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Sample records for healthy participants undergoing

  1. Emotion recognition in early Parkinson's disease patients undergoing deep brain stimulation or dopaminergic therapy: a comparison to healthy participants.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Lindsey G; Mannava, Sishir; Camalier, Corrie R; Folley, Bradley S; Albritton, Aaron; Konrad, Peter E; Charles, David; Park, Sohee; Neimat, Joseph S

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is traditionally regarded as a neurodegenerative movement disorder, however, nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration is also thought to disrupt non-motor loops connecting basal ganglia to areas in frontal cortex involved in cognition and emotion processing. PD patients are impaired on tests of emotion recognition, but it is difficult to disentangle this deficit from the more general cognitive dysfunction that frequently accompanies disease progression. Testing for emotion recognition deficits early in the disease course, prior to cognitive decline, better assesses the sensitivity of these non-motor corticobasal ganglia-thalamocortical loops involved in emotion processing to early degenerative change in basal ganglia circuits. In addition, contrasting this with a group of healthy aging individuals demonstrates changes in emotion processing specific to the degeneration of basal ganglia circuitry in PD. Early PD patients (EPD) were recruited from a randomized clinical trial testing the safety and tolerability of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in early-staged PD. EPD patients were previously randomized to receive optimal drug therapy only (ODT), or drug therapy plus STN-DBS (ODT + DBS). Matched healthy elderly controls (HEC) and young controls (HYC) also participated in this study. Participants completed two control tasks and three emotion recognition tests that varied in stimulus domain. EPD patients were impaired on all emotion recognition tasks compared to HEC. Neither therapy type (ODT or ODT + DBS) nor therapy state (ON/OFF) altered emotion recognition performance in this study. Finally, HEC were impaired on vocal emotion recognition relative to HYC, suggesting a decline related to healthy aging. This study supports the existence of impaired emotion recognition early in the PD course, implicating an early disruption of fronto-striatal loops mediating emotional function.

  2. Emotion recognition in early Parkinson’s disease patients undergoing deep brain stimulation or dopaminergic therapy: a comparison to healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Lindsey G.; Mannava, Sishir; Camalier, Corrie R.; Folley, Bradley S.; Albritton, Aaron; Konrad, Peter E.; Charles, David; Park, Sohee; Neimat, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is traditionally regarded as a neurodegenerative movement disorder, however, nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration is also thought to disrupt non-motor loops connecting basal ganglia to areas in frontal cortex involved in cognition and emotion processing. PD patients are impaired on tests of emotion recognition, but it is difficult to disentangle this deficit from the more general cognitive dysfunction that frequently accompanies disease progression. Testing for emotion recognition deficits early in the disease course, prior to cognitive decline, better assesses the sensitivity of these non-motor corticobasal ganglia-thalamocortical loops involved in emotion processing to early degenerative change in basal ganglia circuits. In addition, contrasting this with a group of healthy aging individuals demonstrates changes in emotion processing specific to the degeneration of basal ganglia circuitry in PD. Early PD patients (EPD) were recruited from a randomized clinical trial testing the safety and tolerability of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in early-staged PD. EPD patients were previously randomized to receive optimal drug therapy only (ODT), or drug therapy plus STN-DBS (ODT + DBS). Matched healthy elderly controls (HEC) and young controls (HYC) also participated in this study. Participants completed two control tasks and three emotion recognition tests that varied in stimulus domain. EPD patients were impaired on all emotion recognition tasks compared to HEC. Neither therapy type (ODT or ODT + DBS) nor therapy state (ON/OFF) altered emotion recognition performance in this study. Finally, HEC were impaired on vocal emotion recognition relative to HYC, suggesting a decline related to healthy aging. This study supports the existence of impaired emotion recognition early in the PD course, implicating an early disruption of fronto-striatal loops mediating emotional function. PMID:25653616

  3. Healthy start program participation: the consumers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Ley, Christine E; Copeland, Valire Carr; Flint, Cheryl Squire

    2011-01-01

    In 1991, the federal Maternal and Child Health Bureau developed the Healthy Start Initiative as a comprehensive community-based program to eliminate the high rates of poor pregnancy outcomes among women of color. To date, few studies of the programmatic outcomes of this Initiative have examined the views of Healthy Start consumers. To understand the benefits of Healthy Start from their consumers' perspective, the Pittsburgh Allegheny County Healthy Start project conducted a survey of 202 of their Healthy Start participants in 2003. The participants completing the survey reported benefits of participating in the program including stress reduction, receiving resources and referrals, and consistent social support of program staff. According to the project's annual statistics, Healthy Start has improved pregnancy outcomes among African American women participants in the Pittsburgh community. However, and according to these participants, the quality of staff and consumer connectedness, availability and consistency of material resources, and social support are as critical as more traditional health interventions to their satisfaction, motivation to participate, and willingness to refer others to the program. Women of color will often forego health services perceived as intimidating and/or culturally insensitive, but programs such as the Healthy Start Initiative offer a critical link that encourages participation and, as a result, improves maternal and child health status.

  4. Community participation and empowerment in Healthy Cities.

    PubMed

    Heritage, Zoë; Dooris, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Community participation and empowerment are core principles underpinning the Healthy Cities movement. By providing an overview of theory and presenting the relevant findings of evaluations, this article explores how cities in the WHO European Healthy Cities Network have integrated community participation and empowerment within their development. Reflecting the inclusion of public participation and empowerment within the designation criteria for project cities, the evaluation of Phase III in 2002 demonstrated that community participation continues to be a high priority in most project cities. One-third of cities regularly consulted with large parts of their populations and another third undertook occasional consultations. Nearly 80% of cities had mechanisms for community representatives to participate in decision-making; and more than two-thirds of cities had initiatives explicitly aimed at empowering local people. Subsequent research carried out during 2005 further highlighted the centrality of public participation to the Healthy Cities movement. It found that all project cities continued to support community involvement. Community participation is an essential part of the process of good local governance, and empowerment remains at the heart of effective health promotion. To be meaningful, these processes must be seen as fundamental values of Healthy Cities and so must be developed as an integral part of long-term strategic development.

