three Infants with Diarrhoea in the Newborn Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Barton; Farmer, Keitha

    1979-01-01

    Factors such as gestational age and birthweight were compared in a follow-up study of 66 neonates with diarrhea and two groups of infants--one with low birthweight, one with optimal birthweight. Among findings was that low birthweight was found to correlate with low test scores on visual perception regardless of whether the infants had had…

  2. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide do not affect iron absorption from formula in healthy term infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron absorption from infant formula is relatively low. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide have been suggested to enhance mineral absorption. We therefore assessed the effect of alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide on iron absorption from infant formula in healthy term infants. ...

  3. Maternal and newborn infants amino acid concentrations in obese women born themselves with normal and small for gestational age birth weight.

    PubMed

    Tsyvian, P B; Bashmakova, N V; Kovtun, O P; Makarenko, L V; Pestryaeva, L A

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to compare amino acid concentrations in maternal and newborn infants' serum in normal pregnancy and two groups of obese women who were born themselves with normal and small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight. Maternal cholesterol, lipoproteins concentrations and maternal and infants amino acid concentrations were evaluated at the time of delivery in 28 normal pregnancies, 46 obese pregnant women with normal birth weight (Ob-AGA group) and 44 obese pregnant women born themselves SGA (Ob-SGA group). Mean birth weight of newborn infants in Ob-SGA group was significantly less than in normal and Ob-AGA groups. Cholesterol and lipoproteins were significantly elevated in obese women (more prominent in Ob-SGA group). Most amino acid concentrations and fetal-maternal amino acid gradients were significantly lower in Ob-SGA group. These data suggest significant changes in placental amino acid transport/synthetic function in obese women who were born themselves SGA.

  4. Prognostic value of creatine kinase BB-isoenzyme in high risk newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Ruth, V J

    1989-01-01

    Serum creatine kinase BB-isoenzyme (CK-BB) activity was studied on the first day of life in 31 acutely asphyxiated infants, 70 infants born after high risk pregnancies (pre-eclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation, or both), and 47 very low birthweight infants. Neuro-developmental evaluation was carried out at 2.2-2.5 years. Eight infants died with, and eight without, hypoxic-ischaemic lesions of the brain, 14 had cerebral palsy, 16 had mild motor impairment, six had developmental delay without motor impairment, and 96 were normal at follow up. Infants who died with brain injury had significantly higher CK-BB activity than infants with normal outcomes (geometric mean 12 U/l); the mean difference was 82 U/l with a 95% confidence interval from 31 to 219 U/l. CK-BB in infants with cerebral palsy and mild motor impairment (geometric means 12 and 15 U/l, respectively) were similar to controls. CK-BB activity after birth is predictive of neonatal death but not of neurological damage in survivors. PMID:2751331

  5. Biological Effects of Short-Term or Prolonged Administration of 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)Propyl]Adenine (Tenofovir) to Newborn and Infant Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Van Rompay, Koen K. A.; Brignolo, Laurie L.; Meyer, Dennis J.; Jerome, Christopher; Tarara, Ross; Spinner, Abigail; Hamilton, Marta; Hirst, Linda L.; Bennett, David R.; Canfield, Don R.; Dearman, Trish G.; Von Morgenland, Wilhelm; Allen, Phil C.; Valverde, Celia; Castillo, Alesha B.; Martin, R. Bruce; Samii, Valerie F.; Bendele, Ray; Desjardins, John; Marthas, Marta L.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Bischofberger, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    The reverse transcriptase inhibitor 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA; tenofovir) was previously found to offer strong prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in an infant macaque model of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We now summarize the toxicity and safety of PMPA in these studies. When a range of PMPA doses (4 to 30 mg/kg of body weight administered subcutaneously once daily) was administered to 39 infant macaques for a short period of time (range, 1 day to 12 weeks), no adverse effects on their health or growth were observed; this included a subset of 12 animals which were monitored for more than 2 years. In contrast, daily administration of a high dose of PMPA (30 mg/kg subcutaneously) for prolonged periods of time (>8 to 21 months) to 13 animals resulted in a Fanconi-like syndrome (proximal renal tubular disorder) with glucosuria, aminoaciduria, hypophosphatemia, growth restriction, bone pathology (osteomalacia), and reduced clearance of PMPA. The adverse effects were reversible or were alleviated following either complete withdrawal of PMPA treatment or reduction of the daily regimen from 30 mg/kg to 2.5 to 10 mg/kg subcutaneously. Finally, to evaluate the safety of a prolonged low-dose treatment regimen, two newborn macaques were started on a 10-mg/kg/day subcutaneous regimen; these animals are healthy and have normal bone density and growth after 5 years of daily treatment. In conclusion, our findings suggest that chronic daily administration of a high dose of PMPA results in adverse effects on kidney and bone, while short-term administration of relatively high doses and prolonged low-dose administration are safe. PMID:15105094

  6. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K.; Wilkerson, C.; Meisner, L. |

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Recommendations on complementary feeding for healthy, full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Alvisi, Patrizia; Brusa, Sandra; Alboresi, Stefano; Amarri, Sergio; Bottau, Paolo; Cavagni, Giovanni; Corradini, Barbara; Landi, Linda; Loroni, Leonardo; Marani, Miris; Osti, Irene M; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Caffarelli, Carlo; Valeriani, Luca; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-04-28

    Weaning (or introduction of complementary feeding) is a special and important moment in the growth of a child, both for the family and the infant itself, and it can play a major role in the child's future health. Throughout the years, various weaning modes have come in succession, the latest being baby-led weaning; the timing for introducing foods and the requirements of which sort of nutrient for weaning have also changed over time. Furthermore, the role played by nutrition, especially in the early stages of life, for the onset of later non-communicable disorders, such as diabetes, obesity or coeliac disease has also been increasingly highlighted.Members of Italian Society of Gastroenterology, Hepathology and Pediatric Nutrition (SIGENP) and the Italian Society of Allergology and Pediatric Immunology (SIAIP) Emilia Romagna here propose a practical approach for pediatricians to deal with daily practice. The four main areas for discussion were weaning in relation with the onset of allergic diseases, coeliac disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome, the nutrition requirements to take into account for assessing the diet of infants under one year of age and about the practice of baby-led weaning focusing on limits and benefits, respectively.

  8. Time of onset of necrotizing enterocolitis in newborn infants with known prenatal cocaine exposure.

    PubMed

    Lopez, S L; Taeusch, H W; Findlay, R D; Walther, F J

    1995-08-01

    Cocaine exposure can lead to diminished gut-blood supply and thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Investigating the hypothesis that NEC occurs at a younger age in cocaine-exposed infants, we reviewed 1,284 neonatal intensive care admissions. Infants with NEC were divided into cocaine-exposed and cocaine-nonexposed groups, each subdivided into two birth-weight groups, using 1,500 g as the cutoff weight. Time of onset of NEC for each infant was determined and survival curves for the cocaine-exposed and nonexposed groups were calculated using their birth-weight subdivision. Hazard function curves were done. Neonatal risk factors in both groups were compared. Twelve percent (28/231) of cocaine-exposed infants developed NEC stage II or III versus 3% (34/1053) in the nonexposed group (P < 0.05). Eight percent of cocaine-exposed and 2% of nonexposed survivors had NEC by day 7 versus 20% and 5% by day 28 after birth (P < 0.05). Infants > 1,500 g were at risk for NEC until day 8 only, whereas infants < or = 1,500 g had both an early and continuing risk for NEC with a biphasic pattern of onset. The accentuated peak in early-onset NEC may be attributed to antenatal cocaine exposure, while late-onset NEC in the < or = 1,500 g group probably relates to a variety of pathogenetic factors.

  9. [Accidental saline poisoning in newborn infants. Morphologic findings and pathogenetic discussion].

    PubMed

    Walter, G F; Maresch, W

    1987-01-01

    In the nursery of an Austrian hospital, five newborns accidentally received 10% natrium chloride solution by infusion or oral feeding. Because of wrong labelling by the hospital pharmacy the solution was taken for 10% glucose. In all five newborns, bradycardia, edemas, cyanosis and cramps occurred. In all cases, autopsy revealed a fatal haemorrhagic encephalopathy and more or less extended haemorrhages of the lungs, the kidneys and the liver. There was no suppurative pneumonia and no arteritis. The intracerebral bleedings, thromboses and necroses may be provoked by tissue shrinking caused by hypernatraemic dehydration. The cerebral lesions again cause hyperosmolarity leading to death in most cases. Peritoneal dialysis which may be life-saving in some cases, unfortunately has not been performed in the present cases.

  10. Measurement of oxygen uptake in newborn infants during assisted and spontaneous ventilation.

    PubMed

    Rozé, J C; Chambille, B; Dehan, M; Gaultier, C

    1994-10-01

    Measurements of oxygen uptake (VO2) and CO2 output (VCO2) are useful in critically ill patients. However, VO2 is not routinely measured in intensive care during mechanical ventilation (MV) especially in premature newborns. The present study describes a new method of measuring VO2 and VCO2 using a double open circuit which accounts for gas leaks around the uncuffed tracheal tube. The accuracy of the method was assessed with N2 and CO2 infusion. In case of leaks, VO2 and VCO2 measurement was significantly underestimated by the simple circuit method. This underestimation was not present with double circuit method. Five preterm newborns were studied. VO2 and VCO2 using the double open circuit were compared with the classic simple circuit. During MV, the mean underestimation assessed by the difference between simple and double circuit measurement was -12% (range from 0 to -29%) for VO2 and -14% (range 0 to -26%) for VCO2.

  11. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of voluminous formations in the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space in newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Nestaĭko, O V

    1990-01-01

    Introduction of the ultrasound research method into obstetrical practice has given rise to a possibility of revealing developmental abnormalities and neoformations in the prenatal period. The same method enables identifying volumetric formations in the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space in the newborn. Ultrasound examination of the newborn presupposes the obligatory use of the equipment working in the real time mode, with a high rate of image design as well as the use of monitors run at a frequency of not less than 5 to 7.5 mHz with a wide visual field and equipped with the electronic switching of emitters. Until now there have been no reported data on the side effects of ultrasonic energies used for diagnosis. That is why this method can be regarded as absolutely safe for children.

  12. Organ and effective doses in newborns and infants undergoing voiding cystourethrograms (VCUG): A comparison of stylized and tomographic phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Pazik, Frank D.; Staton, Robert J.; Williams, Jonathon L.; Arreola, Manuel M.; Hintenlang, David E.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2007-01-15

    The time-sequence videotape-analysis methodology, developed [Sulieman et al., Radiology 178, 653-658 (1991)] for use in tissue dose estimations in adult fluoroscopy examinations and utilized [Bolch et al., Med. Phys. 30, 667-680 (2003)] for analog fluoroscopy in newborn patients, has been extended to the study of digital fluoroscopic examinations of the urinary bladder in newborn and infant female patients. Individual frames of the fluoroscopic and radiographic video were analyzed with respect to unique combinations of field size, field center, projection, tube potential, and tube current (mA), and integral tube current (mAs), respectively. The dosimetry study was conducted on five female patients of ages ranging from four-days to 66 days. For each patient, three different phantoms were utilized: a stylized computational phantom of the reference newborn (3.5 kg), a tomographic computational phantom of the reference newborn (3.5 kg), and (3) a tomographic computational phantom uniformly rescaled to match patient total-body mass. The latter phantom set circumvented the need for mass-dependent rescaling of recorded technique factors (kVp, mA, mAs, etc.), and thus represented the highest degree of patient specificity in the individual organ dose assessment. Effective dose values for the voiding cystourethrogram examination ranged from 0.6 to 3.2 mSv, with a mean and standard deviation of 1.8{+-}0.9 mSv. The ovary and colon equivalent doses contributed in total {approx}65%-80% of the effective dose in these fluoroscopy studies. Percent differences in the effective dose assessed using the two tomographic phantoms (one fixed at 3.5 kg with rescaled technique factors rescaled and one physically rescaled to individual patient masses with no adjustment of recorded technique factors) ranged for -49% to +15%. Percent differences in effective dose found using the 3.5 kg stylized phantom and the 3.5 kg tomographic phantom, both with patient-specific rescaling of technique

  13. IMMUNE CHANGES IN NEWBORN INFANTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL FAILURE REQUIRING INTENSIVE CARE.

    PubMed

    Kholod, D; Shkurupii, D; Sonnik, E

    2016-07-01

    Newborns in critical conditions, because of the natureof the immune system, have the greatest risk of realization of immune deficiency, especially with gastrointestinal failure. We analyzed 44 cases of diseases in newborns in critical conditions and 20 cases without and studied the clinical and laboratory signs of immunological disorders, organpathology, gene expressionToll-likereceptor type 2. In newborns requiring intensive care, the frequency of gastrointestinal failure registration in 40,9%. Gastrointestinal failure leads to increased amounts of other affected systems, severity of systemic inflammation, gene expressionToll-likereceptor type 2, a marker of apoptosis of lymphocytes-CD95+, inhibition lymphocyte germ of immune system due to fraction of CD4+,the severity of the clinical condition. In newbornsin intensive care gastrointestinal failure is recorded at a frequency of 40,9%, is a component of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, increases the expression of the geneToll-likereceptor type 2, implements violation adequate response humoral immunity, activates apoptosis of lymphocytes, which increases the severity of the patients. PMID:27661278

  14. Conduction velocity along muscle fibers in situ in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Cruz Martínez, A; López Terradas, J M

    1990-11-01

    The muscle fibers of the biceps brachii were stimulated distally with low voltages by means of two monopolar needles in twenty-two infants aged 2 to 14 years. The electrical activity was recorded proximally by means of a SFEMG electrode. Conduction velocity of the muscle fibers (MFCV) in situ calculated with this method had a bimodal distribution in the youngest individuals of less than 4 years, and a Gaussian distribution in children aged 5 to 14 years. Propagation velocity along muscle fibers increases with children's age and is significantly slower than in adults, in good correlation with the shorter limb perimeter and with the significantly smaller fiber diameter found in muscle biopsies in infancy. The latency of the evoked potentials was linearly related with the distance between stimulating and recording points, and muscle activity and propagation velocities were the same before and after curarization, that is consistent with the reliability of the method in infancy.

  15. Respiratory water loss and oxygen consumption in newborn infants during phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Kjartansson, S; Hammarlund, K; Riesenfeld, T; Sedin, G

    1992-10-01

    Respiratory water loss was measured together with oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) in 11 full-term and eight preterm infants (mean gestational age 34 weeks, range 31-36 weeks) before and during 1 h of phototherapy. The method for determination of respiratory water loss, VO2 and VCO2 was based on an open flow-through system with a mass spectrometer for measurement of gas concentrations. All infants were studied naked in an incubator with an ambient relative humidity of 50% and with a controlled environment with respect to temperature and air velocity. The infants were calm during the measurements. Before phototherapy, in term infants respiratory water loss was 4.4 (SD 0.7) mg/kg min and VO2 5.9 (0.9) ml/kg min and in preterm infants respiratory water loss was 4.7 (0.8) mg/kg min and VO2 6.1 (0.8) ml/kg min. No significant difference was found between values obtained during or after 1 h of phototherapy and those obtained before.

  16. First-Day Newborn Weight Loss Predicts In-Hospital Weight Nadir for Breastfeeding Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bokser, Seth; Newman, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant infectious disease. Losing ≥10% birth weight may lead to formula use. The predictive value of first-day weight loss for subsequent weight loss has not been studied. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between weight loss at <24 hours and subsequent in-hospital weight loss ≥10%. Methods For 1,049 infants, we extracted gestational age, gender, delivery method, feeding type, and weights from medical records. Weight nadir was defined as the lowest weight recorded during birth hospitalization. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the effect of first-day weight loss on subsequent in-hospital weight loss. Results Mean in-hospital weight nadir was 6.0 ± 2.6%, and mean age at in-hospital weight nadir was 38.7 ± 18.5 hours. While in the hospital 6.4% of infants lost ≥10% of birth weight. Infants losing ≥4.5% birth weight at <24 hours had greater risk of eventual in-hospital weight loss ≥10% (adjusted odds ratio 3.57 [1.75, 7.28]). In this cohort, 798 (76.1%) infants did not have documented weight gain while in the hospital. Conclusions Early weight loss predicts higher risk of ≥10% in-hospital weight loss. Infants with high first-day weight loss could be targeted for further research into improved interventions to promote breastfeeding. PMID:20113202

  17. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Infants: Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This Kids Count issue brief details the strides made in Rhode Island over the last 10 years to improve maternal and child health, focusing on efforts to reduce racial and ethnic disparities. The brief notes that Rhode Island has made significant progress in several areas of maternal and infant care, most notably in access to insurance and early…

  18. Does Breast Feeding Protect the Hypothyroid Infant Diagnosed by Newborn Screening?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovet, Joanne F.

    Because breast milk contains small quantities of thyroid hormones not found in commercial formula preparations, it was hypothesized that breast feeding may provide some protective benefit to the hypothyroid infant before medical treatment is begun. Of 108 children with congenital hypothyroidism, breast-fed children had higher thyroid hormone…

  19. [Comparative study of the effects of different sour milk products on the intestinal microflora of healthy infants].

    PubMed

    Safronova, A I; Sorvacheva, T N; Kurkova, V I; Toboleva, M A; Kuznetsova, G G; Efimov, B A; Pikina, A P; Kon', I Ia

    2001-01-01

    Our study was aimed to investigate in comparable conditions the composition of intestinal microflora of healthy infants who were given 9 types of fermented milk products. There were observed 103 practically healthy infants aged from 4 month to 1,5 years old. The obtained data have shown that studied products improve intestinal microflora in infants. Significant increase of bifidobacteria in infants intestines was promoted by fermented milk products containing alive bifidobacteria with rather high acidity. The most of products which contain bifidobacteria decreased the level of hemolisinproducing Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococcus. The products which not contain bifidobacteria decreased the level of Candida albicans and protei.

  20. Learning, Play, and Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Learning, Play, and Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Learning, ... juega su recién nacido What Is My Newborn Learning? Play is the chief way that infants learn ...

  1. Reducing maternal, newborn, and infant mortality globally: an integrated action agenda.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Cabral, Sergio; Chan, Chok-Wan; Keenan, William J

    2012-10-01

    There has been increasing awareness over recent years of the persisting burden of worldwide maternal, newborn, and child mortality. The majority of maternal deaths occur during labor, delivery, and the immediate postpartum period, with obstetric hemorrhage as the primary medical cause of death. Other causes of maternal mortality include hypertensive diseases, sepsis/infections, obstructed labor, and abortion-related complications. Recent estimates indicate that in 2009 an estimated 3.3 million babies died in the first month of life and that overall, 7.3 million children under 5 die each year. Recent data also suggest that sufficient evidence- and consensus-based interventions exist to address reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health globally, and if implemented at scale, these have the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need to put elements in place to promote integrated interventions among healthcare professionals and their associations. What is needed is the political will and partnerships to implement evidence-based interventions at scale. PMID:22883919

  2. Emollient therapy for preterm newborn infants – evidence from the developing world

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Application of emollients is a widespread traditional newborn care practice in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs) and may have the potential to decrease infection and consequent mortality in preterm neonates. Methods We systematically reviewed literature published up to December 2012 to identify studies describing the effectiveness of emollient therapy. We used a standardized abstraction and grading format to estimate the effect of emollient therapy by applying the standard Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) rules. Results We included seven studies and one unpublished trial in this review. Topical emollient therapy significantly reduced neonatal mortality by 27% (RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.94) and hospital acquired infection by 50% (RR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.71). There were significant increases in weight (g) (MD: 98.04, 95% CI: 42.64, 153.45) and weight gain (g/kg/day) (MD: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.79, 2.36), whereas the impacts were non-significant for length and head circumference. Conclusion Emollient therapy is associated with improved weight gain, reduced risk of infection and associated newborn mortality in preterm neonates and is a potentially promising intervention for use in low resource settings. Large scale effectiveness trials are required to further assess the impact of this intervention. PMID:24564550

  3. Effect of maternal bone lead on length and head circumference of newborns and 1-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Peterson, Karen E; Gonzalez-Cossio, Teresa; Sanin, Luz H; Aro, Antonio; Schnaas, Lourdes; Hu, Howard

    2002-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effects that maternal bone lead stores have in anthropometry at birth in 223 mother-infant pairs. The participants were recruited between April and November 1994. Anthropometric data were collected within the first 12 hr following delivery. Maternal information was obtained 1 mo after delivery occurred. Bone lead burden was determined with in-vivo K-x-ray fluorescence of the tibia (cortical bone) and the patella (trabecular bone). The authors transformed anthropometric measurements to an ordinal 5-category scale, and the association of measurements with other factors was evaluated with ordinal logistic-regression models. Mean bone lead levels were 9.8 microgram/gm bone mineral and 14.4 microgram/gm bone mineral for the tibia and patella, respectively. Birth length of newborns decreased as tibia lead levels increased. Compared with women in the lower quintiles of the distribution of tibia lead, those in the upper quintile had a 79% increase in risk of having a lower birth length newborn (odds ratio = 1.79; 95% confidence interval = 1.10, 3.22). The authors adjusted by birth weight, and the effect was attenuated--but nonetheless significant. Patella lead was positively and significantly related to the risk of a low head circumference score; this score remained unaffected by inclusion of birth weight. The authors estimated the increased risk to be 1.02 per microgram lead/gm bone mineral (95% confidence interval = 1.01, 1.04 per microgram lead/gm bone mineral). Odds ratios did not vary substantially after the authors adjusted for birth weight and other important determinants of head circumference. PMID:12641193

  4. [Newborn Hearing Screening and Subsequent Diagnostic Evaluation: Analysis and Outcomes of 6,063 Infants Born in a Community Hospital].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yasuko; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Takada, Kentaro; Inoue, Maki; Ogawara, Noboru; Takahashi, Masahiro; Oridate, Nobuhiko

    2016-03-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to examine the implementation status of newborn hearing screening (NHS) of 6,063 infants born in a single community hospital in Japan between 2005 and 2013. An automated auditory brainstem response device was used for NHS and an auditory brainstem response was mainly used for further diagnostic evaluation. Although the participation rate in the NHS was 88.8% in 2013, increasing year by year, it failed to reach 100% probably because NHS is a charged option under the current Japanese healthcare system. Among 40 (0.66%) infants who finally failed their NHS, 34 were referred for subsequent diagnostic evaluation and the remaining 6 were lost to follow-up. Thirty-one of these 34 were diagnosed as having hearing impairment and 3 (0.05%) were identified as having normal hearing, which is considered as a false positive. Both the final referral rate and the hearing impairment rate were significantly higher in the high-risk than in the low-risk group. Compared to the previous national report, the rate of bilateral hearing impairment (0.33%) was significantly higher in this study. Ten (38.5%) out of 26 in the high-risk group were most often diagnosed with otitis media with effusion (OME), while 4 (50%) out of 8 in the low-risk group were diagnosed as having sensorineural hearing loss. Seven (35%) out of 20 with bilateral hearing impairment attained a normal hearing level at a median age of 18 months. Although the primary aim of NHS is early detection of congenital permanent hearing loss, OME is observed commonly in NHS-failed infants. It is therefore important to examine the middle ear status carefully as part of the diagnostic evaluation. Thirty-four infants underwent further diagnostic evaluation at a median age of 46 days, and hearing aids were given in 10 of them at a median age of 5.6 months without delay. Because high-risk patients often tend to be lost to follow-up, otolaryngologists have to give a detailed explanation to caregivers

  5. Infantile Hepatic Hemangioendothelioma: An Uncommon Cause of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension in a Newborn Infant.

    PubMed

    Chatmethakul, Trassanee; Bhat, Ramachandra; Alkaabi, Maryam; Siddiqui, Abdul; Peevy, Keith; Zayek, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Multifocal and diffuse infantile hepatic hemangioendotheliomas commonly present with signs of high-output congestive heart failure. In addition, prolonged persistent pulmonary overcirculation eventually leads to the development of pulmonary hypertension at a later age. We report a 2-day old, full-term infant with multifocal, large infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma, who presented with an early onset of pulmonary hypertension, managed successfully with supportive care and systemic therapy directed toward the involution of infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma.

  6. Infantile Hepatic Hemangioendothelioma: An Uncommon Cause of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension in a Newborn Infant

    PubMed Central

    Chatmethakul, Trassanee; Bhat, Ramachandra; Alkaabi, Maryam; Siddiqui, Abdul; Peevy, Keith; Zayek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Multifocal and diffuse infantile hepatic hemangioendotheliomas commonly present with signs of high-output congestive heart failure. In addition, prolonged persistent pulmonary overcirculation eventually leads to the development of pulmonary hypertension at a later age. We report a 2-day old, full-term infant with multifocal, large infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma, who presented with an early onset of pulmonary hypertension, managed successfully with supportive care and systemic therapy directed toward the involution of infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma. PMID:27468364

  7. Ultrasonography of the infant hip. Part IV: Normal development in the newborn and preterm neonate.

    PubMed

    Zieger, M; Hilpert, S

    1987-01-01

    Based on preterm and term infants studied by ultrasonography, and on anatomical sections of various gestational ages the physiological maturation of the hip joint is analysed. Current concepts of a linear growth pattern with an arrest immediately after delivery are confirmed. A more rapid growth and ossification of the acetabular edge than of the femoral head postpartum is suggested. To avoid overtreatment, knowledge of the normal range of development as seen in ultrasonography is mandatory.

  8. Neonatal Respiratory Diseases in the Newborn Infant: Novel Insights from Stable Isotope Tracer Studies.

    PubMed

    Carnielli, Virgilio P; Giorgetti, Chiara; Simonato, Manuela; Vedovelli, Luca; Cogo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome is a common problem in preterm infants and the etiology is multifactorial. Lung underdevelopment, lung hypoplasia, abnormal lung water metabolism, inflammation, and pulmonary surfactant deficiency or disfunction play a variable role in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome. High-quality exogenous surfactant replacement studies and studies on surfactant metabolism are available; however, the contribution of surfactant deficiency, alteration or dysfunction in selected neonatal lung conditions is not fully understood. In this article, we describe a series of studies made by applying stable isotope tracers to the study of surfactant metabolism and lung water. In a first set of studies, which we call 'endogenous studies', using stable isotope-labelled intravenous surfactant precursors, we showed the feasibility of measuring surfactant synthesis and kinetics in infants using several metabolic precursors including plasma glucose, plasma fatty acids and body water. In a second set of studies, named 'exogenous studies', using stable isotope-labelled phosphatidylcholine tracer given endotracheally, we could estimate surfactant disaturated phosphatidylcholine pool size and half-life. Very recent studies are focusing on lung water and on the endogenous biosynthesis of the surfactant-specific proteins. Information obtained from these studies in infants will help to better tailor exogenous surfactant treatment in neonatal lung diseases.

  9. Neonatal Respiratory Diseases in the Newborn Infant: Novel Insights from Stable Isotope Tracer Studies.

    PubMed

    Carnielli, Virgilio P; Giorgetti, Chiara; Simonato, Manuela; Vedovelli, Luca; Cogo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome is a common problem in preterm infants and the etiology is multifactorial. Lung underdevelopment, lung hypoplasia, abnormal lung water metabolism, inflammation, and pulmonary surfactant deficiency or disfunction play a variable role in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome. High-quality exogenous surfactant replacement studies and studies on surfactant metabolism are available; however, the contribution of surfactant deficiency, alteration or dysfunction in selected neonatal lung conditions is not fully understood. In this article, we describe a series of studies made by applying stable isotope tracers to the study of surfactant metabolism and lung water. In a first set of studies, which we call 'endogenous studies', using stable isotope-labelled intravenous surfactant precursors, we showed the feasibility of measuring surfactant synthesis and kinetics in infants using several metabolic precursors including plasma glucose, plasma fatty acids and body water. In a second set of studies, named 'exogenous studies', using stable isotope-labelled phosphatidylcholine tracer given endotracheally, we could estimate surfactant disaturated phosphatidylcholine pool size and half-life. Very recent studies are focusing on lung water and on the endogenous biosynthesis of the surfactant-specific proteins. Information obtained from these studies in infants will help to better tailor exogenous surfactant treatment in neonatal lung diseases. PMID:27251153

  10. The relationship between nociceptive brain activity, spinal reflex withdrawal and behaviour in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Caroline; Goksan, Sezgi; Poorun, Ravi; Brotherhood, Kelly; Mellado, Gabriela Schmidt; Moultrie, Fiona; Rogers, Richard; Adams, Eleri; Slater, Rebeccah

    2015-07-31

    Measuring infant pain is complicated by their inability to describe the experience. While nociceptive brain activity, reflex withdrawal and facial grimacing have been characterised, the relationship between these activity patterns has not been examined. As cortical and spinally mediated activity is developmentally regulated, it cannot be assumed that they are predictive of one another in the immature nervous system. Here, using a new experimental paradigm, we characterise the nociceptive-specific brain activity, spinal reflex withdrawal and behavioural activity following graded intensity noxious stimulation and clinical heel lancing in 30 term infants. We show that nociceptive-specific brain activity and nociceptive reflex withdrawal are graded with stimulus intensity (p < 0.001), significantly correlated (r = 0.53, p = 0.001) and elicited at an intensity that does not evoke changes in clinical pain scores (p = 0.55). The strong correlation between reflex withdrawal and nociceptive brain activity suggests that movement of the limb away from a noxious stimulus is a sensitive indication of nociceptive brain activity in term infants. This could underpin the development of new clinical pain assessment measures.

  11. The relationship between nociceptive brain activity, spinal reflex withdrawal and behaviour in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Caroline; Goksan, Sezgi; Poorun, Ravi; Brotherhood, Kelly; Mellado, Gabriela Schmidt; Moultrie, Fiona; Rogers, Richard; Adams, Eleri; Slater, Rebeccah

    2015-01-01

    Measuring infant pain is complicated by their inability to describe the experience. While nociceptive brain activity, reflex withdrawal and facial grimacing have been characterised, the relationship between these activity patterns has not been examined. As cortical and spinally mediated activity is developmentally regulated, it cannot be assumed that they are predictive of one another in the immature nervous system. Here, using a new experimental paradigm, we characterise the nociceptive-specific brain activity, spinal reflex withdrawal and behavioural activity following graded intensity noxious stimulation and clinical heel lancing in 30 term infants. We show that nociceptive-specific brain activity and nociceptive reflex withdrawal are graded with stimulus intensity (p < 0.001), significantly correlated (r = 0.53, p = 0.001) and elicited at an intensity that does not evoke changes in clinical pain scores (p = 0.55). The strong correlation between reflex withdrawal and nociceptive brain activity suggests that movement of the limb away from a noxious stimulus is a sensitive indication of nociceptive brain activity in term infants. This could underpin the development of new clinical pain assessment measures. PMID:26228435

  12. Prevalence and outcomes of breast milk expressing in women with healthy term infants: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Expressing breast milk has become increasingly prevalent, particularly in some developed countries. Concurrently, breast pumps have evolved to be more sophisticated and aesthetically appealing, adapted for domestic use, and have become more readily available. In the past, expressed breast milk feeding was predominantly for those infants who were premature, small or unwell; however it has become increasingly common for healthy term infants. The aim of this paper is to systematically explore the literature related to breast milk expressing by women who have healthy term infants, including the prevalence of breast milk expressing, reported reasons for, methods of, and outcomes related to, expressing. Methods Databases (Medline, CINAHL, JSTOR, ProQuest Central, PsycINFO, PubMed and the Cochrane library) were searched using the keywords milk expression, breast milk expression, breast milk pumping, prevalence, outcomes, statistics and data, with no limit on year of publication. Reference lists of identified papers were also examined. A hand-search was conducted at the Australian Breastfeeding Association Lactation Resource Centre. Only English language papers were included. All papers about expressing breast milk for healthy term infants were considered for inclusion, with a focus on the prevalence, methods, reasons for and outcomes of breast milk expression. Results A total of twenty two papers were relevant to breast milk expression, but only seven papers reported the prevalence and/or outcomes of expressing amongst mothers of well term infants; all of the identified papers were published between 1999 and 2012. Many were descriptive rather than analytical and some were commentaries which included calls for more research, more dialogue and clearer definitions of breastfeeding. While some studies found an association between expressing and the success and duration of breastfeeding, others found the opposite. In some cases these inconsistencies were compounded

  13. [Traditional enema for newborns and infants in Bobo Dioulasso: health practice or socialisation].

