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Sample records for healthy newborn infants

  1. Hospital stay for healthy term newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Benitz, William E

    2015-05-01

    The hospital stay of the mother and her healthy term newborn infant should be long enough to allow identification of problems and to ensure that the mother is sufficiently recovered and prepared to care for herself and her newborn at home. The length of stay should be based on the unique characteristics of each mother-infant dyad, including the health of the mother, the health and stability of the newborn, the ability and confidence of the mother to care for herself and her newborn, the adequacy of support systems at home, and access to appropriate follow-up care in a medical home. Input from the mother and her obstetrical care provider should be considered before a decision to discharge a newborn is made, and all efforts should be made to keep a mother and her newborn together to ensure simultaneous discharge.

  2. [Functional state feature of erythrocytes in healthy term newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Evsiukova, I I; Iakushenko, N S; Andreeva, A A; Shevel'kova, A A; Kolesova, T A; Katiukhin, L N; Dobrylko, I A; Mandukshev, I V

    2014-01-01

    Hematological parameters and functional status of erythrocytes were studied by the osmotic and ammonium loads in healthy newborns and in adults. Mean erythrocyte volume of newborns more than in adults. Significant difference index of osmotic fragility of neonates were observed in the transition from swelling to hemolysis. Kinetic of erythrocyte's hemolysis in the ammonium load was studied by low-angle light scattering (LaSca-analyzer). The percentage of erythrocyte hemolysis is lower and the velocity of hemolysis is 2.5 times slower in newborns than in adults.

  3. [Recommendations for the care of healthy newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Figueras Aloy, J; García Alix, A; Alomar Ribes, A; Blanco Bravo, D; Esqué Ruiz, M T; Fernández Lorenzo, J R

    2001-08-01

    This article makes certain recommendations on the care of the healthy newborn. Firstly, we discuss the situations that should be reported to the pediatrician/neonatologist and the reasons why the presence of these specialists is required in the delivery room (urgent or elective cesarean section, preterm labor). Secondly, we discuss the most important guidelines to follow in the delivery room and after birth. Concerning care in the delivery room, we stress the importance of care of the newborn (especially of the umbilical cord), bonding between the mother and child, identification of the newborn, assessment of neonatal adaptation to extrauterine life, prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum and hypoprothrombinemia, placing the baby correctly in the crib and hepatitis B prophylaxis. Concerning the postnatal period, we recommend feeding (promotion of breast feeding), rooming-in with the mother if the newborn is hospitalized in the nursery screening for hypoacousia and metabolic diseases, and discharge with special surveillance in cases of early discharge.

  4. Unexpected collapse of healthy newborn infants: risk factors, supervision and hypothermia treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pejovic, Nicolas J; Herlenius, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine the occurrence and risk factors of sudden unexpected postnatal collapse (SUPC) in presumably healthy newborn infants. Methods All live-born infants during a 30-month period, in five major delivery wards in Stockholm, were screened, and possible cases of SUPC thoroughly investigated. Infants were ≥35 weeks of gestation, had an Apgar score >8 at 10 min and collapsed within 24 h after birth. Maternal, infant, event characteristics and outcome data were collected. Results Twenty-six cases of SUPC were found among 68 364 live-born infants, an incidence of 38/100 000 live births. Sixteen of these cases of SUPC required resuscitation with ventilation >1 min, and 14 of these remained unexplained (21/100 000). Fifteen of the 26 children were found in a prone position, during skin-to-skin contact, 18 were primipara, and 13 occurred during unsupervised breastfeeding at <2 h of age. Three cases occurred during smart cellular phone use by the mother. Five developed hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) grade 2, and 4 underwent hypothermia treatment. Twenty-five infants had a favourable neurological outcome. Conclusion SUPC in apparent healthy babies is associated with initial, unsupervised breastfeeding, prone position, primiparity and distractions. Guidelines outlining the appropriate monitoring of newborns and safe early skin-to-skin contact should be implemented. PMID:23551812

  5. Dual role of cerebral blood flow in regional brain temperature control in the healthy newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Sachiko; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Robertson, Nicola J; Iwata, Osuke

    2014-10-01

    Small shifts in brain temperature after hypoxia-ischaemia affect cell viability. The main determinants of brain temperature are cerebral metabolism, which contributes to local heat production, and brain perfusion, which removes heat. However, few studies have addressed the effect of cerebral metabolism and perfusion on regional brain temperature in human neonates because of the lack of non-invasive cot-side monitors. This study aimed (i) to determine non-invasive monitoring tools of cerebral metabolism and perfusion by combining near-infrared spectroscopy and echocardiography, and (ii) to investigate the dependence of brain temperature on cerebral metabolism and perfusion in unsedated newborn infants. Thirty-two healthy newborn infants were recruited. They were studied with cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy, echocardiography, and a zero-heat flux tissue thermometer. A surrogate of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using superior vena cava flow adjusted for cerebral volume (rSVC flow). The tissue oxygenation index, fractional oxygen extraction (FOE), and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen relative to rSVC flow (CMRO₂ index) were also estimated. A greater rSVC flow was positively associated with higher brain temperatures, particularly for superficial structures. The CMRO₂ index and rSVC flow were positively coupled. However, brain temperature was independent of FOE and the CMRO₂ index. A cooler ambient temperature was associated with a greater temperature gradient between the scalp surface and the body core. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and perfusion were monitored in newborn infants without using tracers. In these healthy newborn infants, cerebral perfusion and ambient temperature were significant independent variables of brain temperature. CBF has primarily been associated with heat removal from the brain. However, our results suggest that CBF is likely to deliver heat specifically to the superficial brain. Further studies are required to assess the

  6. Oxygen saturation in healthy newborn infants immediately after birth measured by pulse oximetry.

    PubMed

    Toth, B; Becker, A; Seelbach-Göbel, B

    2002-04-01

    Pre- and postductal arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) rates were measured in 50 healthy vaginally delivered newborn infants to establish reference values of SpO2 rates immediately after birth. We compared the SpO2 values in the pre- and postductal areas and assessed the influence of oxitocin and analgetics applied during delivery. Fifty neonates were examined by the 2nd minute (min) of life using Nellcor N-3000 pulse oximeters on the right hand and foot. Measurements were carried out until a SpO2 of 95% was achieved. Heart rates were registered simultaneously. Two min after birth the mean preductal SpO2 was 73% (44-95%) and 67% (34-93%) in the postductal region. SpO2 rates of > 95% were reached after 12 min (2-55 min) preductally and after 14 min (3-55 min) postductally. Our results demonstrate that it takes 12-14 min for healthy neonates to reach an oxygen saturation of 95% prerespectively postductal, in some cases even 55 min. All neonates were in good clinical condition and didn't require any supplemental oxygen. Additionally, we were able to show that epidural anaesthesia (PDA) during delivery increases the heart rate of the newborn infant.

  7. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Elizabeth R; Anderson, Gene C; Bergman, Nils; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Mother-infant separation postbirth is common in Western culture. Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and involves placing the naked baby, head covered with a dry cap and a warm blanket across the back, prone on the mother’s bare chest. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neurobehaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs. This time may represent a psychophysiologically ‘sensitive period’ for programming future physiology and behavior. Objectives To assess the effects of early SSC on breastfeeding, physiological adaptation, and behavior in healthy mother-newborn dyads. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 November 2011), made personal contact with trialists, and consulted the bibliography on kangaroo mother care (KMC) maintained by Dr. Susan Ludington. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials comparing early SSC with usual hospital care. Data collection and analysis We independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Main results Thirty-four randomized controlled trials were included involving 2177 participants (mother-infant dyads). Data from more than two trials were available for only eight outcome measures. For primary outcomes, we found a statistically significant positive effect of early SSC on breastfeeding at one to four months postbirth (13 trials; 702 participants) (risk ratio (RR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06 to 1.53, and SSC increased breastfeeding duration (seven trials; 324 participants) (mean difference (MD) 42.55 days, 95% CI −1.69 to 86.79) but the results did not quite reach statistical significance (P = 0.06). Late preterm infants had better cardio-respiratory stability with early SSC (one trial; 31 participants) (MD 2.88, 95% CI 0.53 to 5.23). Blood glucose 75 to 90 minutes following the birth was

  8. Crying in Newborn and Young Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelsson, Katarina

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the reasons that newborns and young infants cry, the communicative effect and perception of crying, crying in sick and healthy infants, the sound spectograph, and crying for the use of clinical diagnostics. (RJC)

  9. Assessing body composition in healthy newborn infants: reliability of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Godang, Kristin; Qvigstad, Elisabeth; Voldner, Nanna; Isaksen, Gunhild A; Frøslie, Kathrine F; Nøtthellen, Jacob; Henriksen, Tore; Bollerslev, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is used to measure body composition in newborns; however, data on DXA accuracy are limited. We investigated the reliability of body composition measurements by DXA. The present study included 207 normal-term newborn babies, recruited from a larger study on the determinants of birth weight in healthy pregnancies (STORK) between 2005 and 2008. Reliability analysis of total fat mass (FM(DxA)), fat-free mass, lean mass (LM(DxA)), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were based on 2 DXA scans of 50 neonates. We also performed a comparison analysis for DXA (FM(DxA)) measurements and caliper (CLP) or circumference (CF) measurements of trunk and extremities (performed on all neonates, n=207). Reliability: All intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were satisfactory to excellent for total body and the extremity-compartment FM(DxA), LM(DxA), BMD, and BMC; ICC ranged from 0.86 to 0.96 but with a lower ICC for trunk FM(DxA). For comparison analysis, the Pearson correlation coefficients for CLP vs DXA and CF vs DXA ranged from 0.48 to 0.79 and 0.41 to 0.77, respectively. Quadriceps CLP and CF measurements correlated best with the most reliable DXA results, whereas more modest correlations were found for the trunk region. DXA measurements of body composition demonstrated good reliability and can be used as a reference method in neonates. CLP and CF measurements are appropriate for larger cohorts or when DXA is unavailable, and they provide fair rough estimations of fat mass.

  10. Hospital stay for healthy term newborns.

    PubMed

    2010-02-01

    The hospital stay of the mother and her healthy term newborn infant should be long enough to allow identification of early problems and to ensure that the family is able and prepared to care for the infant at home. The length of stay should also accommodate the unique characteristics of each mother-infant dyad, including the health of the mother, the health and stability of the infant, the ability and confidence of the mother to care for her infant, the adequacy of support systems at home, and access to appropriate follow-up care. Input from the mother and her obstetrician should be considered before a decision to discharge a newborn is made, and all efforts should be made to keep mothers and infants together to promote simultaneous discharge.

  11. Thrombosis in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Bacciedoni, Viviana; Attie, Myriam; Donato, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of thrombosis is higher among newborn infants than in any other stage of pediatric development. This fact is the consequence of labile characteristics of the neonatal hemostatic system, in addition to exposure to multiple risk factors and the wide use of vascular catheters. Venous thromboses, which mainly affect the limbs, the right atrium and renal veins, are more frequently seen than arterial thromboses. A stroke may be caused by the occlusion of the arterial flow entering the brain or by occlusion of its venous drainage system. Purpura fulminans is a very severe condition that should be treated as a medical emergency, and is secondary to severe protein C deficiency or, less frequently, protein S or antithrombin deficiency. Most thrombotic events should be managed with antithrombotic therapy, which is done with unfractionated and/or low molecular weight heparins. Purpura fulminans requires protein C replacement and/or fresh frozen plasma infusion. Thrombolytic therapy is done using tissue plasminogen activator and should only be used for life-, or limb-, or organ-threatening thrombosis.

  12. Newborn Infants Orient to Sounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Darwin; Field, Jeffrey

    1979-01-01

    In two experiments, the majority of 21 newborn infants who were maintained in an alert state consistently turned their heads toward a continuous sound source presented 90 degrees from midline. For most infants, this orientation response was rather slow, taking median latencies of 2.5 seconds to begin and 5.5 seconds to end. (JMB)

  13. Jaundice in Healthy Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... common condition in newborns, refers to the yellow color of the skin and whites of the eyes ...

  14. Jaundice in Healthy Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes that happens when there is too much bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin (bill-uh-ROO-bin) is produced by the ... liquid that helps with digestion). Jaundice happens when bilirubin builds up faster than a newborn's liver can ...

  15. Infant - newborn development

    MedlinePlus

    ... infant is pulled to a sitting position Primitive reflexes include: Babinski reflex , toes fan outward when sole of foot is stroked Moro reflex (startle reflex), extends arms then bends and pulls ...

  16. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers.

    PubMed

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Streri, Arlette

    2009-06-23

    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4-18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience.

  17. Newborn infant skin: physiology, development, and care.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O; Adam, Ralf; Brink, Susanna; Odio, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Infant skin is critical to the newborn child's transition from the womb environment to the journey to self-sufficiency. This review provides an integrative perspective on the skin development in full term and premature infants. There is a particular focus on the role of vernix caseosa and on the implications of skin development for epidermal penetration of exogenous compounds. Healthy full-term newborn skin is well-developed and functional at birth, with a thick epidermis and well-formed stratum corneum (SC) layers. Transepidermal water loss is very low at birth, equal to, or lower than adults, indicating a highly effective skin barrier. Vernix facilitates SC development in full-term infants through a variety of mechanisms including physical protection from amniotic fluid and enzymes, antimicrobial effects, skin surface pH lowering, provision of lipids, and hydration. Premature infants, particularly those of very low birth weight, have a poor skin barrier with few cornified layers and deficient dermal proteins. They are at increased risk for skin damage, increased permeability to exogenous agents and infection. The SC barrier develops rapidly after birth but complete maturation requires weeks to months. The best methods for caring for infant skin, particularly in the diaper region, are described and related to these developmental changes.

  18. Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... will help you raise a healthy baby. Topics Breastfeeding Developmental Milestones Fruits & Vegetables Hand Washing Hearing Screening Infant & Toddler Health Maternal and Infant Health Newborn Screening Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Parenting Tips Perchlorate in ...

  19. Diet and sleep patterns in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Yogman, M W; Zeisel, S H

    1983-11-10

    Sleep behavior is modulated by serotonergic neurons within the brain, and the synthesis and release of serotonin by such neurons is thought to be influenced by the availability of tryptophan, the amino acid precursor of serotonin. We investigated the effects on the sleep patterns of newborn infants of variations in diet designed to affect tryptophan availability. Twenty healthy newborns (two to three days of age) were randomly assigned to receive a feeding consisting either of tryptophan in 10 per cent glucose or valine in 5 per cent glucose (valine competes with tryptophan for entry into the brain). Sleep patterns during the three hours after this feeding were compared with those after a feeding of routine formula (Similac). The infants fed tryptophan entered active sleep 14.1 minutes sooner than they did after Similac, and entered quiet sleep 20 minutes sooner. Those fed valine entered active sleep 15.8 minutes later than they did after Similac, and entered quiet sleep 39 minutes later. The differences between the tryptophan and valine groups were significant (P less than 0.01 for active sleep and P less than 0.005 for quiet sleep). We conclude that variations in the composition of the diet may influence sleep behavior in newborns.

  20. Healthy Start, Grow Smart: Your Newborn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet offers guidance to parents in caring for their newborn babies. Advice is given on the following topics: (1) newborn health screening; (2) what a healthy newborn looks like; (3) newborn reflexes; (4) baby checkups; (5) fathers' role; (6) the baby blues; (7) sleeping position; (8) breast milk; (9) breast feeding; (10) bottle feeding;…

  1. Respiratory distress of the term newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Martin O; Kotecha, Sarah J; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory distress is recognised as any signs of breathing difficulties in neonates. In the early neonatal period respiratory distress is common, occurring in up to 7% of newborn infants, resulting in significant numbers of term-born infants being admitted to neonatal units. Many risk factors are involved; the increasing number of term infants delivered by elective caesarean section has also increased the incidence. Additionally the risk decreases with each advancing week of gestation. At 37 weeks, the chances are three times greater than at 39-40 weeks gestation. Multiple conditions can present with features of respiratory distress. Common causes in term newborn infants include transient tachypnoea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, meconium aspiration syndrome, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate and pneumothorax. Early recognition of respiratory distress and initiation of appropriate treatment is important to ensure optimal outcomes. This review will discuss these common causes of respiratory distress in term-born infants.

  2. Inflammatory cytokines in newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Sarandakou, A; Giannaki, G; Malamitsi-Puchner, A; Rizos, D; Hourdaki, E; Protonotariou, E; Phocas, I

    1998-01-01

    Serum levels of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were measured in 48 healthy, termed neonates on the 1st (N1), 5th (N5) and 40th (N40) day after birth, compared with those in maternal serum (MS), umbilical cord (UC) and adult controls. Cytokine values in N1 and N5 were significantly elevated, than those in UC and in controls (P<0.0001). IL-1beta and IL-6 declined significantly from N1 to N40 (P<0.0001), while TNF-alpha increased significantly from N1 to N5 and declined thereafter. MS infinity IL-1beta and IL-6, but not MS infinity TNF-alpha, were significantly higher than those of controls (P<0.0001). IL-1beta values depended on the mode of delivery. In conclusion, the increased concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha during the perinatal period might suggest their involvement in an inflammation-like process during normal parturition, and reflect also a newborn immune response to the stress of delivery and environmental changes. PMID:9883964

  3. Can Newborns Discriminate between Their Own Cry and the Cry of Another Newborn Infant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dondi, Marco; Simion, Francesca; Caltran, Giovanna

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments tested whether newborns could discriminate their own and another newborn's cry. Results indicated that awake newborns expressed facial distress more frequently and longer to another newborn's cry than to their own. Sucking decreased significantly between pretest phase and first minute of another infant's cry. Asleep infants'…

  4. Perceptual Completion in Newborn Human Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Eloisa; Leo, Irene; Gava, Lucia; Simion, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Despite decades of studies of human infants, a still open question concerns the role of visual experience in the development of the ability to perceive complete shapes over partial occlusion. Previous studies show that newborns fail to manifest this ability, either because they lack the visual experience required for perceptual completion or…

  5. [Criteria for hospital discharge of the healthy term newborn after delivery].

    PubMed

    Rite Gracia, Segundo; Pérez Muñuzuri, Alejandro; Sanz López, Ester; Leante Castellanos, José Luis; Benavente Fernández, Isabel; Ruiz Campillo, César W; Sánchez Redondo, M Dolores; Sánchez Luna, Manuel

    2016-10-13

    Criteria for newborn hospital discharge have to include physiological stability and family competence to provide newborn care at home. In this document, the Committee of Standards of the Spanish Society of Neonatology reviews the minimum criteria to be met before hospital discharge of a term newborn infant. We include a review of hospital discharge criteria for the late preterm infants, as these infants are often not hospitalised and remain with their mother after birth. A shortened hospital stay (less than 48h after delivery) for healthy term newborns can be considered, but it is not appropriate for every mother and newborn. Newborn infants discharged before 48h of age, should be examined within 3-4 days of life.

  6. Transcutaneous bilirubinometry in the newborn infant: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Hegyi, T

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant continues to challenge physicians. Clinical evaluation and treatment have evolved well-established principles over the past decade. This review examines neonatal bilirubin metabolism and focuses on a recently developed clinical diagnostic tool, the transcutaneous bilirubinometer. In spite of some limitations, the transcutaneous bilirubinometer can be best applied as a screening tool to identify healthy full-term infants who require serum bilirubin determination. With proper application, this device can eliminate most invasive diagnostic testing. Optimal use of the instrument requires the relationship between the serum bilirubin concentration and the transcutaneous bilirubinometer index to be determined for each device, institution, and population.

  7. Colonization and infection in the newborn infant: Does chlorhexidine play a role in infection prevention?

    PubMed

    Ortegón, Lizeth; Puentes-Herrera, Marcela; Corrales, Ivohne F; Cortés, Jorge A

    2017-02-01

    Healthcare-associated infections are a major problem in newborn infants, considering their high morbidity, mortality, and long-term sequelae. In preterm infants, it has been shown that skin and gastrointestinal tract colonization undergoes variations compared to healthy term infants, and that preterm infants are more exposed to nosocomial microorganisms given their higher probability of being admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit where they are cared for. This document reviews normal colonization, the changes observed during hospitalization, prematurity, and the potential role of chlorhexidine in the prevention of resistant microorganism transmission, as well as its side effects in newborn infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit.

  8. [Cerebral Doppler ultrasonography in newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Luciano, R; Velardi, F

    1995-01-01

    Following the first study of Bada et al. (1979), Doppler assessment of cerebral blood flow has increasingly been used in newborn infants, matching the technical progress in the available equipment. The experience gathered in recent years has confirmed that Doppler US is a reliable and reproducible examination while precising the limitations and the methodology to be followed in order to prevent gross errors of assessment and interpretation. The interest this procedure has arisen, among other things, stems from being noninvasive and feasible at the patient's bed. These features enable its repeated use in newborn infants in poor clinical condition. The diagnostic and prognostic role of Doppler velocimetry has been shown in a number of neonatal diseases and the cerebral hemodynamics has been assessed in physiologic conditions as well as after drug administration. The most common equipment used in newborn infants is at present Duplex Doppler consisting of a pulsed Doppler combined with bidimensional scanner, which, with visualization of study arteries, enables precise positioning of sample volume and correction of the ultrasonic angle of incidence with respect to the direction of blood flow in the examined vessel. In this report, after a survey of the techniques and modalities of cerebral Doppler examination in newborns, a review of the present state of the art, in neonatal cerebral as well as extracranial disease, is presented.

  9. Genetic Disorders in the Newborn Infant

    PubMed Central

    Meschino, Wendy S.; Summers, Anne M.

    1988-01-01

    Genetic disorders in the neonate should be suspected in a number of different clinical situations, ranging from that of an infant with dysmorphic features and multiple congenital malformations to that of a previously well newborn who becomes acutely ill. An approach for the primary-care physician to the initial investigation and management of these situations is outlined. In addition neonatal screening tests for metabolic disorders and congenital hypothyroidism are briefly discussed. PMID:21253098

  10. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Gould, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have made direct radiographic magnification of the newborn infant clinically feasible. A microfocus radiographic tube and a rare-earth, high-speed recording system were combined to obtain more than 2,000 radiographs at magnifications of 2-2.5. Special positioning devices permitted imaging of even those infants confined to incubators and connected to life-supporting systems. When quantitatively compared with three conventional contact radiographic systems with respect to resolution, contrast, and noise, magnification radiography showed overall superiority of image characteristics. Definition of subtle abnormalities and anatomically small structures permitted diagnoses which could not be made from conventional images. Furthermore, infant radiation exposure was markedly less (15 mR (3.9 mC/kg) maximum skin exposure) as compared with conventional contact radiographic systems (24 mR (6.1 mC/kg) to 45 mR (11.6 mC/kg)).

  11. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Gould, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have made direct radiographic magnification of the newborn infant clinically feasible. A microfocus radiographic tube and a rare-earth, high-speed recording system were combined to obtain more than 2,000 radiographs at magnifications of 2 to 2.5. Special positioning devices permitted imaging of even those infants confined to incubators and connected to life-supporting systems. When quantitatively compared with three conventional contact radiographic systems with respect to resolution, contrast, and noise, magnification radiography showed overall superiority of image characteristics. Definition of subtle abnormalities and anatomically small structures permitted diagnoses which could not be made from conventional images. Furthermore, infant radiation exposure was markedly less (15 mR (3.9 mC/kg) maximum skin exposure) as compared with conventional contact radiographic systems (24 mR(6.1 mC/kg) to 45 mR (11.6 mC/kg)).

  12. Dental lamina cysts in a newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Kumar, Rakesh; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Kamleshwar

    2012-10-09

    Cystic lesions of transient nature viz. Epstein pearls, Bohn's nodules and dental lamina cysts are frequently found in the oral cavities of newborn infants. These cysts arise from the developing dental tissues or from their remnants. These cystic lesions are not commonly seen by the dental surgeons due to their self-limiting nature and ignorance of the parents to seek the professional opinion. However, when contacted by anxious parents seeking treatment, dental surgeons should be able to explain and reassure the parents about the transient nature of these lesions and need for no treatment but regular follow-up. The present case report was written with the purpose to increase the awareness in dental surgeons about the peculiar clinical presentation and self-limiting nature of these cystic lesions, so that unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided in such young infants.

  13. Newborn infants detect the beat in music

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, István; Háden, Gábor P.; Ladinig, Olivia; Sziller, István; Honing, Henkjan

    2009-01-01

    To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the origin of music. Theorists are divided on the issue whether this ability is innate or learned. We show that newborn infants develop expectation for the onset of rhythmic cycles (the downbeat), even when it is not marked by stress or other distinguishing spectral features. Omitting the downbeat elicits brain activity associated with violating sensory expectations. Thus, our results strongly support the view that beat perception is innate. PMID:19171894

  14. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in a newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Motta, M; Cavazza, A; Migliori, C; Chirico, G

    2003-07-01

    The case is reported of an infant with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia of perinatal onset. Combined treatment with steroids and cyclosporin was necessary to improve haemolysis and reduce the high transfusion requirements. Treatment was discontinued at 13 months of age. The child was healthy at the follow up at 24 and 36 months of age.

  15. Feeding of newborns and infants (cultural aspects).

    PubMed

    Lala, V R; Desai, A B

    1970-07-01

    A total of 435 mothers in the postnatal ward of the Civil Hospital in Ahmedabad, India were interviewed to determine the cultural beliefs and traditional practices influencing the feeding of newborns and infants. A thorough physical and neurological examination of the newborns was conducted. All newborns and mothers were followed for a period varying from 3-7 days to detect any complications either in the newborn or the mother related to feeding patterns. The various methods of feeding were observed. In most of the cases the deciding factor to giving the 1st feed was the cry of the baby. As a 1st feed, various liquid preparations were used by the mothers. 66.2% of the mothers offered boiled water as a 1st feed. In the postnatal ward boiled water is an easily available preparation for newborns and is usually provided by the ward sister whenever the mother requests it. In most of the cases the mother herself was the initiator. 40.3% of the mothers began supplementing breast milk with milk or solid food before the age of 1 year, and 18% by the age of 1 1/2 years. 27.3% of the mothers kept their children on breast milk only until the age of 1 year, and 12.7% until the age of 2 years. 46.5% of the mothers did not give milk at all during infancy and childhood. The most common age for introducing solid food was 1-1 1/2 (61.4%); only 10.2% of the mothers introduced solid food during the 1st year of life. The various sweet carbohydrate preparations used as 1st feed are known as "Galthuthi." 25.9% of the mothers gave "Galthuthi" to their newborns during the 1st 3 days of life and 16.9% of the mothers used it as a 1st feed. Most mothers were giving it as a custom or community tradition. The infants exposed to "Galthuthi" are exposed to gastrointestinal infections. The common practice of giving fresh milk as a prelacteal feed during the 1st 3 days of life appears to be harmful to subsequent breastfeeding. It seems that prelacteal feed is not harmful as long as it is given in a

  16. Evaluation of pain in healthy newborns and in newborns with developmental problems (Down syndrome).

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, Maria José; Mur Villar, Norma; García García, Inmaculada

    2015-06-01

    Newborns are often subjected to invasive and painful medical procedures. This happens even more frequently when they require hospitalization. The aim of this paper was to evaluate pain in healthy newborns and in newborns with Down syndrome (DS). We performed a prospective cohort study in the neonatal service of the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada (Spain) from January 2008 to September 2013. The universe of our study comprised a study group of 20 newborns with DS and a control group of 20 newborns without DS. All of the infants were hospitalized, and thus had to undergo painful medical procedures. The variables studied were basal recovery time (as reflected in crying and the normalization of biological constants), number of punctures, oxygen saturation, heartbeat, blood pressure, response to skin-to-skin contact, and gestational age. The evaluation was performed during blood extraction, vein canalization, and heel puncture. The significant differences in the basal recovery time between the two groups of newborns indicated that those with DS were slower to express pain, and when they did, their response was not as clearly defined as that of babies without DS. The oxygen saturation in babies with DS after the puncture was found to be significantly lower than that of the control group (p < .001). The results of this study revealed that babies with DS were not as quick to perceive pain after a puncture. However, when pain was finally perceived, it persisted for a longer time. This situation should be taken into account in the design of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies.

  17. [THE COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF KAOLIN-ACTIVATED THROMBOELASTOGRAPHY IN HEALTHY NEWBORNS AND NEWBORNS WITH HEART AILMENTS].

    PubMed

    Leonov, N P; Karas'kov, A M; Litasova, E E; Strunin, O V; Karmadonova, N A; Akopov, G D; Vishegorodtseva, L I

    2016-02-01

    The study was carried out to diferentiate reference values for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in newborns with congenital heart disease. The study included two groups ofpatients. The first one consisted of 62 newborns with congenital heart disease and the second one consisted of 35 healthy newborns. The results of kaolin-activated thromboelastography implemented in groups are evaluated as condition of normal coagulation. The valuable diferences of homeostasis system in healthy newborns and newborns with congenital heart disease (without severe concomitant pathology) are not established. They have similar indicators of kaolin-activated thromboelastography. The derived results can be applied as standards in full-term newborns with congenital heart disease.

  18. Red blood cell transfusion in newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Robin K; Jefferies, Ann L

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cell transfusion is an important and frequent component of neonatal intensive care. The present position statement addresses the methods and indications for red blood cell transfusion of the newborn, based on a review of the current literature. The most frequent indications for blood transfusion in the newborn are the acute treatment of perinatal hemorrhagic shock and the recurrent correction of anemia of prematurity. Perinatal hemorrhagic shock requires immediate treatment with large quantities of red blood cells; the effects of massive transfusion on other blood components must be considered. Some guidelines are now available from clinical trials investigating transfusion in anemia of prematurity; however, considerable uncertainty remains. There is weak evidence that cognitive impairment may be more severe at follow-up in extremely low birth weight infants transfused at lower hemoglobin thresholds; therefore, these thresholds should be maintained by transfusion therapy. Although the risks of transfusion have declined considerably in recent years, they can be minimized further by carefully restricting neonatal blood sampling. PMID:24855419

  19. Introduction to resuscitation of the newborn infant. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-08-01

    • Introduction to Resuscitation of the Newborn Infant. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010 • Planning for Neonatal Resuscitation and Identification of the Newborn Infant at Risk. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010 • Assessment of the Newborn Infant. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010 • Airway Management and Mask Ventilation of the Newborn Infant. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010 • Tracheal Intubation and Ventilation of the Newborn Infant. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010 • Chest Compressions during Resuscitation of the Newborn Infant. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010 • Medication or Fluids for the Resuscitation of the Newborn Infant. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010 • The Resuscitation of the Newborn Infant in Special Circumstances. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010 • After the Resuscitation of a Newborn Infant. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010 • Ethical Issues in Resuscitation of the Newborn Infant. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010.

  20. Can Conditioned Responses be Established in the Newborn Infant: 1971?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sameroff, Arnold J.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence indicates that the newborn infant must first develop cognitive systems, through his experience with various stimuli, to differentiate each modality separately before he can integrate any two modalities in classical conditioning. (Author/NH)

  1. Detecting the temporal structure of sound sequences in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Háden, Gábor P; Honing, Henkjan; Török, Miklós; Winkler, István

    2015-04-01

    Most high-level auditory functions require one to detect the onset and offset of sound sequences as well as registering the rate at which sounds are presented within the sound trains. By recording event-related brain potentials to onsets and offsets of tone trains as well as to changes in the presentation rate, we tested whether these fundamental auditory capabilities are functional at birth. Each of these events elicited significant event-related potential components in sleeping healthy neonates. The data thus demonstrate that the newborn brain is sensitive to these acoustic features suggesting that infants are geared towards the temporal aspects of segregating sound sources, speech and music perception already at birth.

  2. Fathers' Affectionate Stimulation and Caregiving Behaviors with Newborn Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawin, Douglas B.; Parke, Ross D.

    1979-01-01

    Overall findings from this series of studies indicate that fathers are as competent as mothers in providing affection, stimulation, and the necessary care for newborn infants. During feeding in the neonatal period, fathers have been found to be just as active participants in dyadic interactions with their infants as are mothers. (Author)

  3. Rudiments of Infant Temperament: Newborn to 9 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheny, Adam P. Jr.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assessed temperament of newborn twins using comprehensive neonatal exam that focused on irritability, resistance to soothing activity, and reinforcement value. Some infants were later assessed at 9 months. Emotional activity appeared to be core dimension stretching over ages and is discussed in relation to formulations of infant temperament.…

  4. Challenges of newborn severe combined immunodeficiency screening among premature infants.

    PubMed

    Ward, Claire E; Baptist, Alan P

    2013-04-01

    Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is currently being performed in many states. It is important to address diagnostic challenges while outcomes are emerging from the first several years of screening. We present the case of a premature infant whose initial newborn screen was strongly positive for SCID. Subsequent lymphocyte subset analysis by flow cytometry was difficult to interpret due to the lack of age-matched reference values, a history of prenatal corticosteroid administration, and the possibility of maternal or posttransfusion engraftment. A repeat newborn screen for SCID ultimately revealed a normal result, confirming the initial newborn screen as a false positive. This case report reveals several of the diagnostic challenges unique to newborn SCID screening in premature infants and highlights the potential for states to address the feasibility of a standard protocol in this population.

  5. Blood ferritin concentrations in newborn infants and the sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Raha-Chowdhury, R; Moore, C A; Bradley, D; Henley, R; Worwood, M

    1996-01-01

    Liver iron concentrations have been shown to be higher in victims of SIDS than in postmortem controls suggesting that high levels of tissue iron may be implicated in SIDS. To determine whether infants who subsequently die from SIDS are born with greater iron stores than those who do not, the iron stores in newborn infants were assessed retrospectively by measuring blood ferritin concentration in spots from Guthrie cards (collected from almost all infants born in the UK in the first week of life). A method for extracting and measuring ferritin from stored blood spots is described. Eighteen cases of SIDS were identified in South Glamorgan along with four controls for each case. Ferritin concentrations did not differ in SIDS victims and controls suggesting that victims of SIDS are not born with abnormal concentrations of stored iron. If iron stores are found to be higher in SIDS victims than in healthy live infants of the same age then it is more likely that the iron will have been acquired after birth. PMID:8655686

  6. Skin hamartoma on the hand of a newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Akimune; Itabashi, Chieko; Kanda, Susumu; Suzuki, Yutaka; Tanabu, Muneyuki; Kure, Shigeo

    2013-06-01

    Skin hamartoma is an extremely rare disease on the hand in newborn infants. Reported herein is the case of a newborn infant who presented with a skin hamartoma on the hand. The patient was a girl born at 37 weeks of gestational age. The mass was seen on her proximal left thumb at birth. The mass had a spherical diameter of 4 cm and was pedunculated. One the day after birth, the stalk on the mass was ligated in the neonatal intensive care unit. The mass was diagnosed as skin hamartoma on histopathology. At 1 year of age, the child had good hand function, and no recurrence of the neoplasia was evident.

  7. [Increased incidence of developmental hip dysplasia in hypertrophic newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Peschgens, T; Skopnik, H; Casser, H R; Rauschning-Sikora, K; Heimann, G

    1993-01-01

    "Lack of space" in utero is considered to be a major factor in the aetiology of the congenital dislocation of the hip. This study tries to answer the question whether hypertrophy of a newborn has to be regarded as a risk factor on the basis of the principle mentioned above. The results of postnatal clinical and sonographical examination performed on 98 large-for-gestational-age (LGA-) newborn were compared to those performed on 310 newborn children during a non selective screening program. Among the LGA-newborn pathological hip joints were found more often mainly female LGA-newborn infants were affected. It seemed that the birth weight did not correlate to the extent of the retardation of the hip joint development. It was again confirmed that the restriction to only clinical diagnostic procedures in the neonatal period is not effective in the early diagnosis of the malformation. Hypertrophy of a newborn has to be considered as a risk factor behind the development of congenital dislocation of the hip. It is recommended to examine all LGA-newborn infants post partum by clinical and most importantly also by sonographical means to recognize a retardation of hip joint development.

  8. [Advantage of delayed umbilical cord clamping in the newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Menget, A; Mougey, C; Thiriez, G; Riethmuller, D

    2013-09-01

    The timing of umbilical cord clamping remains controversial. Although most maternity wards use the early clamping (5-15s), randomized studies and meta-analyses have demonstrated the benefit of delayed clamping for term and preterm newborn infants over the past 10 years. Indeed, placentofetal transfusion of 20-30 ml/kg in 2-3 min improves the iron status of term infants and prevents infant hypochromic anemia. Infant anemia is a public health problem in many developing countries. For preterm newborns, placental transfusion for 45 s or milking the cord for 15 s improves cardiovascular adaptation, with better hemodynamic stability, as well as decreased intraventricular hemorrhages, need for transfusion, and late-onset sepsis. A new look at this symbolic act is needed and professionals need to be persuaded of the importance of the "wait a minute" policy for a better physiological delivery.

  9. Baby massage ameliorates neonatal jaundice in full-term newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Sadakata, Mieko; Ishida, Mayumi; Sekizuka, Naoto; Sayama, Mitsuko

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a common physiological problem affecting over half of all full term and most preterm infants. Thus, newborn infants must be monitored for signs of hyperbilirubinemia to prevent acute bilirubin encephalopathy or kernicterus. Evidence exists supporting the benefits of baby massage as a form of mild hand to skin contact, to increase neonatal physical and mental development. In the present study, the effects of gentle baby massage on neonatal jaundice in full term newborn infants were evaluated by a controlled clinical trial. The inclusion criteria of newborn neonates were as follows: (1) gestational age of 37-41 weeks, (2) birth weight of 2,800-3,600 g, (3) Apgar score at birth of 8-10, and (4) being a healthy neonate without neonatal asphyxia and hemolytic condition. Breastfed newborns without phototherapy were included: 20 in the massage group and 22 in the control group. We found the mean stool frequency of the massaged infants on day 1 and day 2 (4.6 and 4.3) was significantly higher than that of the control group (3.3 and 2.6) (p<0.05). The transcutaneous bilirubin levels on the second to fifth day and serum total bilirubin levels on fourth day were significantly decreased in the massage group, compared to the control group. In conclusion, baby massage at an early stage after birth could reduce neonatal bilirubin levels. We suggest baby massage is beneficial for ameliorating neonatal jaundice.

  10. Abandonment of newborn infants: a Danish forensic medical survey 1997-2008.

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, Alexandra; Banner, Jytte; Hansen, Steen Holger; Stolborg, Uffe; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-12-01

    Concealment of pregnancy and newborn infant abandonment are closely associated with neonaticide, the killing of an infant within the first 24 h of life or less than 28-30 days depending on the jurisdiction. Abandonment of newborn infants occurs throughout the world and often the outcome for the infant is death. Together with neonaticide it is felt to be one of the least preventable crimes. In this retrospective study we present all forensically known Danish cases of abandoned newborn infant corpses, covering the period from 1997 to 2008. Eleven newborn infant corpses were found; we registered characteristics of the newborn infants and the circumstances of the cases based on autopsy reports. One further newborn infant was included, dating back to 1992, as it was found to be connected with one of the later cases. The mean age of the women who abandoned their newborn infants was 22 years, and five of the autopsied newborn infants were probably alive when abandoned. In two cases the newborn infants were half siblings and abandoned by the same mother. The time span from abandonment to when the newborn infant was found ranged from hours to 7 years. Two-thirds of the newborn infants were girls (66.6%). The most common means of disposal was in a plastic bag (~60%); only one newborn infant was wearing clothes when found. Causes of death were usually given as asphyxia, brain injury or simply undetermined. Two-thirds of the newborn infants showed signs of violence. None of the newborn infants had congenital malformations.

  11. Management of Newborn Infants with Phenylketonuria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services Administration (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Community Health Services.

    The booklet covers the identification, diagnosis, and clinical treatment of newborns with Phenylketonuria (PKU), an inborn error of metabolism, which, if untreated, can lead to mental retardation. An initial section considers biochemical and genetic factors of PKU including a diagram of aromatic amino acid hydroxylation systems. Screening…

  12. Newborn Infants Imitate Adult Facial Gestures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Moore, M. Keith

    1983-01-01

    Results indicated that infants only 0.7 to 71 hours old can imitate adults' facial gestures (mouth opening and tongue protrusions). Three possible mechanisms underlying this early imitative behavior are suggested. (Author/MP)

  13. Salt and fluid balance in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Zetterström, R

    1988-09-01

    About 5 years ago it was widely thought that preterm infants should be supplemented with extra sodium to avoid hyponatremia. It has, however, to be pointed out that VLBW infants during the first postnatal week run a risk of developing hypernatremia which makes it difficult to give general recommendations for sodium supplementation. Since the serum sodium level depends not only upon the balance between sodium intake and sodium excretion but also upon the water balance which may vary depending on the clinical condition of the baby, it seems advisable to monitor the serum sodium level in all preterm infants. Supplementation should be given in case of hyponatremia. In instances of hyponatremia it also has to be considered if the infant due to positive fluid balance has retained fluid in excess of sodium. As a general conclusion the importance of monitoring sodium balance in every preterm infant should be stressed. Disturbances are most likely to occur in VLBW infants and in infants with acute illnesses. The best way of assisting fluid balance is by repeated accurate measurements of the body weight. It should, however, be kept in ming that no reliable methods are available for the measurement of the body weight of a preterm infant who is under intensive care and who cannot be taken out of the incubator. Serum sodium levels may give information of the sodium balance but it has to be stressed that fluid and sodium balances are always interrelated and that it is desirable to have simultaneous estimations of both balances. Excess retention of fluid may be caused primarily by excess retention of sodium or by fluid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Risk of Wheezing Attacks in Infants With Transient Tachypnea Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Golshantafti, Mohammad; Yavari, Tahereh; Afrand, Mohammadhosain

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most common reason of respiratory distress in the newborn is transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). There are some reports saying that TTN is associated with increased frequencies of wheezing attacks. Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the risk factors associated with TTN and to determine the association between TTN and the development of wheezing syndromes in early life. Materials and Methods: In a historical cohort study, we recorded the characteristics of 70 infants born at the Shohadaye Kargar Hospital in Yazd between March 2005 and March 2009 and who were hospitalized because of TTN in the neonatal intensive-care unit. We called their parents at least four years after the infants were discharged from the hospital and asked about any wheezing attacks. Seventy other infants with no health problems during the newborn period were included in the study as the control group. Results: The rate of wheezing attacks in newborns with TTN was more than patients with no TTN diagnosis (P = 0.014). TTN was found to be an independent risk factor for later wheezing attacks (relative risk [RR] = 2.8). Conclusions: The most obvious finding of this study was that TTN was an independent risk factor for wheezing attacks. So long-term medical care is suggested for these patients who may be at risk, because TTN may not be as transient as has been previously thought. PMID:26848370

  15. Phospholipid Species in Newborn and 4 Month Old Infants after Consumption of Different Formulas or Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Olaf; Fleddermann, Manja; Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for neuronal and cognitive development and are ingredients of infant formulae that are recommended but there is no evidence based minimal supplementation level available. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the effect of supplemented AA and DHA on phospholipid metabolism. Methods Plasma samples of a randomized, double-blind infant feeding trial were used for the analyses of phospholipid species by flow-injection mass spectrometry. Healthy term infants consumed isoenergetic formulae (intervention formula with equal amounts of AA and DHA—IF, control formula without additional AA and DHA—CF) from the first month of life until the age of 120 days. A group of breast milk (BM) -fed infants was followed as a reference. Results The plasma profile detected in newborns was different from 4 month old infants, irrespective of study group. Most relevant changes were seen in higher level of LPC16:1, LPC20:4, PC32:1, PC34:1 and PC36:4 and lower level of LPC18:0, LPC18:2, PC32:2, PC36:2 and several ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in newborns. The sum of all AA and DHA species at 4 month old infants in the CF group showed level of 40% (AA) and 51% (DHA) of newborns. The supplemented amount of DHA resulted in phospholipid level comparable to BM infants, but AA phospholipids were lower than in BM infants. Interestingly, relative contribution of DHA was higher in ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in CF fed infants, but IF and BM fed infants showed higher overall ether-linked phosphatidylcholines levels. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that infant plasma phospholipid profile changes remarkably from newborn over time and is dependent on the dietary fatty acid composition. A supplementation of an infant formula with AA and DHA resulted in increased related phospholipid species. PMID:27571269

  16. Smoking during Pregnancy Affects Speech-Processing Ability in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Key, Alexandra P.F.; Ferguson, Melissa; Molfese, Dennis L.; Peach, Kelley; Lehman, Casey; Molfese, Victoria J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking during pregnancy is known to adversely affect development of the central nervous system in babies of smoking mothers by restricting utero–placental blood flow and the amount of oxygen available to the fetus. Behavioral data associate maternal smoking with lower verbal scores and poorer performance on specific language/auditory tests. Objectives In the current study we examined the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on newborns’ speech processing ability as measured by event-related potentials (ERPs). Method High-density ERPs were recorded within 48 hr of birth in healthy newborn infants of smoking (n = 8) and nonsmoking (n = 8) mothers. Participating infants were matched on sex, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar scores, mother’s education, and family income. Smoking during pregnancy was determined by parental self-report and medical records. ERPs were recorded in response to six consonant–vowel syllables presented in random order with equal probability. Results Brainwaves of babies of nonsmoking mothers were characterized by typical hemisphere asymmetries, with larger amplitudes over the left hemisphere, especially over temporal regions. Further, infants of nonsmokers discriminated among a greater number of syllables whereas the newborns of smokers began the discrimination process at least 150 msec later and differentiated among fewer stimuli. Conclusions Our findings indicate that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke in otherwise healthy babies is linked with significant changes in brain physiology associated with basic perceptual skills that could place the infant at risk for later developmental problems. PMID:17450234

  17. Confirmation of correct tracheal tube placement in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Schmölzer, Georg M; O'Reilly, Megan; Davis, Peter G; Cheung, Po-Yin; Roehr, Charles Christoph

    2013-06-01

    Tracheal intubation remains a common procedure during neonatal intensive care. Rapid confirmation of correct tube placement is important because tube malposition is associated with serious adverse outcomes. The current gold standard test to confirm tube position is a chest radiograph, however this is often delayed until after ventilation has commenced. Hence, point of care methods to confirm correct tube placement have been developed. The aim of this article is to review the available literature on tube placement in newborn infants. We reviewed books, resuscitation manuals and articles from 1830 to the present with the search terms "Infant, Newborn", "Endotracheal intubation", "Resuscitation", "Clinical signs", "Radiography", "Respiratory Function Tests", "Laryngoscopy", "Ultrasonography", and "Bronchoscopy". Various techniques have been studied to help clinicians assess tube placement. However, despite 85 years of clinical practice, the search for higher success rates and quicker intubation continues. Currently, chest radiography remains the gold standard test to confirm tube position. However, rigorous evaluation of new techniques is required to ensure the safety of newborn infants.

  18. Pityriasis rosea in pregnancy: report of a spousal occurrence and craniosynostosis in the healthy newborn

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Tiffany Y.; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pityriasis rosea is a papulosquamous disease. It may occur during pregnancy; in this setting, it has occasionally been associated with adverse outcomes. Purpose: A woman who developed pityriasis rosea at the beginning of her eighth week of gestation is described. The outcomes in newborns delivered by pregnant women who developed pityriasis rosea during gestation are summarized. Method: A 28-year-old woman developed pityriasis rosea during her eighth week of pregnancy. Her husband had pityriasis rosea two months earlier. PubMed was searched for the following terms: conjugal, craniosynostosis, newborn, pityriasis, pregnancy, rosea, sagittal, spouse. The papers were reviewed and the references cited were evaluated. Results: Our patient delivered a healthy male infant after 41 weeks of gestation. He had normal weight, height, and Apgar scores. Isolated sagittal craniosynostosis was diagnosed and was successfully treated at nine weeks after birth without complications. Conclusion: Several retrospective studies have investigated the possibility of adverse outcomes in infants born to women who developed pityriasis rosea during pregnancy, such as stillbirth, low gestational weight, hypotonia, and premature delivery. However, there are also reports of healthy newborns in women who have had pityriasis rosea during gestation. Our patient carried the fetus one week post-term and delivered a healthy boy via C-section; isolated sagittal craniosynostosis was later diagnosed and successfully repaired. The occurrence of craniosynostosis in a woman who developed pityriasis rosea during her first trimester of pregnancy may be two coincidental events. PMID:27648382

  19. Metabolomic Research on Newborn Infants With Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Xin-Xin; Li, Xiang-Wen; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    , hydroxyacetyl carnitine, and hydroxyhexadecancenyl carnitine (P < 0.05). Among newborns with IUGR, metabolites differed among males and females, mainly in aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and hexacosenoic acid (P < 0.05). Birth weight had no significant effects on free carnitine concentration or on the ratios of free carnitine and acylcarnitine to total carnitine (P < 0.05). IUGR infants exhibit significant abnormalities in amino acid and acylcarnitine metabolism, especially those with birth weight below the third percentile. With increasing birth weight, amino acids and acylcarnitines showed compensatory increases or reductions, and when birth weight reached the 10th percentile, the newborns with IUGR resembled the AGA newborns. PMID:27124067

  20. [Clinical results and pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime in newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Takimoto, M; Oka, T; Yoshioka, H; Sanae, N; Maruyama, S

    1982-07-01

    One full-term newborn infant and 2 premature ones were treated with cefotaxime for the treatment of suspected sepsis and umbilical suppurative inflammation. Pathogenic organisms could not be identified in all cases. A good result was obtained with the case of suspected sepsis. But the other 2 cases were not evaluable because underlying diseases such as massive pulmonary atelectasis or respiratory distress syndrome masked the effects of this agent. Serum levels of cefotaxime in 3 of the 4 cases were determined with bioassay. Time courses of the serum levels in 2 of them resulted in peculiar biphasic disappearance curves. This fact implies the possibility that desacetylation of cefroxime proceeds also in newborns as in adults and that desacetyl metabolite accumulates in the body owing to the premature function of the neonatal kidney.

  1. Frequency of enzyme deficiency variants in erythrocytes of newborn infants

    SciTech Connect

    Mohrenweiser, H.W.

    1981-08-01

    The frequency of enzyme deficiency variants, defined as alleles whose products are either absent or almost devoid of normal activity in erythrocytes, was determined for nine erythrocyte enzymes in some 675 newborn infants and in approximately 200 adults. Examples of this type of genetic abnormality, which in the homozygous condition are often associated with significant health consequences, were detected for seven of the nine enzymes studied. Fifteen inherited enzyme deficiency variants in 1809 determinations from adults were identified. Seven of the deficiency variants involved triosephosphate isomerase, a frequency of 0.01 in the newborn population. The average frequency of 2.4/1000 is 2 to 3 times the frequency observed for rare electrophoretic variants of erythrocyte enzymes in this same population.

  2. Soy Protein-Based Infant Formulas with Supplemental Fructooligosaccharides: Gastrointestinal Tolerance and Hydration Status in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lasekan, John; Baggs, Geraldine; Acosta, Sonja; Mackey, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Unlike milk-based infant formulas, soy-based infant formulas containing supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have not been clinically evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, 28 day parallel feeding trial compared gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance and hydration in healthy term newborn infants fed either a commercialized soy formula (with history of safe use) containing sucrose as 20% of total carbohydrate, no supplemental short-chain FOS (scFOS) and no mixed carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene) as a control (CF, n = 62 infants) or one of two experimental soy-based formulas, EF1 (n = 64) and EF2 (n = 62) containing scFOS (2.5 g/L) and mixed carotenoids. EF1 differed from EF2 by containing sucrose. Results indicated no significant study group differences (p > 0.05) in study completion rates (CF = 81, EF1 = 86, & EF2 = 87%), growth, mean rank stool consistency, stool frequency, formula intake, spit-up/vomit, and safety measures (urine specific gravity, USG; hydration status and adverse events). Mean USGs for study groups were normal (<1.03). The EF1 > CF group in percent yellow stools (p < 0.01 at age 14 days). In conclusion, the study suggested that term infants fed soy-based formulas supplemented with scFOS and mixed carotenoids, with or without sucrose in the 1st 35 days of infancy demonstrated good tolerance and hydration comparable to the control soy-based formula with history of safe use. PMID:25912040

  3. Soy protein-based infant formulas with supplemental fructooligosaccharides: gastrointestinal tolerance and hydration status in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Lasekan, John; Baggs, Geraldine; Acosta, Sonja; Mackey, Amy

    2015-04-22

    Unlike milk-based infant formulas, soy-based infant formulas containing supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have not been clinically evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, 28 day parallel feeding trial compared gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance and hydration in healthy term newborn infants fed either a commercialized soy formula (with history of safe use) containing sucrose as 20% of total carbohydrate, no supplemental short-chain FOS (scFOS) and no mixed carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene) as a control (CF, n = 62 infants) or one of two experimental soy-based formulas, EF1 (n = 64) and EF2 (n = 62) containing scFOS (2.5 g/L) and mixed carotenoids. EF1 differed from EF2 by containing sucrose. Results indicated no significant study group differences (p > 0.05) in study completion rates (CF = 81, EF1 = 86, & EF2 = 87%), growth, mean rank stool consistency, stool frequency, formula intake, spit-up/vomit, and safety measures (urine specific gravity, USG; hydration status and adverse events). Mean USGs for study groups were normal (<1.03). The EF1 > CF group in percent yellow stools (p < 0.01 at age 14 days). In conclusion, the study suggested that term infants fed soy-based formulas supplemented with scFOS and mixed carotenoids, with or without sucrose in the 1st 35 days of infancy demonstrated good tolerance and hydration comparable to the control soy-based formula with history of safe use.

  4. [Pain scales used in the newborn infant: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Pereira Da Silva, Tiago; Justo Da Silva, Lincoln

    2010-01-01

    For many years, appropriate relevance has not been given for pain in newborn infants, but research brought to light this important subject in neonatal medicine. Pain scores have been organized in scales and validated to be used in clinical practice. Currently, there are several scales based on different pain indicators. These scales should be used according to different circumstances. With the purpose of helping health professionals, a systematic review of neonatal pain scales based on gestational age, duration of painful episode and type of pain indicator was carried out. Data concerning validation of the scales were also analyzed and two scales for use in clinical practice or in research are suggested.

  5. Nemaline myopathy in a newborn infant: a rare muscle disorder.

    PubMed

    Olukman, O; Calkavur, S; Diniz, G; Unalp, A; Atlihan, F

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous muscle disorder, defined by the presence of characteristic nemaline bodies on muscle biopsy. The disease has a wide spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from forms with neonatal onset and fatal outcome to asymptomatic forms. The neonatal form is severe and usually fatal. The clinical variability, with differing age of onset and severity of symptoms makes the diagnosis difficult during infancy. There is no curative treatment. L-tyrosine may prevent aspiration by reducing pharyngeal secretions and drooling. Most of the patients die from respiratory and cardiac failure. This article discusses a newborn infant who presented with generalized weakness and respiratory failure. Partial response to L-tyrosine treatment was noted. The case is worth presenting to remind clinicians of congenital myopathies in the differential diagnosis of floppy infant during neonatal period and to emphasize the importance of muscle biopsy in diagnosis.

  6. Mother-Father-Newborn Interaction: Effects of Maternal Medication, Labor, and Sex of Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Ross D.; And Others

    A research study was conducted to: (1) compare mother and father interactions with their newborn infant; (2) examine the effects of maternal drugs on mother-father infant interaction; (3) explore the impact of variations in length of labor on parent interaction; and (4) examine sex of parent and sex of newborn interactions to determine the nature…

  7. Buen Comienzo, Buen Futuro: Su Recien Nacido. (Healthy Start, Grow Smart: Your Newborn).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet offers guidance to parents in caring for their newborn babies. Advice is given on the following topics: (1) newborn health screening; (2) what a healthy newborn looks like; (3) newborn reflexes; (4) baby checkups; (5) fathers' role; (6) the baby blues; (7) sleeping position; (8) breast milk; (9) breast feeding; (10) bottle feeding;…

  8. Newborn primate infants are entrained by low intensity lighting

    PubMed Central

    Rivkees, Scott A.; Hofman, Paul L.; Fortman, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    At the present time we do not know when the circadian timing system of human infants becomes responsive to light. Because of human study limitations, it is not currently possible to address this issue in clinical studies. Therefore, to provide insights into when the circadian system of humans becomes responsive to light, baboons were studied. We first assessed if the biological clock located in suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) is responsive to light at birth. When term newborn infants were exposed to bright light at night (5000 lux), SCN metabolic activity and c-fos mRNA expression increased, indicating the presence of photic responsiveness. When photic entrainment of developing rhythmicity was examined in infants, low intensity (200 lux) cycled lighting was sufficient to entrain circadian phase. However, low intensity lighting was not sufficient to induce changes in SCN metabolic activity or c-fos mRNA expression. Phase–response studies indicated that light exposure (200 lux) before the onset of activity most effectively shifted circadian phase. These data provide direct evidence that the SCN are responsive to visually mediated light information in a primate at birth. Further consideration of lighting conditions that infants are exposed to is therefore warranted. PMID:8990202

  9. Breast milk sodium concentration, sodium intake and weight loss in breast-feeding newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Manganaro, Rosa; Marseglia, Lucia; Mamì, Carmelo; Palmara, Antonella; Paolata, Antonina; Loddo, Saverio; Gargano, Romana; Mondello, Maurizio; Gemelli, Marina

    2007-02-01

    Elevated breast milk (BM) Na concentration is regarded as responsible for elevated Na intake. To verify the clinical significance of milk Na concentration, we studied the relationship between BM Na+ concentration and infants' daily Na+ intake, infants' daily BM intake (DBMI) and percentage weight loss (%WL) in healthy newborn infants. All mothers who gave birth to a single healthy infant, between February and March 2004 at the Obstetric Clinic of University of Messina (Italy), were invited to participate if they were willing to attempt to breastfeed exclusively. BM Na+ concentration, DBMI, Na+ intake and %WL were determined on the third day after delivery. Statistical analysis was performed by Spearman's correlation test, classification and regression trees and the generalised linear model. Of the 270 eligible mothers, 208 participated in the study. The results showed that on the third day postpartum BM Na+ concentration was 23.05 (SD 1.10) mmol/l, mean DBMI was 202 (SD 68.9) g/d, and mean Na+ intake was 4.36 (SD 0.22) mmol/d and 1.36 (SD 0.07) mmol/kg per d. BM Na+ concentration was inversely related to infant DBMI, and Na+ intake was directly related to infant DBMI and not to BM Na+ concentration. %WL was significantly correlated only to DBMI. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate, for the first time, that when lactogenesis is suboptimal, BM Na+ concentration is higher, but infants' Na+ intake is lower. Finally, the present data probably suggest that for the clinical assessment of breast-feeding, evaluation of milk intake remains the best method.

  10. Infant Directed Speech Enhances Statistical Learning in Newborn Infants: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Bosseler, Alexis N; Teinonen, Tuomas; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2016-01-01

    Statistical learning and the social contexts of language addressed to infants are hypothesized to play important roles in early language development. Previous behavioral work has found that the exaggerated prosodic contours of infant-directed speech (IDS) facilitate statistical learning in 8-month-old infants. Here we examined the neural processes involved in on-line statistical learning and investigated whether the use of IDS facilitates statistical learning in sleeping newborns. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while newborns were exposed to12 pseudo-words, six spoken with exaggerated pitch contours of IDS and six spoken without exaggerated pitch contours (ADS) in ten alternating blocks. We examined whether ERP amplitudes for syllable position within a pseudo-word (word-initial vs. word-medial vs. word-final, indicating statistical word learning) and speech register (ADS vs. IDS) would interact. The ADS and IDS registers elicited similar ERP patterns for syllable position in an early 0-100 ms component but elicited different ERP effects in both the polarity and topographical distribution at 200-400 ms and 450-650 ms. These results provide the first evidence that the exaggerated pitch contours of IDS result in differences in brain activity linked to on-line statistical learning in sleeping newborns.

  11. Infant Directed Speech Enhances Statistical Learning in Newborn Infants: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Teinonen, Tuomas; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2016-01-01

    Statistical learning and the social contexts of language addressed to infants are hypothesized to play important roles in early language development. Previous behavioral work has found that the exaggerated prosodic contours of infant-directed speech (IDS) facilitate statistical learning in 8-month-old infants. Here we examined the neural processes involved in on-line statistical learning and investigated whether the use of IDS facilitates statistical learning in sleeping newborns. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while newborns were exposed to12 pseudo-words, six spoken with exaggerated pitch contours of IDS and six spoken without exaggerated pitch contours (ADS) in ten alternating blocks. We examined whether ERP amplitudes for syllable position within a pseudo-word (word-initial vs. word-medial vs. word-final, indicating statistical word learning) and speech register (ADS vs. IDS) would interact. The ADS and IDS registers elicited similar ERP patterns for syllable position in an early 0–100 ms component but elicited different ERP effects in both the polarity and topographical distribution at 200–400 ms and 450–650 ms. These results provide the first evidence that the exaggerated pitch contours of IDS result in differences in brain activity linked to on-line statistical learning in sleeping newborns. PMID:27617967

  12. [RV polymorphism of the chromosomes in newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Krachunova, M; Tsancheva, M; Lozanova, T

    1980-01-01

    The authors examined the routine variants (RV) of the karyotype of 100 clinically healthy newborns--49 girls and 51 boys. Secondary constriction of the long arm of one of the homologues of the chromosome I was found in 2% of the newborns; of the chromosome 9--in 4% of the chromosome 16--in 3%. Secondary constriction in both homologues was observed in the chromosome I in 1%; in the chromosome 9--in 1% and in the chromosome 16--4%. Secondary constriction of the short arm of both homologues was found only in the chromosome 16 in 3%. The large acrocentric chromosomes showed extended proximal area (p5) in 34%, but diminished (pI)--in 8%. The small acrocentrics with p5 were found in 14% of the newborns, but with pI--in 7%. Enlarged satelites were observed in 1% in the both groups of acrocentrics. Difference between the homologues in respect to the short arms was observed in 32,3% of the pairs of the great acrocentrics and in 47,5% of the small acrocentrics. Distribution of the Y chromosome according to the size in 51 boys was of Gaus character q1--0%, q2--29,4%, q3--33,3%, q4--25,5% and q5--11,7%. It is possible that Y chromosome with a size of q1 could be connected with definite pathology.