  5. Performance of PROMIS for Healthy Patients Undergoing Meniscal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kyle J; Glass, Natalie; Anthony, Chris A; Hettrich, Carolyn M; Albright, John; Amendola, Annunziato; Wolf, Brian R; Bollier, Matthew

    2017-06-07

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) was developed as an extensive question bank with multiple health domains that could be utilized for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). In the present study, we investigated the use of the PROMIS Physical Function CAT (PROMIS PF CAT) in an otherwise healthy population scheduled to undergo surgery for meniscal injury with the hypotheses that (1) the PROMIS PF CAT would correlate strongly with patient-reported outcome instruments that measure physical function and would not correlate strongly with those that measure other health domains, (2) there would be no ceiling effects, and (3) the test burden would be significantly less than that of the traditional measures. Patients scheduled to undergo meniscal surgery completed the PROMIS PF CAT, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Marx Knee Activity Rating Scale, Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaires. Correlations were defined as high (≥0.7), high-moderate (0.61 to 0.69), moderate (0.4 to 0.6), moderate-weak (0.31 to 0.39), or weak (≤0.3). If ≥15% respondents to a patient-reported outcome measure obtained the highest or lowest possible score, the instrument was determined to have a significant ceiling or floor effect. A total of 107 participants were analyzed. The PROMIS PF CAT had a high correlation with the SF-36 Physical Functioning (PF) (r = 0.82, p < 0.01) and KOOS Sport (r = 0.76, p < 0.01) scores; a high-moderate correlation with the KOOS Quality-of-Life (QOL) (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and EQ-5D (r = 0.62, p < 0.01) instruments; and a moderate correlation with the SF-36 Pain (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), KOOS Symptoms (r = 0.57, p < 0.01), KOOS Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), and KOOS Pain (r = 0.60, p < 0.01) scores. The majority (89%) of the patients completed the PROMIS PF CAT after answering only 4 items. The PROMIS PF CAT had no floor or ceiling effects, with 0% of the

  6. Participation of healthy volunteers in research projects.

    PubMed

    Macrae, F A; Mackay, I R; Fraser, J R

    1989-03-20

    Research that involves healthy normal volunteers frequently is performed. This article examines ethical guide-lines for the recruitment of healthy volunteers in research projects. Ethical decisions on projects that are based on patient-volunteers or healthy normal volunteers should balance the risk to the volunteer and the collective benefit to the community. For healthy normal volunteers that risk should be minimal or trivial. Investigators should follow recruitment practices that avoid approaches to persons who are dependent upon them in some way, and should carry the day-to-day ethical responsibility even after institutional ethical approval has been granted. Pilot studies and self-experimentation readily can transgress ethical guide-lines. Compensation for mishaps or injuries that occur during research in which there is no question of negligence (for example, an unforeseeable reaction in a phase-1 drug trial) is an unresolved issue which should be addressed by the research community. It is recommended that action be taken to ensure that healthy volunteers who participate in approved research have redress in the rare event of an accident, whether this is a result of negligence, chance or misadventure. Hospitals/institutions or other bodies that sponsor research should extend their insurance to cover specifically such unforeseeable events in which there may be liability, and to have the facility for a payment of beneficence in the case of accidents in which liability cannot be established.

  7. Performance of Healthy Participants on the Iowa Gambling Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steingroever, Helen; Wetzels, Ruud; Horstmann, Annette; Neumann, Jane; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2013-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994) is often used to assess decision-making deficits in clinical populations. The interpretation of the results hinges on 3 key assumptions: (a) healthy participants learn to prefer the good options over the bad options; (b) healthy participants show homogeneous choice behavior;…

  8. Performance of Healthy Participants on the Iowa Gambling Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steingroever, Helen; Wetzels, Ruud; Horstmann, Annette; Neumann, Jane; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2013-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994) is often used to assess decision-making deficits in clinical populations. The interpretation of the results hinges on 3 key assumptions: (a) healthy participants learn to prefer the good options over the bad options; (b) healthy participants show homogeneous choice behavior;…

  9. Barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation in stroke: consumer participation in secondary prevention design.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Olive C; Doody, Catherine; Ni Choisdealbh, Cliodhna; Blake, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore community-dwelling stroke patients' perceived barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation for secondary disease prevention, as well as their preferred means for risk-reduction information dissemination and motivators to participation in healthy-lifestyle interventions. Four focus groups (5-6 stroke survivors per group) were defined from community support groups. Key questions addressed barriers to healthy-lifestyle adoption, preferred methods for receiving information and factors that would engage participants in a risk-reduction programme. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed for thematic content using a framework approach. Twenty-two participants, 12 men, 10 women, mean age 71.4 (53-87) years, were included in the study. Three overarching themes emerged as barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation: physical, mental and environmental. Exercise participation difficulties spread across all three themes; healthy eating and smoking cessation concentrated in environmental and mental dimensions. Talks (discussions) were noted as participants' preferred method of information provision. Risk-reduction programmes considered attractive were stroke specific, convenient and delivered by healthcare professionals and involved both social and exercise components. Many stroke patients appear unable to adopt healthy-lifestyle changes through advice alone because of physical, mental and environmental barriers. Risk-reduction programmes including interactive education should be specifically tailored to address barriers currently experienced and extend beyond the stroke survivor to others in their environment who influence lifestyle choices.