    PubMed

    Huygens, Pierre; Konaté, Blahima; Traoré, Abdullaye; Barennes, Hubert

    2002-01-01

    Kanki demonstrated a high prevalence and frequency of enema practised with newborns in the South-West of Burkina Faso. Little is known about the risks on children's health possibly associated with this practice and about its impact on other treatments in paediatrics. In this study, the authors describe daily administered enema (DAE) and analyse local conceptual frameworks underlying this practice through in-depth-interviews and focus group discussions with 30 mothers, 5 traditional healers and 5 health agents. Various medications are used to compose the liquid introduced by the mothers in the child's anus. Many of these substances are prone to irritate intestinal mucus, others are simply toxic. Practically, enema aims at curing or preventing a variety of diseases caused by an accumulation of impurities (nògò) in the intestines due to the consumption of inappropriate food. With newborns, diseases are transmitted by mothers through breastfeeding after eating food which is too sweet or too fat. In addition to provoking diseases, the nògò also "block" the child's physical and psychic development during his/her first year of life. Therefore, as soon as the child has excreted for the first time, most mothers give enema daily both to protect their children from diseases and to speed their development. In fact, beside prophylaxy and therapy lies a "didactic" function of enema as a medication used to help the child to stand up, to get teeth..., to gain independence from his/her mother. DAE therefore plays an important role in the process of acquiring bio-social aptitudes, i.e., important educational virtues to achieve a successful first step in the socialisation process. Exploring more deeply local perceptions explaining the origin of the n g , the authors found an interesting relationship with religious taboos. Beside prohibited food, the n g are also due to transgression of various taboos surrounding birth and breastfeeding and even suggest a religious, rather than

  14. Newborn Physiological Immaturity

    PubMed Central

    Fabrellas-Padrés, Núria; Delgado-Hito, Pilar; Hurtado-Pardos, Bárbara; Martí-Cavallé, Montserrat; Gironès-Nogué, Marta; García-Berman, Rosa-Maria; Alonso-Fernandez, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most standardized nursing care plans for healthy neonates include multiple nursing diagnoses to reflect nurses' judgments on the infant's status; however scientific literature concerning this issue is scarce. Newborn physiological immaturity is a concept in the ATIC terminology (architecture, terminology, interface, information, nursing [infermeria], and knowledge [coneixement]) to represent the natural status of vulnerability of the healthy neonate. Purpose: To identify the essential attributes of the concept and provide its conceptual and operational definition, using the Wilsonian approach. Findings: The concept under analysis embeds a natural cluster of vulnerabilities and environmental interactions that enhance the evolving maturation process. Implications for Practice: The use of this diagnosis may simplify the process of charting the nursing care plans and reduce time needed for documentation while maintaining the integrity of the information. Implications for Research: Consistent development and use of nursing concepts is essential for knowledge building. Studies on the actual use of nursing diagnoses are needed to inform decision making. PMID:25822514

  15. Establishment of Biochemistry Reference Values for Healthy Tanzanian Infants, Children, and Adolescents in Kilimanjaro Region

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Ann M.; Fiorillo, Suzanne P.; Omondi, Michael W.; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Crump, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish common biochemistry reference intervals for Tanzanian infants, children, and adolescents living in the Kilimanjaro Region. Methods We recruited healthy, HIV-uninfected Tanzanian infants, children, and youth between the ages of one month and 17 years from local schools and clinics to participate in this study. Only afebrile children without signs of physical or chronic illness were enrolled. Nonparametric methods were used to determine 95% reference limits and their 90% confidence intervals, with outliers removed by the Tukey method. Results A total of 619 healthy infants, children, and adolescents were enrolled into the study. Twenty-three biochemistry parameters were measured. Compared to U.S. reference intervals, several of the biochemistry parameters showed notable differences; namely, alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, amylase, and lipase. Comparing our data to the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Division of AIDS (DAIDS) grading criteria for classification of adverse events, we found that for select parameters, up to 15% of infants or children in certain age groups would have been categorized as having an adverse event as defined by DAIDS. Conclusions Our study further confirms the need to use locally established reference intervals to define reference laboratory parameters among children in Africa, rather than relying on those derived from U.S. or European populations. To our knowledge, this study provides the first set of locally validated biochemistry reference ranges for a pediatric population in Tanzania. PMID:26224122

  16. Bisferiens peaks in the radial artery pressure wave during patent ductus arteriosus in newborn infants: relationship with ascending aortic flow.

    PubMed

    Gevers, M; van der Mooren, K; Stergiopulos, N; Van Genderingen, H R; Lafeber, H N; Hack, W W; Westerhof, N

    1996-07-01

    Previously, we found evidence that bisferiens peaks in the radial artery pressure wave in the newborn infant may suggest the presence of a left-to-right shunt through a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The purpose of the present study was to analyze the origin of this pulsus bisferiens. Starting from the assumption that the radial artery pressure wave form is similar to the aortic pressure wave form, as described previously, we attempted to explain the bisferiens peaks on the basis of echocardiographically obtained ascending aortic flow. We studied 11 preterm mechanically ventilated infants with a left-to-right shunt through a PDA and 7 without. Aortic volume flow was established echocardiographically, and radial artery blood pressure measurement was performed with a high fidelity cathetermanometer system. Ascending aortic peak flow during PDA was significantly higher in the case of PDA, compared with the case without PDA. An augmented peak flow with an abrupt decline after the high peak in PDA, resulting in a sharp pressure peak with a steep decline after the peak, was thought to explain the first sharp peak of pulsus bisferiens. An abrupt decline of flow after peak flow is thought to be due to the fast runoff of blood through the ductus. According to the pulsatile pressure dynamics theories, which state that pressure wave forms consist of forward and backward wave forms, the second peak of the pulsus bisferiens can be explained by the return of the reflected (backward) wave form when the forward wave form has already considerably decreased. We conclude that the bisferiens peaks found in PDA result from a combination of large stroke volume (augmented first peak) and large runoff (quick decline of the forward wave) before the return of the reflected wave.

  17. Fever in healthy asymptomatic newborns during the first days of life

    PubMed Central

    Maayan-Metzger, A; Mazkereth, R; Kuint, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the characteristics of febrile full term infants during the first days of life, and to discover the rate of serious bacterial infections among low risk neonates with systemic fever. Design: A retrospective case-control study of 122 cases and 122 controls in a single institution. Results: Weight loss, breast feeding, caesarean section delivery, and high birth weight were found to be the most significant predictors of developing fever during the first days of life. Of the 122 patients in the study group, only one had a serious bacterial infection (a positive urine culture for group B streptococcus). Conclusions: In low risk full term infants, fever with no other symptoms during the first days of life (but after the first day) is related primarily to dehydration, breast feeding, caesarean section, and high birth weight. Infection is the least common explanation. PMID:12819164

  18. [Prevention of severe diseases in apparently healthy newborn infants by new neonatal diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Velázquez, A

    1999-02-01

    The benefit of Tamiz Neonatal Ampliado is very high in relation with its cost, which is reasonably low. The Society for Inherited Metabolic Disorders, which is the main association in the world dealing with these diseases, has recently urged the responsible ones for neonatal health, so they increase their programs about Tamiz Neonatal (personal communication), as much as possible; its use should cover all new borns.

  19. Measuring Breathing Rate Variability by a Microprocessor Based Instrument in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Dolcourt, Jack; Younger, Steve

    1984-01-01

    A microprocessor-based instrument was developed to measure apnea (cessation of breathing) of prematurity. This instrument analyzes real-time respiratory data obtrained from either a standard cardiorespiratory monitor or from an end-tidal CO2 analyzer. The time between successive breaths (apneic duration) is computed and recorded. These intervals are displayed as a histogram in real-time on a computer terminal screen. The effects of pharmacologic treatment and nervous system maturation as relating to respiratory instability in premature infants is demonstrated.

  20. A case of cervical esophageal duplication cyst in a newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Shoko; Segawa, Osamu; Kimura, Shuri; Tsuchiya, Masayoshi; Henmi, Nobuhide; Hasegawa, Hisaya; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-01

    Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from a foregut budding error during the fourth to sixth week of embryonic development. Cervical esophageal duplication cysts are very rare and may cause respiratory distress in infancy. A full-term newborn girl who was born by normal delivery was transferred to our hospital because of swelling of the right anterior neck since birth. Cervical ultrasonography showed a 40 × 24 × 33 mm simple cyst on the right neck. Tracheal intubation was required at 2 weeks of age because of worsening external compression of the trachea. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed the existence of ciliated epithelium. At 1 month of age, exploration was performed through a transverse neck incision. The cyst had a layer of muscle connected to the lateral wall of the esophagus. Histopathological diagnosis was a cervical esophageal duplication cyst. We describe the clinical features of infantile cervical esophageal duplication cysts based on our experience of this rare disease in a neonate, along with a review of 19 cases previously reported in literature.

  1. A case of cervical esophageal duplication cyst in a newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Shoko; Segawa, Osamu; Kimura, Shuri; Tsuchiya, Masayoshi; Henmi, Nobuhide; Hasegawa, Hisaya; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-01

    Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from a foregut budding error during the fourth to sixth week of embryonic development. Cervical esophageal duplication cysts are very rare and may cause respiratory distress in infancy. A full-term newborn girl who was born by normal delivery was transferred to our hospital because of swelling of the right anterior neck since birth. Cervical ultrasonography showed a 40 × 24 × 33 mm simple cyst on the right neck. Tracheal intubation was required at 2 weeks of age because of worsening external compression of the trachea. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed the existence of ciliated epithelium. At 1 month of age, exploration was performed through a transverse neck incision. The cyst had a layer of muscle connected to the lateral wall of the esophagus. Histopathological diagnosis was a cervical esophageal duplication cyst. We describe the clinical features of infantile cervical esophageal duplication cysts based on our experience of this rare disease in a neonate, along with a review of 19 cases previously reported in literature. PMID:27037803

  2. Non-invasive gas monitoring in newborn infants using diode laser absorption spectroscopy: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Emilie K.; Cocola, Lorenzo; Lewander, Märta; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Jahr, John; Fellman, Vineta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2012-03-01

    Non-invasive diode laser spectroscopy was, for the first time, used to assess gas content in the intestines and the lungs of a new-born, 4 kg, baby. Two gases, water vapor and oxygen, were studied with two low-power tunable diode lasers, illuminating the surface skin tissue and detecting the diffusely emerging light a few centimeters away. The light, having penetrated into the tissue, had experienced absorption by gas located in the lungs and in the intestines. Very distinct water vapor signals were obtained from the intestines while imprint from oxygen was lacking, as expected. Detectable, but minor, signals of water vapor were also obtained from the lungs, illuminating the armpit area and detecting below the collar bone. Water vapor signals were seen but again oxygen signals were lacking, now due to the difficulties of penetration of the oxygen probing light into the lungs of this full-term baby. Ultra-sound images were obtained both from the lungs and from the stomach of the baby. Based on dimensions and our experimental findings, we conclude, that for early pre-term babies, also oxygen should be detectable in the lungs, in addition to intestine and lung detection of water vapor. The present paper focuses on the studies of the intestines while the lung studies will be covered in a forthcoming paper.

  3. Principles of Antegrade Cerebral Perfusion During Arch Reconstruction in Newborns/Infants

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Charles D.; Andropoulos, Dean B.

    2008-01-01

    Antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) is a cardiopulmonary bypass technique that uses special cannulation procedures to perfuse only the brain during neonatal and infant aortic arch reconstruction. It is used in lieu of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), and thus has the theoretical advantage of protecting the brain from hypoxic ischemic injury. Despite this, recent comparative studies have demonstrated no difference in neurodevelopmental outcomes with ACP vs. DHCA for neonatal arch repair. This article presents animal and human data demonstrating that ACP flows less than 30 ml/kg/min are inadequate for many patients, and may be the explanation for lack of outcome difference vs. DHCA. A technique for ACP, its physiologic basis, and a neuromonitoring strategy are presented, and then the results of an outcome study are reviewed demonstrating that with ACP technique at higher flows of 50–80 ml/kg/min guided by neuromonitoring, periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is eliminated on postoperative brain MRI after neonatal cardiac surgery. PMID:18396227

  4. A laminar flow unit for the care of critically ill newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Jose MR; Golombek, Sergio G; Fajardo, Carlos; Sola, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Medical and nursing care of newborns is predicated on the delicate control and balance of several vital parameters. Closed incubators and open radiant warmers are the most widely used devices for the care of neonates in intensive care; however, several well-known limitations of these devises have not been resolved. The use of laminar flow is widely used in many fields of medicine, and may have applications in neonatal care. Objective To describe the neonatal laminar flow unit, a new equipment we designed for care of ill newborns. Methods The idea, design, and development of this device was completed in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The unit is an open mobile bed designed with the objective of maintaining the advantages of the incubator and radiant warmer, while overcoming some of their inherent shortcomings; these shortcomings include noise, magnetic fields and acrylic barriers in incubators, and lack of isolation and water loss through skin in radiant warmers. The unit has a pump that aspirates environmental air which is warmed by electrical resistance and decontaminated with High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter (HEPA) filters (laminar flow). The flow is directed by an air flow directioner. The unit has an embedded humidifier to increase humidity in the infant’s microenvironment and a servo control mechanism for regulation of skin temperature. Results The laminar flow unit is open and facilitates access of care providers and family, which is not the case in incubators. It provides warming by convection at an air velocity of 0.45 m/s, much faster than an incubator (0.1 m/s). The system provides isolation 1000 class (less than 1,000 particles higher than 0.3 micron per cubic feet at all times). This is much more protection than an incubator provides and more than radiant warmers, which have no isolation whatsoever. Additionally, it provides humidification of the newborn’s microenvironment (about 60% relative humidity), which is impossible with a radiant

  5. Cardiac troponin I in healthy newborn goat kids and in goat kids with cardiac nutritional muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; El-Sayed, Mehana

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to establish serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations in healthy newborn goat kids and in those with cardiac nutritional muscular dystrophy (NMD). Thirty-five single full-term newborn goat kids (20 males and 15 females; age: 6.1 ± 3.5 h; weight 3.4 ± 0.68 kg), together with their respective mothers (Group 1; G1) were enrolled consecutively. Thirty-one goat kids (age: 9.5 ± 4.3 days) with NMD, together with 20 control goat kids (age: 7.8 ± 4.3 days) were also included in this study (Group 2; G2). Blood samples were collected from G1 within 12 h of birth and from G2 on admission. Serum samples were collected and analysed for cTnI. In G1, the mean serum concentration of cTnI in goat kids was 0.290 ± 0.37 ng/mL, with no statistically significant difference between male and female kids (P = 0.61). The mean cTnI concentration in the does was 0.017 ± 0.04, ng/mL. Serum values of cTnI in the goat kids and in their respective mothers differed significantly (P = 0.0001). In G2, the mean cTnI concentration was 0.02 ± 0.05 ng/mL in the control and 11.18 ± 20.07 ng/mL in the diseased goat kids, with a statistically significant difference between diseased and control goat kids (P = 0.017). Serum concentrations of cTnI are higher in goat kids than in their respective mothers. In conclusion, the cTnI assay appears to be a sensitive and specific marker for myocardial injury in goat kids.

  6. Newborn and Four-Week Retest on a Normative Population Using the Brazelton Newborn Assessment Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Frances Degan; And Others

    A survey of assessment procedures of the newborn and of the infant during the first month of life was conducted; the survey indicated that there were instruments for evaluating the newborn and for evaluating the four-week-old infant, but there was no single procedure which included an evaluation of both the newborn and the four-week-old infant.…

  7. Slow weight gain is associated with increased periodic breathing in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Riordan, L L; Kelly, D H; Shannon, D C

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that weight gain can influence periodic breathing in healthy infants, we prospectively studied, by nocturnal pneumogram technique, respiration and heart rate in 99 full-term infants during the first month of life. Eighty-eight infants had a repeat study at about 2 months of age. Pneumograms were analyzed visually for percent periodic breathing (%PB), and by computer for mean respiratory rate and mean heart rate. We found a median %PB of 0.9 initially and of 0.3 at about 2 months of age. The 95th percentile was 13.5 at 2 weeks and 7.3 at 2 months, higher than previously reported. Between the two ages tested, %PB was inversely correlated with weight gain (P < 0.001, < 0.03, respectively). Infants with greater weight gain had a greater fall in %PB (P < 0.03). We conclude that in the first 2 months of life, slow weight gain is associated with increased periodic breathing.

  8. [Maltodextrin in a 13% solution as a supplement in the first 4 days of life in breast-fed mature newborn infants. Effect on drinking behavior, weight curve, blood picture, blood glucose and bilirubin].

    PubMed

    Rosegger, H

    1986-05-16

    200 mature healthy newborn infants (birthweight 3382 +/- 377 g) were randomly divided into 2 groups of 100 each: all were breast fed according to the guidelines recommended by 'La Leche League'. If possible breast feeding was commenced in the delivery room. When breast feeds did not suffice infants of group A were supplemented ad libitum with a fully adapted formula (67 kcal/dl), those of group B with a 13% maltodextrine solution (52 kcal, 160 mOsm/l). Total fluid intake was similar in both groups. Group A took less supplementary feeds on day 2, the caloric uptake, however, was not different from that of group B. On day 4 group A had a somewhat higher caloric uptake due to supplementation, whereas group B needed less supplementation but had a higher intake of breast milk. On day 5 all babies were entirely breast fed. No supplementation was handed over to the mothers for at home use. The frequency of breast meals and supplementary meals was almost equal for both groups, as were sucking activity, appetite and degree of saturation. 18.6% of the infants in both groups had no need for any supplementary feeding at all. Temperature, stools, weight loss, blood glucose and bilirubin (taken on day 4 simultaneously with the Guthrie test) were almost identical. The red blood cell count showed slightly higher values in group A. Supplementation with fully adapted formula was not advantageous over supplementation with 13% maltodextrine solution. The latter was, indeed, tolerated well in all cases and satisfied all infants who remained hungry after being breast fed; additional early exposure to cow-milk protein was, thus, avoided in all these cases.

  9. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model for Gentamicin and Its Adaptive Resistance with Predictions of Dosing Schedules in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Elisabet I.; Cars, Otto; Friberg, Lena E.

    2012-01-01

    Gentamicin is commonly used in the management of neonatal infections. Development of adaptive resistance is typical for aminoglycosides and reduces the antibacterial effect. There is, however, a lack of understanding of how this phenomenon influences the effect of different dosing schedules. The aim was to develop a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model that describes the time course of the bactericidal activity of gentamicin and its adaptive resistance and to investigate different dosing schedules in preterm and term newborn infants based on the developed model. In vitro time-kill curve experiments were conducted on a strain of Escherichia coli (MIC of 2 mg/liter). The gentamicin exposure was either constant (0.125 to 16 mg/liter) or dynamic (simulated concentration-time profiles in a kinetic system with peak concentrations of 2.0, 3.9, 7.8, and 16 mg/liter given as single doses or as repeated doses every 6, 12, or 24 h). Semimechanistic PKPD models were fitted to the bacterial counts in the NONMEM (nonlinear mixed effects modeling) program. A model with compartments for growing and resting bacteria, with a function allowing the maximal bacterial killing of gentamicin to reduce with exposure, characterized both the fast bactericidal effect and the adaptive resistance. Despite a lower peak concentration, preterm neonates were predicted to have a higher bacterial killing effect than term neonates for the same per-kg dose because of gentamicin's longer half-life. The model supported an extended dosing interval of gentamicin in preterm neonates, and for all neonates, dosing intervals of 36 to 48 h were as effective as a 24-h dosing interval for the same total dose. PMID:22037853

  10. Respiratory inductance plethysmography in healthy infants: a comparison of three calibration methods.

    PubMed

    Poole, K A; Thompson, J R; Hallinan, H M; Beardsmore, C S

    2000-12-01

    Respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) measures respiration from body surface movements. Various techniques have been proposed for calibration in order that RIP may be used quantitatively. These include calculation of the proportionality constant of ribcage to abdominal volume change (K). The aims of this study were to 1) establish whether a fixed value of K could be used for calibration, and 2) compare this technique with multiple linear regression (MLR) and qualitative diagnostic calibration (QDC) in normal healthy infants. Recordings of pneumotachograph (PNT) flow and RIP were made during quiet (QS) and active sleep (AS) in 12 infants. The first 5 min in a sleep state were used to calculate calibration factors, which were applied to subsequent validation data. The absolute percentage error between RIP and PNT tidal volumes was calculated. The percentage error was similar over a wide range of K during QS. However, K became more critical when breathing was out of phase. A standard for K of 0.5 was chosen. There was good agreement between calibration methods during QS and AS. In the first minute following calibration during QS, the mean absolute errors were 3.5, 4.1 and 5.3% for MLR, QDC and fixed K respectively. The equivalent errors in AS were 11.5, 13.1 and 13.7% respectively. The simple fixed ratio method can be used to measure tidal volume with similar accuracy to multiple linear regression and qualitative diagnostic calibration in healthy unsedated sleeping infants, although it remains to be validated in other groups of infants, such as those with respiratory disease.

  11. Home visits by community health workers to improve identification of serious illness and care seeking in newborns and young infants from low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, A; Kabra, S K; Sachdev, H P S; Lodha, R

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effect of home visits by trained community health workers (CHWs) to successfully identify newborns and young infants (up to 59 days of age) with serious illness and improve care seeking from a health facility. The authors searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and EMBASE. Abstracts of all articles were read by two authors independently and relevant articles selected. Data were extracted in a pretested questionnaire by two authors independently. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager software. A meta-analysis of included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was carried out. Pooled estimates (risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)) of the evaluated outcome measures were calculated by the generic inverse variance method. Seven articles were identified for inclusion in the review. None of them compared the diagnosis of serious illness in young infants by health workers to a ‘gold standard' diagnosis. Three studies were available for evaluating the ability of CHWs to identify seriously ill young infants/signs of serious illness. These studies suggest that sensitivity to identify serious illness ranged from 33.3 to 90.5% and specificity from 75.61 to 98.4%. For the outcome of improved care seeking from a health facility, after pooling the data from six RCTs with 4760 subjects in the intervention and 4398 subjects in the control arm, there was a significant improvement in care seeking in the home visit arm (RR=1.35; 95% CI=1.15 to 1.58). Moderate quality evidence indicated that home visits by trained CHWs were associated with improved care-seeking for sick young infants from health facilities by appropriate health care providers in resource-limited settings. However, there is a lack of data regarding successful identification of serious illness. Evidence from validation studies supports the implementation of home visits by trained CHWs for improving outcomes

  12. Home visits by community health workers to improve identification of serious illness and care seeking in newborns and young infants from low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, A; Kabra, S K; Sachdev, H P S; Lodha, R

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effect of home visits by trained community health workers (CHWs) to successfully identify newborns and young infants (up to 59 days of age) with serious illness and improve care seeking from a health facility. The authors searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and EMBASE. Abstracts of all articles were read by two authors independently and relevant articles selected. Data were extracted in a pretested questionnaire by two authors independently. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager software. A meta-analysis of included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was carried out. Pooled estimates (risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)) of the evaluated outcome measures were calculated by the generic inverse variance method. Seven articles were identified for inclusion in the review. None of them compared the diagnosis of serious illness in young infants by health workers to a 'gold standard' diagnosis. Three studies were available for evaluating the ability of CHWs to identify seriously ill young infants/signs of serious illness. These studies suggest that sensitivity to identify serious illness ranged from 33.3 to 90.5% and specificity from 75.61 to 98.4%. For the outcome of improved care seeking from a health facility, after pooling the data from six RCTs with 4760 subjects in the intervention and 4398 subjects in the control arm, there was a significant improvement in care seeking in the home visit arm (RR=1.35; 95% CI=1.15 to 1.58). Moderate quality evidence indicated that home visits by trained CHWs were associated with improved care-seeking for sick young infants from health facilities by appropriate health care providers in resource-limited settings. However, there is a lack of data regarding successful identification of serious illness. Evidence from validation studies supports the implementation of home visits by trained CHWs for improving outcomes in

  13. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study: examining developmental origins of allergy and asthma.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, Padmaja; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R; Denburg, Judah A; HayGlass, Kent T; Kobor, Michael S; Kollmann, Tobias R; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lou, W Y Wendy; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Miller, Gregory E; Moraes, Theo J; Pare, Peter D; Scott, James A; Takaro, Tim K; Turvey, Stuart E; Duncan, Joanne M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-10-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study recruited 3624 pregnant women, most partners and 3542 eligible offspring. We hypothesise that early life physical and psychosocial environments, immunological, physiological, nutritional, hormonal and metabolic influences interact with genetics influencing allergic diseases, including asthma. Environmental and biological sampling, innate and adaptive immune responses, gene expression, DNA methylation, gut microbiome and nutrition studies complement repeated environmental and clinical assessments to age 5. This rich data set, linking prenatal and postnatal environments, diverse biological samples and rigorous phenotyping, will inform early developmental pathways to allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory diseases.

  14. [Management of the most frequent functional gastrointestinal dis orders in healthy infants].

    PubMed

    Toca, María del C; Sosa, Patricia; Aprigliano, Gustavo; Furnes, Raquel; Marchisone, Silvia; Mora, Mabel; Orsi, Marina; Saieg, Graciela; Tabacco, Omar; Wagener, Marta

    2015-12-01

    Healthy infants during the first year of life often have multiple functional gastrointestinal symptoms such as colic, regurgitation and constipation. The usual fuzziness and/or crying at this stage of life is interpreted as digestive discomfort or pain, and the corresponding concerns result in unsuitable behaviors as overeating, interruption of breastfeeding, multiple changes of formulas, innumerable queries and unnecessary medications. The aim of this paper is to update knowledge on the pathophysiology of the most common functional gastrointestinal dis orders, in order to avoid over diagnosis and select the most appropriate therapeutic approach and convenient nutritional interventions.

  15. [Management of the most frequent functional gastrointestinal dis orders in healthy infants].

    PubMed

    Toca, María del C; Sosa, Patricia; Aprigliano, Gustavo; Furnes, Raquel; Marchisone, Silvia; Mora, Mabel; Orsi, Marina; Saieg, Graciela; Tabacco, Omar; Wagener, Marta

    2015-12-01

    Healthy infants during the first year of life often have multiple functional gastrointestinal symptoms such as colic, regurgitation and constipation. The usual fuzziness and/or crying at this stage of life is interpreted as digestive discomfort or pain, and the corresponding concerns result in unsuitable behaviors as overeating, interruption of breastfeeding, multiple changes of formulas, innumerable queries and unnecessary medications. The aim of this paper is to update knowledge on the pathophysiology of the most common functional gastrointestinal dis orders, in order to avoid over diagnosis and select the most appropriate therapeutic approach and convenient nutritional interventions. PMID:26593804

  16. Inter-society consensus document on treatment and prevention of bronchiolitis in newborns and infants.

    PubMed

    Baraldi, Eugenio; Lanari, Marcello; Manzoni, Paolo; Rossi, Giovanni A; Vandini, Silvia; Rimini, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Costantino; Colonna, Pierluigi; Biondi, Andrea; Biban, Paolo; Chiamenti, Giampietro; Bernardini, Roberto; Picca, Marina; Cappa, Marco; Magazzù, Giuseppe; Catassi, Carlo; Urbino, Antonio Francesco; Memo, Luigi; Donzelli, Gianpaolo; Minetti, Carlo; Paravati, Francesco; Di Mauro, Giuseppe; Festini, Filippo; Esposito, Susanna; Corsello, Giovanni

    2014-10-24

    Acute bronchiolitis is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection and hospitalization in children less than 1 year of age worldwide. It is usually a mild disease, but some children may develop severe symptoms, requiring hospital admission and ventilatory support in the ICU. Infants with pre-existing risk factors (prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart diseases and immunodeficiency) may be predisposed to a severe form of the disease. Clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis is manly based on medical history and physical examination (rhinorrhea, cough, crackles, wheezing and signs of respiratory distress). Etiological diagnosis, with antigen or genome detection to identify viruses involved, may have a role in reducing hospital transmission of the infection. Criteria for hospitalization include low oxygen saturation (<90-92%), moderate-to-severe respiratory distress, dehydration and presence of apnea. Children with pre-existing risk factors should be carefully assessed.To date, there is no specific treatment for viral bronchiolitis, and the mainstay of therapy is supportive care. This consists of nasal suctioning and nebulized 3% hypertonic saline, assisted feeding and hydration, humidified O2 delivery. The possible role of any pharmacological approach is still debated, and till now there is no evidence to support the use of bronchodilators, corticosteroids, chest physiotherapy, antibiotics or antivirals. Nebulized adrenaline may be sometimes useful in the emergency room. Nebulized adrenaline can be useful in the hospital setting for treatment as needed. Lacking a specific etiological treatment, prophylaxis and prevention, especially in children at high risk of severe infection, have a fundamental role. Environmental preventive measures minimize viral transmission in hospital, in the outpatient setting and at home. Pharmacological prophylaxis with palivizumab for RSV bronchiolitis is indicated in specific categories of children at risk during

  17. The effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on infants' response to the Still Face Task from newborn to three months of age.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Ann E; Power, Michelle

    2012-04-01

    The effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on infants' developing social expectations for maternal behavior was investigated longitudinally over infants' first 3 months. Infants with and without skin-to-skin contact engaged with their mothers in the Still Face Task at ages 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months. Infants with skin-to-skin contact began responding to changes in their mothers' behavior with their affect at 1 month; infants without skin-to-skin contact did so at 2 months. At 3 months, infants with skin-to-skin contact increased their non-distress vocalizations during the still face phase, suggesting social bidding to their mothers. Skin-to-skin contact accelerated infants' social expectations for their mothers' behavior and enhanced infants' awareness of themselves as active agents in social interactions.

  18. [Arterial blood pressure measurement with oscillometric instruments in newborns and infants].

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, G; Oldörp, B; Mieke, S

    1994-07-01

    is therefore often impossible. The standard deviation, taken from 20 measurements per monitor and simulation, is below 4 mmHg for both simulators. We can therefore conclude that the reproducibility of data is satisfactory and the emerging trend is reliable. DISCUSSION. The difference between the results of the PTB simulator and the CuffLink are probably due to the method of evaluation and the identification of artifacts of each blood pressure monitor. This is also confirmed by the studies of Mieke et al. The manufacturers should provide devices that display comparative results and improve the algorithms for detection of artefacts, increasing the accuracy of their blood pressure monitors. This could be done with the help of simulators. Considering the pathophysiological characteristics of neonates and infants, the systematic differences between the five monitors have to be regarded as serious.

  19. Newborn length predicts early infant linear growth retardation and disproportionately high weight gain in a low-income population1-2

    PubMed Central

    Berngard, S Clark; Berngard, Jennifer Bishop; Krebs, Nancy F; Garcés, Ana; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie; Wright, Linda L; Kindem, Mark; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Stunting is prevalent by the age of 6 mo in the indigenous population of the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Aim The objective of this study was to determine the time course and predictors of linear growth failure and weight-for-age in early infancy. Study Design and Subjects One hundred and forty eight term newborns had measurements of length and weight in their homes, repeated at 3 and 6 mo. Maternal measurements were also obtained. Results Mean ± SD length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) declined from newborn -1.0 (1.01) to -2.20 (1.05) and -2.26 (1.01) at 3 and 6 mo respectively. Stunting rates for newborn, 3 and 6 mo were 47%, 53% and 56% respectively. A multiple regression model (R2 = 0.64) demonstrated that the major predictor of LAZ at 3 mo was newborn LAZ with the other predictors being newborn weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), gender and maternal education*maternal age interaction. Because WAZ remained essentially constant and LAZ declined during the same period, weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) increased from -0.44 to +1.28 from birth to 3 mo. The more severe the linear growth failure, the greater WAZ was in proportion to the LAZ. Conclusion The primary conclusion is that impaired fetal linear growth is the major predictor of early infant linear growth failure indicating that prevention needs to start with maternal interventions. PMID:24083893

  20. Catch up growth in low birth weight infants: striking a healthy balance.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vandana; Singhal, Atul

    2012-06-01

    Catch-up growth in the first few months of life is seen almost ubiquitously in infants born small for their gestational age and conventionally considered highly desirable as it erases the growth deficit. However, recently such growth has been linked to an increased risk of later adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in both low income and high-income countries. In India, a third of all babies are born with a low birth weight, but the optimal growth pattern for such infants is uncertain. As a response to the high rates of infectious morbidities, undernutrition and stunting in children, the current policy is to promote rapid growth in infancy. However, with socio-economic transition and urbanization making the Indian environment more obesogenic, and the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, affecting progressively younger population, the long term adverse programming effect of fast/excessive weight gain in infancy on later body composition and metabolism may outweigh short-term benefits. This review discusses the above issues focusing on the need to strike a healthy balance between the risks and benefits of catch-up growth in Indian infants.

  1. Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from the feces of healthy infants against enteropathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Davoodabadi, Abolfazl; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Douraghi, Masoumeh; Sharifi Yazdi, Mohammad Kazem; Amin Harati, Farzaneh

    2015-08-01

    Lactobacilli are normal microflora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and are a heterogeneous group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus strains with Probiotic activity may have health Benefits for human. This study investigates the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains obtained from the feces of healthy infants and also explores antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus strains with probiotic potential against enteropathogenic bacteria. Fecal samples were collected from 95 healthy infants younger than 18 months. Two hundred and ninety Lactobacillus strains were isolated and assessed for probiotic potential properties including ability to survive in gastrointestinal conditions (pH 2.0, 0.3% oxgall), adherence to HT-29 cells and antibiotic resistance. Six strains including Lactobacillus fermentum (4 strains), Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum showed good probiotic potential and inhibited the growth of enteropathogenic bacteria including ETEC H10407, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Shigella sonnei ATCC 9290, Salmonella enteritidis H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 23715. These Lactobacillus strains with probiotic potential may be useful for prevention or treatment of diarrhea, but further in vitro and in vivo studies on these strains are still required.