  13. [Home care for the high-risk newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Puddu, M

    2010-06-01

    With increased survival of extremely low birth weigh (ELBW) and very ill infants, a lot of them are discharged with unresolved medical issues that complicate their subsequent care. Infants born preterm with low birth weight who require neonatal intensive care experience a much higher rate of hospital readmission and death during the first year after birth compared with healthy term infants. Despite initial hospital care which is one of the most expensive of all kind of hospitalization, home care services are sometimes still sparse though the high risk of this group for failure to thrive, respiratory problems, developmental delays, parenting problems. In addition, societal and economic forces have come to bear on the timing and process of discharge and home care. Moreover it takes time for the family of a high-risk infant to prepare to care for their infant in a home setting and to obtain the necessary support services and mobilize community resources. Careful preparation for discharge, good follow-up and medical home after discharge may reduce these risks.

  14. [TREATMENT OF EXTREMELY PREMATURE NEWBORN INFANT WITH INO. CLINICAL CASE].

    PubMed

    Radulova, P; Slancheva, B; Marinov, R

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) from birth in preterm neonates with BPD improves endogenous surfactant function as well as lung growth, angiogenesis, and alveologenesis. As a result there is a reduction in the frequency of the "new" form of BPD in neonates under 28 weeks of gestation and birth weight under 1000 gr. Delivery of inhaled nitric oxide is a new method of prevention of chronic lung disease. According to a large number of randomized trials iNO in premature neonates reduces pulmonary morbidity and leads to a reduction of the mortality in this population of patients. This new therapy does not have serious side effects. We represent a clinical case of extremely premature newborn infant with BPD treated with iNO.

  15. Why do premature newborn infants display elevated blood adenosine levels?

    PubMed

    Panfoli, Isabella; Cassanello, Michela; Bruschettini, Matteo; Colella, Marina; Cerone, Roberto; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Candiano, Giovanni; Ramenghi, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary data show high levels of adenosine in the blood of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, positively correlating to their prematurity (i.e. body weight class). This prompted us to look for a mechanism promoting such impressive adenosine increase. We hypothesized a correlation with oxygen challenge. In fact, it is recognized that either oxygen lack or its excess contribute to the pathogenesis of the injuries of prematurity, such as retinopathy (ROP) and periventricular white matter lesions (PWMI). The optimal concentration of oxygen for resuscitation of VLBW infants is currently under revision. We propose that the elevated adenosine blood concentrations of VLBW infants recognizes two sources. The first could be its activity-dependent release from unmyelinated brain axons. Adenosine in this respect would be an end-product of the hypometabolic VLBW newborn unmyelinated axon intensely firing in response to the environmental stimuli consequent to premature birth. Adenosine would be eventually found in the blood due to blood-brain barrier immaturity. In fact, adenosine is the primary activity-dependent signal promoting differentiation of premyelinating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) into myelinating cells in the Central Nervous System, while inhibiting their proliferation and inhibiting synaptic function. The second, would be the ecto-cellular ATP synthesized by the endothelial cell plasmalemma exposed to ambient oxygen concentrations due to premature breathing, especially in lung. ATP would be rapidly transformed into adenosine by the ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase I (CD39), and NT5E (CD73). An ectopic extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP synthetic ability was reported in many cell plasma-membranes, among which endothelial cells. The potential implications of the cited hypotheses for the neonatology area would be great. The amount of oxygen administration for reviving of newborns would find a molecular basis for its assessment. VLBW

  16. Estimating outcomes in newborn infants using fuzzy logic

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Luciano Eustáquio; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To build a linguistic model using the properties of fuzzy logic to estimate the risk of death of neonates admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: Computational model using fuzzy logic. The input variables of the model were birth weight, gestational age, 5th-minute Apgar score and inspired fraction of oxygen in newborn infants admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Taubaté, Southeast Brazil. The output variable was the risk of death, estimated as a percentage. Three membership functions related to birth weight, gestational age and 5th-minute Apgar score were built, as well as two functions related to the inspired fraction of oxygen; the risk presented five membership functions. The model was developed using the Mandani inference by means of Matlab(r) software. The model values were compared with those provided by experts and their performance was estimated by ROC curve. RESULTS: 100 newborns were included, and eight of them died. The model estimated an average possibility of death of 49.7±29.3%, and the possibility of hospital discharge was 24±17.5%. These values are different when compared by Student's t-test (p<0.001). The correlation test revealed r=0.80 and the performance of the model was 81.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This predictive, non-invasive and low cost model showed a good accuracy and can be applied in neonatal care, given the easiness of its use. PMID:25119746

  17. White Cells and Bacteria in Voided Urine of Healthy Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, James M.

    1971-01-01

    During a screening survey for urinary infection, 600 infants had one or more urines examined on the sixth or seventh day of life and 592 were subsequently shown to be uninfected. Bacterial and white cell counts on the first urine specimen to be examined from each infant are reported, comprising 363 specimens (188 from boys, 177 from girls) collected into plastic bags and 229 specimens (116 from boys, 113 from girls) collected by a clean catch technique. Bag specimens contained 5 white cells per mm3 or less in 98% of boys but in only 56% of girls, in whom 11% contained more than 100 white cells per mm3. Clean catch specimens contained up to 5 white cells per mm3 in 97% of boys and 94% of girls, suggesting perineal contamination in girls to be the cause of the higher white cell counts in urine collected into plastic bags. Total bacterial counts of 10,000 colonies per ml or less were obtained from bag urines in 41% of both boys and girls and from midstream urines of 73% of boys and 77% of girls. Midstream specimens were significantly better than bag specimens for purposes of culture. Examination of voided urine specimens from newborns allows infection to be excluded in approximately 45% of infants if only one bag specimen is examined and in approximately 75% if a single midstream specimen is obtained. Even bag specimens are therefore not without value. Suprapubic aspiration should be reserved for infants where difficulty arises due to repeated equivocal results from voided urines, when urgent confirmation is required, or when the presence of perineal lesions makes suitable voided urine collection impracticable. PMID:5576025

  18. Physical therapy with newborns and infants: applying concepts of phenomenology and synactive theory to guide interventions.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Yvette; Øberg, Gunn Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Physical therapy involving newborns and young infants is a specialized area of practice reserved for therapists who have advanced training and the competence to help newborns, young infants and their families meet their goals. Beginning at birth, infants apply a significant amount of effort to actively participate in and shape their world. Infants make their intentions and requests for support known through their behaviors during social and physical therapy encounters. The therapeutic encounter viewed from the infant's perspective has received limited attention in the physical therapy literature. The purpose of this article is to discuss concepts related to phenomenology and synactive theory that are relevant to physical therapy with newborns and young infants during the first few months of life after birth.

  19. Imitation in Newborn Infants: Exploring the Range of Gestures Imitated and the Underlying Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Moore, M. Keith

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated psychological mechanisms underlying imitation of facial actions in 40 newborn infants. Results showed imitation of head movement and a tongue-protrusion gesture. Subjects imitated from memory after displays had stopped. (RJC)

  20. Differential neutrophil chemotactic response towards IL-8 and bacterial N-formyl peptides in term newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Stålhammar, Maria E.; Douhan Håkansson, Lena; Jonzon, Anders; Sindelar, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background A prerequisite for an effective innate immunity is the migrative ability of neutrophils to respond to inflammatory and infectious agents such as the intermediate interleukin (IL)-8 and the end-target formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) chemoattractants. The aim was to study the chemotactic capacity of neutrophils from newborn infants and adults in response to IL-8 and the bacterial peptide fMLP. Methods In the under-agarose cell migration assay, isolated leukocytes from healthy adults and from cord blood of healthy term newborn infants were studied with dose responses towards IL-8 and fMLP. The same number of leukocytes (1 × 105 cells), with the same distribution of neutrophils and monocytes, were analyzed in neonates and adults. Chemotaxis was distinguished from randomly migrating neutrophils, and the neutrophil pattern of migration, i.e. the migration distance and the number of migrating neutrophils per distance, was evaluated. Results In comparison to adults, fewer neutrophils from newborn infants migrated towards IL-8 and for a shorter distance (P < .01, respectively). The number of neutrophils migrating to different gradients of fMLP, the distance they migrated, and the correlation between the number and the distance were the same for neonates and adults. Random migration did not differ in any instance. Conclusion Chemotaxis of neutrophils from newborn infants was as co-ordinated as neutrophils from adults in response to fMLP, whereas the response to IL-8 was reduced. The differential response of neutrophils from neonates to intermediate and end-target chemoattractants could indicate a reduced infectious response. PMID:27690722

  1. Neurobehaviors of Japanese Newborns in Relation to the Characteristics of Early Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Kek Khee; Ohgi, Shohei; Howard, Judy; Tyler, Rachelle; Hirose, Taiko

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between newborn neurobehavioral profiles and the characteristics of early mother-infant interaction in Nagasaki, Japan. The authors administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS; T. B. Brazelton & J. K. Nugent, 1995) in the newborn period and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching…

  2. Evaluations of diapers containing absorbent gelling material with conventional disposable diapers in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Lane, A T; Rehder, P A; Helm, K

    1990-03-01

    We evaluated 149 infants diapered in either conventional cellulose core disposable diapers or diapers containing cellulose core with absorbent gelling material. The infants were evaluated from 1 day of age to 14 weeks of age for the prevalence and severity of diaper dermatitis. We identified a low prevalence of diaper dermatitis throughout the study period. At 14 weeks of age, we noted that infants in diapers containing absorbent gelling material had significantly less diaper dermatitis than those in conventional disposable diapers. Despite the overall low prevalence of diaper dermatitis in the newborn period, 7 of 204 infants evaluated had small skin erosions in the diaper area noted within the first 4 days of age. Both diaper types were associated with infants with erosions. This surprisingly high incidence of erosions in newborn infants suggests previously undocumented increased skin fragility of full-term infants.

  3. Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease in Otherwise Healthy Infants: Failure of Specific Neonatal Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Borghesi, Alessandro; Stronati, Mauro; Fellay, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Only a small proportion of newborn infants exposed to a pathogenic microorganism develop overt infection. Susceptibility to infection in preterm infants and infants with known comorbidities has a likely multifactorial origin and can be often attributed to the concurrence of iatrogenic factors, environmental determinants, underlying pathogenic processes, and probably genetic predisposition. Conversely, infection occurring in otherwise healthy full-term newborn infants is unexplained in most cases. Microbial virulence factors and the unique characteristics of the neonatal immune system only partially account for the interindividual variability in the neonatal immune responses to pathogens. We here suggest that neonatal infection occurring in otherwise healthy infants is caused by a failure of the specific protective immunity to the microorganism. To explain infection in term and preterm infants, we propose an extension of the previously proposed model of the genetic architecture of infectious diseases in humans. We then focus on group B streptococcus (GBS) disease, the best characterized neonatal infection, and outline the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the selective failure of the immune responses against GBS. In light of the recent discoveries of pathogen-specific primary immunodeficiencies and of the role of anticytokine autoantibodies in increasing susceptibility to specific infections, we hypothesize that GBS disease occurring in otherwise healthy infants could reflect an immunodeficiency caused either by rare genetic defects in the infant or by transmitted maternal neutralizing antibodies. These hypotheses are consistent with available epidemiological data, with clinical and epidemiological observations, and with the state of the art of neonatal physiology and disease. Studies should now be designed to comprehensively search for genetic or immunological factors involved in susceptibility to severe neonatal infections. PMID:28326082

  4. Tumor-Associated and Disease-Associated Autoantibody Repertoires in Healthy Colostrum and Maternal and Newborn Cord Sera

    PubMed Central

    Madi, Asaf; Bransburg-Zabary, Sharron; Maayan-Metzger, Ayala; Dar, Gittit; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we studied autoantibody repertoires and Ig isotypes in 71 mothers and their 104 healthy newborns (including twins and triplets delivered term or premature). Newborns receive maternal IgG Abs via the placenta before birth, but developing infants must produce their own IgM and IgA Abs. We used an Ag microarray analysis to detect binding to a selection of 295 self-Ags, compared with 27 standard foreign Ags. The magnitude of binding to specific self-Ags was found to be not less than that to the foreign Ags. As expected, each newborn shared with its mother a similar IgG repertoire—manifest as early as the 24th week of gestation. IgM and IgA autoantibody repertoires in cord sera were highly correlated among the newborns and differed from their mothers’ repertoires; the latter differed in sera and milk. The autoantibodies bound to self-Ags known to be associated with tumors and to autoimmune diseases. Thus, autoantibody repertoires in healthy humans—the immunological homunculus—arise congenitally, differ in maternal milk and sera, and mark the potential of the immune system to attack tumors, beneficially, or healthy tissues, harmfully; regulation of the tissue site, the dynamics, and the response phenotype of homuncular autoimmunity very likely affects health. PMID:25917091

  5. Phonotactic acquisition in healthy preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2012-11-01

    Previous work has shown that preterm infants are at higher risk for cognitive/language delays than full-term infants. Recent studies, focusing on prosody (i.e. rhythm, intonation), have suggested that prosodic perception development in preterms is indexed by maturational rather than postnatal/listening age. However, because prosody is heard in-utero, and preterms thus lose significant amounts of prenatal prosodic experience, both their maturation level and their prosodic experience (listening age) are shorter than that of full-terms for the same postnatal age. This confound does not apply to the acquisition of phonetics/phonotactics (i.e. identity and order of consonants/vowels), given that consonant differences in particular are only perceived after birth, which could lead to a different developmental pattern. Accordingly, we explore the possibility that consonant-based phonotactic perception develops according to listening age. Healthy French-learning full-term and preterm infants were tested on the perception of consonant sequences in a behavioral paradigm. The pattern of development for full-term infants revealed that 7-month-olds look equally at labial-coronal (i.e. /pat/) compared to coronal-labial sequences (i.e. /tap/), but that 10-month-olds prefer the labial-coronal sequences that are more frequent in the French lexicon. Preterm 10-month-olds (having 10 months of phonetic listening experience but 7 months of maturational age) behaved as full-term 10-month-olds. These results establish that preterm developmental timing for consonant-based phonotactic acquisition is based on listening age (experience with input). This questions the interpretation of previous results on prosodic acquisition in terms of maturational constraints, and raises the possibility that different constraints apply to the acquisition of different phonological subcomponents.

  6. Maternal-infant interaction and autonomic function in healthy infants and infants with transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tondi M; Ferree, Allison

    2014-12-01

    The quality of maternal-infant interaction is a critical factor in the development of infants' autonomic function and social engagement skills. In this secondary data analysis, relationships among infant and maternal affect and behavior and quality of dyadic interaction, as measured by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment, and infant autonomic function, as measured by heart rate variability, were examined during feeding at 2 weeks and 2 months of age in 16 healthy infants and in 15 infants with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Contrary to previous research, at 2 weeks infant age, mothers of infants with TGA had significantly higher scores in affect and behavior than did mothers of healthy infants. The affect and behavior and quality of dyadic interaction of infants with TGA also did not differ from that of healthy infants. Although infants' social engagement skills did not differ by health condition (TGA or healthy), these skills did differ by parasympathetic nervous system function: infants better able to suppress vagal activity with challenge had more positive and less dysregulated affect and behavior, regardless of health status. These findings suggest that maternal-infant interactions for some cardiac disease subgroups may not differ from healthy dyads. Additional research is required to identify both healthy and ill infants with delayed autonomic maturation and to develop and test interventions to enhance critical interactive functions.

  7. Favorable outcome in cerebral abscesses caused by Citrobacter koseri in a newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Algubaisi, Sarah; Bührer, Christoph; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm; Spors, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of brain abscesses in newborn infants is controversial. We report on a 6-week-old infant with multiple brain abscesses caused by Citrobacter koseri that resolved after treatment with combined surgical drainage and intravenous therapy with meropenem and fosfomycin.

  8. A dynamical system analysis of the development of spontaneous lower extremity movements in newborn and young infants.

    PubMed

    Gima, Hirotaka; Ohgi, Shohei; Morita, Satoru; Karasuno, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Abe, Koji

    2011-01-01

    This study's aim was to evaluate the characteristics of newborn and young infants' spontaneous lower extremity movements by using dynamical systems analysis. Participants were 8 healthy full-term newborn infants (3 boys, 5 girls, mean birth weight and gestational age were 3070.6 g and 39 weeks). A tri-axial accelerometer measured limb movement acceleration in 3-dimensional space. Movement acceleration signals were recorded during 200 s from just below the ankle when the infant was in an active alert state and lying supine (sampling rate 200 Hz). Data were analyzed linearly and nonlinearly. As a result, the optimal embedding dimension showed more than 5 at all times. Time dependent changes started at 6 or 7, and over the next four months decreased to 5 and from 6 months old, increased. The maximal Lyapnov exponent was positive for all segments. The mutual information is at its greatest range at 0 months. Between 3 and 4 months the range in results is narrowest and lowest in value. The mean coefficient of correlation for the x-axis component was negative and y-axis component changed to a positive value between 1 month old and 4 months old. Nonlinear time series analysis suggested that newborn and young infants' spontaneous lower extremity movements are characterized by a nonlinear chaotic dynamics with 5 to 7 embedding dimensions. Developmental changes of an optimal embedding dimension showed a U-shaped phenomenon. In addition, the maximal Lyapnov exponents were positive for all segments (0.79-2.99). Infants' spontaneous movement involves chaotic dynamic systems that are capable of generating voluntary skill movements.

  9. Laboratory methods for early detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in newborns and infants.

    PubMed Central

    Sison, A V; Campos, J M

    1992-01-01

    Cumulative data on serological testing of newborns and infants have shown that (i) maternal and newborn anti-HIV-1 IgG titers are high at delivery, which may explain the persistence of antibody in the infants of seropositive mothers; (ii) in some situations, serial HIV-1 antibody testing may identify infected infants; and (iii) detection of anti-HIV-1 IgA or IgM is specific for infection but the sensitivity of this assay may be compromised in certain situations, such as when infected infants are hypogammaglobulinemic or when the rise and fall of HIV-1-specific IgM synthesis following acute infection has been completed before delivery of the infant. Cumulative data on PCR, viral culture, and tests for antigen in newborns and infants have shown that (i) among all age groups, viral culture is probably the most specific test available for detection of HIV-1, as PCR and the p24 antigen test may (though rarely) give false-positive results; (ii) the sensitivity of these tests increases in the order of antigen, culture, and PCR, with relatively insensitive results in the first 3 months of life for all of these tests; (iii) the sensitivity of all of these tests improves and approximates 90 to 100% when infants over 6 months of age are tested; and (iv) data regarding the sensitivity, specificity, and usefulness of these virological assays in infants under 3 months of age are very scant and inconclusive. PMID:1498766

  10. Effects of Fructans from Mexican Agave in Newborns Fed with Infant Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Parra-Ortiz, Minerva; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; García-Torres, Itzhel; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Alcántara-Ortigoza, Miguel Angel; González-del Angel, Ariadna; Velázquez-Aragón, José; Ortiz-Hernández, Rosario; Cruz-Rubio, José Manuel; Villa-Barragán, Pablo; Jiménez-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background: The importance of prebiotics consumption is increasing all over the world due to their beneficial effects on health. Production of better prebiotics from endemic plants raises possibilities to enhance nutritional effects in vulnerable population groups. Fructans derived from Agave Plant have demonstrated their safety and efficacy as prebiotics in animal models. Recently, the safety in humans of two fructans obtained from Agave tequilana (Metlin® and Metlos®) was demonstrated. Methods: This study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy as prebiotics of Metlin® and Metlos® in newborns of a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with a pilot study design. Biological samples were taken at 20 ± 7 days, and three months of age from healthy babies. Outcomes of efficacy include impact on immune response, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, bone metabolism, and gut bacteria changes. Results: There were differences statistically significant for the groups of infants fed only with infant formula and with formula enriched with Metlin® and Metlos®. Conclusions: Our results support the efficacy of Metlin® and Metlos® as prebiotics in humans, and stand the bases to recommend their consumption. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 01251783. PMID:26529006

  11. Hyperinsulinism associated with gestational exposure to bupropion in a newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Gisslen, Tate; Nathan, Brandon; Thompson, Theodore; Rao, Raghavendra

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes severe hyperinsulinism in a term newborn infant without typical perinatal risk factors for transient hyperinsulinism. The mother had received bupropion, an antidepressant and aid to smoking cessation, throughout pregnancy. The infant presented with profound hypoglycemia and seizures on the 3rd day of life. Laboratory investigation confirmed hyperinsulinism. Stable euglycemia could be achieved only after starting diazoxide. The infant was weaned from diazoxide by 10 weeks of age without recurrence of hypoglycemia, signifying the transient nature of hyperinsulinism. This is the first reported case of a potential association between maternal bupropion use during pregnancy and neonatal hyperinsulinism, and highlights the importance of close monitoring of similar infants.

  12. NORMATIVE STANDARDS AND PATTERNING OF FAT AND MUSCLE IN WHITE AND BLACK NEWBORN INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Jon M.; Allen, G. Andrew; Butler, Merlin G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of normative data in newborns, we report fat and muscle patterning, and standards for the sums of fat and muscle areas and muscle circumferences for arm, forearm, thigh, and calf in white and black newborn infants that may have clinical application in the assessment of body composition in newborns. Significant differences were found between white males and white females in fatness patterning: white female newborns were larger for all 21 variables except height. Statistically significant differences (t test; p < 0.05) existed for five skinfold measurements (forearm, subscapular, suprailiac, thigh, medial calf), three limb fat areas (forearm, thigh, calf), and the sums of the skinfolds and fat areas despite similar limb circumferences. Black female newborns were larger than black males for five of the eight skinfolds (with a significant difference observed in medial calf skinfold), for all of the limb fat areas, and for the sums of the skinfolds and fat areas. Despite their larger skinfolds and fat areas, black females had smaller circumferences. No sex-related trends or significantly different variables were observed in the muscle patterning of white infants. Differences in muscle patterning were observed between black males and black females, with males having larger values for all 14 variables. Statistically significant differences were found between white and black infants, with white newborns having greater height, medial calf skinfold, and calf fat area. PMID:25505363

  13. Crying Baby: What to Do When Your Newborn Cries

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Newborn crying jags are inevitable. Here's help soothing a crying baby — and ... own can help renew your coping strength. Make healthy lifestyle choices. Eat a healthy diet. Include physical activity ...

  14. Three-dimensional refractive index tomograms and deformability of individual human red blood cells from cord blood of newborn infants and maternal blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, HyunJoo; Ahn, Taegyu; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Sangyun; Kook, Song-yi; Lee, Dongheon; Suh, In Bum; Na, Sunghun; Park, YongKeun

    2015-11-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from the cord blood of newborn infants have distinctive functions in fetal and infant development. To systematically investigate the biophysical characteristics of individual cord RBCs in newborn infants, a comparative study was performed on RBCs from the cord blood of newborn infants and from adult mothers or nonpregnant women using optical holographic microtomography. Optical measurements of the distributions of the three-dimensional refractive indices and the dynamic membrane fluctuations of individual RBCs were used to investigate the morphological, biochemical, and mechanical properties of cord, maternal, and adult RBCs at the individual cell level. The volume and surface area of the cord RBCs were significantly larger than those of the RBCs from nonpregnant women, and the cord RBCs had more flattened shapes than that of the RBCs in adults. In addition, the hemoglobin (Hb) content in the cord RBCs from newborns was significantly higher. The Hb concentration in the cord RBCs was higher than that in the nonpregnant women or maternal RBCs, but they were within the physiological range of adults. Interestingly, the amplitudes of the dynamic membrane fluctuations in cord RBCs were comparable to those in nonpregnant women and maternal RBCs, suggesting that the deformability of cord RBCs is similar to that of healthy RBCs in adults.

  15. [Presence of the rotavirus antigen in newborn infants at maternity hospitals in Moldavia].

    PubMed

    Avram, G; Constantiniu, S; Combiescu, A A; Perşu, A; Mihai, A; Alexandru, D; Macovei, V; Zavate, O

    1988-01-01

    Studies conducted on 417 feces samples collected from newborn infants from seven maternity homes revealed the presence of rotavirus in 1.2 to 9.5% of the subjects. The infants get infection during the first 24 to 48 hours of life (1.8%) and the positivity rate reaches a peak the 7th day (9.7%). Enteroviruses were found in 3.4% and enterobacteria in 11.8% of the samples.

  16. Differences in the Biodiversity of the Fecal Microbiota of Infants With Rotaviral Diarrhea and Healthy Infants

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Peng; Li, Lin; Cai, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xinjie; Bai, Hong Jian; Jiang, Yu Jun; Feng, Zhen; Guo, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background Rotaviral diarrhea (RD) has been associated with the biodiversity of the fecal microbiota in infants; however, the differences in the biodiversity of the fecal microbiota between infants with RD and healthy (H) infants have not been clearly elucidated. Objectives This study aimed to reveal the changes in the biodiversity of the fecal microbiota of infants with RD. Patients and Methods For this study, 30 fecal samples from 15 RD infants and 15 H infants were collected. The biodiversity of the fecal microbiota from the two groups was compared via polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and gene sequencing. Results The Shannon-Weaver index showed that the biodiversity of the fecal microbiota from the RD infants was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that from the H infants. All fifteen RD infants were grouped into one cluster and were separated from the H infants by the un weighted-pair group method, with the arithmetic average (UPGMA) clustering algorithm. In addition, when compared with the healthy infants, the communities of the dominant microbes, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, in the fecal microbiota from the RD infants have obviously changed. Conclusions With regard to improving the understanding of the differences in the biodiversity of the fecal microbiota between RD infants and H infants, the findings of this study can provide a possible basis to reveal the relationship between RD and intestinal microbiota. PMID:27279991

  17. Maternal prefrontal cortex activation by newborn infant odors.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Shota; Kuwamoto, Saori; Takahira, Asuka; Miyamura, Tsunetake; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2014-03-01

    Mothers are attracted by infant cues of a variety of different modalities. To clarify the possible neural mechanisms underlying maternal attraction to infant odor cues, we used near-infrared spectroscopy to examine prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during odor detection tasks in which 19 mothers and 19 nulliparous females (nonmothers) were presented with infant or adult male odors. They were instructed to make a judgment about whether they smelled an odor during each task. We estimated the PFC activity by measuring the relative oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) concentrations. The results showed that while detecting the infant odors, bilateral PFC activities were increased in mothers but not in nonmothers. In contrast, adult male odors activated the PFC similarly in mothers and nonmothers. These findings suggest that maternal activation of the PFC in response to infant odors explains a part of the neural mechanisms for maternal attraction to infant odors.

  18. [Newborn sleep positioners and sudden infant death syndrome risk].

    PubMed

    Rossato, Norma Elena

    2013-01-01

    The rate of sudden infant death decreased after the publication of the first guidelines regarding infant sleep position and safe environment in 1992. From 2005 onwards, infant deaths by suffocation, choking or entrapment have increased. Some of them were associated with wedges, positioning devices, and bumper pads. Media and manufacturers should follow safe sleep guidelines in their messaging and advertising, but there is a lack of control over this. We emphasize the important role of health professionals in disseminating the recommendation for a safe infant sleep environment.

  19. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant 35 or more weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    2004-07-01

    Jaundice occurs in most newborn infants. Most jaundice is benign, but because of the potential toxicity of bilirubin, newborn infants must be monitored to identify those who might develop severe hyperbilirubinemia and, in rare cases, acute bilirubin encephalopathy or kernicterus. The focus of this guideline is to reduce the incidence of severe hyperbilirubinemia and bilirubin encephalopathy while minimizing the risks of unintended harm such as maternal anxiety, decreased breastfeeding, and unnecessary costs or treatment. Although kernicterus should almost always be preventable, cases continue to occur. These guidelines provide a framework for the prevention and management of hyperbilirubinemia in newborn infants of 35 or more weeks of gestation. In every infant, we recommend that clinicians 1) promote and support successful breastfeeding; 2) perform a systematic assessment before discharge for the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia; 3) provide early and focused follow-up based on the risk assessment; and 4) when indicated, treat newborns with phototherapy or exchange transfusion to prevent the development of severe hyperbilirubinemia and, possibly, bilirubin encephalopathy (kernicterus).

  20. Newborn infants' auditory system is sensitive to Western music chord categories.

    PubMed

    Virtala, Paula; Huotilainen, Minna; Partanen, Eino; Fellman, Vineta; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Neural encoding of abstract rules in the audition of newborn infants has been recently demonstrated in several studies using event-related potentials (ERPs). In the present study the neural encoding of Western music chords was investigated in newborn infants. Using ERPs, we examined whether the categorizations of major vs. minor and consonance vs. dissonance are present at the level of the change-related mismatch response (MMR). Using an oddball paradigm, root minor, dissonant and inverted major chords were presented in a context of consonant root major chords. The chords were transposed to several different frequency levels, so that the deviant chords did not include a physically deviant frequency that could result in an MMR without categorization. The results show that the newborn infants were sensitive to both dissonant and minor chords but not to inverted major chords in the context of consonant root major chords. While the dissonant chords elicited a large positive MMR, the minor chords elicited a negative MMR. This indicates that the two categories were processed differently. The results suggest newborn infants are sensitive to Western music categorizations, which is consistent with the authors' previous studies in adults and school-aged children.

  1. PHENYLKETONURIA, DETECTION IN THE NEWBORN INFANT AS A ROUTINE HOSPITAL PROCEDURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GUTHRIE, ROBERT; WHITNEY, STEWART

    A FIELD TRIAL OF AN INHIBITION ASSAY METHOD FOR SCREENING FOR PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU) TESTED MORE THAN 400,000 NEWBORN INFANTS PRIOR TO DISCHARGE FROM THE HOSPTIAL. IN ALL, 39 CASES WERE FOUND, A HIGHER INCIDENCE THAN HAD PREVIOUSLY BEEN EXPECTED. THE PRACTICALITY OF THE INHIBITION ASSAY METHOD WAS ALSO DEMONSTRATED. THE REPORT DETAILS THE TRIAL'S…

  2. Differential Dishabituation as a Function of Magnitude of Stimulus Discrepancy and Sex of the Newborn Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Steven; And Others

    This study uses a habituation paradigm to systematically investigate the discrepancy hypothesis with male and female new borns. In addition, multiple visual response measures are used in monitoring the habituation process and the infant's response to various degrees of novelty. Ss were 36 apparently normal newborns (half of each sex) ranging in…

  3. A systematic review of novel technology for monitoring infant and newborn heart rate.

    PubMed

    Kevat, Ajay C; Bullen, Denise V R; Davis, Peter G; Kamlin, C Omar F

    2017-02-15

    Heart rate (HR) is a vital sign for assessing the need for resuscitation. We performed a systematic review of studies assessing novel methods of measuring HR in newborns and infants in the neonatal unit. Two investigators completed independent literature searches. Identified papers were independently evaluated, and relevant data were extracted and analysed.

  4. Newborn Irritability Moderates the Association between Infant Attachment Security and Toddler Exploration and Sociability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupica, Brandi; Sherman, Laura J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation of 84 infants examined whether the effect of 12-month attachment on 18- and 24-month exploration and sociability with unfamiliar adults varied as a function of newborn irritability. As expected, results revealed an interaction between attachment (secure vs. insecure) and irritability (highly irritable vs. moderately…

  5. The Effects of Hunger on Hand-Mouth Coordination in Newborn Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Adina R.; Butterworth, George

    1995-01-01

    Examined the effects of hunger on the hand-mouth (HM) behavior of a group of newborn infants. Found that significantly more mouth opening before contacts to the mouth than those to the face occurred before but not after feeding, suggesting some link between HM behavior and hunger state. (MDM)

  6. Heart Rate Conditioning in Newborn Infants: Relationships Among Conditionability, Heart Rate Variability, and Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamps, Leighton E.; Porges, Stephen W.

    1975-01-01

    Trace conditioning was evaluated in newborn infants by measurements of heart rate responses to a conditioned stimulus in anticipation of or in absence of the unconditioned stimulus. Data suggest females have higher levels of heart rate variability than males, which parallels their greater conditionability. (GO)

  7. A Comparison of Developmental Assessments of the Newborn and Young Infant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majnemer, Annette; Snider, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    Neonatal neurobehavioral assessments describe a newborn's spontaneous behavioural repertoire and observable responses to environmental stimuli. Infant developmental assessments document the range of developmental skills that emerge and develop over the first years of life. This review highlights two neonatal assessments (Einstein Neonatal…

  8. Evaluating hypoxia during air travel in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Mansi; Shackleton, Claire; Verheggen, Maureen; Sharp, Mary; Wilson, Andrew C; Hall, Graham L

    2013-12-01

    Up to a third of ex-preterm infants flying near term exhibit pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) of less than 85% during air travel. A hypoxia challenge test (HCT) is recommended to evaluate the requirement for in-flight supplemental O2. The validity of the HCT in healthy, term infants has not been reported. This study aimed to characterise the in-flight hypoxia response and the accuracy of the HCT to predict this response in healthy, term infants in the first year of life. Infants (n=24: (15 male)) underwent a HCT prior to commercial air travel during which parents monitored SpO2. Thirty-two flights were undertaken with six infants completing multiple flights. The median in-flight SpO2 nadir was 87% and significantly lower than the HCT SpO2 nadir (92%: p<0.001). Infants on seven flights recorded SpO2<85% with one infant recording a HCT with a SpO2 less than 85%. There was marked variability in the in-flight SpO2 in the six infants who undertook multiple flights, and for three of these infants, the SpO2 nadir was both above and below 85%. We report that in healthy term infants an in-flight SpO2 below 85% is common and can vary considerably between flights and that the HCT poorly predicts the risk of in-flight hypoxia (SpO2<85%). As it is common for healthy term infants to have SpO2 less than 85% during air travel further research is needed to clarify whether this is an appropriate cut-off in this age group.

  9. Serum Zinc in Mothers and from Cord Blood of Appropriate Birth-Weight Full Term and Preterm Newborn Infants, and of Low-Birth-Weight Full Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trindade, Cleide Enoir Petean; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Studied the maternal plasmatic zinc behavior at delivery time and the cord blood zinc concentration from appropriate and low-birth-weight full-term infants and appropriate preterm infants. Findings indicated that neither prematurity nor fetal growth delay interfere in maternal or newborn infants' zinc levels. (BJD)

  10. Newborn Infants' Memory for Speech Sounds Retained over 24 Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Irina U.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Neonates who were exposed to the same or different words on two consecutive days habituated to the sound on day one and recovered head turning on day two. Infants who heard the same word again on day two responded less well than infants exposed to the word for the first time on day two. (BC)

  11. [The Amben correction of disorders in the intestinal microbial colonization of newborn infants with perinatal pathology].

    PubMed

    Iakushenko, M N; Tkhagapsoeva, Zh A; Bondarenko, V M

    1998-01-01

    The examination of 49 newborn infants revealed that at the early neonatal period the character of the microbial colonization of the intestine depended on the kind of perinatal pathology: in lesions of the central nervous system and conjugation jaundice the deficiency of Bifidobacterium and Escherichia was detected; in hemolytic disease opportunistic bacteria were dominant simultaneously with the deficiency of lactoflora. The study of these infants, divided into two groups differing in the administration of Amben (an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes), showed the efficiency of Amben which stimulated the growth and development of resident microflora in the intestine, thus contributing to the maintenance of eubiosis in a given group of infants with perinatal pathology.

  12. Benefits of early hepatitis B immunization programs for newborns and infants.

    PubMed

    Van Herck, Koen; Van Damme, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    Despite the availability of safe and effective hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines for >20 years, strategies targeting risk groups failed to sufficiently control hepatitis B disease at the population level; this is mainly because of difficulties in risk identification and in program implementation. Hence, the global burden of disease of HBV still is substantial. The World Health Organization recommends universal vaccination against hepatitis B to ultimately eliminate HBV; this recommendation had been progressively implemented to reach 168 countries with a universal program by the end of 2006. However, hepatitis B immunization is currently becoming endangered of losing its place on the agendas of governments, agencies, and international organizations, mainly because of the increasing success of these immunization programs and the interest in newer vaccine-preventable diseases and the related programs.This publication aims to show that vaccination programs targeting newborns and infants are preferable to achieve this goal. The benefits of universal HBV vaccination for newborns and infants are: higher impact on chronic carrier rate and transmission; established potential of high vaccine coverage in this age group; opportunities to combine HBV vaccination with existing universal vaccination programs for newborns and infants; and impact on perinatal transmission, if vaccination is started shortly after birth. Moreover, the safety, immunogenicity, and long-term efficacy of newborn and infant HBV vaccination have been proven extensively. In summary, newborn and infant HBV vaccination programs should be considered the preferred strategy, capable of providing important and sustained impact on global HBV incidence, even if they have a delayed impact on sexual transmission of HBV.

  13. When courts intervene: public health, legal and ethical issues surrounding HIV, pregnant women, and newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Tessmer-Tuck, Jennifer A; Poku, Joseph K; Burkle, Christopher M

    2014-11-01

    Ninety-three percent of pediatric AIDS cases are the result of perinatal HIV transmission, a disease that is almost entirely preventable with early intervention, which reduces the risk of perinatal HIV infection from 25% to <2%. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics both recommend routine HIV testing of all pregnant women and at-risk newborn infants. When pregnant women decline HIV testing and/or treatment, public health, legal, and ethical dilemmas can result. Federal courts consistently uphold a woman's right to refuse medical testing and treatment, even though it may benefit her fetus/newborn infant. Federal courts also reliably respect the rights of parents to make health care decisions for their newborn infants, which may include declining medical testing and treatment. Confusing the issue of HIV testing and treatment, however, is the fact that there is no definitive United States Supreme Court ruling on the issue. State laws and standards vary widely and serve as guiding principles for practicing clinicians, who must be vigilant of ongoing legal challenges and changes in the states in which they practice. We present a case of an HIV-positive pregnant woman who declined treatment and then testing or treatment of her newborn infant. Ultimately, the legal system intervened. Given the rarity of such cases, we use this as a primer for the practicing clinician to highlight the public health, legal, and ethical issues surrounding prenatal and newborn infant HIV testing and treatment in the United States, including summarizing key state-to-state regulatory differences.

  14. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the erythrocytes of newborn infants with hyperbilirubinemia and asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Mydlil, V; Tomasová, H; Cápová, E; Cerná, M

    1976-01-01

    The authors measured erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) activity in 51 physiologic newborn infants, 35 pregnant women and 101 infants with hyperbilirubinemia caused by hemolytic diseases in the ABO and Rh systems, or of other origin (6 children). In total, 374 examinations of erythrocyte ACHE were performed. The normal values of physiologic infants during the first hours of life were 0.162 +/- 0.03, at the age of 3 days 0.104 +/- 0.04. The values in pregnant women were 0.206 +/- 0.07. The ACHE activity was considerably decreased in newborn infants affected by erythroblastosis-ABO, and its mean value, in the case of exsanguinotransfusion indicated by the Polácek scheme, amounted to 0.060 +/- 0.051. It raised after exsanguinotransfusion and was equal to the value of red cells transfused. In newborn infants affected by erythroblastosis-Rh, the value decreased in the cases complicated with asphyxia. Low values of ACHE are sometimes found in certain cases of IRDS or of septicemia. The determination of erythrocyte ACHE activity enables assessing the state of red blood cells.

  15. Frightened versus not frightened disorganized infant attachment: Newborn characteristics and maternal caregiving.

    PubMed

    Padrón, Elena; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Sroufe, L Alan

    2014-03-01

    The disorganized infant has been described as experiencing "fright without solution" (Hesse & Main, 1999, p. 484) within the attachment relationship. Using a sample at risk because of poverty (n = 157), this study evaluated the role of newborn characteristics in predicting disorganized attachment and explored the existence of 2 subgroups of disorganized infants, based on whether they display direct indices of fear. For the entire sample, regression analyses revealed that newborn characteristics did not predict ratings of disorganization directly or via moderation by caregiving. Regarding subgroups, it was hypothesized that, if direct expressions of fear resulted from interaction with a frightening or frightened caregiver, it could be expected that infants in the Not Frightened subgroup would become disorganized in part because of other factors, such as compromised regulatory abilities at birth. Results supported this hypothesis for emotional regulation, but not for orientation; infants in the Not Frightened subgroup displayed limited emotional regulation as newborns. Findings suggest that the disorganized attachment category may be comprised of 2 subgroups, with direct expressions of fear as the key differentiating factor. Specifically, disorganized infants who do not display direct fear in the presence of the caregiver may have started out with compromised emotional regulation abilities at birth.

  16. Trained immunity in newborn infants of HBV-infected mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Michelle; Sandalova, Elena; Low, Diana; Gehring, Adam J.; Fieni, Stefania; Amadei, Barbara; Urbani, Simonetta; Chong, Yap-Seng; Guccione, Ernesto; Bertoletti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The newborn immune system is characterized by an impaired Th1-associated immune response. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmitted from infected mothers to newborns is thought to exploit the newborns’ immune system immaturity by inducing a state of immune tolerance that facilitates HBV persistence. Contrary to this hypothesis, we demonstrate here that HBV exposure in utero triggers a state of trained immunity, characterized by innate immune cell maturation and Th1 development, which in turn enhances the ability of cord blood immune cells to respond to bacterial infection in vitro. These training effects are associated with an alteration of the cytokine environment characterized by low IL-10 and, in most cases, high IL-12p40 and IFN-α2. Our data uncover a potentially symbiotic relationship between HBV and its natural host, and highlight the plasticity of the fetal immune system following viral exposure in utero. PMID:25807344

  17. Antibiotic resistance potential of the healthy preterm infant gut microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alexander G.; Sim, Kathleen; Wooldridge, David J.; Li, Ming-Shi; Gharbia, Saheer; Misra, Raju; Kroll, John Simon

    2017-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the gut microbiome of infants, fewer still preterm infants. In this study we sought to quantify and interrogate the resistome within a cohort of premature infants using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We describe the gut microbiomes from preterm but healthy infants, characterising the taxonomic diversity identified and frequency of antibiotic resistance genes detected. Results Dominant clinically important species identified within the microbiomes included C. perfringens, K. pneumoniae and members of the Staphylococci and Enterobacter genera. Screening at the gene level we identified an average of 13 antimicrobial resistance genes per preterm infant, ranging across eight different antibiotic classes, including aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. Some antibiotic resistance genes were associated with clinically relevant bacteria, including the identification of mecA and high levels of Staphylococci within some infants. We were able to demonstrate that in a third of the infants the S. aureus identified was unrelated using MLST or metagenome assembly, but low abundance prevented such analysis within the remaining samples. Conclusions We found that the healthy preterm infant gut microbiomes in this study harboured a significant diversity of antibiotic resistance genes. This broad picture of resistances and the wider taxonomic diversity identified raises further caution to the use of antibiotics without consideration of the resident microbial communities. PMID:28149696

  18. [Clinical effect of latamoxef on newborn and premature infants].

    PubMed

    Takimoto, M; Oka, T; Yoshioka, H; Tsuchida, A; Sanae, N; Maruyama, S

    1983-09-01

    Eleven infants ranging 2 days to 3 months of age were studied for clinical evaluation. Ten of them were diagnosed as sepsis or suspected to be septic. Another one contracted umbilical infection. In 7 of 10 cases, causative bacteria were detected by blood culture, that is S. epidermidis in 3 cases, E. cloacae in 2 cases, K. pneumoniae in 1 case and A. calcoaceticus in another. Those infants were treated by parenteral LMOX. Dosage was 30 to 75 mg/kg per day. Clinical results were excellent in 6 cases (3 cases of S. epidermidis, 2 of E. cloacae and 1 of K. pneumoniae) and good in another case (A. calcoaceticus). The other 3 infants clinically diagnosed as sepsis but not proven by blood culture were also treated successfully. The result of the umbilical infection in 1 case was good. Another group of 5 infants ranging 4 to 22 days of age were also treated by LMOX because of suspected bacterial infections. With these infants pharmacokinetic study was done. Peak serum levels after 1 hour drip infusion of 20 mg/kg ranged from 43 to 53 micrograms/ml. Average of half-lives was 2.7 hours. Estimation of distribution volume resulted in 350 to 523 ml/kg body weight.

  19. Reference standard of penile size and prevalence of buried penis in Japanese newborn male infants.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Nobutake; Ishii, Tomohiro; Takayama, John I; Miwa, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

    2014-01-01

    The present study set forth the reference values for penile size and determined the prevalence of buried penis in Japanese full-term newborns. The stretched penile length was measured and the presence of buried penis was assessed at 1-7 days of age in 547 Japanese full-term newborn infants born between 2008 and 2012 in Tokyo. The stretched penile lengths were compared at 1-12 hours and 1-7 days of age in 63 infants and by two observers in 73 infants to estimate postnatal changes and interobserver variation, respectively. The mean stretched penile length was 3.06 cm (SD, 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-3.08) and the mean ratio of penile length to body length was 6.24 × 100(-1) (SD, 0.55 × 100(-1)), both of which were significantly smaller than those in Caucasian newborn infants. Buried penis was identified in 20 of 547 infants (3.7%; 95% CI, 2.1-5.2%). The first measurements of penile length at 1-12 hours were significantly smaller than the next measurements at 1-7 days (95% CI of the difference, 0.22-0.34). The 95% CI for the limits of agreement in the penile lengths measured by the two observers was -0.58 to -0.40 for the lower limit and 0.33 to 0.51 for the upper limit. These findings indicate that the penile length should be assessed after 24 hours of age by the reference standard of the same ethnicity for identifying micropenis and that buried penis is not uncommon in Japanese full-term newborns.

  20. Neurodevelopmental outcome of hypoglycaemia in healthy, large for gestational age, term newborns

    PubMed Central

    Brand, P; Molenaar, N; Kaaijk, C; Wierenga, W

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effects of transient hypoglycaemia on the first day of life in 75 healthy term large for gestational age (LGA) infants, born to non-diabetic mothers, on their neurodevelopmental outcome at the age of 4 years. Methods: Screening for hypoglycaemia was performed 1, 3, and 5 hours after birth, and continued if blood glucose levels were low. Treatment with intravenous glucose for hypoglycaemia was started if hypoglycaemia was severe or symptomatic. Patients' development and behaviour was examined at the age of 4 years by the Denver Developmental Scale, a non-verbal intelligence test, and the Child Behaviour Check List. Results: There were no significant differences between children with neonatal normoglycaemia (n = 15) and hypoglycaemia (plasma glucose <2.2 mmol/l 1 hour after birth, or <2.5 mmol/l subsequently; n = 60) in Denver developmental scale scores and child behaviour checklist scores. Although total IQ did not differ between hypoglycaemic and normoglycaemic children, one subscale (reasoning) did (mean difference 9.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 17.2). The correlation between reasoning IQ and neonatal blood glucose levels was weak and not statistically significant. When other definitions for hypoglycaemia were applied, the difference in reasoning IQ was not found. There were no differences in any of the test scores between hypoglycaemic children who had and who had not been treated with intravenous glucose. Conclusion: Transient mild hypoglycaemia in healthy, term LGA newborns does not appear to be harmful to psychomotor development at the age of 4 years. PMID:15613521

  1. Single-incision pediatric endosurgery in newborns and infants

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Yury; Novozhilov, Vladimir; Baradieva, Polina; Krasnov, Pavel; Kovalkov, Konstantin; Muensterer, Oliver J

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the successful application of single-incision pediatric endosurgery in the treatment of congenital anomalies and acquired diseases in neonates and infants. The purpose of this scientific review consists in highlighting the spectrum, indications, applicability, and effectiveness of single-port endosurgery in children during the first 3 postnatal months. PMID:26566478

  2. Dissociation between Small and Large Numerosities in Newborn Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coubart, Aurélie; Izard, Véronique; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Marie, Julien; Streri, Arlette

    2014-01-01

    In the first year of life, infants possess two cognitive systems encoding numerical information: one for processing the numerosity of sets of 4 or more items, and the second for tracking up to 3 objects in parallel. While a previous study showed the former system to be already present a few hours after birth, it is unknown whether the latter…

  3. Transient hyperechogenicity of the renal medullary pyramids: incidence in the healthy term newborn.

    PubMed

    Khoory, B J; Andreis, I A; Vino, L; Fanos, V

    1999-01-01

    A screening program was performed on 1881 clinically healthy term newborns, aimed at detecting eventual pathological conditions not diagnosed during pregnancy. Seventy-three cases of transient hyperechogenicity of the renal medullary pyramids were observed, involving one or both kidneys with either sectorial or diffuse pattern. None of the neonates examined had evidence of renal dysfunction and follow-up ultrasound scans demonstrated complete resolution of the sonographic picture. Medullary hyperechogenicity is not rare in healthy term newborns (3.9%); it presents rapid resolution and should be considered in differential diagnosis of pathological conditions.

  4. Treatable newborn and infant seizures due to inborn errors of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Campistol, Jaume; Plecko, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    About 25% of seizures in the neonatal period have causes other than asphyxia, ischaemia or intracranial bleeding. Among these are primary genetic epileptic encephalopathies with sometimes poor prognosis and high mortality. In addition, some forms of neonatal infant seizures are due to inborn errors of metabolism that do not respond to common AEDs, but are amenable to specific treatment. In this situation, early recognition can allow seizure control and will prevent neurological deterioration and long-term sequelae. We review the group of inborn errors of metabolism that lead to newborn/infant seizures and epilepsy, of which the treatment with cofactors is very different to that used in typical epilepsy management.

  5. [Tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve in a newborn and infant. Complete surgical correction].

    PubMed

    Cabrera Duro, A; Rodrigo Carbonero, D; Martínez Corrales, P; Aramendi Gallardo, J; Alcíbar Villa, J; López de Heredia Goya, J; Romero Ibarra, C

    2004-02-01

    We report two patients, a newborn and a 7-month old infant, with tetralogy of Fallot and absent pulmonary valve syndrome. Both had severe obstruction at the level of the ring with aneurysmal pulmonary artery branches, which compressed and displaced the trachea and main bronchial tubes. The neonate required mechanical ventilation from birth. Treatment was aggressive in both patients with interventricular septum defect closure, arterioplasty of the branches and homograft in the infant, and resection of the truncus and pulmonary branches with posterior face suture of both branches associated with a valved conduit in orthotopic position in the neonate. We believe that early treatment avoids airway degeneration and right ventricle volume overload.

  6. Cross sectional, community based study of care of newborn infants in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Osrin, David; Tumbahangphe, Kirti M; Shrestha, Dej; Mesko, Natasha; Shrestha, Bhim P; Manandhar, Madan K; Standing, Hilary; Manandhar, Dharma S; Costello, Anthony M de L

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine home based newborn care practices in rural Nepal in order to inform strategies to improve neonatal outcome. Design Cross sectional, retrospective study using structured interviews. Setting Makwanpur district, Nepal. Participants 5411 married women aged 15 to 49 years who had given birth to a live baby in the past year. Main outcome measures Attendance at delivery, hygiene, thermal care, and early feeding practices. Results 4893 (90%) women gave birth at home. Attendance at delivery by skilled government health workers was low (334, 6%), as was attendance by traditional birth attendants (267, 5%). Only 461 (8%) women had used a clean home delivery kit, and about half of attendants had washed their hands. Only 3482 (64%) newborn infants had been wrapped within half an hour of birth, and 4992 (92%) had been bathed within the first hour. 99% (5362) of babies were breast fed, 91% (4939) within six hours of birth. Practices with respect to colostrum and prelacteals were not a cause for anxiety. Conclusions Health promotion interventions most likely to improve newborn health in this setting include increasing attendance at delivery by skilled service providers, improving information for families about basic perinatal care, promotion of clean delivery practices, early cord cutting and wrapping of the baby, and avoidance of early bathing. What is already known on this topicMost births in rural south Asia occur at homeNeonatal mortality has remained fairly constant in developing countries despite falling infant mortalityWhat this paper addsOnly 6% of births in rural Nepal took place in the presence of a skilled attendantCord cutting implements were often unclean and drying and wrapping of newborn infants was usually delayed99% of babies were breast fed, 92% of them within six hours of birth, and colostrum was generally givenInterventions need to focus on educating women about hygiene, encouraging early wrapping, and delaying bathing of newborn babies

  7. Exosomes from human mesenchymal stem cells conduct aerobic metabolism in term and preterm newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Panfoli, Isabella; Ravera, Silvia; Podestà, Marina; Cossu, Claudia; Santucci, Laura; Bartolucci, Martina; Bruschi, Maurizio; Calzia, Daniela; Sabatini, Federica; Bruschettini, Matteo; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio; Romantsik, Olga; Marimpietri, Danilo; Pistoia, Vito; Ghiggeri, Gianmarco; Frassoni, Francesco; Candiano, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Exosomes are secreted nanovesicles that are able to transfer RNA and proteins to target cells. The emerging role of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) exosomes as promoters of aerobic ATP synthesis restoration in damaged cells, prompted us to assess whether they contain an extramitochondrial aerobic respiration capacity. Exosomes were isolated from culture medium of human MSCs from umbilical cord of ≥37-wk-old newborns or between 28- to 30-wk-old newborns (i.e.,term or preterm infants). Characterization of samples was conducted by cytofluorometry. Oxidative phosphorylation capacity was assessed by Western blot analysis, oximetry, and luminometric and fluorometric analyses. MSC exosomes express functional respiratory complexes I, IV, and V, consuming oxygen. ATP synthesis was only detectable in exosomes from term newborns, suggestive of a specific mechanism that is not completed at an early gestational age. Activities are outward facing and comparable to those detected in mitochondria isolated from term MSCs. MSC exosomes display an unsuspected aerobic respiratory ability independent of whole mitochondria. This may be relevant for their ability to rescue cell bioenergetics. The differential oxidative metabolism of pretermvs.term exosomes sheds new light on the preterm newborn's clinical vulnerability. A reduced ability to repair damaged tissue and an increased capability to cope with anoxic environment for preterm infants can be envisaged.-Panfoli, I., Ravera, S., Podestà, M., Cossu, C., Santucci, L., Bartolucci, M., Bruschi, M., Calzia, D., Sabatini, F., Bruschettini, M., Ramenghi, L. A., Romantsik, O., Marimpietri, D., Pistoia, V., Ghiggeri, G., Frassoni, F., Candiano, G. Exosomes from human mesenchymal stem cells conduct aerobic metabolism in term and preterm newborn infants.

  8. [Ethical reflections and recommendations for making clinical decisions in the care of the healthy newborn].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Escartín, M C; López de Heredia Goya, J; Aguayo Maldonado, M J; Blanco Bravo, D; Molina Morales, V

    2012-12-01

    The care of healthy newborn during their stay in health centres is not usually a problem and there are few conflicts in the relationship with the family. Conflicts may arise because the parents do not accept the care or care routines that health professionals provide. They believe that the newborn does not require testing or prophylactic measures, such as administration of vitamin K, or puncture to obtain a blood sample for newborn screening. This is because the information they have is not adequate, or because they reject some measures as they are invasive and that from their point of view, do not correspond to the care of a healthy newborn. This document seeks to reconcile the values of family and participation in the care of their child, the rights of the newborn, and the values of health professionals. It is based on adequate information, a good clinical relationship, and discussion in case of discrepancies that can lead to changes in some procedures that are not essential in the care of the newborn.

  9. Overlap of clinical features of Smith-Magenis & Down Syndrome in newborns and infants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, K.A.; Finucane, B.M.; Bauer, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) frequently goes unrecognized in newborns and infants as these patients do not yet demonstrate the characteristic behavioral phenotype and may only present with developmental delay and physical dysmorphism. Six of Hall`s ten cardinal features of trisomy 21 in the newborn are also frequently found in newborns with SMS, leading to an early presumptive diagnosis of DS in many of these patients. CASE No. 1: Based on clinical findings, a presumptive diagnosis of DS was given to the patient in the newborn period. Chromosome analysis of peripheral blood revealed a normal 46,XX karyotype. Given this result, the possibility of mosaic DS was raised, and a skin fibroblast study done. Again, the karyotype was reported as normal. Clinical features and cytogenetic analysis confirmed a diagnosis of SMS when the patient was 8 years old. CASE No. 2: A presumptive diagnosis of DS was made in an infant with hypotonia, facial dysmorphisms and congenital heart defects. A routine chromosome analysis was ordered, which revealed a 46,XY,del(17)(p11.2p11.2) karyotype. Indeed, approximately 38% of blood samples referred to our laboratory to rule out DS in an infant failed to demonstrate trisomy for chromosome 21. Given the high degree of clinical overlap with Down Syndrome, the diagnosis of SMS should be considered in all such patients. Additional analysis should be done to look for deletion 17p11.2 when faced with a {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} karyotype in an infant referred to rule out DS.

  10. Lethal effect of a single dose of rasburicase in a preterm newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Zaramella, Patrizia; De Salvia, Alessandra; Zaninotto, Martina; Baraldi, Maura; Capovilla, Giovanni; De Leo, Domenico; Chiandetti, Lino

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes a preterm newborn infant who was treated with a single dose of rasburicase for an increase in uric acid level. He died on the third day as a result of complications of hemolysis, which appeared to be precipitated by rasburicase. The patient's death was preceded by progressive respiratory insufficiency, lactic acidosis, and hyperbilirubinemia, culminating in refractory hypoxia and hypotension. A postmortem assay for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase showed deficiency and the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Mediterranean genotype.

  11. [Colic in newborns and infants: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Kosminsky, Fanny Sarfati; Kimura, Amélia Fumiko

    2004-08-01

    This paper is a literature review on excessive crying and colic that affect babies during their first period of life. This text presents the clinical definition, etiology, colic associated factors and interventions to relief and treatment of infant colic. Articles published in medical and nursing journals indexed at MEDLINE and LILACS computerized database available in the libraries of BIREME, Universidade de São Paulo and CAPES homepage were analysed.

  12. HIV-Associated Tuberculosis in the Newborn and Young Infant

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, M.; Jeena, P.; Bobat, R.; Archary, M.; Naidoo, K.; Coutsoudis, A.; Singh, R.; Nair, N.

    2011-01-01

    Each year, approximately 250 000 women die during pregnancy, delivery, or postpartum. Maternal mortality rates due to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa now supersede obstetric-related causes of mortality. The majority of cases occur in population-dense regions of Africa and Asia where TB is endemic. The vertical transmission rate of tuberculosis is 15%, the overall vertical transmission rate of HIV in resource-limited settings with mono- or dual-ARV therapy varies from 1.9% to 10.7%. If the millennium development goals are to be achieved, both HIV and TB must be prevented. The essential aspect of TB prevention and detection in the newborn is the maternal history and a positive HIV status in the mother. Perinatal outcomes are guarded even with treatment of both diseases. Exclusive breast feeding is recommended. The community and social impact are crippling. The social issues aggravate the prognosis of these two diseases. PMID:21541068

  13. [The newborn infant with a suspected malformation syndrome].

    PubMed

    Memo, L

    2010-06-01

    Congenital malformations occur in 2-3% of live births, and often represent a special diagnostic and management challenge. Few clinical guidelines exist to assist the neonatologist in the approach to diagnosis and initial management of the malformed newborn. To provide optimal care for these children, one must employ a systematic approach to identify the likely pathogenic mechanism leading to the birth defects present. Determining how distinct anomalies relate to one another may lead to elucidation of a specific genetic etiology for the patient's condition. Genetic testing is increasingly available to allow for diagnostic confirmation. Using this systematic approach to a child with congenital anomalies permits accurate prognostic and recurrence risk counseling, informed management decisions, and the appropriate allocation of social support and medical resources.

  14. [Influence of immediate newborn care on infant adaptation to the environment].

    PubMed

    Mazurek, T; Mikiel-Kostyra, K; Mazur, J; Wieczorek, P; Radwańska, B; Pachuta-Wegier, L

    1999-01-01

    The indicators of newborns' adaptation during 75 min after birth were compared in three randomised groups of full-term newborns: skin-to-skin contact (group I), swaddled newborns beside the mother (group II), swaddled and separated from the mother (group III). The changes in skin temperature, blood glucose, pH, heart rate, respiration rate and crying time were studied. All the above characteristics but pH were significantly the most favourable for infants in the skin-to-skin group. The analysis of individual trends of changes in skin temperature indicated that for all but two newborns not separated from the mother (skin-to-skin or lying besides) the temperature was growing during the observation period, whereas in the separated group, six newborns (27%) had unstable not growing temperature. The mean level of blood glucose was the highest in skin-to-skin group (60.1 mg/dl), lower in group of swaddled and lying beside mother (52.5 mg/dl) and the lowest (49.6 mg/dl) in the separated group. The mean duration of crying time in the skin-to-skin contact was a little shorter than in the group of newborns lying besides the mother and more than three times shorter than in the separated group. The observed number of episodes of crying were 7, 17 and 38 in the three groups respectively. All results indicated that skin-to-skin contact is optimal for newborns', adaptation after birth especially as a protection against hypothermia and hypoglycaemia.

  15. In vivo growth of retinoblastoma in a newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Shah, Parag K; Narendran, V; Kalpana, N

    2010-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a rare malignancy of the retina seen exclusively in children. It is known to cause rapid growth inside the eye and hence treatment should be started as soon as it is diagnosed. We report a case in a five-day-old infant in whom treatment (chemotherapy) was delayed by a month due to high bilirubin levels secondary to physiological jaundice, which gave us the unique opportunity to measure the growth of the tumor over a month. This case emphasizes that immediate treatment is warranted once this rare disease is diagnosed.

  16. Effects of Sound Frequency on Behavioral and Cardiac Orienting in Newborn and Five-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Clifton, Rachel K.

    1984-01-01

    Examines alert newborn and five-month-old infants' responsivity to variations in spectral composition of a rattle sound. Head orientation and cardiac responses to sound were recorded. Heart rate change did not vary as a function of frequency at either age, suggesting that all stimuli were equally effective in eliciting the infant's attention.…

  17. Testing for drugs of abuse in meconium of newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Moriya, F; Chan, K M; Noguchi, T T; Wu, P Y

    1994-01-01

    A reliable and sensitive screening procedure has been developed for drugs of abuse (amphetamines, cocaine metabolites, opiates, and phencyclidine [PCP]) in meconium from infants. The substances in meconium were extracted with chloroform-isopropanol (3:1) and screened by enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT). The lower detection limits of the EMIT for benzoylecgonine, d-methamphetamine, morphine, and PCP were 250 ng/g, 730 ng/g, 110 ng/g, and 100 ng/g, respectively. This method was applied to meconium from 50 infants born to mothers suspected of using the drugs of abuse during pregnancy. Of the 50, 12 were positive for benzoylecgonine, seven for opiates, and one for PCP. The presence of benzoylecgonine and PCP in meconium was confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and that of opiates by thin-layer chromatography. The routine analysis of meconium for drugs of abuse is recommended in cases where (A) urine can not be obtained or (B) urinalysis is negative for the substances despite a strong suspicion of maternal use of the substances during pregnancy.