  10. Delta Healthy Sprouts: Participants' Diet and Food Environment at Baseline

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Local food environments influence the nutrition and health of area residents. This baseline analysis focuses on the food environments of women who participated in the Delta Healthy Sprouts project, a randomized, controlled, comparative trial designed to test the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, an...

  11. Phase 1 healthy volunteer willingness to participate and enrollment preferences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Stephanie C; Sinaii, Ninet; Bedarida, Gabriella; Gregorio, Mark A; Emanuel, Ezekiel; Grady, Christine

    2017-10-01

    Healthy volunteers in phase 1 clinical trials contribute to the development of safe drugs and other biologics and accept risks and burdens without anticipated health benefits from participation. Although emerging data have shown that healthy volunteers are influenced by risk, some still worry that financial incentives lead them to take on unreasonable risk. Yet little is known about healthy volunteers' preferences and how they make choices about enrolling in research studies. We surveyed 654 healthy volunteers at the end of their participation in a phase 1 Pfizer trial in the United States, Belgium, and Singapore to examine their reported willingness to enroll in studies of different types, with various procedures, and with possible side-effects. The majority of respondents were willing to join many kinds of studies, but fewer were willing to participate in first-in-human vaccine studies or studies of psychiatric drugs than in other study types. With regard to procedures, a substantial proportion were unwilling to participate in studies that involved invasive procedures, such as a lumbar puncture (45.4%) and bone marrow biopsy (42.3%), but willing to participate in studies with less invasive procedures such as a computed tomography scan of the heart (86.8%), magnetic resonance imaging (87.4%), and skin allergy testing (86.8%). Although there was some variation by gender and region, the majority were willing to participate in studies with side-effects like pain (80%) or nausea and vomiting (64%), but only a minority were willing to join if the research drug would result in their having a one in a million chance of death (34.4%), a small chance of kidney damage (16.7%), or influence how their mind works (23.2%; Figure 4). Our results suggest that healthy volunteers are willing to participate in a wide range of types of phase 1 clinical trials, and express preferences for low risk and familiar studies and study procedures, preferences which are partially affected by

  12. Clinical use of a low-dose medetomidine infusion in healthy dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Rioja, Eva; Gianotti, Giacomo; Valverde, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Eight healthy dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy were anesthetized with a standard protocol and received a low-dose medetomidine constant rate infusion during surgery. Cardiorespiratory parameters, including non-invasive cardiac output, were measured at various times. This protocol resulted in acceptable and stable cardiovascular performance, allowed low isoflurane concentrations, and provided smooth recoveries.

  13. Clinical use of a low-dose medetomidine infusion in healthy dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rioja, Eva; Gianotti, Giacomo; Valverde, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Eight healthy dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy were anesthetized with a standard protocol and received a low-dose medetomidine constant rate infusion during surgery. Cardiorespiratory parameters, including non-invasive cardiac output, were measured at various times. This protocol resulted in acceptable and stable cardiovascular performance, allowed low isoflurane concentrations, and provided smooth recoveries. PMID:24155491

  14. Performance Invalidity Base Rates Among Healthy Undergraduate Research Participants.

    PubMed

    Ross, Thomas P; Poston, Ashley M; Rein, Patricia A; Salvatore, Andrew N; Wills, Nathan L; York, Taylor M

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have examined base rates of suboptimal effort among healthy, undergraduate students recruited for neuropsychological research. An and colleagues (2012, Conducting research with non-clinical healthy undergraduates: Does effort play a role in neuropsychological test performance? Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27, 849-857) reported high rates of performance invalidity (30.8%-55.6%), calling into question the validity of findings generated from samples of college students. In contrast, subsequent studies have reported much lower base rates ranging from 2.6% to 12%. The present study replicated and extended previous work by examining the performance of 108 healthy undergraduates on the Dot Counting Test, Victoria Symptom Validity Test, Word Memory Test, and a brief battery of neuropsychological measures. During initial testing, 8.3% of the sample scored below cutoffs on at least one Performance Validity Test, while 3.7% were classified as invalid at Time 2 (M interval = 34.4 days). The present findings add to a growing number of studies that suggest performance invalidity base rates in samples of non-clinical, healthy college students are much lower than An and colleagues initial findings. Although suboptimal effort is much less problematic than suggested by An and colleagues, recent reports as high as 12% indicate including measures of effort may be of value when using college students as participants. Methodological issues and recommendations for future research are presented.

  15. The Healthy Children, Strong Families Intervention: Design and Community Participation

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Alexandra K.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Cronin, Kate A.; Prince, Ronald J.; Wubben, Deborah P.; Parker, Tassy; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy Children, Strong Families (HCSF) is a 2-year, community-driven, family-based randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention conducted in partnership with four Wisconsin American Indian tribes. HCSF is composed of 1 year of targeted home visits to deliver nutritional and physical activity curricula. During Year 1, trained community mentors work with 2–5-year-old American Indian children and their primary caregivers to promote goal-based behavior change. During Year 2, intervention families receive monthly newsletters and attend monthly group meetings to participate in activities designed to reinforce and sustain changes made in Year 1. Control families receive only curricula materials during Year 1 and monthly newsletters during Year 2. Each of the two arms of the study comprises 60 families. Primary outcomes are decreased child BMI z-score and decreased primary caregiver BMI. Secondary outcomes include: increased fruit/vegetable consumption, decreased TV viewing, increased physical activity, decreased soda/sweetened drink consumption, improved primary caregiver biochemical indices, and increased primary caregiver self-efficacy to adopt healthy behaviors. Using community-based participatory research and our history of university–tribal partnerships, the community and academic researchers jointly designed this randomized trial. This article describes the study design and data collection strategies, including outcome measures, with emphasis on the communities’ input in all aspects of the research. PMID:22956296

  16. [The Dutch National Colesterol Test: participants mainly healthy].