  2. Commentary on a Cochrane Review of Early Additional Food and Fluids for Healthy Breastfed Full-Term Infants.

    PubMed

    Maslin, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life. A Cochrane Review assessed the benefits and harms of additional foods and fluids for full-term healthy breastfed infants. The review included randomized or quasirandomized controlled trials of full-term healthy breastfed infants up to the age of 6 months. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Trials from early days after birth did not indicate that giving additional fluids was beneficial. Trials with 4- to 6-month-old infants did not indicate any benefit to supplementing with food at 4 months. This review did not find any evidence for disagreement with the recommendation that exclusive breastfeeding should be recommended for 6 months after birth.

  3. Commentary on a Cochrane Review of Early Additional Food and Fluids for Healthy Breastfed Full-Term Infants.

    PubMed

    Maslin, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life. A Cochrane Review assessed the benefits and harms of additional foods and fluids for full-term healthy breastfed infants. The review included randomized or quasirandomized controlled trials of full-term healthy breastfed infants up to the age of 6 months. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Trials from early days after birth did not indicate that giving additional fluids was beneficial. Trials with 4- to 6-month-old infants did not indicate any benefit to supplementing with food at 4 months. This review did not find any evidence for disagreement with the recommendation that exclusive breastfeeding should be recommended for 6 months after birth. PMID:27520599

  4. Transepidermal water loss in newborn infants. I. Relation to ambient humidity and site of measurement and estimation of total transepidermal water loss.

    PubMed

    Hammarl-nd, K; Nilsson, G E; Oberg, P A; Sedin, G

    1977-09-01

    Insensible water loss (IWL) is an important factor in the thermoregulation and water balance of the newborn infant. A method for direct measurement of the rate of evaporation from the skin surface has been developed. The method, which is based on determination of the vapour pressure gradient close to the skin surface, allows free evaporation. From measurements performed on 19 newborns placed in incubators, a linear relation was found between the evaporation rate (ER) and the humidity of the environment at a constant ambient temperature. A 40% lower ER was recorded at a high relative humidity (60%) than at a low one (20%) in the incubator. At measurements on different sites of the body, a high ER was observed on the face and peripheral parts of the extremities, while ER at other sites was relatively low. By determining ER from different parts of the body and calculating the areas of the corresponding surfaces, the total cutaneous insensible water loss for the infant in question could be obtained. The transepidermal water loss (TEWL) for the whole body surface area was calculated to be 8.1 g/m2h. On the basis of measurements performed it was found that the total cutaneous insensible water loss can be estimated with a reasonable degree of accuracy by recording ER from only three easily accessible measurement points.

  5. Anxiety levels of mothers with newborns in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Mizrak, Berrak; Deniz, Ayse Ozge; Acikgoz, Ayfer

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the anxiety levels of mothers with newborns in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and mothers with healthy newborns in a postpartum care service (PCS). Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in state and medical school hospitals located in Eskisehir and Afyon, Turkey. The first 200 mothers, including mothers with newborns in a PCS (n=100) and mothers with newborns in a NICU (n=100); participants were followed starting March 1, 2014. Questionnaires to determine the characteristics of mothers and newborns were used as data collection tools, including the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Scale (STAI TX-1 – STAI TX-2). Results: Trait anxiety levels were not significantly different between mothers with newborns in the NICU and mothers with newborns in PCS (t=0.588, p=0.557), whereas state anxiety levels were significantly different between the two groups (t=-5.109, p=<0.001). The state anxiety levels of mothers whose infants were in the NICU were determined to be higher compared to those of mothers whose infants were in PCS. Conclusion: Being a mother of a sick newborn can elevate anxiety and lead to in mothers. During this challenging time, the support of nurses can increase mothers’ abilities to cope with the stress of a sick newborn. PMID:26649009

  6. Skin Barrier Function and Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Vestibulum Nasi and Fauces in Healthy Infants and Infants with Eczema: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Berents, Teresa Løvold; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup; Mowinckel, Petter; Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Kvenshagen, Bente; Rolfsjord, Leif Bjarte; Bradley, Maria; Lieden, Agne; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Gaustad, Peter; Gjersvik, Petter

    2015-01-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is associated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization and skin barrier dysfunction, often measured by increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL). In the present study, the primary aim was to see whether S. aureus colonization in the vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was associated with increased TEWL in infants with healthy skin and infants with eczema. Secondarily, we aimed to investigate whether TEWL measurements on non-lesional skin on the lateral upper arm is equivalent to volar forearm in infants. In 167 of 240 infants, recruited from the general population, TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm, using a DermaLab USB, fulfilled our environmental requirements. The mean of three TEWL measurements from each site was used for analysis. The infants were diagnosed with no eczema (n = 110), possible AE (n = 28) or AE (n = 29). DNA samples were analysed for mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG). Bacterial cultures were reported positive with the identification of at least one culture with S. aureus from vestibulum nasi and/or fauces. S. aureus colonization, found in 89 infants (53%), was not associated with increased TEWL (i.e. TEWL in the upper quartile), neither on the lateral upper arm or volar forearm (p = 0.08 and p = 0.98, respectively), nor with AE (p = 0.10) or FLG mutation (p = 0.17). TEWL was significantly higher on both measuring sites in infants with AE compared to infants with possible AE and no eczema. FLG mutation was significantly associated with increased TEWL, with a 47% difference in TEWL. We conclude that S. aureus in vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was not associated with TEWL, whereas TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm appear equally appropriate in infants.

  7. Skin Barrier Function and Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Vestibulum Nasi and Fauces in Healthy Infants and Infants with Eczema: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Berents, Teresa Løvold; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup; Mowinckel, Petter; Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Kvenshagen, Bente; Rolfsjord, Leif Bjarte; Bradley, Maria; Lieden, Agne; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Gaustad, Peter; Gjersvik, Petter

    2015-01-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is associated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization and skin barrier dysfunction, often measured by increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL). In the present study, the primary aim was to see whether S. aureus colonization in the vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was associated with increased TEWL in infants with healthy skin and infants with eczema. Secondarily, we aimed to investigate whether TEWL measurements on non-lesional skin on the lateral upper arm is equivalent to volar forearm in infants. In 167 of 240 infants, recruited from the general population, TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm, using a DermaLab USB, fulfilled our environmental requirements. The mean of three TEWL measurements from each site was used for analysis. The infants were diagnosed with no eczema (n = 110), possible AE (n = 28) or AE (n = 29). DNA samples were analysed for mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG). Bacterial cultures were reported positive with the identification of at least one culture with S. aureus from vestibulum nasi and/or fauces. S. aureus colonization, found in 89 infants (53%), was not associated with increased TEWL (i.e. TEWL in the upper quartile), neither on the lateral upper arm or volar forearm (p = 0.08 and p = 0.98, respectively), nor with AE (p = 0.10) or FLG mutation (p = 0.17). TEWL was significantly higher on both measuring sites in infants with AE compared to infants with possible AE and no eczema. FLG mutation was significantly associated with increased TEWL, with a 47% difference in TEWL. We conclude that S. aureus in vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was not associated with TEWL, whereas TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm appear equally appropriate in infants. PMID:26070153

  8. The early development of brain white matter: a review of imaging studies in fetuses, newborns and infants.

    PubMed

    Dubois, J; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Kulikova, S; Poupon, C; Hüppi, P S; Hertz-Pannier, L

    2014-09-12

    Studying how the healthy human brain develops is important to understand early pathological mechanisms and to assess the influence of fetal or perinatal events on later life. Brain development relies on complex and intermingled mechanisms especially during gestation and first post-natal months, with intense interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Although the baby's brain is organized early on, it is not a miniature adult brain: regional brain changes are asynchronous and protracted, i.e. sensory-motor regions develop early and quickly, whereas associative regions develop later and slowly over decades. Concurrently, the infant/child gradually achieves new performances, but how brain maturation relates to changes in behavior is poorly understood, requiring non-invasive in vivo imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two main processes of early white matter development are reviewed: (1) establishment of connections between brain regions within functional networks, leading to adult-like organization during the last trimester of gestation, (2) maturation (myelination) of these connections during infancy to provide efficient transfers of information. Current knowledge from post-mortem descriptions and in vivo MRI studies is summed up, focusing on T1- and T2-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and quantitative mapping of T1/T2 relaxation times, myelin water fraction and magnetization transfer ratio.

  9. School Age Effects of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program for Medically Low-Risk Preterm Infants: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    McAnulty, Gloria; Duffy, Frank H.; Kosta, Sandra; Weisenfeld, Neil I.; Warfield, Simon K.; Butler, Samantha C.; Bernstein, Jane Holmes; Zurakowski, David; Als, Heidelise

    2012-01-01

    Background: By school-age, even low-risk moderately preterm-born children show more neuro-cognitive deficits, motor impairments, academic underachievement, behavioral problems, and poor social adaptation than full-term peers. Aim: To evaluate the outcomes at school-age for moderately preterm-born children (29-33 weeks gestational age), appropriate in growth for gestational age (AGA) and medically at low-risk, randomized to Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) or standard care in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit. At school-age, the experimental (E) group will show better neuropsychological and neuro-electrophysiological function, as well as improved brain structure than the control (C) group. Materials and Methods: The original sample consisted of 30 moderately preterm-born infants (29 to 33 weeks), 23 (8C and 15E) of them were evaluated at 8 years of age, corrected-for-prematurity with neuropsychological, EEG spectral coherence, and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) measures. Results: E-performed significantly better than C-group children on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II) and trended towards better scores on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. They also showed more mature frontal and parietal brain connectivities, and more mature fiber tracts involving the internal capsule and the cingulum. Neurobehavioral results in the newborn period successfully predicted neuropsychological functioning at 8 years corrected age. Conclusion: Moderately preterm infants cared for with the NIDCAP intervention showed improved neuropsychological and neuro-electrophysiological function as well as improved brain structure at school-age. PMID:23951557

  10. Infant and Newborn Development

    MedlinePlus

    When will my baby take his first step or say her first word? During their first year, babies start to develop skills they will use for ... rest of their lives. The normal growth of babies can be broken down into the following areas: ...

  11. Newborn Pain Cries and Vagal Tone: Parallel Changes in Response to Circumcision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Fran Lang; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The relation between cry acoustics and vagal tone in normal, healthy newborns undergoing an acutely stressful event was examined. Vagal tone was significantly reduced during the stressful event and was paralleled by significant increases in the pitch of the infants' cries. (PCB)

  12. Spontaneous Perforation of Colon in Previously Healthy Infants and Children: Its Clinical Implication

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Hae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Spontaneous colon perforations are usually encountered as necrotizing enterocolitis in the neonatal period, but occur rarely in infants and children without pathological conditions. This study was conducted to describe its clinical implication beyond the neonatal period. Methods Cases of spontaneous colon perforation confirmed after the operation were reviewed retrospectively and the clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. Clinical data were compared according to the presence of pneumoperitoneum as initial findings. Results Eleven patients were included in the study period and showed a history of hospitalization before transfer due to management for fever, respiratory or gastrointestinal problems. Six patients showed a sudden onset of abdominal distention and only seven patients showed a pneumoperitoneum as initial radiologic findings, however there were no significant clinicopathological differences. Perforation was found evenly in all segments of the colon, most commonly at the sigmoid colon in four cases. There were no specific pathologic or serologic causes of perforation. Conclusion When previously healthy infants and children manifest a sustained fever with a sudden onset of abdominal distention during management for fever associated with respiratory or gastrointestinal problems, there is a great likelihood of colon perforation with no pathological condition. Prompt surgical management as timely decision-making is necessary in order to achieve a good progress. PMID:27738601

  13. Considerations in Using US-Based Laboratory Toxicity Tables to Evaluate Laboratory Toxicities Among Healthy Malawian and Ugandan Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lubega, Irene R.; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Musoke, Philippa M.; Elbireer, Ali; Bagenda, Danstan; Kafulafula, George; Ko, Jeanne; Mipando, Linda; Mubiru, Mike; Kumwenda, Newton; Taha, Taha; Jackson, J. Brooks; Guay, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine normal hematologic and selected blood chemistry values among healthy, full-term, non–HIV-exposed infants in Uganda and Malawi, and to determine the proportion of healthy babies with an apparent laboratory toxicity based on Division of AIDS toxicity tables. Design This was a cross-sectional laboratory study of infants from birth to 6 months of age. Methods Blood samples were collected from a total of 561 infants and analyzed according to age categories similar to those in the 2004 Division of AIDS toxicity tables. Select chemistry and hematology parameters were determined and values compared with those in the toxicity tables. Results In the first 56 days of life, there were few graded toxicities except for neutropenia in 2 of 10 (20%) Ugandan and 13 of 45 (29%) Malawian infants at birth. After 7 days, about 20% of the infants in Uganda and Malawi would have been classified as having a neutropenia whereas 47% and 53% of those more than 2 months of age in Uganda and Malawi respectively, would have been reported as having an abnormal hemoglobin. Chemistry findings were not different from US norms. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of establishing relevant local laboratory norms for infants. PMID:20588184

  14. A cluster randomised controlled trial of the community effectiveness of two interventions in rural Malawi to improve health care and to reduce maternal, newborn and infant mortality

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The UN Millennium Development Goals call for substantial reductions in maternal and child mortality, to be achieved through reductions in morbidity and mortality during pregnancy, delivery, postpartum and early childhood. The MaiMwana Project aims to test community-based interventions that tackle maternal and child health problems through increasing awareness and local action. Methods/Design This study uses a two-by-two factorial cluster-randomised controlled trial design to test the impact of two interventions. The impact of a community mobilisation intervention run through women's groups, on home care, health care-seeking behaviours and maternal and infant mortality, will be tested. The impact of a volunteer-led infant feeding and care support intervention, on rates of exclusive breastfeeding, uptake of HIV-prevention services and infant mortality, will also be tested. The women's group intervention will employ local female facilitators to guide women's groups through a four-phase cycle of problem identification and prioritisation, strategy identification, implementation and evaluation. Meetings will be held monthly at village level. The infant feeding intervention will select local volunteers to provide advice and support for breastfeeding, birth preparedness, newborn care and immunisation. They will visit pregnant and new mothers in their homes five times during and after pregnancy. The unit of intervention allocation will be clusters of rural villages of 2500-4000 population. 48 clusters have been defined and randomly allocated to either women's groups only, infant feeding support only, both interventions, or no intervention. Study villages are surrounded by 'buffer areas' of non-study villages to reduce contamination between intervention and control areas. Outcome indicators will be measured through a demographic surveillance system. Primary outcomes will be maternal, infant, neonatal and perinatal mortality for the women's group intervention, and

  15. Jaundice in Healthy Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & ... mg) that is not treated can cause deafness, cerebral palsy , or other forms of brain damage. In rare ...

  16. Occurrence of Bifidobacterium in the intestine of newborns by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Bezirtzoglou, E; Maipa, V; Chotoura, N; Apazidou, E; Tsiotsias, A; Voidarou, C; Kostakis, D; Alexopoulos, A

    2006-11-01

    Colonization by Bifidobacterium occurs generally within 4 days of life. The new method FISH has been applied for molecular detection of Bifidobacteria. The study was carried out on 26 healthy newborns delivered by vaginal delivery. Breast-fed infants harbor a gastrointestinal flora characterized by an increased concentration of Bifidobacterium cells (by a factor of 1.75). In artificial alimentation, some infants either did not harbor any Bifidobacterium or showed lower numbers of Bifidobacterium. Moreover, male newborns show higher numbers of Bifidobacterium, but in both sexes the predominance of Bifidobacterium is evident after maternal alimentation. PMID:17034855

  17. Kinetics of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Memphis Strain 37 (M37) Infection in the Respiratory Tract of Newborn Lambs as an RSV Infection Model for Human Infants

    PubMed Central

    Larios Mora, Alejandro; Detalle, Laurent; Van Geelen, Albert; Davis, Michael S.; Stohr, Thomas; Gallup, Jack M.; Ackermann, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in preterm and newborn infants can result in severe bronchiolitis and hospitalization. The lamb lung has several key features conducive to modeling RSV infection in human infants, including susceptibility to human strains of RSV such as the A2, Long, and Memphis Strain 37 (M37). In this study, the kinetics of M37 infection was investigated in newborn lambs in order to better define clinical, viral, physiological, and immunological parameters as well as the pathology and lesions. Methods Newborn lambs were nebulized with M37 hRSV (6 mL of 1.27 x 107 FFU/mL), monitored daily for clinical responses, and respiratory tissues were collected from groups of lambs at days 1, 3, 4, 6, and 8 post-inoculation for the assessment of viral replication parameters, lesions and also cellular, immunologic and inflammatory responses. Results Lambs had increased expiratory effort (forced expiration) at days 4, 6, and 8 post-inoculation. Nasal wash lacked RSV titers at day 1, but titers were present at low levels at days 3 (peak), 4, and 8. Viral titers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) reached a plateau at day 3 (4.6 Log10 FFU/mL), which was maintained until day 6 (4.83 Log10 FFU/mL), and were markedly reduced or absent at day 8. Viral RNA levels (detected by RT-qPCR) in BALF were indistinguishable at days 3 (6.22 ± 0.08 Log10 M37 RNA copies/mL; mean ± se) and 4 (6.20 ± 0.16 Log10 M37 RNA copies/mL; mean ± se) and increased slightly on day 6 (7.15 ± 0.2 Log10 M37 RNA copies/mL; mean ± se). Viral antigen in lung tissue as detected by immunohistochemistry was not seen at day 1, was present at days 3 and 4 before reaching a peak by day 6, and was markedly reduced by day 8. Viral antigen was mainly present in airways (bronchi, bronchioles) at day 3 and was increasingly present in alveolar cells at days 4 and 6, with reduction at day 8. Histopathologic lesions such as bronchitis/bronchiolitis, epithelial necrosis and

  18. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure

  19. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-11-01

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89-0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age-Z-score of the birthweight; r = -0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086-12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034-1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure through

  20. Prenatal administration of the cytochrome P4501A inducer, {Beta}-naphthoflavone (BNF), attenuates hyperoxic lung injury in newborn mice: Implications for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants

    SciTech Connect

    Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Liang Yanhong Wei; Jiang Weiwu; Wang Lihua; Barrios, Roberto; Yang Peiying; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2011-10-15

    Supplemental oxygen contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal treatment of pregnant mice (C57BL/6J) with the cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1 inducer, ss-napthoflavone (BNF), will lead to attenuation of lung injury in newborns (delivered from these dams) exposed to hyperoxia by mechanisms entailing transplacental induction of hepatic and pulmonary CYP1A enzymes. Pregnant mice were administered the vehicle corn oil (CO) or BNF (40 mg/kg), i.p., once daily for 3 days on gestational days (17-19), and newborns delivered from the mothers were either maintained in room air or exposed to hyperoxia (> 95% O{sub 2}) for 1-5 days. After 3-5 days of hyperoxia, the lungs of CO-treated mice showed neutrophil infiltration, pulmonary edema, and perivascular inflammation. On the other hand, BNF-pretreated neonatal mice showed decreased susceptibility to hyperoxic lung injury. These mice displayed marked induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) (CYP1A1) and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) (CYP1A2) activities, and levels of the corresponding apoproteins and mRNA levels until PND 3 in liver, while CYP1A1 expression alone was augmented in the lung. Prenatal BNF did not significantly alter gene expression of pulmonary NAD(P)H quinone reductase (NQO1). Hyperoxia for 24-72 h resulted in increased pulmonary levels of the F{sub 2}-isoprostane 8-iso-PGF{sub 2{alpha}}, whose levels were decreased in mice prenatally exposed to BNF. In conclusion, our results suggest that prenatal BNF protects newborns against hyperoxic lung injury, presumably by detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides by CYP1A enzymes, a phenomenon that has implications for prevention of BPD in infants. - Highlights: > Supplemental oxygen is routinely administered to premature infants. > Hyperoxia causes lung injury in experimental animals. > Prenatal treatment of mice with beta-naphthoflavone attenuates oxygen

  1. Growth of healthy term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey-based infant formula: a randomized, blinded, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Borschel, Marlene W; Choe, Yong S; Kajzer, Janice A

    2014-12-01

    Partially hydrolyzed formulas (pHF) represent a significant percentage of the infant formula market. A new whey-based, palm olein oil (PO)-free pHF was developed and a masked, randomized, parallel growth study was conducted in infants fed this formula or a commercially available whey-based pHF with PO. Infants between 0 and 8 days were to be enrolled and studied to 119 days of age. Growth and tolerance of infants were evaluated. Mean weight gain from 14 to 119 days of age was similar between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in weight, length, head circumference (HC), or length or HC gains. Infants fed the new PO-free pHF had significantly softer stools than those fed the PO-containing formula except at 119 days of age. This study demonstrates that whereas growth of infants fed different formulas during the first 4 months of life may be similar, infants may tolerate individual formulas differently.

  2. A Scale for Home Visiting Nurses to Identify Risks of Physical Abuse and Neglect among Mothers with Newborn Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grietens, Hans; Geeraert, Liesl; Hellinckx, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to construct and test the reliability (utility, internal consistency, interrater agreement) and the validity (internal validity, concurrent validity) of a scale for home visiting social nurses to identify risks of physical abuse and neglect in mothers with a newborn child. Method: A 71-item scale was constructed based on a…

  3. Newborn transition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Barbara W; Haley, Mary Mumford

    2013-01-01

    The transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life is a complex adaptation. Although, in a sense, the entire time in utero is in preparation for this transition, there are many specific anatomic and physiologic changes that take place in the weeks and days leading up to labor that facilitate a healthy transition. Some, including increasing pulmonary vasculature and blood flow, are part of an ongoing process of maturation. Others, such as a reversal in the lung from secreting fluid to absorbing fluid and the secretion of pulmonary surfactant, are associated with the hormonal milieu that occurs when spontaneous labor is impending. Interventions such as elective cesarean birth or induction of labor may interfere with this preparation for birth. Postnatal interventions such as immediate clamping of the umbilical cord and oropharyngeal suction may also compromise the normal process of newborn transition. This article reviews the physiology of the fetal to newborn transition and explores interventions that may facilitate or hinder the optimal process.

  4. Normative Data for Bone Mass in Healthy Term Infants from Birth to 1 Year of Age

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Sina; Vanstone, Catherine A.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2012-01-01

    For over 2 decades, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been the gold standard for estimating bone mineral density (BMD) and facture risk in adults. More recently DXA has been used to evaluate BMD in pediatrics. However, BMD is usually assessed against reference data for which none currently exists in infancy. A prospective study was conducted to assess bone mass of term infants (37 to 42 weeks of gestation), weight appropriate for gestational age, and born to healthy mothers. The group consisted of 33 boys and 26 girls recruited from the Winnipeg Health Sciences Center (Manitoba, Canada). Whole body (WB) as well as regional sites of the lumbar spine (LS 1–4) and femur was measured using DXA (QDR 4500A, Hologic Inc.) providing bone mineral content (BMC) for all sites and BMD for spine. During the year, WB BMC increased by 200% (76.0 ± 14.2 versus 227.0 ± 29.7 g), spine BMC by 130% (2.35 ± 0.42 versus 5.37 ± 1.02 g), and femur BMC by 190% (2.94 ± 0.54 versus 8.50 ± 1.84 g). Spine BMD increased by 14% (0.266 ± 0.044 versus 0.304 ± 0.044 g/cm2) during the year. This data, representing the accretion of bone mass during the first year of life, is based on a representative sample of infants and will aid in the interpretation of diagnostic DXA scans by researchers and health professionals. PMID:23091773

  5. Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii by heat labile bacteriocins produced by probiotic LAB isolated from healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Awaisheh, Saddam S; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Osaili, Tareq M; Ibrahim, Salam; Holley, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause bacteremia, meningitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis, most often in neonates with case-fatality rates that may reach 80%. The antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria against a wide range of foodborne pathogens is well-established in different types of food products. The objective of the current study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei isolated from feces of healthy infants against different strains of C. sakazakii in agar and a rehydrated infant milk formula (RIMF) model. The inhibition zones of C. sakazakii around L. acidophilus or L. casei ranged from 22 to 32 mm on eMan Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar under aerobic conditions, while a slight reduction in antibacterial activity was noted on modified MRS (0.2% glucose) under anaerobic conditions. It was observed that pH-neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) of L. acidophilus or L. casei was inhibitory against tested C. sakazakii strains. The inhibition zones of neutralized CFS were lower than the antibacterial activities of live cultures. The antibacterial activity of CFS was abolished when CFS from L. acidophilus or L. casei was heated at 60 or 80 °C for either 10 min or 2 h, or treated with trypsin or pepsin. This was considered strong evidence that the inhibition was due to the production of bacteriocins by L. casei and L. acidophilus. Both the CFS and active growing cells of L. casei and L. acidophilus were able to reduce the viability of C. sakazakii in the RIMF model. The results may extend the use of natural antimicrobials instead of conventional preservation methods to improve the safety of RIMF.

  6. Contribution of community-based newborn health promotion to reducing inequities in healthy newborn care practices and knowledge: evidence of improvement from a three-district pilot program in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inequities in both health status and coverage of health services are considered important barriers to achieving Millennium Development Goal 4. Community-based health promotion is a strategy that is believed to reduce inequities in rural low-income settings. This paper examines the contributions of community-based programming to improving the equity of newborn health in three districts in Malawi. Methods This study is a before-and-after evaluation of Malawi’s Community-Based Maternal and Newborn Care (CBMNC) program, a package of facility and community-based interventions to improve newborn health. Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs) within the catchment area of 14 health facilities were trained to make pregnancy and postnatal home visits to promote healthy behaviors and assess women and newborns for danger signs requiring referral to a facility. “Core groups” of community volunteers were also trained to raise awareness about recommended newborn care practices. Baseline and endline household surveys measured the coverage of the intervention and targeted health behaviors for this before-and-after evaluation. Wealth indices were constructed using household asset data and concentration indices were compared between baseline and endline for each indicator. Results The HSAs trained in the intervention reached 36.7% of women with a pregnancy home visit and 10.9% of women with a postnatal home visit within three days of delivery. Coverage of the intervention was slightly inequitable, with richer households more likely to receive one or two pregnancy home visits (concentration indices (CI) of 0.0786 and 0.0960), but not significantly more likely to receive a postnatal visit or know of a core group. Despite modest coverage levels for the intervention, health equity improved significantly over the study period for several indicators. Greater improvements in inequities were observed for knowledge indicators than for coverage of routine health services. At

  7. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures

    PubMed Central

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3–4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set. PMID:25805254

  8. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  9. Safety Assessment of Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 Isolated from Stools of Healthy Breast-Fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Murga, M. Leonor; Sanz, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Background Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 is a potential probiotic strain, originally isolated from the stools of healthy breast-feed infants. The strain showed pre-clinical efficacy in a mouse obesity model. The objective of this study was to evaluate its potential toxicity and translocation ability after acute oral administration to mice. Methods and Findings A safety study was conducted in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed C57BL-6 mice. Both mouse groups (n = 10 per group) were fed orally 2 x 109 colony forming units (cfu)/day of B. uniformis CECT 7771 or placebo by gavage for 6 days. Throughout this time, feed and water intake and body weight were monitored. Afterwards, mice were sacrificed and biological samples were collected to analyze blood and urine biochemistry, inflammatory and immune markers; gut mucosal histology and bacterial translocation to peripheral tissues. The results demonstrated that acute ingestion of this Bacteroides strain had no adverse effects on the animals’ general health status or food intake, nor did it affect biochemical indicators of liver, kidney and pancreatic function or gut mucosal histology. Findings also demonstrated that administration did not lead to bacterial translocation to blood, liver or mesenteric lymph nodes. B. uniformis CECT 7771 also downregulated gene and protein expression (iNOS and PPAR-γ) and inflammatory cytokines induced by immunosuppression. Conclusions The findings indicate that the acute oral consumption of B. uniformis CECT 7771 does not raise safety concerns in mice. Further studies in humans should be conducted. PMID:26784747

  10. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set. PMID:25805254

  11. [Evaluation of sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 of newborn infants feeding different types of nutrition, by means of urinary excretion determination].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Pereverzeva, O G; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Pustograev, N N

    2015-01-01

    With the help of non-invasive methods the sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 in 58 newborns (38-40 weeks of gestation) on breastfeeding as well as on mixed or artificial feeding has been evaluated. Urinary excretion and breast content of ascorbic acid (measured by visual titration), thiamin (by thiochrome fluorimetric method) andriboflavin (fluorimetrically by titration with riboflavin-binding protein) was determined on the 3-10th day after birth. 35 infants were exclusively breastfed. 40% of their mothers regularly took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy and 42.9%--both during pregnancy and after childbirth, 17.1% did not use vitamin complexes either duringpregnancy or after childbearing. The content of vitamins C, B1 and B2 in the breast milk of women who did not additionally intake vitamins during pregnancy and lactation, was reduced compared with that of mothers who took multivitamin supplements, and provided only a half of the needs of their child in these vitamins. All these babies have urinary excretion of vitamins below the lower limit of norm. Among infants whose mothers took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy, but stop taking them immediately after their birth, only 28.6% of newborns were provided with vitamin C, while all the children identified a lack of vitamins By and B2. The insufficiency with vitamins C and B1 was detected in one third of children breastfed by mothers who took vitamins during pregnancy and continued intaking them after birth, adequate supplied with vitamin B2 was 35.7% of the surveyed. Determination of vitamin urinary excretion (perg creatinine) is useful for vitamin status evaluation. The content of vitamins in breast milk can be used for assessment of vitamin status both a nursing woman and her child. Taking into consideration that the diet of a breastfeeding woman is not always the best, there is no doubt about the need to continue multivitamin intake during breastfeeding. The question on the doses of vitamins

  12. Correlation properties of spontaneous motor activity in healthy infants: a new computer-assisted method to evaluate neurological maturation.

    PubMed

    Waldmeier, Sandra; Grunt, Sebastian; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar; Latzin, Philipp; Steinlin, Maja; Fuhrer, Katharina; Frey, Urs

    2013-06-01

    Qualitative assessment of spontaneous motor activity in early infancy is widely used in clinical practice. It enables the description of maturational changes of motor behavior in both healthy infants and infants who are at risk for later neurological impairment. These assessments are, however, time-consuming and are dependent upon professional experience. Therefore, a simple physiological method that describes the complex behavior of spontaneous movements (SMs) in infants would be helpful. In this methodological study, we aimed to determine whether time series of motor acceleration measurements at 40-44 weeks and 50-55 weeks gestational age in healthy infants exhibit fractal-like properties and if this self-affinity of the acceleration signal is sensitive to maturation. Healthy motor state was ensured by General Movement assessment. We assessed statistical persistence in the acceleration time series by calculating the scaling exponent α via detrended fluctuation analysis of the time series. In hand trajectories of SMs in infants we found a mean α value of 1.198 (95 % CI 1.167-1.230) at 40-44 weeks. Alpha changed significantly (p = 0.001) at 50-55 weeks to a mean of 1.102 (1.055-1.149). Complementary multilevel regression analysis confirmed a decreasing trend of α with increasing age. Statistical persistence of fluctuation in hand trajectories of SMs is sensitive to neurological maturation and can be characterized by a simple parameter α in an automated and observer-independent fashion. Future studies including children at risk for neurological impairment should evaluate whether this method could be used as an early clinical screening tool for later neurological compromise.

  13. Mothers' and fathers' lateral biases for holding their newborn infants: a study of images from the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lauren Julius; Spradlin, Michael P; Almerigi, Jason B

    2007-01-01

    Photographic and direct-observation studies show that most adults hold infants on the left side. This basic directional effect is well established, but other details are still uncorroborated, uncertain, or inconsistent across studies. These include the overall strength of the bias, the role of the sex, parental status, and experience of the holder, and the sex and age of the infant. Given their importance for understanding the bias, we sought further information from a large sample of photographs of mothers and fathers, some of them first-time parents, others not, holding their infants in the first minutes, hours, or days after birth. The results confirmed the basic directional effect and provided information on the other variables. They also raise questions for further research, especially as it pertains to the use of photographs vs direct observation.

  14. [Laser Doppler flowmetry in newborn infants with low birth weight. The effect of differences in humidity on peripheral circulation].

    PubMed

    Hanssler, L; Roll, C; Breukmann, H

    1992-01-01

    In a group of 10 low birth weight infants we measured skin temperature using infrared thermography and laser Doppler flow in central and peripheral regions of the body. After elevation of incubator humidity from 40 to 80% skin temperature of the foot rose significantly (p less than 0.01). At the same time there was a significant increase (p less than 0.05) of laser Doppler flow. Temperature and laser Doppler flow in the area of the abdomen did not show significant changes. Low birth weight infants are able to regulate peripheral blood flow after changes of ambient humidity. With the method of laser Doppler flowmetry thermoregulatory responses in the microvascular bed can be measured in these infants.