  18. [Chorioamnionitis and inflammatory disease in the premature newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Vedovato, S; Zanardo, V

    2010-06-01

    Preterm births occurs in 6-12% of all pregnancies, accounts for 75% of neonatal death and causes significant neonatal morbidity. A large number of preterm birth is associated with infection (30%), because of the release of many cytokines. In fact acute chorioamnionitis represents the inflammatory response to extracellular microorganisms that gain access to the gestational sac. Clinical signs of infection compare in the 12% of cases, while the prevalence of positive amniotic fluid cultures is approximately 50% in patients with preterm PROM. Despite the recent studies about the dosage of inflammatory biomarkers in the amniotic fluid or in fetal and maternal blood, placenta histology remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of chorioamnionitis. Histological chorioamnionitis describes the progression of the inflammatory process. Organisms first colonise the chorioamnionic surface. Then, the neutrophils migrates to the chorion (chorionitis) and to the amnion (chorioamnionitis) and, in the last stage, amnionic epithelial cells undergo necrosis (necrotising chorioamnionitis). It represents the mother inflammatory response and it differs from the fetal inflammatory response (funisitis). Funisitis first appears in vessels of the chorionic plate (chorionic vasculitis) or in the umbilical vein (umbilical phlebitis), then in the umbilical artery (umbilical arteritis), and in the Wharton's jelly (umbilical perivasculitis). The fetal inflammatory response has been associated with inflammatory diseases of preterm infants, increasing the risk of neonatal sepsis and meningitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and cerebral palsy. We present our experience on the relationship between histological chorioamnionitis, preterm birth and inflammatory diseases of VLBW infants.

  19. Achieving skin to skin contact in theatre for healthy newborns.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The evidence base is supportive of early skin to skin contact (SSC) for optimal newborn-physiological adaptation, bonding and breastfeeding, and national guidelines encourage SSC as soon as possible, regardless of mode of birth. With an ever-rising caesarean (CS) rate, implementing SSC in theatre stands to benefit an increasing number of mothers and babies. While it may be best practice, in reality there is a lot of variation from trust to trust, and many hospitals do not facilitate it, citing numerous reasons as to why it is not possible. Midwives may feel that they should focus on norma birth, but it is our role to provide holistic care and normalise birth in all settings. This article looks at current evidence and the role of the midwife around facilitating SSC in theatre with an example from practice of how change has been implemented so that mothers and babies get the best start in life.

  20. Randomised, double blind trial of two loading dose regimens of diamorphine in ventilated newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Pawula, M.; Barrett, D. A.; Shaw, P. N.; Rutter, N.

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To compare the safety and efficacy of two loading doses of diamorphine in 27 ventilated newborn infants in a randomised double blind trial. METHODS--Fifty or 200 mcg/kg were infused intravenously over 30 minutes, followed by a 15 mcg/kg/hour continuous infusion. Serial measurements were made of physiology, behaviour, and stress hormones. RESULTS--Both loading doses produced small but significant falls in blood pressure. The 200 mcg/kg dose produced greater respiratory depression, and two infants deteriorated clinically, requiring resuscitation. Loading reduced respiratory effort in most of the infants, but had little effect on behavioural activity. Stress hormone concentrations were reduced at six hours in both dosage groups; differences between loading doses were not significant. Morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, and morphine-6-glucuronide were detected in the plasma of all patients. No significant differences in concentrations between loading doses were found. CONCLUSIONS--Diamorphine reduces the stress response in ventilated newborn infants. A high loading dose confers no benefit, and may produce undesirable physiological effects. A 50 mcg/kg loading dose seems to be safe and effective. PMID:7552591

  1. Biomedical assessment and instrumental evaluation of healthy infant skin.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O; Chatterjee, Ranjit; Ebel, James P; LaRuffa, Angela A; Hoath, Steven B

    2002-01-01

    The skin forms a critical structural boundary and a perceptual interface for the organism, yet the definition "healthy skin" is surprisingly difficult to describe. The present study's goal was to generate a technical definition of healthy infant skin by quantifying specific biophysical parameters before and after bathing in infants and correlating such parameters to a perceptual maternal evaluation. Fifty-two healthy infants, 3-6 months old, were evaluated before and after freshwater bathing. Diapered skin had a higher transepidermal water loss (TEWL), surface hydration, moisture accumulation rate (MAT), and friction than nondiapered skin before the bath (p < 0.01). Bathing dramatically altered the biophysical properties at both skin sites, with decreased MAT and lower friction, indicating a drier skin surface (p < 0.01). Visual redness and dryness decreased after bathing (p < 0.01). Blinded grading of optical images showed a significant preference for the skin after bathing (p < 0.01). This study provides the first quantitative technical definition of healthy infant skin with positive correlation to perceptual assessment by independent observers (mothers). The findings support the hypothesis that water binding properties of the stratum corneum are altered by occlusion (diapering) and that bathing introduces acute changes in stratum corneum water interactions, leading to a drier skin surface and a preferred skin appearance.

  2. [Late postoperative apnea in a premature newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Marco, J; Mohamed-Mabrok, M; Battich, I; Torres, J; Moral, V

    1992-01-01

    We report the case of a premature newborn child (36 weeks) who was operated on a teratoma of the sacrum when he was 12 days old and weighed 2,950 g. The patient presented a late postoperative apnea 17 hours after anesthesia. The anesthetic technique consisted of lumbar epidural blockade with 0.33% bupivacaine at a dose of 2.25 ml and superficial inhalation anesthesia with 0.5% isoflurane. Relaxing muscular agents used in this case were succinylcholine (3 mg) for orotracheal intubation and pancuronium bromide (0.3 mg) for maintaining the anesthetic level. The immediate postoperative phase was uneventful but 17 hours after surgery the patient presented apnea, bradycardia (40 beats/min), and marked cyanosis requiring assisted ventilation with bag and mask during 3 min and initial cardiac massage. Recovery of heart rate was immediate and recovery of ventilation was progressive. The patient was treated with caffeine during one week and no relapses occurred. Pneumocardiographic recordings obtained later on revealed sporadic short lasting episodes of apnea (shorter than 15 s) sometimes associated with bradycardia (40 beats/min lower than baseline). There were no apparent intercurrent or precipitating factors for this apnea. We believe that the present clinical picture corresponds to a late postoperative apnea of unknown origin which required reanimation measures and that until present, there are no reported complications of the anesthetic technique that can explain this episode.

  3. [Liver rupture in a newborn infant; diagnosis, treatment and prognosis].

    PubMed

    Westerik, A R; Umans-Eckenhausen, M A; Madern, G C; Robben, S G; van den Anker, J N

    1993-11-20

    Between August 1989 and August 1992 four neonates with rupture of the liver were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Sophia Children's Hospital in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Two neonates were born after breech delivery, two after caesarean section because of foetal distress. All four patients had Apgar scores < 5 after 1 minute and of < 8 after 5 minutes and required artificial ventilation for a prolonged period. All infants collapsed within 6 hours after birth. Surgical treatment was not considered because of the poor clinical condition. All patients were treated conservatively. Clinical signs were: rapid onset pallor, hypotension, tachycardia and abdominal distension. Ultrasonography of the abdomen confirmed the clinical diagnosis of rupture of the liver. Despite rapid diagnosis and maximal non-surgical treatment mortality was 75%. Surgical intervention is indicated in neonatal liver rupture with significant intra-abdominal bleeding.

  4. Brain white matter abnormality in a newborn infant with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Akimune; Saito-Hakoda, Akiko; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Kamimura, Miki; Kanno, Junko; Kure, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Ikuma

    2013-10-01

    Several studies have described brain white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children and adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), while the brain MRI findings of newborn infants with CAH have not been clarified. We report a newborn boy with CAH who presented brain white matter abnormality on MRI. He was diagnosed as having salt-wasting CAH with a high 17-OHP level at neonatal screening and was initially treated with hydrocortisone at 8 days of age. On day 11 after birth, he had a generalized tonic seizure. No evidence of serum electrolyte abnormalities was observed. Brain MRI revealed white matter abnormalities that consisted of bilateral small diffuse hyperintensities on T1-weighted images with slightly low intensity on T2-weighted images in the watershed area. Several factors associated with brain white matter abnormalities in adults with CAH, such as increasing age, hypertension, diabetes and corticosteroid replacement, were not applicable. Although the cause of the phenomenon in this case is unclear, brain white matter abnormality could be observed in newborn infants with CAH as well as in adult patients.

  5. Dry heat loses of newborn baby in infant care bed: use of a thermal manikin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Ziemowit; Rojczyk, Marek; Szczygieł, Ireneusz; Łaszczyk, Joanna; Nowak, Andrzej J.

    2016-09-01

    The energy balance and heat exchange for newborn baby in infant care bed environment (radiant warmer) are considered. The present study was performed to assess the body dry heat loss from an infant in radiant warmer, using copper cast anthropomorphic thermal manikin and controlled climate chamber laboratory setup. The total body dry heat losses were measured for varying manikin surface temperatures (nine levels between 32.5oC and 40.1oC) and ambient air temperatures (five levels between 23.5oC and 29.7oC). Radiant heat losses were estimated based on measured climate chamber wall temperatures. After subtracting radiant part, resulting convective heat loses are compared with computed ones, based on Nu correlations for common geometries. Simplified geometry of newborn baby was represented as: (a) single cylinder and (b) weighted sum of 5 cylinders and sphere. The computed values are significantly overestimated relative to measured ones by: 28.8% (23.5%) for (a) and 40.9% (25.2%) for (b). This shows that use of adopted general purpose correlations for approximation of convective heat losses of newborn baby can lead to substantial errors, hence approximation formula is proposed. The thermal manikin appears to provide a precise method for the noninvasive assessment of thermal conditions in neonatal care.

  6. Transplant Tolerance Induction in Newborn Infants: Mechanisms, Advantages, and Potential Strategies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hua; Gazarian, Aram; Dubernard, Jean-Michel; Belot, Alexandre; Michallet, Marie-Cécile; Michallet, Mauricette

    2016-01-01

    Although several tolerance induction protocols have been successfully implemented in adult renal transplantation, no tolerance induction approach has, as yet, been defined for solid organ transplantations in young infants. Pediatric transplant recipients have a pressing demand for the elaboration of tolerance induction regimens. Indeed, since they display a longer survival time, they are exposed to a higher level of risks linked to long-term immunosuppression (IS) and to chronic rejection. Interestingly, central tolerance induction may be of great interest in newborns, because of their immunological immaturity and the important role of the thymus at this early stage in life. The present review aims to clarify mechanisms and strategies of tolerance induction in these immunologically premature recipients. We first introduce the discovery and mechanisms of neonatal tolerance in murine experimental models and subsequently analyze tolerance induction in human newborn infants. Hematopoietic mixed chimerism in neonates is also discussed based on in utero hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant studies. Then, we review the recent advances in tolerance induction approaches in adults, including the infusion of HSCs associated with less toxic conditioning regimens, regulatory T cells/facilitating cells/mesenchymal stem cells transplantation, costimulatory blockade, and thymus manipulation. Finally, IS withdrawal in pediatric solid organ transplant is discussed. In conclusion, the establishment of transplant tolerance induction in infants is promising and deserves further investigations. Future studies could focus on the selection of patients, on less toxic conditioning regimens, and on biomarkers for IS minimization or withdrawal.

  7. Definitions of cardiovascular insufficiency and relation to outcomes in critically ill newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Erika; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Faix, Roger G.; Yoder, Bradley A.; Walsh, Michele C.; Lacy, Conra Backstrom; Osborne, Karen A.; Das, Abhik; Kendrick, Douglas E.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Schibler, Kurt; Bell, Edward F.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Frantz, Ivan D.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Shankaran, Seetha; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Sanchez, Pablo J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously reported on the overall incidence, management and outcomes in infants with cardiovascular insufficiency (CVI). However, there are limited data on the relationship of the specific different definitions of CVI to short term outcomes in term and late preterm newborn infants. Objective To evaluate how 4 definitions of CVI relate to short term outcomes and death. Study Design The previously reported study was a multicenter, prospective cohort study of 647 infants ≥ 34 weeks gestation admitted to a Neonatal Research Network (NRN) newborn intensive care unit (NICU) and mechanically ventilated (MV) during their first 72 hours. The relationship of five short term outcomes at discharge and 4 different definitions of CVI were further analyzed. Results All 4 definitions were associated with greater number of days on MV & days on O2. The definition using a threshold blood pressure (BP) measurement alone was not associated with days to full feeding, days in the NICU or death. The definition based on treatment of CVI was associated with all outcomes including death. Conclusions The definition using a threshold BP alone was not consistently associated with adverse short term outcomes. Using only a threshold BP to determine therapy may not improve outcomes. PMID:25825962

  8. Comparison of Cerebral Oximeter and Pulse Oximeter Values in the First 72 Hours in Premature, Asphyctic and Healthy Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, A; Okur, M; Sal, E; Peker, E; Köstü, M; Tuncer, O; Kirimi, E

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The monitoring of oxygenation is essential for providing patient safety and optimal results. We aimed to determine brain oxygen saturation values in healthy, asphyctic and premature newborns and to compare cerebral oximeter and pulse oximeter values in the first 72 hours of life in neonatal intensive care units. Methods: This study was conducted at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Van Yüzüncü Yil University Research and Administration Hospital. Seventy-five neonatal infants were included in the study (28 asphyxia, 24 premature and 23 mature healthy infants for control group). All infants were studied within the first 72 hours of life. We used a Somanetics 5100C cerebral oximeter (INVOS cerebral/somatic oximeter, Troy, MI, USA). The oxygen saturation information was collected by a Nellcor N-560 pulse oximeter (Nellcor-Puriton Bennet Inc, Pleasanton, CA, USA). Results: In the asphyxia group, the cerebral oximeter average was 76.85 ± 14.1, the pulse oximeter average was 91.86 ± 5.9 and the heart rate average was 139.91 ± 22.3. Among the premature group, the cerebral oximeter average was 79.08 ± 9.04, the pulse oximeter average was 92.01 ± 5.3 and the heart rate average was 135.35 ± 17.03. In the control group, the cerebral oximeter average was 77.56 ± 7.6, the pulse oximeter average was 92.82 ± 3.8 and the heart rate average was 127.04 ± 19.7. Conclusion: Cerebral oximeter is a promising modality in bedside monitoring in neonatal intensive care units. It is complementary to pulse oximeter. It may be used routinely in neonatal intensive care units. PMID:25867556

  9. Thyroxine values from newborn screening of 919 infants born before 29 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed Central

    Reuss, M L; Leviton, A; Paneth, N; Susser, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Severe transient hypothyroxinemia in premature infants is associated with cerebral palsy and mental retardation: this study assessed its prevalence in very premature infants. METHODS: Congenital hypothyroidism screening programs in three states provided thyroxine values for 919 newborn infants younger than 29 weeks who were enrolled in a multicenter study. RESULTS: Thyroxine values were lower than 4.0 micrograms/dL in 21% of survivors and increased each week by 0.6 microgram/dL (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.4, 0.7). At tests done 1 to 2 days after birth, levels were 2.5 micrograms/dL higher (95% CI = 1.8, 3.3) than at tests done at 8 to 14 days. In New York, levels were 1.0 microgram/dL higher (95% CI = 0.3, 1.6) than elsewhere. The levels of infants who died were 1.3 micrograms/dL lower (95% CI = 0.6, 2.0) than those of survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Severe transient hypothyroxinemia is common in very premature infants and deserves further study. PMID:9357357

  10. IgE screening in 1701 newborn infants and the development of atopic disease during infancy.

    PubMed Central

    Croner, S; Kjellman, N I; Eriksson, B; Roth, A

    1982-01-01

    IgE screening was done using the Phadebas IgE PRIST technique on the cord blood of 1701 newborn infants. Of these 8.3% developed obvious or probable atopic disease, predominantly atopic dermatitis and bronchial asthma, during the first 18 months of life. Of infants with a family history of atopic disease 10.5% developed such illness; the corresponding figure for infants with an initially high IgE concentration was 70%. Atopic disease developed in 73% of infants with a high IgE concentration in cord blood and a family history, but in only 3% of infants with a low IgE and no family history. A high IgE concentration in cord blood was associated with a high IgE and a positive radioallergosorbent test at between ages 18 and 24 months more often than was a low initial IgE level, indicating that in man as in animals there are high and low IgE responders already genetically coded at birth. IgE screening in cord blood is recommended if there is obvious atopy in both parents or if severe atopic disease if present in a sibling or in one parent. PMID:7092292

  11. Melatonin production in healthy infants: evidence for seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Y; Laudon, M; Tauman, R; Zisapel, N

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the normal range of nocturnal urinary excretion of the major melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6SMT) in a large sample of healthy full-term infants (8 and 16 wk old) and assess whether the endogenous production of melatonin changes with season. 6SMT was assessed in urine samples extracted from disposable diapers removed from full-term, 8- (n = 317) and 16-wk-old (n = 93) infants over the nocturnal period (19:00-08:00 h). In addition, 6SMT was assessed in 8-wk-old (n = 35) healthy infants over the entire 24-h period. 6SMT was determined by an ELISA assay. 6SMT excretion at 8 wk of age exhibited diurnal variations with (mean +/- SD) 61 +/- 18% of the daily production excreted during the nocturnal period regardless of season. The nocturnal 6SMT values in the entire cohort (at 8 as well as 16 wk of age) were found to significantly depart from normal distribution (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). A normal distribution was obtained using a natural base logarithmic (ln) transformation of the data. The normal range (2.5-97.5 percentile of the ln 6SMT excretion per night) was thus defined as 4.66-8.64 (106-5646 ng/night) for 8-wk-old and 5.19-9.67 (180-15,820 ng/night) for 16-wk-old infants. A significant effect of the month of birth on 6SMT production at the age of 8 wk was found (ANOVA, p < 0.002) with maximal levels produced by infants born in June (summer solstice) and minimal excretion in infants born in December (winter solstice). Short-photoperiod-born infants excreted on average about threefold less 6SMT compared with long-photoperiod-born infants (t test, p = 0. 01). The seasonal variations were no longer present at 16 wk of age. No effect of breast-feeding at the time of sampling on seasonality of 6SMT was found. Normal ranges for the nocturnal urinary excretion of 6SMT in full-term infants at 8 and 16 wk of age are defined. This enables the evaluation of nocturnal 6SMT excretion as a prognostic and diagnostic factor

  12. Robust reference intervals for Liver function test (LFT) analytes in newborns and infants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reference intervals (RIs) are ranges of upper and lower limits of a given analyte which are used for a laboratory test to determine whether a disease is present or absent or to know if the patient is at risk for future disease states. In Ethiopia, a country with highly diversified population groups and geographical sites, there are no established RIs to metabolic analytes including the liver function test (LFT) analytes for the pediatric population though it has been known that liver function assessment in this population is vital as a result of varied vulnerability to both endogenous and xenobiotic substances. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) and Teklehaymanot Health Center (THC) from November 2010 to April 2011. 117 cord blood (from newborns) and venous blood samples (from infants) were collected and analyzed using HumaStar 300. All pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical aspects were thoroughly controlled. A robust, CLSI/ IFCC recommended, method was used for the determination of upper and lower end points covering 95% of the reference values of each analyte with respective 90% CIs using MedCalc® software. Results Combined RIs for newborns and infants were established for albumin, AST, ALP, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin to be 3.88-5.82 g/dl, 16.1-55.4U/l, 130-831U/l, <0.41 mg/dl and <1.37 mg/dl respectively. But, separated RIs were indicated for ALT and GGT as 1.2-23.1U/l and 6.94-24.8U/l ALT; and 30.6-160.7U/L and 10–28.2U/l GGT for newborns and infants respectively. Some maternal and infantile factors were identified to affect the values of analytes. Conclusion Almost all analytes were different from previously reported values for other target population of similar age group, kit insert values and adult values. So, interpretation of values of these analytes in newborns and infants of Ethiopian population sounds better to be performed by using such RIs taking the effect of

  13. [Anatomic approach to the sphenooccipital synchondrosis in newborns and infants with craniocerebral injury].

    PubMed

    Parilov, S L; Chikun, V I; Klevno, V A

    2008-01-01

    An anatomic approach is developed to sphenooccipital synchondrosis in newborn infants and nurslings. After removal of the squamous portion of the occipital bone by the method of Medvedev, opening of the cerebrospinal canal, removal of the spinal cord and hypophysis, two parallel cuts converging at an angle of approximately 90 degrees were made with a dissecting blade saw along both sides of sella turcica towards the anterior edge of the great occipital foramen to transect the sphenoid bone and main part of the occipital bone. The resulting osteochondrous fragment showed up defects in synchondrosis including consolidated ones.

  14. Radiant energy and insensible water loss in the premature newborn infant nursed under a radiant warmer.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, S

    1982-10-01

    Radiant warmers are a powerful and efficient source of heat serving to warm the cold-stressed infant acutely and to provide uninterrupted maintenance of body temperature despite a multiplicity of nursing, medical, and surgical procedures required to care for the critically ill premature newborn in today's intensive care nursery. A recognized side-effect of radiant warmer beds is the now well-documented increase in insensible water loss through evaporation from an infant's skin. Particularly the very-low-birth-weight, severely premature, and critically ill neonate is subject to this increase in evaporative water loss. The clinician caring for the infant is faced with the difficult problem of fluid and electrolyte balance, which requires vigilant monitoring of all parameters of fluid homeostasis. Compounding these difficulties, other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (for example, phototherapy) may affect an infant's fluid metabolism by mechanisms that are not well understood. The role of plastic heat shielding in reducing large insensible losses in infants nursed on radiant warmer beds is currently under intense investigation. Apparently, convective air currents and not radiant heat energy may be the cause of the observed increase in insensible water loss in the intensive care nursery. A thin plastic blanket may be effective in reducing evaporative water loss by diminishing an infant's exposure to convective air currents while being nursed on an open radiant warmer bed. A rigid plastic body hood, although effective as a radiant heat shield, is not as effective in preventing exposure to convection in the intensive care nursery and, therefore, is not as effective as the thin plastic blanket in reducing insensible water loss. Care should be exercised in determining the effect of heat shielding on all parameters of heat exchange (convection, evaporation, and radiation) before application is made to the critically ill premature infant nursed on an open radiant

  15. Voluntary newborn HIV-1 antibody testing: a successful model program for the identification of HIV-1-seropositive infants.

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, E. J.; Bateman, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Harlem Hospital in New York City has one of the highest HIV-1 newborn seroprevalence rates in the United States. We report the results of a program introduced in 1993 and designed to identify HIV-1-seropositive (HIV+) newborns at birth. All new mothers, independent of risk, received HIV counseling that emphasized the medical imperative to know the infant's HIV status as well as their own. Consent was obtained to test the infant; discarded cord blood samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and when positive, Western Blot confirmation. We compared the number of HIV+ infants identified through voluntary testing with the number reported by the anonymous New York State Newborn HIV Seroprevalence Study. In 1993, 97.8% (91 of 93) of the number of HIV+ infants identified by the anonymous testing were identified through voluntary maternal and newborn testing programs. Eighty-five HIV+ infants were identified before nursery discharge: 50% (42/85) through newborn testing; 14% (12/85) through prenatal testing; 13% (11/85) presented to care knowing their status; 23% (20/85) were known because of a previous HIV+ child. Six additional HIV+ children were diagnosed after hospital discharge (mean age, 5.5 months; range 1.5 through 17 months); four presented with symptomatic disease. The optimal time for identification of the HIV+ pregnant woman is before or during pregnancy, but when this does not occur, voluntary newborn testing can identify many HIV+ infants who would otherwise be discharged undiagnosed from the nursery. PMID:10101381

  16. Preventing obesity in infants: the Growing healthy feasibility trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Laws, Rachel; Russell, Catherine Georgina; Ong, Kok-leong; Taki, Sarah; Elliot, Roz; Azadi, Leva; Lymer, Sharyn; Taylor, Rachael; Lynch, John; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie; Askew, Deborah; Litterbach, Eloise Kate; J Campbell, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Early childhood is an important period for establishing behaviours that will affect weight gain and health across the life course. Early feeding choices, including breast and/or formula, timing of introduction of solids, physical activity and electronic media use among infants and young children are considered likely determinants of childhood obesity. Parents play a primary role in shaping these behaviours through parental modelling, feeding styles, and the food and physical activity environments provided. Children from low socio-economic backgrounds have higher rates of obesity, making early intervention particularly important. However, such families are often more difficult to reach and may be less likely to participate in traditional programs that support healthy behaviours. Parents across all socio-demographic groups frequently access primary health care (PHC) services, including nurses in community health services and general medical practices, providing unparalleled opportunity for engagement to influence family behaviours. One emerging and promising area that might maximise engagement at a low cost is the provision of support for healthy parenting through electronic media such as the Internet or smart phones. The Growing healthy study explores the feasibility of delivering such support via primary health care services. Methods This paper describes the Growing healthy study, a non-randomised quasi experimental study examining the feasibility of an intervention delivered via a smartphone app (or website) for parents living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, for promoting infant feeding and parenting behaviours that promote healthy rather than excessive weight gain. Participants will be recruited via their primary health care practitioner and followed until their infant is 9 months old. Data will be collected via web-based questionnaires and the data collected inherently by the app itself. Ethics and dissemination This study received

  17. [Effect of very early kangaroo care on extrauterine temperature adaptation in newborn infants with hypothermia problems].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Huang, Ching-Yi; Lin, Shiu-Mei; Wu, Shu-Chuan

    2006-08-01

    Increased morbidity and mortality has been associated with neonates admitted with body temperatures below 36 degrees C. We employed an experimental design in a randomized control trial to compare the effectiveness of using early kangaroo care (KC) for extrauterine temperature adaptation against that of using radiant warmers. Trial subjects included 78 consecutive cesarean newborn infants with hypothermia problems. The KC group received skin-to-skin contact with their mothers in the post-operative room, while infants in the control group received routine care under radiant warmers. The mean temperature of the KC group was slightly higher than that of the control group (36.29 degrees C vs. 36.22 degrees C, p = .044). After four hours, 97.43% of KC group infants had reached normal body temperatures, compared with 82.05% in the radiant warmer group. Results demonstrate the positive effects of KC for extrauterine temperature adaptation in hypothermia infants. In the course of evidence-based practice, KC could be incorporated into the standard care regimen in order to improve hypothermia care.

  18. Anesthetic use in newborn infants: the urgent need for rigorous evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Viviane G.; Davis, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 1.5 million neonates receive general anesthesia each year for a surgical procedure. Despite this being an essential practice, a number of recent studies now indicate that anesthetic exposure could cause toxicity and neuronal apoptosis in the developing brain. This could potentially influence long-term neurodevelopmental outcome, especially premature infants in need of multiple surgical procedures. Most anesthetic drugs routinely administered to neonates have not been adequately tested for safety or efficacy. Given the number of confounders, dosing is often extrapolated from adults. This is concerning since many different drugs can be administered concurrently, with few of these agents actually approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration. Since 1997, legislation has been passed in the United States and abroad encouraging more drug investigation in infants and children. This has resulted in over 500 labeling changes to products regarding safety and efficacy in various pediatric age groups. However, only three drugs routinely used as anesthetic agents in newborn infants have had any updated labeling (none in very premature infants). This “off-label” use without adequate testing must be addressed. Therefore, more clinical trials of common anesthetic agents used alone and in combination in neonates are urgently needed. PMID:25790274

  19. The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Because early life growth has long-lasting metabolic and behavioral consequences, intervention during this period of developmental plasticity may alter long-term obesity risk. While modifiable factors during infancy have been identified, until recently, preventive interventions had not been tested. The Intervention Nurses Starting Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT). Study is a longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial evaluating a responsive parenting intervention designed for the primary prevention of obesity. This “parenting” intervention is being compared with a home safety control among first-born infants and their parents. INSIGHT’s central hypothesis is that responsive parenting and specifically responsive feeding promotes self-regulation and shared parent–child responsibility for feeding, reducing subsequent risk for overeating and overweight. Methods/Design 316 first-time mothers and their full-term newborns were enrolled from one maternity ward. Two weeks following delivery, dyads were randomly assigned to the “parenting” or “safety” groups. Subsequently, research nurses conduct study visits for both groups consisting of home visits at infant age 3–4, 16, 28, and 40 weeks, followed by annual clinic-based visits at 1, 2, and 3 years. Both groups receive intervention components framed around four behavior states: Sleeping, Fussy, Alert and Calm, and Drowsy. The main study outcome is BMI z-score at age 3 years; additional outcomes include those related to patterns of infant weight gain, infant sleep hygiene and duration, maternal responsiveness and soothing strategies for infant/toddler distress and fussiness, maternal feeding style and infant dietary content and physical activity. Maternal outcomes related to weight status, diet, mental health, and parenting sense of competence are being collected. Infant temperament will be explored as a moderator of parenting effects, and blood is collected to obtain genetic

  20. Cord Blood Irisin Levels are Positively Correlated with Birth Weight in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Kyoung Eun; Park, Kyung-Hee; Filippiaos, Andreas; Dincer, Fadime; Christou, Helen; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Irisin is a novel myokine, secreted from skeletal muscle after exercise. Irisin mediates exercise-related energy expenditure by turning white adipose tissue (WAT) into brown adipose tissue (BAT). Thus, irisin is considered as a potential biomarker for obesity and metabolic syndrome. Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) have increased risk for metabolic syndrome. However, the physiologic role of irisin in neonates remains to be studied. Objective To evaluate the association of umbilical cord blood irisin levels with gestational age and birth weight categories in neonates. Methods A cross-sectional study of 341 newborns, from 26 to 41 weeks' gestation. We collected umbilical cord blood and analyzed plasma for irisin by ELISA. Results Plasma irisin levels were positively correlated with gestational age (r=0.21, p<0.001), and birth weight Z-score (r=0.18, p<0.001). SGA infants had significantly lower irisin (median [interquartile range] 55.38 [46.56 - 65.72] ng/mL) compared to appropriate for gestational age infants (64.41 [53.87 - 76.76] ng/mL) and large for gestational age infants (68.70 [54.78 - 79.09] ng/mL, p<0.01). The association between SGA and lower irisin remained significant in multivariate analysis independent of gestational age, maternal age, maternal BMI, and gestational diabetes (p=0.03). In singleton infants, irisin was also significantly negatively associated with maternal preeclampsia (p=0.01). Conclusions Our results support the notion that irisin may have a physiologic role in neonates. We speculate that decreased levels of irisin in SGA infants may contribute to the development of catch up growth and metabolic syndrome later in life. PMID:26303870

  1. [A clinical study on 106 infant cases who received detailed hearing tests after newborn hearing screening].

    PubMed

    Okano, Takayuki; Iwai, Noriko; Taniguchi, Mirei; Ito, Juichi

    2014-10-01

    Newborn hearing screening (NHS) has been conducted widely in Japan in the last decade, however, there seems to be some confusion regarding the significance of NHS or management of the results obtained from NHS among clinics and practitioners. The system of NHS in Japan should be improved and refined through continuous evaluation of NHS, in terms of cost effectiveness in particular, so that NHS can be conducted more efficiently and effectively. To achieve this goal, the authors thought it important to clarify the current status and roles of our department as a facility for infants with congenital hearing impairment. In the present study, we studied 106 infant cases who were referred to the Department of Otolaryngology in Kyoto University Hospital after NHS before the age of twelve months in a period of seven years from 2006 to 2012 via retrospective chart reviewing. 79.2% of 96 infants who were qualified as referred either unilaterally or bilaterally following NHS were diagnosed as having hearing impairment in any form, either unilateral or bilateral, or conductive and/or sensorineural. The positive agreement rate was 88.7% in 53 cases who were qualified as referred bilaterally in NHS, demonstrating a high reliability of the NHS system. Twenty-four cases were diagnosed as having the need for hearing aids and were assigned to treatment and education. All the infants who underwent cochlear implantation in our department had severe bilateral hearing impairment of more than 105 dBnHL in both ears at the first examination. Moreover, a number of infants who were qualified as having passed in both ears in NHS or who had failed to receive NHS at birth were revealed as having hearing impairment and needed treatment later in the first year of their life, suggesting that NHS should be conducted in combination with periodical health checkups by family practitioners in order to identify infants with hearing impairment earlier in their life with higher efficacy.

  2. Prospective cohort study of factors influencing the relative weights of the placenta and the newborn infant.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, L. A.; Evans, S. F.; Newnham, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the demographic, environmental, and medical factors that influence the relative weights of the newborn infant and the placenta and compare this ratio with other factors known to predispose to adult ill health. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The tertiary referral centre for perinatal care in Perth, Western Australia. SUBJECTS: 2507 pregnant women who delivered a single live infant at term. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Placental weight, birth weight, and the ratio of placental weight to birth weight. RESULTS: By multiple regression analysis the placental weight to birthweight ratio was significantly and positively associated with gestational age, female sex, Asian parentage, increasing maternal body mass index, increased maternal weight at booking, lower socioeconomic status, maternal anaemia, and increasing number of cigarettes smoked daily. There were no consistent relations between the placental weight to birthweight ratio and measures of newborn size. CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of placental weight to birth weight is not an accurate marker of fetal growth. In its role as a predictor of adult disease the ratio may be acting as a surrogate for other factors which are already known to influence health and may act before or after birth. Determining the role that relative growth rates of the fetus and placenta have in predisposing to adult disease requires prospective study to account for the many confounding variables which complicate this hypothesis. PMID:9224128

  3. Screening for seemingly healthy newborns with congenital cytomegalovirus infection by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using newborn urine: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Oh-ishi, Tsutomu; Arai, Takashi; Sakata, Hideaki; Adachi, Nodoka; Asanuma, Satoshi; Oguma, Eiji; Kimoto, Hirofumi; Matsumoto, Jiro; Fujita, Hidetoshi; Uesato, Tadashi; Fujita, Jutaro; Shirato, Ken; Ohno, Hideki; Kizaki, Takako

    2017-01-01

    Objective Approximately 8–10% of newborns with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection develop sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, the relationship between CMV load, SNHL and central nervous system (CNS) damage in cCMV infection remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the relationship between urinary CMV load, SNHL and CNS damage in newborns with cCMV infection. Study design The study included 23 368 newborns from two maternity hospitals in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Urine screening for cCMV infection (quantitative real-time PCR) and newborn hearing screening (automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) testing) were conducted within 5 days of birth to examine the incidence of cCMV infection and SNHL, respectively. CNS damage was assessed by MRI of cCMV-infected newborns. Results The incidence of cCMV infection was 60/23 368 (0.257%; 95% CI 0.192% to 0.322%). The geometric mean urinary CMV DNA copy number in newborns with cCMV was 1.79×106 copies/mL (95% CI 7.97×105 to 4.02×106). AABR testing revealed abnormalities in 171 of the 22 229 (0.769%) newborns whose parents approved hearing screening. Of these 171 newborns, 22 had SNHL (12.9%), and 5 of these 22 were infected with cCMV (22.7%). Newborns with both cCMV and SNHL had a higher urinary CMV DNA copy number than newborns with cCMV without SNHL (p=0.036). MRI revealed CNS damage, including white matter abnormalities, in 83.0% of newborns with cCMV. Moreover, newborns with CNS damage had a significantly greater urinary CMV load than newborns without CNS damage (p=0.013). Conclusions We determined the incidence of cCMV infection and urinary CMV DNA copy number in seemingly healthy newborns from two hospitals in Saitama Prefecture. SNHL and CNS damage were associated with urinary CMV DNA copy number. Quantification of urinary CMV load may effectively predict the incidence of late-onset SNHL and neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:28110288

  4. Weight-Gain Velocity in Newborn Infants Managed with the Kangaroo Method and Associated Variables.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Raquel Guimarães; de Azevedo, Daniela Vasconcelos; de Almeida, Paulo César; de Almeida, Nádia Maria Girão Saraiva; Feitosa, Francisco Edson de Lucena

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The Kangaroo method helps promote maternal breastfeeding and adequate growth of low birthweight preterm infants. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between weight-gain velocity during use of the Kangaroo method and maternal and infant variables. Methods A nested cross-sectional study in a cohort of newborn infants managed using the Kangaroo method was carried out at a reference center for the method in Brazil. Data on low birthweight and preterm infants managed using the Kangaroo Method (n = 78) and on their respective mothers (n = 70) was collected between January and July 2014. Maternal and infant variables were associated and correlated with weight-gain velocity (g/kg/day) at each phase of the method (p < 0.05). Results Mean weight-gain velocity increased from 0.12 ± 11.11 g/kg/day in the first phase to 13.47 ± 4.84 g/kg/day in the third phase (p < 0.001), and percentage of adequate weight increased at phase 3 (p < 0.001). Birthweight was inversely correlated with weight-gain velocity at phases 1 and 2 of the Kangaroo method. Birthweight of under 1500 g was associated with a lower likelihood of inadequate weight-gain velocity of the newborn at phase 1 (OR = 0.1; 95 % CI 0.01-0.78; p = 0.012). In phase 3, maternal age was directly correlated with weight-gain velocity. Conclusions Weight-gain velocity was associated with maternal (age) and infant (gestational age at birth, birthweight, weight for gestational age at birth, length of hospital stay and five-minute Apgar score) variables. Knowledge of the factors influencing weight-gain velocity and its behavior at each phase of the method can help guide conduct toward potentializing factors that promote adequate weight-gain.

  5. When Will Life Be Normal? The Healthy Beginnings Program for Parents of Premature Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sledden, Elizabeth

    The Healthy Beginnings program is designed to help parents of prematurely born infants adjust to parenting challenges and opportunities of the first 2 years of the infant's life. The Healthy Beginnings Program provides parents of premature infants with support and guidance by offering: (1) monthly education and support meetings; (2) evaluations…

  6. The Healthy Infant Nasal Transcriptome: A Benchmark Study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chin-Yi; Qiu, Xing; Wang, Lu; Bhattacharya, Soumyaroop; Lofthus, Gerry; Corbett, Anthony; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Grier, Alex; Tesini, Brenda; Gill, Steven R.; Falsey, Ann R.; Caserta, Mary T.; Walsh, Edward E.; Mariani, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Responses by resident cells are likely to play a key role in determining the severity of respiratory disease. However, sampling of the airways poses a significant challenge, particularly in infants and children. Here, we report a reliable method for obtaining nasal epithelial cell RNA from infants for genome-wide transcriptomic analysis, and describe baseline expression characteristics in an asymptomatic cohort. Nasal epithelial cells were collected by brushing of the inferior turbinates, and gene expression was interrogated by RNA-seq analysis. Reliable recovery of RNA occurred in the absence of adverse events. We observed high expression of epithelial cell markers and similarity to the transcriptome for intrapulmonary airway epithelial cells. We identified genes displaying low and high expression variability, both inherently, and in response to environmental exposures. The greatest gene expression differences in this asymptomatic cohort were associated with the presence of known pathogenic viruses and/or bacteria. Robust bacteria-associated gene expression patterns were significantly associated with the presence of Moraxella. In summary, we have developed a reliable method for interrogating the infant airway transcriptome by sampling the nasal epithelium. Our data demonstrates both the fidelity and feasibility of our methodology, and describes normal gene expression and variation within a healthy infant cohort. PMID:27658638

  7. The Clinical Aspects of Newborn Screening: Importance of Newborn Screening Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Philip M.; Levy, Harvey L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of newborn screening is to identify presymptomatic healthy infants that will develop significant metabolic or endocrine derangements if left undiagnosed and untreated. The goal of ultimately reducing or eliminating irreversible sequelae is reached by maximizing test sensitivity of the primary newborn screening that measures specific…

  8. Total bilirubin level in relation to excipients in parenteral morphine sulfate administered to seriously ill newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Lesko, S M; Mitchell, A A

    1994-10-01

    We examined exposure to excipients in different morphine sulfate preparations in relation to maximum total bilirubin level during the first 5 days of life among 155 infants admitted to a newborn intensive care unit. Sixty-six (43%), 47 (30%), and 42 (27%) newborns were exposed to chlorobutanol, phenol and neither excipient, respectively. Mean maximum total bilirubin in the first 5 days of life among newborns not exposed to chlorobutanol or phenol was 10.8 mg/dL (184 mumol/L). After adjusting for birthweight, race, sex, and use of phototherapy, the maximum total bilirubin level among newborns exposed to phenol was 1.4 mg/dL (24 mumol/L) higher than the maximum level among newborns exposed to neither excipient (P < 0.05); the corresponding difference associated with chlorobutanol exposure was 1.6 mg/dL (27 mumol/L) (P < 0.02). Further adjustment for potential confounding by the major risk factors for hyperbilirubinaemia did not materially change the results. While unconfirmed, these findings support the growing concern that excipients added to parenteral medications may not be 'inactive' as is often assumed, and that the safety of such exposures in seriously ill newborn infants needs to be studied further.

  9. Morphology of chordae tendianeae of atrioventricular heart valves of newborns and infants in terms of laser polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentelejchuk, N. P.; Chala, K. M.; Yermolenko, S. B.

    2013-12-01

    The paper studied the morphological features of the structure and polarization properties of tendon tissue strings atrioventricular valvular of newborns and infants on histological sections. Analysis of the obtained results showed high diagnostic sensitivity of statistic moments of coordinate distributions of matrix elements of both types of chordae tendianeae of atrioventricular valves hearts tissue to the changes of optical-geometric structure.

  10. Holistic Face Processing in Newborns, 3-Month-Old Infants, and Adults: Evidence from the Composite Face Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turati, Chiara; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Bardi, Lara; Simion, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Holistic face processing was investigated in newborns, 3-month-old infants, and adults through a modified version of the composite face paradigm and the recording of eye movements. After familiarization to the top portion of a face, participants (N = 70) were shown 2 aligned or misaligned faces, 1 of which comprised the familiar top part. In the…

  11. Predictors of extubation failure and reintubation in newborn infants subjected to mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Ana Cristina de Oliveira; Schettino, Renata de Carvalho; Ferreira, Sandra Clecêncio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for extubation failure and reintubation in newborn infants subjected to mechanical ventilation and to establish whether ventilation parameters and blood gas analysis behave as predictors of those outcomes. Methods Prospective study conducted at a neonatal intensive care unit from May to November 2011. A total of 176 infants of both genders subjected to mechanical ventilation were assessed after extubation. Extubation failure was defined as the need to resume mechanical ventilation within less than 72 hours. Reintubation was defined as the need to reintubate the infants any time after the first 72 hours. Results Based on the univariate analysis, the variables gestational age <28 weeks, birth weight <1,000g and low Apgar scores were associated with extubation failure and reintubation. Based on the multivariate analysis, the variables length of mechanical ventilation (days), potential of hydrogen (pH) and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) remained associated with extubation failure, and the five-minute Apgar score and age at extubation were associated with reintubation. Conclusion Low five-minute Apgar scores, age at extubation, length of mechanical ventilation, acid-base disorders and hyperoxia exhibited associations with the investigated outcomes of extubation failure and reintubation. PMID:24770689

  12. Correlation between the cord vitamin D levels and regulatory T cells in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Güven, Ayşegül; Ecevit, Ayşe; Sözer, Oktay; Tarcan, Aytül; Tarcan, Aylin; Ozbek, Namık

    2012-08-01

    Vitamin D is important for calcium homeostasis, muscle, and bone health. It has also immunomodulatory capacities in vivo and in vitro. Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been found to suppress a number of T cell-mediated immune disorders, including allergic responses and autoimmune diseases. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and the regulatory T cells in cord blood. The study group is comprised of 101 full-term newborn infants. Umbilical cord 25(OH)D levels and number and percentage of T lymphocyte, T helper, and Treg cells were measured. Infants were grouped according to 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D <12 ng/ml and 25(OH)D >12 ng/ml) (converting factor of 25OHD level into SI unit, 2.6). Severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D <12 ng/ml) was observed in 32% of the infants. There was no significant correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and T cell number and percentages. There were also no significant differences in white blood cell, total lymphocyte count, T helper, and Treg cell percentage and number between groups. These results suggest that the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D is not crucially involved in the correlation between vitamin D status and T cell regulation in cord blood.

  13. Acute posterior fossa epidural hematoma in a newborn infant with Menkes disease.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Horikawa, Masahiro; Wakamatsu, Hajime; Hashimoto, Jyunya; Nawashiro, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    Epidural hematoma (EDH) in newborn infants is rare compared with other types of intracranial hemorrhages. Furthermore, posterior fossa EDH is extremely rare. We present a case of posterior fossa EDH in an infant with Menkes disease with accessory bones in the occiput. A male infant with a condition diagnosed with Menkes disease by prenatal testing was born at 39 weeks via vacuum extraction. The patient presented with a mild tremor at 2 days after delivery. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan showed an acute EDH in the posterior fossa, extending into the occipitoparietal area. Three-dimensional CT and bone window CT scan revealed several accessory bones, diastasis of 1 accessory suture, a communicated fracture, and a linear fracture in the occipital bone. Furthermore, a bone fragment from a communicated fracture displaced toward the inside. The patient was treated conservatively for EDH because of his good general condition. The hematoma gradually resolved, and his tremor did not recur. We suggest the following mechanism of posterior fossa EDH development in our patient: (1) external force was applied to the occiput inside the birth canal during delivery, resulting in diastasis; (2) a communicated fracture occurred, and a bone fragment displaced toward the inside (linear fracture was caused indirectly by the force); (3) a transverse sinus was injured by the fragment; and (4) EDH developed in both the posterior fossa and supratentorial region. Copper deficiency can also cause fragility of connective tissues, vessels, and bones.

  14. Development of a finite element/multi-body model of a newborn infant for restraint analysis and design.

    PubMed

    Bondy, Matthew; Altenhof, William; Chen, Xilin; Snowdon, Anne; Vrkljan, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    A finite element/multi-body model of a newborn infant has been developed by researchers at the University of Windsor. The geometry of this model is derived from a Nita newborn hospital training mannequin. It consists of 17 parts: eight upper and lower limb segments, the torso, head, and a seven-segment neck with seven translational and eight rotational joints. Anthropometry is consistent with hospital growth charts, measurements requested from health professionals and data from the open literature. The biomechanical properties of the model (i.e. joint stiffnesses) are implementations of data identified in the open literature. The model has been validated with respect to studies of the biomechanics of shaken baby syndrome, infant falls and the Q0 anthropomorphic testing device. A significant conclusion of this study is that the kinetics of the Q0 neck is not biofidelic. This model is currently used in an analysis of airway patency for infants in modern automotive child restraints.

  15. Presentation of Aural Stimuli to Newborns and Premature Infants: An Audiological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Cassidy

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine extant research in the field of music with premature and full term infants in order to identify protocols being used in the presentation of musical stimuli to neonates and (b) to use knowledge gleaned from audiology as a basis for suggesting a standardized protocol for use of musical stimuli with infants. Articles considered appropriate for inclusion in the analysis met the following criteria: (a) presented data for the effects of music on a dependent measure, (b) had subjects who were identified as either premature or term newborns receiving treatment after birth and prior to discharge from the hospital, and (c) used music for some or all of the aural stimuli. Articles (N = 20) were categorized by demographic information, types of aural stimuli, independent variables, dependent measures, and protocol used to present the musical stimuli. Of primary importance to this study was the protocol used in each study to present musical stimuli. Data regarding total duration of stimuli per day, longest duration of stimuli per day, method of stimuli presentation, placement of speakers, decibel level of stimuli, and where;he decibel level was measured reveal that there is no standard protocol being followed with regard to the presentation of aural stimuli. Recommendations include future research on (a) determining a minimum gestational age where music therapy may be appropriate, (b) determining the frequency spectrum perceived by a premature infant, (c) determining the decibel levels reaching the ear drum and assessing appropriate levels for minimum stimulation with maximum results, and (d) carefully considering the method of stimulus presentation as it will have an impact on the decibel level reaching the ear drum of these infants.

  16. Case of 46,XX/47,XY, +21 chimerism in a newborn infant with ambiguous genitalia

    SciTech Connect

    Sawai, Tomoko; Yoshimoto, Masaaki; Kinoshita, Ei-ichi; Baba, Tsuneyoshi; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Tsuji, Yoshiro, Niikawa, Norio; Fukuda, Shinpei; Harada, Naoki

    1994-02-15

    The authors describe the whole-body chimerism in a newborn infant with small phallus, pseudo-vaginal perineal hypospadias, and a bifid scrotum containing gonads. The human testis determining factor gene (SRY) was detected by PCR amplification. GTG-banding chromosome analysis in peripheral blood lymphocytes and cultured fibroblasts derived from right cubital skin showed a 46,XX/47,XY, +21 karyotype. Their ratios in each cell line were 294:5 and 178:7, respectively. QFQ-banding chromosome analysis documented 3 heteromorphic satellites on trisomic chromsomes 21 in the 47,XY,+21 cell line and a homozygous satellite pattern in the 46,XX cell line. Heteromorphic patterns of chromsomes 4, 13, 14, and 22 were also different between the two cell lines. To our knowledge, such disomy/trisomy chimeras have not been described previously. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Novel CRLF1 gene mutation in a newborn infant diagnosed with Crisponi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hakan, Nilay; Eminoglu, Fatma Tuba; Aydin, Mustafa; Zenciroglu, Aysegul; Karadag, Nazmiye Nilgun; Dursun, Arzu; Okumus, Nurullah; Ceylaner, Serdar

    2012-12-01

    Crisponi syndrome is an infrequently described disorder with autosomal recessive trait. It is characterized by extensive muscular contractions in the face after even minimal stimuli or crying, hypertonia, opisthotonus, camptodactyly, and typical facial features. Muscle contractions attenuate during rest or when the infant calms down. As a recently described new disease, Crisponi syndrome may be confused with epileptic manifestations. Most of the patients die in the first months of life due to hyperthermia and feeding problems. Recently, it has been demonstrated that mutations of the CRLF1 gene 'cytokine receptor-like factor 1' are associated with Crisponi syndrome. Here, we present a newborn diagnosed with Crisponi syndrome and report a novel homozygous CFRL1 gene mutation.

  18. Impact of a Central Line Infection Prevention Bundle in Newborn Infants.

    PubMed

    McMullan, Rowena; Gordon, Adrienne

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare central line use and central line-associated bloodstream infection in newborn infants before and after the introduction of a central line infection prevention bundle in order to determine the effectiveness of the bundle and to identify areas for further improvement. DESIGN Retrospective cohort analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING Level 5 neonatal intensive care unit in Sydney, Australia. PATIENTS Newborn infants admitted to the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit who had a central venous catheter (CVC) inserted. METHODS Data regarding clinical characteristics, CVC use, and infection were collected before and after the introduction of a bundle of interventions. The bundles encompassed (1) insertion of CVC, (2) maintenance of CVC, (3) an education program, and (4) ongoing surveillance and feedback. RESULTS Baseline and intervention groups were comparable in clinical characteristics. The number of CVCs inserted was reduced in the intervention group (central line utilization rate, 0.16 vs 0.2, P<.0001). Overall CVC dwell time was reduced, resulting from significant reduction in peripherally inserted CVC dwell time (6 days [95% CI, 5.0-11.8 days] vs 7.3 days [4.0-10.4 days], P=.0004). Central line-associated bloodstream infections were significantly reduced, predominantly secondary to decreased peripherally inserted CVC-related bloodstream infections (1.2/1,000 central line-days vs 11.5/1,000 central line-days, P<.0001). CONCLUSION This central line infection bundle was effective in reducing CVC use, dwell time, and central line-associated bloodstream infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:1029-1036.

  19. Sugaring the pill: ethics and uncertainties in the use of sucrose for newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dominic J C; Savulescu, Julian; Slater, Rebeccah

    2012-07-01

    Sucrose is widely used for the management of procedural pain in newborn infants, including capillary blood sampling, venepuncture, and vascular cannulation. Multiple randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that sweet-tasting solutions reduce behavioral responses to acute painful stimuli. It has been claimed that sucrose should be a standard of care in neonatal units and that further placebo-controlled trials of sucrose are unnecessary and unethical. However, recently published data cast doubt on the analgesic properties of sucrose. We review this new evidence and analyze the philosophical and ethical questions that it raises, including the "problem of other minds." Sugar may be better understood not as an analgesic, removing or relieving pain, but as a compensating pleasure. There is a need for further research on the mechanism of sucrose's effect on pain behavior and on the long-term effects of sucrose treatment. Such trials will require comparison with placebo or with other interventions. Given uncertainty about the benefit of sucrose, it may be wise to use alternative analgesics or nonpharmacological interventions where these are available and appropriate. Sucrose may not be the answer to procedural pain in newborns.

  20. Urinary paraben concentrations among pregnant women and their matching newborn infants of Korea, and the association with oxidative stress biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungeun; Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hae-Joong; Lee, Jeongjae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Kho, Young Lim; Choi, Kyungho

    2013-09-01

    Parabens have been used in multiple products including personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods for more than 50 years but increasing numbers of studies have raised concerns on their safety. The present study was designed to determine urinary paraben levels among pregnant women and their matching newborn infants (<48 h after delivery), and the association between paraben levels and stress markers. Pregnant women (n=46) and their matching newborn infants were recruited from four university hospitals located in Seoul, Ansan and Jeju of Korea, 2011. Parabens including methyl paraben (MP), ethyl paraben (EP), n-propyl paraben (PP), and n-butyl paraben (BP) were measured in the urine using an automatic, high throughput online SPE-LC-MS/MS method. Urinary concentrations were normalized with specific gravity (SG). Free cortisol, malondealdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured in the urine as stress marker. Urinary MP was detected as the highest, and BP was detected as the lowest paraben in the urine samples of both pregnant women and their infants. Significant correlations between paraben concentrations of maternal and their newborn infant's urine were observed. The levels of urinary parabens among Korean pregnant women are comparable to those reported elsewhere, except for EP which were 4-9 folds higher than pregnant women of other countries. The ratios of infant to maternal urinary paraben concentrations varied between 0.5 and 0.6 for MP and PP, but approximately 10 fold lower for EP. Urinary MP or EP levels were associated with several oxidative stress related biomarkers such as urinary 8-OHdG and MDA, even after the adjustment of relevant covariates such as maternal age, mode of delivery, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational age and parity. This is the first study that reported the levels of major parabens in the first urine of newborn infants. Further studies are warranted to understand the implications of paraben exposure among

  1. Skin findings in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics; Neonatal care - skin ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  2. Branched Chain Fatty Acids Are Constituents of the Normal Healthy Newborn Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Ran-Ressler, Rinat R.; Devapatla, Srisatish; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Vernix suspended in amniotic fluid is normally swallowed by the late term fetus. We hypothesized that branched chain fatty acids (BCFA), long known to be major vernix components, would be found in meconium and that the profiles would differ systematically. Vernix and meconium were collected from term newborns and analyzed. BCFA-containing lipids constituted about 12% of vernix dry weight, and were predominantly saturated, and had 11 to 26 carbons per BCFA. In contrast, meconium BCFA had 16 to 26 carbons, and was about 1% of dry weight. Meconium BCFA were mostly in the iso configuration, whereas vernix BCFA contained dimethyl and middle chain branching, and five anteiso BCFA. The mass of BCFA entering the fetal gut as swallowed vernix particles is estimated to be 180 mg in the last month of gestation while the total mass of BCFA found in meconium is estimated to be 16 mg, thus most BCFA disappear from the fetal gut. The BCFA profiles of vernix and meconium show that BCFA are major components of normal healthy term newborn gastrointestinal tract. BCFA are candidates for agents that play a role in gut colonization and should be considered a nutritional component for the fetus/newborn. PMID:18614964

  3. Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenny, Carmen; Biallas, Martin; Trajkovic, Ivo; Fauchère, Jean-Claude; Bucher, Hans Ulrich; Wolf, Martin

    2011-09-01

    Early detection of cerebral hypoxemia is an important aim in neonatology. A relevant parameter to assess brain oxygenation may be the cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). So far the reproducibility of StO2 measurements was too low for clinical application, probably due to inhomogeneities. The aim of this study was to test a novel sensor geometry which reduces the influence of inhomogeneities. Thirty clinically stable newborn infants, with a gestational age of median 33.9 (range 26.9 to 41.9) weeks, birth weight of 2220 (820 to 4230) g, postnatal age of 5 (1 to 71) days were studied. At least four StO2 measurements of 1 min duration were carried out using NIRS on the lateral head. The sensor was repositioned between measurements. Reproducibility was calculated by a linear mixed effects model. The mean StO2 was 79.99 +/- 4.47% with a reproducibility of 2.76% and a between-infant variability of 4.20%. Thus, the error of measurement only accounts for 30.1% of the variability. The novel sensor geometry leads to considerably more precise measurements compared to previous studies with, e.g., ~5% reproducibility for the NIRO 300. The novel StO2 values hence have a higher clinical relevance.

  4. Tackling Health Inequities in Chile: Maternal, Newborn, Infant, and Child Mortality Between 1990 and 2004

    PubMed Central

    Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Nien, Jyh Kae; Merialdi, Mario; Bustreo, Flavia; Betran, Ana Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed trends in maternal, newborn, and child mortality in Chile between 1990 and 2004, after the introduction of national interventions and reforms, and examined associations between trends and interventions. Methods. Data were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health on all pregnancies between 1990 and 2004 (approximately 4 000 000). We calculated yearly maternal mortality ratios, stillbirth rates, and mortality rates for neonates, infants (aged > 28 days and < 1 year), and children aged 1 to 4 years. We also calculated these statistics by 5-year intervals for Chile's poorest to richest district quintiles. Results. During the study period, the maternal mortality ratio decreased from 42.1 to 18.5 per 100 000 live births. The mortality rate for neonates decreased from 9.0 to 5.7 per 1000 births, for infants from 7.8 to 3.1 per 1000 births, and for young children from 3.1 to 1.7 per 1000 live births. The stillbirth rate declined from 6.0 to 5.0 per 1000 births. Disparities in these mortality statistics between the poorest and richest district quintiles also decreased, with the largest mortality reductions in the poorest quintile. Conclusions. During a period of socioeconomic development and health sector reforms, Chile experienced significant mortality and inequity reductions. PMID:19443831

  5. Cerebral blood flow in the newborn infant: comparison of Doppler ultrasound and /sup 133/xenon clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Greisen, G.; Johansen, K.; Ellison, P.H.; Fredriksen, P.S.; Mali, J.; Friis-Hansen, B.

    1984-03-01

    Two techniques of Doppler ultrasound examination, continuous-wave and range-gated, applied to the anterior cerebral artery and to the internal carotid artery, were compared with /sup 133/xenon clearance after intravenous injection. Thirty-two sets of measurements were obtained in 16 newborn infants. The pulsatility index, the mean flow velocity, and the end-diastolic flow velocity were read from the Doppler recordings. Mean cerebral blood flow was estimated from the /sup 133/Xe clearance curves. The correlation coefficients between the Doppler and the /sup 133/Xe measurements ranged from 0.41 to 0.82. In the subset of 16 first measurements in each infant, there were no statistically significant differences between the correlation coefficients of the various Doppler ultrasound variables, but the correlation coefficients were consistently lower for the pulsatility index than for mean flow velocity or end-diastolic flow velocity, and they were consistently higher for the range-gated than for the continuous-wave Doppler technique.

  6. [Recommendations for the care of the healthy normal newborn at delivery and during the first postnatal hours].

    PubMed

    Luna, M Sánchez; Alonso, C R Pallás; Mussons, F Botet; Urcelay, I Echániz; Conde, J R Castro; Narbona, E

    2009-10-01

    Standardised normal newborn care at delivery and during the first hours of life is one of the objectives of the Spanish National Society of Neonatology. The object of this review is to apply the best evidence possible to the procedures of the care of the newborn from delivery and during the first moments after delivery; as well as standards and routines in care to improve quality and the safety of the newborn. A PubMed (MeSH) review using the key words: term newborn; prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum; haemorrhagic disease of the newborn; neonatal jaundice; neonatal screening and hospital discharge. Concepts of regular care of the healthy newborn at delivery; normal practices in the delivery room; prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum; prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding; care of the umbilical cord; newborn screening and hospital discharge are reviewed. The standard of care of the newborn at delivery and during the first hours of life have been updated; recommendations based on evidence and on experts of the standard committee of the spanish society of neonatology are done.

  7. Relationship Between Serum Albumin Levels and Infections in Newborn Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunyan; Liu, Zhaoguo; Tian, Min; Xu, Ping; Li, Baoyun; Yang, Qiaozhi; Yang, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the clinical value of serum albumin levels for the evaluation and prognosis of late preterm infants with infections. Material/Methods This was a retrospective study performed in late preterm infants admitted at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Liaocheng People’s Hospital between July 2012 and March 2013. Data, including laboratory test results, neonatal critical illness score (NCIS), perinatal complications and prognosis, were analyzed. The newborn infants were divided into 3 groups according to their serum albumin levels, (≥30 g/L, 25–30 g/L and ≤25 g/L for high, moderate, and low, respectively). Results Among 257 patients, birth weight was 2003±348 g, gestational age was 35.7±2.3 weeks, and 59.1% were male. In addition, 127 (49.4%) were in the low albumin group. There were 32 patients with sepsis, 190 with infections, and 35 without infection, and their rates of hypoalbuminemia were 86.0%, 50.5%, and 30.7%, respectively (P<0.05). Albumin levels of the patients who survived were higher than those of the patients who died. In the low albumin group, the number of individual-event-critical NCIS cases and the frequency of multiple organs injuries were 63.8% and 28.3%, respectively, and were higher than in the 2 other groups. Mortality was higher in patients with sepsis. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with severe adverse outcomes (odds ratio=6.3, 95% confidence interval: 3.7–10.9, P<0.001). Conclusions Hypoalbuminemia was frequent among neonates with sepsis. Lower albumin levels might be associated with a poorer prognosis. Albumin levels could be appropriate for the diagnosis and prognosis of late preterm neonates with infections. PMID:26747243

  8. [The significance of fucosylated glycoconjugates of human milk in nutrition of newborns and infants].