    PubMed

    Deutekom, M; Aziz, Y; van Dis, I; Stronks, K; Bossuyt, P M M

    2008-11-01

    To determine, in people who participated in the Netherlands Heart Foundation's National Cholesterol Test in supermarkets, risk factors for cardiovascular disease and expectations concerning the test result using a questionnaire, and to compare their cholesterol levels with reference values. Descriptive study and questionnaire survey. Participants who underwent the National Cholesterol Test in 9 supermarkets during the summer of 2007 were invited to complete a short questionnaire about risk factors for cardiovascular disease and expectations concerning the test result. Statements about the intention to change behaviour were offered, and the measured total cholesterol level was recorded. The average age of the 684 respondents was 57 years (SD: 16); 72% were female. Participants had on average a lower risk of cardiovascular disease than the general population; they suffered less frequently from diabetes, hypertension and being overweight, and smoked less. The measured cholesterol level was 5.0-6.5 mmol/l in 37% and > 6.5 mmoll in 11%. Elevated cholesterol levels were less common in this group than in the general population. The intention to change behaviour was substantial. The results of this study showed that the National Cholesterol Test reached relatively many healthy, somewhat worried people. The intention to change behaviour was substantial.

  17. Rich Club Organization and Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Participants.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Hugo C; Segura, Barbara; Junque, Carme; de Reus, Marcel A; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Van den Heuvel, Martijn P

    2015-09-01

    The human brain is a complex network that has been noted to contain a group of densely interconnected hub regions. With a putative "rich club" of hubs hypothesized to play a central role in global integrative brain functioning, we assessed whether hub and rich club organizations are associated with cognitive performance in healthy participants and whether the rich club might be differentially involved in cognitive functions with a heavier dependence on global integration. A group of 30 relatively older participants (range = 39-79 years of age) underwent extensive neuropsychological testing, combined with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to reconstruct individual structural brain networks. Rich club connectivity was found to be associated with general cognitive performance. More specifically, assessing the relationship between the rich club and performance in two specific cognitive domains, we found rich club connectivity to be differentially associated with attention/executive functions-known to rely on the integration of distributed brain areas-rather than with visuospatial/visuoperceptual functions, which have a more constrained neuroanatomical substrate. Our findings thus provide first empirical evidence of a relevant role played by the rich club in cognitive processes.

  18. The Healthy Weights Initiative: the first 1,000 participants

    PubMed Central

    Lemstra, Mark; Fox, Jeff; Klassen, Randy; Dodge, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Background According to Statistics Canada, the number of adults who are overweight or obese rises every year in Canada. As such, it is obvious that various public policies are not working. After extensive community consultation, the Healthy Weights Initiative (HWI) started in Moose Jaw and expanded to Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Objectives This study aimed to determine adherence, factors affecting adherence and their impact on various health outcomes. Methods From January 2014 to March 2015, 229 participants started the comprehensive 6-month HWI program. It was determined that having a “buddy” and signing a social support contract with three additional family members or friends were important to program adherence. As such, both policies went from being recommended to becoming mandatory. From April 2015 to August 2016, 771 additional participants started the program, allowing evaluation of the two new policies. Moreover, HWI participant adherence was compared to that of 100 new YMCA members. Results Among the first 229 HWI participants, 79.9% completed the 6-month program. After the two new policy changes among the 771 participants, 96.1% completed the HWI program (risk ratio =1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.49). In comparison, among the new YMCA regular members without supervision or assistance, 14.0% were still fully adhering to their fitness program after 6 months (RR =6.85; 95% CI: 3.88–12.10). After logistic regression, the only variable with an independent effect for not completing the HWI program was not having a spouse/partner supporting the program (odds ratio =2.31; 95% CI: 1.13–3.67). Although weight loss reductions were obtained (mean: 4.3 kg), the more significant benefits observed were health outcomes. For example, the prevalence of depressed mood reduced from 44% to 16.4% (P=0.000). Conclusion With two new policy changes, including a mandatory “buddy” and a signed social support contract, the HWI has become more successful

  19. The cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane after premedication of healthy dogs undergoing elective surgery.

    PubMed

    Abed, Janan M; Pike, Fred S; Clare, Monica C; Brainard, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    Sevoflurane and isoflurane are commonly used in veterinary anesthesia. The objective of this prospective, randomized, open-label clinical study was to compare the cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane via direct arterial blood pressure measurements and the lithium dilution cardiac output (LDCO) on premedicated healthy dogs undergoing elective tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). Nineteen client-owned dogs were included. All dogs were premedicated with hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg IV and glycopyrrolate 0.01 mg/kg subcutaneously). Ten dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane and nine dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane. Eighteen dogs were instrumented with a dorsal pedal arterial catheter, and one dog had a femoral arterial catheter. All dogs had continuous, direct systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), and mean arterial (MAP) blood pressure readings as well as heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), stroke volume variation (SVV), and pulse pressure variation (PPV) recorded q 5 min during the surgical procedure. There was no significant statistical difference in all parameters between the sevoflurane and isoflurane treatment groups. Both sevoflurane and isoflurane inhalant anesthetics appear to have similar hemodynamic effects when used as part of a multimodal anesthetic protocol in premedicated healthy dogs undergoing an elective surgical procedure.