  15. Thermal balance in term and preterm newborn infants nursed in an incubator equipped with a radiant heat source.

    PubMed

    Sjörs, G; Hammarlund, K; Sedin, G

    1997-04-01

    A radiant hood warmer, a device that heats the incubator roof independently of the incubator's main heat source, was used to study the thermal balance of 11 full term and 13 preterm (gestational age 25-34 weeks) infants exposed to an isolated elevation of incubator roof temperature at stable ambient air temperature and humidity. After initial measurements without active heating of the incubator roof, the hood warmer was set to 33 degrees C, 36 degrees C and finally (preterm infants only) to 39 degrees C. At least 18 min of measurements with the infant asleep were made at each hood warmer setting. In the term infants an increase in roof temperature from 30.5 degrees C to 35.6 degrees C resulted in an increase in skin temperature from 35.4 to 35.9 degrees C, and a decrease in radiative heat loss from 32.8 to 20.7 W/m2 exposed skin. In the preterm infants an increase in roof temperature from 31.0 to 38.4 degrees C led to an increase in skin temperature from 35.7 to 36.3 degrees C and a decrease in radiative heat loss from 34.1 to 13.0 W/m2 exposed skin. The increased inner roof surface temperature did not affect evaporative or convective heat loss, skin blood flow, respiratory water loss, oxygen consumption or transepidermal water loss in either group. Thus, at stable ambient air temperature and humidity, the increase in incubator roof temperature resulted in an increase in skin temperature and a decrease in radiative heat loss in both term and preterm infants.

  16. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... blood vessel of the kidney) In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  17. Newborns' Head Orientation toward Sounds Within Hemifields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Kimberley; And Others

    This experiment examined the accuracy with which newborn infants orient their heads toward a sound positioned off midline within hemifields. The study also evaluated newborns' ability to update the angle of their head turn to match a change in localization of an ongoing sound. Alert newborns were held in a supine position and presented a sound at…

  18. Time to focus child survival programmes on the newborn: assessment of levels and causes of infant mortality in rural Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Fikree, Fariyal F.; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Berendes, Heinz W.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Population-based surveys were conducted in selected clusters of Pakistan's least developed provinces, Balochistan and North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), including the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), to assess levels and causes of neonatal and postneonatal mortality. METHODS: Interviews were conducted in a total of 54 834 households: Balochistan, 20 486; NWFP, 26 175; and FATA, 8173. Trained interviewers administered questionnaires after obtaining verbal informed consent from the respondents. Verbal autopsy interviews were conducted for infant deaths reported for the previous year. FINDINGS: The infant mortality rate based on combined data from the different sites was 99.7 per 1000 live births (range 129.0-70.1). The contribution of neonatal deaths to all infant deaths was much higher for NWFP (67.2%), where the overall rate was lowest, than for Balochistan (50.8%) and FATA (56.8%). Around 70% of all neonatal deaths occurred in the early neonatal period. The three main clinical causes of infant deaths were diarrhoea syndrome (21.6%), tetanus (11.7%) and acute respiratory infections (11.6%). In the neonatal period, however, tetanus (18.3%), small size for gestational age or low birth weight (15.3%), and birth injury (12.0%) accounted for nearly half (45.6%) of all deaths, while the contributions of diarrhoea syndrome (5.1%) and acute respiratory infections (6.0%) were less significant (11.1%). Tetanus was the cause of death for 21.7% and 17.1% of all infant deaths in FATA and NWFP respectively. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that there should be a shift in child survival programmes to give greater emphasis to maternal and neonatal health, in particular to maternal tetanus immunization, safe delivery and cord care. PMID:12075362

  19. Perfluoroalkyl substances in serum from South Korean infants with congenital hypothyroidism and healthy infants--Its relationship with thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-Hye; Kim, Un-Jung; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may disrupt thyroid systems, though the specific effects of PFASs are still being elucidated. Since research regarding exposure in infants is highly limited, our goal was to investigate exposure levels of PFASs in infant serum and correlate these levels with thyroid hormones (THs). This was accomplished by analyzing 16 PFASs in sera from a case group of infants with congenital hypothyroidism and a control group. Total PFAS exposure level was 2.63-44.7ng/mL in the case group and 2.44-22.4ng/mL in the control group. Concentrations of serum perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, p<0.01), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, p<0.001), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFDA, p<0.005), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA, p<0.005) were significantly higher in the case group than the control group. Levels of certain PFASs (PFOA, perfluorotridecanoic acid [PFTrDA], and perfluorohexane sulfonate [PFHxS]) showed a moderate to weak correlation with relevant antibodies. PMID:26950028

  20. Maternal tobacco smoke exposure and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

    PubMed Central

    Bearer, C; Emerson, R K; O'Riordan, M A; Roitman, E; Shackleton, C

    1997-01-01

    We propose that in utero exposure to tobacco smoke products places a newborn at risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). To test this hypothesis, infants with PPHN were identified. Healthy newborns of similar ethnicity were identified as a comparison group. Cord blood cotinine concentrations and maternal questionnaires were obtained. The number of women exposed to tobacco smoke in each group ascertained by questionnaire was borderline significantly different (38.7% vs. 20.5%; p = 0.080). However, more PPHN infants had detectable cotinine in their cord blood (64.5% vs. 28.2%; p = 0.002), and the median cotinine concentrations were significantly higher (5.2 ng/ml vs. 2 ng/ml; p = 0.051) than the comparison infants. Among infants delivered to nonsmoking women, more PPHN infants had detectable cotinine (50% vs. 19%; p = 0.015), and the cotinine concentrations were higher (3.5 ng/ml vs. 1.65 ng/ml; p = 0.022) than the comparison group. We conclude that active and passive smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for PPHN. Therefore, we recommend that pregnant women cease smoking and avoid environmental tobacco smoke. Key words. cotinine, newborns, passive, persistent pulmonary hypertension, smoking, tobacco smoke pollution. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9105795

  1. Gene frequencies of ABO and Rh (D) blood group alleles in a healthy infant population in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omotade, O O; Adeyemo, A A; Kayode, C M; Falade, S L; Ikpeme, S

    1999-01-01

    The ABO and Rhesus blood group systems remain the most important blood group systems clinically. In order to provide gene frequency values for the ABO and Rh (D) alleles in a healthy infant population in south west Nigeria, 4748 healthy infants were typed for ABO and Rh (D) blood groups over a five year period (1988-1992). Overall, 2575 (54.2%) were blood group O, 1023 (21.6%) were blood group A, 1017 (21.4%) were blood group B and 133 (2.8%) were blood group AB. The distribution of the ABO blood groups did not differ significantly from those expected under the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (Goodness-of-fit X2 = 6.09, df = 3, p = 0.1075). The proportions of the infants belonging to the various ABO blood groups did not vary significantly over the period of the study (X2 = 14.53, df = 12, p = 0.268). Overall gene frequencies for the O, A and B genes were 0.7398, 0.1305 and 0.1298 respectively. For the Rh (D) gene, 4520 (95.2%) were Rh-positive while 228 (4.8%) were Rh-negative. However, the proportions of Rh (D) negative infants varied significantly over the period of the study, with a particular year (1991) having nearly twice the usual frequency of Rh-negative individuals (X2 = 31.17, df =, p < 0.001). The frequency of the Rh (D) gene was 0.7809. These figures are reported in the hope that they may find some use as reference for studies of ABO blood groups in health and disease, especially since they were obtained in an infant population in which it is expected that selection pressures should not have started to act to any significant extent.

  2. Increased frequency of micronuclei in mononucleated lymphocytes and cytome analysis in healthy newborns as an early warning biomarkers of possible future health risks.

    PubMed

    Fucic, A; Katic, J; Fthenou, E; Kogevinas, M; Plavec, D; Koppe, J; Batinic, D; Chalkiadaki, G; Chatzi, L; Lasan, R; Kleinjans, J; Kirsch-Volders, M

    2013-12-01

    Impact of intrauterine development on health risks during adolescence and adulthood still needs to be investigated. The aim of study was to compare genome damage in newborns and mothers using the cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay, nuclear division index (NDI), and centromere fluorescence in situ hybridization. The study was performed on 92 mothers and their newborns. Results showed that micronucleus frequency in binuclear T-lymphocytes (MNBN) in newborns was significantly lower than in mothers but higher in mononuclear T-lymphocytes (MNMONO). The NDI in the mothers was significantly higher than in the newborns. In newborns with <2500g birth weight, NDI was similar to the mothers'. Mothers have significantly more centromere negative micronuclei than newborns. A significantly higher NDI and MNBN was found in newborns with ≥2 MNMONO/1000 than in newborns with <2 MNMONO/1000. It is suggested that MOMN and NDI might be good candidates for biomarkers of health risks in newborns.

  3. Hemolytic disease of the newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a blood disorder in a fetus or newborn infant. In some infants, it can be life threatening. Normally, red blood cells last for about 120 days in the body. In this disorder, red blood cells in the blood are destroyed earlier than normal.

  4. Arterial oxygen saturation in healthy newborns delivered at term in Cerro de Pasco (4340 m) and Lima (150 m)

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Salirrosas, Amelia

    2005-01-01

    Background High altitude is associated with both low pulse oxygen saturation at birth and more pre-term deliveries. The present study was performed to determine pulse oxygen saturation in newborns at term in Cerro de Pasco (4340 m) and Lima (150 m) to test the hypothesis that low pulse oxygen saturation at birth at high altitudes was not observed at term deliveries. Methods The present study was designed to determine pulse oxygen saturation values through 1 minute to 24 hours and values of Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes in newborns delivered at term in Cerro de Pasco (4340 m) and Lima (150 m). Pulse oxygen saturation was recorded in 39 newborns from Cerro de Pasco (4340 m) and 131 from Lima (150 m) at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 30 minutes and 1, 2, 8 and 24 hours after delivery. Apgar score was assessed at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. Neurological score was assessed at 24 h of birth by Dubowitz exam. Results Pulse oxygen saturation increased significantly from 1 to 15 min after birth at sea level and from 1 to 30 minutes at Cerro de Pasco. Thereafter, it increased slightly such that at 30 min at sea level and at 60 minutes in Cerro de Pasco it reached a plateau up to 24 hours after birth. At all times, pulse oxygen saturation was significantly higher at sea level than at high altitude (P < 0.01). At 1 minute of life, pulse oxygen saturation was 15% lower at high altitude than at sea level. Apgar score at 1 minute was significantly lower at high altitude (P < 0.05). Neurological score at 24 hours was also lower at high altitude than at sea level. Head circumference, and Apgar score at 5 minutes were similar at sea level and at high altitude (P:NS). Incidence of low birth-weight (<2500 g) at high altitude (5.4%) was similar to that observed at sea level (2.29%) (P:NS). Incidences of low pulse oxygen saturation (<30%), low Apgar score at first minute (<7) and low neurological score at 24 h (<19) were significantly higher at high altitude than at sea level (P < 0.0001; P

  5. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... began in 1999, when President Clinton signed the Newborn and Infant Hearing Screening and Intervention Act, authorizing the coordination and funding of statewide newborn and infant hearing screening programs. In December 2010, President Obama ...

  6. Safety and Immunomodulatory Effects of Three Probiotic Strains Isolated from the Feces of Breast-Fed Infants in Healthy Adults: SETOPROB Study

    PubMed Central

    Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Campaña-Martin, Laura; Matencio, Esther; Ortuño, Inmaculada; Martínez-Silla, Rosario; Gomez-Gallego, Carlos; Periago, Maria Jesús; Ros, Gaspar; Chenoll, Empar; Genovés, Salvador; Casinos, Beatriz; Silva, Ángela; Corella, Dolores; Portolés, Olga; Romero, Fernando; Ramón, Daniel; Perez de la Cruz, Antonio; Gil, Angel; Fontana, Luis

    2013-01-01

    We previously described the isolation and characterization of three probiotic strains from the feces of exclusively breast-fed newborn infants: Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. These strains were shown to adhere to intestinal mucus in vitro, to be sensitive to antibiotics and to resist biliary salts and low pH. In the present study, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 100 healthy volunteers in three Spanish cities was carried out to evaluate the tolerance, safety, gut colonization and immunomodulatory effects of these three probiotics. Volunteers underwent a 15-day washout period, after which they were randomly divided into 5 groups that received daily a placebo, a capsule containing one of the 3 strains or a capsule containing a mixture of two strains for 30 days. The intervention was followed by another 15-day washout period. Patients did not consume fermented milk for the entire duration of the study. Gastrointestinal symptoms, defecation frequency and stool consistency were not altered by probiotic intake. No relevant changes in blood and serum, as well as no adverse events occurred during or after treatment. Probiotic administration slightly modified bacterial populations in the volunteers’ feces. Intestinal persistence occurred in volunteers who received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. Administration of B. breve CNCM I-4035 resulted in a significant increase in fecal secretory IgA content. IL-4 and IL-10 increased, whereas IL-12 decreased in the serum of volunteers treated with any of the three strains. These results demonstrate that the consumption of these three bacterial strains was safe and exerted varying degrees of immunomodulatory effects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01479543 PMID:24205115

  7. [The fetal development curves of newborn infants in the Hospital de Cruces (Vizcaya). II. Length, head circumference and ponderal index].

    PubMed

    Delgado Beltrán, P; Melchor Marcos, J C; Rodríguez-Alarcón Gómez, J; Linares Uribe, A; Fernández-Llebrez del Rey, L; Barbazán Cortés, M J; Ocerin Bengoa, I; Aranguren Dúo, G

    1996-01-01

    Taking a 27,641 live birth sample, without congenital or genetical malformations and from single pregnancies, delivered at Cruces Hospital (Vizcaya) from February 17 1987 to December 31st 1992, fetal growth curves of length, head circumference and ponderal index, have been developed. For every variable and in every gestational week, percentile distribution, mean and standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of the mean have been calculated. Charts of intrauterine growth in length, head circumference and weight-length ratio must be use in conjunction with intrauterine weight charts allowing the identification of infants with unusual prenatal growth patterns. PMID:8849062

  8. Diagnosis of 65 cases of ampullary renal pelvis after postnatal follow-up of 1,167 newborn infants with prenatally suspected hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LEI; LIU, CHAO; LI, FUJIANG; LI, XIANG; SUN, CHAO; SUN, HAO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the morbidity of ampullary renal pelvis (ARP) and document its natural history in post-natal life. A total of 1,167 newborn infants with prenatally suspected hydronephrosis were retrospectively analyzed. Of these, 65 patients were diagnosed with ARP by computed tomography urography (CTU) and/or magnetic resonance urography (MRU). All cases were followed up with ultrasonogrophy at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after birth, and one case was followed up for 5 years. Changes in the separation of the renal pelvis collection system were recorded. Children with ARP accounted for 5.57% of the total cases (65/1,167) followed-up. No lack of connection between the renal calyces and the renal pelvis was detected. The long-term follow-up revealed that the separation of the renal pelvis collection system did not tend to increase over time. In addition to imaging examinations, long-term follow-up observation is recommended for the accurate diagnosis of pediatric ARP, particularly for differentiation from hydronephrosis. PMID:25452792

  9. Diagnosis of 65 cases of ampullary renal pelvis after postnatal follow-up of 1,167 newborn infants with prenatally suspected hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chao; Li, Fujiang; Li, Xiang; Sun, Chao; Sun, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the morbidity of ampullary renal pelvis (ARP) and document its natural history in post-natal life. A total of 1,167 newborn infants with prenatally suspected hydronephrosis were retrospectively analyzed. Of these, 65 patients were diagnosed with ARP by computed tomography urography (CTU) and/or magnetic resonance urography (MRU). All cases were followed up with ultrasonogrophy at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after birth, and one case was followed up for 5 years. Changes in the separation of the renal pelvis collection system were recorded. Children with ARP accounted for 5.57% of the total cases (65/1,167) followed-up. No lack of connection between the renal calyces and the renal pelvis was detected. The long-term follow-up revealed that the separation of the renal pelvis collection system did not tend to increase over time. In addition to imaging examinations, long-term follow-up observation is recommended for the accurate diagnosis of pediatric ARP, particularly for differentiation from hydronephrosis.

  10. Intrauterine growth restriction and the fetal programming of the hedonic response to sweet taste in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Caroline; Agranonik, Marilyn; Portella, André Krumel; Filion, Françoise; Johnston, Celeste C; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased risk for adult metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, which seems to be related to altered food preferences in these individuals later in life. In this study, we sought to understand whether intrauterine growth leads to fetal programming of the hedonic responses to sweet. Sixteen 1-day-old preterm infants received 24% sucrose solution or water and the taste reactivity was filmed and analyzed. Spearman correlation demonstrated a positive correlation between fetal growth and the hedonic response to the sweet solution in the first 15 seconds after the offer (r = 0.864, P = 0.001), without correlation when the solution given is water (r = 0.314, P = 0.455). In fact, the more intense the intrauterine growth restriction, the lower the frequency of the hedonic response observed. IUGR is strongly correlated with the hedonic response to a sweet solution in the first day of life in preterm infants. This is the first evidence in humans to demonstrate that the hedonic response to sweet taste is programmed very early during the fetal life by the degree of intrauterine growth. The altered hedonic response at birth and subsequent differential food preference may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in intrauterine growth-restricted individuals.

  11. Peripheral blood flow and oxygen extraction in the sick, newborn very low birth weight infant shortly after birth.

    PubMed

    Kissack, Christopher M; Weindling, A Michael

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between blood pressure, peripheral blood flow (PBF), and peripheral fractional oxygen extraction (FOE). Variables that may influence PBF and peripheral FOE were also measured. Measurements of PBF by near infrared spectroscopy and fractional shortening by echocardiography were made within 12 h of birth in 24 infants less than 32 wk gestation. Blood gases, Hb, temperature, and blood pressure were also measured. PBF was significantly correlated with fractional shortening (r = 0.56, p = 0.005), Po2 (r = -0.5, p = 0.01), and peripheral temperature (r = 0.52, p = 0.01). Peripheral FOE was significantly correlated with fractional shortening (r = -0.48, p = 0.02), Po2 (r = 0.52, p = 0.02), and Pco2 (r = -0.53, p = 0.008), but not with peripheral temperature. There was no significant correlation between blood pressure and either PBF or peripheral FOE. These results indicate the importance of several physiologic variables, but not blood pressure, in determining peripheral tissue oxygen delivery in sick preterm infants receiving intensive care. It adds weight to the idea that blood pressure should not be considered a surrogate for peripheral blood flow and oxygen delivery.

  12. Zika May Persist for Months in Newborns, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160594.html Zika May Persist for Months in Newborns, Study Shows Brazilian infant appeared outwardly ... cause damage in newborns for at least two months after birth. The report, published online Aug. 24 ...

  13. Cry analysis in infants with Rh haemolytic disease.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, M

    1987-01-01

    The influence of hyperbilirubinaemia on the infants' cries and the feasibility of the use of cry analysis for the early identification of developing kernicterus were studied by analyzing the cries of 100 healthy one-day-old infants and 31 infants with Rh haemolytic disease of the newborn (Rh-HDN) by using sound spectrographic methods. The newborn infants with Rh-HDN were divided into three subgroups according to the findings in a neurological examination: an evident group (10 infants), a transient group (13 infants) and an asymptomatic group (8 infants) and followed up until one year of age. Cry recording and a neurological examination were carried out once for each of the healthy one-day-old infants and twice a day during the first week of life for the infants with Rh-HDN, and thereafter once a day until discharged and at the ages of 1 and 3 months. Additional neurological examinations were performed on the Rh-HDN infants at the ages of 6 and 12 months. Bilirubin determination was carried out in connection with the cry recordings during the first week of life. The effect of blood exchange transfusion on the cry sound was investigated in infants with a bilirubin level above 250 mumol/l (n = 12) and below this level (n = 15) before the procedure. An electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded once during the neonatal period and once during the follow-up. The cries of the healthy infants were used to develop a cry score comprising 16 characteristics (latency, duration of phonation, maximum and minimum pitch of fundamental frequency, occurrence and maximum pitch of shift, glide, melody form, biphonation, furcation, noise concentration, voice quality, double harmonic break, glottal plosives, vibrato and glottal roll), which was then applied to the analysis of the cries of the 31 infants with Rh-HDN. In addition, maximum pitch of fundamental frequency, furcation and combination of biphonation and/or furcation were studied. The cry score and maximum pitch of fundamental

  14. Imitation Within the Context of Mother-Newborn Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Patricia L.; And Others

    Two studies were conducted to examine (1) 1- to 3-day-old infants' imitation of their mothers, and (2) mothers' imitation of their newborn infants. For the infant imitation study, 30 mothers and their infants served as subjects. Two observers stood behind the mother to view the infant's face while the mother presented one of the following…

  15. Risk Factors for Discontinuation of Exclusive Breastfeeding by One Month of Postnatal Age Among High Risk Newborns: An Institution Based Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandrika, Parul; Gathwala, Geeta; Narwal, Varun; Chaturvedi, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    Background Beyond one month of age, there is generally a drop in the proportion of mothers providing exclusive breastfeeding to their infants. Infants with morbidities during neonatal period have been observed to be at higher risk of discontinuation. Objective To enumerate the prevalent factors behind discontinuation of breastfeeding among high risk newborns by first month of life. Materials and Methods A case control study conducted at high risk newborn followup clinic of a teaching medical institute in northern India between January and May 2013. Infants were divided on the basis of continuation (controls) or discontinuation (cases) of exclusive breastfeeding at one month of age. The socio-demographic factors along with maternal and neonatal medical factors were compared among groups. Results During the study period, 112 newborns were screened. Forty seven cases and thirty eight controls were enrolled and finally evaluated. Female gender of newborn, less educated mothers and large families were observed to be associated with discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding during first month of life among high risk newborns. Requirement of parenteral fluids during hospital stay emerged as the only independent medical reason. Conclusion As in healthy newborns, the socio-cultural factors overshadow the medical reasons for discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding during first month of life among high risk newborns. PMID:26266176

  16. Educated mothers, healthy infants. The impact of a school reform on the birth weight of Norwegian infants 1967-2005.

    PubMed

    Grytten, Jostein; Skau, Irene; Sørensen, Rune J

    2014-03-01

    Birth weight is an important predictor of health and success in later life. Little is known about the effect of mothers' education on birth weight. A few causal analyses have been done, but they show conflicting results. We estimated the effect of mothers' education on birth weight by using data on a school reform in Norway. During the period 1960-1972, all municipalities in Norway were required to increase the number of compulsory years of schooling from seven to nine years. We used this education reform to create exogenous variation in the education variable. The education data were combined with large sets of data from the Medical Birth Registry and Statistics Norway. Since municipalities implemented the reform at different times, we have cross-sectional as well as time-series variation in the reform instrument. In the analyses, we controlled for municipality fixed effects, municipality-specific time-trends and mothers' and infants' year of birth. Using this procedure we found a fairly large effect of mothers' education on birth weight. Increasing mothers' education reduces the likelihood of low birth weight, even in a publically financed health care system. In interpreting these results it is important to keep in mind that we have examined only one channel, which is through birth weight, through which education may explain differences in health. There are other potential channels that should be explored by future research. In particular, it would be of interest to examine whether education has causal effects on the broader determinants of health, such as psychopathology, social capital and networks, and family stress and dysfunction. PMID:24509048

  17. Magnesium and thermoregulation. I. Newborn and infant. Is sudden infant death syndrome a magnesium-dependent disease of the transition from chemical to physical thermoregulation?

    PubMed

    Durlach, J; Durlach, V; Rayssiguier, Y; Ricquier, D; Goubern, M; Bertin, R; Bara, M; Guiet-Bara, A; Olive, G; Mettey, R

    1991-01-01

    The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains a leading cause of death during the first year. The common epidemiological and pathological data which characterize SIDS include the curve for age at death (with 3 months as modal age), the stigmata of early maternal intrauterine injury, the seasonal predominance in winter, and the absence of an adequate cause of death at autopsy. Some data characterize risk factor subgroups: for example low socioeconomic level, environmental pollution, stress, and mistakes in baby care. Symptoms before death may be lacking, they may be common and non-specific, or rarely they may be acute, corresponding to "apparent life-threatening events" (ALTE). SIDS may be a magnesium-dependent disease of the transition from chemical to physical thermoregulation. This theory originates from a synthesis of our present knowledge of SIDS, maternal magnesium status, and thermoregulation in the baby. It is consistent with all the epidemiological and pathological prerequisites characterizing SIDS. It eliminates the hiatus between relatively minor thermal stress and induced lethal thermal stroke. Logical scepticism about the role of an implausible lethal superacute magnesium deficiency is no longer justified with regard to well established chronic marginal magnesium deficiency. Further experimental and clinical research will be interesting, i.e. ex vivo studies on brown adipose tissue (BAT) and magnesium deficiency under various conditions of thermal exposure. But even now the theory leads to three therapeutic consequences: (1) the need to define the importance of magnesium deficiency in diagnosis and treatment of ALTE; (2) an assessment of the use of new techniques of rewarming (i.e. extracorporeal circulation) in hypothermia cases to distinguish cot death from "apparent death"; (3) investigation of the prevention of SIDS with magnesium through a blinded and randomized multicentre prospective cooperative study of magnesium supplementation in pregnant

  18. Relationship Between Cerebral Oxygenation and Metabolism During Rewarming in Newborn Infants After Therapeutic Hypothermia Following Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Subhabrata; Bale, Gemma; Meek, Judith; Uria-Avellanal, Cristina; Robertson, Nicola J; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has become a standard of care following hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). After TH, body temperature is brought back to 37 °C over 14 h. Lactate/N-acetylasperatate (Lac/NAA) peak area ratio on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) is the best available outcome biomarker following HIE. We hypothesized that broadband near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measured changes in the oxidation state of cytochrome-c-oxidase concentration (Δ[oxCCO]) and cerebral hemodynamics during rewarming would relate to Lac/NAA. Broadband NIRS and systemic data were collected during rewarming from 14 infants following HIE over a mean period of 12.5 h. (1)H MRS was performed on day 5-9. Heart rate increased by 20/min during rewarming while blood pressure and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) remained stable. The relationship between mitochondrial metabolism and oxygenation (measured as Δ[oxCCO] and Δ[HbD], respectively) was calculated by linear regression analysis. This was reviewed in three groups: Lac/NAA values <0.5, 0.5-1, >1. Mean regression coefficient (r (2)) values in these groups were 0.41 (±0.27), 0.22 (±0.21) and 0.01, respectively. The relationship between mitochondrial metabolism and oxygenation became impaired with rising Lac/NAA. Cardiovascular parameters remained stable during rewarming.

  19. Upper Airways Microbiota in Antibiotic-Naïve Wheezing and Healthy Infants from the Tropics of Rural Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Paul Andres; Cooper, Philip J.; Cox, Michael J.; Chico, Martha; Arias, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Background Observations that the airway microbiome is disturbed in asthma may be confounded by the widespread use of antibiotics and inhaled steroids. We have therefore examined the oropharyngeal microbiome in early onset wheezing infants from a rural area of tropical Ecuador where antibiotic usage is minimal and glucocorticoid usage is absent. Materials and Methods We performed pyrosequencing of amplicons of the polymorphic bacterial 16S rRNA gene from oropharyngeal samples from 24 infants with non-infectious early onset wheezing and 24 healthy controls (average age 10.2 months). We analyzed microbial community structure and differences between cases and controls by QIIME software. Results We obtained 76,627 high quality sequences classified into 182 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Firmicutes was the most common and diverse phylum (71.22% of sequences) with Streptococcus being the most common genus (49.72%). Known pathogens were found significantly more often in cases of infantile wheeze compared to controls, exemplified by Haemophilus spp. (OR = 2.12, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.82–2.47; P = 5.46×10−23) and Staphylococcus spp. (OR = 124.1, 95%CI 59.0–261.2; P = 1.87×10−241). Other OTUs were less common in cases than controls, notably Veillonella spp. (OR = 0.59, 95%CI = 0.56–0.62; P = 8.06×10−86). Discussion The airway microbiota appeared to contain many more Streptococci than found in Western Europe and the USA. Comparisons between healthy and wheezing infants revealed a significant difference in several bacterial phylotypes that were not confounded by antibiotics or use of inhaled steroids. The increased prevalence of pathogens such as Haemophilus and Staphylococcus spp. in cases may contribute to wheezing illnesses in this age group. PMID:23071640

  20. Bile acid concentrations in serum and duodenal aspirates of healthy preterm infants: effects of gestational and postnatal age.

    PubMed

    Boehm, G; Braun, W; Moro, G; Minoli, I

    1997-01-01

    In 41 healthy human-milk-fed preterm infants the preprandial total bile acid (BA) concentrations in serum and duodenal juice were simultaneous measured during the first 60 days of life. The infants were subdivided into four groups according to their gestational age: 6 infants with a gestational age of 27 and 28 weeks, 7 infants with a gestational age of 29 and 30 weeks, 21 infants with a gestational age of 31 and 32 weeks and 7 infants with a gestational age of 33 and 34 weeks. The BA levels were enzymatically determined using 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. In the duodenal juice, cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid were separately quantified by thin-layer chromatography. During the first month of life, the serum BA concentrations increased significantly with postnatal age (p < 0.01) but remained nearly constant during the second month of life. In the duodenal aspirates, the BA concentrations increased continuously up to the end of the observations period (p < 0.001). In the duodenal aspirates, the CA/CDCA ratio was high immediately after birth and decreased significantly with increasing postnatal age (p < 0.001). During the first weeks of life, the BA levels were preferentially conjugated with taurine, but in spite of the taurine-rich diet during the whole observation period the taurine/glycine ratio decreased with postnatal age (p < 0.001). In all samples of duodenal juice, the sum of primary BA was > 98% of total 3-alpha-hydroxy-BA. These data indicate that the establishment of an intestinal microbial flora necessary for intestinal BA transformation and the development of the enterohepatic BA circulation lasts some months of postnatal life. The serum BA concentration reflects hepatic synthesis, intestinal absorption, renal excretion and hepatocellular transport into bile in a very complex way which may limit the diagnostic value of serum BA during this time. Additionally, a duodenal BA concentration below 4

  1. Chylothorax after surgery on congenital heart disease in newborns and infants -risk factors and efficacy of MCT-diet

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To analyze risk factors for chylothorax in infants after congenital heart surgery and the efficacy of median chain triglyceride diet (MCT). To develop our therapeutic pathway for the management of chylothorax. Patients and methods Retrospective review of the institutional surgical database and patient charts including detailed perioperative informations between 1/2000 and 10/2006. Data analyzing with an elimination regression analysis. Results Twenty six out of 282 patients had chylothorax (=9.2%). Secondary chest closure, low body weight, small size, longer cardiopulmonary bypass (242 ± 30 versus 129 ± 5 min) and x-clamp times (111 ± 15 versus 62 ± 3 min) were significantly associated with chylothorax (p < 0.05). One patient was cured with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and one without any treatment. 24 patients received MCT-diet alone, which was successful in 17 patients within 10 days. After conversion to regular alimentation within one week only one chylothorax relapsed. Out of 7 patients primarily not responsive to MCT-diet, 2 were successfully treated by lysis of a caval vein thrombosis, 2 by TPN + pleurodesis + supradiaphragmatic thoracic duct ligation, one by octreotide treatment, and two patients finally died. Conclusions Chylothorax may appear due to injury of the thoracic duct, due to venous or lymphatic congestion, central vein thrombosis, or diffuse injury of mediastinal lymphatic tissue in association with secondary chest closure. Application of MCT alone was effective in 71%, and more invasive treatments like TPN should not be used in primary routine. After resolution of chylothorax, MCT-diet can be converted to regular milk formula within one week and with very low risk of relapse. PMID:21144029

  2. A primer on newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Kristin Gatrell; Horns, Kimberly M; Longo, Nicola; Schiefelbein, Julieanne

    2004-10-01

    Metabolic disorders are individually rare, but when considered together as a disease entity are relatively frequent, occurring in 1 in 1000 to 1 in 3000 infants. Some disorders can have devastating and irreversible outcomes if not diagnosed early and treated promptly. Newborn screening is a vital step in identifying infants with inborn metabolic disorders, hemoglobinopathies, infectious processes, and congenital endocrinopathies; the goal is early recognition and treatment. This article summarizes the critical aspects of newborn screening, comparing and contrasting current national screening practices, and identifying key considerations for clinical care, parental education, and support. To prevent morbidity and mortality, healthcare providers must understand the purpose and guidelines for newborn screening. Providers are also responsible for informing parents about the implications of newborn screening to improve awareness and understanding.

  3. [Effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on arachidonate and docosahexaeonic acid in healthy infants in the first four months of life].

    PubMed

    Decsi, T; Szász, M; Sárkány, I; Botykai, A; Berthold, K

    1996-09-22

    Fatty acid compositions of plasma phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TG) and sterol esters (STE) were measured by high resolution capillary gas-liquid chromatography in formula fed healthy infants at the ages of 5 days and 1, 2, 3 and 4 months. The infants were randomly assigned to receive either conventional infant formula (F, n = 10) without long-chain polyunsaturates (LCP) or the same formula supplemented with LCP (LCP-F, n = 12) in amounts and ratios similar to those characteristic to human milk. From the age of 1 month onwards, percentage contributions of the principal omega-6 LCP, arachidonic acid were significantly higher in plasma lipids of infants fed LCP-F than in those receiving conventional formula without dietary LCP. Values of the principal omega-3 LCP, docosahexaenoic acid were also significantly lower in the infants fed conventional formula than in those receiving LCP-F throughout the study. The data obtained indicate that from the formula supplemented with LCP both arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids were effectively absorbed and incorporated into infantile plasma lipids. Recent data of the literature suggest that supplementation of infant formula with LCP may beneficially influence visual and psychomotor development also in healthy, term infants.