    PubMed

    Lis-Kuberka, Jolanta; Orczyk-Pawiłowicz, Magdalena

    2015-07-22

    Human milk is extremely complex secretion rich in biologically active glycoconjugates including free oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, and glycosaminoglycans. Alpha1-2-fucosylated glycoconjugates of human milk are component of the innate immune system and provide an additional defense for infants. Participation of fucosylated glycotopes in the inhibition of infections caused by some bacteria and/or viruses rely on blocking of lectin-receptors of pathogen. Free fucosylated glycoconjugates present in milk are recognized and bound by the lectin-receptors of bacteria and/or viruses, and prevent pathogens adhesion to host epithelial cells and development of infection. So far, the efficacy of fucosylated glycoconjugates of human milk in the inhibition of adhesion has been confirmed for Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica, Rotaviruses, HIV, and Noroviruses. In this process the secretor/nonsecretor status of mother plays an important role. This is particularly important for the women who are nonsecretors and whose milk does not contain α1-2-fucosylated glycoconjugates and has reduced anti-microbial properties. Fucosylated glycoconjugates of milk are also one of the energy sources for physiological bacterial flora (Bifidobacterium), and have a positive impact on the intestinal peristalsis, and indirectly stimulate the central nervous system of infants. Furthermore, compared to human milk, the content of fucosylated glycoconjugates of cow’s milk is very low and does not provide adequate protection. This fact is particularly important in terms of nutrition and should be taken into consideration when artificial mixtures based on cows’ milk are used. The paper presents the current state of knowledge on human milk glycoconjugates, particularly on α1-2-fucosylated free oligosaccharides and glycoproteins, and discusses the significance of fucosylated glycoconjugates of human milk in the nutrition of newborns and infants.

  9. Bloodstream infection with Oligella ureolytica in a newborn infant: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Demir, Tülin; Celenk, Nuran

    2014-06-11

    Oligella species are small, Gram-negative, nonsaccharolytic aerobic rods or coccobacilli that are catalase and oxidase-positive, mostly isolated from the urinary tract and rarely from wounds, bloodstream infections, septic arthritis, or peritonitis.In this article, we report a case of O.ureolytica-related bloodstream infection in a newborn infant and we review the literature for previously reported cases of Oligella infections.

  10. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) with Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC): Comprehensive Care for Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Als, Heidelise; McAnulty, Gloria B.

    2014-01-01

    State-of-the-art Newborn Intensive Care Units (NICUs), instrumental in the survival of high-risk and ever-earlier-born preterm infants, often have costly human repercussions. The developmental sequelae of newborn intensive care are largely misunderstood. Developed countries eager to export their technologies must also transfer the knowledge-base that encompasses all high-risk and preterm infants’ personhood as well as the neuro-essential importance of their parents. Without such understanding, the best medical care, while assuring survival jeopardizes infants’ long-term potential and deprives parents of their critical role. Exchanging the womb for the NICU environment at a time of rapid brain growth compromises preterm infants’ early development, which results in long-term physical and mental health problems and developmental disabilities. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) aims to prevent the iatrogenic sequelae of intensive care and to maintain the intimate connection between parent and infant, one expression of which is Kangaroo Mother Care. NIDCAP embeds the infant in the natural parent niche, avoids over-stimulation, stress, pain, and isolation while it supports self-regulation, competence, and goal orientation. Research demonstrates that NIDCAP improves brain development, functional competence, health, and life quality. It is cost effective, humane, and ethical, and promises to become the standard for all NICU care. PMID:25473384

  11. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for oxygen-15 radiopharmaceuticals (H2( V)O, C VO, O VO) in newborn infants

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, W.J.; Stabin, M.; Howse, D.; Eichling, J.O.; Herscovitch, P.

    1988-12-01

    In preparation for measurement of regional cerebral oxygen metabolism by positron emission tomography, radiation absorbed dose estimates for 19 internal organs, blood, and total body were calculated for newborn infants following bolus intravenous administration of H2( V)O and brief inhalation of C VO and O VO. Cumulated activity for each radiopharmaceutical was calculated from a compartmental model based on the known biologic behavior of the compound. Values for mean absorbed dose/unit cumulated activity (S) for internal organs and total body were based on a newborn phantom. S was separately calculated for blood. Total radiopharmaceutical absorbed dose estimates necessary to measure cerebral oxygen metabolism in a 3.51-kg infant based on 0.7 mCi/kg H2( V)O and 1 mCi/kg C VO and O VO were determined to be 1.6 rad to the lung (maximum organ dose), 0.28 rad to the marrow, 0.46 rad to the gonads, and 0.22 rad to total body. These values are similar to those for current clinical nuclear medicine procedures employing /sup 99m/Tc in newborn infants.

  12. Assessment of gestational age in the Cameroonian newborn infant: a comparison of four scoring methods.

    PubMed

    Sunjoh, F; Njamnshi, A K; Tietche, F; Kago, I

    2004-10-01

    A clinical assessment of gestational age using four different methods was performed in the same population of 358 Cameroonian newborn infants with the aim of determining the most applicable in the local context. Method applicability was compared in terms of validity, accuracy, reliability, and ease of administration. The gestational age ranged from 25 to 44 weeks. The infants were evaluated within 72 h from birth, using the scoring methods of Farr (FSM), Dubowitz (DSM), Ballard (New Ballard Score--NBS) and Eregie (ESM). The DSM was the most valid with a 93 per cent agreement within +/-2 weeks of gestational age by dates followed by the ESM with 92.4 per cent. The NBS and the FSM showed lower validity of 85.6 per cent and 78.3 per cent respectively. The ESM was the most accurate with a mean difference (MD) in weeks (+/-1 SD) between gestational age by method and gestational age by dates of 0.259+/-1.376, followed by the NBS with 0.355+/-1.51. The DSM was fairly accurate with a MD of 0.500+/-1.31, and the FSM the least accurate with a MD of 1.228+/-1.495. The DSM was the most reliable with a high correlation coefficient (r) of 0.94. The NBS and the ESM had comparable reliability with correlation coefficient of 0.93 each. The easiest to administer was the ESM, completed in an average of 41 s, followed by the FSM in 1 min 22 s. The NBS was completed in 2 min 48 s and the DSM in 4 min 28 s. We concluded that the Eregie model has comparable validity and reliability to the Dubowitz score but is more accurate, simple, and very easy to administer. It is therefore recommended where the workload is heavy and health personnel limited, as is the case in developing countries.

  13. [Population genetics approach to the problem of the nonspecific biological resistance of the human body. I. Statement of the problem and basis for the approach. Distribution parameters of anthropometric markers of normal and ill newborn infants and nurslings].

    PubMed

    Altukhov, Iu P; Botvin'ev, O K; Kurbatova, O L

    1979-01-01

    Distributions of two metrical characters-the weight and the body length at birth are considered in several groups of healthy, diseased and dead newborns and infants. Significant differences in statistical parameters of these distributions (mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis) are demonstrated for normal and malformated children. The increased number of children with minimal deviations from the mean values of characters (adaptive norm) is observed among healthy newborns, while in groups of diseased and dead children the frequency of individuals with extreme (especially low) values is increased. The principle of classification of individuals based simultaneously on two characteris is suggested and the problem of "average phenotype" classification by the number of characters is discussed.

  14. Regional development of glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor sites in asphyxiated newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Andersen, D L; Tannenberg, A E; Burke, C J; Dodd, P R

    1998-04-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subclass of glutamate receptors was examined in newborn infants dying between 25 weeks' gestation and term, either from acute cerebral hypoxia, or from other noncerebral conditions incompatible with life. Frontal, occipital, temporal, and motor cortex tissue samples were obtained at autopsy (post mortem delay: median, 45.9 hr; range, 24-96 hr) and frozen for subsequent [3H]MK801 homogenate binding assays. Whereas no significant variation was observed in ligand affinity (KD), in all cases receptor density (BMAX) increased with gestational age, in occipital cortex (27 weeks, BMAX = 222 +/- 44 fmol x mg protein(-1); 39 weeks, 439 +/- 42 fmol x mg protein[-1]), but not in motor or temporal cortex. The gestational-age increase also occurred in control frontal cortex (27 weeks, 284 +/- 80; 39 weeks, 567 +/- 40 fmol x mg protein[-1]), but was significantly less marked in frontal cortex in hypoxia cases (27 weeks, 226 +/- 90; 39 weeks, 326 +/- 47 fmol x mg protein[-1]). In all cortical areas except temporal, the maximal response to glutamate did not vary across case groups. Hypoxia cases showed an increased response to glutamate enhancement selectively in temporal cortex. Binding site density did not correlate with degree of hypoxia as assessed pathologically, suggesting that receptor differences preceded the hypoxic episode. Regional differences in glutamate-NMDA receptor sites may underlie increased vulnerability to hypoxia at birth.

  15. [Dermohypodermitis and gut translocation Escherichia coli septicemia in a newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Gouache, E; Chantier, E; Hubert, N; Rivière, M-F

    2013-01-01

    The burden of neonatal bacterial infections continues. They remain a significant cause of death and morbidity, despite recommendations for prevention. The epidemiology of these infections has changed. Currently the two most causative pathogens for early-onset neonatal sepsis and for late-onset sepsis in term infants are Group B streptococci (GBS) and Escherichia coli. E. coli's role is increasingly important since the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. In late-onset infections, one of the suggested pathophysiological mechanisms is microbial translocation in the gut secondary to digestive colonization, particularly when E. coli is isolated in blood cultures. This can occur either before or after birth. Bacterial sepsis can be associated with various non-specific peripheral manifestations involving skin and soft tissues. We report the case of a full-term, 26-day-old newborn admitted to the hospital for fever. She presented with dermohypodermitis of the left trunk and was diagnosed with E. coli septicemia. She was discharged in good condition after appropriate intravenous antibiotic therapy.

  16. Conservation of the fourth gene among rotaviruses recovered from asymptomatic newborn infants and its possible role in attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, J.; Midthun, K.; Hoshino, Y.; Green, K.; Gorziglia, M.; Kapikian, A.Z.; Chanock, R.M.

    1986-11-01

    RNA-RNA hybridization was performed to assess the extent of genetic relatedness among human rotaviruses isolated from children with gastroenteritis and from asymptomatic newborn infants. /sup 32/P-labeled single-stranded RNAs produced by in vitro transcription from viral cores of the different strains tested were used as probes in two different hybridization assays: (1) undenatured genomic RNAs were resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, denatured in situ, electrophoretically transferred to diazobenzyloxymethyl-paper (Northern blots), and then hybridized to the probes under two different conditions of stringency; and (ii) denatured genomic double-stranded RNAs were hybridized to the probes in solution and the hybrids which formed were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When analyzed by Northern blot hybridization at a low level of stringency, all genes from the strains tested cross-hybridized, providing evidence for some sequence homology in each of the corresponding genes. However, when hybridization stringency was increased, a difference in gene 4 sequence was detected between strains recovered from asymptomatic newborn infants (nursery strains) and strains recovered from infants and young children with diarrhea. Although the nursery strains exhibited serotypic diversity, the fourth gene appeared to be highly conversed. These results were confirmed and extended during experiments in which the RNA-RNA hybridization was carried out in solution and the resulting hybrids were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Full-length hybrids did not form between the fourth genes from the nursery strains and the corresponding genes from the strains recovered from symptomatic infants and young children.

  17. Risk Stratification Model to Detect Early Pulmonary Disease in Infants With Cystic Fibrosis Diagnosed by Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Lacrecia J.; Oates, Gabriela R.; Oster, Robert A.; Self, Staci T.; Troxler, Robert B.; Hoover, Wynton C.; Gutierrez, Hector H.; Harris, William T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective The clinical benefit of newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) has been primarily nutritional, with less overt respiratory impact. Identification of risk factors for infant CF lung disease could facilitate targeted interventions to improve pulmonary outcomes. Methods This retrospective study evaluated socioeconomic information, clinical data, and results from routine infant pulmonary function testing (iPFT) of infants diagnosed with CF through NBS (N = 43) at a single CF center over a 4-year period (2008–2012). A five-item composite clinical score was developed and combined with socioeconomic indicators to facilitate identification of CF infants at increased risk of early-onset respiratory impairment. Results Paternal education was positively associated with lung function (P = 0.02). Clinical score <7 (on a scale of 0–10) predicted diminished pulmonary measure (P < 0.005). Retrospective risk stratification by clinical score and paternal education identified CF infants at low, intermediate, or high risk of pulmonary disease. Forced expiratory volume (FEV0.5%, mean ± SD) averaged 115 ± 19% in the low-risk group, 97 ± 17% in the intermediate-risk group, and 90 ± 8% in the high-risk group (P < 0.005). Results were similar for mid-expiratory flows (FEF25–75%). Multiple regression analysis confirmed the predictive value of this risk stratification model of CF infant pulmonary health. Conclusion We combined socioeconomic and clinical data to risk-stratify CF infants for early-onset lung disease as quantified by iPFT. Our model showed significant differences in infant pulmonary function across risk groups. The developed tool offers an easily available, inexpensive, and non-invasive way to assess risk of respiratory decline in CF infants and identify those meriting targeted therapeutic attention. PMID:27556254

  18. Parental psychological distress and confidence after an infant's birth: the role of attachment representations in parents of infants with congenital anomalies and parents of healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana; Nazaré, Bárbara; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2013-06-01

    The present study aimed to examine parental psychological distress and confidence after an infant's birth, when parenting an infant with a diagnosis of a congenital anomaly, and to understand the role of attachment representations on parental adjustment. Parents of infants with a congenital anomaly (44 couples) and parents of healthy infants (46 couples) completed measures of adult attachment representations and of psychological distress and parental confidence (one month after the infant's birth). Results showed no group differences in psychological distress. Mothers in the clinical group presented lower confidence than mothers in the comparison group, while for fathers the inverse pattern was found, showing their involvement in the caretaking of the infant. Insecure attachment representations predicted parental psychological distress, and a moderator role of group was found only for fathers. These results highlight the role of secure attachment representations as an individual resource in stress-inducing situations.

  19. Morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide and morphine-3-glucuronide pharmacokinetics in newborn infants receiving diamorphine infusions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, D A; Barker, D P; Rutter, N; Pawula, M; Shaw, P N

    1996-06-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) were studied in 19 ventilated newborn infants (24-41 weeks gestation) who were given a loading dose of 50 micrograms kg-1 or 200 micrograms kg-1 of diamorphine followed by an intravenous infusion of 15 micrograms kg-1 h-1 of diamorphine. Plasma concentrations of morphine, M3G and M6G were measured during the accrual to steady-state and at steady state of the diamorphine infusion. 2. Following both the 50 micrograms kg-1 or 200 micrograms kg-1 loading doses the mean steady-state plasma concentration (+/- s.d.) of morphine, M3G and M6G were 86 +/- 52 ng ml-1, 703 +/- 400 ng ml-1 and 48 +/- 28 ng ml-1 respectively and morphine clearance was found to be 4.6 +/- 3.2 ml min-1 kg-1. 3. M3G formation clearance was estimated to be 2.5 +/- 1.8 ml min-1 kg-1, and the formation clearance of M6G was estimated to be 0.46 +/- 0.32 ml min-1 kg-1. 4. M3G metabolite clearance was 0.46 +/- 0.60 ml min-1 kg-1, the elimination half-life was 11.1 +/- 11.3 h and the volume of distribution was 0.55 +/- 1.13 l kg-1. M6G metabolite clearance was 0.71 +/- 0.36 ml min-1 kg-1, the elimination half-life was 18.2 +/- 13.6 h and the volume of distribution was 1.03 +/- 0.88 l kg-1. 5. No significant effect of the loading dose (50 micrograms kg-1 or 200 micrograms kg-1) on the plasma morphine or metabolite concentrations or their derived pharmacokinetic parameters was found. 6. We were unable to identify correlations between gestational age of the infants and any of the determined pharmacokinetic parameters. 7. M3G: morphine and M6G: morphine steady-state plasma concentration ratios were 11.0 +/- 10.8 and 0.8 +/- 0.8, respectively. 8. The metabolism of morphine in neonates, in terms of the respective contributions of each glucuronide pathway, was similar to that in adults.

  20. Amikacin in Newborn Infants: Comparative Pharmacology with Kanamycin and Clinical Efficacy in 45 Neonates with Bacterial Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Jorge B.; McCracken, George H.; Trujillo, Hugo; Mohs, Edgar

    1976-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of amikacin (BBK8) were similar to those of kanamycin in newborn infants. Peak serum concentrations of both drugs were in the range of 15 to 25 μg/ml with the exception of kanamycin in babies weighing greater than 2,000 g at birth where peak levels were 12.5 to 15 μg/ml. Volumes of distribution, plasma clearances, and serum half-life values were comparable for the two drugs. The clinical and bacteriological responses to amikacin therapy were assessed in 45 neonates with bacterial diseases. A case fatality rate of 26% was observed in infants with septicemia and/or meningitis, whereas no deaths occurred among 22 infants with urinary tract and mucocutaneous infections. Cultures from infected sites were sterile within 72 h of initiating amikacin therapy in 47% of the infants, continued positive for greater than 72 h in 31%, and were not reevaluated during therapy in 22%. The clinical response was judged to be satisfactory in 92% of the surviving infants. The efficacy of amikacin was comparable to that of kanamycin or gentamicin in neonatal bacterial diseases. PMID:984762

  1. Palatal development of preterm and low birthweight infants compared to term infants – What do we know? Part 1: The palate of the term newborn

    PubMed Central

    Hohoff, Ariane; Rabe, Heike; Ehmer, Ulrike; Harms, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Background The evidence on prematurity as 'a priori' a risk for palatal disturbances that increase the need for orthodontic or orthognathic treatment is still weak. Further well-designed clinical studies are needed. The objective of this review is to provide a fundamental analysis of methodologies, confounding factors, and outcomes of studies on palatal development. One focus of this review is the analysis of studies on the palate of the term newborn, since knowing what is 'normal' is a precondition of being able to assess abnormalities. Methods A search profile based on Cochrane search strategies applied to 10 medical databases was used to identify existing studies. Articles, mainly those published before 1960, were identified from hand searches in textbooks, encyclopedias, reference lists and bibliographies. Sources in English, German, and French of more than a century were included. Data for term infants were recalculated if particular information about weight, length, or maturity was given. The extracted values, especially those from non-English paper sources, were provided unfiltered for comparison. Results The search strategy yielded 182 articles, of which 155 articles remained for final analysis. Morphology of the term newborn's palate was of great interest in the first half of the last century. Two general methodologies were used to assess palatal morphology: visual and metrical descriptions. Most of the studies on term infants suffer from lack of reliability tests. The groove system was recognized as the distinctive feature of the infant palate. The shape of the palate of the term infant may vary considerably, both visually and metrically. Gender, race, mode of delivery, and nasal deformities were identified as causes contributing to altered palatal morphology. Until today, anatomical features of the newborn's palate are subject to a non-uniform nomenclature. Conclusion Today's knowledge of a newborn's 'normal' palatal morphology is based on non

  2. [Immunological behavior (IgG, IgM, IgA) and total complement (CH50) of newborns infants with risk factors for early onset sepsis. Comparative analysis of newborns with and without infection].

    PubMed

    Ceccon, M E; Diníz, E M; Carneiro-Sampaio, M M; Arslanian, C; Diogo, C L; Ramos, J L; Vaz, F A

    1998-01-01

    Immunological behavior (IgG, IgM, IgA) and total Complement (CH50) of newborns infants with risk factors for early onset sepsis. Comparative analysis between newborns with and without infection. Rev. Hosp. Clín. Fac. Med. S. Paulo, 53(6): 303-310, 1998. The objective of this study was to verify the immunological behavior of the newborn infant in front of an infection. We studied 60 newborn infants that had risk factors for early onset sepsis (premature rupture membranes, clinic amnionitis or tract urinary infection) from de immunological and infection point of view. They were classified into three gestational age groups: < 34 weeks, between 34 and 36 6/7 weeks and > or = 37 weeks. Sepsis diagnosis was done through clinical and laboratorial data and we also included the followings exams: Immunological types (IgG, IgM, IgA) and total complement (CH50) obtained from the newborn at birth and on the fifth day of life. We could verify that 15 newborns (25%) presented early sepsis. There was a statistical association between perinatal asfixia and infection in the group with gestational age < 34 weeks and this same group presented statistical association between infection and death. The serical levels of IgG and CH50 were directly related to the gestational age and there were significant statistical differences between levels of IgG, IgM and total Complement between infected and not infected newborns within the same group os gestional age. We observed that the infection was associated to low levels of IgG and CH50, at birth and on the fifth day, mainly in the group of infected newborns with gestional age < 34 weeks, being this group, therefore, the one that would mostly benefit from an immunological support in front of and infection.

  3. Stability and Instability in the Newborn Infant: The Quest for Elusive Threads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Frances Degen; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Reviews issues of reliability (especially test-retest reliability) in newborn assessment, discusses predictive models based on newborn assessment, and presents information on modifications of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale which may help in pursuing fruitful questions involving prediction of development. (Author/BH)

  4. The Foundations of Social Cognition: Studies on Face/Voice Integration in Newborn Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streri, Arlette; Coulon, Marion; Guellai, Bahia

    2013-01-01

    A series of studies on newborns' abilities for recognizing speaking faces has been performed in order to identify the fundamental cues of social cognition. We used audiovisual dynamic faces rather than photographs or patterns of faces. Direct eye gaze and speech addressed to newborns, in interactive situations, appear to be two good candidates for…

  5. Feasibility, diagnostic validity and limits of postmortem evaluation of a newborn infant following an extremely prolonged freezing interval: a thanatological case study.

    PubMed

    Krajčovič, Jozef; Janík, Martin; Novomeský, František; Straka, Lubomír; Hejna, Petr

    2014-11-01

    In forensic assessment, denial and concealment of pregnancy has wide-ranging implications including criminal abortions, extramural deliveries, concealment of birth, newborn infant abandonment or even neonaticide. Clarification of whether a newborn was born alive is the most important factor when evaluating an abandoned neonate or concealment of birth. Other points that need to be addressed are determination of viability and maturity of the newborn infant, and the identity of the mother. A prolonged postmortem interval following illegal disposal of a dead body often leads to advanced decomposition, making postmortem elucidation difficult. We report an exceptionally uncommon autopsy case of a well-preserved female newborn, which was accidentally found after eight years in a home freezer. Despite the prolonged postmortem interval, tissue preservation was sufficient for a meaningful autopsy including a comprehensive histopathological study. The purpose of the present investigations was to expand our understanding of thanatological processes, as well as detectability of particular histological findings on the remains of a newborn after extremely prolonged storage in an artificially frozen environment. In addition, this article discusses forensically important issues regarding concealment of newborn infant under specific conditions.

  6. Assessing effects of serotonin precursors on newborn behavior.

    PubMed

    Yogman, M W; Zeisel, S H; Roberts, C

    While traditional studies of newborn diet have focused on the effects of malnutrition on the central nervous system, there is now interest in how qualitative differences in the composition of early newborn feeding might influence behavior. This paper reviews the available techniques for assessing newborn perception and cognition, as well as behavioral organization. The paper then focuses intensively on measures of newborn state behaviour in view of evidence in adult humans, as well as in non-human species, suggesting a relationship between sleep behavior (sleep onset, night waking) and brain serotonin levels. A study designed to examine the relationship between dietary precursors of brain serotonin (within the range of concentrations found in human milk) and newborn state behavior after feeding is described to illustrate the application of these techniques. Healthy, fullterm newborns were fed a modified formula, containing tryptophan or valine, on one day, a routine formula on another day, and observed continuously for 3 h after each feeding for the observation and recording of newborn state. Data from individual infants in the tryptophan and valine groups are presented to illustrate the findings that infants fed tryptophan entered quiet sleep and active sleep sooner than infants fed valine and spent more time in active sleep and less time alert. These results illustrate the value of newborn behavior as a sensitive dependent variable in studies of behavioral effects of diet and suggests that variations in serotonin levels in the newborn brain may modulate the newborn's sleep/wake behaviour.

  7. Do women tend while men fight or flee? Differential emotive reactions of stressed men and women while viewing newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Probst, Fabian; Meng-Hentschel, Juliane; Golle, Jessika; Stucki, Sylvia; Akyildiz-Kunz, Carola; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2017-01-01

    Infant care often is carried out under stressful circumstances. Little is known about differences in caretaking motivation between men and women under stress. In the present study, stress was induced in 40 participants (21 women, 19 men) by means of the cold pressor stress test, 40 (22 women, 18 men) serving as controls. Participants then rated their urge to care for newborn infants shown on 20 short video clips. The infants in the videos were either crying (N=10) or were showing typical neonatal facial movements (N=10). Skin conductance was obtained while participants viewed the videos and salivary cortisol was measured to capture stress responses. We found sex differences in caretaking motivation, such that stress led to decreased caretaking motivation in men but not in women. Furthermore, stressed men elicited a stronger skin conductance change while viewing infant videos than stressed women. These findings provide further evidence for differential stress reactions in men and women and may have crucial implications for parental care.

  8. Noninvasive monitoring of gas in the lungs and intestines of newborn infants using diode lasers: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Emilie Krite; Cocola, Lorenzo; Lewander Xu, Märta; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Jahr, John; Fellman, Vineta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2013-12-01

    Preterm newborn infants have a high morbidity rate. The most frequently affected organs where free gas is involved are the lungs and intestines. In respiratory distress syndrome, both hyperexpanded and atelectatic (collapsed) areas occur, and in necrotizing enterocolitis, intramural gas may appear in the intestine. Today, these conditions are diagnosed with x-ray radiography. A bed-side, rapid, nonintrusive, and gas-specific technique for in vivo gas sensing would improve diagnosis. We report the use of noninvasive laser spectroscopy, for the first time, to assess gas content in the lungs and intestines of three full-term infants. Water vapor and oxygen were studied with two low-power diode lasers, illuminating the skin and detecting light a few centimeters away. Water vapor was easily detected in the intestines and was also observed in the lungs. The relatively thick chest walls of the infants prevented detection of the weaker oxygen signal in this study. However, results from a previous phantom study, together with scaling of the results presented here to the typical chest-wall thickness of preterm infants, suggest that oxygen also should be detectable in their lungs.

  9. Simultaneous EEG and diffuse optical imaging of seizure-related hemodynamic activity in the newborn infant brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Cooper, Robert J.; Gibson, Adam; Everdell, Nick; Austin, Topun

    2012-06-01

    An optical imaging system has been developed which uses measurements of diffusely reflected near-infrared light to produce maps of changes in blood flow and oxygenation occurring within the cerebral cortex. Optical sources and detectors are coupled to the head via an array of optical fibers, on a probe held in contact with the scalp, and data is collected at a rate of 10 Hz. A clinical electroencephalography (EEG) system has been integrated with the optical system to enable simultaneous observation of electrical and hemodynamic activity in the cortex of neurologically compromised newborn infants diagnosed with seizures. Studies have made a potentially critically important discovery of previously unknown transient hemodynamic events in infants treated with anticonvulsant medication. We observed repeated episodes of small increases in cortical oxyhemoglobin concentration followed by a profound decrease in 3 of 4 infants studied, each with cerebral injury who presented with neonatal seizures. This was not accompanied by clinical or EEG seizure activity and was not present in nineteen matched controls. The underlying cause of these changes is currently unknown. We tentatively suggest that our results may be associated with a phenomenon known as cortical spreading depolarization, not previously observed in the infant brain.

  10. Noninvasive monitoring of gas in the lungs and intestines of newborn infants using diode lasers: feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Emilie Krite; Cocola, Lorenzo; Xu, Märta Lewander; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Jahr, John; Fellman, Vineta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2013-12-01

    Preterm newborn infants have a high morbidity rate. The most frequently affected organs where free gas is involved are the lungs and intestines. In respiratory distress syndrome, both hyperexpanded and atelectatic (collapsed) areas occur, and in necrotizing enterocolitis, intramural gas may appear in the intestine. Today, these conditions are diagnosed with x-ray radiography. A bed-side, rapid, nonintrusive, and gas-specific technique for in vivo gas sensing would improve diagnosis. We report the use of noninvasive laser spectroscopy, for the first time, to assess gas content in the lungs and intestines of three full-term infants. Water vapor and oxygen were studied with two low-power diode lasers, illuminating the skin and detecting light a few centimeters away. Water vapor was easily detected in the intestines and was also observed in the lungs. The relatively thick chest walls of the infants prevented detection of the weaker oxygen signal in this study. However, results from a previous phantom study, together with scaling of the results presented here to the typical chest-wall thickness of preterm infants, suggest that oxygen also should be detectable in their lungs.

  11. A Sensory Basis for the Lateral Difference in the Newborn Infant's Response to Somesthetic Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Madeline; Turkewitz, Gerald

    1974-01-01

    Cardiac response to stimulation of the left and right perioral region in infants was examined. Cardiac acceleration and ipsilateral head turning occurred more reliably to stimulation of the infant's right side than to stimulation of the left side. Results reflect a difference in sensitivity at the infant's two sides. (SDH)

  12. Bacterial Colonization and Antibiotic Resistance in a Prospective Cohort of Newborn Infants During the First Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Stange, Kurt C.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Weiss, Judith K.; Bajaksouzian, Saralee; Bonomo, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Infants are virtually sterile at birth and frequently use antibiotics; our objective was to (1) characterize the longitudinal colonization with bacterial pathogens and associated antibiotic resistance in a cohort of community-dwelling infants in Northeast Ohio and (2) describe longitudinal concurrent antibiotic and daycare exposures. Methods. For 35 newborns, nasopharyngeal swabs were cultured for Streptococcus pneumoniae, anterior nasal for Staphylococcus aureus, and perirectal for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative enteric bacteria, at 3-month intervals for 12 months. Infant and household antibiotics and daycare exposure were assessed longitudinally. Results. Thirteen infants received perinatal or nursery antibiotics. By 3 months, at least 22 were colonized with Gram-negative bacteria; 2 with S pneumoniae (type 19A, resistant; 15C, susceptible), 5 with methicillin-susceptible S aureus. By 12 months, at least 22 of 35 infants received antibiotics, 20 had household members with antibiotics, and 12 attended daycare; 7 more had household members with daycare exposure. The ESBL-producing organisms were not identified. At least 10 infants were colonized at some time with an antibiotic-resistant organism, 3 more with pathogens displaying intermediate resistance. Pathogen colonization and resistance were intermittent and inconsistent. Conclusions. In a community-based cohort followed from birth, early antibiotic and daycare exposures are common, especially considering perinatal maternal exposures. Colonization patterns of Gram-negative bacteria, S pneumoniae, S aureus, and resistant pneumococci are strikingly dynamic. Further research can identify key areas for potential interventions to maximize clinical antibiotic outcomes while minimizing future resistance. PMID:27957505

  13. The effect of newborn vitamin A supplementation on infant immune functions: trial design, interventions, and baseline data.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin; Raqib, Rubhana; Qadri, Firdausi; Stephensen, Charles B

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, neonatal vitamin A supplementation is considered as an essential infant-survival intervention but the evidence is not conclusive. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of vitamin A on immune competence in early infancy. Results would provide a mechanistic basis for understanding the effect of this intervention on infant survival. Within 2 days of birth, infants born at one maternity clinic located in a poor slum area of Dhaka city were supplemented with either 50,000 IU vitamin A or placebo. Live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) and BCG vaccine were provided after supplementation. Infants also receive diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (TT), hepatitis B (HBV) and Haemophilus influenzae B vaccines (pentavalent combination) along with OPV at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Infant thymus size, anthropometry, feeding practice and morbidity data were collected at regular interval. Infant blood samples were collected to determine T-cell-receptor excision circle (TREC), total, naïve and memory T cells and mucosal targeting lymphocytes including Treg cells. TT-, HBV-, BCG- and OPV-specific T cell blastogenic, cytokine and plasma cell antibody responses were also measured. In 16 mo enrollment period, 306 newborns, equal number of boys and girls, were enrolled. ~95% completed the 4-month follow-up period. Baseline characteristics are presented here. Anthropometry and immune assays with fresh blood samples were completed immediately while stored samples were analyzed in single batches at the end of the trial. Connecting different aspects of immunological data in early infancy will help elucidate immune competence for protecting infection. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01583972.

  14. Morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide and morphine-3-glucuronide pharmacokinetics in newborn infants receiving diamorphine infusions

    PubMed Central

    BARRETT, D. A.; BARKER, D. P.; RUTTER, N.; PAWULA, M.; SHAW, P. N.

    1996-01-01

    1The pharmacokinetics of morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) were studied in 19 ventilated newborn infants(24–41 weeks gestation) who were given a loading dose of 50 μg kg−1 or 200 μg kg−1 of diamorphine followed by an intravenous infusion of 15 μg kg−1 h−1 of diamorphine. Plasma concentrations of morphine, M3G and M6G were measured during the accrual to steady-state and at steady state of the diamorphine infusion. 2Following both the 50 μg kg−1 or 200 μg kg−1 loading doses the mean steady-state plasma concentration (±s.d.) of morphine, M3G and M6G were 86±52 ng ml−1, 703±400 ng ml−1 and 48±28 ng ml−1 respectively and morphine clearance was found to be 4.6±3.2 ml min−1 kg−1. 3M3G formation clearance was estimated to be 2.5±1.8 ml min−1 kg−1, and the formation clearance of M6G was estimated to be 0.46±0.32 ml min−1 kg−1. 4M3G metabolite clearance was 0.46±0.60 ml min−1 kg−1, the elimination half-life was 11.1±11.3 h and the volume of distribution was 0.55±1.13 l kg−1. M6G metabolite clearance was 0.71±0.36 ml min−1 kg−1, the elimination half-life was 18.2±13.6 h and the volume of distribution was 1.03±0.88 l kg−1. 5No significant effect of the loading dose (50 μg kg−1 or 200 μg kg−1) on the plasma morphine or metabolite concentrations or their derived pharmacokinetic parameters was found. 6We were unable to identify correlations between gestational age of the infants and any of the determined pharmacokinetic parameters. 7M3G:morphine and M6G:morphine steady-state plasma concentration ratios were 11.0±10.8 and 0.8±0.8, respectively. 8The metabolism of morphine in neonates, in terms of the respective contributions of each glucuronide pathway, was similar to that in adults. PMID:8799518

  15. Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells for the measurement of red cell mass in newborn infants: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Linderkamp, O.; Betke, K.; Fendel, H.; Klemm, J.; Lorenzen, K.; Riegel, K.P.

    1980-07-01

    In vitro and in vivo investigations were performed to examine the binding of Tc-99m to neonatal red blood cells (RBC). Labeling efficiency was about 90%, and unbound Tc-99m less than 3% after one washing, in premature and full-term newborns and in children. Thus presence of high percentages of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) did not influence the labeling of RBCs with Tc-99m. RBCs of 11 newborns were hemolysed and the distribution of Tc-99m on RBC components was analyzed. Although Hb F percentage averaged (60.0 +- 8.10)% (s.d.), only (11.9 +- 3.7)% of Tc-99m was bound by Hb F, whereas (45.0 +- 6.1)% was associated with Hb A. RBC membranes bound (13.7 +- 4.3)% and (29.3 +- 4.0)% were found unbound in hemolysates. These results indicate that Tc-99m preferentially binds to beta chains. In vivo equilibration of Tc-99m RBCs and of albumin labeled with Evans blue was investigated in five newborn infants. Tc-99m RBCs were stable in each case during the first hour after injection. Elution of Tc-99m from RBCs was (3.4 +- 1.5)% per h. Body-to-venous hematocrit ratio averaged 0.86 +- 0.03.

  16. A proposed new international convention supporting the rights of pregnant women and girls and their newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Winrow, Benjamin; Bile, Khalif; Hafeez, Assad; Davies, Hugh; Brown, Nick; Zafar, Shamsa; Cham, Mamady; Phillips, Barbara; MacDonald, Rhona; Southall, David P

    2012-05-01

    For a multitude of eminently modifiable reasons, death rates for pregnant women and girls and their newborn infants in poorly resourced countries remain unacceptably high. The concomitant high morbidity rates compound the situation. The rights of these vulnerable individuals are incompletely protected by existing United Nations human rights conventions, which many countries have failed to implement. The authors propose a novel approach grounded on both human rights and robust evidence-based clinical guidelines to create a 'human rights convention specifically for pregnant women and girls and their newborn infants'. The approach targets the 'right to health' of these large, vulnerable and neglected populations. The proposed convention is designed so that it can be monitored, audited and evaluated objectively. It should also foster a sense of national ownership and accountability as it is designed to be relevant to local situations and to be incorporated into local clinical governance systems. It may be of particular value to those countries that are not yet on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), especially MDGs 4 and 5, which target child and maternal mortality, respectively. To foster a sense of international responsibility, two additional initiatives are integral to its philosophy: the promotion of twinning between well and poorly resourced regions and a raising of awareness of how some well-resourced countries can damage the health of mothers and babies, for example, through the recruitment of health workers trained by national governments and taken from the public health system.

  17. [Parasitic and viral marker detection in pregnant adolescents and their newborn infants at risk].

    PubMed

    Contreras, M C; Escaff, V; Salinas, P; Saavedra, T; Suárez, M

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzzi, Hepatitis B virus, cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, and human immunodeficiency virus in 139 adolescent pregnant women and in their high risk newborn children. The methods employed were the Sabin and Feldman reaction, complement fixation reaction, ELISA, and xenodiagnostic 30.9% of the pregnant group were seropositive for T. gondii, both mothers and newborns were IgM-negative. Two mothers (1.4%) presented anti T. cruzii antibodies, and one newborn child had circulating parasites. Related to the virological studies, 93.5% of the population were anti CMV antibodies positive and all their newborns were IgM (-) 90.6% of the adolescents were rubella positive and one was seropositive to VIH. We conclude that the prevalence found in this group of adolescent pregnant women are not significantly different to the one reported for the general pregnant women population.

  18. [Anthropometric data on newborn infants: comparative study of two ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Martínez Cortés, F; Martínez Guerrero, M V; Valdivielso Felices, P; Legros Carrenard, J R; Martín Sánchez, J

    1992-11-01

    We have studied the birth weights, obstetrics data and anthropometrical data from 1.157 full-term newborns who were delivered in the Hospital del Insalud-Cruz Roja in Ceuta (Spain). Of these newborns, 489 were of arabic origin and 668 of hispanic origin. Arabic newborns were heavier (3.248 +/- 473 g versus 3.280 +/- 431 g, p < 0.001) and longer (50.2 +/- 1.8 cm versus 49.6 +/- 1.8 cm, p < 0.001) than their hispanic counterparts. These differences were not due to a disproportion in sex or gestational age between the groups. Furthermore, the differences were still present after adjustments were made for maternal age, parity and the mother's smoking habit. Thus, this difference in size at birth between arabic and hispanic newborns could be, at least in part, ethnically related.

  19. Age-Related 1H NMR Characterization of Cerebrospinal Fluid in Newborn and Young Healthy Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Francesca; Elmi, Alberto; Romagnoli, Noemi; Bacci, Maria Laura

    2016-01-01

    When it comes to neuroscience, pigs represent an important animal model due to their resemblance with humans’ brains for several patterns including anatomy and developmental stages. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a relatively easy-to-collect specimen that can provide important information about neurological health and function, proving its importance as both a diagnostic and biomedical monitoring tool. Consequently, it would be of high scientific interest and value to obtain more standard physiological information regarding its composition and dynamics for both swine pathology and the refinement of experimental protocols. Recently, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy has been applied in order to analyze the metabolomic profile of this biological fluid, and results showed the technique to be highly reproducible and reliable. The aim of the present study was to investigate in both qualitative and quantitative manner the composition of Cerebrospinal Fluid harvested form healthy newborn (5 days old-P5) and young (30-P30 and 50-P50 days old) piglets using 1H NMR Spectroscopy, and to analyze any possible difference in metabolites concentration between age groups, related to age and Blood-Brain-Barrier maturation. On each of the analyzed samples, 30 molecules could be observed above their limit of quantification, accounting for 95–98% of the total area of the spectra. The concentrations of adenine, tyrosine, leucine, valine, 3-hydroxyvalerate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate were found to decrease between P05 and P50, while the concentrations of glutamine, creatinine, methanol, trimethylamine and myo-inositol were found to increase. The P05-P30 comparison was also significant for glutamine, creatinine, adenine, tyrosine, leucine, valine, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate, while for the P30-P50 comparison we found significant differences for glutamine, myo-inositol, leucine and trimethylamine. None of these molecules showed at P30 concentrations

  20. Newborn jaundice - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jaundice of the newborn - discharge; Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia - discharge; Breastfeeding jaundice - discharge; Physiologic jaundice - discharge Images Exchange transfusion - series Infant jaundice References Kaplan M, ...

  1. Peripartum maternal transmission of extended-spectrum β-lactamase organism to newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Avi; Skuratovsky, Alina; Khabra, Efrat; Adler, Amos; Pastukh, Nina; Barak, Shay; Perlitz, Yuri; Ben-Ami, Moshe; Kushnir, Amir

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the route of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) transmission to hospitalized newborns was from their mothers during delivery. Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalized newborns were sampled for ESBL presence by stool cultures on the first and fourth days of life. Mothers of ESBL-positive newborns were sampled for possible correlation detection. Bacteria isolates were molecularly identified and susceptibility tests for antibiotic agents were performed. Of the 225 newborns, 14 (6.2%) were ESBL positive, 10 (4.4%) were Escherichia coli positive, and 4 (1.7%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae positive. Among the 14 mothers of positive newborns, 13 (92.8%) were found ESBL positive and one mother of a newborn with E. coli carriage was found ESBL negative. Genes encoding for ESBL resistance were identified. Antibiotic sensitivity and resistance were tested. This study demonstrated that ESBL bacteria carrier neonates hospitalized in NICU may be a result of transmission from mother to baby during delivery.

  2. [Implications of nicotine detected in autopsy cases of newborn babies and infants from the perspective of social medicine].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Furumiya, Junichi; Nakanishi, Akinori; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki

    2011-10-01

    Smoking by pregnant and parturient women is generally suspected to increase nicotine levels in fetal and infant blood. Supportive data of nicotine levels in infants is, however, inadequate. We investigated blood and muscle nicotine and cotinine levels in 14 autopsy cases of newborn babies and infants using gas chromatography. Among the 14 cases investigated, nicotine or cotinine was detected in six cases (42.9%). In each of these six cases, the mother was a smoker. Route of exposure to nicotine originating from smoking was transplacental in three cases, via breast milk in one case and secondhand smoke in two cases. Nicotine and cotinine levels in blood from the two cases with placental exposure were 10.6-84.4 ng/ml and 20.3-183 ng/ml, and levels in muscle from one case were 43.9 ng/g and 308 ng/g, respectively. Nicotine and cotinine levels in blood from exposure via breast milk were 19.1 ng/ml and 87.1 ng/ml, and from secondhand smoke were 0 ng/ml and 14.6-20.1 ng/ml. Mean concentrations of blood nicotine and cotinine in 68 autopsy cases of adult habitual smokers were 30.0 ng/ml and 247 ng/ml. Our data for nicotine and cotinine levels in infant blood seem to indicate that some infants who are born and develop under exposure to smoking by family members, particularly the mother, may show high nicotine levels in blood and experience possible health risks.

  3. Ascending in utero herpes simplex virus infection in an initially healthy-appearing premature infant.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Morven S; Popek, Edwina J; Wise, Brittany; Hatzenbuehler, Lindsay; Arunachalam, Athis R; Hair, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    The usual route of acquisition for intrauterine herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is transplacental. We evaluated a premature infant with in utero acquisition of HSV resulting from ascending infection. Histopathologic evidence of chronic chorioamnionitis and positive staining with immunohistochemistry for HSV in the placenta and umbilical cord established the diagnosis. The clinical presentation was also of interest in that the infant was initially healthy appearing.

  4. Nutrition for healthy term infants, six to 24 months: An overview.

    PubMed

    Critch, Jeffrey N

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants is a joint statement by Health Canada, the Canadian Paediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada and the Breastfeeding Committee for Canada. It was republished in September 2012, with recommendations on infant feeding from birth to six months of age. The statement was most recently updated in April 2014, with recommendations for feeding older infants and young children from six to 24 months of age. The present practice point outlines the statement development process and principles of feeding, with specific recommendations for clinicians. Health professionals who counsel families on nutrition in infants and young children are advised to read the statement in its entirety because discussion in the longer document expands on and clarifies advice summarized in the principles and recommendations given here. The complete statement is available on Health Canada's website: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/nutrition/infant-nourisson/index-eng.php.

  5. Influence of maternal pregravid weight, height and body mass index on birth weight of male and female newborns.

    PubMed

    Miletić, Tomislav; Stoini, Eugenio

    2005-06-01

    The study included 2300 healthy couples and their healthy newborns delivered vaginally from singleton, normal term (37-42 weeks) pregnancies in Sibenik, Zadar and Split (Croatia). Both fathers and mothers of male newborns were older and had a higher weight than those of female newborns (p < 0.05). Gestational age and birth weight were higher in male than female newborns (p < 0.001). Increasing maternal pregravid weight led to increasing birth weight of both male and female newborns (p < 0.001). Furthermore, increasing maternal height and body mass index resulted in increasing birth weight of male and female newborns (p < 0.001). Thus, the fathers and mothers of male infants were older than those of female infants (p < 0.05), and increasing pre-gravid body weight, body height and body mass index were associated with a higher birth weight in both male and female newborns.

  6. Effect of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow in newborn infants

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, D.P.; Reivich, M.; Jaggi, J.L.; Obrist, W.D.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow were measured in 15 stable, low birth weight babies. CBF was measured with a modification of the xenon-133 (/sup 133/Xe) clearance technique, which uses an intravenous bolus of /sup 133/Xe, an external chest detector to estimate arterial /sup 133/Xe concentration, eight external cranial detectors to measure cephalic /sup 133/Xe clearance curves, and a two-compartmental analysis of the cephalic /sup 133/Xe clearance curves to estimate CBF. There was a significant inverse correlation between hematocrit and CBF, presumably due to alterations in arterial oxygen content and blood viscosity. Newborn CBF varied independently of systolic blood pressure between 60 and 84 mm Hg, suggesting an intact cerebrovascular autoregulatory mechanism. These results indicate that at least two of the factors that affect newborn animal CBF are operational in human newborns and may have important clinical implications.

  7. A Followup of Twenty Three Infants with Diarrhoea in the Newborn Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Barton; Farmer, Keitha

    1979-01-01

    Factors such as gestational age and birthweight were compared in a follow-up study of 66 neonates with diarrhea and two groups of infants--one with low birthweight, one with optimal birthweight. Among findings was that low birthweight was found to correlate with low test scores on visual perception regardless of whether the infants had had…

  8. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide do not affect iron absorption from formula in healthy term infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron absorption from infant formula is relatively low. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide have been suggested to enhance mineral absorption. We therefore assessed the effect of alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide on iron absorption from infant formula in healthy term infants. ...

  9. Prognostic value of creatine kinase BB-isoenzyme in high risk newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Ruth, V J

    1989-01-01

    Serum creatine kinase BB-isoenzyme (CK-BB) activity was studied on the first day of life in 31 acutely asphyxiated infants, 70 infants born after high risk pregnancies (pre-eclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation, or both), and 47 very low birthweight infants. Neuro-developmental evaluation was carried out at 2.2-2.5 years. Eight infants died with, and eight without, hypoxic-ischaemic lesions of the brain, 14 had cerebral palsy, 16 had mild motor impairment, six had developmental delay without motor impairment, and 96 were normal at follow up. Infants who died with brain injury had significantly higher CK-BB activity than infants with normal outcomes (geometric mean 12 U/l); the mean difference was 82 U/l with a 95% confidence interval from 31 to 219 U/l. CK-BB in infants with cerebral palsy and mild motor impairment (geometric means 12 and 15 U/l, respectively) were similar to controls. CK-BB activity after birth is predictive of neonatal death but not of neurological damage in survivors. PMID:2751331

  10. Stability and Instability in the Newborn Infant: The Quest for Elusive Threads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Frances Degen

    This paper discusses issues connected with the reliability of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) in terms of behavior prediction, neonatal behavioral organization and stability, and consequent implications for study of newborns. Discussion focuses on: (1) reliability, and (2) prediction and neonatal assessment. The NBAS is seen as a…

  11. [Trans-placental passage of amiodarone: electrocardiographic evidence and pharmacological findings in a newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Candelpergher, G; Buchberger, R; Suzzi, G; Padrini, R

    1982-01-01

    Trans-placental passage of amiodarone has not yet been demonstrated, even if it has been suspected from the observation of some cases of congenital mixedema in babies born of amiodarone-treated women. A pregnant woman, suffering from recurrent episodes of resistant high frequency, 1:1 atrial tachycardia, with severe hypotension, was treated with oral amiodarone 200 mg daily during the last three months of pregnancy. The arrhythmia was satisfactorily controlled and pregnancy was carried on well. At birth, the baby was normal on physical examination and routine blood exams. Particularly, thyroid function was normal. After delivery, the plasma level of the drug and its electrocardiographic effects both in the mother and the newborn were determined. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used for the pharmacologic determinations and led to demonstrate the presence of amiodarone and one of its metabolites in the newborn plasma. Placental permeability for the metabolite resulted to be higher than for amiodarone, comparing mother versus newborn drug concentrations. Electrocardiographic changes due to amiodarone (i.e. lengthening of QT interval) were observed in both the ECGs of the mother and the newborn, but in the latter lenghthening of QT was much more evident. The authors briefly report another personal case of amiodarone-treatment during pregnancy and conclude, on the basis of their experience, that amiodarone can be used in pregnancy, but strictly in refractory, life-threatening arrhythmias and limitedly to the last three months.

  12. Newborn Care Practices among Mother-Infant Dyads in Urban Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kayom, Violet Okaba; Kakuru, Abel; Kiguli, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background. Most information on newborn care practices in Uganda is from rural communities which may not be generalized to urban settings. Methods. A community based cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the capital city of Uganda from February to May 2012. Quantitative and qualitative data on the newborn care practices of eligible mothers were collected. Results. Over 99% of the mothers attended antenatal care at least once and the majority delivered in a health facility. Over 50% of the mothers applied various substances to the cord of their babies to quicken the healing. Although most of the mothers did not bathe their babies within the first 24 hours of birth, the majority had no knowledge of skin to skin care as a thermoprotective method. The practice of bathing babies in herbal medicine was common (65%). Most of the mothers breastfed exclusively (93.2%) but only 60.7% initiated breastfeeding within the first hour of life, while a significant number (29%) used prelacteal feeds. Conclusion. The inadequate newborn care practices in this urban community point to the need to intensify the promotion of universal coverage of the newborn care practices irrespective of rural or urban communities and irrespective of health care seeking indicators. PMID:26713096

  13. [Neurotoxicity of general anesthetics in childhood: does anesthesia leave its mark on premature babies, newborns and infants?].

    PubMed

    Sinner, B; Becke, K; Engelhard, K

    2013-02-01

    Many animal experiments have shown that anesthetics can have a neurotoxic effect on immature brains because they induce apoptosis and influence neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. In animal experiments this has substantial implications for the neurocognitive functions of animals in later life. Whether these results of animal experiments can be transferred to humans is currently the subject of intensive research. In several retrospective studies no clear association between anesthesia in premature babies, newborns or infants and the occurrence of learning disorders or behavioral problems could be found. The prospective studies GAS and PANDA are designed to obtain a deeper insight and if possible to clarify this problem. Because of the high relevance of this topic and in order to achieve more clarity for this problem when dealing with parents, the scientific working group for neuroanesthesia and pediatric anesthesia of the German Society for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI) has formulated a position document on the basis of currently available data.

  14. A new holder and surface MRI coil for the examination of the newborn infant hip.

    PubMed

    Krasny, R; Casser, H R; Requardt, H; Botschek, A

    1993-01-01

    A special holder was developed for examination of the infant hip joint using MRI. This holder allows the infant hip joint to be examined both in a neutral position and in various defined functional positions. A special integrated surface coil, also developed for this purpose, provides the high spatial resolution required for assessment of the fine joint structures. Thirty infants were examined and the new device has proved useful in advanced hip dysplasia, therapy-resistant subluxation and luxation, and for operative therapy planning (reconstruction of the acetabular roof, redirectional osteotomies). Interpretation errors due to misprojection can be eliminated to a large extent since the holder allows standardized and reproducible positioning.

  15. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K.; Wilkerson, C.; Meisner, L. |

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid and hypoglycemia among term newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Maayan-Metzger, Ayala; Leibovitch, Leah; Schushan-Eisen, Irit; Strauss, Tzipora; Kuint, Jacob

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate whether meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is a risk factor for neonatal hypoglycemia. Retrospective recording of medical charts of full-term infants born following observation of meconium-stained amniotic fluid to examine glucose levels in the first hours of life. Out of 803 infants of the study group, 68 (8.5%) had glucose levels lower than 47 mg/dl. Most (6.7%) had mild hypoglycemia, and 14 (1.8%) had moderate or severe hypoglycemia (1.4% and 0.4% respectively). No infant developed clinical signs clearly related to hypoglycemia. Low-risk infants born following meconium-stained amniotic fluid are not at increased risk for neonatal hypoglycemia.

  17. Basal ganglia damage and impaired visual function in the newborn infant

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, E.; Atkinson, J.; Braddick, O.; Anker, S.; Cowan, F.; Rutherford, M.; Pennock, J.; Dubowitz, L.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To examine the effects of early lesions in the visual pathway on visual function; and to identify early prognostic indicators of visual abnormalities.
METHODS—The visual function of 37 infants with perinatal brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging was assessed using behavioural and electrophysiological variables.
RESULTS—Normal visual behaviour was observed in most infants with large bilateral occipital lesions, but all the infants with associated basal ganglia involvement had abnormal visual function. Visual abnormalities were also present in six infants with isolated basal ganglia lesions.
CONCLUSIONS—These observations suggest that basal ganglia may have an integral role in human visual development and that their presence on neonatal MRI could be an early marker of abnormal visual function.

 PMID:9377131

  18. Recommendations on complementary feeding for healthy, full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Alvisi, Patrizia; Brusa, Sandra; Alboresi, Stefano; Amarri, Sergio; Bottau, Paolo; Cavagni, Giovanni; Corradini, Barbara; Landi, Linda; Loroni, Leonardo; Marani, Miris; Osti, Irene M; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Caffarelli, Carlo; Valeriani, Luca; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-04-28

    Weaning (or introduction of complementary feeding) is a special and important moment in the growth of a child, both for the family and the infant itself, and it can play a major role in the child's future health. Throughout the years, various weaning modes have come in succession, the latest being baby-led weaning; the timing for introducing foods and the requirements of which sort of nutrient for weaning have also changed over time. Furthermore, the role played by nutrition, especially in the early stages of life, for the onset of later non-communicable disorders, such as diabetes, obesity or coeliac disease has also been increasingly highlighted.Members of Italian Society of Gastroenterology, Hepathology and Pediatric Nutrition (SIGENP) and the Italian Society of Allergology and Pediatric Immunology (SIAIP) Emilia Romagna here propose a practical approach for pediatricians to deal with daily practice. The four main areas for discussion were weaning in relation with the onset of allergic diseases, coeliac disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome, the nutrition requirements to take into account for assessing the diet of infants under one year of age and about the practice of baby-led weaning focusing on limits and benefits, respectively.

  19. [Acute osteomyelitis of the clavicle in the newborn infant: a case report].

    PubMed

    Allagui, M; Bellaaj, Z; Zrig, M; Abid, A; Koubaa, M

    2014-02-01

    Acute osteomyelitis of the clavicle accounts for less than 3% of osteomyelitis cases, with its usual location in the middle third. It may be hematogenous, due to contiguity, or secondary to catheterization of the subclavian vein or neck surgery. The diagnosis is often delayed, and clinical symptoms may simulate obstetric brachial plexus palsy in young children. We report a new case of osteomyelitis of the clavicle in a 30-day-old newborn.

  20. Organ and effective doses in newborns and infants undergoing voiding cystourethrograms (VCUG): A comparison of stylized and tomographic phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Pazik, Frank D.; Staton, Robert J.; Williams, Jonathon L.; Arreola, Manuel M.; Hintenlang, David E.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2007-01-15

    The time-sequence videotape-analysis methodology, developed [Sulieman et al., Radiology 178, 653-658 (1991)] for use in tissue dose estimations in adult fluoroscopy examinations and utilized [Bolch et al., Med. Phys. 30, 667-680 (2003)] for analog fluoroscopy in newborn patients, has been extended to the study of digital fluoroscopic examinations of the urinary bladder in newborn and infant female patients. Individual frames of the fluoroscopic and radiographic video were analyzed with respect to unique combinations of field size, field center, projection, tube potential, and tube current (mA), and integral tube current (mAs), respectively. The dosimetry study was conducted on five female patients of ages ranging from four-days to 66 days. For each patient, three different phantoms were utilized: a stylized computational phantom of the reference newborn (3.5 kg), a tomographic computational phantom of the reference newborn (3.5 kg), and (3) a tomographic computational phantom uniformly rescaled to match patient total-body mass. The latter phantom set circumvented the need for mass-dependent rescaling of recorded technique factors (kVp, mA, mAs, etc.), and thus represented the highest degree of patient specificity in the individual organ dose assessment. Effective dose values for the voiding cystourethrogram examination ranged from 0.6 to 3.2 mSv, with a mean and standard deviation of 1.8{+-}0.9 mSv. The ovary and colon equivalent doses contributed in total {approx}65%-80% of the effective dose in these fluoroscopy studies. Percent differences in the effective dose assessed using the two tomographic phantoms (one fixed at 3.5 kg with rescaled technique factors rescaled and one physically rescaled to individual patient masses with no adjustment of recorded technique factors) ranged for -49% to +15%. Percent differences in effective dose found using the 3.5 kg stylized phantom and the 3.5 kg tomographic phantom, both with patient-specific rescaling of technique

  1. Safety and Immunogenicity of the Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine VPM1002 in HIV-Unexposed Newborn Infants in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Loxton, André G.; Knaul, Julia K.; Grode, Leander; Gutschmidt, Andrea; Meller, Christiane; Eisele, Bernd; Johnstone, Hilary; van der Spuy, Gian; Maertzdorf, Jeroen; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Walzl, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tuberculosis is a global threat to which infants are especially vulnerable. Effective vaccines are required to protect infants from this devastating disease. VPM1002, a novel recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine previously shown to be safe and immunogenic in adults, was evaluated for safety in its intended target population, namely, newborn infants in a region with high prevalence of tuberculosis. A total of 48 newborns were vaccinated intradermally with VPM1002 (n = 36) or BCG Danish strain (n = 12) in a phase II open-labeled, randomized trial with a 6-month follow-up period. Clinical and laboratory measures of safety were evaluated during this time. In addition, vaccine-induced immune responses to mycobacteria were analyzed in whole-blood stimulation and proliferation assays. The safety parameters and immunogenicity were comparable in the two groups. Both vaccines induced interleukin-17 (IL-17) responses; however, VPM1002 vaccination led to an increase of CD8+ IL-17+ T cells at the week 16 and month 6 time points. The incidence of abscess formation was lower for VPM1002 than for BCG. We conclude that VPM1002 is a safe, well-tolerated, and immunogenic vaccine in newborn infants, confirming results from previous trials in adults. These results strongly support further evaluation of the safety and efficacy of this vaccination in larger studies. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01479972.) PMID:27974398

  2. Measurement of lung volume and ventilation distribution with an ultrasonic flow meter in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Schibler, A; Hall, G L; Businger, F; Reinmann, B; Wildhaber, J H; Cernelc, M; Frey, U

    2002-10-01

    Small airway disease in infants is characterised by abnormal lung volume and uneven ventilation distribution. An inert tracer gas washin/washout technique using a pulsed ultrasonic flow meter is presented to measure functional residual capacity (FRC) and ventilation distribution in spontaneously breathing and unsedated infants. With a pulsed ultrasound sent through the main stream of the flow meter, flow, volume and MM of the breathing gas can be calculated. Sulphur hexafluoride was used as a tracer gas. In a mechanical lung model (volume range 53-188 mL) and in 12 healthy infants (aged 38.3+/-9.2 days; mean+/-SD) accuracy and reproducibility of the technique was assessed. Indices of ventilation distribution such as alveolar-based mean dilution number (AMDN) and pulmonary clearance delay (PCD) were calculated. Mean error of volume measurement in the lung model was 0.58% (coefficient of variance (CV) 1.3%). FRC was in the low predicted range for normal infants (18.0+/-2.0 mL x kg(-1)) and highly reproducible (5.5+/-1.7% intra-subject CV). AMDN was 1.63+/-0.15 and PCD was 52.9+/-11.1%. Measurement of functional residual capacity and ventilation distribution using a sulphur hexafluoride washin/washout and an ultrasonic flow meter proved to be highly accurate and reproducible in a lung model and in healthy, spontaneously breathing and unsedated infants.

  3. Bilirubin production in healthy term infants as measured by carbon monoxide in breath.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D K; Vreman, H J; Oh, W; Fanaroff, A A; Wright, L L; Lemons, J A; Verter, J; Shankaran, S; Tyson, J E; Korones, S B

    1994-10-01

    To describe total bilirubin production in healthy term infants, we measured the end-tidal breath CO, corrected for ambient CO (ETCOc), with an automated sampler and electrochemical (EC) CO instrument. For infants of mothers with a negative Coombs' test, the ETCOc was 1.3 +/- 0.7 microL/L (n = 397) and the serum bilirubin on day 3 postpartum was 73 +/- 35 mg/L (n = 381). In contrast, the ETCOc for infants with ABO or Rh incompatibility, a positive direct Coombs' test, and bilirubin > 130 mg/L (n = 9) was significantly higher, 1.8 +/- 0.8 microL/L, than for those who had a positive Coombs' test result but whose bilirubin was < or = 130 mg/L (n = 12), 1.0 +/- 0.5 microL/L (P < 0.05). At 2 to 8 h postpartum seven term babies from mothers with insulin-dependent diabetes had ETCOc of 1.8 +/- 0.7 microL/L, significantly higher than that in the other term infants [1.3 +/- 0.7 microL/L (n = 390), P < 0.04]. Their bilirubin concentration at 72 +/- 12 h was also higher: 121 +/- 45 mg/L (n = 7) vs 73 +/- 34 mg/L (n = 374; P = 0.03). We conclude that ETCOc measurements may be helpful in understanding the mechanisms of jaundice in healthy term infants in a variety of conditions.