  20. The Healthy Children, Strong Families Intervention: Design and Community Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Alexandra K.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Cronin, Kate A.; Prince, Ronald J.; Wubben, Deborah P.; Parker, Tassy; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy Children, Strong Families (HCSF) is a 2-year, community-driven, family-based randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention conducted in partnership with four Wisconsin American Indian tribes. HCSF is composed of 1 year of targeted home visits to deliver nutritional and physical activity curricula. During Year 1, trained…

  1. The Healthy Children, Strong Families Intervention: Design and Community Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Alexandra K.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Cronin, Kate A.; Prince, Ronald J.; Wubben, Deborah P.; Parker, Tassy; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy Children, Strong Families (HCSF) is a 2-year, community-driven, family-based randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention conducted in partnership with four Wisconsin American Indian tribes. HCSF is composed of 1 year of targeted home visits to deliver nutritional and physical activity curricula. During Year 1, trained…

  2. Children's knowledge and degree of participation in decision making when undergoing a clinical diagnostic procedure.

    PubMed

    Runeson, Ingrid; Mårtenson, Eva; Enskär, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-three children, (6-11 years, 9 boys and 14 girls), admitted to a pediatric day care department for a planned diagnostic procedure were interviewed with the aim of investigating their level of knowledge regarding a current diagnostic procedure, and the level of participation in discussions and decision making relating to their hospitalization. While the children were being interviewed, their attendant parent completed a questionnaire. The children's level of knowledge was documented and graded. The children's statements and their parents' evaluation of the information given to the child were sorted into groups and compared. The children's descriptions of their participation in discussions and decision-making were assessed and summarized. Finally, the children's and their parents' experiences of the children's anxiety and fear before the hospital visit were compared. The children were undergoing different kinds of diagnostic procedures and they had received information from different people. They were prepared for their admission in different ways, and had participated in discussions and decisions to various degrees. Despite this preparation, it would be safe to state that the participants as a group were not very well informed nor did they participate fully. More knowledge is needed regarding how to prepare each child prior to admission, before, during, and after the hospital visit and which additional factors, e.g., trust and a familiar environment, have influence on the child's experience.

  3. Oxygen desaturation in healthy subjects undergoing the incremental shuttle walk test*

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, Daniel Machado; Seixas, Daniela Miti Tsukumo; Pereira, Monica Corso; Moreira, Marcos Mello; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the probability of oxygen desaturation in healthy individuals undergoing the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT). METHODS: We enrolled 83 healthy subjects: 55 males (including 1 smoker) and 28 females. We determined pre-ISWT FEV1, FEV6, HR and SpO2, as well as post-ISWT HR and SpO2. RESULTS: Mean values overall were as follows: age, 35.05 ± 12.53 years; body mass index, 24.30 ± 3.47 kg/m2; resting HR, 75.12 ± 12.48 bpm; resting SpO2, 97.96 ± 1.02%; FEV1, 3.75 ± 0.81 L; FEV6, 4.45 ± 0.87 L; FEV1/FEV6 ratio, 0.83 ± 0.08 (no restriction or obstruction); incremental shuttle walk distance, 958.30 ± 146.32 m; post-ISWT HR, 162.41 ± 18.24 bpm; and post-ISWT SpO2, 96.27 ± 2.21%. In 11 subjects, post-ISWT SpO2 was higher than was pre-ISWT SpO2. In 17 subjects, there was a 4% decrease in SpO2 after the ISWT. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with and without post-ISWT oxygen desaturation in terms of age, gender, FEV1, FEV6, FEV1/FEV6, pre-ISWT SpO2, incremental shuttle walk distance, HR, or percentage of maximal HR. In the individuals with post-ISWT oxygen desaturation, the body mass index was higher (p = 0.01) and post-ISWT SpO2 was lower (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Healthy individuals can present oxygen desaturation after the ISWT. Using the ISWT to predict subtle respiratory abnormalities can be misleading. In healthy subjects, oxygen desaturation is common after the ISWT, as it is during any intense physical activity. PMID:24068265

  4. Acute Stimulant Ingestion and Neurocognitive Performance in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Concussion management has become an area of great concern in athletics, and neurocognitive tests, such as Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT), are commonly used as management tools. Given the restrictive nature of current management plans, anecdotal concerns have been raised about athletes trying to cheat the assessments and return to participation sooner. Stimulants have been shown to improve neurocognitive measures similar to those used in ImPACT. Therefore, they could possibly improve performance during baseline and postinjury testing. Objective: To examine the effects of a supplement containing stimulants on ImPACT performance. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 5 men (age = 20.6 ± 1.5 years, height = 176.3 ± 9.6 cm, mass = 76.9 ± 18.6 kg) and 7 women (age = 20.6 ± 1.1 years, height = 162.9 ± 7.8 cm, mass = 60.9 ± 8.2 kg) with no histories of physician-diagnosed head injury, learning disability, or attention-deficit disorder. Intervention(s): Participants were assessed under supplement (5.5 g of Jacked 3D, which contains caffeine and 1,3-dimethylamylamine), placebo, and control conditions separated by 1 week. Main Outcome Measure(s): I compared ImPACT composite scores for verbal and visual memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, impulse control, and a cognitive-efficiency index under each of the 3 conditions and assessed them 30 minutes after ingestion. Results: I observed a difference when comparing reaction times, as the participants reacted faster during the supplement condition (0.53 ± 0.03 seconds) than during the placebo (0.55 ± 0.03 seconds) and control (0.55 ± 0.03 seconds) conditions (F2,22 = 4.31, P = .03). A difference also was observed for the cognitive-efficiency index, as participants scored higher during the supplement condition (0.49 ± 0.09) than during the placebo (0.41 ± 0.10) and control (0.41 ± 0.12) conditions (F2,22 = 4