  4. The role of broth enrichment in Staphylococcus aureus cultivation and transmission from the throat to newborn infants: results from the Swedish hygiene intervention and transmission of S. aureus study.

    PubMed

    Mernelius, S; Löfgren, S; Lindgren, P-E; Matussek, A

    2013-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is detected by direct plating, whereas incubation in enrichment broth prior to plating to increase the proportion of positive samples has not been fully evaluated. S. aureus throat colonization has been suggested to be more common than colonization of the anterior nares, but no data are available on the transmission of S. aureus from the throat. Swab samples were collected from the anterior nares and umbilicus from newborn infants (n = 168), anterior nares, throat, skin lesions, and vagina from parents (n = 332), and anterior nares, throat, and skin lesions from healthcare workers (n = 231) at three maternity wards. spa typing was used to elucidate the transmission routes of S. aureus. The use of enrichment broth prior to plating increased the proportion of positive samples by 46%. The prevalence of S. aureus colonization in adults was 58%. Throat colonization (47%) was significantly more common than colonization in any of the other screened sites (p < 0.001). In total, 103 out of 168 (61%) newborn infants were colonized during their hospital stay. Overall, 124 S. aureus transmissions to newborn infants were detected. Although we detected an increased risk of transmission from the nares as compared to the throat, with an odds ratio of 4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-12.7], we detected a transmission rate of 7 % from the throat. We show that S. aureus throat colonization is more common than colonization in any of the other sites among the parents and staff. We also show evidence of transmission from the throat.

  5. Retinal hemorrhages in newborn.

    PubMed

    Govind, A; Kumari, S; Lath, N K

    1989-02-01

    Two hundred and fifty eight newborn babies were studied for the presence of retinal hemorrhages between 1-3 days of birth. The overall incidence of retinal hemorrhages was found to be 18.9%. It was observed that the incidence of retinal hemorrhages was higher in unassisted vaginal deliveries than in assisted births. Also, a two fold higher incidence was noted in term infants as compared to preterm babies. No association was seen with birth asphyxia.

  6. Comparing body temperature measurements by mothers and physicians using mercury-in-glass, digital mercury and infrared tympanic membrane thermometers in healthy newborn babies.

    PubMed

    Cultu, Oge; Yildirim, Inci; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Korkmaz, Ayşe; Yurdakök, Murat; Karaağaoğlu, Ergun; Seçmeer, Gülten

    2008-01-01

    While planning medical care, health care workers must consider the body temperature changes as measured by the mothers on most occasions. We evaluated the reliability of three different temperature measurement methods when they were used by the mothers by comparing with the measurements taken by the pediatrician. In this prospective study, body temperatures of 50 healthy newborns during their 2nd day of life were measured by mothers and one physician with mercury-in-glass (MG), digital mercury (DM) and infrared tympanic membrane thermometers (ITMT). Measurements by the mothers and the physician were correlated for the three different methods. The effects of the educational level of the mothers and the presence of children at home on the reliability and the number of differences > or = 0.5 degrees C were also evaluated for each of the methods. In comparing the measurements by the mothers and the pediatrician, correlation coefficient was 0.12 in MG thermometer readings, 0.23 in DM thermometer readings and 0.78 in ITMT readings, meaning that tympanic measurements by the mothers and the pediatricians were more correlated (p < 0.0001). The means and ranges of absolute differences of MG, DM, and tympanic thermometer measurements were 0.43 +/- 0.42, 0-1.7; 0.36 +/- 0.45, 0-2.2; and 0.13 +/- 0.12, 0-0.7 degrees C, respectively. The number of measurements with an absolute difference > or = 0.5 degrees C was 17 in MG readings, 11 in DM readings, and 1 in ITMT readings, The educational level of the mothers and the presence of children at home had no effect on the correlations. The intraclass coefficient for the three sets of measurements by the pediatricians was 0.91. Body temperature measurements in newborn babies as taken by their mothers were more correlated with the readings by the pediatricians when the ITMT was used. Tympanic thermometers seem to be useful for the mothers of any educational level and are independent of having experience with a previous child. The ease

  7. Factors associated with early postpartum maternity blues and depression tendency among Japanese mothers with full-term healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuki; Tamakoshi, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Maternity blues and postpartum depression are common mental health problems during the early postpartum period. However, few studies have examined the factors associated with maternity blues and postpartum depression in healthy mothers with spontaneous births of healthy full-term infants. This study aimed to determine the demographic and obstetric factors, various feelings during pregnancy, and psychological factors by using the Maternity Blues Scale (MBS) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) among healthy Japanese mothers. We distributed the MBS and EPDS self-administered questionnaires to 100 Japanese mothers during their 4-5 day hospitalization and at a health check-up 1-month after delivery, respectively. Multiple regression analyses were performed including the above-mentioned variables as independent variables and the maximum MBS or EPDS scores as dependent variables. The answers "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [beta (95% confidence interval) = -1.53 (-2.68 - -0.378)] and "Satogaeri bunben", a Japanese traditional support system wherein a postnatal woman lives with her husband/parents [-2.82 (-4.73 - -0.898)] were significantly associated with MBS scores. The answer "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [-2.83 (-4.76 - -0.903)] was also significantly associated with EPDS scores, although the association between the partner's age and these scores was marginally significant [-0.106 (-0.008 - 0.221)]. This study shows that it is important to provide support for healthy women without delivery complications, both at home and in the community.

  8. Neurobehavioral and Neurophysiological Assessment of Healthy and "At-Risk" Full-Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldredge, Lynnette; Salamy, Alan

    1988-01-01

    Study evaluates the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) of 15 neonates born at-risk for neurological sequelae and 15 healthy controls. CNS information was generated through the use of two measures: (1) the Neurological and Adaptive Capacity Score (NACS) and the auditory brainstem response (ABR). (Author/RWB)

  9. Newborn Screening and the Obstetrician

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Siobhan M

    2012-01-01

    Newborn screening is the largest genetic screening program in the United States, with approximately four million infants screened yearly. It has been available and in continuous development for over 50 years. Each state manages, funds, and maintains its own individual program, which encompasses newborn screening as well as the diagnosis and coordination of care for affected infants and children. The ideal disorder for screening is one in which newborn intervention prevents later disabilities or death for infants who may appear normal at birth. There are 31 core conditions that are currently recommended for incorporation into state screening programs. To obtain a sample, several drops of blood are collected from the newborn’s heel and applied to filter paper. Although testing for core disorders is fairly standardized, more extensive screening varies by state and the rigorous evaluation of new disorders for inclusion in state screening panels is ongoing. As genomic medicine becomes more accessible, screening newborns for chronic diseases that may affect their long-term health will need to be addressed, as well the use of the residual blood spots for research. Obstetric providers should, at some time during pregnancy, review the basic process of newborn screening with parents to prepare them for this testing in the neonatal period. This information can be reviewed as it best suits incorporation in an individual’s practice; verbal discussion and the distribution of written materials with resources for further information is encouraged. PMID:22996108

  10. Uncommon Infant and Newborn Problems

    MedlinePlus

    It can be scary when your baby is sick, especially when it is not an everyday problem like a cold or a fever. You may not know whether the ... treat it. If you have concerns about your baby's health, call your health care provider right away. ...

  11. Assessing maternal risk for fetal-infant mortality: a population-based study to prioritize risk reduction in a healthy start community.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Catherine L; Wendt, Annie; Liggins, Oemeeka; Overton, Jacqueline; Sweezy, Luz del Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Study goals were to distinguish between maternal risk factors for fetal versus infant mortality, and to identify which maternal characteristics contributed the greatest risk of mortality overall. This case-control retrospective study abstracted data on more than forty maternal characteristics from 261 prenatal and delivery records: all 26 fetal deaths, all 40 infant deaths and 195 randomly selected surviving births in a high-mortality Healthy Start community. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. The fetal-mortality population was significantly more likely than the infant-mortality population to have no insurance (P = .047), inadequate prenatal care (P = .039) and previous fetal death (P = .021). Comparing the combined mortality population with the surviving sample, two tiers of risk emerged: Rare-but-lethal risks, including no prenatal care (P < .001) and Child-Protective-Service involvement (P = .001), and common-and-dangerous risks, including inadequate maternal weight gain (OR = 13.55), drug or alcohol abuse (OR = 8.67), obesity (OR = 2.77) and anemia (OR = 3.61). Both fetal and infant mortality groups must be considered when identifying maternal risks. Inadequate prenatal weight gain, obesity and anemia contribute as much to feto-infant mortality as substance abuse. Public health efforts to improve maternal nutrition and healthy weight should be redoubled. PMID:20082128

  12. Newborn Screening for Tyrosinemia Type I: Further Evidence that Succinylacetone Determination on Blood Spot Is Essential.

    PubMed

    la Marca, Giancarlo; Malvagia, Sabrina; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Cavicchi, Catia; Morrone, Amelia; Ciani, Federica; Funghini, Silvia; Villanelli, Fabio; Zammarchi, Enrico; Guerrini, Renzo

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosinemia type I is a genetic disorder characterized by accumulation in the blood and urine of the toxic metabolite succinylacetone (SUAC), not detectable in healthy samples. In many countries, newborns are screened for tyrosinemia type I using tyrosine as a primary marker. Unfortunately, tyrosine accumulation may take longer to occur and it may be not obvious when specimens are collected, in the first few days of life, as for newborn screening. In 2008, we reported changes to simultaneously measure acylcarnitines, amino acids, and SUAC during expanded newborn screening. We established the usefulness of this method after identifying a first asymptomatic newborn affected by tyrosinemia type I. Now we report a second infant with positive SUAC screening result (14.1 μmol/L, n.v. < 2) and normal tyrosine concentration (74 μmol/L; n.v. < 250). We also performed molecular analysis of FAH gene in both patients after diagnosis at newborn screening. They had consanguineous parents and were both homozygous for two known disease-causing mutations of the FAH gene. The outcome of patients detected in the MS/MS screening is significantly favorable. We also report our results of newborn screening for tyrosinemia type I before and after inclusion of SUAC as a primary marker for this disease.

  13. Case of a healthy infant born following antenatal enterovirus myocarditis and hydrops.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Aurore; Tassin, Mikael; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Letamendia, Emmanuelle; Stos, Bertrand; Bonnet, Damien; Gajdos, Vincent; Mabille, Mylène; Benachi, Alexandra

    2014-11-01

    Fetal hydrops and myocarditis were diagnosed in a woman at 32 weeks of gestation (WG). Transplacental enterovirus infection was suspected because all other causes of myocarditis and hydrops were excluded, it was during an endemic period, and there was a setting of maternal infection (fever a few days before). We opted for in utero treatment because of the risk of resuscitating a neonate with myocarditis and hydrops. We administered dexamethasone 12mg twice for pulmonary maturation and presumed it would partially improve the myocarditis. Fetal arrhythmia was noted at 35 WG and we decided to deliver the infant as postnatal treatment of the heart disorder would be more effective. RT-PCR (ARGENE(®)) showed that the neonate's throat and anal tissues and cord blood sampled on the day of birth contained enterovirus ribonucleic acid and coxsackievirus B5, as did the mother's anal sample. Laboratory tests, heart MRI and probably brain MRI indicated neonatal enterovirus infection. Findings were normal at two-year follow-up. PMID:25242311

  14. Case of a healthy infant born following antenatal enterovirus myocarditis and hydrops.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Aurore; Tassin, Mikael; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Letamendia, Emmanuelle; Stos, Bertrand; Bonnet, Damien; Gajdos, Vincent; Mabille, Mylène; Benachi, Alexandra

    2014-11-01

    Fetal hydrops and myocarditis were diagnosed in a woman at 32 weeks of gestation (WG). Transplacental enterovirus infection was suspected because all other causes of myocarditis and hydrops were excluded, it was during an endemic period, and there was a setting of maternal infection (fever a few days before). We opted for in utero treatment because of the risk of resuscitating a neonate with myocarditis and hydrops. We administered dexamethasone 12mg twice for pulmonary maturation and presumed it would partially improve the myocarditis. Fetal arrhythmia was noted at 35 WG and we decided to deliver the infant as postnatal treatment of the heart disorder would be more effective. RT-PCR (ARGENE(®)) showed that the neonate's throat and anal tissues and cord blood sampled on the day of birth contained enterovirus ribonucleic acid and coxsackievirus B5, as did the mother's anal sample. Laboratory tests, heart MRI and probably brain MRI indicated neonatal enterovirus infection. Findings were normal at two-year follow-up.

  15. Effectiveness of a federal healthy start program in reducing the impact of particulate air pollutants on feto-infant morbidity outcomes.

    PubMed

    Salihu, Hamisu M; August, Euna M; Mbah, Alfred K; Alio, Amina P; de Cuba, Raymond; Jaward, Foday M; Berry, Estrellita Lo

    2012-11-01

    We sought to assess (1) the relationship between air particulate pollutants and feto-infant morbidity outcomes and (2) the impact of a Federal Healthy Start program on this relationship. This is a retrospective cohort study using de-identified hospital discharge information linked to vital records, and air pollution data from 2000 through 2007 for the zip codes served by the Central Hillsborough Federal Healthy Start Project in Tampa, Florida. Mathematical modeling was employed to compute minimal Euclidean distances to capture exposure to ambient air particulate matter. The outcomes of interest were low birth weight (LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), small for gestational age, preterm (PTB), and very preterm birth. We used odds ratios to approximate relative risks. A total of 12,356 live births were analyzed. Overall, women exposed to air particulate pollutants were at elevated risk for LBW (AOR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.07-1.43), VLBW (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.09-2.29) and PTB (AOR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.03-1.34). Analysis by race/ethnicity revealed that the adverse effects of air particulate pollutants were most profound among black infants. Infants of women who received services provided by the Central Hillsborough Federal Healthy Start Project experienced improved feto-infant morbidity outcomes despite exposure to air particulate pollutants. Environmental air pollutants represent important risk factors for adverse birth outcomes, particularly among black women. Multi-level interventional approaches implemented by the Central Hillsborough Federal Healthy Start were found to be associated with reduced likelihood for feto-infant morbidities triggered by exposure to ambient air particulate pollutants.

  16. Body perception in newborns.

    PubMed

    Filippetti, Maria Laura; Johnson, Mark H; Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Dragovic, Danica; Farroni, Teresa

    2013-12-01

    Body ownership and awareness has recently become an active topic of research in adults using paradigms such as the "rubber hand illusion" and "enfacement" [1-11]. These studies show that visual, tactile, postural, and anatomical information all contribute to the sense of body ownership in adults [12]. While some hypothesize body perception from birth [13], others have speculated on the importance of postnatal experience [14, 15]. Through studying body perception in newborns, we can directly investigate the factors involved prior to significant postnatal experience. To address this issue, we measured the looking behavior of newborns presented with visual-tactile synchronous and asynchronous cues, under conditions in which the visual information was either an upright (body-related stimulus; experiment 1) or inverted (non-body-related stimulus; experiment 2) infant face. We found that newborns preferred to look at the synchronous condition compared to the asynchronous condition, but only when the visual stimulus was body related. These results are in line with findings from adults and demonstrate that human newborns detect intersensory synchrony when related to their own bodies, consistent with the basic processes underlying body perception being present at birth. PMID:24268410

  17. Cystic Fibrosis Diagnosis and Newborn Screening.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Margaret; Sontag, Marci K; Ren, Clement L

    2016-08-01

    The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) has evolved over the past decade as newborn screening has become universal in the United States and elsewhere. The heterogeneity of phenotypes associated with CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction and mutations in the CFTR gene has become clearer, ranging from classic pancreatic-insufficient CF to manifestations in only 1 organ system to indeterminate diagnoses identified by newborn screening. The tools available for diagnosis have also expanded. This article reviews the newest diagnostic criteria for CF, newborn screening, prenatal screening and diagnosis, and indeterminate diagnoses in newborn-screened infants and symptomatic adults. PMID:27469178

  18. Auditory-Oral Matching Behavior in Newborns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xin; Striano, Tricia; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five newborn infants were tested for auditory-oral matching behavior when presented with the consonant sound /m/ and the vowel sound /a/--a precursor behavior to vocal imitation. Auditory-oral matching behavior by the infant was operationally defined as showing the mouth movement appropriate for producing the model sound just heard (mouth…

  19. Common respiratory conditions of the newborn

    PubMed Central

    Gallacher, David J.; Hart, Kylie

    2016-01-01

    Key points Respiratory distress is a common presenting feature among newborn infants. Prompt investigation to ascertain the underlying diagnosis and appropriate subsequent management is important to improve outcomes. Many of the underlying causes of respiratory distress in a newborn are unique to this age group. A chest radiograph is crucial to assist in diagnosis of an underlying cause. Educational aims To inform readers of the common respiratory problems encountered in neonatology and the evidence-based management of these conditions. To enable readers to develop a framework for diagnosis of an infant with respiratory distress. The first hours and days of life are of crucial importance for the newborn infant as the infant adapts to the extra-uterine environment. The newborn infant is vulnerable to a range of respiratory diseases, many unique to this period of early life as the developing fluid-filled fetal lungs adapt to the extrauterine environment. The clinical signs of respiratory distress are important to recognise and further investigate, to identify the underlying cause. The epidemiology, diagnostic features and management of common neonatal respiratory conditions are covered in this review article aimed at all healthcare professionals who come into contact with newborn infants. PMID:27064402

  20. Psychomotor Development and School Performance of Children Who Were Low-Birth Infants: Relation to Neurobehavioural Condition in the Newborn Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leijon, Ingemar; And Others

    This study investigated neurological and psychomotor development and intelligence from birth to 8 years of age among Swedish infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The relationship between neonatal neurological and behavioral condition to follow-up results was also investigated. Twenty-two infants with IUGR were arranged in 2 groups…

  1. Overnight Polysomnographic Characteristics and Oxygen Saturation of Healthy Infants, 1 to 18 Months of Age, Born and Residing At High Altitude (2,640 Meters)

    PubMed Central

    Bazurto-Zapata, María A.; Gozal, David; González-García, Mauricio; Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 8% of the world population resides above 1,600 m, with about 10 million people living above 2,500 m in Colombia. However, reference values for polysomnography (PSG) and oxygen saturation (Spo2) of children < 2 years old residing at high altitude are currently unavailable. METHODS: Healthy infants aged 1 to 18 months born and residing at high altitude (Bogotá: 2,640 m) underwent overnight PSG. Four age groups were defined: group 1, < 45 days; group 2, 3 to 4 months; group 3, 6 to 7 months; and group 4, 10 to 18 months. Of 122 children enrolled, 50 had three consecutive PSG tests and were analyzed as a longitudinal subcohort. RESULTS: A total of 281 PSG tests were performed in 122 infants (56% girls): group 1, 106 PSG tests; group 2, 89 PSG tests; group 3, 61 PSG tests; and group 4, 25 PSG tests. Active sleep diminished and quiet sleep increased with maturation. Apnea-hypopnea indexes (total, central, and obstructive) were highest in group 1 (21.4, 12.4, and 6.8/h total sleep time, respectively) and diminished with age (P < .001). Mean Spo2 during waking and sleep increased with age (P < .001). Nadir Spo2 values during respiratory events were lower in younger infants. Longitudinal assessments of 50 infants confirmed the temporal trends described for the cross-sectional dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy infants (≤ 18 months old) born and residing at high altitude show preserved sleep architecture but higher apnea-hypopnea indexes and more prominent desaturation with respiratory events than do those living at low altitude. The current study findings can be used as reference values for infants at high altitude. PMID:25811138

  2. [A population-genetics approach to the problem of nonspecific biological resistance of the human body. III. The ABO and rhesus blood group systems of healthy and sick children and their mothers].

    PubMed

    Kurbatova, O L; Botvin'ev, O K; Altukhov, Iu P

    1984-04-01

    ABO and Rhesus blood types have been specified in 2047 diseased newborns, diseased infants and children who died before the age of one, as well as in their mothers. 527 healthy children and their mothers were investigated as a control group. A significant difference in the ABO phenotype frequencies has been revealed between: i) healthy and dead children, ii) mothers of diseased newborns and mothers of healthy children, iii) dead children and their mothers. The significant increase in the incidence of maternal Rhesus-negative phenotype, as compared with the control group, was shown in the groups of diseased newborns, diseased infants and dead children. In the same groups, mothers differ significantly from their children with respect to the frequency of Rhesus phenotypes. The incidence of Rhesus-incompatible mother-child pairs in the groups of diseased newborns, diseased infants and dead children was shown to be two times higher than the respective frequency in the control group and the expected frequency. A certain increase in the frequency of ABO-incompatible pairs was revealed in the groups of diseased newborns and dead children, but the difference, as compared to the control group, did not prove to be statistically significant. A hypothesis was advanced to the effect that the mother-child incompatibility for Rhesus and ABO antigens may result not only in fetal wastage and haemolytic disease of newborns, but also in the decrease of child's resistance to diseases of different origin.

  3. Growth of healthy term infants fed ready-to-feed and powdered forms of an extensively hydrolyzed casein-based infant formula: a randomized, blinded, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Borschel, Marlene W; Baggs, Geraldine E; Barrett-Reis, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    Extensively hydrolyzed formulas present a complex matrix subject to adverse conditions during manufacture that could influence growth and tolerance of infants fed these formulas. A masked, randomized, parallel growth study was conducted in infants fed a ready-to-feed (RTF) or powdered (PWD) form of an extensively hydrolyzed casein-based formula. Infants were enrolled between 0 and 9 days and studied to 112 days of age. Growth, formula intake, and stool patterns were assessed. There were no significant differences between groups in weight, length, head circumference, or their respective gains. Tolerance was similar between groups except that the RTF group had greater formula intakes and passed more stools/day compared to the PWD group. This study demonstrates that the PWD formulation of this RTF formula supports similar growth and tolerance in infants during the first 4 months of life.

  4. Early onset Morganella morganii sepsis in a newborn infant with emergence of cephalosporin resistance caused by depression of AMPC beta-lactamase production..

    PubMed

    Sinha, Ajay K; Kempley, Stephen T; Price, Elizabeth; Sharma, Bal K; Livermore, David M

    2006-04-01

    A preterm infant with early onset Morganella morganii sepsis was treated with cefotaxime and gentamicin after confirmation of antimicrobial susceptibility. The infant developed persistent ventriculitis caused by the emergence of a cefotaxime-resistant Morganella variant with derepression of its AmpC beta-lactamase. When choosing antibiotic therapy, the risk of development of resistance to cephalosporins should be considered in infections caused by M. morganii and other Gram-negative organisms with inducible AmpC beta-lactamases.

  5. Anemia in the Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video) Meconium Aspiration Syndrome Additional Content Medical News Anemia in the Newborn By Arthur E. Kopelman, MD ... Prematurity (ROP) Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) Jaundice in Newborns Anemia in the Newborn Polycythemia in the Newborn Thyroid ...

  6. Thrush in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Candidiasis - oral - newborn; Oral thrush - newborn; Fungal infection - mouth - newborn; Candida - oral - newborn ... thrush. You paint this medicine on your baby's mouth and tongue. If you have a yeast infection on your nipples, your doctor may recommend an ...

  7. The role of functional magnetic resonance imaging in the study of brain development, injury, and recovery in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Hüppi, Petra S

    2010-02-01

    Development of brain functions and the structural-functional correlates of brain injury remain difficult to evaluate in the young infant. Thus, new noninvasive methods capable of early functional diagnosis are needed. This review describes the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for studying localization of brain function in the developing brain when standard clinical investigations are not available or conclusive. This promising neuroimaging technique has been successfully used in healthy newborns and in newborns with brain injury using different paradigms, including passive visual, somato-sensorial, and auditory stimulation. We summarize the major findings of previous fMRI studies in young infants, describe ongoing methodological challenges, and propose exciting future developments in using resting-state protocols and functional connectivity techniques to assist in evaluating early life brain function and its recovery from injury.

  8. Twenty-four hour metabolic rate measurements utilized as a reference to evaluate several prediction equations for calculating energy requirements in healthy infants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To date, only short-duration metabolic rate measurements of less than four hours have been used to evaluate prediction equations for calculating energy requirements in healthy infants. Therefore, the objective of this analysis was to utilize direct 24-hour metabolic rate measurements from a prior study to evaluate the accuracy of several currently used prediction equations for calculating energy expenditure (EE) in healthy infants. Methods Data from 24-hour EE, resting (RMR) and sleeping (SMR) metabolic rates obtained from 10 healthy infants, served as a reference to evaluate 11 length-weight (LWT) and weight (WT) based prediction equations. Six prediction equations have been previously derived from 50 short-term EE measurements in the Enhanced Metabolic Testing Activity Chamber (EMTAC) for assessing 24-hour EE, (EMTACEE-LWT and EMTACEE-WT), RMR (EMTACRMR-LWT and EMTACRMR-WT) and SMR (EMTACSMR-LWT and EMTACSMR-WT). The last five additional prediction equations for calculating RMR consisted of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Schofield (SCH-LWT and SCH-WT) and the Oxford (OXFORD-LWT and OXFORD-WT). Paired t-tests and the Bland & Altman limit analysis were both applied to evaluate the performance of each equation in comparison to the reference data. Results 24-hour EE, RMR and SMR calculated with the EMTACEE-WT, EMTACRMR-WT and both the EMTACSMR-LWT and EMTACSMR-WT prediction equations were similar, p = NS, to that obtained from the reference measurements. However, RMR calculated using the WHO, SCH-LWT, SCH-WT, OXFORD-LWT and OXFORD-WT prediction equations were not comparable to the direct 24-hour metabolic measurements (p < 0.05) obtained in the 10 reference infants. Moreover, the EMTACEE-LWT and EMTACRMR-LWT were also not similar (p < 0.05) to direct 24-hour metabolic measurements. Conclusions Weight based prediction equations, derived from short-duration EE measurements in the EMTAC, were accurate for calculating EE, RMR and SMR in healthy

  9. A systematic review of controlled trials of lower-protein or energy-containing infant formulas for use by healthy full-term infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infant formulas have historically been developed based on providing macronutrients at intake concentrations approximately matching the composition of human milk. In most countries, targets of 1.4–1.5 g of protein/dL and 20 kcal/oz (67–68 kcal/dL) have been set as the protein and energy concentration...

  10. Protein quality and quantity in cow's milk-based formula for healthy term infants: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Macé, Katherine; Steenhout, Philippe; Klassen, Petra; Donnet, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The development of infant formula with optimized protein quality and quantity has been, and still is, the subject of intense investigation. A better understanding of the protein composition of breast milk and infant needs in association with technological breakthroughs in cow's milk fractionation, has led to the development of infant formulas with a protein content that is closer to that of human milk. Today, infant formulas with a protein/energy ratio of 1.8 g/100 kcal are commercially available. These formulas have been shown to be safe and nutritionally adequate for term infants. However, the short-term and potentially long-term metabolic benefits of formulas with reduced protein content have still to be elucidated and are currently under investigation. In addition to providing amino acids as building blocks for growth, milk is the source of numerous bioactive factors/hormones which are involved in multiple physiological processes. Continuous efforts are being made to identify new bioactive compounds in human milk. However, a better understanding of their biological functions in suckling infants as well as a comparison with their bovine counterparts are needed. Technological processes, which preserve some bioactive factors in cow's milk already exist. These processes could be applied to infant formulas.

  11. Procalcitonin and Other Biomarkers of Sepsis in Newborns in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Ignjatovic, Svetlana; Stankovic, Sanja; Nada Majkić, Singh

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is one of the most significant causes of mortality and morbidity in infants. Among numerous parameters available to confirm the presence of sepsis in newborns procalcitonin (PCT) has been chosen. The aim of this study was the determination of PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP) serum amyloid A (SAA), plasminogen, protein C, antithrombin III (AT III) and white blood cell count (WBC) in blood sample obtained by puncture of the umbilical vein. Sixty two newborn infants were included in the study: 31 with suspected bacterial infection and 31 healthy babies Serum procalcitonin was measured using Kryptor analyzer (Brahms Aktiengesellschaft, Germany); serum hsCRP and SAA on the Behring Nephelometer II (Dade Behring Diagnostics GmbH, Marburg, Germany); plasma plasminogen, protein C and AT III on BCT Coagulation system, (Dade Behring Diagnostics GmbH, Marburg, Germany); and WBC count was determined in the whole blood using hematological analyzer ADVIA 120 Hematology System (Bayer, Germany). The obtained mean values of PCT, hsCRP, SAA, WBC, plasminogen, AT III, protein C in newborn’s samples with suspected bacterial infection/healthy newborns were: 0.188 ng/L / 0.121 ng/L; 1.20 mg/L / 1.30 mg/L, 1.28% / 1.70%; 16.0 x 109/L/12.0 x 109 / L, 61.0% / 59.0%, 52.0% / 64.5%, 39.0% / 41.0%, respectively. Neonates with bacterial infection had significantly higher values of PCT (p <0.001), WBC (p <0.001) and CRP (p <0.05) compared to healthy babies. Based on these results, it may be concluded that procalcitonin is useful for early diagnosis of sepsis in newborns.

  12. [Tracheal phospholipid composition and respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn].

    PubMed

    Obladen, M

    1979-03-01

    Tracheal or pharyngeal aspirates were collected in 50 newborn infants with and without respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). After lipid extraction the phospholipids were analyzed with 2-dimensional thin layer chromatography. Surface-active are lecithin (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Newborn infants with RDS always have a complete lack of PG, which makes up to 11% of phospholipid-phosphors in mature newborns. In all infants with and without RDS, a sharp increase of PC occurs in the lung effluent after birth. The recovery from RDS is characterized by marked changes of PI: this phospholipid rises up to twice its initial value if the infants survive. The PI-increase parallels the clinical improvement and reaches its maximum usually on the 5th day of life. At the time of the PI-peak, the infants' surfactant function is sufficient to maintain alveolar stability with spontaneous breathing. In infants dying from RDS the PI-increase was not observed.

  13. Neonatal Characteristics and Directional Effects in Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.

    This study of 134 mothers and their newborn infants evaluated the relationships between neonatal style and mother-infant interaction. The procedure included a newborn assessment with the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale and two mother-infant interaction observations, one carried out during feeding and the other during a semi-structured…

  14. [Effectiveness of the National Strategy for Healthy Complementary Feeding to improve complemantary feeding of infants in a municipality in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Rosane; Issler, Roberto Mário Silveira; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the National Strategy for Healthy Complementary Feeding (ENPACS) in improving complementary feeding in the first year of life in a Brazilian municipality (county). This was an impact evaluation study that enrolled 340 infants from 6 to 12 months of age, followed at primary healthcare units. The target outcomes were prevalence rates for the consumption of vegetables, legumes, fruits, and unhealthy foods, and the prevalence of foods with adequate consistency for age. Poisson regression showed that the strategy was associated with reductions of 32% in the consumption of sodas and/or industrialized juices, 35% of industrialized foods, and 5% of unhealthy foods. There was no increase in the consumption of fruits, legumes, vegetables, or foods with adequate consistency for age. In conclusion, the strategy's positive effect was partial, but it has the potential to help improve infant nutrition, based on its effectiveness in reducing the consumption of unhealthy foods. PMID:27653194

  15. Newborn behavior, parent-infant interaction, and developmental change processes: research roots of developmental, relational, and systems-theory-based practice.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Joshua

    2013-08-01

    The discovery of individual and cross-cultural differences among newborns, and their effects on caregiver behaviors, underpins a systems theory of human development and a resulting paradigm shift. This theory accommodates both epigenetics-mediating genes and environment within the individual, and culture-a dynamic, emergent phenomenon transmitting contextually adaptive child-rearing beliefs and practices. Within human systems, children and parents' development is also propelled by mutual adaptation occurring through the microprocesses of early interactions and through normative periods of disorganization and reorganization (touchpoints). This paradigm shift in developmental theory calls for parallel shifts in clinical practice and organizational structures and processes.

  16. Late Dose-Response Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Newborn Neurobehavioral Performance

    PubMed Central

    Tronick, Edward Z.; Frank, Deborah A.; Cabral, Howard; Mirochnick, Mark; Zuckerman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine in a representative sample of full-term urban newborns of English-speaking mothers whether an immediate or late dose-response effect could be demonstrated between prenatal cocaine exposure and newborn neurobehavioral performance, controlling for confounding factors. Methods The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) was administered by masked examiners to a total sample of 251 clinically healthy, full-term infants at 2 days and/or 17 days. Three in utero cocaine exposure groups were defined: heavily exposed (n = 44, >75th percentile self-reported days of use during pregnancy and/or >75th percentile of meconium benzoylecognine concentration); lightly exposed (n = 79, less than both 75th percentiles); and unexposed (n = 101, no positive biological or self-report marker). At the 3-week examination there were 38 heavily exposed, 73 lightly exposed, and 94 unexposed infants. Controlling for infant birth weight, gestational age, infant age at the time of examination, mothers’ age, perinatal risk, obstetric medication, and alcohol, marijuana, and cigarette use, a regression analysis evaluated the effects of levels of cocaine exposure on NBAS performance. Results No neurobehavioral effects of exposure on the newborn NBAS cluster scores or on the qualifier scores were found when confounders were controlled for at 2 to 3 days of age. At 3 weeks, after controlling for covariates, a significant dose effect was observed, with heavily exposed infants showing poorer state regulation and greater excitability. Conclusions These findings demonstrate specific dose-related effects of cocaine on 3-week neurobehavioral performance, particularly for the regulation of arousal, which was not observed in the first few days of life. PMID:8668416

  17. Changes in weight, length, head circumference, and ponderal index at birth of healthy term newborns in nine cities in China during the period of rapid social development 1985-2005.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-qin; Li, Hui

    2015-12-01

    The changes in the anthropometric parameters at birth of healthy singleton term newborns in nine cities in China were analyzed by means of the data collected in three large-scale cross-sectional physical growth surveys in 1985, 1995, and 2005 (n=6660, 7109 and 6144). Between 1985 and 2005, average increases in body weight (BW), body length (BL), ponderal index (PI), and head circumference (HC) of newborns were statistically significant: 107g, 0.2cm, 0.6kg/m(3) and 0.4cm, respectively. The relative increase in BW was more than that in BL (3.4% vs 0.4%) in the last two decades, leading to an increase in PI. The distribution of birth size shifted slightly to the right, and the proportion of macrosomia increased from 3.2% in 1985 to 3.4% in 1995 and to 4.3% in 2005. The increases in BW and PI and the increase in rate of macrosomia are concerns from public health perspectives.