  4. Neonatal parenteral nutrition hypersensitivity: a case report implicating bisulfite sensitivity in a newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Huston, Robert K; Baxter, Louise M; Larrabee, Paige B

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a case of parenteral nutrition hypersensitivity in a 37 weeks' gestation infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia complicated by bowel necrosis and functional short bowel syndrome. The patient developed a rash with subsequent urticaria beginning on the 50th day of life. The reactions were confirmed with a positive rechallenge. After the amino acid solution was replaced with a non-bisulfite-containing product, the infant was able to continue to receive nutrition support through parenteral nutrition without recurrence of symptoms. It is speculated that the bisulfite additive in the amino acid solution may have interacted with the lipid emulsion to sensitize the patient.

  5. Group B streptococcal septicemia of the newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... septicemia is a severe bacterial infection that affects newborn infants . Causes Septicemia is an infection in the bloodstream ... in which it may be passed to a newborn baby: The infant can become infected as the baby passes through ...

  6. Communication and Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... Sleep and Newborns Jaundice in Healthy Newborns Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  7. Does Breast Feeding Protect the Hypothyroid Infant Diagnosed by Newborn Screening?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovet, Joanne F.

    Because breast milk contains small quantities of thyroid hormones not found in commercial formula preparations, it was hypothesized that breast feeding may provide some protective benefit to the hypothyroid infant before medical treatment is begun. Of 108 children with congenital hypothyroidism, breast-fed children had higher thyroid hormone…

  8. Pharmacokinetic analysis of 14C-ursodiol in newborn infants using accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gordi, Toufigh; Baillie, Rebecca; Vuong, Le T; Abidi, Saira; Dueker, Stephen; Vasquez, Herbert; Pegis, Priscilla; Hopper, Andrew O; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-09-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies in the neonatal population are often limited by the small volume of blood that can be collected. The high sensitivity of (14) C-accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) enables pharmacokinetic studies to be conducted with greatly reduced sample volumes. We demonstrated the utility of AMS in infants by studying the plasma pharmacokinetic behavior of nanogram doses of (14) C-ursodiol administered as a non-perturbing microdose or as a microtracer with therapeutic doses of non-labeled ursodiol in infants. Five non-cholestatic infants were administered 3 consecutive oral microdoses of (14) C-ursodiol: 8 ng (1.0 nCi), 26 ng (3.3 nCi), and 80 ng (10 nCi) 48 hours apart. Three additional infants with cholestasis were administered a single 80 ng (10.0 nCi) oral dose of (14) C-ursodiol together with a therapeutic dose of 40 mg/kg of non-labeled ursodiol. A pharmacokinetic model describing ursodiol concentrations was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The pharmacokinetics of ursodiol in this pilot study were best described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. This study demonstrates the feasibility and utility of microdose and microtrace methodology in pediatric research.

  9. Urinary tract infection in the newborn and the infant: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, Luigi; Zaffanello, Marco; Gnarra, Maria; Fanos, Vassilios

    2010-10-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most common causes of infection in newborns. Obtaining a urinary tract infections (UTIs) diagnosis just on the basis of the clinical findings is frequently difficult, however, being the pediatrician's goal to reduce the risk of renal scarring, a prompt diagnosis and treatment is of extreme importance. The key instrument for the diagnosis of UTIs is represented today by urine culture. However, in reality, the caregivers and investigators are increasingly demanding fast and cheap methods for a rapid and effective diagnosis.

  10. [Complex cyanotic heart defect in a newborn infant with cat eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Paul, T; Reimer, A; Wilken, M; Miller, K; Kallfelz, H C

    1991-04-01

    In a cyanotic newborn with characteristic features of Cat-Eye-Syndrome, cytogenetic examination disclosed a supernumerary small bisatellited chromosome. Angiography showed Tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia and a narrow patent ductus arteriosus with additional stenosis of the bifurcation of the pulmonary artery. At an age of 14 weeks, the patient died after the attempt of corrective cardiac surgery. Congenital cardiac malformation is present in more than one third of patients with cat-eye-syndrome and is usually the lifelimiting malformation in this syndrome.

  11. [Congenital tumor-like histiocytosis of the liver with cholestasis in a newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Cermáková, M; Stejskal, J

    1983-05-01

    A female newborn weighing 2650 g had hepatomegaly and deepening obstructive jaundice. She died of hepatic failure three weeks later. There were grayish white periportal histiocytic nodules of 1-2 mm in diameter. Histiocytes contained a small amount of neutral lipids and PAS-positive material. Single elements had multiple nuclei arranged in circles like in Touton cells. Bile duct and ductules were among them. The picture resembled the C variant of Niemann-Pick's disease but basic histochemical tests on fixed tissue excluded this possibility. The pathogenesis of unique disease remained obscure.

  12. Emollient therapy for preterm newborn infants – evidence from the developing world

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Application of emollients is a widespread traditional newborn care practice in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs) and may have the potential to decrease infection and consequent mortality in preterm neonates. Methods We systematically reviewed literature published up to December 2012 to identify studies describing the effectiveness of emollient therapy. We used a standardized abstraction and grading format to estimate the effect of emollient therapy by applying the standard Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) rules. Results We included seven studies and one unpublished trial in this review. Topical emollient therapy significantly reduced neonatal mortality by 27% (RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.94) and hospital acquired infection by 50% (RR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.71). There were significant increases in weight (g) (MD: 98.04, 95% CI: 42.64, 153.45) and weight gain (g/kg/day) (MD: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.79, 2.36), whereas the impacts were non-significant for length and head circumference. Conclusion Emollient therapy is associated with improved weight gain, reduced risk of infection and associated newborn mortality in preterm neonates and is a potentially promising intervention for use in low resource settings. Large scale effectiveness trials are required to further assess the impact of this intervention. PMID:24564550

  13. Infantile Hepatic Hemangioendothelioma: An Uncommon Cause of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension in a Newborn Infant

    PubMed Central

    Chatmethakul, Trassanee; Bhat, Ramachandra; Alkaabi, Maryam; Siddiqui, Abdul; Peevy, Keith; Zayek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Multifocal and diffuse infantile hepatic hemangioendotheliomas commonly present with signs of high-output congestive heart failure. In addition, prolonged persistent pulmonary overcirculation eventually leads to the development of pulmonary hypertension at a later age. We report a 2-day old, full-term infant with multifocal, large infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma, who presented with an early onset of pulmonary hypertension, managed successfully with supportive care and systemic therapy directed toward the involution of infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma. PMID:27468364

  14. A Turkish newborn infant with cerebellar agenesis/neonatal diabetes mellitus and PTF1A mutation.

    PubMed

    Tutak, E; Satar, M; Yapicioğlu, H; Altintaş, A; Narli, N; Hergüner, O; Bayram, Y

    2009-01-01

    Classical neonatal diabetes mellitus is defined as hyperglycemia that occurs within the first month of life in term infants. It can be either permanent or transient. Cerebellar agenesis and permanent neonatal diabetes has been previously reported as a new autosomal recessive disorder. Pancreas Transcription Factor 1 Alpha (PTF1A) mutations have been related with this constellation of abnormalities. Here we report a new case of cerebellar agenesis and neonatal diabetes mellitus whose parents are PTF1A mutation carriers.

  15. Infantile Hepatic Hemangioendothelioma: An Uncommon Cause of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension in a Newborn Infant.

    PubMed

    Chatmethakul, Trassanee; Bhat, Ramachandra; Alkaabi, Maryam; Siddiqui, Abdul; Peevy, Keith; Zayek, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Multifocal and diffuse infantile hepatic hemangioendotheliomas commonly present with signs of high-output congestive heart failure. In addition, prolonged persistent pulmonary overcirculation eventually leads to the development of pulmonary hypertension at a later age. We report a 2-day old, full-term infant with multifocal, large infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma, who presented with an early onset of pulmonary hypertension, managed successfully with supportive care and systemic therapy directed toward the involution of infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma.

  16. Prevalence and outcomes of breast milk expressing in women with healthy term infants: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Expressing breast milk has become increasingly prevalent, particularly in some developed countries. Concurrently, breast pumps have evolved to be more sophisticated and aesthetically appealing, adapted for domestic use, and have become more readily available. In the past, expressed breast milk feeding was predominantly for those infants who were premature, small or unwell; however it has become increasingly common for healthy term infants. The aim of this paper is to systematically explore the literature related to breast milk expressing by women who have healthy term infants, including the prevalence of breast milk expressing, reported reasons for, methods of, and outcomes related to, expressing. Methods Databases (Medline, CINAHL, JSTOR, ProQuest Central, PsycINFO, PubMed and the Cochrane library) were searched using the keywords milk expression, breast milk expression, breast milk pumping, prevalence, outcomes, statistics and data, with no limit on year of publication. Reference lists of identified papers were also examined. A hand-search was conducted at the Australian Breastfeeding Association Lactation Resource Centre. Only English language papers were included. All papers about expressing breast milk for healthy term infants were considered for inclusion, with a focus on the prevalence, methods, reasons for and outcomes of breast milk expression. Results A total of twenty two papers were relevant to breast milk expression, but only seven papers reported the prevalence and/or outcomes of expressing amongst mothers of well term infants; all of the identified papers were published between 1999 and 2012. Many were descriptive rather than analytical and some were commentaries which included calls for more research, more dialogue and clearer definitions of breastfeeding. While some studies found an association between expressing and the success and duration of breastfeeding, others found the opposite. In some cases these inconsistencies were compounded

  17. The relationship between nociceptive brain activity, spinal reflex withdrawal and behaviour in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Caroline; Goksan, Sezgi; Poorun, Ravi; Brotherhood, Kelly; Mellado, Gabriela Schmidt; Moultrie, Fiona; Rogers, Richard; Adams, Eleri; Slater, Rebeccah

    2015-07-31

    Measuring infant pain is complicated by their inability to describe the experience. While nociceptive brain activity, reflex withdrawal and facial grimacing have been characterised, the relationship between these activity patterns has not been examined. As cortical and spinally mediated activity is developmentally regulated, it cannot be assumed that they are predictive of one another in the immature nervous system. Here, using a new experimental paradigm, we characterise the nociceptive-specific brain activity, spinal reflex withdrawal and behavioural activity following graded intensity noxious stimulation and clinical heel lancing in 30 term infants. We show that nociceptive-specific brain activity and nociceptive reflex withdrawal are graded with stimulus intensity (p < 0.001), significantly correlated (r = 0.53, p = 0.001) and elicited at an intensity that does not evoke changes in clinical pain scores (p = 0.55). The strong correlation between reflex withdrawal and nociceptive brain activity suggests that movement of the limb away from a noxious stimulus is a sensitive indication of nociceptive brain activity in term infants. This could underpin the development of new clinical pain assessment measures.

  18. Neonatal Respiratory Diseases in the Newborn Infant: Novel Insights from Stable Isotope Tracer Studies.

    PubMed

    Carnielli, Virgilio P; Giorgetti, Chiara; Simonato, Manuela; Vedovelli, Luca; Cogo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome is a common problem in preterm infants and the etiology is multifactorial. Lung underdevelopment, lung hypoplasia, abnormal lung water metabolism, inflammation, and pulmonary surfactant deficiency or disfunction play a variable role in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome. High-quality exogenous surfactant replacement studies and studies on surfactant metabolism are available; however, the contribution of surfactant deficiency, alteration or dysfunction in selected neonatal lung conditions is not fully understood. In this article, we describe a series of studies made by applying stable isotope tracers to the study of surfactant metabolism and lung water. In a first set of studies, which we call 'endogenous studies', using stable isotope-labelled intravenous surfactant precursors, we showed the feasibility of measuring surfactant synthesis and kinetics in infants using several metabolic precursors including plasma glucose, plasma fatty acids and body water. In a second set of studies, named 'exogenous studies', using stable isotope-labelled phosphatidylcholine tracer given endotracheally, we could estimate surfactant disaturated phosphatidylcholine pool size and half-life. Very recent studies are focusing on lung water and on the endogenous biosynthesis of the surfactant-specific proteins. Information obtained from these studies in infants will help to better tailor exogenous surfactant treatment in neonatal lung diseases.

  19. [Surfactant and ambroxol in the therapy of idiopathic respiratory syndrome in newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Carrera, G; Liberatore, A; Riboni, G; Clementi, M

    1991-11-01

    The Authors have carried out a study on 30 newborns, affected by idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), divided into 3 statistically comparable groups, treated, in addition to mechanical ventilation, respectively with Tokio-Akita (TA) surfactant, placebo (both by endotracheal administration) and ambroxol given by intravenous infusion. The clinical evolution of the three groups was studied, above all as related to mortality, ventilation length, oxygen need, immediate and successive pulmonary complications and cerebral haemorrhage. Mortality was lower in the group treated with ambroxol, while the ventilation length, the average insufflation pressure and the oxygen need were lower in the group treated with surfactant, compared with the other two groups. Pulmonary complications were present only in the group treated with placebo and ambroxol, whereas cerebral haemorrhage rate is higher in the group treated with surfactant. On the basis of the results achieved, some important observations are suggested and possible aetiological therapies of IRDS are formulated.

  20. Cystic degeneration of the telencephalic subependymal germinal layer in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    De León, G A; Girling, D J

    1975-03-01

    Cystic lesions were found in the telencephalic germinal layer of 12 newborn babies. According to their location, the cysts could be divided into three groups: anterior, middle or thalamostriate, and posterior. The histological appearance of all cysts was essentially the same, but in three cases the germinal layer had a peculiar alveolar type of microcystic degeneration. A constant feature was the presence in the cyst wall of small white granulations composed of germinal cells and/or glial tissue. Cystic degeneration of the germinal layer was usually bilateral and sometimes quite extensive. After the involution of the germinal layer, these lesions are likely to persist as subependymal cysts, characterized by their specific location and the presence of glial granulations.

  1. Establishment of Biochemistry Reference Values for Healthy Tanzanian Infants, Children, and Adolescents in Kilimanjaro Region

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Ann M.; Fiorillo, Suzanne P.; Omondi, Michael W.; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Crump, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish common biochemistry reference intervals for Tanzanian infants, children, and adolescents living in the Kilimanjaro Region. Methods We recruited healthy, HIV-uninfected Tanzanian infants, children, and youth between the ages of one month and 17 years from local schools and clinics to participate in this study. Only afebrile children without signs of physical or chronic illness were enrolled. Nonparametric methods were used to determine 95% reference limits and their 90% confidence intervals, with outliers removed by the Tukey method. Results A total of 619 healthy infants, children, and adolescents were enrolled into the study. Twenty-three biochemistry parameters were measured. Compared to U.S. reference intervals, several of the biochemistry parameters showed notable differences; namely, alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, amylase, and lipase. Comparing our data to the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Division of AIDS (DAIDS) grading criteria for classification of adverse events, we found that for select parameters, up to 15% of infants or children in certain age groups would have been categorized as having an adverse event as defined by DAIDS. Conclusions Our study further confirms the need to use locally established reference intervals to define reference laboratory parameters among children in Africa, rather than relying on those derived from U.S. or European populations. To our knowledge, this study provides the first set of locally validated biochemistry reference ranges for a pediatric population in Tanzania. PMID:26224122

  2. Specific Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program Movements Are Associated With Acute Pain in Preterm Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Grunau, Ruth E.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Whitfield, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) is widely used in neonatal intensive care units and comprises 85 discrete infant behaviors, some of which may communicate infant distress. The objective of this study was to identify developmentally relevant movements indicative of pain in preterm infants. Methods. Forty-four preterm infants were assessed at 32 weeks' gestational age (GA) during 3 phases (baseline, lance/squeeze, and recovery) of routine blood collection in the neonatal intensive care unit. The NIDCAP and Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS) were coded from separate continuous bedside video recordings; mean heart rate (mHR) was derived from digitally sampled continuous electrographic recordings. Analysis of variance (phase × gender) with Bonferroni corrections was used to compare differences in NIDCAP, NFCS, and mHR. Pearson correlations were used to examine relationships between the NIDCAP and infant background characteristics. Results. NFCS and mHR increased significantly to lance/squeeze. Eight NIDCAP behaviors also increased significantly to lance/squeeze. Another 5 NIDCAP behaviors decreased significantly to lance/squeeze. Infants who had lower GA at birth, had been sicker, had experienced more painful procedures, or had greater morphine exposure showed increased hand movements indicative of increased distress. Conclusions. Of the 85 NIDCAP behaviors, a subset of 8 NIDCAP movements were associated with pain. Particularly for infants who are born at early GAs, addition of these movements to commonly used measures may improve the accuracy of pain assessment. PMID:15231909

  3. Relationships of Maternal Stress with Milk Immune Components in African American Mothers of Healthy Term Infants

    PubMed Central

    D'Apolito, Karen; Minnick, Ann F.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Kane, Bradley; Cooley, Shaun; Groer, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: In the United States, African American infants experience the highest mortality, and their mothers report the lowest breastfeeding rates. Science reports decreased infant mortality among breastfed infants and suggests that milk immune component (MIC) levels are associated with maternal stressors. Little is known about these relationships among African Americans; therefore the aim was to explore the relationships of African American mothers' stressors and MICs 1–14 days postdelivery. Materials and Methods: Mothers meeting eligibility requirements were approached for consent 48–72 hours postdelivery of a healthy term infant and given instructions to collect milk (Days 3, 9, and 14) and saliva (Day 9), as well as complete three Perceived Stress Scale questionnaires (Days 3, 9, and 14) and a survey of pregnancy stressors experiences. Pearson correlations and linear regressions were performed to assess the relationships of maternal stressors with MICs. Results: There was at least one statistically significant correlation of a maternal stressor with nine of the 10 MICs (effect sizes ranging from r = 0.22 to 0.38) on Days 3 and 9. Of all MICs, epidermal growth factor had the most associations with maternal stress indicators. No mediational relationship of cortisol with MICs was observed. Conclusions: Many of the MIC changes observed could potentially impact the health of term and preterm infants. Further research is warranted. PMID:26701800

  4. Newborn Physiological Immaturity

    PubMed Central

    Fabrellas-Padrés, Núria; Delgado-Hito, Pilar; Hurtado-Pardos, Bárbara; Martí-Cavallé, Montserrat; Gironès-Nogué, Marta; García-Berman, Rosa-Maria; Alonso-Fernandez, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most standardized nursing care plans for healthy neonates include multiple nursing diagnoses to reflect nurses' judgments on the infant's status; however scientific literature concerning this issue is scarce. Newborn physiological immaturity is a concept in the ATIC terminology (architecture, terminology, interface, information, nursing [infermeria], and knowledge [coneixement]) to represent the natural status of vulnerability of the healthy neonate. Purpose: To identify the essential attributes of the concept and provide its conceptual and operational definition, using the Wilsonian approach. Findings: The concept under analysis embeds a natural cluster of vulnerabilities and environmental interactions that enhance the evolving maturation process. Implications for Practice: The use of this diagnosis may simplify the process of charting the nursing care plans and reduce time needed for documentation while maintaining the integrity of the information. Implications for Research: Consistent development and use of nursing concepts is essential for knowledge building. Studies on the actual use of nursing diagnoses are needed to inform decision making. PMID:25822514

  5. Functional residual capacity measurements in healthy infants: ultrasonic flow meter versus a mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Pillow, J J; Ljungberg, H; Hülskamp, G; Stocks, J

    2004-05-01

    Accurate, reproducible and portable bedside monitoring of lung volume could potentially facilitate the early recognition of both under and overinflation of the lungs in ventilated and nonventilated subjects. This study asked whether a prototype portable ultrasonic flow meter provided valid and reliable measurements of functional residual capacity (FRCUS) when compared to those obtained using a mass spectrometer (FRCMS) in nonventilated healthy infants. Paired, randomised measurements of FRCMS and FRCUS were obtained using the sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) multiple-breath washout technique in 23 healthy infants with a median (range) postnatal age of 34.6 (1.3-92.6) weeks and weight of 8.3 (3.9-11.7) kg. FRCUS was on average 5.7%, (95% CI: 1.0-10.4%) less than FRCMS equating to a difference of approximately 1 mL x kg(-1). The 95% limits of agreement (LA) between the two techniques were relatively wide (95% LA: -17.5% to 29%), although in keeping with previously reported within-patient variability for lung volume measurements. There was no significant difference between the within subject coefficient of variation for FRCMS (3.7%) and FRCUS (5.2%). The ultrasonic flow meter used in this study provides repeatable measurements of functional residual capacity in spontaneously breathing healthy infants that approximate those obtained during mass spectrometry.

  6. Sex differences in outcomes of very low birthweight infants: the newborn male disadvantage

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, D; Verter, J; Fanaroff, A; Oh, W; Ehrenkranz, R; Shankaran, S; Donovan, E; Wright, L; Lemons, J; Tyson, J; Korones, S; Bauer, C; Stoll, B; Papile, L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine the differences in short term outcome of very low birthweight infants attributable to sex.
METHODS—Boys and girls weighing 501-1500 g admitted to the 12 centres of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network were compared. Maternal information and perinatal data were collected from hospital records. Infant outcome was recorded at discharge, at 120 days of age if the infant was still in hospital, or at death. Best obstetric estimate based on the last menstrual period, standard obstetric factors, and ultrasound were used to assign gestational age in completed weeks. Data were collected on a cohort that included 3356 boys and 3382girls, representing all inborn births from 1 May 1991 to 31 December 1993.
RESULTS—Mortality for boys was 22% and that for girls 15%. The prenatal and perinatal data indicate few differences between the sex groups, except that boys were less likely to have been exposed to antenatal steroids (odds ratio (OR) = 0.80) and were less stable after birth, as reflected in a higher percentage with lower Apgar scores at one and five minutes and the need for physical and pharmacological assistance. In particular, boys were more likely to have been intubated (OR = 1.16) and to have received resuscitation medication (OR = 1.40). Boys had a higher risk (OR > 1.00) for most adverse neonatal outcomes. Although pulmonary morbidity predominated, intracranial haemorrhage and urinary tract infection were also more common.
CONCLUSIONS—Relative differences in short term morbidity and mortality persist between the sexes.

 PMID:11040165

  7. Low-dose mercury exposure in early life: relevance of thimerosal to fetuses, newborns and infants.

    PubMed

    Dórea, José G

    2013-01-01

    This review explores the different aspects of constitutional factors in early life that modulate toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of low-dose mercury resulting from acute ethylmercury (etHg) exposure in Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV). Major databases were searched for human and experimental studies that addressed issues related to early life exposure to TCV. It can be concluded that: a) mercury load in fetuses, neonates, and infants resulting from TCVs remains in blood of neonates and infants at sufficient concentration and for enough time to penetrate the brain and to exert a neurologic impact and a probable influence on neurodevelopment of susceptible infants; b) etHg metabolism related to neurodevelopmental delays has been demonstrated experimentally and observed in population studies; c) unlike chronic Hg exposure during pregnancy, neurodevelopmental effects caused by acute (repeated/cumulative) early life exposure to TCV-etHg remain unrecognized; and d) the uncertainty surrounding low-dose toxicity of etHg is challenging but recent evidence indicates that avoiding cumulative insults by alkyl-mercury forms (which include Thimerosal) is warranted. It is important to a) maintain trust in vaccines while reinforcing current public health policies to abate mercury exposure in infancy; b) generally support WHO policies that recommend vaccination to prevent and control existing and impending infectious diseases; and c) not confuse the 'need' to use a specific 'product' (TCV) by accepting as 'innocuous' (or without consequences) the presence of a proven 'toxic alkyl-mercury' (etHg) at levels that have not been proven to be toxicologically safe.

  8. Incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis estimated by neonatal screening: relevance of diagnostic confirmation in asymptomatic newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Carvalheiro, C G; Mussi-Pinhata, M M; Yamamoto, A Y; De Souza, C B S; Maciel, L M Z

    2005-06-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is rarely identified by routine clinical examination. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of the disease in the region of Ribeirão Preto, south-eastern Brazil. A definitive diagnosis was made on the basis of the persistence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies beyond 1 year of age. Blood samples obtained from 15,162 neonates and adsorbed onto filter paper were tested for anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Fifteen samples gave positive results. A definitive diagnosis was confirmed in five of the 13 infants (38.5%) who completed follow-up. These five infants presented with serum IgM and/or IgA antibodies, and clinical abnormalities. Disease incidence was estimated to be 3.3/10,000 (95% CI 1.0-7.7), indicating the need for preventive measures. Neonatal screening is feasible, but screening tests with a better performance are required; positive screening results must be carefully confirmed.

  9. Forceps or vacuum extraction? A comparison of effects on the newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Fall, O; Rydén, G; Finnström, K; Finnström, O; Leijon, I

    1986-01-01

    Sixteen women delivered by forceps and 20 women delivered by vacuum extraction (VE) owing to secondary uterine inertia were compared with a control group of 11 women who gave birth spontaneously. The cord arterial pH was lower in the VE group than in the forceps and control groups. Base deficit in both arterial and venous cord blood was greater in the VE group than in the forceps group, probably owing to the longer application and extraction times in VE than in forceps delivery. The incidence of retinal hemorrhage did not differ between the forceps and VE groups. The incidence of cephalhematomata was greater among VE infants than in the forceps and control groups. All infants were examined on the 1st and 5th day by standardized neurological and behavioural examination. There were no significant differences in neurological status between the forceps and VE groups. Thus, in low extraction with no signs of fetal asphyxia, either method can be used with safety if the obstetrician is familiar with both methods of operative vaginal delivery.

  10. Non-invasive gas monitoring in newborn infants using diode laser absorption spectroscopy: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Emilie K.; Cocola, Lorenzo; Lewander, Märta; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Jahr, John; Fellman, Vineta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2012-03-01

    Non-invasive diode laser spectroscopy was, for the first time, used to assess gas content in the intestines and the lungs of a new-born, 4 kg, baby. Two gases, water vapor and oxygen, were studied with two low-power tunable diode lasers, illuminating the surface skin tissue and detecting the diffusely emerging light a few centimeters away. The light, having penetrated into the tissue, had experienced absorption by gas located in the lungs and in the intestines. Very distinct water vapor signals were obtained from the intestines while imprint from oxygen was lacking, as expected. Detectable, but minor, signals of water vapor were also obtained from the lungs, illuminating the armpit area and detecting below the collar bone. Water vapor signals were seen but again oxygen signals were lacking, now due to the difficulties of penetration of the oxygen probing light into the lungs of this full-term baby. Ultra-sound images were obtained both from the lungs and from the stomach of the baby. Based on dimensions and our experimental findings, we conclude, that for early pre-term babies, also oxygen should be detectable in the lungs, in addition to intestine and lung detection of water vapor. The present paper focuses on the studies of the intestines while the lung studies will be covered in a forthcoming paper.

  11. A case of cervical esophageal duplication cyst in a newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Shoko; Segawa, Osamu; Kimura, Shuri; Tsuchiya, Masayoshi; Henmi, Nobuhide; Hasegawa, Hisaya; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-01

    Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from a foregut budding error during the fourth to sixth week of embryonic development. Cervical esophageal duplication cysts are very rare and may cause respiratory distress in infancy. A full-term newborn girl who was born by normal delivery was transferred to our hospital because of swelling of the right anterior neck since birth. Cervical ultrasonography showed a 40 × 24 × 33 mm simple cyst on the right neck. Tracheal intubation was required at 2 weeks of age because of worsening external compression of the trachea. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed the existence of ciliated epithelium. At 1 month of age, exploration was performed through a transverse neck incision. The cyst had a layer of muscle connected to the lateral wall of the esophagus. Histopathological diagnosis was a cervical esophageal duplication cyst. We describe the clinical features of infantile cervical esophageal duplication cysts based on our experience of this rare disease in a neonate, along with a review of 19 cases previously reported in literature.

  12. Learning, Play, and Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... their backs to reduce the risk of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) . Talk to your baby. Keep in mind ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Movement, Coordination, and Your Newborn Your ...

  13. Phototherapy-mediated syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone in an in utero selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-exposed newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Vanhaesebrouck, Piet; De Bock, Freia; Zecic, Alexandra; De Praeter, Claudine; Smets, Koenraad; De Coen, Kris; Goossens, Linde

    2005-05-01

    Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have gained wide acceptance in the off-label treatment of mental disorders in pregnant women, there seems to be an increased risk for serotonergic adverse effects in newborn infants who are exposed to SSRIs during late pregnancy. Hyponatremia as a result of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is a relatively common serious side effect of the use of SSRIs in (mostly elderly) adults. Severe hyponatremia as a result of an SIADH is proposed here as part of a neonatal serotonin toxicity syndrome in a newborn infant who was exposed prenatally to an SSRI. The definite reversal to normal serum sodium levels after fluid restriction, the lack of any alternative cause for the SIADH, and the positive temporal relation with a high score on a widely used adverse drug reaction probability scale offer solid support for the hypothesis of a causal relationship between the SIADH and the prenatal sertraline exposure in our neonate. Moreover, accumulative data on the acute enhancement of serotonergic transmission by intense illumination led us to hypothesize that phototherapy used to treat hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant could have been the ultimate environmental trigger for this proposed new cause of iatrogenic neonatal SIADH. The speculative role of phototherapy as a physical trigger for this drug-related adverse event should be confirmed in other cases by thorough study of the serotonin metabolism, assay of SSRI levels in cord blood, and serial measurement of plasma levels in exposed neonates. As phototherapy is used frequently in jaundiced neonates and an apparently increasing number of infants are born to mothers who take SSRIs, serotonin toxicity in neonates deserves increased attention.

  14. Glutamine Supplementation of Parenteral Nutrition Does Not Improve Intestinal Permeability, Nitrogen Balance, or Outcome in Newborns and Infants Undergoing Digestive-Tract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Hazebroek, Frans W. J.; Mourik, Marjan; Borsboom, Gerard J. J. M.; Rietveld, Trinet; Huijmans, Jan G. M.; Tibboel, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of isocaloric isonitrogenous parenteral glutamine supplementation on intestinal permeability and nitrogen loss in newborns and infants after major digestive-tract surgery. Summary Background Data: Glutamine supplementation in critically ill and surgical adults may normalize intestinal permeability, attenuate nitrogen loss, improve survival, and lower the incidence of nosocomial infections. Previous studies in critically ill children were limited to very-low-birthweight infants and had equivocal results. Methods: Eighty newborns and infants were included in a double-blind, randomized trial comparing standard parenteral nutrition (sPN; n = 39) to glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition (GlnPN; glutamine target intake, 0.4 g kg−1 day−1; n = 41), starting on day 2 after major digestive-tract surgery. Primary endpoints were intestinal permeability, as assessed by the urinary excretion ratio of lactulose and rhamnose (weeks 1 through 4); nitrogen balance (days 4 through 6), and urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion (day 5). Secondary endpoints were mortality, length of stay in the ICU and the hospital, number of septic episodes, and usage of antibiotics and ICU resources. Results: Glutamine intake plateaued at 90% of the target on day 4. No differences were found between patients assigned sPN and patients assigned GlnPN regarding any of the endpoints. Glutamine supplementation was not associated with adverse effects. Conclusions: In newborns and infants after major digestive-tract surgery, we did not identify beneficial effects of isonitrogenous, isocaloric glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition. Glutamine supplementation in these patients therefore is not warranted until further research proves otherwise. PMID:15798461

  15. Cardiac troponin I in healthy newborn goat kids and in goat kids with cardiac nutritional muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; El-Sayed, Mehana

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to establish serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations in healthy newborn goat kids and in those with cardiac nutritional muscular dystrophy (NMD). Thirty-five single full-term newborn goat kids (20 males and 15 females; age: 6.1 ± 3.5 h; weight 3.4 ± 0.68 kg), together with their respective mothers (Group 1; G1) were enrolled consecutively. Thirty-one goat kids (age: 9.5 ± 4.3 days) with NMD, together with 20 control goat kids (age: 7.8 ± 4.3 days) were also included in this study (Group 2; G2). Blood samples were collected from G1 within 12 h of birth and from G2 on admission. Serum samples were collected and analysed for cTnI. In G1, the mean serum concentration of cTnI in goat kids was 0.290 ± 0.37 ng/mL, with no statistically significant difference between male and female kids (P = 0.61). The mean cTnI concentration in the does was 0.017 ± 0.04, ng/mL. Serum values of cTnI in the goat kids and in their respective mothers differed significantly (P = 0.0001). In G2, the mean cTnI concentration was 0.02 ± 0.05 ng/mL in the control and 11.18 ± 20.07 ng/mL in the diseased goat kids, with a statistically significant difference between diseased and control goat kids (P = 0.017). Serum concentrations of cTnI are higher in goat kids than in their respective mothers. In conclusion, the cTnI assay appears to be a sensitive and specific marker for myocardial injury in goat kids.

  16. Use of Esophageal Hemoximetry to Assess the Effect of Packed Red Blood Cell Transfusion on Gastrointestinal Oxygenation in Newborn Infants.

    PubMed

    Vora, Farha M; Gates, Judy; Gerard, Kimberley; Hanson, Shawn; Applegate, Richard L; Blood, Arlin B

    2017-01-18

    Objectives There are no widely accepted methods of continuously monitoring gut oxygenation in the newborn during packed red blood cell transfusion. We investigated the use of an orally inserted light spectroscopy probe to measure lower esophageal oxyhemoglobin saturations (eStO2) before, during, and after transfusion and made comparisons with abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) flow. Study Design Thirteen neonates with corrected gestational ages ranging from 22 weeks, 0 day to 37 weeks, 5 days were enrolled. eStO2 and NIRS measurements were recorded continuously for a 25-hour period starting 1 hour prior to starting the 4-hour transfusion. Transabdominal ultrasound was used to measure SMA flow prior to, upon completion, and 20 hours after the transfusion. Results Twelve infants completed the study. eStO2 was well-tolerated and was weakly (r = 0.06) correlated (p < 0.001) with NIRS. Compared with NIRS, eStO2 demonstrated a markedly greater variation in oxyhemoglobin values. NIRS and SMA flow measurements did not change, while eStO2 increased from 48 ± 5% and 45 ± 5% in the pre- and intratransfusion periods to 57 ± 4% in the posttransfusion period (p = 0.03). Conclusion Measurement of eStO2 is feasible in neonates and may provide a continuous and sensitive index of rapid changes in mesenteric oxygenation in this patient population.

  17. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study: examining developmental origins of allergy and asthma.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, Padmaja; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R; Denburg, Judah A; HayGlass, Kent T; Kobor, Michael S; Kollmann, Tobias R; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lou, W Y Wendy; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Miller, Gregory E; Moraes, Theo J; Pare, Peter D; Scott, James A; Takaro, Tim K; Turvey, Stuart E; Duncan, Joanne M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-10-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study recruited 3624 pregnant women, most partners and 3542 eligible offspring. We hypothesise that early life physical and psychosocial environments, immunological, physiological, nutritional, hormonal and metabolic influences interact with genetics influencing allergic diseases, including asthma. Environmental and biological sampling, innate and adaptive immune responses, gene expression, DNA methylation, gut microbiome and nutrition studies complement repeated environmental and clinical assessments to age 5. This rich data set, linking prenatal and postnatal environments, diverse biological samples and rigorous phenotyping, will inform early developmental pathways to allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory diseases.

  18. The effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on infants' response to the Still Face Task from newborn to three months of age.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Ann E; Power, Michelle

    2012-04-01

    The effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on infants' developing social expectations for maternal behavior was investigated longitudinally over infants' first 3 months. Infants with and without skin-to-skin contact engaged with their mothers in the Still Face Task at ages 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months. Infants with skin-to-skin contact began responding to changes in their mothers' behavior with their affect at 1 month; infants without skin-to-skin contact did so at 2 months. At 3 months, infants with skin-to-skin contact increased their non-distress vocalizations during the still face phase, suggesting social bidding to their mothers. Skin-to-skin contact accelerated infants' social expectations for their mothers' behavior and enhanced infants' awareness of themselves as active agents in social interactions.

  19. Severe hyperbilirubinaemia and kernicterus: more caution is needed in newborn jaundice surveillance.

    PubMed

    Allen, N M; Mohammad, F; Foran, A; Corcoran, D; Clarke, T

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1990s, there has been a re-emergence of cases of severe hyperbilirubinaemia and kernicterus. The current UK incidence of bilirubin encephalopathy is 0.9/100,000 with a higher reported incidence in some countries. Three otherwise healthy newborn infants, who presented with severe hyperbilirubinaemia, including one who developed kernicterus, are reported here. Some of the current challenges in newborn jaundice surveillance are highlighted.

  20. Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from the feces of healthy infants against enteropathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Davoodabadi, Abolfazl; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Douraghi, Masoumeh; Sharifi Yazdi, Mohammad Kazem; Amin Harati, Farzaneh

    2015-08-01

    Lactobacilli are normal microflora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and are a heterogeneous group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus strains with Probiotic activity may have health Benefits for human. This study investigates the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains obtained from the feces of healthy infants and also explores antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus strains with probiotic potential against enteropathogenic bacteria. Fecal samples were collected from 95 healthy infants younger than 18 months. Two hundred and ninety Lactobacillus strains were isolated and assessed for probiotic potential properties including ability to survive in gastrointestinal conditions (pH 2.0, 0.3% oxgall), adherence to HT-29 cells and antibiotic resistance. Six strains including Lactobacillus fermentum (4 strains), Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum showed good probiotic potential and inhibited the growth of enteropathogenic bacteria including ETEC H10407, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Shigella sonnei ATCC 9290, Salmonella enteritidis H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 23715. These Lactobacillus strains with probiotic potential may be useful for prevention or treatment of diarrhea, but further in vitro and in vivo studies on these strains are still required.

  1. Pregnant Woman with Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Delivered a Healthy Newborn under Eculizumab Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Erol; Yazici, Halil; Ozluk, Yasemin; Kilicaslan, Isin; Turkmen, Aydin

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated thrombotic microangiopathy is a very rare condition; however, it significantly increases fetal or maternal morbidity and mortality. Pregnancy may trigger atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. The risk for pregnancy-associated aHUS is highest during the second pregnancy. The outcome is usually poor with 50–60% mortality; renal dysfunction and hypertension are the rule in those who survive the acute episode. After the development of complement regulation mechanisms and aHUS pathogenesis, eculizumab has been widely used as a first-line treatment in aHUS. Eculizumab has been produced to minimize immunogenicity and Fc-mediated functions, including recruitment of inflammatory cells and complement activation, and using eculizumab in first-line treatment improves kidney function. Recent studies showed that early diagnosis and rapid use of eculizumab in first-line treatment improve outcomes. We demonstrate a case with pregnancy-triggered aHUS occurring in the second trimester, who was successfully treated and delivered a healthy baby under eculizumab treatment. PMID:28101502

  2. Posture and movement in healthy preterm infants in supine position in and outside the nest

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, F; Bertoncelli, N; Gallo, C; Roversi, M F; Guerra, M P; Ranzi, A; Hadders‐Algra, M

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether lying in a nest affects the posture and spontaneous movements of healthy preterm infants. Method 10 healthy preterm infants underwent serial video recording in the supine position, when lying in a nest and outside it, at three ages: 30–33 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) (early preterm), 34–36 weeks PMA (late preterm) and 37–40 weeks PMA (term). The nest was shell‐shaped, made by putting two rolled blankets in a form of an oval. Posture was assessed both before and after general movements by scoring the predominant postural pattern. Movements towards and across the midline, elegant wrist movements, abrupt hand and/or limb movements, rolling to side, and frozen postures of the arms and legs were assessed during four general movements. All data relating to motor and postural items were normalised into frequencies of events per minute because the general movements varied in duration. Results When lying in the nest, the infants more often displayed a flexed posture with shoulder adduction and elbow, and hip and knee flexion, and the head was frequently in the midline. The nest was also associated with an increase in elegant wrist movements and movements towards and across the midline and a reduction in abrupt movements and frozen postures of the limbs. The nest did not affect the occurrence of asymmetrical tonic neck posture. Conclusions A nest promotes a flexed posture of the limbs with adduction of shoulders, facilitates elegant wrist movements and movements towards and across the midline and reduces abrupt movements and frozen postures of the arms and legs. PMID:17344252

  3. The influence of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin therapy on neonatal mortality and hematological variables in newborn infants with blood culture-proven sepsis.

    PubMed

    Abbasoğlu, Aslıhan; Ecevit, Ayşe; Tuğcu, Ali Ulaş; Yapakçı, Ece; Tekindal, Mustafa Agah; Tarcan, Aylin; Ecevit, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of adjuvant immunoglobulin M (IgM)-enriched intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy on mortality rate, hematological variables and length of hospital stay in newborn infants with blood culture-proven sepsis. Demographic and clinical features and outcome measures of 63 newborn infants with blood culture-proven sepsis were documented retrospectively from the medical records. The patients were divided into two groups according to their treatment history. The patients in Group 1 received antibiotic therapy only and the patients in Group 2 received both antibiotic and adjuvant IgMenriched IVIG. The study revealed that mortality rates were 28.1% and 12.9% in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. The mortality rate was lower in Group 2, but the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p=0.21). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most common type of bacteria isolated from the blood culture in both groups. When changing laboratory results were compared between the two groups, hemoglobin, leukocyte count and C-reactive protein levels were different during the first three days of antibiotic treatment. Our study revealed that if diagnosed at an early stage and treated aggressively with appropriate and effective antibiotics, adjuvant IgM-enriched IVIG treatment has no additional benefits in neonatal sepsis.

  4. Screening Newborns | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... began in 1999, when President Clinton signed the Newborn and Infant Hearing Screening and Intervention Act, authorizing the coordination and funding of statewide newborn and infant hearing screening programs. In December 2010, President Obama ...

  5. Skin Barrier Function and Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Vestibulum Nasi and Fauces in Healthy Infants and Infants with Eczema: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Berents, Teresa Løvold; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup; Mowinckel, Petter; Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Kvenshagen, Bente; Rolfsjord, Leif Bjarte; Bradley, Maria; Lieden, Agne; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Gaustad, Peter; Gjersvik, Petter

    2015-01-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is associated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization and skin barrier dysfunction, often measured by increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL). In the present study, the primary aim was to see whether S. aureus colonization in the vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was associated with increased TEWL in infants with healthy skin and infants with eczema. Secondarily, we aimed to investigate whether TEWL measurements on non-lesional skin on the lateral upper arm is equivalent to volar forearm in infants. In 167 of 240 infants, recruited from the general population, TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm, using a DermaLab USB, fulfilled our environmental requirements. The mean of three TEWL measurements from each site was used for analysis. The infants were diagnosed with no eczema (n = 110), possible AE (n = 28) or AE (n = 29). DNA samples were analysed for mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG). Bacterial cultures were reported positive with the identification of at least one culture with S. aureus from vestibulum nasi and/or fauces. S. aureus colonization, found in 89 infants (53%), was not associated with increased TEWL (i.e. TEWL in the upper quartile), neither on the lateral upper arm or volar forearm (p = 0.08 and p = 0.98, respectively), nor with AE (p = 0.10) or FLG mutation (p = 0.17). TEWL was significantly higher on both measuring sites in infants with AE compared to infants with possible AE and no eczema. FLG mutation was significantly associated with increased TEWL, with a 47% difference in TEWL. We conclude that S. aureus in vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was not associated with TEWL, whereas TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm appear equally appropriate in infants.

  6. The early development of brain white matter: a review of imaging studies in fetuses, newborns and infants.

    PubMed

    Dubois, J; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Kulikova, S; Poupon, C; Hüppi, P S; Hertz-Pannier, L

    2014-09-12

    Studying how the healthy human brain develops is important to understand early pathological mechanisms and to assess the influence of fetal or perinatal events on later life. Brain development relies on complex and intermingled mechanisms especially during gestation and first post-natal months, with intense interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Although the baby's brain is organized early on, it is not a miniature adult brain: regional brain changes are asynchronous and protracted, i.e. sensory-motor regions develop early and quickly, whereas associative regions develop later and slowly over decades. Concurrently, the infant/child gradually achieves new performances, but how brain maturation relates to changes in behavior is poorly understood, requiring non-invasive in vivo imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two main processes of early white matter development are reviewed: (1) establishment of connections between brain regions within functional networks, leading to adult-like organization during the last trimester of gestation, (2) maturation (myelination) of these connections during infancy to provide efficient transfers of information. Current knowledge from post-mortem descriptions and in vivo MRI studies is summed up, focusing on T1- and T2-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and quantitative mapping of T1/T2 relaxation times, myelin water fraction and magnetization transfer ratio.

  7. Italian guidelines for management and treatment of hyperbilirubinaemia of newborn infants ≥ 35 weeks’ gestational age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinaemia is one of the most frequent problems in otherwise healthy newborn infants. Early discharge of the healthy newborn infants, particularly those in whom breastfeeding is not fully established, may be associated with delayed diagnosis of significant hyperbilirubinaemia that has the potential for causing severe neurological impairments. We present the shared Italian guidelines for management and treatment of jaundice established by the Task Force on hyperbilirubinaemia of the Italian Society of Neonatology. The overall aim of the present guidelines is to provide an useful tool for neonatologists and family paediatricians for managing hyperbilirubinaemia. PMID:24485088

  8. Infant and Newborn Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... sitting, crawling, maybe even starting to walk Fine motor - holding a spoon, picking up a piece of cereal between thumb and finger Sensory - seeing, hearing, tasting, touching and smelling Language - starting ...

  9. Estimating the age of healthy infants from quantitative myelin water fraction maps.

    PubMed

    Dean, Douglas C; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Dirks, Holly; Waskiewicz, Nicole; Lehman, Katie; Walker, Lindsay; Piryatinsky, Irene; Deoni, Sean C L

    2015-04-01

    The trajectory of the developing brain is characterized by a sequence of complex, nonlinear patterns that occur at systematic stages of maturation. Although significant prior neuroimaging research has shed light on these patterns, the challenge of accurately characterizing brain maturation, and identifying areas of accelerated or delayed development, remains. Altered brain development, particularly during the earliest stages of life, is believed to be associated with many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this work, we develop a framework to construct voxel-wise estimates of brain age based on magnetic resonance imaging measures sensitive to myelin content. 198 myelin water fraction (VF(M) ) maps were acquired from healthy male and female infants and toddlers, 3 to 48 months of age, and used to train a sigmoidal-based maturational model. The validity of the approach was then established by testing the model on 129 different VF(M) datasets. Results revealed the approach to have high accuracy, with a mean absolute percent error of 13% in males and 14% in females, and high predictive ability, with correlation coefficients between estimated and true ages of 0.945 in males and 0.94 in females. This work represents a new approach toward mapping brain maturity, and may provide a more faithful staging of brain maturation in infants beyond chronological or gestation-corrected age, allowing earlier identification of atypical regional brain development.

  10. Considerations in Using US-Based Laboratory Toxicity Tables to Evaluate Laboratory Toxicities Among Healthy Malawian and Ugandan Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lubega, Irene R.; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Musoke, Philippa M.; Elbireer, Ali; Bagenda, Danstan; Kafulafula, George; Ko, Jeanne; Mipando, Linda; Mubiru, Mike; Kumwenda, Newton; Taha, Taha; Jackson, J. Brooks; Guay, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine normal hematologic and selected blood chemistry values among healthy, full-term, non–HIV-exposed infants in Uganda and Malawi, and to determine the proportion of healthy babies with an apparent laboratory toxicity based on Division of AIDS toxicity tables. Design This was a cross-sectional laboratory study of infants from birth to 6 months of age. Methods Blood samples were collected from a total of 561 infants and analyzed according to age categories similar to those in the 2004 Division of AIDS toxicity tables. Select chemistry and hematology parameters were determined and values compared with those in the toxicity tables. Results In the first 56 days of life, there were few graded toxicities except for neutropenia in 2 of 10 (20%) Ugandan and 13 of 45 (29%) Malawian infants at birth. After 7 days, about 20% of the infants in Uganda and Malawi would have been classified as having a neutropenia whereas 47% and 53% of those more than 2 months of age in Uganda and Malawi respectively, would have been reported as having an abnormal hemoglobin. Chemistry findings were not different from US norms. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of establishing relevant local laboratory norms for infants. PMID:20588184

  11. Newborn Pain Cries and Vagal Tone: Parallel Changes in Response to Circumcision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Fran Lang; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The relation between cry acoustics and vagal tone in normal, healthy newborns undergoing an acutely stressful event was examined. Vagal tone was significantly reduced during the stressful event and was paralleled by significant increases in the pitch of the infants' cries. (PCB)

  12. The Healthy Start Initiative: A Community-Driven Approach to Infant Mortality Reduction. Volume II. Early Implementation: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy-Thompson, M.; And Others

    This volume describes the experiences of each of the 15 rural and urban Healthy Start initiatives. These projects were set up in areas that had infant mortality rates that were 1.5 to 2.5 times the national average. Project locations include major cities such as Chicago, Illinois; Boston, Massachusetts; and Oakland, California, and rural areas in…

  13. The Healthy Start Initiative: A Community-Driven Approach to Infant Mortality Reduction--Vol. I. Consortia Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy-Thompson, Meri

    The purpose of the Healthy Start Initiative, a national demonstration program, is to reduce infant mortality by 50 percent in 15 communities. At the heart of the initiative is the belief that the community, guided by a consortium of individuals and organizations from many sectors, can best design and implement the services needed by the women and…

  14. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-11-17

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89-0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age-Z-score of the birthweight; r = -0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086-12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034-1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure through

  15. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure

  16. IgG and IgG subclass specific antibody responses to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in newborns and infants given DTP immunization.

    PubMed

    Dengrove, J; Lee, E J; Heiner, D C; St Geme, J W; Leake, R; Baraff, L J; Ward, J I

    1986-08-01

    To evaluate immune responses to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in infants we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect total IgG and specific IgG-1, IgG-2, IgG-3, and IgG-4 antibody. One group of infants received a newborn dose and subsequently received the usual three doses of DTP. A second group of infants received only the routine dosage at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. In sera acquired at birth, 6, and 9 months of age, there were no statistically significant differences between the two vaccine groups in IgG antibody responses to diphtheria or tetanus, or in IgG subclass tetanus-specific antibody responses. In individual children, tetanus-specific subclass responses were similar in pattern to that for total IgG tetanus antibody, i.e. each IgG subclass response appeared to be regulated by similar mechanisms in that child, but the regulation differed between children. In contrast to a prior study of pertussis immunity, maternally acquired antibody did not significantly affect immune responses to diphtheria or tetanus toxoid by 9 months of age. There was no discernible tolerance due to early tetanus or diphtheria immunization or to high levels of maternally acquired antibody.

  17. Effects of human contact and vagal regulation on pain reactivity and visual attention in newborns.

    PubMed

    Arditi, Hadar; Feldman, Ruth; Eidelman, Arthur I

    2006-11-01

    In two experiments we examined the effects of human contact and vagal regulation on newborns' pain reactivity and visual attention. Baseline cardiac vagal tone was measured during quiet sleep and during the experiment, and vagal withdrawal was indexed as change in vagal tone from baseline to pain (study 1) or attention (study 2). In study 1, 62 healthy newborns were videotaped during a heel-prick procedure and pain reactivity was assessed from micro-level coding of facial expressions, cry behavior, and body movements. Infants were randomly assigned to a contact condition, held by a female assistant, or a no contact condition, on an infant-seat in a similar angle. In study 2, 62 additional healthy newborns, randomly assigned to contact and noncontact conditions, were presented with 2 visual stimuli for a 60 s familiarization period, which were then paired with a novel stimulus. Visual interest, alertness, and novelty preference were coded. Human contact had no effect on the newborns' pain response. Visual attention increased with human contact and newborns in the contact condition looked at the stimuli more frequently, with higher alertness, for longer durations, and had a higher novelty preference. Autonomic reactivity-as indexed by vagal withdrawal-differentiated newborns with intense and mild pain response. Discussion focused on proximity to conspecifics as a contributor to emerging regulatory and adaptive functioning in the human infant.

  18. Prolonged, but transient, elevation of liver and biliary function tests in a healthy infant affected with breast milk jaundice.

    PubMed

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Castelli, Lucia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi; Bruni, Paola

    2014-05-28

    Unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia is a common finding in newborns. When it is exaggerated, it is usually investigated in order to exclude several diseases, such as newborn's haemolytic diseases, infections or hypothyroidism. Breast milk jaundice is a form of neonatal jaundice related to breast feeding and it is not usually associated with any clinical issue and/or other laboratory abnormalities. We describe a case of breast milk jaundice being associated, unexpectedly, to significant elevation of plasmatic liver and biliary enzymes. Despite the infant's good clinical condition and growth, several investigations were performed and these ruled out metabolic, infectious and autoimmune liver diseases. All liver function tests normalised by 6-7 months of life. We suggest that the finding of hypertransaminasaemia and hyper-γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in a benign clinical context (similar to what we described) should be followed for 6-7 months before performing sophisticated and expensive diagnostic investigations which aim at excluding some unlikely and severe diseases in a completely asymptomatic infant.

  19. Prenatal administration of the cytochrome P4501A inducer, {Beta}-naphthoflavone (BNF), attenuates hyperoxic lung injury in newborn mice: Implications for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants

    SciTech Connect

    Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Liang Yanhong Wei; Jiang Weiwu; Wang Lihua; Barrios, Roberto; Yang Peiying; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2011-10-15

    Supplemental oxygen contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal treatment of pregnant mice (C57BL/6J) with the cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1 inducer, ss-napthoflavone (BNF), will lead to attenuation of lung injury in newborns (delivered from these dams) exposed to hyperoxia by mechanisms entailing transplacental induction of hepatic and pulmonary CYP1A enzymes. Pregnant mice were administered the vehicle corn oil (CO) or BNF (40 mg/kg), i.p., once daily for 3 days on gestational days (17-19), and newborns delivered from the mothers were either maintained in room air or exposed to hyperoxia (> 95% O{sub 2}) for 1-5 days. After 3-5 days of hyperoxia, the lungs of CO-treated mice showed neutrophil infiltration, pulmonary edema, and perivascular inflammation. On the other hand, BNF-pretreated neonatal mice showed decreased susceptibility to hyperoxic lung injury. These mice displayed marked induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) (CYP1A1) and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) (CYP1A2) activities, and levels of the corresponding apoproteins and mRNA levels until PND 3 in liver, while CYP1A1 expression alone was augmented in the lung. Prenatal BNF did not significantly alter gene expression of pulmonary NAD(P)H quinone reductase (NQO1). Hyperoxia for 24-72 h resulted in increased pulmonary levels of the F{sub 2}-isoprostane 8-iso-PGF{sub 2{alpha}}, whose levels were decreased in mice prenatally exposed to BNF. In conclusion, our results suggest that prenatal BNF protects newborns against hyperoxic lung injury, presumably by detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides by CYP1A enzymes, a phenomenon that has implications for prevention of BPD in infants. - Highlights: > Supplemental oxygen is routinely administered to premature infants. > Hyperoxia causes lung injury in experimental animals. > Prenatal treatment of mice with beta-naphthoflavone attenuates oxygen

  20. Spontaneous brain activity in the newborn brain during natural sleep--an fMRI study in infants born at full term.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Peter; Skiöld, Beatrice; Engström, Mathias; Hallberg, Boubou; Mosskin, Mikael; Aden, Ulrika; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Blennow, Mats

    2009-09-01

    Recent progress in functional neuroimaging research has provided the opportunity to probe at the brain's intrinsic functional architecture. Synchronized spontaneous neuronal activity is present in the form of resting-state networks in the brain even in the absence of external stimuli. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of resting-state networks in the unsedated infant brain born at full term. Using functional MRI, we investigated spontaneous low-frequency signal fluctuations in 19 healthy full-term infants. Resting-state functional MRI data acquired during natural sleep was analyzed using independent component analysis. We found five resting-state networks in the unsedated infant brain born at full term, encompassing sensory cortices, parietal and temporal areas, and the prefrontal cortex. In addition, we found evidence for a resting-state network that enclosed the bilateral basal ganglia.

  1. Growth of healthy term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey-based infant formula: a randomized, blinded, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Borschel, Marlene W; Choe, Yong S; Kajzer, Janice A

    2014-12-01

    Partially hydrolyzed formulas (pHF) represent a significant percentage of the infant formula market. A new whey-based, palm olein oil (PO)-free pHF was developed and a masked, randomized, parallel growth study was conducted in infants fed this formula or a commercially available whey-based pHF with PO. Infants between 0 and 8 days were to be enrolled and studied to 119 days of age. Growth and tolerance of infants were evaluated. Mean weight gain from 14 to 119 days of age was similar between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in weight, length, head circumference (HC), or length or HC gains. Infants fed the new PO-free pHF had significantly softer stools than those fed the PO-containing formula except at 119 days of age. This study demonstrates that whereas growth of infants fed different formulas during the first 4 months of life may be similar, infants may tolerate individual formulas differently.

  2. Jaundiced infant (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn jaundice (producing yellow skin) can have many causes, but the majority of these infants have a condition called physiological jaundice, a natural occurrence in the newborn due to the immature liver. This type of ...

  3. Effect of various milk feeds on numbers of Escherichia coli and Bidifobacterium in the stools of new-born infants.

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, J. H.; Rigby, J.

    1976-01-01

    Escherichia coli was found in a similar proportion of stool specimens from infants who were breast-fed and from others fed on three different artificial-milk preparations. When E. coli was present its mean colony count in the stools of breast-fed infants was within the range of the mean counts for infants receiving the artificial -milk feeds. There was no consistent relation between high counts of bifidobacteria (Lactobacillus bifidus) and low counts of E. coli. This suggests that measures aimed at implanting or stimulating the growth of bifidobacteria in the large intestine of artificially fed infants may not greatly influence the E. coli population therein. The results are discussed in relation to the protection of artifically fed infants from E. coli enteritis. PMID:789762

  4. Outcomes for high risk New Zealand newborn infants in 1998–1999: a population based, national study

    PubMed Central

    Cust, A; Darlow, B; Donoghue, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine short term morbidity and mortality outcomes, provision of care, and treatments for a national cohort of high risk infants born in 1998–1999 and admitted to New Zealand neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Setting: All level III (six) and level II (13) NICUs in New Zealand. Methods: Prospective audit by the Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network (ANZNN) of all infants defined as "high risk" (born at < 32 weeks gestation or < 1500 g birth weight, or received assisted ventilation for four hours or more, or had major surgery). Data were collected from birth until discharge home or death. Results: There were 3368 high risk infants (3.0% of all live births), comprising 1241 (37%) < 32 weeks gestation, 1084 (32%) < 1500 g, 3156 (94%) who received assisted ventilation, and 243 (7%) who received major surgery (categories overlap). Most infants (87%) received some care in tertiary hospitals, and 13% were cared for entirely in non-tertiary hospitals. Survival was 91% for infants < 32 weeks gestation, 97% for infants ≥ 32 weeks gestation who received assisted ventilation, and 92% for infants ≥ 32 weeks gestation who had major surgery. The proportion of very preterm infants who survived free of early major morbidity was 11%, 28%, 53%, 81%, and 90% for infants born at < 24, 24–25, 26–27, 28–29, and 30–31 weeks gestation respectively. Conclusions: These unique population based national data provide contemporary information on the care and early morbidity and mortality outcomes for all high risk infants, whether cared for in hospitals with level III or level II NICUs. PMID:12496221

  5. A Systematic Review of Controlled Trials of Lower-Protein or Energy-Containing Infant Formulas for Use by Healthy Full-Term Infants123

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Steven A; Hawthorne, Keli M; Pammi, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Infant formulas have historically been developed based on providing macronutrients at intake concentrations approximately matching the composition of human milk. In most countries, targets of 1.4–1.5 g of protein/dL and 20 kcal/oz (67–68 kcal/dL) have been set as the protein and energy concentrations for formulas during the first year of life, although this may be an overestimation of these contents. Recent introduction of lower-protein and -energy formulas in full-term infants led us to systematically review the literature for its effects on growth. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, our inclusion criteria were studies that enrolled healthy full-term infants and evaluated lower-protein or lower-energy formula, reported anthropometric outcomes including weight and length, and followed infants for at least 6 mo. Six studies were eligible for inclusion. These studies varied in the content of nutrients provided in the intervention and control groups, by additional dietary components in the study groups, and the timing and length of the intervention, which limit their usefulness for interpreting newly introduced lower-protein and -energy formulas in the United States. These studies suggest adequate growth during infancy and early childhood with infant formulas with concentrations of protein and energy slightly below historical standards in the United States. Further long-term research is needed to assess the impact of the use of lower-protein and/or lower-energy products, especially for nutritionally at-risk populations such as preterm infants and infants who are born small for gestational age. PMID:25770256

  6. Linkage to Care, Early Infant Diagnosis, and Perinatal Transmission Among Infants Born to HIV-Infected Nigerian Mothers: Evidence From the Healthy Beginning Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Pharr, Jennifer R.; Obiefune, Michael C.; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O.; Osuji, Alice; Ogidi, Amaka G.; Gbadamosi, Semiu; Patel, Dina; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Yang, Wei; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Ehiri, John E.; Sam-Agudu, Nadia A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2014, Nigeria accounted for 33% of all new childhood HIV infections that occurred among the 22 Global Plan priority countries where 80% of HIV-infected women reside. Even with a vertical HIV transmission rate of 27%, only 6% of infants born to HIV-infected women in Nigeria receive early infant diagnosis (EID). This article reports rates of antiretroviral prophylaxis, EID, and mother-to-child transmission in a congregation-based Healthy Beginning Initiative (HBI) designed to increase HIV testing among pregnant women in southeast Nigeria. Methods: This is a nested cohort study of HIV-exposed infants (HEI) within the HBI trial originally designed as a 2-arm cluster randomized trial. HIV-infected mothers and infants were followed between January 2013 and August 2014. Results: Across both arms of the study, 72 HIV-infected women delivered 69 live infants (1 set of twins) and 4 had miscarriages. Of the 69 live-born HEI, HIV status was known for 71% (49/69), 16% (11/69) died before sample collection, and 13% (9/69) were lost to follow-up. Complete information was available for 84% of HEI (58/69), of which 64% (37/58) received antiretroviral prophylaxis. Among the 49 infants tested for HIV, 88% (43/49) received EID within 2 months and 12% (6/49) received antibody testing after 18 months. The mother-to-child transmission rate was 8.2% (4/49). Conclusions: EID was higher and HIV transmission rate was lower among the HBI participants compared to reported rates in 2014. However, further progress is needed to achieve goals of elimination of infant HIV infection. PMID:27355503

  7. A Scale for Home Visiting Nurses to Identify Risks of Physical Abuse and Neglect among Mothers with Newborn Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grietens, Hans; Geeraert, Liesl; Hellinckx, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to construct and test the reliability (utility, internal consistency, interrater agreement) and the validity (internal validity, concurrent validity) of a scale for home visiting social nurses to identify risks of physical abuse and neglect in mothers with a newborn child. Method: A 71-item scale was constructed based on a…

  8. The effect of diazepam administration during pregnancy or labor on the heart rate variability of the newborn infant.

    PubMed

    van Geijn, H P; Jongsma, H W; Doesburg, W H; Lemmens, W A; de Haan, J; Eskes, T K

    1980-03-01

    Maternal diazepam medication during labor reduces beat-to-beat variability of the fetal heart rate. In this study, the prolongation of the effect was examined in the newborn. The mother received diazepam: (A) during labor as a tranquilizer, (B) daily in low doses at the end of pregnancy, or (C) in high doses i.v. for (pre-)eclampsia. A control group had no analgesic or sedative during pregnancy or labor. The electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded daily from each newborn during the first 6 days after birth. After preprocessing of the ECG, the median R-R interval, the long-term irregularity index (LTI index) and the interval difference index (ID index) were calculated. A cubic spline interpolation method was applied to compare the various groups with respect to these heart rate parameters. The median R-R interval showed no particular differences in trend for all groups. The LTI index was decreased in the first days after birth in the chronic diazepam (B), and in the diazepam infusion groups (C), but statistical significance was not reached. The ID index was significantly decreased in the first 1-2 days in the newborns of the acute and chronic diazepam group. In the diazepam infusion group, an even longer lasting effect was observed. Maternal diazepam medication affects the beat-to-beat variability in the newborn. The duration of the effect is dependent on dosage and route of administration.