  5. Acute stimulant ingestion and neurocognitive performance in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Powers, Michael E

    2015-05-01

    Concussion management has become an area of great concern in athletics, and neurocognitive tests, such as Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT), are commonly used as management tools. Given the restrictive nature of current management plans, anecdotal concerns have been raised about athletes trying to cheat the assessments and return to participation sooner. Stimulants have been shown to improve neurocognitive measures similar to those used in ImPACT. Therefore, they could possibly improve performance during baseline and postinjury testing. To examine the effects of a supplement containing stimulants on ImPACT performance. Crossover study. Research laboratory. A total of 5 men (age = 20.6 ± 1.5 years, height = 176.3 ± 9.6 cm, mass = 76.9 ± 18.6 kg) and 7 women (age = 20.6 ± 1.1 years, height = 162.9 ± 7.8 cm, mass = 60.9 ± 8.2 kg) with no histories of physician-diagnosed head injury, learning disability, or attention-deficit disorder. Participants were assessed under supplement (5.5 g of Jacked 3D, which contains caffeine and 1,3-dimethylamylamine), placebo, and control conditions separated by 1 week. I compared ImPACT composite scores for verbal and visual memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, impulse control, and a cognitive-efficiency index under each of the 3 conditions and assessed them 30 minutes after ingestion. I observed a difference when comparing reaction times, as the participants reacted faster during the supplement condition (0.53 ± 0.03 seconds) than during the placebo (0.55 ± 0.03 seconds) and control (0.55 ± 0.03 seconds) conditions (F2,22 = 4.31, P = .03). A difference also was observed for the cognitive-efficiency index, as participants scored higher during the supplement condition (0.49 ± 0.09) than during the placebo (0.41 ± 0.10) and control (0.41 ± 0.12) conditions (F2,22 = 4.07, P = .03). Stimulant ingestion 30 minutes before testing resulted in improved memory, visual processing speed, and

  6. Effects of milnacipran on cardiac repolarization in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Periclou, Antonia; Palmer, Robert H; Zheng, Hongjie; Lindamood, Charles

    2010-04-01

    Milnacipran is approved for management of fibromyalgia in the United States. In this double-blind, placebo- and active drug-controlled study (N = 100), effects of supratherapeutic doses of milnacipran on cardiac repolarization were evaluated in healthy volunteers. The primary outcome was the largest mean difference between milnacipran and placebo in time-matched baseline-adjusted QT interval corrected for heart rate using an individual correction formula (QTcNi). In addition, data were analyzed using the Fridericia formula (QTcF) and a post hoc piecewise QTcNi analysis based on a dichotomous cut of RR interval data at 800 ms. Moxifloxacin (400 mg single dose) was used to establish assay sensitivity. Using the QTcNi method, the largest difference in baseline-adjusted QTcNi between milnacipran 300 mg bid and placebo was -4.7 ms (90% confidence interval [CI]: -9.4 to -0.1), indicating no QT prolongation. Analysis using the Fridericia formula (QTcF) showed a maximum adjusted mean change of +7.7 ms, but QTcF versus RR interval plots indicated overcorrection with this method. The piecewise QTcNi correction method demonstrated a more accurate correction for drug-induced heart rate increase; mean baseline-adjusted between-group difference was +0.9 ms (90% CI: -6.6 to 8.3). The results suggest that milnacipran would not significantly affect cardiac repolarization at clinically relevant therapeutic and supratherapeutic concentrations.

  7. Characteristics, Access, Utilization, Satisfaction, and Outcomes of Healthy Start Participants in Eight Sites

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, So; Cook, Benjamin; Trebino, Lisa; Walker, Deborah Klein

    2009-01-01

    To describe the characteristics, access, utilization, satisfaction, and outcomes of Healthy Start participants in eight selected sites, a survey of Healthy Start participants with infants ages 6–12-months-old at time of interview was conducted between October 2006 and January 2007. The response rate was 66% (n = 646), ranging from 37% in one site to >70% in seven sites. Healthy Start participants’ outcomes were compared to two national benchmarks. Healthy Start participants reported that they were satisfied with the program (>90% on five measures). Level of unmet need was 6% or less for most services, except for dental appointments (11%), housing (13%), and child care (11%). Infants had significantly better access to medical care than did their mothers, with higher rates of insurance coverage, medical homes, and checkups, and fewer unmet needs for health care. Healthy Start participants’ rates of ever breastfeeding (72%) and putting infants to sleep on their backs (70%) were at or near the Healthy People 2010 objectives, and considerably higher than rates among low-income mothers in the ECLS. The high rate of health education (>90%) may have contributed to these outcomes. Elimination of smoking among Healthy Start participants (46%) fell short of the Healthy People 2010 objective (99%). The low-birth weight (LBW) rate among Black Healthy Start participants (14%) was three times higher than the rate for Whites and Hispanics (5% each). Overall, the LBW rate in the eight sites (7.5%) was similar to the rate for low-income mothers in the ECLS, but both rates were above the Healthy People 2010 objective (5%). Challenges remain in reducing disparities in maternal and child health outcomes. Further attention to risk factors associated with LBW (especially smoking) may help close the gaps. The life course theory suggests that improved outcomes may require longer-term investments. Healthy Start’s emerging focus on interconception care has the potential to address

  8. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and metabolism of triethylenetetramine in healthy human participants: an open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Poppitt, Sally D; Othman, Asma A; Sunderland, Tracey; Ruggiero, Katya; Willett, Michael S; Diamond, Lisa E; Garcia, Wilfredo D; Roesch, Benno G; Cooper, Garth J S