  18. Screening Newborns | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... today. 1999 NIDCD research explores intervention strategies for children with hearing loss. 1999 President Clinton signs the Newborn and Infant Hearing Screening and Intervention Act , authorizing support for statewide screening programs. 1998 NIDCD research demonstrates the need for both ...

  19. Simplified Antibiotic Regimens for the Management of Clinically Diagnosed Severe Infections in Newborns and Young Infants in First-level Facilities in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection in young infants is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-middle income countries, with high neonatal mortality rates. Timely case management is lifesaving, but the current standard of hospitalization for parenteral antibiotic therapy is not always feasible. Alternative, simpler antibiotic regimens that could be used in outpatient settings have the potential to save thousands of lives. Methods: This trial aims to determine whether 2 simplified antibiotic regimens are equivalent to the reference therapy with 7 days of once-daily (OD) intramuscular (IM) procaine penicillin and gentamicin for outpatient management of young infants with clinically presumed systemic bacterial infection treated in primary health-care clinics in 5 communities in Karachi, Pakistan. The reference regimen is close to the current recommendation of the hospital-based intravenous ampicillin and gentamicin therapy for neonatal sepsis. The 2 comparison arms are (1) IM gentamicin OD and oral amoxicillin twice daily for 7 days; and (2) IM penicillin and gentamicin OD for 2 days, followed by oral amoxicillin twice daily for 5 days; 2250 “evaluable” infants will be enrolled. The primary outcome of this trial is treatment failure (death, deterioration or lack of improvement) within 7 days of enrollment. Results are expected by early 2014. Discussion: This trial will determine whether simplified antibiotic regimens with fewer injections in combination with high-dose amoxicillin are equivalent to 7 days of IM procaine penicillin and gentamicin in young infants with clinical severe infection. Results will have program and policy implications in countries with limited access to hospital care and high burden of neonatal deaths. PMID:23945571

  20. Relationship between blood pressure, cerebral electrical activity, cerebral fractional oxygen extraction, and peripheral blood flow in very low birth weight newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Victor, Suresh; Marson, Anthony G; Appleton, Richard E; Beirne, Margaret; Weindling, A Michael

    2006-02-01

    There is uncertainty about the level of systemic blood pressure required to maintain adequate cerebral oxygen delivery and organ integrity. This prospective, observational study on 35 very low birth weight infants aimed to determine the mean blood pressure (MBP) below which cerebral electrical activity, peripheral blood flow (PBF), and cerebral fractional oxygen extraction (CFOE) are abnormal. Digital EEG, recorded every day on the first 4 d after birth, were analyzed a) by automatic spectral analysis, b) by manual measurement of interburst interval, and c) qualitatively. CFOE and PBF measurements were performed using near-infrared spectroscopy and venous occlusion. MBP was measured using arterial catheters. The median (range) of MBP recorded was 32 mm Hg (16-46). The EEG became abnormal at MBP levels below 23 mm Hg: a) the relative power of the delta (0.5-3.5 Hz) frequency band was decreased, b) interburst intervals were prolonged, and c) all four qualitatively abnormal EEG (low amplitude and prolonged interburst intervals) from four different patients were recorded below this MBP level. The only abnormally high CFOE was measured at MBP of 20 mm Hg. PBF decreased at MBP levels between 23 and 33 mm Hg. None of the infants in this study developed cystic periventricular leukomalacia. One infant (MBP, 22 mm Hg) developed ventricular dilatation after intraventricular hemorrhage. The EEG and CFOE remained normal at MBP levels above 23 mm Hg. It would appear that cerebral perfusion is probably maintained at MBP levels above 23 mm Hg. PMID:16439599

  1. Diminished Reactivity of Postmature Human Infants to Sucrose Compared with Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of healthy 39-week-old infants, so-called term infants, and chronically stressed 42-week-old infants, so-called postmature infants, showed that sucrose was extremely effective in calming term infants but less effective in calming postmature infants. Results supported the hypothesis that sucrose engages an opioid system in infants. (BG)

  2. The Effects of Sound Duration on Newborns' Head Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Marsha G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Two experiments assessed the importance of sound duration for eliciting head orientation responses from newborn infants. Results suggest that newborns' head orientation response may reflect a motor program that is initiated by auditory input and then executed in a similar fashion regardless of further stimulation. (Author/AS)

  3. Bilateral ovarian cysts in a newborn: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lim, C T; Wong, K K; Yap, Y F; Sivanesaratnam, V

    1992-03-01

    Large ovarian cysts in the fetus are uncommon. Ultrasonography has helped in the detection of these cysts antenatally and in the newborn female infant. A case of bilateral ovarian cysts in a newborn is presented. The choice of management between conservative measures and surgical approaches remains controversial.

  4. A comparison of two interventions for HHHFNC in preterm infants weighing 1,000 to 1,500 g in the recovery period of newborn RDS

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghnia, Alireza; Badiei, Zohre; Talakesh, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nasal cannula, beside administering low-flow therapy, showed the capability for the administration of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) through high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). Meeting specific physical criteria of 100% relative humidity (RH) and temperature of 37°C are the basic interventional requirements to administer oxygen for the newborns through a nasal cannula. Recently, two systems, MR850 and PMH7000, received the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to administer heated, humidified HFNC (HHHFNC). These systems are evaluated in this study based on their humidifying and heating capabilities. Materials and Methods: This study was done as an RCT on newborns weighing 1,000 to 1,500 g recovering from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) while nCPAP was administered at CDP = 4 cmH2O, Fio2 <30%. Patients were randomized to two groups of 35 receiving HHHFNC after treatment with nCPAP, with one group using MR850 humidifier and the other PMH7000. The patients were compared according to the duration of HHHFNC administration, repeated need for nCPAP respiratory support, the need for invasive ventilation, apnea, chronic lung disease (CLD), nasal trauma, RH, and temperature of the gases. Results: The average time of support with HHHNFC did not show any significant difference in the two groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in the need for nCPAP, invasive ventilation, apnea, nasal trauma, and CLD. The difference in the levels of average temperature and humidity was significant (P value <0.001). Conclusion: Although the records of temperature and RH in the PMH7000 system was lower than the records from the MR850 system, no clinical priority was observed for respiratory support with HHHNFC in the two systems. PMID:25250286

  5. Acute diarrhea and rotavirus infection in newborn babies and children in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, from June 1978 to June 1979.

    PubMed

    Soenarto, Y; Sebodo, T; Ridho, R; Alrasjid, H; Rohde, J E; Bugg, H C; Barnes, G L; Bishop, R F

    1981-08-01

    A longitudinal study of acute diarrhea in children in Yogyakarta, Indonesia (June 1978 to June 1979), showed little variation throughout most months of the year in numbers of children admitted to hospital and in numbers infected with rotaviruses. Both decreased during November and December coincidentally with seasonal change from dry to wet conditions. Rotavirus particles were identified by electron microscopy in fecal specimens from 126 of 334 (38%) infants and children with acute diarrhea. Nosocomial rotavirus infections occurred in 11% of control children admitted to hospital for other reasons. Socioeconomic level and preexisting nutritional status did not influence the incidence of rotavirus excretion. Rotavirus infections were most common in children aged 6 to 24 months. There was a low incidence of infection in infants less than 6 months old. Rotavirus infection was seldom observed in newborn babies delivered in an urban hospital nursery, in a rural health center, or at home. One of 72 newborn babies with diarrhea excreted rotavirus. One of 53 healthy newborn babies excreted rotavirus. It is concluded that, in Indonesia, rotavirus infection is a major cause of childhood diarrhea throughout the year, but is an uncommon cause of diarrhea in newborn babies. PMID:6268656

  6. Milk fermented with yogurt cultures and Lactobacillus casei compared with yogurt and gelled milk: influence on intestinal microflora in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Danan, C; Chabanet, C; Pedone, C; Popot, F; Vaissade, P; Bouley, C; Szylit, O; Andrieux, C

    1998-01-01

    Ingestion of fermented dairy products induces changes in the equilibrium and metabolism of the intestinal microflora and may thus exert a healthful influence on the host. We compared the effects of consumption of a traditional yogurt, a milk fermented with yogurt cultures and Lactobacillus casei (YC), and a nonfermented gelled milk on the fecal microflora of healthy infants. Thirty-nine infants aged 10-18 mo were randomly assigned to one of three groups in which they received 125 g/d of one of the three products for 1 mo. The following indexes were not modified during the supplementation period or for 1 wk after the end of supplementation: total number of anaerobes, bifidobacteria, bacteroides, and enterobacteria; pH; water content; concentrations of acetate, butyrate, propionate, and lactate; and bacterial enzyme activity of beta-galactosidase and alpha-glucosidase. In contrast, in the yogurt group the number of enterococci in fecal samples increased (P < 0.05), whereas the percentage of branched-chain and long-chain fatty acids, which are markers of proteolytic fermentation, decreased (P < 0.05). In the YC group, the percentage of children with > 6 log10 colony-forming units lactobacilli/g feces increased (P < 0.05), whereas the potentially harmful enzyme activity of beta-glucuronidase and beta-glucosidase decreased (P < 0.05). These decreases were particularly marked in those infants in the YC group in whom activity of the enzymes was initially unusually high. PMID:9440384

  7. Longitudinal changes of bone ultrasound measurements in healthy infants during the first year of life: influence of gender and type of feeding.

    PubMed

    Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Viganò, Alessandra; Cafarelli, Laura; Pivetti, Valentina; Pogliani, Laura; Puzzovio, Maria; Mora, Stefano

    2011-10-01

    There is evidence suggesting that early events in life may predispose the adult to osteoporosis. We assessed bone status by quantitative ultrasonography in healthy neonates, and we report the changes occurring during the first year of life, according to the type of early feeding. We measured the speed of sound (SOS) of the left tibia in 116 full-term infants (0-9 days of age) and in their mothers (21-42 years of age). SOS values did not correlate with gestational age of the study subjects (r = 0.08) or anthropometric measurements. The SOS measurements of the mothers did not correlate with those of their children (r = 0.01). Fifty-seven infants had SOS measurements performed at 4 and 12 months. Twenty-five infants were exclusively breast-fed, 12 received formula milk from birth, and 20 received human and formula milk. SOS measurements at 4 months were comparable with those at baseline, whereas at 12 months they were significantly higher. No effect of type of feeding was observed, indicating that SOS changes may be independent of the type of early diet.

  8. Intersensory Interaction in Newborns: Modification of Visual Preferences Following Exposure to Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.; Turkewitz, Gerald

    1981-01-01

    Investigates intersensory interaction between auditory and visual stimulation in newborn infants. Following auditory stimulation, newborns' visual preferences for light patches of different intensity were examined. Results indicate that newborns attend to quantitative variations in stimulation and that these variations reflect both the objective…

  9. Microarray analysis reveals marked intestinal microbiota aberrancy in infants having eczema compared to healthy children in at-risk for atopic disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deviations in composition and diversity of intestinal microbiota in infancy have been associated with both the development and recurrence of atopic eczema. Thus, we decided to use a deep and global microarray-based method to characterize the diversity and temporal changes of the intestinal microbiota in infancy and to define specific bacterial signatures associated with eczema. Faecal microbiota at 6 and 18 months of age were analysed from 34 infants (15 with eczema and 19 healthy controls) selected from a prospective follow-up study based on the availability of faecal samples. The infants were originally randomized to receive either Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or placebo. Results Children with eczema harboured a more diverse total microbiota than control subjects as assessed by the Simpson’s reciprocal diversity index of the microarray profiles. Composition of the microbiota did not differ between study groups at age of 6 months, but was significantly different at age of 18 months as assessed by MCPP (p=0.01). At this age healthy children harboured 3 -fold greater amount of members of the Bacteroidetes (p=0.01). Microbiota of children suffering from eczema had increased abundance of the Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa, which are typically abundant in adults. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation in early infancy was observed to have minor long-term effects on the microbiota composition. Conclusion A diverse and adult-type microbiota in early childhood is associated with eczema and it may contribute to the perpetuation of eczema. PMID:23339708

  10. Rhinovirus wheezing illness in infancy is associated with medically attended third year wheezing in low risk infants: results of a healthy birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    de Winter, Janneke J H; Bont, Louis; Wilbrink, Berry; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Smit, Henriette A; Houben, Michiel L

    2015-12-01

    Rhinoviruses may be pathogens contributing to the development of childhood wheezing. However, their role in low risk infants without an asthmatic predisposition is unknown. Knowing which healthy, low risk children are at increased risk for childhood wheezing after rhinovirus wheezing illness (RV-WI) in infancy, might help in developing prevention and treatment strategies for childhood wheezing. The aim of this study was to determine the association of medically attended wheezing at the age of three with RV-WI in the first year of life in low risk children without parental asthma. In a low risk, prospective birth cohort study, we followed 181 healthy born children from birth through the third year of life. We considered children 'low risk' if neither parent had a doctor's diagnosis of asthma. We determined infant RV-WI by parent-reported wheezing (based on daily logs) and simultaneous molecular rhinovirus detection in the first year of life. Respiratory function and blood eosinophil count were both measured in the first month of life. The primary outcome, third year wheezing, was defined as the use of prescribed inhaled asthma medications together with a doctor's visit for respiratory symptoms in the third year of life. We calculated the association of RV-WI with medically attended third year wheezing and other known possible risk factors for wheezing at the age of three. Among low risk children, third year wheezing was observed in 7 out of 18 (39%) children with versus 10 out of 163 (6%) children without infant RV-WI (OR 9.7, 95% CI 3.1-33.5, P < 0.0001). The association between RV-WI and third year wheezing was unchanged after adjustment for potential confounders such as eosinophilia and atopic eczema. RV-WI is a robust and independent risk factor for third year wheezing in low risk children without parental asthma. Future research will identify and protect those children at increased risk for RV-WI.

  11. Three-Month-Olds, but Not Newborns, Prefer Own-Race Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, David J.; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Lee, Kang; Gibson, Alan; Smith, Michael; Ge, Liezhong; Pascalis, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    Adults are sensitive to the physical differences that define ethnic groups. However, the age at which we become sensitive to ethnic differences is currently unclear. Our study aimed to clarify this by testing newborns and young infants for sensitivity to ethnicity using a visual preference (VP) paradigm. While newborn infants demonstrated no…

  12. Maternal blood pressure in pregnancy and newborn irritability.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, J S; Woodson, R H; da Costa Woodson, E M

    1978-07-01

    The neonatal period is being recognized as an important period for the development of patterns of interaction between mother and infant, and infant state has been shown to have a significant impact on mother--infant interactions. A major dimension of infant state, with implications for this interaction and for the development of later behaviour disorders, is the infant's irritability. Research with Navajo, Malay, Chinese and Tamil mothers and infants showed that normal variation in maternal blood pressure during pregnancy was related to newborn irritability as assessed with the Brazelton Scale. This relationship is discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms.

  13. Seasonal and geographical variations in the growth rate of infants in China receiving increasing dosages of vitamin D supplements.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, E S; Ho, M L; Specker, B L; Falciglia, G; Shui, Q M; Yin, T A; Chen, X C

    1994-06-01

    In theory, sunshine exposure is sufficient to maintain normal vitamin D concentrations for the optimal growth of newborn infants. To determine whether season of birth, latitude (north v. south) and increasing dosages of vitamin D supplements would influence the growth rate for the first 6 months of life, 255 healthy fall-and spring-born infants from two northern and two southern cities in China were randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 400 IU of vitamin D a day. The study showed that season of birth and dose of vitamin D did not affect the growth rate of infants born in the same latitude, but a significant difference was found in the gain in length over the 6-month period between infants from the north and infants from the south (P = 0.0001). Regional differences among the Chinese people, other than sunshine exposure, may have influenced the difference in length gain.

  14. Healthy Children 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives Related to Mothers, Infants, Children, Adolescents, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This document is a compendium of approximately 170 national health promotion and disease prevention objectives affecting mothers, infants, children, adolescents, and youth. It offers a vision characterized by reductions of preventable death and disability, enhanced quality of life, and reduced disparities in the health status of the populations in…

  15. Noninvasive method of estimating human newborn regional cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, D.P.; Reivich, M.; Jaggi, J.; Obrist, W.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1982-12-01

    A noninvasive method of estimating regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in premature and full-term babies has been developed. Based on a modification of the /sup 133/Xe inhalation rCBF technique, this method uses eight extracranial NaI scintillation detectors and an i.v. bolus injection of /sup 133/Xe (approximately 0.5 mCi/kg). Arterial xenon concentration was estimated with an external chest detector. Cerebral blood flow was measured in 15 healthy, neurologically normal premature infants. Using Obrist's method of two-compartment analysis, normal values were calculated for flow in both compartments, relative weight and fractional flow in the first compartment (gray matter), initial slope of gray matter blood flow, mean cerebral blood flow, and initial slope index of mean cerebral blood flow. The application of this technique to newborns, its relative advantages, and its potential uses are discussed.

  16. Evaluation of RIT 4237 bovine rotavirus vaccine in newborn infants: correlation of vaccine efficacy to season of birth in relation to rotavirus epidemic period.

    PubMed

    Ruuska, T; Vesikari, T; Delem, A; André, F E; Beards, G M; Flewett, T H

    1990-01-01

    A single oral dose of bovine rotavirus vaccine RIT 4237 or placebo was given to 2 groups of 5-day-old infants, born in October 1984 (n = 244) and June 1985 (n = 245), who remained in follow-up for 2.8 and 2.0 years, respectively. The vaccine had no effect on the total number of detectable episodes of rotavirus diarrhoea: there were 22 cases in the vaccinees and 24 in the placebo recipients in the October group and 18 and 16 respectively in the June group. However, vaccination decreased significantly the clinical severity of rotavirus diarrhoea, as assessed by a numerical score 0-20; this vaccine effect was much greater in the infants born in October. The mean severity scores for vaccine and placebo recipients were 4.55 and 10.75 respectively in the October group (p less than 0.0001, t-test) and 8.2 and 11.6 respectively in the June group (p = 0.010, t-test). Vaccine-induced clinical protection against rotavirus diarrhoea did not correlate well with serological response after vaccination, but showed good correlation to the presence of rotavirus antibodies before the rotavirus epidemic season. It is concluded that bovine rotavirus vaccine is more efficacious when given immediately before the rotavirus epidemic season: the vaccine effect may be amplified by exposure to wild rotaviruses during the season.

  17. Clinical rounds in the well-baby nursery: treating jaundiced newborns.

    PubMed

    Maisels, M J

    1995-10-01

    rises despite adequate phototherapy, there must be a reason. Consider the possibility of an unrecognized hemolytic process. Provide timely follow-up. Infants discharged (as most are) before 48 hours should be seen by a health-care professional within 2 to 3 days of discharge. Don't ignore prolonged jaundice. About one in three normal breast-fed infants still will be clinically jaundiced when they are 2 weeks old (two thirds will be biochemically jaundiced). These infants all have indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Occasionally, however, an infant with prolonged jaundice has direct hyperbilirubinemia. In these infants, the diagnosis of biliary atresia or some other cause of cholestatic jaundice must be considered. If the infant is clinically jaundiced beyond age 2 weeks, you should: 1) check the newborn record to make sure that the metabolic screen for hypothyroidism is normal (congenital hypothyroidism is a cause of indirect hyperbilirubinemia), and 2) ask the mother about the color of the urine and stool. If the baby's stools are pale or the urine is dark yellow, you must get a direct bilirubin to rule out cholestasis. If there is direct hyperbilirubinemia, a urine dipstick will identify the presence of bile (bilirubin). If the color of the urine and stool are normal (by history), it is reasonable to follow the child for another week. However, any infant who is still jaundiced beyond age 3 weeks must have a measurement of direct bilirubin. Don't ignore severe jaundice. If the bilirubin is sufficiently elevated, kernicterus can occur in a healthy, breast-fed infant.

  18. Effect of oronasopharyngeal suction on arterial oxygen saturation in normal, term infants delivered vaginally: a prospective randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Modarres Nejad, V; Hosseini, R; Sarrafi Nejad, A; Shafiee, G

    2014-07-01

    Oronasopharyngeal suction (ONPS) with a suction bulb at birth is a traditional practice in the initial management of healthy infants in Iran and many other countries. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of oronasopharyngeal suction (ONPS) with those of no suction in normal, term newborns delivered vaginally. A total of 170 healthy term infants of first and single uncomplicated pregnancies, with clear amniotic fluid, vaginal delivery and cephalic presentation, enrolled in the trial during labour. Newborns were randomised into one of the two groups, according to the use of the ONPS procedure. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) levels, heart rates, blood gases of umbilical cord and Apgar scores were determined. The mean SaO2 values over the first and fifth min of birth were similar in the two groups. The maximum time to reach SaO2 of ≥ 92% was shorter in the no suction group. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean of heart rates, respiratory rates and Apgar scores between the groups. Apgar scores at 5 and 10 min were between 8 and 10 for all infants, respectively. Newborns receiving suction showed a statistically significant, lower mean partial carbon dioxide pressure (PCO2) and a significantly higher partial oxygen pressure (PO2) of umbilical artery. Although the differences were statistically significant, these were not considered clinically significant because values remained within normal ranges. According to this study, ONPS is not recommended as a routine procedure in normal, term infants delivered vaginally.

  19. Do we really know the pharmacodynamics of anaesthetics used in newborns, infants and children? A review of the experimental and clinical data on neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Bartkowska-Śniatkowska, Alicja; Rosada-Kurasińska, Jowita; Zielińska, Marzena; Bienert, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The practices of anaesthesiology and intensive therapy are difficult to imagine without sedation or general anaesthesia, regardless of whether the patient is a newborn, baby, child or adult. The relevant concerns for children are distinct from those for adults, primarily due to the effects of anatomical, physiological and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) differences, which become increasingly important in the brains of children as they develop. The process of central nervous system maturation in humans lasts for years, but its greatest activity (myelination and synaptogenesis) occurs during the fetal period and the first two years of life. Many experimental studies have demonstrated that exposure to anaesthetic drugs during this period can induce neurodegenerative changes in the central nervous systems of animals. The extrapolation of these results directly to humans must be performed with great caution, but anaesthesiologists around the world must begin to debate the safety of general anaesthesia in humans. Prospective trials should continue being carried out, and anaesthesia and surgery, delayed if possible among the smallest patients. The simultaneous use of different anaesthetics with the same potential neurotoxicities should also be avoided, potentially in favour of regional anaesthesia techniques, in this group of patients.

  20. Newborns' Face Recognition over Changes in Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turati, Chiara; Bulf, Hermann; Simion, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the origins of the ability to recognize faces despite rotations in depth. Four experiments are reported that tested, using the habituation technique, whether 1-to-3-day-old infants are able to recognize the invariant aspects of a face over changes in viewpoint. Newborns failed to recognize facial perceptual invariances…

  1. Newborn Screening for Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kasper S.

    2016-01-01

    Biliary atresia is the most common cause of pediatric end-stage liver disease and the leading indication for pediatric liver transplantation. Affected infants exhibit evidence of biliary obstruction within the first few weeks after birth. Early diagnosis and successful surgical drainage of bile are associated with greater survival with the child’s native liver. Unfortunately, because noncholestatic jaundice is extremely common in early infancy, it is difficult to identify the rare infant with cholestatic jaundice who has biliary atresia. Hence, the need for timely diagnosis of this disease warrants a discussion of the feasibility of screening for biliary atresia to improve outcomes. Herein, newborn screening for biliary atresia in the United States is assessed by using criteria established by the Discretionary Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children. Published analyses indicate that newborn screening for biliary atresia by using serum bilirubin concentrations or stool color cards is potentially life-saving and cost-effective. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and costs of potential screening strategies for early identification of biliary atresia in the United States. PMID:26620065

  2. Nearby Newborns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image shows six of the three-dozen 'ultraviolet luminous galaxies' spotted in our corner of the universe by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. These massive galaxies greatly resemble newborn galaxies that were common in the early universe. The discovery came as a surprise, because astronomers had thought that the universe's 'birth-rate' had declined, and that massive galaxies were no longer forming.

    The galaxies, located in the center of each panel, were discovered after the Galaxy Evolution Explorer scanned a large portion of the sky with its highly sensitive ultraviolet-light detectors. Because young stars pack most of their light into ultraviolet wavelengths, young galaxies appear to the Galaxy Evolution Explorer like diamonds in a field of stones. Astronomers mined for these rare 'gems' before, but missed them because they weren't able to examine a large enough slice of the sky. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer surveyed thousands of nearby galaxies before finding three-dozen newborns.

    While still relatively close in astronomical terms, these galaxies are far enough away to appear small to the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. Clockwise beginning from the upper left, they are called: GALEX_J232539.24+004507.1, GALEX_J231812.98-004126.1, GALEX_J015028.39+130858.5, GALEX_J021348.52+125951.3, GALEX_J143417.15+020742.5, GALEX_J020354.02-092452.5.

  3. Metabolomic profiling in blood from umbilical cords of low birth weight newborns

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Low birth weight has been linked to an increased risk to develop obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension in adult life, although the mechanisms underlying the association are not well understood. The objective was to determine whether the metabolomic profile of plasma from umbilical cord differs between low and normal birth weight newborns. Methods Fifty healthy pregnant women and their infants were selected. The eligibility criteria were being born at term and having a normal pregnancy. Pairs were grouped according to their birth weight: low birth weight (LBW, birth weight < 10th percentile, n = 20) and control (control, birth weight between the 75th-90th percentiles, n = 30). Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was used to generate metabolic fingerprints of umbilical cord plasma samples. Simultaneously, the metabolomic profiles of the mothers were analysed. The resulting data were subjected to chemometric, principal component and partial least squares discriminant analyses. Results Umbilical cord plasma from LBW and control newborns displayed a clearly differentiated metabolic profile. Seven metabolites were identified that discriminate the LBW from the control group. LBW newborns had lower levels of choline, proline, glutamine, alanine and glucose than did the control newborns, while plasma levels of phenylalanine and citrulline were higher in LBW newborns (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the two groups of mothers. Conclusions Low birth weight newborns display a differential metabolomic profile than those of normal birth weight, a finding not present in the mothers. The meaning and the potential utility of the findings as biomarkers of risk need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:22776444

  4. The effectiveness of video interaction guidance in parents of premature infants: A multicenter randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have consistently found a high incidence of neonatal medical problems, premature births and low birth weights in abused and neglected children. One of the explanations proposed for the relation between neonatal problems and adverse parenting is a possible delay or disturbance in the bonding process between the parent and infant. This hypothesis suggests that due to neonatal problems, the development of an affectionate bond between the parent and the infant is impeded. The disruption of an optimal parent-infant bond -on its turn- may predispose to distorted parent-infant interactions and thus facilitate abusive or neglectful behaviours. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) is expected to promote the bond between parents and newborns and is expected to diminish non-optimal parenting behaviour. Methods/design This study is a multi-center randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Video Interaction Guidance in parents of premature infants. In this study 210 newborn infants with their parents will be included: n = 70 healthy term infants (>37 weeks GA), n = 70 moderate term infants (32–37 weeks GA) which are recruited from maternity wards of 6 general hospitals and n = 70 extremely preterm infants or very low birth weight infants (<32 weeks GA) recruited by the NICU of 2 specialized hospitals. The participating families will be divided into 3 groups: a reference group (i.e. full term infants and their parents, receiving care as usual), a control group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving care as usual) and an intervention group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving VIG). The data will be collected during the first six months after birth using observations of parent-infant interactions, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Primary outcomes are the quality of parental bonding and parent-infant interactive behaviour. Parental secondary outcomes are (posttraumatic) stress symptoms

  5. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, more so than its epimer, has a linear relationship to leaner body composition across infancy in healthy term infants.

    PubMed

    Hazell, Tom J; Gallo, Sina; Berzina, Ilze; Vanstone, Catherine A; Rodd, Celia; Weiler, Hope A

    2014-10-01

    Vitamin D status positively associates with skeletal muscle mass and function in adolescents. The C-3 alpha epimer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (3-epi-25(OH)D3) is high in infants, yet the potential impacts of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 on skeletal muscle development are largely unexplored. The objective of this study was (i) to explore how the concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 track with body composition (lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM)) and (ii) to determine the association between 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 in infancy. Healthy breastfed infants (n = 132) were followed from 1 to 12 months of age as part of a vitamin D dose-response study (NCT00381914). Anthropometry and diet were assessed. Body composition was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations were evaluated using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 increased from 1 to 3 months of age and decreased thereafter (p < 0.05). Infants with 25(OH)D3 concentrations above 75 nmol/L did not have a higher LM (g or %; p > 0.273) than those below this cutoff. LM was not associated with 25(OH)D3, whereas LM% was positively associated with 25(OH)D3 (β = 0.03; CI: 0.01 to 0.06; p = 0.006), while accounting for sex, weight-for-age Z-score, protein and fat intake, and age. For FM, the variables accounting for a significant amount of the variation were plasma 25(OH)D3 concentration (β = -2.38; CI: -4.35, -0.41; p = 0.019), weight-for-age Z-score, protein and fat intake, and time. In healthy infants, higher vitamin D status associates with leaner body composition, though the effect is smaller in magnitude relative to growth.

  6. [Hepatitis B with a fatal outcome in a 3-month-old infant of a healthy chronic carrier mother].

    PubMed

    Le Luyer, B; Bastard, C; Devaux, A M; Ensel, P

    1983-01-01

    A 81 day old male infant developed an acute hepatitic failure and died shortly thereafter. Determinations of HBs antigen and antibody (AB) and HBeAg and AB were performed in the parents and sibling of the infected child. The mother and a sister were an asymptomatic carrier of HBsAg, the first HBeAg positive and the second HBeAB positive. An elder sibling was HBsAg and HBeAg positive in this serum. The father was anti-HBs positive. In the family of the sister, the man and two childs were HBsAg and anti-HBsAB negative. A new baby in the family of the propositus born and a combination of HB vaccine and HBIg (hepatite B immuno-globulin) was started at birth. Unfortunately the child died of S.D.I.S. (Sudden Death Infant Syndrome). The HB vaccine was immuno-genetic in this infant and the anti-HBs in the immuno-globulin M (IgM) was positive as in several adults controls. This case allow us to discuss vertical transmission of hepatitis B, the clinical aspect of neonatal hepatitis and the preventing HB infection by combinaison of HB vaccine and HBIg.

  7. The interfacility transport of critically ill newborns

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Hilary EA; Jefferies, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    The practice of paediatric/neonatal interfacility transport continues to expand. Transport teams have evolved into mobile intensive care units capable of delivering state-of-the-art critical care during paediatric and neonatal transport. While outcomes are best for high-risk infants born in a tertiary care setting, high-risk mothers often cannot be safely transferred. Their newborns may then have to be transported to a higher level of care following birth. The present statement reviews issues relating to transport of the critically ill newborn population, including personnel, team competencies, skills, equipment, systems and processes. Six recommendations for improving interfacility transport of critically ill newborns are highlighted, emphasizing the importance of regionalized care for newborns. PMID:26175564

  8. The interfacility transport of critically ill newborns.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Hilary Ea; Jefferies, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    The practice of paediatric/neonatal interfacility transport continues to expand. Transport teams have evolved into mobile intensive care units capable of delivering state-of-the-art critical care during paediatric and neonatal transport. While outcomes are best for high-risk infants born in a tertiary care setting, high-risk mothers often cannot be safely transferred. Their newborns may then have to be transported to a higher level of care following birth. The present statement reviews issues relating to transport of the critically ill newborn population, including personnel, team competencies, skills, equipment, systems and processes. Six recommendations for improving interfacility transport of critically ill newborns are highlighted, emphasizing the importance of regionalized care for newborns.