  9. [Noninvasive, continuous monitoring of artificial respiration in premature and newborn infants by the constant measurement of respiratory minute volume, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide release].

    PubMed

    Leidig, E; Noller, F; Mentzel, H

    1986-01-01

    A system of instrumentation for the continuous measurement of the respiratory gases during assisted ventilation of neonates and premature infants based upon "breath-by-breath-method" is described. The four respiratory parameters flow (V), ventilation pressure (p), oxygen-concentration and carbon dioxide-concentration are measured. These datas are processed by a computer to generate a continuous display of the respiratory minute volume, the tidal volume, the breath rate, the oxygen consumption and the carbon dioxide production. All parameters are stored and can be displayed or plotted as trends. The flow-measurement is performed using hot-wire-anemometry. The very small flow sensor is adapted directly to the tube. Next to this sensor, the respiratory gas for the analysis of the O2- and CO2- concentration is suctioned off continuously. First clinical experience in mechanically ventilated newborns is characterized.

  10. Normative Data for Bone Mass in Healthy Term Infants from Birth to 1 Year of Age

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Sina; Vanstone, Catherine A.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2012-01-01

    For over 2 decades, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been the gold standard for estimating bone mineral density (BMD) and facture risk in adults. More recently DXA has been used to evaluate BMD in pediatrics. However, BMD is usually assessed against reference data for which none currently exists in infancy. A prospective study was conducted to assess bone mass of term infants (37 to 42 weeks of gestation), weight appropriate for gestational age, and born to healthy mothers. The group consisted of 33 boys and 26 girls recruited from the Winnipeg Health Sciences Center (Manitoba, Canada). Whole body (WB) as well as regional sites of the lumbar spine (LS 1–4) and femur was measured using DXA (QDR 4500A, Hologic Inc.) providing bone mineral content (BMC) for all sites and BMD for spine. During the year, WB BMC increased by 200% (76.0 ± 14.2 versus 227.0 ± 29.7 g), spine BMC by 130% (2.35 ± 0.42 versus 5.37 ± 1.02 g), and femur BMC by 190% (2.94 ± 0.54 versus 8.50 ± 1.84 g). Spine BMD increased by 14% (0.266 ± 0.044 versus 0.304 ± 0.044 g/cm2) during the year. This data, representing the accretion of bone mass during the first year of life, is based on a representative sample of infants and will aid in the interpretation of diagnostic DXA scans by researchers and health professionals. PMID:23091773

  11. Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii by heat labile bacteriocins produced by probiotic LAB isolated from healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Awaisheh, Saddam S; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Osaili, Tareq M; Ibrahim, Salam; Holley, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause bacteremia, meningitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis, most often in neonates with case-fatality rates that may reach 80%. The antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria against a wide range of foodborne pathogens is well-established in different types of food products. The objective of the current study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei isolated from feces of healthy infants against different strains of C. sakazakii in agar and a rehydrated infant milk formula (RIMF) model. The inhibition zones of C. sakazakii around L. acidophilus or L. casei ranged from 22 to 32 mm on eMan Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar under aerobic conditions, while a slight reduction in antibacterial activity was noted on modified MRS (0.2% glucose) under anaerobic conditions. It was observed that pH-neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) of L. acidophilus or L. casei was inhibitory against tested C. sakazakii strains. The inhibition zones of neutralized CFS were lower than the antibacterial activities of live cultures. The antibacterial activity of CFS was abolished when CFS from L. acidophilus or L. casei was heated at 60 or 80 °C for either 10 min or 2 h, or treated with trypsin or pepsin. This was considered strong evidence that the inhibition was due to the production of bacteriocins by L. casei and L. acidophilus. Both the CFS and active growing cells of L. casei and L. acidophilus were able to reduce the viability of C. sakazakii in the RIMF model. The results may extend the use of natural antimicrobials instead of conventional preservation methods to improve the safety of RIMF.

  12. Effect of hepatitis B immunisation in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chuanfang; Gong, Yan; Brok, Jesper; Boxall, Elizabeth H; Gluud, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. Data sources Electronic databases and hand searches. Review methods Randomised clinical trials were assessed for methodological quality. Meta-analysis was undertaken on three outcomes: the relative risks of hepatitis B occurrence, antibody levels to hepatitis B surface antigen, and adverse events. Results 29 randomised clinical trials were identified, five of which were considered high quality. Only three trials reported inclusion of mothers negative for hepatitis B e antigen. Compared with placebo or no intervention, vaccination reduced the occurrence of hepatitis B (relative risk 0.28, 95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.40; four trials). No significant difference in hepatitis B occurrence was found between recombinant vaccine and plasma derived vaccine (1.00, 0.71 to 1.42; four trials) and between high dose versus low dose vaccine (plasma derived vaccine 0.97, 0.55 to 1.68, three trials; recombinant vaccine 0.78, 0.31 to 1.94, one trial). Compared with placebo or no intervention, hepatitis B immunoglobulin or the combination of plasma derived vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin reduced hepatitis B occurrence (immunoglobulin 0.50, 0.41 to 0.60, one trial; vaccine and immunoglobulin 0.08, 0.03 to 0.17, three trials). Compared with vaccine alone, vaccine plus hepatitis B immunoglobulin reduced hepatitis B occurrence (0.54, 0.41 to 0.73; 10 trials). Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin seem safe, but few trials reported adverse events. Conclusion Hepatitis B vaccine, hepatitis B immunoglobulin, and vaccine plus immunoglobulin prevent hepatitis B occurrence in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. PMID:16443611

  13. Newborn Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... difference between lifelong impairment and healthy development. Which Tests Are Offered? Newborn screening varies by state and is subject to change, especially given advancements in technology. However, the disorders listed here are those usually ...

  14. Growth and Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... dimpled thighs was many people's picture of a healthy newborn. But a baby born much larger than average may have special medical problems that need attention. Some exceptionally large babies — especially those born to ...

  15. Growth of breastfed infants.

    PubMed

    Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2009-10-01

    Understanding normal growth for the healthy breastfed infant is an important component of promoting and supporting child health in general and breastfeeding in particular. In this article, we summarize what is known regarding differences in growth between breastfed and formula-fed infants; we describe the development and use of infant growth references and growth standards; we introduce the new World Health Organization growth velocity standards for early infancy (which provide standards for gain in g/day during the first weeks of life); and, in closing, we present a snapshot of recent data from a cohort of breastfed newborns in Sacramento, CA, and examine how their early weight gain compares to the new growth velocity standards.

  16. Vitamin C Supplementation for Pregnant Smoking Women and Pulmonary Function in their Newborn Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Cindy T.; Schilling, Diane; Clay, Nakia; Jackson, Keith; Go, Mitzi D.; Spitale, Patricia; Bunten, Carol; Leiva, Maria; Gonzales, David; Hollister-Smith, Julie; Durand, Manuel; Frei, Balz; Buist, A. Sonia; Peters, Dawn; Morris, Cynthia D.; Spindel, Eliot R.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Maternal smoking during pregnancy adversely affects offspring lung development with lifelong decreases in pulmonary function and increased asthma risk. In a primate model, vitamin C blocked some of the in-utero effects of nicotine on lung development and offspring pulmonary function. Objective To determine if newborns of pregnant smokers randomized to daily vitamin C would have improved pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and decreased wheezing compared to those randomized to placebo. Design, Setting, Participants, Intervention Randomized, double-blind trial in three sites in the Pacific Northwest. Between March 2007 and January 2011, 206 pregnant smokers were recruited and 179 randomized to vitamin C (500 mg/day) versus placebo (89 to vitamin C and 90 to placebo). 159 newborns of randomized pregnant smokers (76 vitamin C treated and 83 placebo treated) and 76 of pregnant nonsmokers were studied with newborn PFTs. Follow-up assessment including wheezing was assessed through one year of age and PFTs were done at one year of age. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was measurements of newborn pulmonary function (specifically the ratio of the time to peak tidal expiratory flow to expiratory time [TPTEF:TE] and passive respiratory compliance per kilogram [Crs/kg]) within 72 hours of age. Secondary outcomes included incidence of wheezing through one year of age and PFTs at one year of age. A subgroup of pregnant smokers and nonsmokers had genotyping performed. Results Newborns of women randomized to vitamin C (n= 76) had improved pulmonary function as measured by TPTEF:TE (0.383 vs 0.345; adjusted 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference 0.011, 0.062; p =0.006) and Crs/kg (1.32 vs 1.20 mL/cm H2O/kg; 95% CI 0.02, 0.20; p =0.012) than those randomized to placebo (n=83). Offspring of women randomized to vitamin C had significantly decreased wheezing through 1 year of age (15/70 [21%] vs 31/77 [40%]; relative risk 0.56, 95% CI 0.33, 0.95; p =0

  17. Infant feeding. The physiological basis.

    PubMed

    Akre, J

    1989-01-01

    A mother's nutritional status during pregnancy has important implications for both her own health and her ability to produce and breast-feed a healthy infant. Knowledge about adequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy is incomplete, however, and there is still considerable debate about the level of extra energy needed by a pregnant woman. A woman's usual nutritional requirements increase during pregnancy to meet her needs and those of the growing fetus. Additional energy is needed because of increased basal metabolism, the greater cost of physical activity, and the normal accumulation of fat as the energy reserve. The protein, vitamin and mineral requirements of the mother also increase during pregnancy, but the precise amounts for the last two are still a matter for discussion. A woman's weight increments during pregnancy vary between privileged and underprivileged communities. In addition to calcium, phosphorus and iron, a mother provides considerable amounts of protein and fat for fetal growth. Placental metabolism and placental blood flow, which are interrelated, are the most critical factors for fetal development.The nutritional requirements of healthy newborns vary widely according to their weight, gestational age, rate of growth, as well as environmental factors. However, recommendations for some components may be derived from the average composition of early human milk and the amounts consumed by healthy, mature newborns who are following a normal postpartum clinical course. The water requirements of infants are related to their caloric consumption, activity, rate of growth, and the ambient temperature. A postnatal weight loss of 5-8% of body weight is usual during the first few days of life in mature newborn infants; in contrast, infants who experienced intrauterine malnutrition lose little or no weight at all.The dynamic process of mother-newborn interaction from the first hours of life is intimately related to successful early breast-feeding. If this

  18. Factors Influencing Follow-up to Newborn Hearing Screening for Infants who are Hard-of-Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Lenore; Walker, Elizabeth; Oleson, Jacob; Spratford, Meredith; Moeller, Mary Pat; Roush, Patricia; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Ou, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To document the epidemiological characteristics of a group of hard-of-hearing children, to identify individual predictor variables for timely follow-up after a failed newborn hearing screen, and to identify barriers to follow-up encountered by families. Method An accelerated longitudinal design was used to investigate outcomes for children who are hard-of-hearing in a large multicenter study. The current study involves a subgroup of 193 of children with hearing loss who did not pass the newborn hearing screen. Available records were used to capture ages of confirmation of hearing loss, hearing aid fitting and entry into early intervention. Linear regression models were used to investigate relationships among individual predictor variables and age at each follow-up benchmark. Results Of several predictor variables, only higher levels of maternal education were significantly associated with earlier confirmation of hearing loss and fitting of hearing aids. Severity of hearing loss was not. No variables were significantly associated with age of entry into early intervention. Each recommended benchmark was met by a majority of children, but only one-third met all of the benchmarks within the recommended time frame. Conclusions Results suggest that underserved communities need extra support in navigating steps that follow failed newborn hearing screening. PMID:22585937

  19. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures

    PubMed Central

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3–4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set. PMID:25805254

  20. Safety Assessment of Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 Isolated from Stools of Healthy Breast-Fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Murga, M. Leonor; Sanz, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Background Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 is a potential probiotic strain, originally isolated from the stools of healthy breast-feed infants. The strain showed pre-clinical efficacy in a mouse obesity model. The objective of this study was to evaluate its potential toxicity and translocation ability after acute oral administration to mice. Methods and Findings A safety study was conducted in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed C57BL-6 mice. Both mouse groups (n = 10 per group) were fed orally 2 x 109 colony forming units (cfu)/day of B. uniformis CECT 7771 or placebo by gavage for 6 days. Throughout this time, feed and water intake and body weight were monitored. Afterwards, mice were sacrificed and biological samples were collected to analyze blood and urine biochemistry, inflammatory and immune markers; gut mucosal histology and bacterial translocation to peripheral tissues. The results demonstrated that acute ingestion of this Bacteroides strain had no adverse effects on the animals’ general health status or food intake, nor did it affect biochemical indicators of liver, kidney and pancreatic function or gut mucosal histology. Findings also demonstrated that administration did not lead to bacterial translocation to blood, liver or mesenteric lymph nodes. B. uniformis CECT 7771 also downregulated gene and protein expression (iNOS and PPAR-γ) and inflammatory cytokines induced by immunosuppression. Conclusions The findings indicate that the acute oral consumption of B. uniformis CECT 7771 does not raise safety concerns in mice. Further studies in humans should be conducted. PMID:26784747

  1. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  2. Tolerance and Safety Evaluation in a Large Cohort of Healthy Infants Fed an Innovative Prebiotic Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Piemontese, Pasqua; Giannì, Maria L.; Braegger, Christian P.; Chirico, Gaetano; Grüber, Christoph; Riedler, Josef; Arslanoglu, Sertac; van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Boehm, Günther; Jelinek, Jürgen; Roggero, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Background the addition of oligosaccharides to infant formula has been shown to mimic some of the beneficial effects of human milk. The aim of the study was to assess the tolerance and safety of a formula containing an innovative mixture of oligosaccharides in early infancy. Methodology/Principal Findings this study was performed as a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial including healthy term infants. Infants were recruited before the age of 8 weeks, either having started with formula feeding or being fully breast-fed (breastfeeding group). Formula-fed infants were randomized to feeding with a regular formula containing a mixture of neutral oligosaccharides and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (prebiotic formula group) or regular formula without oligosaccharides (control formula group). Growth, tolerance and adverse events were assessed at 8, 16, 24 and 52 weeks of age. The prebiotic and control groups showed similar mean weight, length and head circumference, skin fold thicknesses, arm circumference gains and stool frequency at each study point. As far as the anthropometric parameters are concerned, the prebiotic group and the control group did not attain the values shown by the breastfeeding group at any study point. The skin fold thicknesses assessed in the breastfeeding group at 8 weeks were strikingly larger than those in formula fed infants, whereas at 52 weeks were strikingly smaller. The stool consistency in the prebiotic group was softer than in the control group at 8, 16 and 24 weeks (p<0.001) and closer to that of the breastfeeding group. There was no difference in the incidence of adverse events between the two formula groups. Conclusions our findings demonstrate the tolerability and the long term safety of a formula containing an innovative mixture of oligosaccharides in a large cohort of healthy infants. Trial Registration: drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de DRKS 00000201 PMID:22140499

  3. [Evaluation of sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 of newborn infants feeding different types of nutrition, by means of urinary excretion determination].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Pereverzeva, O G; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Pustograev, N N

    2015-01-01

    With the help of non-invasive methods the sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 in 58 newborns (38-40 weeks of gestation) on breastfeeding as well as on mixed or artificial feeding has been evaluated. Urinary excretion and breast content of ascorbic acid (measured by visual titration), thiamin (by thiochrome fluorimetric method) andriboflavin (fluorimetrically by titration with riboflavin-binding protein) was determined on the 3-10th day after birth. 35 infants were exclusively breastfed. 40% of their mothers regularly took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy and 42.9%--both during pregnancy and after childbirth, 17.1% did not use vitamin complexes either duringpregnancy or after childbearing. The content of vitamins C, B1 and B2 in the breast milk of women who did not additionally intake vitamins during pregnancy and lactation, was reduced compared with that of mothers who took multivitamin supplements, and provided only a half of the needs of their child in these vitamins. All these babies have urinary excretion of vitamins below the lower limit of norm. Among infants whose mothers took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy, but stop taking them immediately after their birth, only 28.6% of newborns were provided with vitamin C, while all the children identified a lack of vitamins By and B2. The insufficiency with vitamins C and B1 was detected in one third of children breastfed by mothers who took vitamins during pregnancy and continued intaking them after birth, adequate supplied with vitamin B2 was 35.7% of the surveyed. Determination of vitamin urinary excretion (perg creatinine) is useful for vitamin status evaluation. The content of vitamins in breast milk can be used for assessment of vitamin status both a nursing woman and her child. Taking into consideration that the diet of a breastfeeding woman is not always the best, there is no doubt about the need to continue multivitamin intake during breastfeeding. The question on the doses of vitamins

  4. Contribution of community-based newborn health promotion to reducing inequities in healthy newborn care practices and knowledge: evidence of improvement from a three-district pilot program in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inequities in both health status and coverage of health services are considered important barriers to achieving Millennium Development Goal 4. Community-based health promotion is a strategy that is believed to reduce inequities in rural low-income settings. This paper examines the contributions of community-based programming to improving the equity of newborn health in three districts in Malawi. Methods This study is a before-and-after evaluation of Malawi’s Community-Based Maternal and Newborn Care (CBMNC) program, a package of facility and community-based interventions to improve newborn health. Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs) within the catchment area of 14 health facilities were trained to make pregnancy and postnatal home visits to promote healthy behaviors and assess women and newborns for danger signs requiring referral to a facility. “Core groups” of community volunteers were also trained to raise awareness about recommended newborn care practices. Baseline and endline household surveys measured the coverage of the intervention and targeted health behaviors for this before-and-after evaluation. Wealth indices were constructed using household asset data and concentration indices were compared between baseline and endline for each indicator. Results The HSAs trained in the intervention reached 36.7% of women with a pregnancy home visit and 10.9% of women with a postnatal home visit within three days of delivery. Coverage of the intervention was slightly inequitable, with richer households more likely to receive one or two pregnancy home visits (concentration indices (CI) of 0.0786 and 0.0960), but not significantly more likely to receive a postnatal visit or know of a core group. Despite modest coverage levels for the intervention, health equity improved significantly over the study period for several indicators. Greater improvements in inequities were observed for knowledge indicators than for coverage of routine health services. At

  5. The Effects of Obstetrical Medication on the Behavior of Israeli Newborn Infants and Some Comparisons with Other Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Frances Degen; And Others

    The effects of obstetrical medication on neonatal behavior were studied using a sample of 64 Israeli infants from medicated and non-medicated mothers. Most medicated mothers received a base dose of 75 mg. of Meperidine plus a base dose of 25 mg. of Phenergan. Other drugs used included Demerol, Valium, Butalgan, Pitocin, Pantopon, Trilene, Naline,…

  6. Newborns' Head Orientation toward Sounds Within Hemifields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Kimberley; And Others

    This experiment examined the accuracy with which newborn infants orient their heads toward a sound positioned off midline within hemifields. The study also evaluated newborns' ability to update the angle of their head turn to match a change in localization of an ongoing sound. Alert newborns were held in a supine position and presented a sound at…

  7. Time to focus child survival programmes on the newborn: assessment of levels and causes of infant mortality in rural Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Fikree, Fariyal F.; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Berendes, Heinz W.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Population-based surveys were conducted in selected clusters of Pakistan's least developed provinces, Balochistan and North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), including the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), to assess levels and causes of neonatal and postneonatal mortality. METHODS: Interviews were conducted in a total of 54 834 households: Balochistan, 20 486; NWFP, 26 175; and FATA, 8173. Trained interviewers administered questionnaires after obtaining verbal informed consent from the respondents. Verbal autopsy interviews were conducted for infant deaths reported for the previous year. FINDINGS: The infant mortality rate based on combined data from the different sites was 99.7 per 1000 live births (range 129.0-70.1). The contribution of neonatal deaths to all infant deaths was much higher for NWFP (67.2%), where the overall rate was lowest, than for Balochistan (50.8%) and FATA (56.8%). Around 70% of all neonatal deaths occurred in the early neonatal period. The three main clinical causes of infant deaths were diarrhoea syndrome (21.6%), tetanus (11.7%) and acute respiratory infections (11.6%). In the neonatal period, however, tetanus (18.3%), small size for gestational age or low birth weight (15.3%), and birth injury (12.0%) accounted for nearly half (45.6%) of all deaths, while the contributions of diarrhoea syndrome (5.1%) and acute respiratory infections (6.0%) were less significant (11.1%). Tetanus was the cause of death for 21.7% and 17.1% of all infant deaths in FATA and NWFP respectively. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that there should be a shift in child survival programmes to give greater emphasis to maternal and neonatal health, in particular to maternal tetanus immunization, safe delivery and cord care. PMID:12075362

  8. Use of “Kangaroo Care” to Alleviate the Intensity of Vaccination Pain in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Reza; Asnaashari, Zahra; Amirnejad, Mohtaram; Esmaeili, Habibollah; Robatsangi, Mahboobe Gholami

    2011-01-01

    Objective It has been demonstrated that newborns feel pain completely. Thus, they should be treated with this in mind. Recent research showed that non-pharmacological interventions such as “Kangaroo Care” may be useful for decreasing pain in newborns. We tried to determine the effect of kangaroo care on the pain intensity of vaccination in healthy newborns. Methods This study was a randomized case-control clinical trial. Subjects were 60 healthy full-term newborns delivered in a general Hospital, in Iran, from March to July 2006. They were randomly assigned to case and control groups. The case group received 30 minutes skin to skin contact, whereas infants in the control group were put, wrapped in a blanket, aside the mothers. Behavioral changes of newborns were evaluated and observed 2 minutes before, during, and 3 minutes after the intervention. All procedures were filmed. An assistant who was blinded to the study, scored behavior changes using Neonatal/Infant Pain Scale. Heart rate and oxygen saturation levels as displayed on the pulse monitor and duration of crying were recorded using a stopwatch. Findings Mean pain intensity during the intervention v was significantly lower in the case group (P<0.006). Mean pain intensity 3 minutes after intervention was also significantly lower in the case group (P<0.021). Mean duration of crying was significantly lower in case group as well (P<0.001). Conclusion Kangaroo care may be used to decrease pain intensity in newborns undergoing painful procedures. PMID:23056772

  9. Sudden unexpected infant death (SUDI) in a newborn due to medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency with an unusual severe genotype

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD) is the most common inborn error of fatty acid oxidation. This condition may lead to cellular energy shortage and cause severe clinical events such as hypoketotic hypoglycemia, Reye syndrome and sudden death. MCAD deficiency usually presents around three to six months of life, following catabolic stress as intercurrent infections or prolonged fasting, whilst neonatal-onset of the disease is quite rare. We report the case of an apparently healthy newborn who suddenly died at the third day of life, in which the diagnosis of MCAD deficiency was possible through peri-mortem blood-spot acylcarnitine analysis that showed very high concentrations of octanoylcarnitine. Genetic analysis at the ACADM locus confirmed the biochemical findings by demonstrating the presence in homozygosity of the frame-shift c.244dup1 (p.Trp82LeufsX23) mutation, a severe genotype that may explain the unusual and very early fatal outcome in this newborn. This report confirms that inborn errors of fatty acid oxidation represent one of the genetic causes of sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI) and underlines the importance to include systematically specific metabolic screening in any neonatal unexpected death. PMID:23095120

  10. Basic values for heart and respiratory rates during different sleep stages in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Heimann, Konrad; Heussen, Nicole; Vaeßen, Peter; Wallmeier, Cathrin; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Wenzl, Tobias G

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically register data for respiratory and heart rates (RR and HR, respectively) during different sleep stages [active (AS, i.e., rapid eye movement) and quiet (QS, i.e., non-rapid eye movement) sleep] and age in a large number of healthy infants (277) during the first year of life to simplify polysomnography. The reference values in this age group differ significantly between the number of patients and age at time of investigation. According to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, the measurement of polysomnography included HR (beats per minute, or bpm), RR (breaths per minute, or breaths/min), brain waves, SO2, sound, and video. Data recording and evaluation occurred via Alice 3®/3.5®(Respironics®), classification into AS and QS sleep according to maturity. For RR, the 5th-95th percentiles during AS decreased from 25.8-47.7 breaths/min (1st month) to 17.8-27.7 breaths/min (>9 months). During QS, RR ranged from 27.4-51.5 breaths/min (1st month) to 17.8-29.2 breaths/min (>9 months). HR decreased during AS from 118.3-150.6 bpm (1st month) to 100.9-126.4 bpm (>9 months). During QS, HR decreased from 116.0-149.9 bpm (1st month) to 93.7-119.8 bpm (>9 months). The mean HR and RR significantly decreased with age in both sleep stages (p<0.05). The mean HR is significantly lower during QS compared with AS (p<0.05). Our data may serve as basic values for HR and RR in different sleep stages during the first year of life.

  11. A role for H2S in the microcirculation of newborns: the major metabolite of H2S (thiosulphate) is increased in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Rebecca M; Palliser, Hannah K; Latter, Joanna L; Chwatko, Grazyna; Glowacki, Rafal; Wright, Ian M R

    2014-01-01

    Excessive vasodilatation during the perinatal period is associated with cardiorespiratory instability in preterm neonates. Little evidence of the mechanisms controlling microvascular tone during circulatory transition exists. We hypothesised that hydrogen sulphide (H2S), an important regulator of microvascular reactivity and central cardiac function in adults and animal models, may contribute to the vasodilatation observed in preterm newborns. Term and preterm neonates (24-43 weeks gestational age) were studied. Peripheral microvascular blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler. Thiosulphate, a urinary metabolite of H2S, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography as a measure of 24 hr total body H2S turnover for the first 3 days of postnatal life. H2S turnover was greatest in very preterm infants and decreased with increasing gestational age (p = 0.0001). H2S turnover was stable across the first 72 hrs of life in older neonates. In very preterm neonates, H2S turnover increased significantly from day 1 to 3 (p =0.0001); and males had higher H2S turnover than females (p = 0.04). A significant relationship between microvascular blood flow and H2S turnover was observed on day 2 of postnatal life (p = 0.0004). H2S may play a role in maintaining microvascular tone in the perinatal period. Neonates at the greatest risk of microvascular dysfunction characterised by inappropriate peripheral vasodilatation--very preterm male neonates--are also the neonates with highest levels of total body H2S turnover suggesting that overproduction of this gasotransmitter may contribute to microvascular dysfunction in preterms. Potentially, H2S is a target to selectively control microvascular tone in the circulation of newborns.

  12. Newborn Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Activities Importance of Newborn Screening Newborn Screening and Molecular Biology Branch Pulse Oximetry Screening for CCHDs Sickle Cell Disease Laboratory SCID Quality Assurance Training and Resources ...

  13. Highlights of the new WHO Report on Newborn and Infant Hearing Screening and implications for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O

    2011-06-01

    The Report summarizes the outcome of a recent informal consultation convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2009 pursuant to the 1995 resolution of the World Health Assembly (WHA) urging Member States to promote programs for early hearing detection in babies and infants. The consultation was geared towards reaching global consensus on key principles on this subject based on the experiences and contributions of leading experts from various world regions and across relevant disciplines. After reviewing the current evidence on early hearing detection in babies and infants the Report outlined guiding principles for action by Member States covering issues such as etiology, case definition of hearing impairment, options for screening, program implementation, cost-effectiveness as well as policy and legislation. The need for context-specific adaptations of current practices in the developed world to facilitate the development of effective and culturally appropriate early hearing detection programs in developing countries was emphasized. The potential role of private-public partnerships including non-governmental organizations in designing and implementing hearing screening programs was highlighted while recognizing the necessity to develop requisite support services for infants detected with hearing impairment. Overall, the Report is likely to stimulate greater interest and progress towards early hearing detection initiatives particularly in countries where necessary actions are yet to be taken to implement the WHA resolution. However, any effort in this direction must be backed by greater professional engagement, appropriate national policies and strong involvement of WHO regional offices in developing countries.

  14. Effects of white noise and holding on pain perception in newborns.

    PubMed

    Karakoç, Ayse; Türker, Funda

    2014-12-01

    This experimental study on newborns was conducted to compare the effects of various atraumatic care procedures during an infant's crying response to pain. Included in this study were 120 newborns chosen from among healthy infants admitted to the Obstetrics Department of Çanakkale State Hospital between April 2010 and June 2010. The patients were divided into three physically homogeneous groups. Infants in group 1 were held on the mothers' laps, infants in group 2 were held on the mother's laps and listened to white noise, and infants in group 3 lay in their cribs and listened to white noise while undergoing a painful procedure. Data collection included the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale, which was used to evaluate the behavioral responses to pain during a heel prick blood draw and a newborn information sheet developed by the researcher. Changes in cardiac and respiratory rates recorded during the invasive procedure were statistically significant among the three groups (p < .05). The shortest crying period and the lowest behavioral reactions were among those infants lying in their cribs and listening to white noise. This group was then followed by the infants who listened to white noise while being held by their mothers. The highest behavioral reaction was reported by those infants who were held by their mothers but did not listen to white noise. According to the results, white noise is an effective nonpharmacologic method to control pain, reduce crying time, and positively effect vital signs. Therefore, it is recommended that the use of white noise be practiced on newborns when they undergo painful procedures.

  15. [Secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) in amniotic fluid and in pharyngeal mucus and urine of newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Briese, V; Brock, J; Lorenz, U; Straube, W

    1983-01-01

    S-IgA was estimated in amniotic fluid and in mucus samples of pharyngeal cavities and urine samples of newborns for assistance of the hypothesis that there is a connection between S-IgA content in amniotic fluid and fetal pulmonary maturity. It was used an antiserum against human secretory component and an S-IgA standard in the single radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini and coworkers. High S-IgA concentrations in the mucus samples of pharyngeal cavities refer to fetal bronchial-pulmonary system as the probable essential part in the synthesis of S-IgA established in amniotic fluid of the 3rd trimenon in pregnancy.

  16. Genetic variants for long QT syndrome among infants and children from a statewide newborn hearing screening program cohort

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ruey-Kang R.; Lan, Yueh-Tze; Silka, Michael J.; Morrow, Hallie; Kwong, Alan; Smith-Lang, Janna; Wallerstein, Robert; Lin, Henry J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Autosomal recessive long QT syndrome (LQTS), or Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (JLNS), can be associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). We aimed to explore newborn hearing screening combined with ECGs for early JLNS detection. Study design We conducted California statewide, prospective ECG screening of children ≤6 years of age with unilateral or bilateral, severe or profound, sensorineural or mixed hearing loss. Families were identified through newborn hearing screening and interviewed about medical and family histories. Twelve-lead ECGs were obtained. Those with positive histories or QTc intervals ≥450 ms had repeat ECGs. DNA sequencing of 12 LQTS genes was performed for repeat QTc intervals ≥450 ms. Results We screened 707 subjects by ECGs (number screened/number of responses = 91%; number of responses/number of families who were mailed invitations = 54%). Of these, 73 had repeat ECGs, and 19 underwent gene testing. No subject had homozygous or compound heterozygous LQTS mutations, as in JLNS. However, 3 individuals (with QTc intervals of 472, 457, and 456 ms, respectively) were heterozygous for variants that cause truncation or missplicing: 2 in KCNQ1 (c.1343dupC or p.Glu449Argfs*14; c.1590+1G>A or p.Glu530sp) and 1 in SCN5A (c.5872C>T or p.Arg1958*). Conclusions In contrast to reports of JLNS in up to 4% of children with SNHL, we found no examples of JLNS. Because the 3 variants identified were unrelated to hearing, they likely represent the prevalence of potential LQTS mutations in the general population. Further studies are needed to define consequences of such mutations and assess the overall prevalence. PMID:24388587

  17. Hemolytic disease of the newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a blood disorder in a fetus or newborn infant. In some infants, it can be life threatening. Normally, red blood cells last for about 120 days in the body. In this disorder, red blood cells in the blood are destroyed earlier than normal.

  18. Hearing loss - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss. Two common tests are used to screen newborn infants for hearing loss: Auditory brain stem response (ABR) ... Over 30 states in the United States require newborn hearing screenings. Treating hearing loss early can allow many infants to develop normal language skills without delay. In ...

  19. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... began in 1999, when President Clinton signed the Newborn and Infant Hearing Screening and Intervention Act, authorizing the coordination and funding of statewide newborn and infant hearing screening programs. In December 2010, President Obama ...

  20. Arterial oxygen saturation in healthy newborns delivered at term in Cerro de Pasco (4340 m) and Lima (150 m)

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Salirrosas, Amelia

    2005-01-01

    Background High altitude is associated with both low pulse oxygen saturation at birth and more pre-term deliveries. The present study was performed to determine pulse oxygen saturation in newborns at term in Cerro de Pasco (4340 m) and Lima (150 m) to test the hypothesis that low pulse oxygen saturation at birth at high altitudes was not observed at term deliveries. Methods The present study was designed to determine pulse oxygen saturation values through 1 minute to 24 hours and values of Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes in newborns delivered at term in Cerro de Pasco (4340 m) and Lima (150 m). Pulse oxygen saturation was recorded in 39 newborns from Cerro de Pasco (4340 m) and 131 from Lima (150 m) at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 30 minutes and 1, 2, 8 and 24 hours after delivery. Apgar score was assessed at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. Neurological score was assessed at 24 h of birth by Dubowitz exam. Results Pulse oxygen saturation increased significantly from 1 to 15 min after birth at sea level and from 1 to 30 minutes at Cerro de Pasco. Thereafter, it increased slightly such that at 30 min at sea level and at 60 minutes in Cerro de Pasco it reached a plateau up to 24 hours after birth. At all times, pulse oxygen saturation was significantly higher at sea level than at high altitude (P < 0.01). At 1 minute of life, pulse oxygen saturation was 15% lower at high altitude than at sea level. Apgar score at 1 minute was significantly lower at high altitude (P < 0.05). Neurological score at 24 hours was also lower at high altitude than at sea level. Head circumference, and Apgar score at 5 minutes were similar at sea level and at high altitude (P:NS). Incidence of low birth-weight (<2500 g) at high altitude (5.4%) was similar to that observed at sea level (2.29%) (P:NS). Incidences of low pulse oxygen saturation (<30%), low Apgar score at first minute (<7) and low neurological score at 24 h (<19) were significantly higher at high altitude than at sea level (P < 0.0001; P

  1. Hazards of calcium gluconate therapy in the newborn infant: intra-arterial injection producing intestinal necrosis in rabbit ileum.

    PubMed

    Book, L S; Herbst, J J; Stewart, D

    1978-05-01

    Five infants received 10% calcium gluconate via umbilical artery catheters, which resulted in intestinal bleeding and lesions of the buttock, anus, groin, and thigh. The effects of intra-arterial calcium gluconate in two animal models were investigated. Injection of calcium into the aorta in the region of the posterior mesenteric artery resulted in immediate hyperperfusion of the descending colon; this may be an early hemodynamic response to injury in the area of colon supplied by this vessel. Injections into the arterial arcade of the rabbit ileum resulted in intestinal necrosis and villous atrophy. The use of umbilical artery catheters for administration of calcium gluconate is potentially hazardous.

  2. Safety and Immunomodulatory Effects of Three Probiotic Strains Isolated from the Feces of Breast-Fed Infants in Healthy Adults: SETOPROB Study

    PubMed Central

    Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Campaña-Martin, Laura; Matencio, Esther; Ortuño, Inmaculada; Martínez-Silla, Rosario; Gomez-Gallego, Carlos; Periago, Maria Jesús; Ros, Gaspar; Chenoll, Empar; Genovés, Salvador; Casinos, Beatriz; Silva, Ángela; Corella, Dolores; Portolés, Olga; Romero, Fernando; Ramón, Daniel; Perez de la Cruz, Antonio; Gil, Angel; Fontana, Luis

    2013-01-01

    We previously described the isolation and characterization of three probiotic strains from the feces of exclusively breast-fed newborn infants: Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. These strains were shown to adhere to intestinal mucus in vitro, to be sensitive to antibiotics and to resist biliary salts and low pH. In the present study, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 100 healthy volunteers in three Spanish cities was carried out to evaluate the tolerance, safety, gut colonization and immunomodulatory effects of these three probiotics. Volunteers underwent a 15-day washout period, after which they were randomly divided into 5 groups that received daily a placebo, a capsule containing one of the 3 strains or a capsule containing a mixture of two strains for 30 days. The intervention was followed by another 15-day washout period. Patients did not consume fermented milk for the entire duration of the study. Gastrointestinal symptoms, defecation frequency and stool consistency were not altered by probiotic intake. No relevant changes in blood and serum, as well as no adverse events occurred during or after treatment. Probiotic administration slightly modified bacterial populations in the volunteers’ feces. Intestinal persistence occurred in volunteers who received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. Administration of B. breve CNCM I-4035 resulted in a significant increase in fecal secretory IgA content. IL-4 and IL-10 increased, whereas IL-12 decreased in the serum of volunteers treated with any of the three strains. These results demonstrate that the consumption of these three bacterial strains was safe and exerted varying degrees of immunomodulatory effects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01479543 PMID:24205115

  3. Five-band microwave radiometer system for non-invasive measurement of brain temperature in new-born infants: system calibration and its feasibility.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, T; Kouno, Y; Hashizume, A; Hirata, H; Hand, J W; Okita, Y; Mizushina, S

    2004-01-01

    Recent simulation studies have shown that a technique of multi-frequency microwave radiometry is feasible for non-invasive measurement of deep brain temperatures in the new-born infants. A five-band microwave radiometer system has been developed, and its operation in a normal electromagnetic environment is checked. Five receivers operating with a waveguide antenna and at center frequencies of 1.2, 1.65, 2.3, 3.0 and 3.6 GHz (0.4 GHz bandwidth) are calibrated using a temperature-controlled water-bath. Temperature resolutions obtained for each receiver are 0.183, 0.273, 0.148, 0.108 and 0.118 K, respectively. A temperature retrieval simulation based on these resolutions and the previously proposed algorithm shows that the confidence interval, as produced by thermal noise, is 0.62 K for the retrieved central brain temperature. If the conductivity of brain is estimated wrong by 10 %, this will result in an error of 0.3-0.4 K. The result of this work is encouraging for realization of radiometric measurement of temperature profile in a baby's head.

  4. Intrauterine growth restriction and the fetal programming of the hedonic response to sweet taste in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Caroline; Agranonik, Marilyn; Portella, André Krumel; Filion, Françoise; Johnston, Celeste C; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased risk for adult metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, which seems to be related to altered food preferences in these individuals later in life. In this study, we sought to understand whether intrauterine growth leads to fetal programming of the hedonic responses to sweet. Sixteen 1-day-old preterm infants received 24% sucrose solution or water and the taste reactivity was filmed and analyzed. Spearman correlation demonstrated a positive correlation between fetal growth and the hedonic response to the sweet solution in the first 15 seconds after the offer (r = 0.864, P = 0.001), without correlation when the solution given is water (r = 0.314, P = 0.455). In fact, the more intense the intrauterine growth restriction, the lower the frequency of the hedonic response observed. IUGR is strongly correlated with the hedonic response to a sweet solution in the first day of life in preterm infants. This is the first evidence in humans to demonstrate that the hedonic response to sweet taste is programmed very early during the fetal life by the degree of intrauterine growth. The altered hedonic response at birth and subsequent differential food preference may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in intrauterine growth-restricted individuals.

  5. Arsenic levels among pregnant women and newborns in Canada: Results from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) cohort.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Adrienne S; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fisher, Mandy; Liang, Chun Lei; Davis, Karelyn; Cirtiu, Ciprian-Mihai; Bélanger, Patrick; LeBlanc, Alain; Fraser, William D

    2017-02-01

    Arsenic is a common environmental contaminant from both naturally-occurring and anthropomorphic sources and human exposure can be detected in various tissues. Its toxicity depends on many factors including the chemical form, valence state, bioavailability, metabolism and detoxification within the human body. Of paramount concern, particularly with respect to health effects in children, is the timing of exposure as the prenatal and early life periods are more susceptible to toxic effects. The Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) cohort was established to obtain national-level biomonitoring data for approximately 2,000 pregnant women and their infants between 2008 and 2011 from 10 Canadian cities. We measured total arsenic (As) in 1st and 3rd trimester maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, and infant meconium and speciated arsenic in 1st trimester maternal urine. Most pregnant women had detectable levels of total arsenic in blood (92.5% and 87.3%, respectively, for 1st and 3rd trimester); median difference between 1st and 3rd trimester was 0.1124µg/L (p<0.0001), but paired samples were moderately correlated (Spearman r=0.41, p<0.0001). Most samples were below the LOD for umbilical cord blood (50.9%) and meconium (93.9%). In 1st trimester urine samples, a high percentage (>50%) of arsenic species (arsenous acid (As-III), arsenic acid (As-V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and arsenobetaine (AsB)) were also below the limit of detection, except dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). DMA (>85% detected) ranged from newborns, levels of arsenic measured in blood and urine were lower than national population figures for Canadian women of reproductive age (20-39 years). In general, higher arsenic levels were observed in women

  6. Development of energy and time parameters in the walking of healthy human infants.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tasuku; Yaguramaki, Naoko; Fujita, Masaki; Ogiue-Ikeda, Mari; Nishizawa, Satoshi; Ueda, Yutaka

    2005-11-01

    Sixteen infants were analyzed longitudinally from the onset of independent walking to 3 years of age using time parameters, speed and energy recovery. Considerable variation and irregularities were observed in many parameters of infant walking, especially until 13 months of age when infants had difficulty in walking steadily step by step. Infant walking until 3 years of age was characterized by a small braking duration, caused mainly by the forward inclination of the trunk, a large relative stance phase duration, which maintained static balance, short stride length, due to the small range of the lower limb joint angle, and a small recovery of external energy. These characteristics were also predominantly evident until 13 months of age. The small recovery characteristic of infants was caused by flexed lower limb joints, pronounced irregularities in energy output, and in younger infants, slow speed. The maximum recovery up until 2 years of age, though smaller than in adults, appeared at about 0.45 dimensionless speed, which is about the same speed that adults in particular naturally and at which their maximum recovery appeared. The forward inclination of the trunk and the lower limb joint angle, influenced the development of many characteristics of bipedal walking.

  7. [Anthropometry in a group of women with a change in glucose metabolism and its somatic effect on the newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ruiz, M E; Espinoza de los Monteros, A; Peñuela, M A

    1990-11-01

    A total of 156 mothers with alterations in the metabolism of glucose and a control group of 42 other women with their respective children were studied at the National Institute of Perinatology. The group of 156 women was divided in four. The first group included mothers with type I diabetes mellitus; group 2 included mothers with type II diabetes mellitus; group 3 included mothers with gestational diabetes and group 4 contained those mothers with gestational alterations to the tolerance of glucose. The anthropometric indicators of the mother, weight and height at the end of the pregnancy, were compared to their respective children according to sex, while considering the group to which they belonged. The greatest weight medium for those mothers for both the male and female population, was found in group 3. With respect to height, the tallest mothers were found in group 2. When using the correlation coefficient, no significant crossovers were found between the weight and height the mother and the weight, length and cephalic perimeter of the newborn. Our results show that women with greater weight at the end of their pregnancy, had heavier babies, but this does not apply to height. We conclude that the presence of macrosomias or alterations in fetal growth can be reduced when an efficient control and early detection of the alteration of glucose metabolism is found in the mother.

  8. Promoting Healthy Growth or Feeding Obesity? The Need for Evidence-Based Oversight of Infant Nutritional Supplement Claims

    PubMed Central

    Lampl, Michelle; Mummert, Amanda; Schoen, Meriah

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) model recognizes growth in infancy and childhood as a fundamental determinant of lifespan health. Evidence of long-term health risks among small neonates who subsequently grow rapidly poses a challenge for interventions aiming to support healthy growth, not merely drive weight gain. Defining healthy growth beyond “getting bigger” is essential as infant and young child feeding industries expand. Liquid-based nutritional supplements, originally formulated for undernourished children, are increasingly marketed for and consumed by children generally. Clarifying the nature of the evidentiary base on which structure/function claims promoting “healthy growth” are constructed is important to curb invalid generalizations. Evidence points to changing social beliefs and cultural practices surrounding supplementary feeding, raising specific concerns about the long-term health consequences of an associated altered feeding culture, including reduced dietary variety and weight gain. Reassessing the evidence for and relevance of dietary supplements’ “promoting healthy growth” claims for otherwise healthy children is both needed in a time of global obesity and an opportunity to refine intervention approaches among small children for whom rapid subsequent growth in early life augments risk for chronic disease. Scientific and health care partnerships are needed to consider current governmental oversight shortfalls in protecting vulnerable populations from overconsumption. This is important because we may be doing more harm than good. PMID:27845744

  9. Copper fractionation by SEC-HPLC and ETAAS: study of breast milk and infant formulae whey used in lactation of full-term newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, P; Peña, E; Fompedriña, D; Domínguez, R; Bermejo, A; Fraga, J M; Cocho, J A

    2001-05-01

    This method will allow the determination of bound copper to low relative molecular mass compounds in milk. The milk whey obtained by ultracentrifugation was submitted to fractionation by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) on a TSK-Gel2000 (Toso Haas) column with a mobile phase of 0.2 M NH4NO3 + NH3, pH 6.7. Fractions of effluent corresponding to the protein peaks were collected and the copper content was determined by ETAAS. The method was sensitive (LOD 0.4 microgram l-1 and LOQ 1.5 micrograms l-1 in the fraction; LOQ 7.5-22.5 micrograms l-1 referred to the milk sample and depended on fraction volume) and precise (RSD +/- 10%). Media sample recoveries from the column were 101.2%. Cu was predominantly present in fractions corresponding to relative molecular mass 76 and 15 kDa of breast milk while copper was mostly found in fractions corresponding to 14 and 38 kDa of cow's milk-based infant formulae; moreover, copper was eluted in the relative molecular mass region < 6 kDa.

  10. Jaundice in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R; Aggarwal, R; Deorari, A K; Paul, V K

    2001-10-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is the commonest morbidity in the neonatal period and 5-10% of all newborns require intervention for pathological jaundice. Neonates on exclusive breast-feeding have a different pattern of physiological jaundice as compared to artificially fed babies. Guidelines from American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for management of jaundice in a normal term newborn have been included in the protocol. Separate guidelines have been provided for the management of jaundice in sick term babies, preterm and low birth weight babies, for jaundice secondary to hemolysis and for prolonged hyperbilirubinemia. Although hour specific bilirubin charts are available, these have to be validated in Indian infants before they are accepted for widespread use.

  11. Effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on neonatal mineral homeostasis and anthropometry of the newborn and infant.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Pramila; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Kumar, Mala; Ramesh, V; Bhatia, Eesh; Gupta, Sarika; Singh, Swati; Saxena, Priya; Bhatia, Vijayalakshmi

    2012-09-28

    Hypovitaminosis D is common in India. In the present prospective partially randomised study of vitamin D (D₃) supplementation during pregnancy, subjects were randomised in the second trimester to receive either one oral dose of 1500 μg vitamin D₃ (group 1, n 48) or two doses of 3000 μg vitamin D₃ each in the second and third trimesters (group 2, n 49). Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) at term, cord blood (CB) alkaline phosphatase (ALP), neonatal serum Ca and anthropometry were measured in these subjects and in forty-three non-supplemented mother-infant pairs (usual care). Median maternal 25(OH)D at term was higher in group 2 (58·7, interquartile range (IQR) 38·4-89·4 nmol/l) v. group 1 (26·2, IQR 17·7-57·7 nmol/l) and usual-care group (39·2, IQR 21·2-73·4 nmol/l) (P = 0·000). CB ALP was increased (>8.02 μkat/l or >480 IU/l) in 66·7 % of the usual-care group v. 41·9 % of group 1 and 38·9 % of group 2 (P = 0·03). Neonatal Ca and CB 25(OH)D did not differ significantly in the three groups. Birth weight, length and head circumference were greater and the anterior fontanelle was smaller in groups 1 and 2 (3·08 and 3·03 kg, 50·3 and 50·1 cm, 34·5 and 34·4 cm, 2·6 and 2·5 cm, respectively) v. usual care (2·77 kg, 49·4, 33·6, 3·3 cm; P = 0·000 for length, head circumference and fontanelle and P = 0·003 for weight). These differences were still evident at 9 months. We conclude that both 1500 μg and two doses of 3000 μg vitamin D₃ had a beneficial effect on infant anthropometry, the larger dose also improving CB ALP and maternal 25(OH)D.

  12. [Aspiration of milk in healthy infant--cause of acute respiratory arrest?].

    PubMed

    Erler, Thomas

    2007-02-01

    We present the case of 4month old female infant, who obviously suffered from a respiratory arrest during bottle-feed ing. After primary successful resuscitation the baby died after 49 days due to large intracranial hemorrages. The diagnosis of shaking trauma was based on the detailed medical examinations and on the case history taken from the police file. The life-threatening shaking trauma is rare as an emergency. Therefore every doctor should be aware of a potential victim in cases of infants who are normal developed without signs of injuries, have no history of a severe disease and show life-threatening symptomes.

  13. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Septic arthritis of the elbow in a healthy infant

    PubMed Central

    Nafeesah, Abdullah Saleh Al

    2015-01-01

    A case of rarely encountered nontyphoidal Salmonella septic arthritis of the elbow in an infant with no preexisting disease is reported. Salmonella etiology was not suspected in this case, and the diagnosis was made only after bacterial isolation. Aspiration of the infected joint with radiological guidance initially failed to give a good clinical response. Arthrotomy was done with intravenous cefotaxime for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks oral ciprofloxacin therapy to which the child responded favorably. Up to our knowledge this is the first case of nontyphoidal salmonella elbow septic arthritis in an infant in Saudi Arabia to be reported in the English literature. PMID:26985275

  14. Nontyphoidal Salmonella septic arthritis of the elbow in a healthy infant.

    PubMed

    Al Nafeesah, Abdullah Saleh

    2015-01-01

    A case of rarely encountered nontyphoidal Salmonella septic arthritis of the elbow in an infant with no preexisting disease is reported. Salmonella etiology was not suspected in this case, and the diagnosis was made only after bacterial isolation. Aspiration of the infected joint with radiological guidance initially failed to give a good clinical response. Arthrotomy was done with intravenous cefotaxime for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks oral ciprofloxacin therapy to which the child responded favorably. Up to our knowledge this is the first case of nontyphoidal salmonella elbow septic arthritis in an infant in Saudi Arabia to be reported in the English literature.

  15. Autonomic Nervous System Function in Infants with Transposition of the Great Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tondi M.; Brown, Roger L.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to maintain homeostasis and respond to challenges to homeostasis is primarily a function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and may be impaired in infants with complex congenital heart defects. This study described change in ANS function before and after surgical correction in infants with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and in healthy infants. Fifteen newborn infants with TGA were matched with 16 healthy infants on age, gender, and feeding type. ANS function was measured using heart rate variability (HRV). Data were collected pre-operatively in the first week of life and post-operatively before, during, and after feeding at two weeks and two months of age. At baseline, infants with TGA demonstrated significantly lower high frequency and low frequency HRV pre-operatively (p <.001) when compared with healthy infants. At two weeks, infants with TGA were less likely than healthy infants to demonstrate adaptive changes in high frequency HRV during-feeding (Wald Z = 2.002, p = .045), and at two months, 40% of TGA infants exhibited delayed post-feeding recovery. Further research is needed to more thoroughly describe mechanisms of a physiologically adaptive response to feeding and to develop nursing interventions supportive of these high risk infants. PMID:21613339

  16. Sensitive Quantitative Analysis of the Meconium Bacterial Microbiota in Healthy Term Infants Born Vaginally or by Cesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Ravinder; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Takuya; Kawashima, Kazunari; Nagata, Satoru; Nomoto, Koji; Yamashiro, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    For decades, babies were thought to be born germ-free, but recent evidences suggest that they are already exposed to various bacteria in utero. However, the data on population levels of such pioneer gut bacteria, particularly in context to birth mode, is sparse. We herein aimed to quantify such bacteria from the meconium of 151 healthy term Japanese infants born vaginally or by C-section. Neonatal first meconium was obtained within 24-48 h of delivery; RNA was extracted and subjected to reverse-transcription-quantitative PCR using specific primers for Clostridium coccoides group, C. leptum subgroup, Bacteroides fragilis group, Atopobium cluster, Prevotella, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, C. perfringens, and C. difficile. We detected several bacterial groups in both vaginally- and cesarean-born infants. B. fragilis group, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus were detected in more than 50% of infants, with counts ranging from 10(5) to 10(8) cells/g sample. About 30-35% samples harbored Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus (10(4)-10(5) cells/g); whereas C. coccoides group, C. leptum subgroup and C. perfringens were detected in 10-20% infants (10(3)-10(5) cells/g). Compared to vaginally-born babies, cesarean-born babies were significantly less often colonized with Lactobacillus genus (6% vs. 37%; P = 0.01) and Lactobacillus gasseri subgroup (6% vs. 31%; P = 0.04). Overall, seven Lactobacillus subgroups/species, i.e., L. gasseri subgroup, L. ruminis subgroup, L. casei subgroup, L. reuteri subgroup, L. sakei subgroup, L. plantarum subgroup, and L. brevis were detected in the samples from vaginally-born group, whereas only two members, i.e., L. gasseri subgroup and L. brevis were detected in the cesarean group. These data corroborate that several bacterial clades may already be present before birth in term infants' gut. Further, lower detection rate of lactobacilli

  17. Breathing resistance and ultrafine particle deposition in nasal-laryngeal airways of a newborn, an infant, a child, and an adult.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinxiang; Berlinski, Ariel; Zhou, Yue; Greenberg, Bruce; Ou, Xiawei

    2012-12-01

    As a human grows from birth to adulthood, both airway anatomy and breathing conditions vary, altering the deposition rate and pattern of inhaled aerosols. However, deposition studies have typically focused on adult subjects, results of which may not be readily extrapolated to children. This study numerically evaluated the age-related effects on the airflow and aerosol dynamics in image-based nose-throat models of a 10-day-old newborn, a 7-month-old infant, a 5-year-old child, and a 53-year-old adult. Differences in airway physiology, breathing resistance, and aerosol filtering efficiency among the four models were quantified and compared. A high-fidelity fluid-particle transport model was employed to simulate the multi-regime airflows and particle transport within the nasal-laryngeal airways. Ultrafine particles were evaluated under breathing conditions ranging from sedentary to heavy activities. Results of this study indicate that the nasal-laryngeal airways at different ages, albeit differ significantly in morphology and dimension, do not significantly affect the total deposition fractions or maximum local deposition enhancement for ultrafine aerosols. Further, the deposition partitioning in the sub-regions of interest is different among the four models. Results of this study corroborate the use of the in vivo-based diffusion parameter (D(0.5)Q(-0.28)) over the replica-based parameter in correlating nasal-laryngeal depositions of ultrafine aerosols. Improved correlations have been developed for the four age groups by implementing this in vivo-based diffusion parameter as well as the Cunningham correction factor.

  18. The use of erythropoietin-stimulating agents versus supportive care in newborns with hereditary spherocytosis: a single centre's experience.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Jacqueline F; Neufeld, Ellis J; Grace, Rachael F

    2014-08-01

    Hereditary Spherocytosis (HS) is a common haemolytic anaemia in which 75% of cases are autosomal dominant. As most newborns with HS have a family history of disease, haematologists often see these infants before their physiologic haemoglobin nadir, which is exaggerated in comparison with healthy infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of implementation and cost of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (EPO) versus transfusion in infants with HS at a single paediatric programme. In the last decade, only 15% of infants with HS at our centre have been treated with EPO, which costs twice that of a single transfusion and EPO treated infants did not always avoid transfusion. Infrequent prescription of EPO therapy to infants with HS at our centre may be related to the incomplete data supporting its use.

  19. The role of broth enrichment in Staphylococcus aureus cultivation and transmission from the throat to newborn infants: results from the Swedish hygiene intervention and transmission of S. aureus study.

    PubMed

    Mernelius, S; Löfgren, S; Lindgren, P-E; Matussek, A

    2013-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is detected by direct plating, whereas incubation in enrichment broth prior to plating to increase the proportion of positive samples has not been fully evaluated. S. aureus throat colonization has been suggested to be more common than colonization of the anterior nares, but no data are available on the transmission of S. aureus from the throat. Swab samples were collected from the anterior nares and umbilicus from newborn infants (n = 168), anterior nares, throat, skin lesions, and vagina from parents (n = 332), and anterior nares, throat, and skin lesions from healthcare workers (n = 231) at three maternity wards. spa typing was used to elucidate the transmission routes of S. aureus. The use of enrichment broth prior to plating increased the proportion of positive samples by 46%. The prevalence of S. aureus colonization in adults was 58%. Throat colonization (47%) was significantly more common than colonization in any of the other screened sites (p < 0.001). In total, 103 out of 168 (61%) newborn infants were colonized during their hospital stay. Overall, 124 S. aureus transmissions to newborn infants were detected. Although we detected an increased risk of transmission from the nares as compared to the throat, with an odds ratio of 4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-12.7], we detected a transmission rate of 7 % from the throat. We show that S. aureus throat colonization is more common than colonization in any of the other sites among the parents and staff. We also show evidence of transmission from the throat.

  20. Sensitive Quantitative Analysis of the Meconium Bacterial Microbiota in Healthy Term Infants Born Vaginally or by Cesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Ravinder; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Takuya; Kawashima, Kazunari; Nagata, Satoru; Nomoto, Koji; Yamashiro, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    For decades, babies were thought to be born germ-free, but recent evidences suggest that they are already exposed to various bacteria in utero. However, the data on population levels of such pioneer gut bacteria, particularly in context to birth mode, is sparse. We herein aimed to quantify such bacteria from the meconium of 151 healthy term Japanese infants born vaginally or by C-section. Neonatal first meconium was obtained within 24–48 h of delivery; RNA was extracted and subjected to reverse-transcription-quantitative PCR using specific primers for Clostridium coccoides group, C. leptum subgroup, Bacteroides fragilis group, Atopobium cluster, Prevotella, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, C. perfringens, and C. difficile. We detected several bacterial groups in both vaginally- and cesarean-born infants. B. fragilis group, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus were detected in more than 50% of infants, with counts ranging from 105 to 108 cells/g sample. About 30–35% samples harbored Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus (104–105 cells/g); whereas C. coccoides group, C. leptum subgroup and C. perfringens were detected in 10–20% infants (103–105 cells/g). Compared to vaginally-born babies, cesarean-born babies were significantly less often colonized with Lactobacillus genus (6% vs. 37%; P = 0.01) and Lactobacillus gasseri subgroup (6% vs. 31%; P = 0.04). Overall, seven Lactobacillus subgroups/species, i.e., L. gasseri subgroup, L. ruminis subgroup, L. casei subgroup, L. reuteri subgroup, L. sakei subgroup, L. plantarum subgroup, and L. brevis were detected in the samples from vaginally-born group, whereas only two members, i.e., L. gasseri subgroup and L. brevis were detected in the cesarean group. These data corroborate that several bacterial clades may already be present before birth in term infants’ gut. Further, lower detection rate of lactobacilli

  1. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Natália P.; Euclydes, Verônica V.; Simões, Fernanda A.; Vaz-de-Lima, Lourdes R. A.; De Brito, Cyro A.; Luzia, Liania A.; Devakumar, Delan; Rondó, Patrícia H. C.