    2010-06-01

    The selective Cu(II)-chelator, triethylenetetramine (TETA), is undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of heart failure in patients with diabetes. Recently, the authors showed that 2 acetylated metabolites, N(1)-acetyltriethylenetetramine (MAT) and N(1),N(10)-diacetyltriethylenetetramine (DAT), are formed in humans following oral TETA administration. Thus, it became necessary to determine whether the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 2 phenotype has any effects on the pharmacological properties and safety profile of TETA. Twelve fast and 12 slow NAT2-phenotype healthy participants were recruited. After oral drug administration, the authors collected plasma and urine samples, measured plasma concentrations of TETA and its 2 metabolites along with concomitant urinary copper concentrations, and performed safety tests. They present, for the first time, the complete 24-hour pharmacokinetic profiles of TETA, MAT, and DAT in humans. There was no evidence for clear-cut differences in pharmacokinetic profiles between fast and slow acetylators. Pharmacodynamic analysis showed no significant differences in cupruresis between the 2 NAT2 phenotypes. Safety results were consistent with TETA being well tolerated, and no significant differences in safety profiles were observed between the 2 phenotypes. Based on these data, NAT2 phenotype does not affect TETA's pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, or safety profiles. TETA may be acetylated via an alternative mechanism, such as that catalyzed by spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltranferase.

  9. Healthy Cities: facilitating the active participation and empowerment of local people.

    PubMed

    Dooris, Mark; Heritage, Zoe

    2013-10-01

    Community participation and empowerment are key values underpinning the European WHO Healthy Cities initiative, now in its fifth phase. This paper provides a brief overview of the history, policy context, and theory relating to community participation and empowerment. Drawing on Phase IV evaluation data, it presents the findings in relation to the four quadrants of Davidson's Wheel of Participation--information, consultation, participation in decision making, and empowerment. The large majority of European Healthy Cities have mechanisms in place to provide information for and to consult with local people. Most also demonstrate a commitment to enabling community participation in decision-making and to empowering citizens. Within this context, the evaluation highlighted a diversity of approaches and revealed varied perspectives on how participation and empowerment can be integrated within city leadership and governance processes. The paper concludes by suggesting that there is a need to strengthen future evaluative research to better understand how and why the Healthy Cities approach makes a difference.

  10. Caloric estimation of healthy and unhealthy foods in normal-weight, overweight and obese participants.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Derek; Martin, Colin R

    2016-12-01

    Individuals make dietary choices each time they consume food or drink, and assign labels to each item, such as un/healthy, high/low in calories, high/low in nutrients. These labels are thought to be snap judgments based on prior, and often limited nutritional knowledge. The aim of this study was to examine the perception of the caloric content of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' foods. Participants (N=141) rated 53 food images on perceived healthiness/un-healthiness alongside the caloric content. Participants were subdivided into three groups: BMI (normal-weight, overweight, obese). Findings suggest that weight status impacts on participant's caloric estimation of foods perceived as healthy, but only marginally for unhealthy foods. However, not all foods were consistently labeled as healthy or unhealthy, on these occasions weight salience appears not to have influenced estimations of caloric content. Foods that confound the dichotomous labeling of healthy or unhealthy appear to gain a 'branding' that confers either greater or fewer calories than they actually contain, on these occasions weight salience does not appear to influence the labeling; implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risks of phase I research with healthy participants: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca A; Rid, Annette; Emanuel, Ezekiel; Wendler, David

    2016-04-01

    Tragedies suggest that phase I trials in healthy participants may be highly risky. This possibility raises concern that phase I trials may exploit healthy participants to develop new therapies, making the translation of scientific discoveries ethically worrisome. Yet, few systematic data evaluate this concern. This article systematically reviews the risks of published phase I trials in healthy participants and evaluates trial features associated with increased risks. Data on adverse events and trial characteristics were extracted from all phase I trials published in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Scopus, and PsycINFO (1 January 2008-1 October 2012). Inclusion criteria were phase I studies that enrolled healthy participants of any age, provided quantitative adverse event data, and documented the number of participants enrolled. Exclusion criteria included (1) adverse event data not in English, (2) a "challenge" study in which participants were administered a pathogen, and (3) no quantitative information about serious adverse events. Data on the incidence of adverse events, duration of adverse event monitoring, trial agent tested, participant demographics, and trial location were extracted. In 475 trials enrolling 27,185 participants, there was a median of zero serious adverse events (interquartile range = 0-0) and a median of zero severe adverse events (interquartile range = 0-0) per 1000 treatment group participants/day of monitoring. The rate of mild and moderate adverse events was a median of 1147.19 per 1000 participants (interquartile range = 651.52-1730.9) and 46.07 per 1000 participants/adverse event monitoring day (interquartile range = 17.80-77.19). We conclude that phase I trials do cause mild and moderate harms but pose low risks of severe harm. To ensure that this conclusion also applies to unpublished trials, it is important to increase trial transparency. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Comparison of postoperative complications in healthy dogs undergoing open and closed orchidectomy.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, K H; Henderson, E R; Toscano, M; Chanoit, G P