  9. Newborn jaundice and kernicterus--health and societal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Vinod K; Johnson, Lois H

    2003-05-01

    Kernicterus, a preventable injury to the brain from severe neonatal jaundice, has re-emerged in the United States as a public and societal health concern. Kernicterus, in its usually recognized form, causes devastating disabilities, including athetoid cerebral palsy and speech and hearing impairment. This condition not only ranks amongst the highest cost per new case (per CDCs Financial Burden of Disability study, 1992), but also results in profound and uncompromising grief for the family and loss to siblings of healthy, talkative playmates. And for the child with kernicterus (usually remarkably intelligent, but trapped in an uncontrollable body), grief and frustration are enormous. In 2001 national healthcare organizations, including Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JACHO) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued alerts to all accredited hospitals and public health professionals in the United States that all healthy infants are at potential risk of kernicterus if their newborn jaundice is unmonitored and inadequately treated. The re-emergence of kernicterus in the United States is the result of interacting phenomena including (a) Early hospital discharge (before extent of jaundice is known and signs of impending brain damage have appeared); (b) Lack of adequate concern for the risks of severe jaundice in healthy term and near newborns; (c) An increase in breast feeding; (d) Medical care cost constraints; (e) Paucity of educational materials to enable parents to participate in safeguarding their newborns; and (f) Limitations within in healthcare systems to monitor the outpatient progression of jaundice. A multidisciplinary approach that encompasses both healthcare and societal needs should be evaluated at a national level for practical and easy to implement strategies. An approach that is based on principles of evidence-based medicine, patient-safety and family centeredness is

  10. Probing the Mechanism of Oscillations in Newborn Motor Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Steven S.

    1993-01-01

    Cyclical fluctuation in spontaneous motor activity (CM) emerges in fetus and persists in newborn. This "resetting" experiment perturbed CM by noise stimulus during infants' active sleep. Pre- and postperturbation CM were measured and compared. Subjects were 33 infants between 1 and 3 days of age. The stimulus induced a relative slowing of CM…

  11. Genetic and epigenetic variation of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) in placenta and infant neurobehavior.

    PubMed

    Bromer, Cailey; Marsit, Carmen J; Armstrong, David A; Padbury, James F; Lester, Barry

    2013-11-01

    The intrauterine environment can impact the developing infant by altering the function of the placenta through changes to the epigenetic regulatory features of this tissue. Genetic variation, too, may impact infant development or may modify the relationship between epigenetic alterations and infant outcomes. To examine the associations of these variations with early life infant neurodevelopment, we examined the extent of DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) promoter and a common single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region in a series of 186 placentas from healthy newborn infants. We associated these molecular features with specific summary measures from the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scales. After controlling for genotype and confounders, we identified significant associations of NR3C1 methylation with infant quality of movement (p = .05) and with infant attention (p = .05), and a potential interaction between methylation and genotype on infant attention score. These results suggest that epigenetic alteration of the NR3C1 gene in the placentas of genetically susceptible infants can have impacts on neurodevelopment which may have lifelong impact on neurobehavioral and mental health outcomes. Further research is needed to more precisely define these relationships and the interaction between epigenetic alterations and genetic variations on infant health.

  12. Genetic and epigenetic variation of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) in placenta and infant neurobehavior.

    PubMed

    Bromer, Cailey; Marsit, Carmen J; Armstrong, David A; Padbury, James F; Lester, Barry

    2013-11-01

    The intrauterine environment can impact the developing infant by altering the function of the placenta through changes to the epigenetic regulatory features of this tissue. Genetic variation, too, may impact infant development or may modify the relationship between epigenetic alterations and infant outcomes. To examine the associations of these variations with early life infant neurodevelopment, we examined the extent of DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) promoter and a common single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region in a series of 186 placentas from healthy newborn infants. We associated these molecular features with specific summary measures from the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scales. After controlling for genotype and confounders, we identified significant associations of NR3C1 methylation with infant quality of movement (p = .05) and with infant attention (p = .05), and a potential interaction between methylation and genotype on infant attention score. These results suggest that epigenetic alteration of the NR3C1 gene in the placentas of genetically susceptible infants can have impacts on neurodevelopment which may have lifelong impact on neurobehavioral and mental health outcomes. Further research is needed to more precisely define these relationships and the interaction between epigenetic alterations and genetic variations on infant health. PMID:22714792

  13. Newborn cord care practices in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Susan; Norr, Kathleen; Sankar, Girija; Sipsma, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Newborn cord infections commonly lead to neonatal sepsis and death, particularly in low-resource countries where newborns may receive unhygienic cord care. Topical application of chlorhexidine to the newborn's cord has been shown to prevent infection. Such benefits may be particularly important in Haiti. We explored current cord care practices by conducting a qualitative study using five focus groups among key community stakeholders (mothers of newborns/children under age two years, pregnant women, traditional birth attendants, community health workers, traditional healers) in Petit-Goâve, Haiti. Data collection was guided by the Health Belief Model. Results suggest community stakeholders recognise that infants are susceptible to cord infection and that cord infection is a serious threat to newborns. Long-held traditional cord care practices are potential barriers to adopting a new cord care intervention. However, all groups acknowledged that traditional practices could be harmful to the newborn while expressing a willingness to adopt practices that would protect the newborn. Results demonstrate potential acceptability for altering traditional cord care practices among neonatal caretakers in Haiti. An informational campaign designed to educate local health workers and new mothers to eliminate unhygienic cord applications while promoting chlorhexidine application may be a strong approach for preventing neonatal cord infections.

  14. Antagonistic Characteristics Against Food-borne Pathogenic Bacteria of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria Isolated from Feces of Healthy Thai Infants

    PubMed Central

    Uraipan, Supansa; Hongpattarakere, Tipparat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food-borne pathogens are among the most significant problems in maintaining the health of people. Many probiotics have been widely reported to alleviate and protect against gastrointestinal infections through antibacterial secretion. However, the majority of them cannot always play antagonistic roles under gut conditions. Probiotic bacteria of human origin must possess other protective mechanisms to survive, out-compete intestinal flora and to successfully establish in their new host at a significant level. Objectives: Probiotic characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria isolated from the feces of Thai infants were primarily investigated in terms of gastric acid and bile resistances, antibacterial activity and mucin adhesion ability. Antagonistic interaction through secretion of antibacterial compounds and competitive exclusion against food-borne pathogens were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: Culturable LAB and bifidobacteria were isolated from feces of Thai infants. Their ability to withstand gastric acid and bile were then evaluated. Acid and bile salt tolerant LAB and bifidobacteria were identified. They were then further assessed according to their antagonistic interactions through antibacterial secretion, mucin adhesion and competitive mucin adhesion against various food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Results: Gastric acid and bile tolerant LAB and bifidobacteria isolated from healthy infant feces were identified and selected according to their antagonistic interaction against various food-borne pathogenic bacteria. These antagonistic probiotics included four strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two strains of L. casei, five strains of L. plantarum, two strains of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum and three strains of B. bifidum. All strains of the selected LAB inhibited all pathogenic bacteria tested through antibacterial secretion, while bifidobacteria showed high level of competitive exclusion against the pathogenic

  15. Prevalence rates of otitis media with effusion from 0 to 2 years of age: healthy-born versus high-risk-born infants.

    PubMed

    Engel, J; Anteunis, L; Volovics, A; Hendriks, J; Marres, E

    1999-03-15

    In a prospective-longitudinal study, prevalence rates of otitis media with effusion (OME) were analysed in 150 healthy-born and 100 high-risk-born infants, aged 0-2 years. In order to determine OME, otoscopy and tympanometry were performed at 3-monthly intervals beginning at term date. The Maastricht Otitis Media with Effusion Study (MOMES) algorithm was used to standardize the diagnosis. The distribution of relevant background characteristics was similar in both groups except for gestational age and birth weight, which were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the high-risk-born group. The ratio of unilateral:bilateral OME was 2:3. Prevalence rates of OME were strongly associated with age (P < 0.001). During the first months of life, OME prevalence rates increased rapidly in both groups, but did not differ significantly. However, from the age of 6 months on, OME prevalence rates of the high-risk group became significantly higher compared with the normal group (P < 0.05). The peak prevalence of OME (59% in the high-risk group versus 49% in the normal group) was observed around the age of 10 months. Although gradually decreasing prevalence rates were noted in both groups with aging, the differences between high-risk and normal infants remained, at least up to 24 months. In conclusion, OME is a very prevalent, age-dependent disorder during infancy, especially in high-risk infants. Peak prevalence of OME was found in the second half of the first year of life.

  16. [Transport of "high-risk" newborn infants. (Apropos of 159 emergency calls by the SAMU 94-Service d'Aide Médicale Urgente-Emergency Health Service)].

    PubMed

    Scheyer, M; Iannascoli, F; Brioude, R; Canet, J

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of our experience confirms in the domain of the newborn the fundamental notion of the Emergency medical call. The EMC has two objectives: 1--Emergency treatment before the patient is moved, and the correction of failing vital functions by a medical team skilled in problems of neonates. 2--Transportation of the neonate in a stable condition, to the Intensive Care unit. The quality of such transportation depends closely upon the quality of the medical care given and upon organisation. It can only be carried out in the context of a system coordinated by a "coordinating physician" (e.g. SAMU 94). This coordinating physician has responsibility for logistics, telephone coordination, and application of the call procedure as rapidly as possible. From a logistical point of view, only coordination between:--SAMU-SMUR;--Medical team of the Intensive care unit;--Requesting service make possible the provision and quality of continuous supplies of oxygen, warmth, sugar - all under aseptic conditions, indispensable to the quality of survival of the neonate. In addition, we feel it essential--that the delay before the call is answered be as brief as possible;--that the call should be dealt with by a mixed team, including at least one physician experienced in neonatal problems;--that the choice of vehicle used for transportation should be better adapted to the situation. This choice is the responsibility of the coordinating physician, who should base his decisions on two fundamental requirements:--rapidity of dealing with the call;--personal safety of those involved. This without losing sight of--Prevention of perinatal problems lies part with the detection of high risk pregnancies, with the aim of arranging delivery in specialised "mother and baby" centres where close collaboration between obstetrician and paediatrician is assured.--The development of transportation of the "high-risk" neonate, which is so costly in manpower and equipment, depends closely upon general

  17. Development of a novel long-range 16S rRNA universal primer set for metagenomic analysis of gastrointestinal microbiota in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Ku, Hye-Jin; Lee, Ju-Hoon

    2014-06-28

    Metagenomic analysis of the human intestinal microbiota has extended our understanding of the role of these bacteria in improving human intestinal health; however, a number of reports have shown that current total fecal DNA extraction methods and 16S rRNA universal primer sets could affect the species coverage and resolution of these analyses. Here, we improved the extraction method for total DNA from human fecal samples by optimization of the lysis buffer, boiling time (10 min), and bead-beating time (0 min). In addition, we developed a new longrange 16S rRNA universal PCR primer set targeting the V6 to V9 regions with a 580 bp DNA product length. This new 16S rRNA primer set was evaluated by comparison with two previously developed 16S rRNA universal primer sets and showed high species coverage and resolution. The optimized total fecal DNA extraction method and newly designed long-range 16S rRNA universal primer set will be useful for the highly accurate metagenomic analysis of adult and infant intestinal microbiota with minimization of any bias.

  18. Newborn screening for Krabbe's disease.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Joseph J; Saavedra-Matiz, Carlos A; Gelb, Michael H; Caggana, Michele

    2016-11-01

    Live newborn screening for Krabbe's disease (KD) was initiated in New York on August 7, 2006, and started in Missouri in August, 2012. As of August 7, 2015, nearly 2.5 million infants had been screened, and 443 (0.018%) infants had been referred for followup clinical evaluation; only five infants had been determined to have KD. As of August, 2015, the combined incidence of infantile KD in New York and Missouri is ∼1 per 500,000; however, patients who develop later-onset forms of KD may still emerge. This Review provides an overview of the processes used to develop the screening and followup algorithms. It also includes updated results from screening and discussion of observations, lessons learned, and suggested areas for improvement that will reduce referral rates and the number of infants defined as at risk for later-onset forms of KD. Although current treatment options for infants with early-infantile Krabbe's disease are not curative, over time treatment options should improve; in the meantime, it is essential to evaluate the lessons learned and to ensure that screening is completed in the best possible manner until these improvements can be realized. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27638592

  19. HLA-DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 genotype and frequency of enterovirus in longitudinal monthly fecal samples from healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Witsø, Elisabet; Cinek, Ondrej; Tapia, German; Rasmussen, Trond; Stene, Lars C; Rønningen, Kjersti S

    2012-06-01

    Enterovirus infections may be involved in the etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D), which is strongly associated with certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II haplotypes. Our aim was to assess whether HLA genotypes conferring varying degrees of risk for T1D were associated with enterovirus gut infections. From the general Norwegian population, 190 healthy infants at high-risk for T1D (DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2), and 383 infants without this genotype were identified. Non-DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2 genotypes were further categorized as conferring either an increased-to-moderate risk (DR4-DQ8 or DR3-DQ2), were protective (DQB1*06:02), or were neutral (all other genotypes). A total of 4626 monthly fecal samples taken between age 3 and 12 mo were tested for enterovirus RNA using real-time PCR. Enterovirus prevalence was 11.5% among high-risk children, and 12.2% in other children (adjusted odds ratio: 1.23, p=0.12). The prevalence was 11.3% in those with increased-to-moderate risk, 13.0% in the protective group, and 12.6% in the neutral group (likelihood ratio test, 3 d.f.: p=0.37). In conclusion, there was no statistically significant association between HLA genotype and the occurrence of human enterovirus gut infections. PMID:22691100

  20. Relationships Between Neonatal Characteristics and Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Danzger, Barbara

    A total of 51 mothers and their newborn infants were studied in order to evaluate the relationship between neonatal style and the early mother-infant relationship. The procedure included an infant assessment with the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale, a mother-infant interaction observation during feeding, and an interview concerning maternal…

  1. Fronto-cerebellar systems are associated with infant motor and adult executive functions in healthy adults but not in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ridler, Khanum; Veijola, Juha M; Tanskanen, Päivikki; Miettunen, Jouko; Chitnis, Xavier; Suckling, John; Murray, Graham K; Haapea, Marianne; Jones, Peter B; Isohanni, Matti K; Bullmore, Edward T

    2006-10-17

    Delineating longitudinal relationships between early developmental markers, adult cognitive function, and adult brain structure could clarify the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. We aimed to identify brain structural correlates of infant motor development (IMD) and adult executive function in nonpsychotic adults and to test for abnormal associations between these measures in people with schizophrenia. Representative samples of nonpsychotic adults (n = 93) and people with schizophrenia (n = 49) were drawn from the Northern Finland 1966 general population birth cohort. IMD was prospectively assessed at age 1 year; executive function testing and MRI were completed at age 33-35 years. We found that earlier motor development in infancy was correlated with superior executive function in nonpsychotic subjects. Earlier motor development was also normally associated with increased gray matter density in adult premotor cortex, striatum, and cerebellum and increased white matter density in frontal and parietal lobes. Adult executive function was normally associated with increased gray matter density in a fronto-cerebellar system that partially overlapped, but was not identical to, the gray matter regions normally associated with IMD. People with schizophrenia had relatively delayed IMD and impaired adult executive function in adulthood. Furthermore, they demonstrated no normative associations between fronto-cerebellar structure, IMD, or executive function. We conclude that frontal cortico-cerebellar systems correlated with adult executive function are anatomically related to systems associated with normal infant motor development. Disruption of this anatomical system may underlie both the early developmental and adult cognitive abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  2. Immunogenicity of Yellow Fever Vaccine Coadministered With MenAfriVac in Healthy Infants in Ghana and Mali

    PubMed Central

    Roy Chowdhury, Panchali; Meier, Christian; Laraway, Hewad; Tang, Yuxiao; Hodgson, Abraham; Sow, Samba O.; Enwere, Godwin C.; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Niedrig, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background. Yellow fever (YF) is still a major public health problem in endemic regions of Africa and South America. In Africa, one of the main control strategies is routine vaccination within the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). A new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) is about to be introduced in the EPI of countries in the African meningitis belt, and this study reports on the immunogenicity of the YF-17D vaccines in infants when administered concomitantly with measles vaccine and PsA-TT. Methods. Two clinical studies were conducted in Ghana and in Mali among infants who received PsA-TT concomitantly with measles and YF vaccines at 9 months of age. YF neutralizing antibody titers were measured using a microneutralization assay. Results. In both studies, the PsA-TT did not adversely affect the immune response to the concomitantly administered YF vaccine at the age of 9 months. The magnitude of the immune response was different between the 2 studies, with higher seroconversion and seroprotection rates found in Mali vs Ghana. Conclusions. Immunogenicity to YF vaccine is unaffected when coadministered with PsA-TT at 9 months of age. Further studies are warranted to better understand the determinants of the immune response to YF vaccine in infancy. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN82484612 (PsA-TT-004); PACTR201110000328305 (PsA-TT-007). PMID:26553692

  3. Prebiotics in healthy infants and children for prevention of acute infectious diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lohner, Szimonetta; Küllenberg, Daniela; Antes, Gerd; Decsi, Tamás; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2014-08-01

    Prebiotics, defined as nondigestible dietary ingredients resistant to gastric acidity and fermented by the intestinal flora, are used to positively influence the composition of intestinal flora, thereby promoting health benefits. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of prebiotics in the prevention of acute infectious diseases in children. A systematic literature search was conducted using the Ovid Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library's Central databases. Finally, five randomized controlled trials, all of them investigating infants and children 0-24 months of age, were included in the review. Pooled estimates from three studies revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of infectious episodes requiring antibiotic therapy in the prebiotic group as compared with the placebo group (rate ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.77). Studies available indicate that prebiotics may also be effective in decreasing the rate of overall infections in infants and children 0-24 months of age. Further studies in the age group 3-18 years are required to determine whether prebiotics can be considered for the prevention of acute infectious diseases in the older pediatric population.

  4. Successful orthotopic liver transplantation and delayed delivery of a healthy newborn in a woman with fulminant hepatic failure during the second trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mendizabal, Manuel; Rowe, Carlos; Piñero, Federico; Gonzalez-Campaña, Ariel; Fauda, Martín; Tomás Arufe, Diego; Pía Raffa, María; Barreiro, Mariano; Keller, Rodolfo; Cacheiro, Fernando; Beruti, Ernesto; Andriani, Oscar; Oscar Silva, Marcelo; Podestá, Luis Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Severe liver dysfunction during pregnancy implies a serious risk for both mother and fetus, and represents a technical and ethical challenge for treating physicians. We report a case of a previously healthy 32-year old woman who was admitted to our hospital with idiopathic fulminant hepatic failure and underwent successful orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) at gestation week 21. Patient's and fetus' immediate postoperative course were relatively uneventful until week six after OLT, when the mother developed oligohydramnios and preeclampsia. At pregnancy week 27, after inducing baby's lung maturation, a cesarean section was performed with the delivery of an otherwise healthy girl. After 3 years of follow-up, mother and child are leading normal lives with no complications related either to pregnancy or to OLT. We describe the case of a successful emergency liver transplant in a woman during the second trimester of pregnancy, demonstrating that OLT can be a viable option to preserve the life of the mother and an otherwise unviable fetus. Intrauterine baby's growths until the attainment of a viable gestational age was feasible despite the mother's fulminant hepatic failure and liver transplant surgery.

  5. Safety of Sildenafil in Infants*

    PubMed Central

    Samiee-Zafarghandy, Samira; Smith, P. Brian; van den Anker, Johannes N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In view of the recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s warning against the use of sildenafil in pediatric patients, we aimed to provide an updated overview of the dosing and safety of sildenafil in infants and to explore the relevance of the present safety concerns to the infant population. Data Source The National Library of Medicine PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched using the following terms: Sildenafil AND (infant OR infants OR newborn OR newborns OR child OR children OR childhood OR pediatric OR pediatrics OR paediatric OR paediatrics). Study Selection Studies presenting original clinical data regarding the dosing, use, or safety of sildenafil in infants with pulmonary hypertension would be included. Data Extraction Of the 49 included studies, case reports and case series were the most common type of publications (n = 25). The identified trials included 625 children, with more than 140 infants. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and pulmonary hypertension associated with other conditions were the most common underlying diagnoses. Conclusion There is currently no evidence of serious adverse event in infants exposed to sildenafil. Present safety concerns regarding the use of sildenafil in pediatric patients should be further explored before being applied to infant population. Sildenafil remains a valuable option for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in young infants. Prospective studies should be designed in such a way that they include a safety assessment to evaluate potential adverse outcomes of sildenafil therapy in this population. PMID:24583505

  6. Birth of healthy infant through testicular sperms using conventional in vitro fertilisation technique--a case report.

    PubMed

    Kotia, Namita; Swarankar, M L; Bafna, Neelam; Soni, R R

    2011-12-01

    We present a case of birth of healthy normal baby through testicular sperms using standard in vitro fertilisation technique. Fertilisation and cleavage from testicular sperms by conventional in vitro fertilisation has been documented. Here a case of a 28-year-old lady presented with 4 years primary infertility is reported.

  7. Newborn care and safety: the black box of obstetric practices and residency training.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Erin E; Haas, Susan; Lauria, Michele R

    2012-09-01

    Certain causes of newborn mortality such as sudden unexpected infant death, which includes sleep-related infant death and sudden unexplained infant death syndrome, are potentially preventable. Obstetricians are uniquely positioned to counsel new parents about safe practices regarding newborn sleep, feeding, and transportation. Patients often do not develop a relationship with their pediatricians until the neonate has been discharged, and the newborn period is a time of particular vulnerability. Newborn safety should be routinely taught in obstetric curricula, and the American College/Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) should partner to disseminate updated literature and guidelines to health care providers regarding newborn safety. Current guidelines from the Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Sudden Infant Syndrome are summarized in this article. PMID:22914475

  8. Angiogenesis Dysregulation in Term Asphyxiated Newborns Treated with Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Henna; Boudes, Elodie; Khoja, Zehra; Shevell, Michael; Wintermark, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal encephalopathy following birth asphyxia is a major predictor of long-term neurological impairment. Therapeutic hypothermia is currently the standard of care to prevent brain injury in asphyxiated newborns but is not protective in all cases. More robust and versatile treatment options are needed. Angiogenesis is a demonstrated therapeutic target in adult stroke. However, no systematic study examines the expression of angiogenesis-related markers following birth asphyxia in human newborns. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the expression of angiogenesis-related protein markers in asphyxiated newborns developing and not developing brain injury compared to healthy control newborns. Design/Methods Twelve asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia were prospectively enrolled; six developed eventual brain injury and six did not. Four healthy control newborns were also included. We used Rules-Based Medicine multi-analyte profiling and protein array technologies to study the plasma concentration of 49 angiogenesis-related proteins. Mean protein concentrations were compared between each group of newborns. Results Compared to healthy newborns, asphyxiated newborns not developing brain injury showed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic proteins, including fatty acid binding protein-4, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, neuropilin-1, and receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3; this up-regulation was not evident in asphyxiated newborns eventually developing brain injury. Also, asphyxiated newborns developing brain injury showed a decreased expression of anti-angiogenic proteins, including insulin-growth factor binding proteins -1, -4, and -6, compared to healthy newborns. Conclusions These findings suggest that angiogenesis pathways are dysregulated following birth asphyxia and are putatively involved in brain injury pathology and recovery. PMID:25996847

  9. Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1) in Placenta Is Associated with Infant Cry Acoustics

    PubMed Central

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Righi, Giulia; Marsit, Carmen J.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms regulating expression of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) promoter may influence behavioral and biological aspects of stress response in human infants. Acoustic features of infant crying are an indicator of neurobehavioral and neurological status not yet investigated in relation to epigenetic mechanisms. We examined NR3C1 methylation in placental tissue from a series of 120 healthy newborn infants in relation to a detailed set of acoustic features extracted from newborn infant cries. We identified significant associations of NR3C1 methylation with energy variation in infants' cries as well as with the presence of very high fundamental frequency in cry utterances. The presence of high fundamental frequency in cry (above 1 kHz) has been linked to poor vocal tract control, poor regulation of stress response, and may be an indicator or poor neurobehavioral integrity. Thus, these results add to evidence linking epigenetic alteration of the NR3C1 gene in the placenta to neurodevelopmental features in infants. PMID:27313516

  10. Vitamin K-dependent coagulation parameters during the first six days of life: incidence of PIVKA II in newborns.

    PubMed

    Boos, J; Pollmann, H; Dominick, H C

    1989-01-01

    The vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of the prothrombin precursor PIVKA II (protein induced by vitamin K absence analogous to Factor II) is essential for the synthesis of prothrombin. The noncarboxylated precursor is found in peripheral blood in the presence of vitamin K deficiency. In this study prothrombin time, Factor II and Factor VII activity, and PIVKA II were investigated in 57 newborns without vitamin K prophylaxis in order to assess their vitamin K status. Two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis demonstrated the presence of PIVKA II in 21% of the newborns, predominantly on the second day. The PIVKA-II positive group showed significantly lower prothrombin times than the PIVKA II-negative group. An oral dose of 3 mg vitamin K (Konakion) was administered to 35 healthy newborns in a second group with the first feeding. On the second day of life, these infants showed significantly higher vitamin K-dependent laboratory parameters than the group not given vitamin K; only 9% of the treated infants were positive for PIVKA II.

  11. Infant Perception of Visually Presented Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, T. G. R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A previously-reported experiment designed to determine if newborn infants can distinguish between an object and a picture of that object is flawed. The experimental design and an improved design are discussed. (BB)

  12. Behavioural Development in Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and Human Newborns across the First Month of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallock, Martha B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports comparisons of behaviors of nine chimpanzee and nine human newborns on a standardized human neonatal assessment scale at the ages of three days and one month. Human infants scored higher than chimpanzee infants on the orientation cluster at both ages, but were lower than chimpanzee infants in motoric maturity. (RJC)

  13. Gut microbiome in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs from that in healthy comparison babies and offers an explanation for the risk factor of prone position.

    PubMed

    Highet, Amanda R; Berry, Anne M; Bettelheim, Karl A; Goldwater, Paul N

    2014-07-01

    The role of bacteria in the causation of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is gaining acceptance. Mainstream research favouring respiratory compromise has failed to provide a plausible pathogenetic mechanism despite many years of investigation and thousands of research papers. Bacterial colonisation of the colon of the human infant is influenced by many factors including age, mode of delivery, diet, environment, and antibiotic exposure. The gut microbiome influences development of the immune system. The gut microflora could be important in protection against the bacteria and/or their toxins purportedly involved in SIDS pathogenesis. The aim was to perform a preliminary investigation of the gut microflora in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) compared with live comparison babies. The intestinal contents from 52 SIDS, and 102 faecal samples from age-matched live comparison infants were screened by PCR to target 16s RNA genes of Clostridium innocuum, Cl. Perfringens, Cl. difficile, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Staphylococcus aureus. Gut colonisation of the babies with these bacteria was analysed in relation to age, gender and type of feeding; and for SIDS babies sleeping position. Cl. difficile, Cl. innocuum and B. thetaiotaomicron were significantly associated with SIDS with 25%, 46% and 30% of cases PCR positive for these respective bacteria compared with only 6%, 23% and 8.8% respectively in the comparison group. SIDS babies had dual colonisation by both Cl. perfringens and Cl. difficile significantly more often than comparison babies and also with triple colonisation by Cl. perfringens, Cl. difficile and Cl. innocuum. SIDS babies were more often colonised by S. aureus than comparison babies. In addition, SIDS babies found prone were significantly more likely to be colonised by S. aureus than for other positions recorded (OR = ∞; CI = 2·04 - ∞). No significant differences between breast and bottle-fed SIDS babies was observed in regard to each

  14. Immunogenicity and safety of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine delivered by disposable-syringe jet injector in healthy Brazilian infants: a randomized non-inferiority study.

    PubMed

    de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; Curran, Birute; Maia, Maria de Lourdes Sousa; Ribeiro, Maria das Graças Tavares; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Siqueira, Marilda Mendonça; Lemos, Maria Cristina F; de Albuquerque, Elizabeth Maciel; von Doellinger, Vanessa dos Reis; Homma, Akira; Saganic, Laura; Jarrahian, Courtney; Royals, Michael; Zehrung, Darin

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine if immunogenicity to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine delivered to infants via a disposable-syringe jet injector (DSJI) was non-inferior to that administered by needle and syringe (NS). Vaccination safety was evaluated, as were the use, performance, and acceptability of each delivery method. The DSJI was the PharmaJet 2009 generation-1 device (G1) and the vaccine was measles-mumps-rubella vaccine from Bio-Manguinhos. Five hundred eighty-two healthy Brazilian infants were randomized to receive vaccine via G1 or NS. Seroconversion rates against measles and mumps viruses in the G1 treatment group did not meet non-inferiority criteria when compared with the NS group; however, responses in the G1 group to rubella virus were non-inferior to those of NS vaccinees. Most adverse events were mild or moderate. Crying after injection was more frequent in the NS group, and local skin reactions were more common in the G1 group. Five serious adverse events were judged causally unrelated to treatment and all resolved. Parents/guardians expressed a strong preference for G1 over NS for their children. Vaccinators found the G1 easy to use but noted incomplete vaccine delivery in some cases. Although the G1 has been superseded by an updated device, our results are important for the continued improvement and evaluation of DSJIs, which have the potential to overcome many of the challenges and risks associated with needle-based injections worldwide. Recommendations for future DSJI clinical studies include rigorous training of vaccinators, quantitative measurement of wetness on the skin following injection, and regular monitoring of device and vaccinator performance.

  15. Exceptional Infant: Studies in Abnormalities, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellmuth, Jerome, Ed.

    Designed as a complement to Volume 1 on the normal infant (available as EC 003 414), the text examines the following areas: neurological examination of the newborn, neurobehavioral organization of the newborn, neuropsychology examinations in young children, learning of motor skills on the basis of self-induced movements, factors in vulnerability…

  16. Feeding Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... you choose to breastfeed or formula feed. About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding your newborn has many advantages. Perhaps most ... to care for her newborn. continue Limitations of Breastfeeding With all the good things known about breastfeeding, ...

  17. Newborn Capabilities: Parent Teaching Is a Necessity

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2004-01-01

    Parent-infant communication has long-lasting effects on the development of a peaceful and healthy child, adult, and society. Childbirth education classes offer the perfect setting for teaching parents how to recognize and respond to their infant's cues. This column provides a list of potential learning tasks for parents and their infants in order to facilitate and improve the basis of effective communication. PMID:17273411

  18. Introduction of a method for quantitative evaluation of spontaneous motor activity development with age in infants.

    PubMed

    Disselhorst-Klug, Catherine; Heinze, Franziska; Breitbach-Faller, Nico; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Rau, Günter

    2012-04-01

    Coordination between perception and action is required to interact with the environment successfully. This is already trained by very young infants who perform spontaneous movements to learn how their body interacts with the environment. The strategies used by the infants for this purpose change with age. Therefore, very early progresses in action control made by the infants can be investigated by monitoring the development of spontaneous motor activity. In this paper, an objective method is introduced, which allows the quantitative evaluation of the development of spontaneous motor activity in newborns. The introduced methodology is based on the acquisition of spontaneous movement trajectories of the feet by 3D movement analysis and subsequent calculation of specific movement parameters from them. With these movement-based parameters, it was possible to provide an objective description of age-dependent developmental steps in healthy newborns younger than 6 months. Furthermore, it has been shown that pathologies like infantile cerebral palsy influence development of motor activity significantly. Since the introduced methodology is objective and quantitative, it is suitable to monitor how newborns train their cognitive processes, which will enable them to cope with their environment by motor interaction.

  19. Safety aspects in preparation and handling of infant food.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Powdered infant formula (PIF) can become contaminated during production with harmful bacteria such as Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii). Inadequate conditions of preparation and handling of PIF can therefore exacerbate the risk of severe infection, especially in preterm infants. The WHO emphasized three main interventions for preparation and handling of PIF: (1) to dilute the powdered milk in water at a temperature of at least 70°C to inactivate Cronobacter spp.; (2) to consume milk right after each preparation, and (3) to store reconstituted milk at <5°C. The European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) and the French Food Safety Agency (Afssa) disagree with the heating process because of possible adverse effects on nutrients and the risk of severe burns. In home settings, PIF should be prepared fresh for each meal and be kept warm in bottle warmers or thermos bottles. In institutional settings, written guidelines for preparation and handling of PIF should be established. The use of sterile liquid formula is encouraged for healthy newborn infants in maternity wards; PIF should be prepared on a daily basis. Safe infant feeding involves the production of microbiologically cleaner infant formula by industry, and both education and support for the caregivers in preparing and handling the formula. PMID:22699771

  20. Safety aspects in preparation and handling of infant food.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Powdered infant formula (PIF) can become contaminated during production with harmful bacteria such as Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii). Inadequate conditions of preparation and handling of PIF can therefore exacerbate the risk of severe infection, especially in preterm infants. The WHO emphasized three main interventions for preparation and handling of PIF: (1) to dilute the powdered milk in water at a temperature of at least 70°C to inactivate Cronobacter spp.; (2) to consume milk right after each preparation, and (3) to store reconstituted milk at <5°C. The European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) and the French Food Safety Agency (Afssa) disagree with the heating process because of possible adverse effects on nutrients and the risk of severe burns. In home settings, PIF should be prepared fresh for each meal and be kept warm in bottle warmers or thermos bottles. In institutional settings, written guidelines for preparation and handling of PIF should be established. The use of sterile liquid formula is encouraged for healthy newborn infants in maternity wards; PIF should be prepared on a daily basis. Safe infant feeding involves the production of microbiologically cleaner infant formula by industry, and both education and support for the caregivers in preparing and handling the formula.