    2017-01-01

    Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM%) was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin (p = 0.001) and pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001; adj. R2 = 0.19) were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results. PMID:28241462

  2. Bactericidal capacity of newborn phagocytes against group B beta-hemolytic streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, I D; Robinson, O M; Bazán, T S; López-Osuna, M; Kretschmer, R R

    1981-01-01

    The bactericidal capacity of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear phagocytes obtained from normal newborn infants and from healthy adults was evaluated in vitro, using two group B beta-hemolytic streptococci (GBBHS) serotypes (GBBHS-Ia-SS-615/28 and GBBHS-III-SS-620/50) and uniform opsonic conditions. No intertype differences in bacteriolysis of these two serotypes were observed among leukocytes from newborns or adults. As group, only polymorphonuclear phagocytes from newborns disclosed a significantly lower mean bactericidal capacity than their adult cellular counterpart, and only with respect to GBBHS-III-SS-620/50. On the other hand, 4 or 16 polymorphonuclear samples from newborns tested revealed significantly low bactericidal capacities against both GBBHS serotypes, and an additional sample revealed a bactericidal capacity against GBBHS-III-SS-620/50 alone. Interstrain variations in the intrinsic bactericidal capacity of polymorphonuclear phagocytes from newborns against GBBHS-III may exist, as suggested by a single observation made by using four clinical isolates of GBBHS-III. Such deviant phagocytic capacities of polymorphonuclear phagocytes from newborns may constitute an additional selective risk factor in the genesis of GBBHS sepsis of the newborn. PMID:7030963

  3. Beta-nerve growth factor levels in newborn cord sera.

    PubMed

    Haddad, J; Vilge, V; Juif, J G; Maitre, M; Donato, L; Messer, J; Mark, J

    1994-06-01

    This study was designed to examine beta-nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in human cord blood by a two-site enzyme immunoassay using MAb 27/21 to mouse NGF and to determine whether beta-NGF levels show developmental changes. Blood was collected at delivery from 61 newborns, 55 neonates appropriate for gestational age (46 term infants and 9 premature infants), 5 neonates small for gestational age, and 1 neonate with congenital hydrocephalus. In addition, samples were collected from 2 microcephalic children (microcephaly vera) aged 15 and 18 mo, 2 control children, and 4 healthy adults. Mean levels of NGF in preterm infants (n = 9; 13.7 +/- 8 pg/mL) were significantly lower than levels in term infants (n = 47; 21.2 +/- 8.8 pg/mL; p = 0.034 by Mann-Whitney U test). There was no correlation between birth weight, length, head circumference, and beta-NGF levels. In microcephalic children, NGF levels were low (8 pg/mL) compared with control infants' values (22 pg/mL). In adults, beta-NGF levels were higher and ranged between 238 and 292 pg/mL. Our study demonstrates that beta-NGF levels can be assessed in human newborn sera using a two-site enzyme immunoassay with MAb 27/21 to mouse beta-NGF, that beta-NGF levels are extremely low in newborns compared with adults, that beta-NGF levels seems to show developmental changes, and that beta-NGF levels may be used to assess NGF utilization under normal and pathologic conditions such as cerebral malformations.

  4. Asynchrony of the early maturation of white matter bundles in healthy infants: quantitative landmarks revealed noninvasively by diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Jessica; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Perrin, Muriel; Mangin, Jean-François; Cointepas, Yann; Duchesnay, Edouard; Le Bihan, Denis; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie

    2008-01-01

    Normal cognitive development in infants follows a well-known temporal sequence, which is assumed to be correlated with the structural maturation of underlying functional networks. Postmortem studies and, more recently, structural MR imaging studies have described qualitatively the heterogeneous spatiotemporal progression of white matter myelination. However, in vivo quantification of the maturation phases of fiber bundles is still lacking. We used noninvasive diffusion tensor MR imaging and tractography in twenty-three 1-4-month-old healthy infants to quantify the early maturation of the main cerebral fascicles. A specific maturation model, based on the respective roles of different maturational processes on the diffusion phenomena, was designed to highlight asynchronous maturation across bundles by evaluating the time-course of mean diffusivity and anisotropy changes over the considered developmental period. Using an original approach, a progression of maturation in four relative stages was determined in each tract by estimating the maturation state and speed, from the diffusion indices over the infants group compared with an adults group on one hand, and in each tract compared with the average over bundles on the other hand. Results were coherent with, and extended previous findings in 8 of 11 bundles, showing the anterior limb of the internal capsule and cingulum as the most immature, followed by the optic radiations, arcuate and inferior longitudinal fascicles, then the spinothalamic tract and fornix, and finally the corticospinal tract as the most mature bundle. Thus, this approach provides new quantitative landmarks for further noninvasive research on brain-behavior relationships during normal and abnormal development.

  5. Effects of doxapram, prethcamide and lobeline on spirometric, blood gas and acid-base variables in healthy new-born calves.

    PubMed

    Bleul, U; Bylang, T

    2012-11-01

    A number of drugs have been used to treat asphyxia in new-born calves and the aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of commonly-used stimulant drugs on ventilation, arterial blood gas and acid base variables. A group (n=18) of new-born (3-15 h old) calves were treated in a randomised sequence with doxapram (40 mg, IV), lobeline (5mg, IV) or prethcamide (5 mL, consisting of 375 mg crotethamide and 375 mg cropropamide, buccally). Blood and spirometric measurements, using an ultrasonic spirometer, were collected prior to and 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90 min after administration of each drug. Doxapram caused a significant increase in the respiratory rate, peak inspiratory and expiratory flow and minute volume (V(min)) during the 90-min post-treatment study period, although maximum values occurred 1 min after treatment. The V(min) increased from 13.8 ± 5.0 L to 28.5 ± 12.3 L. Prethcamide, but not lobeline, also caused significant increases in inspiratory and expiratory volumes. The effects of doxapram on ventilation were accompanied by an increase in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (P(a)O(2)) (77.7 ± 18.8 mm Hg to 93.2 ± 23.7 mm Hg), a decrease in arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P(a)CO(2)) (42.6 ± 4.9 mm Hg to 33.1 ± 6.6mm Hg), a significant increase in pH and a decrease in bicarbonate concentration and base excess 1 min after treatment. Prethcamide caused a gradual increase in P(a)O(2) and decrease in P(a)CO(2) over 90 min, whereas lobeline had no measurable effect on the investigated variables. Of the three treatments, only doxapram had a distinct stimulatory effect on respiration in healthy neonatal calves and may therefore be useful in the treatment of calf asphyxia.

  6. Comparing body temperature measurements by mothers and physicians using mercury-in-glass, digital mercury and infrared tympanic membrane thermometers in healthy newborn babies.

    PubMed

    Cultu, Oge; Yildirim, Inci; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Korkmaz, Ayşe; Yurdakök, Murat; Karaağaoğlu, Ergun; Seçmeer, Gülten

    2008-01-01

    While planning medical care, health care workers must consider the body temperature changes as measured by the mothers on most occasions. We evaluated the reliability of three different temperature measurement methods when they were used by the mothers by comparing with the measurements taken by the pediatrician. In this prospective study, body temperatures of 50 healthy newborns during their 2nd day of life were measured by mothers and one physician with mercury-in-glass (MG), digital mercury (DM) and infrared tympanic membrane thermometers (ITMT). Measurements by the mothers and the physician were correlated for the three different methods. The effects of the educational level of the mothers and the presence of children at home on the reliability and the number of differences > or = 0.5 degrees C were also evaluated for each of the methods. In comparing the measurements by the mothers and the pediatrician, correlation coefficient was 0.12 in MG thermometer readings, 0.23 in DM thermometer readings and 0.78 in ITMT readings, meaning that tympanic measurements by the mothers and the pediatricians were more correlated (p < 0.0001). The means and ranges of absolute differences of MG, DM, and tympanic thermometer measurements were 0.43 +/- 0.42, 0-1.7; 0.36 +/- 0.45, 0-2.2; and 0.13 +/- 0.12, 0-0.7 degrees C, respectively. The number of measurements with an absolute difference > or = 0.5 degrees C was 17 in MG readings, 11 in DM readings, and 1 in ITMT readings, The educational level of the mothers and the presence of children at home had no effect on the correlations. The intraclass coefficient for the three sets of measurements by the pediatricians was 0.91. Body temperature measurements in newborn babies as taken by their mothers were more correlated with the readings by the pediatricians when the ITMT was used. Tympanic thermometers seem to be useful for the mothers of any educational level and are independent of having experience with a previous child. The ease

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of CRM₁₉₇ conjugated 9-valent pneumococcal and meningococcal C combination vaccine in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Mallet, Eric; Brachet, Elisabeth; Fernsten, Philip; Laudat, France; Razmpour, Ahmad; Gruber, William C

    2011-08-05

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis cause invasive disease in children aged <2 years. While individual conjugate vaccines are available to protect this age group against these pathogens, availability of a vaccine combining these antigens into a single injection is desirable. This study randomized 467 healthy infants to receive 4 doses of combination 9-valent pneumococcal and meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (9vPnC-MnCC) or 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (9vPnC). Percentages of subjects achieving immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody concentrations ≥0.35μg/mL and geometric mean IgG concentrations for each pneumococcal serotype in the 9vPnC-MnCC group were noninferior compared to the 9vPnC group. Both vaccines were well-tolerated.

  8. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and newborn neurobehavior: A pilot study of effects at 10–27 days

    PubMed Central

    Stroud, Laura R.; Paster, Rachel L.; Papandonatos, George D.; Niaura, Raymond; Salisbury, Amy L.; Battle, Cynthia; Lagasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on newborn neurobehavior at 10–27 days. Study design Participants were 56 healthy infants (28 smoking-exposed, 28 unexposed) matched on maternal social class, age, and alcohol use. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was determined by maternal interview and maternal saliva cotinine. Postnatal smoke exposure was quantified by infant saliva cotinine. Infant neurobehavior was assessed through the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale. Results Smoking-exposed infants showed greater need for handling and worse self-regulation (p <.05) and trended toward greater excitability and arousal (p <.10) relative to matched, unexposed infants (all moderate effect sizes). In contrast to prior studies of days 0–5, no effects of smoking-exposure on signs of stress/abstinence or muscle tone emerged. In stratified, adjusted analyses, only effects on need for handling remained significant (p<.05, large effect size). Conclusions Effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy at 10–27 days are subtle and consistent with increased need for external intervention and poorer self-regulation. Along with parenting deficits, these effects may represent early precursors for long-term adverse outcomes from maternal smoking during pregnancy. That signs of abstinence shown in prior studies of 0–5 day-old newborns did not emerge in older newborns provides further evidence for the possibility of a withdrawal process in exposed infants. PMID:18990408

  9. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn (VKDB) is a bleeding disorder in babies. It most often develops shortly ... Control and Prevention. Notes from the field: late vitamin K deficiency bleeding in infants whose parents declined vitamin K ...

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Lactobacillus spp. Isolated From Fecal Flora of Healthy Breast-Fed Infants Against Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Davoodabadi, Abolfazl; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Lashani, Elahe; Tajabadi Ebrahimi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among the enteric pathogens, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli are important causes of diarrhea in children in both developing and industrialized countries. Some Lactobacillus species are commonly used as probiotics, with effects especially against acute diarrhea in childhood. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus strains isolated from fecal flora of healthy breast-fed infants against five diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes such as enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Materials and Methods: Fecal samples were collected from seven healthy breast-fed infants between 1 to 18 months of age in Tehran city, Iran. Identification of Lactobacillus isolates was performed by biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods. An agar well diffusion assay was used for detection of antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus isolates against five diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Results: A total of 20 Lactobacillus isolates were identified from stool samples. Lactobacillus fermentum was the most frequently isolated strain, followed by L. plantarum and L. rhamnosus. Seven Lactobacillus strains including L. fermentum (four isolates), L. paracasei (one isolate), L. plantarum (one isolate) and L. rhamnosus (one isolate) had a mild inhibitory activity against diarrheagenic E. coli. The mechanism of inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus strains appeared to be due to the production of organic acids or hydrogen peroxide. Conclusions: Our findings show that Lactobacillus strains with human origin had a mild inhibitory activity against the diarrheagenic E. coli, and these strains may be useful as probiotic candidates in prevention of intestinal infections caused by diarrheagenic E. coli. PMID:26865944

  11. Gene therapy for newborns.

    PubMed

    Kohn, D B; Parkman, R

    1997-07-01

    Application of gene therapy to treat genetic and infectious diseases may have several advantages if performed in newborns. Because of the minimal adverse effect of the underlying disease on cells of the newborn, the relatively small size of infants, and the large amount of future growth, gene therapy may be more successful in newborns than in older children or adults. The presence of umbilical cord blood from newborns provides a unique and susceptible target for the genetic modification of hematopoietic stem cells. In our first trial of gene therapy in newborns, we inserted a normal adenosine deaminase gene into umbilical cord blood cells of three neonates with a congenital immune deficiency. The trial demonstrated the successful transduction and engraftment of stem cells, which continue to contribute to leukocyte production more than 3 years later. A similar approach may be taken to insert genes that inhibit replication of HIV-1 into umbilical cord blood cells of HIV-1-infected neonates. Many other metabolic and infectious disorders could be treated by gene therapy during the neonatal period if prenatal diagnoses are made and the appropriate technical and regulatory requirements have been met.

  12. Factors associated with early postpartum maternity blues and depression tendency among Japanese mothers with full-term healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuki; Tamakoshi, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Maternity blues and postpartum depression are common mental health problems during the early postpartum period. However, few studies have examined the factors associated with maternity blues and postpartum depression in healthy mothers with spontaneous births of healthy full-term infants. This study aimed to determine the demographic and obstetric factors, various feelings during pregnancy, and psychological factors by using the Maternity Blues Scale (MBS) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) among healthy Japanese mothers. We distributed the MBS and EPDS self-administered questionnaires to 100 Japanese mothers during their 4-5 day hospitalization and at a health check-up 1-month after delivery, respectively. Multiple regression analyses were performed including the above-mentioned variables as independent variables and the maximum MBS or EPDS scores as dependent variables. The answers "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [beta (95% confidence interval) = -1.53 (-2.68 - -0.378)] and "Satogaeri bunben", a Japanese traditional support system wherein a postnatal woman lives with her husband/parents [-2.82 (-4.73 - -0.898)] were significantly associated with MBS scores. The answer "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [-2.83 (-4.76 - -0.903)] was also significantly associated with EPDS scores, although the association between the partner's age and these scores was marginally significant [-0.106 (-0.008 - 0.221)]. This study shows that it is important to provide support for healthy women without delivery complications, both at home and in the community.

  13. Infant Colic

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Amy A.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence for an association between infant colic and migraine. Infant colic, or excessive crying in an otherwise healthy and well-fed infant, affects approximately 5–19% of infants. Multiple case-control studies, a cross-sectional study, and a prospective cohort study have all found an association between infant colic and migraine. While infant colic is often assumed to have a gastrointestinal cause, several treatment trials aimed at gastrointestinal etiologies have been negative. Teaching parents how best to respond to inconsolable crying may be helpful and important for preventing shaken baby syndrome. Given accumulating evidence for a connection between infant colic and pediatric migraine, future studies should examine migraine-oriented treatments for infant colic. Infant colic should be moved into the main body of International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III beta) as one of the “Episodic syndromes that may be associated with migraine”. PMID:27017027

  14. DXA performance in a pediatric population: precision of body composition measurements in healthy term-born infants using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    de Knegt, Victoria Elizabeth; Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Bech Jensen, Jens-Erik; Lade Rasmussen, Anne Mette; Pryds, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been hailed as a golden standard for measuring body composition in adults but remains to be fully assessed for the infant population. A total of 64 newborn infants were allocated to 1 of 3 groups. All underwent 2 Hologic Discovery A DXA scans. Suboptimal scans were reconstructed, and an investigation into the success of adjustment was carried out. Depending on group, the factors of weight change and repositioning were investigated. Test-retest variation and coefficients of variation for DXA body composition estimates were calculated. Furthermore, the effects of flannel sheets and breast milk were investigated using a pediatric phantom. Reconstruction of suboptimal scans resulted in more accurate body weight estimates. Moderate weight change and repositioning had no significant effect on the variation between scans. No significant body composition changes occurred between scans. The test-retest variation varied between 6.3% and 11.8%. Flannel sheets and breast milk affected DXA results significantly. High precision of DXA measurements was obtained in our newborn population. Reconstructing scans is a viable way of correcting minor movement artifacts. Moderate weight changes and repositioning have no significant effect on DXA results, whereas flannel sheets and milk do.

  15. Factors associated with parental perception of child vulnerability 12 months after abnormal newborn screening results.

    PubMed

    Tluczek, Audrey; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Brown, Roger L

    2011-10-01

    We identified factors associated with elevated parental perceptions of child vulnerability (PPCV) 12 months after newborn screening (NBS) of 136 children: healthy, normal results (H, n = 37), cystic fibrosis carriers (CF-C, n = 40), congenital hypothyroidism (CH, n = 36), and cystic fibrosis (CF, n = 23). Controlling for infant and parent characteristics, mixed logit structural equation modeling showed direct paths to elevated PPCV included parent female sex, CF diagnosis, and high documented illness frequency. PPCV was positively associated with maternal parenting stress. Infants with CF and CF carriers had significantly more documented illness frequency than H group infants. The CH group did not differ significantly from the H group and had no paths to PPCV. Unexpectedly high documented illness frequency among infants who are CF carriers warrants further investigation.

  16. Jaundice in the full-term newborn.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shannon Munro

    2006-01-01

    Jaundice is a common problem affecting over half of all full-term and most preterm infants. Jaundice describes the yellow orange hue of the skin caused by excessive circulating levels of bilirubin that accumulate in the skin. In most healthy full-term newborns, jaundice is noticed during the first week of life. Shortened hospital stays and inconsistent follow up, especially for first-time breastfeeding mothers, prompted the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to update management guidelines. Health care providers need to be familiar with the diagnosis and management of jaundice to prevent brain, vision, and hearing damage. Treatment of choice for jaundice remains close observation and frequent feeding followed by phototherapy, and finally exchange transfusion for severe or refractory cases.

  17. Common Infant and Newborn Problems

    MedlinePlus

    It is hard when your baby is sick. Common health problems in babies include colds, coughs, fevers, and vomiting. Babies also commonly have skin problems, like diaper rash or cradle cap. Many of these problems are ... are worried about your baby, call your health care provider right away.

  18. Uncommon Infant and Newborn Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... health, call your health care provider right away. Learning information about your baby's condition can help ease your worry. Do not be afraid to ask questions about your baby's care. By working together with your health care provider, you make sure that your baby gets the best care possible.

  19. Neuroprotection in the Newborn Infant

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Fernando F.; Ferriero, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Neonatal brain injury is an important cause of death and disability, with pathways of oxidant stress, inflammation, and excitotoxicity that lead to damage that progresses over a long period of time. Therapies have classically targeted individual pathways during early phases of injury, but more recent therapies such as growth factors may also enhance cell proliferation, differentiation and migration over time. More recent evidence suggests combined therapy may optimize repair, decreasing cell injury while increasing newly born cells. PMID:19944839

  20. Case of a healthy infant born following antenatal enterovirus myocarditis and hydrops.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Aurore; Tassin, Mikael; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Letamendia, Emmanuelle; Stos, Bertrand; Bonnet, Damien; Gajdos, Vincent; Mabille, Mylène; Benachi, Alexandra

    2014-11-01

    Fetal hydrops and myocarditis were diagnosed in a woman at 32 weeks of gestation (WG). Transplacental enterovirus infection was suspected because all other causes of myocarditis and hydrops were excluded, it was during an endemic period, and there was a setting of maternal infection (fever a few days before). We opted for in utero treatment because of the risk of resuscitating a neonate with myocarditis and hydrops. We administered dexamethasone 12mg twice for pulmonary maturation and presumed it would partially improve the myocarditis. Fetal arrhythmia was noted at 35 WG and we decided to deliver the infant as postnatal treatment of the heart disorder would be more effective. RT-PCR (ARGENE(®)) showed that the neonate's throat and anal tissues and cord blood sampled on the day of birth contained enterovirus ribonucleic acid and coxsackievirus B5, as did the mother's anal sample. Laboratory tests, heart MRI and probably brain MRI indicated neonatal enterovirus infection. Findings were normal at two-year follow-up.

  1. Ecthyma gangrenosum in a 3-month-old, previously healthy infant

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-ting; Jin, Wan-wan; Ma, Xin-hua; Yu, Hai-feng; Tang, Xu-hua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is an aggressive cutaneous disease caused by local or systemic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. EG is characterized by cutaneous manifestations ranging from nodule and papule, to necrotic ulceration with surrounding erythema, especially with black eschar or central crust. EG presents with characteristic skin lesions which is important to establish diagnosis of sepsis caused by P aeruginosa, a serious condition that can be treated efficiently if diagnosed early. Patient concerns: A 3-month-old female infant was presented with characteristic skin lesions of EG and developed sepsis 3 days later. Diagnoses: Ecthyma gangrenosum and sepsis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Interventions: Meropenem was used in combination with ceftazidime at first and excision of necrotic skin lesions was performed later. Outcomes: Cure. Lessons: Early recognition of EG plays an important role in providing appropriate empiric antibiotic treatment at early stage of sepsis, and improves the prognosis. Surgical excision may be helpful if no improvement was achieved via antibiotic treatment. PMID:28272221

  2. Teaching Chilean mothers to massage their full-term infants: effects on maternal breast-feeding and infant weight gain at age 2 and 4 months.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Maria Sylvia Campos; Doren, Francisca Márquez; Wilson, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of massage on infant weight gain and exclusive maternal breast-feeding of an intervention that involved teaching mothers to massage their full-term infants. The sample included 100 healthy newborn infants who were receiving primary healthcare at 3 health centers in a low-income neighborhood of Santiago, Chile. The control group included 65 infants and the massage group included 35 infants. During their second well-child clinic visit, clinic nurses provided instruction to massage-group mothers about how to massage their infants, based on the methods of the Baby's First Massage program (http://www.babysfirstmassage.com/Scripts/default.asp). Mothers were encouraged to massage their infants for 10 to 15 minutes at least once a day, starting when their infants were 15 days old. There was no difference in the mean weights of the infants between the massage and control groups at baseline, but at age 2 months, massage group infants weighed significantly more than control-group infants. There were no weight differences between the 2 groups at age 4 months. There were no differences between the 2 groups on the incidence of exclusive maternal breast-feeding at age 2 or 4 months. The findings suggest that teaching mothers to massage their newborn infants may have a beneficial effect on the infant's early weight gain. There is a need for additional studies to evaluate the effect of maternal massage on other health and welfare outcomes for both mothers and infants.

  3. Interactions of Respiratory Viruses and the Nasal Microbiota during the First Year of Life in Healthy Infants

    PubMed Central

    Korten, Insa; Mika, Moana; Klenja, Shkipe; Kieninger, Elisabeth; Mack, Ines; Barbani, Maria Teresa; Gorgievski, Meri; Frey, Urs

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traditional culture techniques have shown that increased bacterial colonization is associated with viral colonization; however, the influence of viral colonization on the whole microbiota composition is less clear. We thus aimed to understand the interaction of viral infections and the nasal microbiota in early life to appraise their roles in disease development. Thirty-two healthy, unselected infants were included in this prospective longitudinal cohort study within the first year of life. Biweekly nasal swabs (n = 559) were taken, and the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, and 10 different viruses and 2 atypical bacteria were characterized by real-time PCR (combination of seven duplex samples). In contrast to asymptomatic human rhinovirus (HRV) colonization, symptomatic HRV infections were associated with lower alpha diversity (Shannon diversity index [SDI]), higher bacterial density (PCR concentration), and a difference in beta diversities (Jaccard and Bray-Curtis index) of the microbiota. In addition, infants with more frequent HRV infections had a lower SDI at the end of the study period. Overall, changes in the microbiota associated with symptomatic HRV infections were characterized by a loss of microbial diversity. The interaction between HRV infections and the nasal microbiota in early life might be of importance for later disease development and indicate a potential approach for future interventions. IMPORTANCE Respiratory viral infections are very frequent in infancy and of importance in acute and chronic disease development. Infections with human rhinovirus (HRV) are, e.g., associated with the later development of asthma. We found that only symptomatic HRV infections were associated with acute changes in the nasal microbiota, mainly characterized by a loss of microbial diversity. Infants with more frequent symptomatic HRV infections had a lower bacterial diversity at the end of the first year of life. Whether the interaction

  4. Rachitic Changes, Demineralization, and Fracture Risk in Healthy Infants and Toddlers with Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Henry A.; Kleinman, Paul K.; Connolly, Susan A.; Fair, Rick A.; Myers, Regina M.; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine radiographic findings in children with vitamin D deficiency in comparison with biochemical marker levels and prevalence of fractures. Materials and Methods: The parents or guardians of all participants provided written informed consent at the time of enrollment. The institutional review board approved the protocol, and HIPAA guidelines were followed. From a prospective sample of children seen for routine clinical care, 40 children with vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-OHD] level, ≤20 ng/mL) were identified, and high-detail computed radiographs of the wrists and knees were obtained. The children ranged in age from 8 to 24 months. Radiographs were scored by three readers with use of the 10-point Thacher score for rachitic changes and a five-point scale for demineralization. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels were determined. Fracture history was obtained for 35 of the 40 patients (88%). Results: All readers identified rachitic changes at both readings in two patients (5%) and demineralization in two patients (5%). Interrater agreement was 65% for rachitic changes (κ = 0.33) and 70% for demineralization (κ = 0.37). When the majority of the raters determined that rachitic changes were absent at both readings, alkaline phosphatase levels were lower than those with other assessments (median, 267 vs 515 U/L [4.4589 vs 8.6005 μkat/L]; P = .01). When most raters determined that demineralization was present at both readings, serum 25-OHD levels were lower than those at other assessments (median, 9.0 vs 17.5 ng/mL [22.464 vs 43.68 nmol/L]; P = .02). No fractures were reported or identified radiographically. Conclusion: In infants and toddlers with vitamin D deficiency, rachitic changes and definite demineralization are uncommon and fracture risk is low. © RSNA, 2011 PMID:22106354

  5. Auditory-Oral Matching Behavior in Newborns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xin; Striano, Tricia; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five newborn infants were tested for auditory-oral matching behavior when presented with the consonant sound /m/ and the vowel sound /a/--a precursor behavior to vocal imitation. Auditory-oral matching behavior by the infant was operationally defined as showing the mouth movement appropriate for producing the model sound just heard (mouth…

  6. Not just playing around: infants' behaviors with objects reflect ability, constraints, and object properties.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Michele A; Kokkoni, Elena; de Campos, Ana Carolina; Galloway, James C

    2014-08-01

    This study describes infants' behaviors with objects in relation to age, body position, and object properties. Object behaviors were assessed longitudinally in 22 healthy infants supine, prone, and sitting from birth through 2 years. Results reveal: (1) infants learn to become intense and sophisticated explorers within the first 6 months of life; (2) young infants dynamically and rapidly shift among a variety of behavioral combinations to gather information; (3) behaviors on objects develop along different trajectories so that behavioral profiles vary across time; (4) object behaviors are generally similar in supine and sitting but diminished in prone; and (5) infants begin matching certain behaviors to object properties as newborns. These data demonstrate how infants learn to match their emerging behaviors with changing positional constraints and object affordances.

  7. An Analysis of Behavioral Mechanisms Involved in Control Over Infant Feeding Behavior; The Effect of Interfeeding Interval on Nutritive Sucking in the Newborn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kron, Reuben E.; And Others

    To determine the antecedents of sucking in infants, the behavior of 24 infants from 48- to 60-hours-old was observed in relation to a sucking device. The device measured pressure and rate of sucking and delivered a controlled flow of nutrient. The interfeeding interval was varied among the experimental and control groups. Little sucking behavior…

  8. Psychomotor Development and School Performance of Children Who Were Low-Birth Infants: Relation to Neurobehavioural Condition in the Newborn Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leijon, Ingemar; And Others

    This study investigated neurological and psychomotor development and intelligence from birth to 8 years of age among Swedish infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The relationship between neonatal neurological and behavioral condition to follow-up results was also investigated. Twenty-two infants with IUGR were arranged in 2 groups…

  9. Overnight Polysomnographic Characteristics and Oxygen Saturation of Healthy Infants, 1 to 18 Months of Age, Born and Residing At High Altitude (2,640 Meters)

    PubMed Central

    Bazurto-Zapata, María A.; Gozal, David; González-García, Mauricio; Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 8% of the world population resides above 1,600 m, with about 10 million people living above 2,500 m in Colombia. However, reference values for polysomnography (PSG) and oxygen saturation (Spo2) of children < 2 years old residing at high altitude are currently unavailable. METHODS: Healthy infants aged 1 to 18 months born and residing at high altitude (Bogotá: 2,640 m) underwent overnight PSG. Four age groups were defined: group 1, < 45 days; group 2, 3 to 4 months; group 3, 6 to 7 months; and group 4, 10 to 18 months. Of 122 children enrolled, 50 had three consecutive PSG tests and were analyzed as a longitudinal subcohort. RESULTS: A total of 281 PSG tests were performed in 122 infants (56% girls): group 1, 106 PSG tests; group 2, 89 PSG tests; group 3, 61 PSG tests; and group 4, 25 PSG tests. Active sleep diminished and quiet sleep increased with maturation. Apnea-hypopnea indexes (total, central, and obstructive) were highest in group 1 (21.4, 12.4, and 6.8/h total sleep time, respectively) and diminished with age (P < .001). Mean Spo2 during waking and sleep increased with age (P < .001). Nadir Spo2 values during respiratory events were lower in younger infants. Longitudinal assessments of 50 infants confirmed the temporal trends described for the cross-sectional dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy infants (≤ 18 months old) born and residing at high altitude show preserved sleep architecture but higher apnea-hypopnea indexes and more prominent desaturation with respiratory events than do those living at low altitude. The current study findings can be used as reference values for infants at high altitude. PMID:25811138

  10. Growth of healthy term infants fed ready-to-feed and powdered forms of an extensively hydrolyzed casein-based infant formula: a randomized, blinded, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Borschel, Marlene W; Baggs, Geraldine E; Barrett-Reis, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    Extensively hydrolyzed formulas present a complex matrix subject to adverse conditions during manufacture that could influence growth and tolerance of infants fed these formulas. A masked, randomized, parallel growth study was conducted in infants fed a ready-to-feed (RTF) or powdered (PWD) form of an extensively hydrolyzed casein-based formula. Infants were enrolled between 0 and 9 days and studied to 112 days of age. Growth, formula intake, and stool patterns were assessed. There were no significant differences between groups in weight, length, head circumference, or their respective gains. Tolerance was similar between groups except that the RTF group had greater formula intakes and passed more stools/day compared to the PWD group. This study demonstrates that the PWD formulation of this RTF formula supports similar growth and tolerance in infants during the first 4 months of life.

  11. Infant Constipation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Diapers & Clothing > Infant Constipation Ages & Stages Listen ...

  12. [Effect of past abortions and the sequence of gestations on the course of the next pregnancy and labor as well as the state-at-delivery, maturity, dystrophia and mortality rate of the newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Osuch-Jaczewska, R; Tomala, J

    1979-02-01

    Legal abortions have reduced the number of miscarriages by 20%, and of abandoned children by 56%; but at the same time, can be hazardous to the mother both initially (loss of blood, punctured uterus, damaged cervix) and later (infections in the reproductive system, infertility, extrauterine pregnancy, psychological disorders). From 1968 to 1975, 12,795 mothers and their newborns were studied: group 1 (24.8%), were mothers who have had abortions prior to 1st delivery; group 2 (42.3%), mothers having a first delivery with no previous miscarriages or abortions; and group 3 (32.9%), mothers of 2 or more children who had abortions afterwards. Abortion prior to first delivery increased the number of complications (54.4%) during pregnancy (liver and kidney problems, bacterial and viral infections), and during delivery (dirty amniotic fluid, bag of waters ruptured prematurely, pathology of the placenta and membranes, pathology of the umbilical cord). 10% of the deliveries where the mother had a previous history of abortion required medical intervention. Intrauterine dystrophy had occurred in 17% cases and the incidence of premature births was greater, 16%. 29.2% of the infants were in poor condition at delivery according to the Apgar scale (under 4 points) and 42.4% manifested disturbances in environment adaptability. The neonatal mortality rate 6.6% was twice that of the infants from the other 2 groups. The authors conclude that abortions are a threat to the health of mothers and during subsequent pregnancies, endanger the fetus and the newborn. Abortion cannot be regarded as a means of family planning. (Summaries in RUS, ENG).

  13. Risk Factors and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes among Term and Preterm Infants Born Small-for-Gestational-Age: Secondary Analyses of the WHO Multi-Country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Erika; Ganchimeg, Togoobaatar; Morisaki, Naho; Vogel, Joshua P.; Pileggi, Cynthia; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Souza, João P.; Mori, Rintaro

    2014-01-01

    Background Small for gestational age (SGA) is not only a major indicator of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but also the morbidity risks in later in life. We aim to estimate the association between the birth of SGA infants and the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among twenty-nine countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia in 359 health facilities in 2010–11. Methods We analysed facility-based, cross-sectional data from the WHO Multi-country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. We constructed multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for facilities and countries to estimate the risk factors for SGA infants using country-specific birthweight reference standards in preterm and term delivery, and SGA’s association with adverse perinatal outcomes. We compared the risks and adverse perinatal outcomes with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants categorized by preterm and term delivery. Results A total of 295,829 singleton infants delivered were analysed. The overall prevalence of SGA was highest in Cambodia (18.8%), Nepal (17.9%), the Occupied Palestinian Territory (16.1%), and Japan (16.0%), while the lowest was observed in Afghanistan (4.8%), Uganda (6.6%) and Thailand (9.7%). The risk of preterm SGA infants was significantly higher among nulliparous mothers and mothers with chronic hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia (aOR: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.55–3.28) compared with AGA infants. Higher risks of term SGA were observed among sociodemographic factors and women with preeclampsia/eclampsia, anaemia and other medical conditions. Multiparity (> = 3) (AOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83–0.92) was a protective factor for term SGA. The risk of perinatal mortality was significantly higher in preterm SGA deliveries in low to high HDI countries. Conclusion Preterm SGA is associated with medical conditions related to preeclampsia, but not with sociodemographic status. Term SGA is associated with sociodemographic status and

  14. Thrush in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Candidiasis - oral - newborn; Oral thrush - newborn; Fungal infection - mouth - newborn; Candida - oral - newborn ... yeast called Candida albicans grows in a baby's mouth. Germs called bacteria and fungi naturally grow in ...

  15. Anemia in the Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Caregivers Help Themselves Additional Content Medical News Anemia in the Newborn By Arthur E. Kopelman, MD, ... Prematurity (ROP) Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) Jaundice in Newborns Anemia in the Newborn Polycythemia in the Newborn Thyroid ...

  16. Intraventricular hemorrhage of the newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition occurs most often in babies that are born early (premature). Causes Infants born more than 10 weeks early are at highest ... also occur in otherwise healthy babies who were born early. Rarely, IVH may develop in full-term ...

  17. [Alterations in neuro-development in the 1st year of life in newborn infants weighing 2000 grams or less at birth].

    PubMed

    Fernández Carrocera, L A; Turcio Cortázar, E; Garza Morales, S; Rodríguez Pérez, L; Udaeta Mora, E

    1992-05-01

    The infants with low weight at birth have great chance of exhibiting early death or neurodevelopmental sequelae. We prospectively evaluated the neurological and psychological development during the first year of life in 118 infants who weighted less than 2,000 g at birth. All patients were examined with the Amiel Tison and Grenier test (neurologic evaluation), Gesell test (psychological) and Brunette-Lezine test (Psychomotor scale). Mean gestational age was 33 weeks (SD = 3.1) and birth mean weight was 1495 g (SD = 291). Seventy per cent were delivered by cesarean section. Neurological abnormalities were found in 20 infants (alteration of muscular tone in all and motor deficit in 50%). Twenty five per cent had abnormal Gesell test and 17% psychomotor retardation (13% mild and 4% severe).

  18. A systematic review of controlled trials of lower-protein or energy-containing infant formulas for use by healthy full-term infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infant formulas have historically been developed based on providing macronutrients at intake concentrations approximately matching the composition of human milk. In most countries, targets of 1.4–1.5 g of protein/dL and 20 kcal/oz (67–68 kcal/dL) have been set as the protein and energy concentration...

  19. Detection of viruses in weekly stool specimens collected during the first 2 years of life: A pilot study of five healthy Australian infants in the rotavirus vaccine era.

    PubMed

    Ye, Suifang; Whiley, David M; Ware, Robert S; Sloots, Theo P; Kirkwood, Carl D; Grimwood, Keith; Lambert, Stephen B

    2017-05-01

    Several viruses are associated with gastroenteritis in infants. This pilot study, nested within a larger community-based project of early childhood infections, collected daily symptom data and 511 weekly stool samples from five healthy, fully vaccinated, term infants from birth until their second birthday. Real-time PCR assays were used to detect six enteric viruses. Frequent, silent shedding of one or more of the six viruses was observed, particularly involving adenovirus where shedding could be for up to 3 months without gastrointestinal symptoms. These pilot data demonstrate that a positive PCR result for enteric viruses may not always indicate the cause of childhood gastroenteritis. J. Med. Virol. 89:917-921, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Effectiveness of the National Strategy for Healthy Complementary Feeding to improve complemantary feeding of infants in a municipality in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Rosane; Issler, Roberto Mário Silveira; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo

    2016-09-19

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the National Strategy for Healthy Complementary Feeding (ENPACS) in improving complementary feeding in the first year of life in a Brazilian municipality (county). This was an impact evaluation study that enrolled 340 infants from 6 to 12 months of age, followed at primary healthcare units. The target outcomes were prevalence rates for the consumption of vegetables, legumes, fruits, and unhealthy foods, and the prevalence of foods with adequate consistency for age. Poisson regression showed that the strategy was associated with reductions of 32% in the consumption of sodas and/or industrialized juices, 35% of industrialized foods, and 5% of unhealthy foods. There was no increase in the consumption of fruits, legumes, vegetables, or foods with adequate consistency for age. In conclusion, the strategy's positive effect was partial, but it has the potential to help improve infant nutrition, based on its effectiveness in reducing the consumption of unhealthy foods.

  1. Potential roles and clinical utility of prebiotics in newborns, infants, and children: proceedings from a global prebiotic summit meeting, New York City, June 27-28, 2008.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Philip M; Cabana, Michael; Gibson, Glenn R; Koletzko, Berthold V; Neu, Josef; Veereman-Wauters, Gigi; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Walker, W Allan

    2009-11-01

    Initial bacterial colonization, including colonization with health-positive bacteria, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, is necessary for the normal development of intestinal innate and adaptive immune defenses. The predominance of beneficial bacteria in the gut microflora of breast-fed infants is thought to be, at least in part, supported by the metabolism of the complex mixture of oligosaccharides present in human breast milk, and a more adult-type intestinal microbiota is found in formula-fed infants. Inadequate gut colonization, dysbiosis, may lead to an increased risk of infectious, allergic, and autoimmune disorders later in life. The addition of appropriate amounts of selected prebiotics to infant formulas can enhance the growth of bifidobacteria or lactobacilli in the colonic microbiota and, thereby, might produce beneficial effects. Among the substrates considered as prebiotics are the oligosaccharides inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides, and lactulose. There are some reports that such prebiotics have beneficial effects on various markers of health. For example, primary prevention trials in infants have provided promising data on prevention of infections and atopic dermatitis. Additional well-designed prospective clinical trials and mechanistic studies are needed to advance knowledge further in this promising field.

  2. Newborn jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    ... be very tired and feed poorly. Exams and Tests Health care providers will watch for signs of jaundice at the hospital. After the newborn goes home, family members will usually spot the ... with a blood test. Many hospitals check total bilirubin levels on all ...

  3. Procalcitonin and Other Biomarkers of Sepsis in Newborns in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Ignjatovic, Svetlana; Stankovic, Sanja; Nada Majkić, Singh

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is one of the most significant causes of mortality and morbidity in infants. Among numerous parameters available to confirm the presence of sepsis in newborns procalcitonin (PCT) has been chosen. The aim of this study was the determination of PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP) serum amyloid A (SAA), plasminogen, protein C, antithrombin III (AT III) and white blood cell count (WBC) in blood sample obtained by puncture of the umbilical vein. Sixty two newborn infants were included in the study: 31 with suspected bacterial infection and 31 healthy babies Serum procalcitonin was measured using Kryptor analyzer (Brahms Aktiengesellschaft, Germany); serum hsCRP and SAA on the Behring Nephelometer II (Dade Behring Diagnostics GmbH, Marburg, Germany); plasma plasminogen, protein C and AT III on BCT Coagulation system, (Dade Behring Diagnostics GmbH, Marburg, Germany); and WBC count was determined in the whole blood using hematological analyzer ADVIA 120 Hematology System (Bayer, Germany). The obtained mean values of PCT, hsCRP, SAA, WBC, plasminogen, AT III, protein C in newborn’s samples with suspected bacterial infection/healthy newborns were: 0.188 ng/L / 0.121 ng/L; 1.20 mg/L / 1.30 mg/L, 1.28% / 1.70%; 16.0 x 109/L/12.0 x 109 / L, 61.0% / 59.0%, 52.0% / 64.5%, 39.0% / 41.0%, respectively. Neonates with bacterial infection had significantly higher values of PCT (p <0.001), WBC (p <0.001) and CRP (p <0.05) compared to healthy babies. Based on these results, it may be concluded that procalcitonin is useful for early diagnosis of sepsis in newborns. PMID:27683386

  4. Radial localization of odors by human newborns.

    PubMed

    Rieser, J; Yonas, A; Wikner, K

    1976-09-01

    To study sensitivity to radial location of an odor source, 20 human newborns, ranging from 16 to 130 hours of age, were presented with a small amount of ammonium hydroxide. The odor source was placed near the nose slightly to the left or right of midline, with its position randomized over repeated trails. Direction of headturn with respect to the odor location and diffuse motor activity were scored from the videotape recordings of the newborns' behavior. It was found that as a group, the newborns turned away from the odor source more frequently than they turned toward it. The tendency to turn away from the odor was stronger in infants who displayed less motor activity after the response. Newborns also exhibited a right bias in the direction of the head movements. It is concluded that a spatially appropriate avoidance response is present in the neonate and that the newborn is innately sensitive to the radial location of an odor.

  5. The Relation Between Audition and Vision in the Human Newborn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Morton J.; Haith, Marshall M.

    1976-01-01

    Four studies were conducted to investigate the relation between audition and vision in the human newborn. In all four studies visual activity was recorded with infrared corneal-reflection techniques in 1- to 4-day-old infants. (MS)

  6. A comparison of two interventions for HHHFNC in preterm infants weighing 1,000 to 1,500 g in the recovery period of newborn RDS

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghnia, Alireza; Badiei, Zohre; Talakesh, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nasal cannula, beside administering low-flow therapy, showed the capability for the administration of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) through high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). Meeting specific physical criteria of 100% relative humidity (RH) and temperature of 37°C are the basic interventional requirements to administer oxygen for the newborns through a nasal cannula. Recently, two systems, MR850 and PMH7000, received the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to administer heated, humidified HFNC (HHHFNC). These systems are evaluated in this study based on their humidifying and heating capabilities. Materials and Methods: This study was done as an RCT on newborns weighing 1,000 to 1,500 g recovering from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) while nCPAP was administered at CDP = 4 cmH2O, Fio2 <30%. Patients were randomized to two groups of 35 receiving HHHFNC after treatment with nCPAP, with one group using MR850 humidifier and the other PMH7000. The patients were compared according to the duration of HHHFNC administration, repeated need for nCPAP respiratory support, the need for invasive ventilation, apnea, chronic lung disease (CLD), nasal trauma, RH, and temperature of the gases. Results: The average time of support with HHHNFC did not show any significant difference in the two groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in the need for nCPAP, invasive ventilation, apnea, nasal trauma, and CLD. The difference in the levels of average temperature and humidity was significant (P value <0.001). Conclusion: Although the records of temperature and RH in the PMH7000 system was lower than the records from the MR850 system, no clinical priority was observed for respiratory support with HHHNFC in the two systems. PMID:25250286

  7. Spatial Effects of Sound on Visual Activity in Human Newborns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Morton J.; Haith, Marshall M.

    This study investigated the possibility of a functional relation between the auditory and visual systems in the human newborn beyond reflexive organization. Visual activity was monitored in 16 newborns through the use of infrared corneal reflection video tape recording. Infants were observed in total darkness and while monocularly viewing a…

  8. The Effects of Sound Duration on Newborns' Head Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Marsha G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Two experiments assessed the importance of sound duration for eliciting head orientation responses from newborn infants. Results suggest that newborns' head orientation response may reflect a motor program that is initiated by auditory input and then executed in a similar fashion regardless of further stimulation. (Author/AS)

  9. Remote control of microcontroller-based infant stimulating system.

    PubMed

    Burunkaya, M; Güler, I

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, a remote-controlled and microcontroller-based cradle is designed and constructed. This system is also called Remote Control of Microcontroller-Based Infant Stimulation System or the RECOMBIS System. Cradle is an infant stimulating system that provides relaxation and sleeping for the baby. RECOMBIS system is designed for healthy full-term newborns to provide safe infant care and provide relaxation and sleeping for the baby. A microcontroller-based electronic circuit was designed and implemented for RECOMBIS system. Electromagnets were controlled by 8-bit PIC16F84 microcontroller, which is programmed using MPASM package. The system works by entering preset values from the keyboard, or pulse code modulated radio frequency remote control system. The control of the system and the motion range were tested. The test results showed that the system provided a good performance.

  10. Healthy Children 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives Related to Mothers, Infants, Children, Adolescents, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This document is a compendium of approximately 170 national health promotion and disease prevention objectives affecting mothers, infants, children, adolescents, and youth. It offers a vision characterized by reductions of preventable death and disability, enhanced quality of life, and reduced disparities in the health status of the populations in…

  11. Effect of diet on the development of drug metabolism by cytochrome P-450 enzymes in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Blake, Michael J; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Pearce, Robin E; Leeder, J Steven; Kearns, Gregory L

    2006-12-01

    Orally administered caffeine and dextromethorphan (DM) were used as pharmacologic probes to determine the effect of infant diet on acquisition of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzyme activity during the first 6 mo of life. The caffeine elimination rate constant (ke) was determined from serum, and concentrations of caffeine, DM, and their respective metabolites were measured in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Caffeine ke was low at 2 wk and displayed a significant positive linear correlation with age (p < 0.001); increasing faster in formula-fed than in breast-fed infants (p < 0.001). This occurred concomitantly with a significant increase in urinary 1,7-dimethylxanthine (17X) and 1-methylxanthine (1X) (p < 0.001), suggesting faster acquisition of CYP1A2 activity in formula-fed infants. The urinary molar ratio of (17X + 1X)/caffeine and age strongly predicted caffeine ke (r2 = 0.65; p < 0.001) irrespective of feeding type. CYP3A4 activity, assessed as the molar ratio of 3-hydroxymorphinan/dextrorphan showed a similar marked increase with postnatal age (p < 0.001) that was also greater in formula-fed than in breast-fed infants. Formula feeding appears to accelerate maturation of caffeine and DM metabolism by increasing the activity of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, respectively. Dietary modification of CYP activity may modulate drug biotransformation and thus alter systemic exposure to xenobiotics from a very early age.

  12. Intersensory Interaction in Newborns: Modification of Visual Preferences Following Exposure to Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.; Turkewitz, Gerald

    1981-01-01

    Investigates intersensory interaction between auditory and visual stimulation in newborn infants. Following auditory stimulation, newborns' visual preferences for light patches of different intensity were examined. Results indicate that newborns attend to quantitative variations in stimulation and that these variations reflect both the objective…

  13. Perinatal risk factors in newborns with gastrointestinal perforation

    PubMed Central

    Prgomet, Sandra; Lukšić, Boris; Pogorelić, Zenon; Jurić, Ivo; Čapkun, Vesna; Arapović, Adela; Boban, Nataša

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate correlation of perinatal risk factors in newborns with gastrointestinal perforation (GIP). METHODS Single-center retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 1990 and December 2012. Medical records on all newborns with GIP were reviewed (n = 35). Surgical records and histopathologic examination of all perforated intestine samples were also reviewed. RESULTS The most common cause of GIP was necrotizing enterocolitis (51.4%). The most common site of perforation was large intestine. Mortality rate was 31%. Infants with GIP more frequently had very low birth weight (< 1500 g), especially birth weight below 10th percentile according to gestational age. Ponderal index was not differing between infants with GIP and control subjects. In infants with GIP anemia was more frequently found than in control group. CONCLUSION GIP in newborns is mostly disease of infants with birth weight below 10th percentile according to gestational age. GIP occurs more often in infants with anemia. PMID:28289509

  14. Maternal blood pressure in pregnancy and newborn irritability.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, J S; Woodson, R H; da Costa Woodson, E M

    1978-07-01

    The neonatal period is being recognized as an important period for the development of patterns of interaction between mother and infant, and infant state has been shown to have a significant impact on mother--infant interactions. A major dimension of infant state, with implications for this interaction and for the development of later behaviour disorders, is the infant's irritability. Research with Navajo, Malay, Chinese and Tamil mothers and infants showed that normal variation in maternal blood pressure during pregnancy was related to newborn irritability as assessed with the Brazelton Scale. This relationship is discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms.

  15. Effect of parental head circumference on that of the newborn child.

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, J; Havalad, S; Hudson, B; Hughes, A

    1980-01-01

    The head circumferences of 74 term, normal babies were measured, together with the head circumferences of their parents. Maternal head circumference had a significant effect on that of the newborn infant but paternal head circumference had not. An equation is given for estimating the expected head circumference of a newborn infant, provided the birthweight and maternal head circumference are known. PMID:7436491

  16. Three-Month-Olds, but Not Newborns, Prefer Own-Race Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, David J.; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Lee, Kang; Gibson, Alan; Smith, Michael; Ge, Liezhong; Pascalis, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    Adults are sensitive to the physical differences that define ethnic groups. However, the age at which we become sensitive to ethnic differences is currently unclear. Our study aimed to clarify this by testing newborns and young infants for sensitivity to ethnicity using a visual preference (VP) paradigm. While newborn infants demonstrated no…

  17. Electromyographic analysis of masseter muscle in newborns during suction in breast, bottle or cup feeding

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When breastfeeding is difficult or impossible during the neonatal period, an analysis of muscle activity can help determine the best method for substituting it to promote the child’s development. The aim of this study was to analyze the electrical activity of the masseter muscle using surface electromyography during suction in term newborns by comparing breastfeeding, bottle and cup feeding. Methods An observational, cross-sectional analytical study was carried out on healthy, clinically stable term infants, assigned to receive either breast, or bottle or cup feeding. Setting was a Baby Friendly accredited hospital. Muscle activity was analyzed when each infant showed interest in sucking using surface electromyography. Root mean square averages (RMS) recorded in microvolts were transformed into percentages (normalization) of the reference value. The three groups were compared by ANOVA; the “stepwise” method of the multiple linear regression analysis tested the model which best defined the activity of the masseter muscle in the sample at a significance level of 5%. Results Participants were 81 full term newborns (27 per group), from 2 to 28 days of life. RMS values were lower for bottle (mean 44.2%, SD 14.1) than breast feeding (mean 58.3%, SD 12.7) (P = 0.003, ANOVA); cup feeding (52.5%, SD 18.2%) was not significantly different (P > 0.05). For every gram of weight increase, RMS increased by 0.010 units. Conclusions Masseter activity was significantly higher in breastfed newborns than in bottle-fed newborns, who presented the lowest RMS values. Levels of masseter activity during cup-feeding were between those of breast and bottle feeding, and did not significantly differ from either group. This study in healthy full term neonates endorses cup rather than bottle feeding as a temporary substitute for breastfeeding. PMID:24885762

  18. Sleep and Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... 12-Month-Old Bed-Sharing All About Sleep Sleep and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Communication and Your Newborn Medical Care and Your Newborn Your Newborn's Growth Choosing Safe Baby Products: Cribs Flat Head Syndrome ( ...

  19. Suckling- and sucrose-induced analgesia in human newborns.

    PubMed

    Blass, E M; Watt, L B

    1999-12-01

    This experiment had three goals: 1. To identify the basis of sucking-induced analgesia in healthy, term, newborn humans undergoing the painful, routine, procedure of heel lance and blood collection. 2. To evaluate how taste-induced and sucking-induced analgesias combine to combat pain. 3. To determine whether facial grimacing was an accurate index of diminished pain, or whether it was linked to tissue trauma. We report that: 1. Sucking an unflavored pacifier was analgesic when and only when suck rate exceeded 30 sucks/min. 2. The combination of sucrose and nonnutritive sucking was remarkably analgesic; we saw no behavioral indication in nine of the ten infants that the heel lance had even occurred. 3. Grimacing was reduced to almost naught by procedures that essentially eliminated crying and markedly reduced heart rate during the blood harvesting procedure.

  20. Noninvasive method of estimating human newborn regional cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, D.P.; Reivich, M.; Jaggi, J.; Obrist, W.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1982-12-01

    A noninvasive method of estimating regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in premature and full-term babies has been developed. Based on a modification of the /sup 133/Xe inhalation rCBF technique, this method uses eight extracranial NaI scintillation detectors and an i.v. bolus injection of /sup 133/Xe (approximately 0.5 mCi/kg). Arterial xenon concentration was estimated with an external chest detector. Cerebral blood flow was measured in 15 healthy, neurologically normal premature infants. Using Obrist's method of two-compartment analysis, normal values were calculated for flow in both compartments, relative weight and fractional flow in the first compartment (gray matter), initial slope of gray matter blood flow, mean cerebral blood flow, and initial slope index of mean cerebral blood flow. The application of this technique to newborns, its relative advantages, and its potential uses are discussed.

  1. Newborns' Face Recognition over Changes in Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turati, Chiara; Bulf, Hermann; Simion, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the origins of the ability to recognize faces despite rotations in depth. Four experiments are reported that tested, using the habituation technique, whether 1-to-3-day-old infants are able to recognize the invariant aspects of a face over changes in viewpoint. Newborns failed to recognize facial perceptual invariances…

  2. The effectiveness of video interaction guidance in parents of premature infants: A multicenter randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have consistently found a high incidence of neonatal medical problems, premature births and low birth weights in abused and neglected children. One of the explanations proposed for the relation between neonatal problems and adverse parenting is a possible delay or disturbance in the bonding process between the parent and infant. This hypothesis suggests that due to neonatal problems, the development of an affectionate bond between the parent and the infant is impeded. The disruption of an optimal parent-infant bond -on its turn- may predispose to distorted parent-infant interactions and thus facilitate abusive or neglectful behaviours. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) is expected to promote the bond between parents and newborns and is expected to diminish non-optimal parenting behaviour. Methods/design This study is a multi-center randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Video Interaction Guidance in parents of premature infants. In this study 210 newborn infants with their parents will be included: n = 70 healthy term infants (>37 weeks GA), n = 70 moderate term infants (32–37 weeks GA) which are recruited from maternity wards of 6 general hospitals and n = 70 extremely preterm infants or very low birth weight infants (<32 weeks GA) recruited by the NICU of 2 specialized hospitals. The participating families will be divided into 3 groups: a reference group (i.e. full term infants and their parents, receiving care as usual), a control group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving care as usual) and an intervention group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving VIG). The data will be collected during the first six months after birth using observations of parent-infant interactions, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Primary outcomes are the quality of parental bonding and parent-infant interactive behaviour. Parental secondary outcomes are (posttraumatic) stress symptoms

  3. Usefulness of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation using double roller pumps in a low body weight newborn: A novel strategy for mechanical circulatory support in an infant.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Keisuke; Kato, Tomoko; Kawasaki, Shiori; Amano, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) with a centrifugal pump requires a certain flow rate; therefore, its application for low body weight infants is frequently accompanied by oxygenator membrane malfunction and/or inadequate perfusion. To prevent low-flow associated complications, we report a case in which a novel system of dual roller pumps was used. A baby girl with a body mass index 0.25 m(2), who experienced difficulty weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass after a Norwood-like operation, required an ECMO. Concerns for the tube lifespan reduction due to roller pump friction led to the use of a double roller pump circulation. The termination of ECMO during tube exchange is not needed, because circulation is maintained by another roller pump. The novel strategy of ECMO with double roller pumps will allow low perfusion rate to provide adequate circulatory support for low body weight patients.

  4. Newborn Screening for Biliary Atresia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kasper S

    2015-12-01

    Biliary atresia is the most common cause of pediatric end-stage liver disease and the leading indication for pediatric liver transplantation. Affected infants exhibit evidence of biliary obstruction within the first few weeks after birth. Early diagnosis and successful surgical drainage of bile are associated with greater survival with the child's native liver. Unfortunately, because noncholestatic jaundice is extremely common in early infancy, it is difficult to identify the rare infant with cholestatic jaundice who has biliary atresia. Hence, the need for timely diagnosis of this disease warrants a discussion of the feasibility of screening for biliary atresia to improve outcomes. Herein, newborn screening for biliary atresia in the United States is assessed by using criteria established by the Discretionary Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children. Published analyses indicate that newborn screening for biliary atresia by using serum bilirubin concentrations or stool color cards is potentially life-saving and cost-effective. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and costs of potential screening strategies for early identification of biliary atresia in the United States.

  5. ABM Clinical Protocol #5: Peripartum breastfeeding management for the healthy mother and infant at term, revision 2013.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Allison V; McLeod, Angela Yerdon; Bunik, Maya

    2013-12-01

    A central goal of The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may impact breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient.

  6. The interfacility transport of critically ill newborns.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Hilary Ea; Jefferies, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    The practice of paediatric/neonatal interfacility transport continues to expand. Transport teams have evolved into mobile intensive care units capable of delivering state-of-the-art critical care during paediatric and neonatal transport. While outcomes are best for high-risk infants born in a tertiary care setting, high-risk mothers often cannot be safely transferred. Their newborns may then have to be transported to a higher level of care following birth. The present statement reviews issues relating to transport of the critically ill newborn population, including personnel, team competencies, skills, equipment, systems and processes. Six recommendations for improving interfacility transport of critically ill newborns are highlighted, emphasizing the importance of regionalized care for newborns.

  7. Intersensory Function in Newborns: Effect of Sound on Visual Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Katharine Rieke; Turkewitz, Gerald

    1980-01-01

    Newborn infants' fixation of a graduated series of visual stimuli significantly differed in the absence and presence of white-noise bursts. Relative to the no-sound condition, sound resulted in the infants' tendency to look more at the low-intensity visual stimulus and less at the high- intensity visual stimulus. (Author/DB)

  8. Probing the Mechanism of Oscillations in Newborn Motor Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Steven S.

    1993-01-01

    Cyclical fluctuation in spontaneous motor activity (CM) emerges in fetus and persists in newborn. This "resetting" experiment perturbed CM by noise stimulus during infants' active sleep. Pre- and postperturbation CM were measured and compared. Subjects were 33 infants between 1 and 3 days of age. The stimulus induced a relative slowing of CM…

  9. Dephytinisation of soyabean protein isolate with low native phytic acid content has limited impact on mineral and trace element absorption in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Davidsson, Lena; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Kastenmayer, Peter; van Dael, Peter; Barclay, Denis

    2004-02-01

    Infant formulas based on soyabean protein isolate are often used as an alternative to cows'-based formulas. However, the presence of phytic acid in soya formulas has raised concern about the absorption of trace elements and minerals from these products. The aim of the present study was to evaluate mineral and trace element absorption from regular and dephytinised soya formula in healthy infants. Soyabean protein isolate with a relatively low native content of phytic acid was used for production of a regular soya formula (300 mg phytic acid/kg liquid formula) and an experimental formula was based on dephytinised soya protein isolate (<6 mg phytic acid/kg liquid formula). Using a crossover study design, apparent mineral and trace element absorptions were measured by a stable isotope technique based on 72 h faecal excretion of non-absorbed stable isotopes (Zn, Fe, Cu and Ca) and by the chemical balance technique (Mn, Zn, Cu and Ca) in nine infants (69-191 d old). Fe absorption was also measured by erythrocyte incorporation 14 d after intake. The results from the present study demonstrated that Zn absorption, measured by a stable isotope technique, was significantly greater after dephytinisation (mean value 16.7 v. 22.6 %; P=0.03). No other statistically significant differences between the two formulas were observed. The nutritional benefit of dephytinisation was marginal in the present study. Based on these results, the use of soyabean protein isolate with low native content of phytic acid should be promoted for production of soya formulas and adequate addition of ascorbic acid to enhance Fe absorption should be ensured in the products.

  10. [Transport of "high-risk" newborn infants. (Apropos of 159 emergency calls by the SAMU 94-Service d'Aide Médicale Urgente-Emergency Health Service)].

    PubMed

    Scheyer, M; Iannascoli, F; Brioude, R; Canet, J

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of our experience confirms in the domain of the newborn the fundamental notion of the Emergency medical call. The EMC has two objectives: 1--Emergency treatment before the patient is moved, and the correction of failing vital functions by a medical team skilled in problems of neonates. 2--Transportation of the neonate in a stable condition, to the Intensive Care unit. The quality of such transportation depends closely upon the quality of the medical care given and upon organisation. It can only be carried out in the context of a system coordinated by a "coordinating physician" (e.g. SAMU 94). This coordinating physician has responsibility for logistics, telephone coordination, and application of the call procedure as rapidly as possible. From a logistical point of view, only coordination between:--SAMU-SMUR;--Medical team of the Intensive care unit;--Requesting service make possible the provision and quality of continuous supplies of oxygen, warmth, sugar - all under aseptic conditions, indispensable to the quality of survival of the neonate. In addition, we feel it essential--that the delay before the call is answered be as brief as possible;--that the call should be dealt with by a mixed team, including at least one physician experienced in neonatal problems;--that the choice of vehicle used for transportation should be better adapted to the situation. This choice is the responsibility of the coordinating physician, who should base his decisions on two fundamental requirements:--rapidity of dealing with the call;--personal safety of those involved. This without losing sight of--Prevention of perinatal problems lies part with the detection of high risk pregnancies, with the aim of arranging delivery in specialised "mother and baby" centres where close collaboration between obstetrician and paediatrician is assured.--The development of transportation of the "high-risk" neonate, which is so costly in manpower and equipment, depends closely upon general

  11. [Infant nutrition].

    PubMed

    Salle, Bernard

    2009-02-01

    Nutritional quality during the first weeks of life can influence health during both infancy and adulthood. Exclusive long-term breast feeding is strongly recommended, particularly for infants at risk of allergy. It protects against gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, and has been shown to enhance cognitive and intellectual development. Breast-feeding is also associated with a lower risk of obesity and type 1 diabetes in infants and of cardiovascular disease in adults. Breast-feeding is rarely contraindicated. Multiple European and French guidelines and regulations govern the composition of infant formulas, which may be given during the first year of life when breast-feeding is unavailable. Hypoallergenic and soy-based formulas are not recommended for healthy infants.

  12. Prebiotics in healthy infants and children for prevention of acute infectious diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lohner, Szimonetta; Küllenberg, Daniela; Antes, Gerd; Decsi, Tamás; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2014-08-01

    Prebiotics, defined as nondigestible dietary ingredients resistant to gastric acidity and fermented by the intestinal flora, are used to positively influence the composition of intestinal flora, thereby promoting health benefits. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of prebiotics in the prevention of acute infectious diseases in children. A systematic literature search was conducted using the Ovid Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library's Central databases. Finally, five randomized controlled trials, all of them investigating infants and children 0-24 months of age, were included in the review. Pooled estimates from three studies revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of infectious episodes requiring antibiotic therapy in the prebiotic group as compared with the placebo group (rate ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.77). Studies available indicate that prebiotics may also be effective in decreasing the rate of overall infections in infants and children 0-24 months of age. Further studies in the age group 3-18 years are required to determine whether prebiotics can be considered for the prevention of acute infectious diseases in the older pediatric population.

  13. Immunogenicity of Yellow Fever Vaccine Coadministered With MenAfriVac in Healthy Infants in Ghana and Mali

    PubMed Central

    Roy Chowdhury, Panchali; Meier, Christian; Laraway, Hewad; Tang, Yuxiao; Hodgson, Abraham; Sow, Samba O.; Enwere, Godwin C.; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Niedrig, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background. Yellow fever (YF) is still a major public health problem in endemic regions of Africa and South America. In Africa, one of the main control strategies is routine vaccination within the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). A new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) is about to be introduced in the EPI of countries in the African meningitis belt, and this study reports on the immunogenicity of the YF-17D vaccines in infants when administered concomitantly with measles vaccine and PsA-TT. Methods. Two clinical studies were conducted in Ghana and in Mali among infants who received PsA-TT concomitantly with measles and YF vaccines at 9 months of age. YF neutralizing antibody titers were measured using a microneutralization assay. Results. In both studies, the PsA-TT did not adversely affect the immune response to the concomitantly administered YF vaccine at the age of 9 months. The magnitude of the immune response was different between the 2 studies, with higher seroconversion and seroprotection rates found in Mali vs Ghana. Conclusions. Immunogenicity to YF vaccine is unaffected when coadministered with PsA-TT at 9 months of age. Further studies are warranted to better understand the determinants of the immune response to YF vaccine in infancy. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN82484612 (PsA-TT-004); PACTR201110000328305 (PsA-TT-007). PMID:26553692

  14. Safety of Sildenafil in Infants*

    PubMed Central

    Samiee-Zafarghandy, Samira; Smith, P. Brian; van den Anker, Johannes N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In view of the recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s warning against the use of sildenafil in pediatric patients, we aimed to provide an updated overview of the dosing and safety of sildenafil in infants and to explore the relevance of the present safety concerns to the infant population. Data Source The National Library of Medicine PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched using the following terms: Sildenafil AND (infant OR infants OR newborn OR newborns OR child OR children OR childhood OR pediatric OR pediatrics OR paediatric OR paediatrics). Study Selection Studies presenting original clinical data regarding the dosing, use, or safety of sildenafil in infants with pulmonary hypertension would be included. Data Extraction Of the 49 included studies, case reports and case series were the most common type of publications (n = 25). The identified trials included 625 children, with more than 140 infants. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and pulmonary hypertension associated with other conditions were the most common underlying diagnoses. Conclusion There is currently no evidence of serious adverse event in infants exposed to sildenafil. Present safety concerns regarding the use of sildenafil in pediatric patients should be further explored before being applied to infant population. Sildenafil remains a valuable option for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in young infants. Prospective studies should be designed in such a way that they include a safety assessment to evaluate potential adverse outcomes of sildenafil therapy in this population. PMID:24583505

  15. Successful orthotopic liver transplantation and delayed delivery of a healthy newborn in a woman with fulminant hepatic failure during the second trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mendizabal, Manuel; Rowe, Carlos; Piñero, Federico; Gonzalez-Campaña, Ariel; Fauda, Martín; Tomás Arufe, Diego; Pía Raffa, María; Barreiro, Mariano; Keller, Rodolfo; Cacheiro, Fernando; Beruti, Ernesto; Andriani, Oscar; Oscar Silva, Marcelo; Podestá, Luis Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Severe liver dysfunction during pregnancy implies a serious risk for both mother and fetus, and represents a technical and ethical challenge for treating physicians. We report a case of a previously healthy 32-year old woman who was admitted to our hospital with idiopathic fulminant hepatic failure and underwent successful orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) at gestation week 21. Patient's and fetus' immediate postoperative course were relatively uneventful until week six after OLT, when the mother developed oligohydramnios and preeclampsia. At pregnancy week 27, after inducing baby's lung maturation, a cesarean section was performed with the delivery of an otherwise healthy girl. After 3 years of follow-up, mother and child are leading normal lives with no complications related either to pregnancy or to OLT. We describe the case of a successful emergency liver transplant in a woman during the second trimester of pregnancy, demonstrating that OLT can be a viable option to preserve the life of the mother and an otherwise unviable fetus. Intrauterine baby's growths until the attainment of a viable gestational age was feasible despite the mother's fulminant hepatic failure and liver transplant surgery.

  16. Altered Intracellular ATP Production by Activated CD4+ T-Cells in Very Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Corvaglia, Luigi; Gabrielli, Liliana; Chiereghin, Angela; Lazzarotto, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Background. The neonatal immune system is not fully developed at birth; newborns have adequate lymphocytes counts but these cells lack function. Objective. To assess the activity of T-cells and the influence of the main perinatal factors in very preterm infants (birth weight < 1500 g). Design. Blood samples from 59 preterm infants (21/59 were dizygotic twins) were collected at birth and at 30 days of life to measure CD4+ T-cell activity using the ImmuKnow™ assay. Fifteen healthy adults were included as a control group. Results. CD4+ T-cell activity was lower in VLBW infants compared with adults (p < 0.001). Twins showed lower immune activity compared to singletons (p = 0.005). Infants born vaginally showed higher CD4+ T-cell activity compared to those born by C-section (p = 0.031); infants born after prolonged Premature Rupture of Membranes (pPROM) showed higher CD4+ T-cell activity at birth (p = 0.002) compared to infants born without pPROM. Low CD4+ T-cell activity at birth is associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in the first week of life (p = 0.049). Conclusions. Preterm infants show a lack in CD4+ T-cell activity at birth. Perinatal factors such as intrauterine inflammation, mode of delivery, and zygosity can influence the adaptive immune activation capacity at birth and can contribute to exposing these infants to serious complications such as NEC. PMID:28070527

  17. Newborn Jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Month Personal Story - David Roncori Liver Disease - The Big Picture 13 Ways to a Healthy Liver In the Field Call to Action - Change Tomorrow, Give Today Liver Lowdown Sept 2013 Recovery Month Path to Wellness 5 Facts About Recovery Patient Story In the Field ...

  18. Relationship between prenatal lead exposure and infant blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Archer, Natalie P; Bradford, Carrie M; Klein, David M; Barnes, Jim; Smith, L J; Villanacci, John F

    2012-10-01

    Recent literature has shown that analyzing newborn dried blood spots (DBS) may be effective in assessing some prenatal environmental exposures, such as exposure to lead. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between prenatal exposure to lead (as measured by newborn DBS results) and blood lead levels (BLLs) in infants 6 months of age or younger, using public health registry data for infants born in Texas from July 2002 through July 2006. The Texas Child Lead Registry (TCLR) was used to identify infants with documented elevated BLLs of 10 μg/dL or higher as well as infants with documented low BLLs. BLLs for these children were compared to their corresponding newborn DBS results using Pearson correlation coefficients and exact logistic regression models. Overall, a significant but weak positive correlation was found between infant BLLs and corresponding newborn DBS lead levels (r = 0.48). However, the odds of an infant with an elevated newborn DBS lead level having an elevated BLL at 6 months of age or younger were much greater than for an infant with a low newborn DBS lead level of <5 μg/dL (adjusted odds ratio 27.95, 95% CI: 5.52-277.28). Although an association was observed between newborn DBS lead levels and BLLs in infants tested between 0 to 6 months of age, our findings suggest that prenatal exposure may not be the only significant source of lead exposure for infants ≤6 months of age.

  19. INSIGHT Responsive Parenting Intervention and Infant Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Ian M.; Savage, Jennifer S.; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Marini, Michele E.; Mindell, Jodi A.; Birch, Leann L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Inadequate sleep during infancy is associated with adverse outcomes for infants and families. We sought to improve sleep behaviors and duration through a responsive parenting (RP) intervention designed for obesity prevention. METHODS The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) study is a randomized trial comparing a RP intervention with a safety control. Primiparous mother-newborn dyads were randomized after childbirth, and research nurses delivered intervention content at home visits at infant ages 3, 16, 28, and 40 weeks and at a research center visit at 1 year. The RP sleep component included developmentally appropriate messages about bedtime routines, sleep location and behaviors, and responses to wakings. Portions of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire were administered 2, 8, and 52 weeks after birth with expanded sleep-related data collection at 16 and 40 weeks. RESULTS Two hundred and seventy-nine dyads completed the first home visit; 90.7% completed the 1-year visit. Compared with controls, RP group infants were less likely to have prolonged bedtime routines >45 minutes and more likely to have earlier bedtimes at 16 and 40 weeks. They were less likely to be fed immediately before bed and more likely to self-soothe to sleep. At 8, 16, and 40 weeks, RP group nocturnal sleep duration was longer by 35, 25, and 22 minutes, respectively (P < .05 for all). Sleep duration at 1 year was similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS The INSIGHT RP intervention positively influenced developmentally appropriate bedtime routines, sleep-related behaviors, and sleep duration for infants. PMID:27354460

  20. Mother and infant: early emotional ties.

    PubMed

    Klaus, M

    1998-11-01

    Recent behavioral and physiologic observations of infants and mothers have shown them ready to begin interacting in the first minutes of life. Included among these findings are the newborn infant's ability to crawl toward the breast to initiate suckling and mother-infant thermoregulation. The attachment felt between mother and infant may be biochemically modulated through oxytocin; encouraging attachment through early contact, suckling, and rooming-in has been shown to reduce abandonment.

  1. Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1) in Placenta Is Associated with Infant Cry Acoustics

    PubMed Central

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Righi, Giulia; Marsit, Carmen J.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms regulating expression of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) promoter may influence behavioral and biological aspects of stress response in human infants. Acoustic features of infant crying are an indicator of neurobehavioral and neurological status not yet investigated in relation to epigenetic mechanisms. We examined NR3C1 methylation in placental tissue from a series of 120 healthy newborn infants in relation to a detailed set of acoustic features extracted from newborn infant cries. We identified significant associations of NR3C1 methylation with energy variation in infants' cries as well as with the presence of very high fundamental frequency in cry utterances. The presence of high fundamental frequency in cry (above 1 kHz) has been linked to poor vocal tract control, poor regulation of stress response, and may be an indicator or poor neurobehavioral integrity. Thus, these results add to evidence linking epigenetic alteration of the NR3C1 gene in the placenta to neurodevelopmental features in infants. PMID:27313516

  2. Infant Perception of Visually Presented Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, T. G. R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A previously-reported experiment designed to determine if newborn infants can distinguish between an object and a picture of that object is flawed. The experimental design and an improved design are discussed. (BB)

  3. Behavioural Development in Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and Human Newborns across the First Month of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallock, Martha B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports comparisons of behaviors of nine chimpanzee and nine human newborns on a standardized human neonatal assessment scale at the ages of three days and one month. Human infants scored higher than chimpanzee infants on the orientation cluster at both ages, but were lower than chimpanzee infants in motoric maturity. (RJC)

  4. Gut microbiome in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs from that in healthy comparison babies and offers an explanation for the risk factor of prone position.

    PubMed

    Highet, Amanda R; Berry, Anne M; Bettelheim, Karl A; Goldwater, Paul N

    2014-07-01

    The role of bacteria in the causation of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is gaining acceptance. Mainstream research favouring respiratory compromise has failed to provide a plausible pathogenetic mechanism despite many years of investigation and thousands of research papers. Bacterial colonisation of the colon of the human infant is influenced by many factors including age, mode of delivery, diet, environment, and antibiotic exposure. The gut microbiome influences development of the immune system. The gut microflora could be important in protection against the bacteria and/or their toxins purportedly involved in SIDS pathogenesis. The aim was to perform a preliminary investigation of the gut microflora in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) compared with live comparison babies. The intestinal contents from 52 SIDS, and 102 faecal samples from age-matched live comparison infants were screened by PCR to target 16s RNA genes of Clostridium innocuum, Cl. Perfringens, Cl. difficile, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Staphylococcus aureus. Gut colonisation of the babies with these bacteria was analysed in relation to age, gender and type of feeding; and for SIDS babies sleeping position. Cl. difficile, Cl. innocuum and B. thetaiotaomicron were significantly associated with SIDS with 25%, 46% and 30% of cases PCR positive for these respective bacteria compared with only 6%, 23% and 8.8% respectively in the comparison group. SIDS babies had dual colonisation by both Cl. perfringens and Cl. difficile significantly more often than comparison babies and also with triple colonisation by Cl. perfringens, Cl. difficile and Cl. innocuum. SIDS babies were more often colonised by S. aureus than comparison babies. In addition, SIDS babies found prone were significantly more likely to be colonised by S. aureus than for other positions recorded (OR = ∞; CI = 2·04 - ∞). No significant differences between breast and bottle-fed SIDS babies was observed in regard to each

  5. Angiogenesis Dysregulation in Term Asphyxiated Newborns Treated with Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Henna; Boudes, Elodie; Khoja, Zehra; Shevell, Michael; Wintermark, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal encephalopathy following birth asphyxia is a major predictor of long-term neurological impairment. Therapeutic hypothermia is currently the standard of care to prevent brain injury in asphyxiated newborns but is not protective in all cases. More robust and versatile treatment options are needed. Angiogenesis is a demonstrated therapeutic target in adult stroke. However, no systematic study examines the expression of angiogenesis-related markers following birth asphyxia in human newborns. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the expression of angiogenesis-related protein markers in asphyxiated newborns developing and not developing brain injury compared to healthy control newborns. Design/Methods Twelve asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia were prospectively enrolled; six developed eventual brain injury and six did not. Four healthy control newborns were also included. We used Rules-Based Medicine multi-analyte profiling and protein array technologies to study the plasma concentration of 49 angiogenesis-related proteins. Mean protein concentrations were compared between each group of newborns. Results Compared to healthy newborns, asphyxiated newborns not developing brain injury showed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic proteins, including fatty acid binding protein-4, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, neuropilin-1, and receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3; this up-regulation was not evident in asphyxiated newborns eventually developing brain injury. Also, asphyxiated newborns developing brain injury showed a decreased expression of anti-angiogenic proteins, including insulin-growth factor binding proteins -1, -4, and -6, compared to healthy newborns. Conclusions These findings suggest that angiogenesis pathways are dysregulated following birth asphyxia and are putatively involved in brain injury pathology and recovery. PMID:25996847

  6. A case of delivery of healthy infant in breast cancer patient incidentally treated with goserelin acetate and tamoxifen during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Shinji; Satou, Shizou

    2016-01-01

    In September 2000, a 32-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a right breast mass. In September 2000, she underwent pectoral muscle-preserving mastectomy for the treatment of right breast cancer. Pathologyy results revealed a mucinous carcinoma 27 × 20 × 18 mm in size accompanied by an extensive intraductal component. The tumor was staged as T2 N1M0 stage IIB and found to be estrogen receptor-positive, and 6 cycles of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide were carried out. Goserelin acetate plus tamoxifen was prescribed from April 2001 to March 2005. Since the patient received tamoxifen from April 2005 and eumenorrhea started in June 2006, goserelin acetate plus tamoxifen was started in August 2006. The patient was determined to be 25 weeks pregnant by abdominal ultrasonography in February 2007. This meant that she had been taking goserelin acetate plus tamoxifen for 6 months without realizing she was pregnant. She gave birth to a girl by cesarean section in May 2007. No abnormalities, including anomaly of the genitalia, were seen, and the subsequent growth of the infant was also satisfactory. We here report this case and a brief review of the literature.

  7. Oral cavities of healthy infants harbour high proportions of Streptococcus salivarius strains with phenotypic and genotypic resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Palma, Thaís H; Harth-Chú, Erika N; Scott, Jodie; Stipp, Rafael N; Boisvert, Heike; Salomão, Mariana F; Theobaldo, Jéssica D; Possobon, Rosana F; Nascimento, Leandro C; McCafferty, Jonathan W; Faller, Lina; Duncan, Margaret J; Mattos-Graner, Renata O

    2016-12-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance in the oropharyngeal microbiota, of which Streptococcus salivarius is a prominent species, represents a challenge for treating paediatric populations. In this study, we investigated the role of Streptococcussalivarius as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in the oral microbiota by analysing 95 Streptococcussalivarius isolates from 22 healthy infants (2-16 months of age). MICs of penicillin G, amoxicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycycline and streptomycin were determined. ARG profiles were assessed in a subset of 21 strains by next-generation sequencing of genomes, followed by searches of assembled reads against the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database. Strains resistant to erythromycin, penicillins and tetracyclines were isolated from 83.3, 33.3 and 16.6 %, respectively, of infants aged 2 to 8 months with no prior antibiotic treatment. These percentages were100.0, 66.6 and 50.0 %, by 13 to 16 months of age. ARG or polymorphisms associated with antibiotic resistance were the most prevalent and involved genes for macrolide efflux (mel, mefA/E and macB), ribosomal protection [erm(B), tet(M) and tet(O)] and β-lactamase-like proteins. Phylogenetically related strains showing multidrug-resistant phenotypes harboured multidrug efflux ARG. Polymorphic genes associated with antibiotic resistance to drugs affecting DNA replication, folate synthesis, RNA/protein synthesis and regulators of antibiotic stress responses were detected. These data imply that Streptococcussalivarius strains established during maturation of the oral microbiota harbour a diverse array of functional ARG, even in the absence of antibiotic selective pressures, highlighting a potential role for this species in shaping antibiotic susceptibility profiles of oropharyngeal communities.

  8. Immunogenicity and safety of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine delivered by disposable-syringe jet injector in healthy Brazilian infants: a randomized non-inferiority study.

    PubMed

    de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; Curran, Birute; Maia, Maria de Lourdes Sousa; Ribeiro, Maria das Graças Tavares; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Siqueira, Marilda Mendonça; Lemos, Maria Cristina F; de Albuquerque, Elizabeth Maciel; von Doellinger, Vanessa dos Reis; Homma, Akira; Saganic, Laura; Jarrahian, Courtney; Royals, Michael; Zehrung, Darin

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine if immunogenicity to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine delivered to infants via a disposable-syringe jet injector (DSJI) was non-inferior to that administered by needle and syringe (NS). Vaccination safety was evaluated, as were the use, performance, and acceptability of each delivery method. The DSJI was the PharmaJet 2009 generation-1 device (G1) and the vaccine was measles-mumps-rubella vaccine from Bio-Manguinhos. Five hundred eighty-two healthy Brazilian infants were randomized to receive vaccine via G1 or NS. Seroconversion rates against measles and mumps viruses in the G1 treatment group did not meet non-inferiority criteria when compared with the NS group; however, responses in the G1 group to rubella virus were non-inferior to those of NS vaccinees. Most adverse events were mild or moderate. Crying after injection was more frequent in the NS group, and local skin reactions were more common in the G1 group. Five serious adverse events were judged causally unrelated to treatment and all resolved. Parents/guardians expressed a strong preference for G1 over NS for their children. Vaccinators found the G1 easy to use but noted incomplete vaccine delivery in some cases. Although the G1 has been superseded by an updated device, our results are important for the continued improvement and evaluation of DSJIs, which have the potential to overcome many of the challenges and risks associated with needle-based injections worldwide. Recommendations for future DSJI clinical studies include rigorous training of vaccinators, quantitative measurement of wetness on the skin following injection, and regular monitoring of device and vaccinator performance.

  9. Exceptional Infant: Studies in Abnormalities, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellmuth, Jerome, Ed.

    Designed as a complement to Volume 1 on the normal infant (available as EC 003 414), the text examines the following areas: neurological examination of the newborn, neurobehavioral organization of the newborn, neuropsychology examinations in young children, learning of motor skills on the basis of self-induced movements, factors in vulnerability…

  10. Perinatal factors associated with neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal newborns

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was to evaluate the effect of neonatal, maternal, and delivery factors on neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) of healthy newborns. Methods Medical records of 705 healthy infants born through normal vaginal delivery were reviewed. Neonatal TSH levels obtained by neonatal screening tests were analyzed in relation to perinatal factors and any associations with free thyroxine (FT4) and 17-α hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) levels. Results An inverse relationship was found between TSH and sampling time after birth. Twin babies and neonates born by vacuum-assisted delivery had higher TSH levels than controls. First babies had higher TSH levels than subsequent babies. Birth weight, gestational age, maternal age and duration from the rupture of the membrane to birth were not related to neonatal TSH. There were no significant differences in TSH level according to sex, Apgar scores, labor induction, the presence of maternal disease and maternal medications. There was a positive association between TSH and 17OHP level but not between TSH and FT4 level. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that sampling time, mode of delivery, birth order, and 17OHP level were significant factors affecting neonatal TSH level. Conclusion Neonatal TSH levels of healthy normal newborns are related with multiple factors. Acute stress during delivery may influence the neonatal TSH level in early neonatal period. PMID:28164073

  11. Hormonal effects in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb babies ...

  12. Senses and Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... Other Senses: 1 Month Your Newborn's Growth Your Child's Development: Newborn Contact Us Print Resources Send to a ...

  13. Feeding Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... you choose to breastfeed or formula feed. About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding your newborn has many advantages. Perhaps most ... to care for her newborn. continue Limitations of Breastfeeding With all the good things known about breastfeeding, ...

  14. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn ... changed; or goes to sleep ) Movement and Physical Development moves in response to sights and sounds rooting ...

  15. Low blood sugar - newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also called neonatal ...

  16. Newborn screening tests

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn screening tests look for developmental, genetic, and metabolic disorders in the newborn baby. This allows steps to be taken before symptoms develop. Most of these illnesses are very rare, but can be treated if caught ...

  17. Changes in diapered and nondiapered infant skin over the first month of life.

    PubMed

    Visscher, M O; Chatterjee, R; Munson, K A; Pickens, W L; Hoath, S B

    2000-01-01

    Time- and site-dependent differences in epidermal barrier properties were investigated over the first 28 days of life in healthy term newborn infants. Diapered and nondiapered skin sites were contrasted to the volar forearm of adults (mothers). Thirty-one term infants were evaluated in the hospital on postnatal day 1 and at home on days 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 for a total of six visits. Measurements included baseline skin hydration, continuous capacitive reactance, peak water sorption, rate of water desorption, skin pH, skin temperature, and environmental conditions. Changes in epidermal barrier properties over the first 4 weeks of life included an increase in surface hydration, a decrease in transepidermal water movement under occlusion, a decrease in surface water desorption rate, and a decrease in surface pH. Diapered and nondiapered regions were indistinguishable at birth but exhibited differential behavior over the first 14 days, with the diapered region showing a higher pH and increased hydration. Maternal measurements remained constant throughout the period. We conclude that healthy newborn skin undergoes progressive changes in epidermal barrier properties over the first 28 days. Adult skin testing does not replicate newborn skin during the first month of life.

  18. Impact of a Federal Healthy Start Program on feto-infant morbidity associated with absent fathers: a quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Salihu, Hamisu M.; August, Euna M.; Mbah, Alfred K.; Alio, Amina P.; Berry, Estrellita “Lo”; Aliyu, Muktar H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The absence of fathers during pregnancy increases the risk of feto-infant morbidities, including low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), and small-for-gestational age (SGA). Previous research has shown that the Central Hillsborough Healthy Start project (CHHS) – a federally funded initiative in Tampa, Florida – has effectively improved birth outcomes. This study explores the effectiveness of the CHHS project in ameliorating the adverse effects of fathers’ absence during pregnancy. Methods This retrospective cohort study used CHHS records linked to vital statistics and hospital discharge data (1998–2007). The study population consisted of women who had a singleton birth with an absent father during pregnancy. Women were categorized based on residence in the CHHS service area. Propensity score matching was used to match cases (CHHS) to controls (rest of Florida). Conditional logistic regression was employed to generate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for matched observations. Results Women residing in the CHHS service area were more likely to be high school graduates, black, younger (<35 years), and to have adequate prenatal care compared to controls (p<0.01). These differences disappeared after propensity score matching. Mothers with absent fathers in the CHHS service area had a reduced likelihood of LBW (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.65–0.89), PTB (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.62–0.84), very low birth weight (OR=0.50, 95% CI= 0.35–0.72) and very preterm birth (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.34–0.69) compared to their counterparts in the rest of the state. Conclusions This study demonstrates that a Federal Healthy Start project contributed to a significant reduction in adverse fetal birth outcomes in families with absent fathers. PMID:24549651

  19. Pain assessment scales in newborns: integrative review

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Gleicia Martins; Lélis, Ana Luíza Paula de Aguiar; de Moura, Alline Falconieri; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; da Silva, Viviane Martins

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze studies on methods used to assess pain in newborns. DATA SOURCES: Integrative review study of articles published from 2001 to 2012, carried out in the following databases: Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS and Cochrane. The sample consisted of 13 articles with level of evidence 5. DATA SYNTHESIS: 29 pain assessment scales in newborns, including 13 one-dimensional and 16 multidimensional, that assess acute and prolonged pain in preterm and full-term infants were available in scientific publications. CONCLUSION: Based on the characteristics of scales, one cannot choose a single one as the most appropriate scale, as this choice will depend on gestational age, type of painful stimulus and the environment in which the infant is inserted. It is suggested the use of multidimensional or one-dimensional scales; however, they must be reliable and validated. PMID:25511005

  20. Disorders of vitamin B12 metabolism presenting through newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Janice

    2008-12-01

    Elevated propionyl C3 carnitine is the most common abnormality seen in tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening profiles, with an incidence of 0.15% seen in our South Australian newborn screening programme. The most common cause for this result in our population is vitamin B12 deficiency but differential diagnoses include the inherited disorders of propionic and methylmalonic acid metabolism and cobalamin deficiencies. An approach to confirmatory testing and subsequent management of infants with elevated propionic carnitine is presented.

  1. A Survey of Newborn Intensive Care Centers in California

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Warren E.

    1975-01-01

    Newborn intensive care has come of age in California. Twenty-one newborn intensive care centers and 11 community level units are now approved by Crippled Children Services in California. In 1973 there were more than 6,863 patients admitted to the 20 centers surveyed, over half requiring transport from referring hospitals. This paper provides information on the distribution, admission and occupancy rates, length of stay, costs and admission diagnoses for these high risk infants. PMID:1154794

  2. Specificity of infant digestive conditions: some clues for developing relevant in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Bourlieu, Claire; Ménard, Olivia; Bouzerzour, Karima; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Macierzanka, Adam; Mackie, Alan R; Dupont, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Digestion of nutrients is an essential function of the newborn infant gut to allow growth and development and understanding infant digestive function is essential to optimize nutrition and oral drug delivery. Ethical considerations prohibit invasive in vivo trials and as a consequence in vitro assays are often conducted. However, the choice of in vitro model parameters are not supported by an exhaustive analysis of the literature and do not mimic precisely the digestive conditions of the infant. This review contains a compilation of the studies which characterized the gastroduodenal conditions in full-term or preterm infants of variable postnatal age from birth up to six months. Important data about healthy full-term infants are reported. The enzymatic (type of enzymes and level of activity) and nonenzymatic (milk-based diet, frequency of feeding, bile salt concentrations) conditions of digestion in infants are shown to differ significantly from those in adults. In addition, the interindividual and developmental variability of the digestive conditions in infants is also highlighted.

  3. Plasma esterified F2-isoprostanes and oxidative stress in newborns: role of nonprotein-bound iron.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Cinzia; Perrone, Serafina; Sgherri, Cristiana; Ciccoli, Lucia; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Leoncini, Silvia; Rossi, Viviana; Vecchio, Daniela; Comporti, Mario

    2008-03-01

    Nonprotein-bound iron (NPBI) and F2-isoprostanes, reliable markers of oxidative stress, are increased in plasma of newborns and inversely correlated to the gestational age. Because NPBI represents a pro-oxidant stimulus in plasma, we test the hypothesis that the entity of lipid peroxidation is related with NPBI concentrations. Plasma levels of free, esterified, and total F2-isoprostanes were investigated in relation to NPBI levels in 59 newborns and 16 healthy adults. The pro-oxidant role of iron was ascertained in vitro, by measuring all the forms of F2-isoprostanes after incubation with ammonium iron sulfate. Significant positive correlations were found between NPBI and total as well as esterified F2-isoprostanes in plasma of the newborns. The addition of ammonium iron sulfate induced a marked increase in all the forms of F2-isoprostanes after 2 hours of incubation. The higher NPBI concentration, the higher F2-isoprostanes levels. An increase NPBI dose dependent in total F2-isoprostanes formation was observed in dialyzed low density lipoprotein from adult plasma. The results clearly show that once NPBI is generated, whatever its source, it is capable of inducing oxidative stress. NPBI-induced oxidative stress may contribute to the morbidity in preterm infants that are particularly susceptible to free radical damage.

  4. Creatine kinase isoenzymes in serum from cord blood and the blood of healthy full-term infants during the first three postnatal days.

    PubMed

    Jedeikin, R; Makela, S K; Shennan, A T; Rowe, R D; Ellis, G

    1982-02-01

    Isoenzymes of creatine kinase (ATP:creatine phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.3.2; CK) were measured by electrophoresis in serum from cord blood and skin-puncture blood taken from 45 healthy full-term infants during the first three postnatal days. Mean total CK activities (in U/L at 30 degrees C) were 185 in cord samples, 536 in samples taken between 5--8 h postnatally, 494 between 24--33 h, and 288 in the 72-100 h samples. Values for all three isoenzymes increased to a peak over this period, with the highest values generally being found in the samples taken 5--33 h after birth; the subsequent decline was most rapid for CK-BB. Serum CK isoenzymes in cord samples and those taken at 72--100 h in the 11 babies delivered by cesarian section did not differ significantly from those of babies delivered vaginally. However the postnatal increases in total CK, CK-MM, and CK-MB (but not in CK-BB) were significantly greater in those patients born by vaginal delivery. The reasons for the increases in CK isoenzymes after birth are not clear, but our results and reported studies on the ontogeny of CK suggest that CK-MB cannot be regarded as a "cardiac-specific" isoenzyme in the neonatal period.

  5. Immunoglobulin levels in SFD newborn babies.

    PubMed

    Kobielowa, Z; Miecznikowska, M; Kubiczek, K; Michalik, R

    1975-01-01

    The IgG, IgA and IgM levels were determined by the technique of radial immunodiffusion of Mancini et al. in 40 SFD and 30 normal control newborn infants. The mean value of IgG concentrations was found to be raised but without statistical significance when compared with control. On the contrary the increased mean amounts of IgM were statistically significant.

  6. Reactogenicity and safety of a liquid human rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) in healthy adults, children and infants in China: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase I studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong-Cheng; Li, Yan-Ping; Mo, Zhao-Jun; Luo, Dong; Huang, Teng; Kong, Ji-Lian; Wang, Lao-Hong; Song, Ning-Sheng; Liu, Aixue; Zhang, Helen; Liao, Xueyan; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay

    2013-08-01

    We report the findings of three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase I studies undertaken to support licensure of the liquid formulation of the human G1P[8] rotavirus (RV) vaccine (RIX4414; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA) in China. Healthy adults aged 18-45 y (n=48) and children aged 2-6 y (n=50) received a single dose of the human RV vaccine or placebo. Healthy infants (n=50) aged 6-16 weeks at the time of first vaccination received two oral doses of the human RV vaccine or placebo according to a 0, 1 mo schedule. In infants, blood samples were collected prior to vaccination and one month post-dose 2 to assess anti-RV IgA antibody concentrations using ELISA. Stool samples were collected from all infants on the day of each vaccination, at 7 and 15 d after each vaccination and one month post-dose 2. Stool samples were analyzed by ELISA for detection of RV antigen to assess RV antigen excretion. The reactogenicity profile of the human RV vaccine was found to be comparable to that of placebo in all age groups studied. The anti-RV IgA antibody seroconversion rate in infants after two vaccine doses was 86.7% (95% CI: 59.5-98.3). Vaccine take in infants who received the liquid human RV vaccine was 86.7% (95% CI: 59.5-98.3). A Phase III efficacy study of the human RV vaccine in the infant population in China has now been completed (ROTA-075/NCT01171963).

  7. Vocal Development of Infants with Very Low Birth Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rvachew, Susan; Creighton, Dianne; Feldman, Naida; Sauve, Reg

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the vocal development of infants born with very low birth weights (VLBW). Samples of vocalizations were recorded from three groups of infants when they were 8, 12 and 18 months of age: preterm VLBW infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), preterm VLBW infants without BPD, and healthy full-term infants. Infants with BPD…

  8. Differential effects of intrauterine growth restriction on brain structure and development in preterm infants: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Nelly; Falcón, Carles; Sanz-Cortés, Magdalena; Figueras, Francesc; Bargallo, Núria; Crispi, Fátima; Eixarch, Elisenda; Arranz, Angela; Botet, Francesc; Gratacós, Eduard

    2011-03-25

    Previous evidence suggests that preterm newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have specific neurostructural and neurodevelopmental anomalies, but it is unknown whether these effects persist in early childhood. We studied a sample of 18 preterm IUGR, 15 preterm AGA - born between 26 and 34 weeks of gestational age (GA) - and 15 healthy born-term infants. Infants were scanned at 12 months corrected age (CA), in a 3T scanner, without sedation. Analyses were made by automated lobar volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed in all subjects at 18 months CA with the Bayley Scale for Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. IUGR infants had reduced relative volumes for the insular and temporal lobes. According to VBM, IUGR infants had bilateral reduced gray matter (GM) in the temporal, parietal, frontal, and insular regions compared with the other groups. IUGR infants had increased white matter (WM) in temporal regions compared to the AGA group and in frontal, parietal, occipital, and insular regions compared to the term group. They also showed decreased WM in the cerebellum and a non-significant trend in the hippocampus compared to term infants. IUGR infants had reduced neurodevelopmental scores, which were positively correlated with GM in various regions. These data suggest that the IUGR induces a distinct brain pattern of structural changes that persist at 1 year of life and are associated with specific developmental difficulties.

  9. Developmental care in the newborn intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Als, H

    1998-04-01

    Developmental care is a framework that encompasses all care procedures as well as social and physical aspects in the newborn intensive care unit. Its goal is to support each individual infant to be as stable, well-organized, and competent as possible. The infant's physiologic and behavioral expression of current functioning is seen as the reliably available guide for caregivers to estimate the infant's current strengths, vulnerabilities, and thresholds to disorganization; to identify the infant's own strategies and efforts in collaborating toward best progress; and to implement care in a way that enhances the infant's stability and competence. The family is understood to be the infant's primary coregulator. It is the caregivers' responsibility to maximize opportunities to enhance each infant's and family's strengths and reduce apparent stressors. Studies of the effectiveness of developmental care also identify implications for staff education and challenges for nursery-wide implementation.

  10. Respiratory Microbiome of New-Born Infants

    PubMed Central

    Gallacher, David J.; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2016-01-01

    The respiratory tract, once believed to be sterile, harbors diverse bacterial communities. The role of microorganisms within health and disease is slowly being unraveled. Evidence points to the neonatal period as a critical time for establishing stable bacterial communities and influencing immune responses important for long-term respiratory health. This review summarizes the evidence of early airway and lung bacterial colonization and the role the microbiome has on respiratory health in the short and long term. The challenges of neonatal respiratory microbiome studies and future research directions are also discussed. PMID:26942168

  11. [Hypotonic syndrome in the newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Gaona, Víctor Alejandro

    2013-09-06

    Hypotonia is understood to refer to a pronounced decrease in muscle tone that affects normal motor development and that may affect the axial muscles as well as those of the limbs and, sometimes, the face. It is a very challenging clinical picture because it consists in a fairly wide range of conditions that affect different areas of the central and peripheral nervous system and may be the expression of pathologies that can be either benign or of an uncertain prognosis. These cover myopathies, metabolic disorders, diseases based on genetic causes, pathologies affecting the endocrine glands and progressive or chronic diseases, among other aetiologies. The important development of medicine today has made a number of tools available to the examiner with which to refine or pronounce a diagnosis. Such instruments include the developments achieved in genetic research, together with studies conducted in imaging and optical and electronic microscopy. However, in spite of having all this material available for use, it is still the clinical features that allow a rational use to be made of these advances to be able to point towards the possible causation, topographic location and developmental control. It is useful, for the diagnostic approach and the use of auxiliary methods, to know the topographic location of the disorder, whether it is situated in the brain, the cerebellum, the stem, the spinal cord, the peripheral nerves, the myoneural junction or the muscle.

  12. Visual Statistical Learning in the Newborn Infant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulf, Hermann; Johnson, Scott P.; Valenza, Eloisa

    2011-01-01

    Statistical learning--implicit learning of statistical regularities within sensory input--is a way of acquiring structure within continuous sensory environments. Statistics computation, initially shown to be involved in word segmentation, has been demonstrated to be a general mechanism that operates across domains, across time and space, and…

  13. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  14. Tachycardia in a newborn with enterovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Banjac, Lidija; Nikcević, Drasko; Vujosević, Danijela; Raonić, Janja; Banjac, Goran

    2014-03-01

    Enterovirus infections are common in the neonatal period. Newborns are at a higher risk of severe disease including meningoencephalitis, sepsis syndrome, cardiovascular collapse, or hepatitis. The mechanism of heart failure in patients with enterovirus infection remains unknown. Early diagnosis may help clinicians predict complications in those infants initially presenting with severe disease. An 11-day-old male newborn was admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit because of tachycardia and crises of cyanosis. His elder brother had febrile illness. The newborn was cyanotic, in respiratory distress, with tachycardia, low blood pressure and prolonged capillary refilling time. Limb pulse oximeter was around 85%. During the first day of hospitalization, the newborn had one febrile episode. Laboratory data: elevated transaminases, markers of inflammation negative, all bacterial cultures negative. Enterovirus RNA was detected in blood sample. Other blood findings were without significant abnormalities. Electrocardiogram showed tachycardia, with narrow QRS complexes (atrial tachycardia) and heart rate up to 280/min. In order to convert the rhythm, the patient was administered adenosine and amiodarone. In the further course of hospitalization, the patient was in good general condition, eucardiac and eupneic. Newborns with tachycardia and a family history of febrile illness should be suspected to have enterovirus infection. Enterovirus infection is a highly contagious and potentially life-threatening infection if not detected early. The use of sensitive molecular-based amplification methods offers potential benefits for early diagnosis and timely treatment.

  15. High-density diffuse optical tomography of term infant visual cortex in the nursery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Steve M.; Ferradal, Silvina L.; White, Brian R.; Gregg, Nicholas; Inder, Terrie E.; Culver, Joseph P.

    2012-08-01

    Advancements in antenatal and neonatal medicine over the last few decades have led to significant improvement in the survival rates of sick newborn infants. However, this improvement in survival has not been matched by a reduction in neurodevelopmental morbidities with increasing recognition of the diverse cognitive and behavioral challenges that preterm infants face in childhood. Conventional neuroimaging modalities, such as cranial ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, provide an important definition of neuroanatomy with recognition of brain injury. However, they fail to define the functional integrity of the immature brain, particularly during this critical developmental period. Diffuse optical tomography methods have established success in imaging adult brain function; however, few studies exist to demonstrate their feasibility in the neonatal population. We demonstrate the feasibility of using recently developed high-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT) to map functional activation of the visual cortex in healthy term-born infants. The functional images show high contrast-to-noise ratio obtained in seven neonates. These results illustrate the potential for HD-DOT and provide a foundation for investigations of brain function in more vulnerable newborns, such as preterm infants.

  16. Perception of Object Shape and Texture in Human Newborns: Evidence from Cross-Modal Transfer Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sann, Coralie; Streri, Arlette

    2007-01-01

    The present research investigates newborn infants' perceptions of the shape and texture of objects through studies of the bi-directionality of cross-modal transfer between vision and touch. Using an intersensory procedure, four experiments were performed in newborns to study their ability to transfer shape and texture information from vision to…

  17. Generating Innovative Strategies for Healthy Infants and Children. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    In this report of a hearing on infants' and children's health, two factsheets present information on the lack of recent progress in reducing infant mortality rates; the accessibility of prenatal care; low birthweight; nutrition; inadequate child health care; health risks for low-income children; the lack of adequate health insurance; the health…

  18. Donor milk in the newborn nursery at the University of Iowa Children's Hospital.

    PubMed

    Kair, Laura R; Colaizy, Tarah T; Hubbard, Deborah; Flaherman, Valerie J

    2014-12-01

    There is a paucity of literature on the topic of banked donor breastmilk use for healthy newborns. Herein, we describe two cases demonstrating the day-to-day medically indicated use of pasteurized, banked donor breastmilk in the University of Iowa Children's Hospital newborn nursery. These cases may inform scientific opinion about the role of banked donor milk for healthy newborns and may also facilitate research on the use of banked donor milk for this population.

  19. Newborn healthcare in urban India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, J; Osrin, D; Patil, B; Neogi, S B; Chauhan, M; Khanna, R; Kumar, R; Paul, V K; Zodpey, S

    2016-01-01

    The rapid population growth in urban India has outpaced the municipal capacity to build essential infrastructures that make life in cities safe and healthy. Local and national governments alike are grappling with the challenges of urbanization with thousands migrating from villages to cities. Thus, urbanization in India has been accompanied by a concentration of poverty and urban public healthcare has emerged as one of the most pressing priorities facing our country. Newborn mortality rates in urban settings are lower than rural areas, early neonatal deaths account for greater proportion than late neonatal deaths. The available evidence suggests that socio-economic inequalities and poor environment pose major challenges for newborn health. Moreover, fragmented and weak public health system, multiplicity of actors and limited capacity of public health planning further constrain the delivery of quality and affordable health care service. Though healthcare is concentrated in urban areas, delay in deciding to seek health care, reaching a source of it and receiving appropriate care affects the health outcomes disproportionately. However, a few city initiatives and innovations piloted in different states and cities have brought forth the evidences of effectiveness of different strategies. Recently launched National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) provides an opportunity for strategic thinking and actions to improve newborn health outcomes in India. There is also an opportunity for coalescence of activities around National Health Mission (NHM) and Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health+Adolescent (RMNCH+A) strategy to develop feasible and workable models in different urban settings. Concomitant operational research needs to be carried out so that the obstacles, approaches and response to the program can be understood. PMID:27924107

  20. Newborn healthcare in urban India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J; Osrin, D; Patil, B; Neogi, S B; Chauhan, M; Khanna, R; Kumar, R; Paul, V K; Zodpey, S

    2016-12-01

    The rapid population growth in urban India has outpaced the municipal capacity to build essential infrastructures that make life in cities safe and healthy. Local and national governments alike are grappling with the challenges of urbanization with thousands migrating from villages to cities. Thus, urbanization in India has been accompanied by a concentration of poverty and urban public healthcare has emerged as one of the most pressing priorities facing our country. Newborn mortality rates in urban settings are lower than rural areas, early neonatal deaths account for greater proportion than late neonatal deaths. The available evidence suggests that socio-economic inequalities and poor environment pose major challenges for newborn health. Moreover, fragmented and weak public health system, multiplicity of actors and limited capacity of public health planning further constrain the delivery of quality and affordable health care service. Though healthcare is concentrated in urban areas, delay in deciding to seek health care, reaching a source of it and receiving appropriate care affects the health outcomes disproportionately. However, a few city initiatives and innovations piloted in different states and cities have brought forth the evidences of effectiveness of different strategies. Recently launched National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) provides an opportunity for strategic thinking and actions to improve newborn health outcomes in India. There is also an opportunity for coalescence of activities around National Health Mission (NHM) and Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health+Adolescent (RMNCH+A) strategy to develop feasible and workable models in different urban settings. Concomitant operational research needs to be carried out so that the obstacles, approaches and response to the program can be understood.

  1. Micronutrient requirements of high-risk infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronutrient requirements are well-established for healthy full-term infants. However, few such recommendations exist for high-risk infants, including full-term infants with a variety of medical disorders or very preterm infants. Key micronutrients considered in this review are calcium, phosphorus,...

  2. Circumcision of male infants as a human rights violation.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, J Steven

    2013-07-01

    Every infant has a right to bodily integrity. Removing healthy tissue from an infant is only permissible if there is an immediate medical indication. In the case of infant male circumcision there is no evidence of an immediate need to perform the procedure. As a German court recently held, any benefit to circumcision can be obtained by delaying the procedure until the male is old enough to give his own fully informed consent. With the option of delaying circumcision providing all of the purported benefits, circumcising an infant is an unnecessary violation of his bodily integrity as well as an ethically invalid form of medical violence. Parental proxy 'consent' for newborn circumcision is invalid. Male circumcision also violates four core human rights documents-the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the Convention Against Torture. Social norm theory predicts that once the circumcision rate falls below a critical value, the social norms that currently distort our perception of the practice will dissolve and rates will quickly fall.

  3. Congenital malaria in newborns selected for low birth-weight, anemia, and other possible symptoms in Maumere, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fitri, Loeki Enggar; Jahja, Natalia Erica; Huwae, Irene Ratridewi; Nara, Mario B; Berens-Riha, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    Congenital malaria is assumed to be a risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality in endemic areas like Maumere, Indonesia. Infected infants are susceptible to its impact such as premature labor, low birth weight, anemia, and other unspecified symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of congenital malaria and the influence of mother-infant paired parasite densities on the clinical outcome of the newborns at TC Hillers Hospital, Maumere. An analytical cross sectional study was carried out in newborns which showed criteria associated with congenital malaria. A thick and thin blood smear confirmed by nested PCR was performed in both mothers and infants. The association of congenital malaria with the newborn's health status was then assessed. From 112 mother-infant pairs included in this study, 92 were evaluated further. Thirty-nine infants (42.4%) were found to be infected and half of them were asymptomatic. Infected newborns had a 4.7 times higher risk in developing anemia compared to uninfected newborns (95% CI, 1.3-17.1). The hemoglobin level, erythrocyte amount, and hematocrit level were affected by the infants' parasite densities (P<0.05). Focusing on newborns at risk of congenital malaria, the prevalence is almost 3 times higher than in an unselected collective. Low birth weight, anemia, and pre-term birth were the most common features. Anemia seems to be significantly influenced by infant parasite densities but not by maternal parasitemia.

  4. Congenital Malaria in Newborns Selected for Low Birth-Weight, Anemia, and Other Possible Symptoms in Maumere, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Fitri, Loeki Enggar; Huwae, Irene Ratridewi; Nara, Mario B.; Berens-Riha, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Congenital malaria is assumed to be a risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality in endemic areas like Maumere, Indonesia. Infected infants are susceptible to its impact such as premature labor, low birth weight, anemia, and other unspecified symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of congenital malaria and the influence of mother-infant paired parasite densities on the clinical outcome of the newborns at TC Hillers Hospital, Maumere. An analytical cross sectional study was carried out in newborns which showed criteria associated with congenital malaria. A thick and thin blood smear confirmed by nested PCR was performed in both mothers and infants. The association of congenital malaria with the newborn's health status was then assessed. From 112 mother-infant pairs included in this study, 92 were evaluated further. Thirty-nine infants (42.4%) were found to be infected and half of them were asymptomatic. Infected newborns had a 4.7 times higher risk in developing anemia compared to uninfected newborns (95% CI, 1.3-17.1). The hemoglobin level, erythrocyte amount, and hematocrit level were affected by the infants' parasite densities (P<0.05). Focusing on newborns at risk of congenital malaria, the prevalence is almost 3 times higher than in an unselected collective. Low birth weight, anemia, and pre-term birth were the most common features. Anemia seems to be significantly influenced by infant parasite densities but not by maternal parasitemia. PMID:25548415

  5. Newborns' Perception of Left-Right Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gava, Lucia; Valenza, Eloisa; Turati, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    Five experiments examined 79 newborns' ability to discriminate and categorize a spatial relation, defined by the left-right spatial position of a blinking object-target with respect to a vertical landmark-bar. Three-day-old infants discriminated the up versus low position of an object located on the same side of the landmark-bar (Experiment 1) and…

  6. A Care Coordination Program for Substance-Exposed Newborns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Jean E.; Caldwell, Donna; Soave, Rosemary; Fontaine, Lynne Andreozzi; Lester, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    The Vulnerable Infants Program of Rhode Island (VIP-RI) was established as a care coordination program to promote permanency for substance-exposed newborns in the child welfare system. Goals of VIP-RI were to optimize parents' opportunities for reunification and increase the efficacy of social service systems involved with families affected by…

  7. Communication and Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Communication and Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Communication and Your Newborn A A A What's in ... first smile — a welcome addition to your baby's communication skills! continue What Should I Do? As soon ...

  8. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn Print A A A en español El ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a parent's ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...

  9. Amebiasis in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Güven, Ayla

    2003-05-01

    Infestation with Entamoeba histolytica is especially common in areas with low socioeconomic status. Extra intestinal invasive involvement is more frequent in young children with significant mortality. This disease is rarely reported in the newborns. This 19-day-old newborn who was infected with orally given surgar solution is presented. He was successfully treated with omidazole.

  10. Randomised trial comparing hand expression with breast pumping for mothers of term newborns feeding poorly

    PubMed Central

    Flaherman, Valerie J; Gay, Barbara; Scott, Cheryl; Avins, Andrew; Lee, Kathryn A; Newman, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    Objective Breast pumping or hand expression may be recommended when newborns latch or suck poorly. A recent trial found worse outcomes among mothers who used a breast pump in the early postpartum period. The objective of this study was to compare bilateral electric breast pumping to hand expression among mothers of healthy term infants feeding poorly at 12–36 h after birth. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Well-baby nursery and postpartum unit. Patients 68 mothers of newborns 12–36 h old who were latching or sucking poorly were randomly assigned to either 15 min of bilateral electric pumping or 15 min of hand expression. Mainoutcome measures Milk transfer, maternal pain, breastfeeding confidence and breast milk expression experience (BMEE) immediately after the intervention, and breastfeeding rates at 2 months after birth. Results The median volume of expressed milk (range) was 0.5 (0–5) ml for hand expressing mothers and 1 (0–40) ml for pumping mothers (p=0.07). Maternal pain, breastfeeding confidence and BMEE did not differ by intervention. At 2 months, mothers assigned to hand expression were more likely to be breastfeeding (96.1%) than mothers assigned to breast pumping (72.7%) (p=0.02). Conclusions Hand expression in the early postpartum period appears to improve eventual breastfeeding rates at 2 months after birth compared with breast pumping, but further research is needed to confirm this. However, in circumstances where either pumping or hand expression would be appropriate for healthy term infants 12–36 h old feeding poorly, providers should consider recommending hand expression. PMID:21747129

  11. The Role of the Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Amygdala in Environmental Sensitivity to Infant Crying

    PubMed Central

    Mutschler, Isabella; Ball, Tonio; Kirmse, Ursula; Wieckhorst, Birgit; Pluess, Michael; Klarhöfer, Markus; Meyer, Andrea H.; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Seifritz, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Newborns and infants communicate their needs and physiological states through crying and emotional facial expressions. Little is known about individual differences in responding to infant crying. Several theories suggest that people vary in their environmental sensitivity with some responding generally more and some generally less to environmental stimuli. Such differences in environmental sensitivity have been associated with personality traits, including neuroticism. This study investigated whether neuroticism impacts neuronal, physiological, and emotional responses to infant crying by investigating blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a large sample of healthy women (N = 102) with simultaneous skin conductance recordings. Participants were repeatedly exposed to a video clip that showed crying infants and emotional responses (valence, arousal, and irritation) were assessed after every video clip presentation. Increased BOLD signal during the perception of crying infants was found in brain regions that are associated with emotional responding, the amygdala and anterior insula. Significant BOLD signal decrements (i.e., habituation) were found in the fusiform gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, Broca’s homologue on the right hemisphere, (laterobasal) amygdala, and hippocampus. Individuals with high neuroticism showed stronger activation in the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) when exposed to infant crying compared to individuals with low neuroticism. In contrast to our prediction we found no evidence that neuroticism impacts fMRI-based measures of habituation. Individuals with high neuroticism showed elevated skin conductance responses, experienced more irritation, and perceived infant crying as more unpleasant. The results support the hypothesis that individuals high in neuroticism are more emotionally responsive, experience more negative emotions, and

  12. Apparent disappearance of the black-white infant mortality gap - Dane County, Wisconsin, 1990-2007.

    PubMed

    2009-05-29

    Despite substantial reductions in U.S. infant mortality during the past several decades, black-white disparities in infant mortality persist. Among 40 states with sufficient numbers of black infant deaths to generate reliable rates for the years 2002-2004, Wisconsin had the highest black infant mortality rate (IMR) at 17.6 deaths per 1,000 live births, approximately three times the state rate for whites. However, in contrast to trends in Wisconsin and the other 39 states, the black IMR in Dane County, Wisconsin, has declined substantially, achieving parity with whites and meeting Healthy People 2010 objective 16-1 for reducing fetal and infant deaths. The county rate declined 67%, from 19.4 per 1,000 live births for the period 1990-2001 to 6.4 for the period 2002-2007. To gain understanding of this development, Public Health Madison Dane County (PHMDC) analyzed approximately 100,000 birth and death records from 1990 through 2007 for birthweight, gestational age, prenatal care, and other infant mortality risk factors. The main contributors to the decrease in black infant mortality were a large decrease in the extremely premature (newborns weighing <1,500 g. Because the observed trend in black infant mortality is based on small reductions in the absolute number of deaths (approximately three infants per year), conclusions based on these results should be considered preliminary, and additional studies are needed to confirm the reduction in rates over time. PHMDC is planning continued surveillance and other studies to determine whether the reduction in mortality is stable.

  13. "Collodion baby": A unique challenge for newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Kayla M; Gaudreau, Philip; Cartee, Todd V; Reilly, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    We present an infant with collodion membrane who had an obstructed external auditory canal, causing the infant to fail her newborn hearing screen (otoacoustic emissions) bilaterally. An auditory brainstem response (ABR) test was deferred due to the reported increased risk of infections in these babies. Meticulous but gentle debridement of the membranes on the external auditory canal, using a combination of otic drops (ofloxacin), emollients (baby oil/mineral oil), and suctioning, permitted the infant to ultimately pass otoacoustic emissions bilaterally and subsequent serial audiograms.

  14. Neonatal behavioral assessment scale as a biomarker of the effects of environmental agents on the newborn

    SciTech Connect

    Tronick, E.Z.

    1987-10-01

    The organization of the newborn's brain and the nature of the effects of toxins and pollutants conspire to produce complex and difficult problems for the assessment of the behavioral effects of environmental agents. The newborn's brain can be characterized as relatively undifferentiated, and more vulnerable to, but potentially more capable of recovery from, the effects of environmental agents specific to this time period than it will be later in development. Environmental agents tend to have nonspecific, possibly subtle, effects that invade many areas of newborn functioning. These characteristics of the newborn and the behavioral effects of teratogens make assessment at this point in development difficult. Further exacerbating this difficulty is the nature of development. Development is critically dependent on the care the newborn receives. Distortions of a newborn's behavior can produce disturbances in the caretaking environment, and these caretaking disturbances can amplify the original behavioral distortion and produce other distortions. Attention to these types of effects must be built into an assessment. These considerations lead to the conclusion that an apical assessment of newborn behavior is required. The most standardized, valid, and reliable instrument currently available is the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale developed by Brazelton. It assesses the integrated actions of the infant that function to regulate simultaneously the infant's internal state and exchanges with the animate (caretaking) and inanimate environment. The scale uses a set of reflex and behavioral items to assess the critical domains of infant functioning (e.g., the infant's ability to control his states of consciousness). 52 references.

  15. Randomized, Controlled Trial Evaluating a Baby Wash Product on Skin Barrier Function in Healthy, Term Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Lavender, Tina; Bedwell, Carol; Roberts, Stephen A; Hart, Anna; Turner, Mark A; Carter, Lesley-Anne; Cork, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the hypothesis that the use of a wash product formulated for newborn (<1 month of age) bathing is not inferior (no worse) to bathing with water only. Design Assessor-blinded, randomized, controlled, noninferiority trial. Setting A teaching hospital in the Northwest of England and in participants’ homes. Participants Three-hundred-and-seven healthy, term infants recruited within 48 hours of birth. Method We compared bathing with a wash product (n = 159) to bathing with water alone (n = 148). The primary outcome was transepidermal water loss (TEWL) at 14 days postbirth; the predefined difference deemed to be unimportant was 1.2. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in stratum corneum hydration, skin surface pH, clinical observations of the skin, and maternal views. Results Complete TEWL data were obtained for 242 (78.8%) infants. Wash was noninferior to water alone in terms of TEWL (intention-to-treat analysis: 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference [wash–water, adjusted for family history of eczema, neonate state, and baseline] −1.24, 1.07; per protocol analysis: 95% CI −1.42, 1.09). No significant differences were found in secondary outcomes. Conclusion We were unable to detect any differences between the newborn wash product and water. These findings provide reassurance to parents who choose to use the test newborn wash product or other technically equivalent cleansers and provide the evidence for health care professionals to support parental choice. PMID:23421327

  16. Vitamin D Deficiency among Newborns in Amman, Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Lang, Ryan D.; Blevins, Meridith; Kudyba, Katherine; Lawrence, Lindsey; Davidson, Mario; Faouri, Samir; Halasa, Natasha B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is well recognized in selected Middle Eastern countries, but neonatal vitamin D status is not well studied in Jordan and other nearby countries. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Jordanian newborns and risk factors associated with low levels. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of newborn infants who were delivered at the Al Bashir Government Hospital in Amman, Jordan, from January 31, 2010, to January 27, 2011. Heel stick blood samples for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were obtained within 96 hours of birth. Maternal dress pattern, vitamin supplementation, smoke exposure during pregnancy, mode of delivery, gestational age, and birth weight were documented. Results: Samples were obtained from 3,731 newborns. Median gestational age was 39 weeks, median birth weight was 3.1 kilograms, median maternal age was 27 years, and median newborn 25(OH)D level was 8.6nmol/L. A total of 3,512 newborns (94.1%) in this study were vitamin D deficient (< 50 nmol/L). Lower gestational age, maternal smoke exposure, and birth during winter months were associated with lower infant vitamin D levels, while vitamin D supplementation and time spent outside during pregnancy were associated with higher vitamin D levels. Conclusions: The prevalence of severely low vitamin D levels in newborn infants in Amman, Jordan, is substantial, even in newborns born during the spring and summer months. Vitamin D supplementation is needed in this population. PMID:24373276

  17. Breastmilk contaminants and infant behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Worobey, J.; Thomas, D.A.; Lewis, M. )

    1990-02-26

    Recent work has shown that certain heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (p,p{prime}-DDE) can affect newborn behavior via transplacental exposure. In this study, a number of fluids were collected from a sample of mothers and infants, with gas liquid chromatography used to determine the levels of environmental contaminants in breastmilk obtained in the first postpartum week. Analysis of the first 15 cases revealed normal concentrations of metals, no detectable traces of PCBs, and detectable levels of heptachlor epoxide and p,p{prime}-DDE in breastmilk. No significant associations were found between metals and infant development, but p,p{prime}-DDE was inversely related to perceptual performance and motor scores at 2-1/2 years. These results suggest that contaminants in human milk may affect infant behavior beyond the newborn period, although prediction from other sources must also be considered.

  18. A study of the relationship between bile salts, bile salt-stimulated lipase, and free fatty acids in breast milk: normal infants and those with breast milk jaundice.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, J S; Donnet, L; Ross, P E

    1990-08-01

    Breast milk jaundice has been reported to be associated with increased lipase activity and elevated free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations within breast milk. We have previously shown that bile salts are present in small concentrations in breast milk and the aim of this study was to examine the relationship of bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) activity, FFA concentration, and bile salt concentration in milks of normal infants and the milk of infants with breast milk jaundice. Mothers of healthy newborn infants were recruited in the early newborn period and 42 provided breast milk samples at 2 weeks, 30 at 6 weeks, 16 at 10 weeks, and 13 at 14 weeks postnatally. We initially studied the effect of lactation on bile salts and found there was a significant decline in both cholate and chenodeoxycholate levels with duration of lactation (p less than 0.05). There was also a significant fall in BSSL activity with duration of lactation (p less than 0.05), but no correlation was found between BSSL activity and bile salt concentration. FFA concentrations were similar throughout lactation and were not related to either BSSL activity or bile salt concentration. There was a significant increase in the concentration of cholate and the cholate-to-chenodeoxycholate ratio in the milks of 12 infants with breast milk jaundice compared with normal milks, the BSSL activity was similar and contrary to previous reports, the FFA concentration was not increased in the milks of infants with breast milk jaundice.

  19. Improvement of maternal and newborn health through midwifery.

    PubMed

    ten Hoope-Bender, Petra; de Bernis, Luc; Campbell, James; Downe, Soo; Fauveau, Vincent; Fogstad, Helga; Homer, Caroline S E; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Matthews, Zoe; McFadden, Alison; Renfrew, Mary J; Van Lerberghe, Wim

    2014-09-27

    In the concluding paper of this Series about midwifery, we look at the policy implications from the framework for quality maternal and newborn care, the potential effect of life-saving interventions that fall within the scope of practice of midwives, and the historic sequence of health system changes that made a reduction in maternal mortality possible in countries that have expanded their midwifery workforce. Achievement of better health outcomes for women and newborn infants is possible, but needs improvements in the quality of reproductive, maternal, and newborn care, alongside necessary increases in universal coverage. In this report, we propose three priority research areas and outline how national investment in midwives and in their work environment, education, regulation, and management can improve quality of care. Midwifery and midwives are crucial to the achievement of national and international goals and targets in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health; now and beyond 2015.

  20. Profile and Stability of Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Joseph P.; Hendricks-Munoz, Karen

    1991-01-01

    This study found that 19 of 51 infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss, an incidence 25 times greater than that of intensive care unit infants in general. Treatment durations with mechanical ventilation were significantly longer for the hearing-impaired group compared to the…