  1. Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibitors and the Newborn Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Francine G.; Wade, Andrew W.; Lewis, Megan L.; Qi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors (COXI) in influencing the structural development as well as the function of the developing kidney. COXI administered either during pregnancy or after birth can influence kidney development including nephronogenesis, and can decrease renal perfusion and ultrafiltration potentially leading to acute kidney injury in the newborn period. To date, which COX isoform (COX-1 or COX-2) plays a more important role in during fetal development and influences kidney function early in life is not known, though evidence points to a predominant role for COX-2. Clinical implications of the use of COXI in pregnancy and in the newborn infant are also evaluated herein, with specific reference to the potential effects of COXI on nephronogenesis as well as newborn kidney function. PMID:24281306

  2. A Comparison of Dyadic Interactions and Coping with Still-Face in Healthy Pre-Term and Full-Term Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montirosso, Rosario; Borgatti, Renato; Trojan, Sabina; Zanini, Rinaldo; Tronick, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Pre-term birth has a significant impact on infants' social and emotional competence, however, little is known about regulatory processes in pre-term mother-infant dyads during normal or stressful interactions. The primary goals of this study were to investigate the differences in infant and caregiver interactive behaviour and dyadic coordination…

  3. Pain assessment scales in newborns: integrative review

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Gleicia Martins; Lélis, Ana Luíza Paula de Aguiar; de Moura, Alline Falconieri; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; da Silva, Viviane Martins

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze studies on methods used to assess pain in newborns. DATA SOURCES: Integrative review study of articles published from 2001 to 2012, carried out in the following databases: Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS and Cochrane. The sample consisted of 13 articles with level of evidence 5. DATA SYNTHESIS: 29 pain assessment scales in newborns, including 13 one-dimensional and 16 multidimensional, that assess acute and prolonged pain in preterm and full-term infants were available in scientific publications. CONCLUSION: Based on the characteristics of scales, one cannot choose a single one as the most appropriate scale, as this choice will depend on gestational age, type of painful stimulus and the environment in which the infant is inserted. It is suggested the use of multidimensional or one-dimensional scales; however, they must be reliable and validated. PMID:25511005

  4. Specificity of infant digestive conditions: some clues for developing relevant in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Bourlieu, Claire; Ménard, Olivia; Bouzerzour, Karima; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Macierzanka, Adam; Mackie, Alan R; Dupont, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Digestion of nutrients is an essential function of the newborn infant gut to allow growth and development and understanding infant digestive function is essential to optimize nutrition and oral drug delivery. Ethical considerations prohibit invasive in vivo trials and as a consequence in vitro assays are often conducted. However, the choice of in vitro model parameters are not supported by an exhaustive analysis of the literature and do not mimic precisely the digestive conditions of the infant. This review contains a compilation of the studies which characterized the gastroduodenal conditions in full-term or preterm infants of variable postnatal age from birth up to six months. Important data about healthy full-term infants are reported. The enzymatic (type of enzymes and level of activity) and nonenzymatic (milk-based diet, frequency of feeding, bile salt concentrations) conditions of digestion in infants are shown to differ significantly from those in adults. In addition, the interindividual and developmental variability of the digestive conditions in infants is also highlighted.

  5. Newborn care practices in Pemba Island (Tanzania) and their implications for newborn health and survival.

    PubMed

    Thairu, Lucy; Pelto, Gretel

    2008-07-01

    Newborn mortality accounts for about one-third of deaths in children under five. Neglecting this problem may undermine the fourth Millennium Development Goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds by 2015. This study was conducted in Tanzania, where an estimated 32/1000 infants die within the first 28 days. Our objective was to describe newborn care practices and their potential impact on newborn health. We interviewed two purposive samples of mothers from Pemba Island, a predominantly Muslim community of Arab-African ethnicity, and one of Tanzania's poorest. The first sample of mothers (n = 12) provided descriptive data; the second (n = 26) reported actual practice. We identified cultural beliefs and practices that promote early initiation of breastfeeding and bonding, including 'post-partum seclusion'. We also identified practices which are potentially harmful for newborn health, such as bathing newborns immediately after delivery, a practice motivated by concerns about 'ritual pollution', which may lead to newborn hypothermia and premature breast milk supplementation (e.g. with water and other fluids) which may expose newborns to pathogens. Some traditional practices to treat illness, such as exposing sick newborns to medicinal smoke from burning herbs, are also of concern. It is unclear whether the practice of massaging newborns with coconut oil is harmful or beneficial. Interventions to reduce neonatal mortality need to identify and address the cultural rationales that underlie negative practices, as well as reinforce and protect the beliefs that support positive practices. The results suggest the need to improve use of health services through improving health worker communication skills and social management of patients, as well as by lowering healthcare costs. PMID:18582353

  6. Newborn care practices in Pemba Island (Tanzania) and their implications for newborn health and survival.

    PubMed

    Thairu, Lucy; Pelto, Gretel

    2008-07-01

    Newborn mortality accounts for about one-third of deaths in children under five. Neglecting this problem may undermine the fourth Millennium Development Goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds by 2015. This study was conducted in Tanzania, where an estimated 32/1000 infants die within the first 28 days. Our objective was to describe newborn care practices and their potential impact on newborn health. We interviewed two purposive samples of mothers from Pemba Island, a predominantly Muslim community of Arab-African ethnicity, and one of Tanzania's poorest. The first sample of mothers (n = 12) provided descriptive data; the second (n = 26) reported actual practice. We identified cultural beliefs and practices that promote early initiation of breastfeeding and bonding, including 'post-partum seclusion'. We also identified practices which are potentially harmful for newborn health, such as bathing newborns immediately after delivery, a practice motivated by concerns about 'ritual pollution', which may lead to newborn hypothermia and premature breast milk supplementation (e.g. with water and other fluids) which may expose newborns to pathogens. Some traditional practices to treat illness, such as exposing sick newborns to medicinal smoke from burning herbs, are also of concern. It is unclear whether the practice of massaging newborns with coconut oil is harmful or beneficial. Interventions to reduce neonatal mortality need to identify and address the cultural rationales that underlie negative practices, as well as reinforce and protect the beliefs that support positive practices. The results suggest the need to improve use of health services through improving health worker communication skills and social management of patients, as well as by lowering healthcare costs.

  7. Newborn screening progress in developing countries--overcoming internal barriers.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita D; Krotoski, Danuta; Therrell, Bradford L

    2010-04-01

    Newborn screening is an important public health measure aimed at early identification and management of affected newborns thereby lowering infant morbidity and mortality. It is a comprehensive system of education, screening, follow-up, diagnosis, treatment/management, and evaluation that must be institutionalized and sustained within public health systems often challenged by economic, political, and cultural considerations. As a result, developing countries face unique challenges in implementing and expanding newborn screening that can be grouped into the following categories: (1) planning, (2) leadership, (3) medical support, (4) technical support, (5) logistical support, (6) education, (7) protocol and policy development, (8) administration, (9) evaluation, and (10) sustainability. We review some of the experiences in overcoming implementation challenges in developing newborn screening programs, and discuss recent efforts to encourage increased newborn screening through support networking and information exchange activities in 2 regions-the Asia Pacific and the Middle East/North Africa. PMID:20207264

  8. Depressed Mothers’ Newborns Show Less Discrimination of Other Newborns’ Cry Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Fernandez, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    Newborns’ crying in response to the cry of another newborn has been called an empathetic response. The purpose of this study was to determine whether newborns of depressed mothers showed the same response. Newborns of depressed and non-depressed mothers were presented with cry sounds of themselves or other infants, and their sucking and heart rate were recorded. The newborns of non-depressed mothers responded to the cry sounds of other infants with reduced sucking and decreased heart rate. In contrast, the newborns of depressed mothers did not show a change in their sucking or heart rate to the cry sound of other infants. This lesser attentiveness/responsiveness to other infants’ cry sounds may predict their later lack of empathy. PMID:17412424

  9. Umbilical Cord Care in the Newborn Infant.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Dan; Benitz, William

    2016-09-01

    Postpartum infections remain a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. A high percentage of these infections may stem from bacterial colonization of the umbilicus, because cord care practices vary in reflection of cultural traditions within communities and disparities in health care practices globally. After birth, the devitalized umbilical cord often proves to be an ideal substrate for bacterial growth and also provides direct access to the bloodstream of the neonate. Bacterial colonization of the cord not infrequently leads to omphalitis and associated thrombophlebitis, cellulitis, or necrotizing fasciitis. Various topical substances continue to be used for cord care around the world to mitigate the risk of serious infection. More recently, particularly in high-resource countries, the treatment paradigm has shifted toward dry umbilical cord care. This clinical report reviews the evidence underlying recommendations for care of the umbilical cord in different clinical settings. PMID:27573092

  10. Umbilical Cord Care in the Newborn Infant.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Dan; Benitz, William

    2016-09-01

    Postpartum infections remain a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. A high percentage of these infections may stem from bacterial colonization of the umbilicus, because cord care practices vary in reflection of cultural traditions within communities and disparities in health care practices globally. After birth, the devitalized umbilical cord often proves to be an ideal substrate for bacterial growth and also provides direct access to the bloodstream of the neonate. Bacterial colonization of the cord not infrequently leads to omphalitis and associated thrombophlebitis, cellulitis, or necrotizing fasciitis. Various topical substances continue to be used for cord care around the world to mitigate the risk of serious infection. More recently, particularly in high-resource countries, the treatment paradigm has shifted toward dry umbilical cord care. This clinical report reviews the evidence underlying recommendations for care of the umbilical cord in different clinical settings.

  11. Visual Statistical Learning in the Newborn Infant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulf, Hermann; Johnson, Scott P.; Valenza, Eloisa

    2011-01-01

    Statistical learning--implicit learning of statistical regularities within sensory input--is a way of acquiring structure within continuous sensory environments. Statistics computation, initially shown to be involved in word segmentation, has been demonstrated to be a general mechanism that operates across domains, across time and space, and…

  12. Respiratory Microbiome of New-Born Infants

    PubMed Central

    Gallacher, David J.; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2016-01-01

    The respiratory tract, once believed to be sterile, harbors diverse bacterial communities. The role of microorganisms within health and disease is slowly being unraveled. Evidence points to the neonatal period as a critical time for establishing stable bacterial communities and influencing immune responses important for long-term respiratory health. This review summarizes the evidence of early airway and lung bacterial colonization and the role the microbiome has on respiratory health in the short and long term. The challenges of neonatal respiratory microbiome studies and future research directions are also discussed. PMID:26942168

  13. [Hypotonic syndrome in the newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Gaona, Víctor Alejandro

    2013-09-01

    Hypotonia is understood to refer to a pronounced decrease in muscle tone that affects normal motor development and that may affect the axial muscles as well as those of the limbs and, sometimes, the face. It is a very challenging clinical picture because it consists in a fairly wide range of conditions that affect different areas of the central and peripheral nervous system and may be the expression of pathologies that can be either benign or of an uncertain prognosis. These cover myopathies, metabolic disorders, diseases based on genetic causes, pathologies affecting the endocrine glands and progressive or chronic diseases, among other aetiologies. The important development of medicine today has made a number of tools available to the examiner with which to refine or pronounce a diagnosis. Such instruments include the developments achieved in genetic research, together with studies conducted in imaging and optical and electronic microscopy. However, in spite of having all this material available for use, it is still the clinical features that allow a rational use to be made of these advances to be able to point towards the possible causation, topographic location and developmental control. It is useful, for the diagnostic approach and the use of auxiliary methods, to know the topographic location of the disorder, whether it is situated in the brain, the cerebellum, the stem, the spinal cord, the peripheral nerves, the myoneural junction or the muscle.

  14. [Newborn infants of mothers with endocrinopathies].

    PubMed

    Ponte, C

    1989-01-01

    When pregnancy and endocrinological disease evolve together, the course of the endocrinological disease and/or the pregnancy and/or the development of the fetus can be altered. Pathophysiological interactions and their therapeutic consequences are reviewed regarding 21-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia, ovary and adrenal virilizing tumours, Addison disease, primary hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, Graves' disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, primary hypothyroidism, primary hypo- and hyperparathyroidism and bromocriptine treatment of hyperprolactinaemia.

  15. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  16. High-density diffuse optical tomography of term infant visual cortex in the nursery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Steve M.; Ferradal, Silvina L.; White, Brian R.; Gregg, Nicholas; Inder, Terrie E.; Culver, Joseph P.

    2012-08-01

    Advancements in antenatal and neonatal medicine over the last few decades have led to significant improvement in the survival rates of sick newborn infants. However, this improvement in survival has not been matched by a reduction in neurodevelopmental morbidities with increasing recognition of the diverse cognitive and behavioral challenges that preterm infants face in childhood. Conventional neuroimaging modalities, such as cranial ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, provide an important definition of neuroanatomy with recognition of brain injury. However, they fail to define the functional integrity of the immature brain, particularly during this critical developmental period. Diffuse optical tomography methods have established success in imaging adult brain function; however, few studies exist to demonstrate their feasibility in the neonatal population. We demonstrate the feasibility of using recently developed high-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT) to map functional activation of the visual cortex in healthy term-born infants. The functional images show high contrast-to-noise ratio obtained in seven neonates. These results illustrate the potential for HD-DOT and provide a foundation for investigations of brain function in more vulnerable newborns, such as preterm infants.

  17. Role of antioxidant nutrients and lipid peroxidation in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Falciglia, Horacio S; Johnson, J Robert; Sullivan, JoAnn; Hall, Charles F; Miller, Jeffery D; Riechmann, George C; Falciglia, Grace A

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if newborn premature infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) demonstrate, within the first 3 days of life, lower blood levels of antioxidants and higher urine levels of lipid peroxidation products than premature infants who recovered from RDS. Perinatal variables (gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar scores) and antioxidant indices in cord and in third day of life plasma and red blood cell (RBC) samples from healthy premature infants (n = 35), infants with RDS (n = 23) and infants with BPD (n = 23) were examined. Antioxidant indices included selenium, alpha-tocopherol, total and oxidized glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and urinary malondialdehyde. By inferential statistics, only the perinatal variables and cord plasma selenium distinguished healthy premature infants from premature infants with RDS or BPD. From perinatal variables and antioxidant indices we calculated: (1) cord to third-day-of-life variable differences, (2) variable-to-variable ratios, and (3) ratios of a difference for one variable to a difference for any second variable. Subset regression analysis yielded an equation (adjusted R2 = 0.8839) that correctly predicted infants who developed BPD 100% of the time. Predictor variables for BPD were gestational age, Apgar at 1 min, cord and third-day-of-life RBC selenium, cord total glutathione, cord and third-day-of-life glutathione peroxidase and nine different ratios involving Apgar scores, RBC selenium, total and oxidized glutathione, alpha-tocopherol, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. In this study, there was no relationship between lipid peroxidation and BPD. There was a higher rate of patent ductus arteriosus, congestive heart failure, and retinopathy of prematurity in infants with BPD. This study confirms that low plasma selenium and alpha-tocopherol levels in premature infants (< or = 30 weeks

  18. Septo-Optic Dysplasia in a Newborn Presenting with Bilateral Dilated and Fixed Pupils

    PubMed Central

    Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hairfield, Amber; Swischuk, Leonard E.; Jain, Sunil K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We describe a newborn female infant with septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) presenting with bilateral dilated and fixed pupils. Conclusion Our report is unique because the incidental finding of bilateral dilated and fixed pupils on the newborn exam was the only clinical finding which led to a prompt work-up and eventual diagnosis of SOD. PMID:26929862

  19. Perception of Object Shape and Texture in Human Newborns: Evidence from Cross-Modal Transfer Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sann, Coralie; Streri, Arlette

    2007-01-01

    The present research investigates newborn infants' perceptions of the shape and texture of objects through studies of the bi-directionality of cross-modal transfer between vision and touch. Using an intersensory procedure, four experiments were performed in newborns to study their ability to transfer shape and texture information from vision to…

  20. Newborn Auditory Brainstem Evoked Responses (ABRs): Longitudinal Correlates in the First Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Ann D.

    1988-01-01

    Aimed to determine to what degree newborns' auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABRs) predict delayed or impaired development during the first year. When 93 infants' ABRs were evaluated at three, six, and nine months, newborn ABR was moderately sensitive for detecting hearing impairment and more sensitive than other indicators in detecting…

  1. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Antibiotics Work Adenovirus Non-Polio Enterovirus Parent Portal Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns Language: English Español (Spanish) ... can be very serious. Symptoms and Causes of Conjunctivitis in Newborns Newborns with conjunctivitis develop drainage from ...

  2. Generating Innovative Strategies for Healthy Infants and Children. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    In this report of a hearing on infants' and children's health, two factsheets present information on the lack of recent progress in reducing infant mortality rates; the accessibility of prenatal care; low birthweight; nutrition; inadequate child health care; health risks for low-income children; the lack of adequate health insurance; the health…

  3. Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2006-11-01

    Most neonates born with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) have normal appearance and no detectable physical signs. Hypothyroidism in the newborn period is almost always overlooked and delayed diagnosis leads to the most severe outcome of CH, mental retardation, emphasizing the importance of neonatal screening. Blood spot T4 or TSH or both can be used in neonatal screening for CH. The latter, which is more sensitive, is not cost effective, so the first two are used in different programs in the world. TSH screening was shown to be more specific in the diagnosis of CH; T4 screening is more sensitive in detecting newborns especially with rare hypothalamic-pituitary hypothyroidism, but less specific with a high frequency of false positives mainly in low birth weight and premature infants. The time at which the sample is taken may vary between centers, with the majority taking blood from a heel prick after 24 hours of age to minimize the false positive high TSH due to the physiological neonatal TSH surge that elevates TSH levels and causes dynamic T4 and T3 changes in the first 1 or 2 days after birth. Early discharge of mothers postpartum has increased the ratio of false positive TSH elevations. Although transient hypothyroidism may occur frequently, all suspected infants should be treated as having CH for the first 3 years of life, taking into account the risks of mental retardation. A reevaluation after 3 years is needed in such patients. The goal of initial therapy in CH is to minimize neonatal central nervous system exposure to hypothyroidism by normalizing thyroid function, as reflected by T4 and TSH levels, as rapidly as possible. Iodine deficiency is the most important cause of CH worldwide. Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis and is present in soil, water and air. Prevention of iodine deficiency can be by iodized salt, iodized oil, iodized bread or iodine tablets. PMID:17220056

  4. Clinical assessment of infant colour at delivery

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Colm P F; Kamlin, C Omar F; Davis, Peter G; Carlin, John B; Morley, Colin J

    2007-01-01

    Objective Use of video recordings of newborn infants to determine: (1) if clinicians agreed whether infants were pink; and (2) the pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (Spo2) at which infants first looked pink. Methods Selected clips from video recordings of infants taken immediately after delivery were shown to medical and nursing staff. The infants received varying degrees of resuscitation (including none) and were monitored with pulse oximetry. The oximeter readings were obscured to observers but known to the investigators. A timer was visible and the sound was inaudible. The observers were asked to indicate whether each infant was pink at the beginning, became pink during the clip, or was never pink. If adjudged to turn pink during the clip, observers recorded the time this occurred and the corresponding Spo2 was determined. Results 27 clinicians assessed videos of 20 infants (mean (SD) gestation 31(4) weeks). One infant (5%) was perceived to be pink by all observers. The number of clinicians who thought each of the remaining 19 infants were never pink varied from 1 (4%) to 22 (81%). Observers determined the 10 infants with a maximum Spo2 ⩾95% never pink on 17% (46/270) of occasions. The Spo2 at which individual infants were perceived to turn pink varied from 10% to 100%. Conclusion Among clinicians observing the same videos there was disagreement about whether newborn infants looked pink with wide variation in the Spo2 when they were considered to become pink. PMID:17613535

  5. Circumcision of male infants as a human rights violation.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, J Steven

    2013-07-01

    Every infant has a right to bodily integrity. Removing healthy tissue from an infant is only permissible if there is an immediate medical indication. In the case of infant male circumcision there is no evidence of an immediate need to perform the procedure. As a German court recently held, any benefit to circumcision can be obtained by delaying the procedure until the male is old enough to give his own fully informed consent. With the option of delaying circumcision providing all of the purported benefits, circumcising an infant is an unnecessary violation of his bodily integrity as well as an ethically invalid form of medical violence. Parental proxy 'consent' for newborn circumcision is invalid. Male circumcision also violates four core human rights documents-the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the Convention Against Torture. Social norm theory predicts that once the circumcision rate falls below a critical value, the social norms that currently distort our perception of the practice will dissolve and rates will quickly fall. PMID:23698885

  6. Micronutrient requirements of high-risk infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronutrient requirements are well-established for healthy full-term infants. However, few such recommendations exist for high-risk infants, including full-term infants with a variety of medical disorders or very preterm infants. Key micronutrients considered in this review are calcium, phosphorus,...

  7. A review of newborn medicine in America: European past and guiding ideology.

    PubMed

    Desmond, M M

    1991-09-01

    The beginnings of newborn medicine and its rapid advance in America since the early twentieth century are reviewed through presentation of ideas that have influenced the givers of care. Newly born infants attained patient status at the end of the 19th century when Budin gave them hospital charts and Ballantyne designed the blueprint for continuity of maternal-infant care. These achievements gave impetus to the task of preserving infant life. In 1915, the United States established a birth registration area permitting calculation of infant mortality rates. These rates became the guide and yardstick for measuring progress in newborn care. Since 1915 infant mortality has decreased tenfold as survival increased successively in the postnatal infant, the neonate, and recently in the premature. Pediatricians began to supervise newborn nurseries after World War I. During depression years, national efforts were expended for the premature. After World War II, pediatricians moved close to birth, assessing and treating in the delivery room. Special care and intensive care nurseries sprang up in the 1960s. In the past 25 years, improvements in ventilation and life support systems have enhanced survival of compromised and immature infants. Today, newborn medicine is spectacularly successful in lowering neonatal mortality but is beset by costs, ethics, legal concerns, and the burden of survival morbidity. Controversy such as exists today is not new to newborn medicine; it has been its constant companion throughout history. PMID:1760064

  8. Nurses' Attitudes and Knowledge of Their Roles in Newborn Abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Cesario, Sandra K.

    2003-01-01

    The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation to save the lives of unwanted newborns. The laws typically specify a mother's ability to “abandon” her child to a medical service provider. However, judgmental attitudes and a lack of accurate information may impede a health care provider's ability to carry out a safe-haven law. The study described here examines a sample of nurses in a state with a safe-haven law. The study revealed no significant correlation between a nurse's knowledge, attitude, and self-perception of preparedness to manage a newborn abandonment event. owever, the outcomes highlight the negative attitudes and lack of knowledge many nurses possess regarding newborn abandonment and the women who commit this act. Educational programs for all health care providers and the community are essential to the efficacy of the legislation that currently exists. Continued multidisciplinary strategizing and general awareness are needed to serve as catalysts to build supports for unwanted newborns and their safe assimilation into the community. PMID:17273338

  9. Maternal Adiposity Negatively Influences Infant Brain White Matter Development

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Xiawei; Thakali, Keshari M.; Shankar, Kartik; Andres, Aline; Badger, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study potential effects of maternal body composition on central nervous system (CNS) development of newborn infants. Methods Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to evaluate brain white matter development in 2 week old, full-term, appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants from uncomplicated pregnancies of normal-weight (BMI<25 at conception) or obese (BMI ≥30 at conception) and otherwise healthy mothers. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analyses were used for voxel-wise group comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA), a sensitive measure of white matter integrity. DNA methylation analyses of umbilical cord tissue focused on genes known to be important in CNS development were also performed. Results Newborns from obese women had significantly lower FA values in multiple white matter regions than those born of normal-weight mothers. Global and regional FA values negatively correlated (P<0.05) with maternal fat mass percentage. Linear regression analysis followed by gene ontology enrichment showed that methylation status of 68 CpG sites representing 57 genes with GO terms related to CNS development was significantly associated with maternal adiposity status. Conclusions These results suggest a negative association between maternal adiposity and white matter development in offspring. PMID:25919924

  10. Newborns' Perception of Left-Right Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gava, Lucia; Valenza, Eloisa; Turati, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    Five experiments examined 79 newborns' ability to discriminate and categorize a spatial relation, defined by the left-right spatial position of a blinking object-target with respect to a vertical landmark-bar. Three-day-old infants discriminated the up versus low position of an object located on the same side of the landmark-bar (Experiment 1) and…

  11. A Care Coordination Program for Substance-Exposed Newborns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Jean E.; Caldwell, Donna; Soave, Rosemary; Fontaine, Lynne Andreozzi; Lester, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    The Vulnerable Infants Program of Rhode Island (VIP-RI) was established as a care coordination program to promote permanency for substance-exposed newborns in the child welfare system. Goals of VIP-RI were to optimize parents' opportunities for reunification and increase the efficacy of social service systems involved with families affected by…

  12. Communication and Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Communication and Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Communication and Your Newborn Print A A A Text ... first smile — a welcome addition to your baby's communication skills! continue What Should I Do? As soon ...

  13. The Role of the Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Amygdala in Environmental Sensitivity to Infant Crying

    PubMed Central

    Mutschler, Isabella; Ball, Tonio; Kirmse, Ursula; Wieckhorst, Birgit; Pluess, Michael; Klarhöfer, Markus; Meyer, Andrea H.; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Seifritz, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Newborns and infants communicate their needs and physiological states through crying and emotional facial expressions. Little is known about individual differences in responding to infant crying. Several theories suggest that people vary in their environmental sensitivity with some responding generally more and some generally less to environmental stimuli. Such differences in environmental sensitivity have been associated with personality traits, including neuroticism. This study investigated whether neuroticism impacts neuronal, physiological, and emotional responses to infant crying by investigating blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a large sample of healthy women (N = 102) with simultaneous skin conductance recordings. Participants were repeatedly exposed to a video clip that showed crying infants and emotional responses (valence, arousal, and irritation) were assessed after every video clip presentation. Increased BOLD signal during the perception of crying infants was found in brain regions that are associated with emotional responding, the amygdala and anterior insula. Significant BOLD signal decrements (i.e., habituation) were found in the fusiform gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, Broca’s homologue on the right hemisphere, (laterobasal) amygdala, and hippocampus. Individuals with high neuroticism showed stronger activation in the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) when exposed to infant crying compared to individuals with low neuroticism. In contrast to our prediction we found no evidence that neuroticism impacts fMRI-based measures of habituation. Individuals with high neuroticism showed elevated skin conductance responses, experienced more irritation, and perceived infant crying as more unpleasant. The results support the hypothesis that individuals high in neuroticism are more emotionally responsive, experience more negative emotions, and

  14. The Role of the Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Amygdala in Environmental Sensitivity to Infant Crying.

    PubMed

    Mutschler, Isabella; Ball, Tonio; Kirmse, Ursula; Wieckhorst, Birgit; Pluess, Michael; Klarhöfer, Markus; Meyer, Andrea H; Wilhelm, Frank H; Seifritz, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Newborns and infants communicate their needs and physiological states through crying and emotional facial expressions. Little is known about individual differences in responding to infant crying. Several theories suggest that people vary in their environmental sensitivity with some responding generally more and some generally less to environmental stimuli. Such differences in environmental sensitivity have been associated with personality traits, including neuroticism. This study investigated whether neuroticism impacts neuronal, physiological, and emotional responses to infant crying by investigating blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a large sample of healthy women (N = 102) with simultaneous skin conductance recordings. Participants were repeatedly exposed to a video clip that showed crying infants and emotional responses (valence, arousal, and irritation) were assessed after every video clip presentation. Increased BOLD signal during the perception of crying infants was found in brain regions that are associated with emotional responding, the amygdala and anterior insula. Significant BOLD signal decrements (i.e., habituation) were found in the fusiform gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, Broca's homologue on the right hemisphere, (laterobasal) amygdala, and hippocampus. Individuals with high neuroticism showed stronger activation in the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) when exposed to infant crying compared to individuals with low neuroticism. In contrast to our prediction we found no evidence that neuroticism impacts fMRI-based measures of habituation. Individuals with high neuroticism showed elevated skin conductance responses, experienced more irritation, and perceived infant crying as more unpleasant. The results support the hypothesis that individuals high in neuroticism are more emotionally responsive, experience more negative emotions, and may

  15. Neonatal behavioral assessment scale as a biomarker of the effects of environmental agents on the newborn

    SciTech Connect

    Tronick, E.Z.

    1987-10-01

    The organization of the newborn's brain and the nature of the effects of toxins and pollutants conspire to produce complex and difficult problems for the assessment of the behavioral effects of environmental agents. The newborn's brain can be characterized as relatively undifferentiated, and more vulnerable to, but potentially more capable of recovery from, the effects of environmental agents specific to this time period than it will be later in development. Environmental agents tend to have nonspecific, possibly subtle, effects that invade many areas of newborn functioning. These characteristics of the newborn and the behavioral effects of teratogens make assessment at this point in development difficult. Further exacerbating this difficulty is the nature of development. Development is critically dependent on the care the newborn receives. Distortions of a newborn's behavior can produce disturbances in the caretaking environment, and these caretaking disturbances can amplify the original behavioral distortion and produce other distortions. Attention to these types of effects must be built into an assessment. These considerations lead to the conclusion that an apical assessment of newborn behavior is required. The most standardized, valid, and reliable instrument currently available is the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale developed by Brazelton. It assesses the integrated actions of the infant that function to regulate simultaneously the infant's internal state and exchanges with the animate (caretaking) and inanimate environment. The scale uses a set of reflex and behavioral items to assess the critical domains of infant functioning (e.g., the infant's ability to control his states of consciousness). 52 references.

  16. "Collodion baby": A unique challenge for newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Kayla M; Gaudreau, Philip; Cartee, Todd V; Reilly, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    We present an infant with collodion membrane who had an obstructed external auditory canal, causing the infant to fail her newborn hearing screen (otoacoustic emissions) bilaterally. An auditory brainstem response (ABR) test was deferred due to the reported increased risk of infections in these babies. Meticulous but gentle debridement of the membranes on the external auditory canal, using a combination of otic drops (ofloxacin), emollients (baby oil/mineral oil), and suctioning, permitted the infant to ultimately pass otoacoustic emissions bilaterally and subsequent serial audiograms. PMID:27178521

  17. "Collodion baby": A unique challenge for newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Kayla M; Gaudreau, Philip; Cartee, Todd V; Reilly, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    We present an infant with collodion membrane who had an obstructed external auditory canal, causing the infant to fail her newborn hearing screen (otoacoustic emissions) bilaterally. An auditory brainstem response (ABR) test was deferred due to the reported increased risk of infections in these babies. Meticulous but gentle debridement of the membranes on the external auditory canal, using a combination of otic drops (ofloxacin), emollients (baby oil/mineral oil), and suctioning, permitted the infant to ultimately pass otoacoustic emissions bilaterally and subsequent serial audiograms.

  18. Extremely high phenylalanine levels in a newborn on parenteral nutrition: phenylketonuria in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Lin, H J; Kwong, A M; Carter, J M; Ferreira, B F; Austin, M F; Devarajan, K; Coleman, R J; Feuchtbaum, L B; Lorey, F; Jonas, A J

    2011-07-01

    A 1890-g newborn on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) had phenylalanine levels reaching 4164 μM indicating phenylketonuria (PKU). Review of 64 PKU cases from the California Newborn Screening Program disclosed another newborn diagnosed while on TPN. Phenylalanine levels rose five times faster with TPN, as estimated from rates in these infants. Thus, TPN use is associated with very high phenylalanine levels in newborns with PKU. When starting TPN soon after birth (for example, on day 1), early detection of PKU-by newborn screening 12 to 24 h after infusions are begun-should be helpful in limiting exposures to toxic levels of phenylalanine.

  19. Improvement of maternal and newborn health through midwifery.

    PubMed

    ten Hoope-Bender, Petra; de Bernis, Luc; Campbell, James; Downe, Soo; Fauveau, Vincent; Fogstad, Helga; Homer, Caroline S E; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Matthews, Zoe; McFadden, Alison; Renfrew, Mary J; Van Lerberghe, Wim

    2014-09-27

    In the concluding paper of this Series about midwifery, we look at the policy implications from the framework for quality maternal and newborn care, the potential effect of life-saving interventions that fall within the scope of practice of midwives, and the historic sequence of health system changes that made a reduction in maternal mortality possible in countries that have expanded their midwifery workforce. Achievement of better health outcomes for women and newborn infants is possible, but needs improvements in the quality of reproductive, maternal, and newborn care, alongside necessary increases in universal coverage. In this report, we propose three priority research areas and outline how national investment in midwives and in their work environment, education, regulation, and management can improve quality of care. Midwifery and midwives are crucial to the achievement of national and international goals and targets in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health; now and beyond 2015.

  20. Profile and Stability of Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Joseph P.; Hendricks-Munoz, Karen

    1991-01-01

    This study found that 19 of 51 infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss, an incidence 25 times greater than that of intensive care unit infants in general. Treatment durations with mechanical ventilation were significantly longer for the hearing-impaired group compared to the…