    2014-10-01

    To compare closed and open orchidectomy in dogs and the associated complications. A randomised controlled blinded prospective clinical study of 73 cases was undertaken involving the recording of all complications during and in the 10 days following orchidectomy of dogs fulfilling the standardised inclusion criteria. The active variable was the surgical technique of either open or closed orchidectomy. Dogs undergoing open orchidectomy experienced significantly more complication events than the dogs undergoing closed orchidectomy [24 of 34 (70%) versus 18 of 39 (46%), P = 0 · 04]. Dogs undergoing open orchidectomy were statistically more likely to develop scrotal complications (21 of 34, 61%) compared with dogs undergoing closed orchidectomy (13 of 39, 33%; P = 0 · 02). Open orchidectomy is associated with a higher overall complication rate in the first 10 days after surgery than closed orchidectomy. Open orchidectomy is also associated with increased scrotal complications including swelling, bruising and pain compared with closed orchidectomy. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  13. Characteristics of the Healthy Brain Project Sample: Representing Diversity among Study Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lucinda L.; Laditka, James N.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Mathews, Anna E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Description of study participants and documentation of the desired diversity in the Prevention Research Centers Healthy Aging Research Network's Workgroup on Promoting Cognitive Health large multisite study designed to examine attitudes about brain health, behaviors associated with its maintenance, and information-receiving preferences…

  14. Characteristics of the Healthy Brain Project Sample: Representing Diversity among Study Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lucinda L.; Laditka, James N.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Mathews, Anna E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Description of study participants and documentation of the desired diversity in the Prevention Research Centers Healthy Aging Research Network's Workgroup on Promoting Cognitive Health large multisite study designed to examine attitudes about brain health, behaviors associated with its maintenance, and information-receiving preferences…

  15. Development of a cognitive function test using virtual reality technology: examination in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiromi; Nagano, Akinori; Seki, Keiko; Okahashi, Sayaka; Kojima, Maki; Luo, Zhiwei

    2017-07-13

    We developed a virtual reality test to assess the cognitive function of Japanese people in near-daily-life environment, namely, a virtual shopping test (VST). In this test, participants were asked to execute shopping tasks using touch panel operations in a "virtual shopping mall." We examined differences in VST performances among healthy participants of different ages and correlations between VST and screening tests, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Everyday Memory Checklist (EMC). We included 285 healthy participants between 20 and 86 years of age in seven age groups. Therefore, each VST index tended to decrease with advancing age; differences among age groups were significant. Most VST indices had a significantly negative correlation with MMSE and significantly positive correlation with EMC. VST may be useful for assessing general cognitive decline; effects of age must be considered for proper interpretation of the VST scores.

  16. Postoperative hypoxemia and hypercarbia in healthy dogs undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy or castration and receiving butorphanol or hydromorphone for analgesia.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Vicki L; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Perkowski, Sandra Z

    2003-02-01

    To determine frequency and severity of postanesthetic hypoxemia and hypercarbia in healthy dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy or castration and given butorphanol or hydromorphone for analgesia. Prospective trial. 0 healthy dogs weighing > 10 kg (22 lb). Dogs were anesthestized with acepromazine, glycopyrrolate, thiopental, and isoflurane, and butorphanol (n = 10) or hydromorphone (10) was used for perioperative analgesia. Arterial blood gas analyses were performed 10 and 30 minutes and 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after extubation. In dogs that received hydromorphone, mean PaCO2 was significantly higher, compared with the preoperative value, 10 and 30 minutes and 1, 2, and 3 hours after extubation. Mean PaCO2 was significantly higher in dogs given hydromorphone rather than butorphanol 10 and 30 minutes and 1 and 2 hours after extubation. Mean PaO2 was significantly lower, compared with preoperative values, 30 minutes and 1 and 2 hours after extubation in dogs given hydromorphone and 30 minutes after extubation in dogs given butorphanol. Mean PaO2 was significantly lower in dogs given hydromorphone rather than butorphanol 1 hour after extubation. Four dogs had PaO2 < 80 mm Hg 1 or more times after extubation. Results suggest that administration of hydromorphone to healthy dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy or castration may result in transient increases in PaCO2 postoperatively and that administration of hydromorphone or butorphanol may result in transient decreases in PaO2. However, increases in PaCO2 and decreases in PaO2 were mild, and mean PaCO2 and PaO2 remained within reference limits.

  17. Sensation seeking amongst healthy volunteers participating in phase I clinical trials.

    PubMed Central

    Farré, M; Lamas, X; Camí, J

    1995-01-01

    1. Phase I clinical trials are usually carried out in healthy volunteers. In addition to economic gain, factors that may influence willingness to participate include scientific interest, curiosity and choice for risky activities. 2. We assessed the relationship between personality variables and volunteering for clinical pharmacology research. Two personality questionnaires, the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS, form V) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), were administered to 48 male healthy university students who volunteered to participate in a phase I clinical trial and to 43 male university students who were not willing to participate in phase I clinical trials. General norm data were also used for the comparison of results. 3. When healthy volunteers were compared with unwilling subjects, significant differences were found in thrill-and-adventure seeking (7.9 vs 6.7, P = 0.0034), experience seeking (6.4 vs 5.2, P = 0.0012), disinhibition (6.2 vs 4.3, P < 0.0001), boredom susceptibility (3.9 vs 2.8, P = 0.0073), total sensation seeking trait (24.3 vs 19.0, P < 0.0001), extraversion (15.1 vs 13.3, P = 0.0490), and psychoticism (4.4 vs 3.5, P = 0.0086). When healthy volunteers were compared with general norm data similar statistically significant differences were found in all these scales, except for boredom susceptibility and psychoticism. 4. The personality profile of healthy volunteers was characterized by a higher sensation seeking trait and extraversion as compared with individuals who were not willing to participate in phase I clinical trials and general norm data. PMID:7640147

  18. Impact of fasting on food craving, mood and consumption in bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Domínguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen; Ortega-Roldán, Blanca; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Researchers have found that dietary restraint increases food cravings and may contribute to loss of control over eating. Negative mood states often precede food cravings and binge eating. In the present study, we tested the influence of a prolonged food deprivation period over emotional states and food cravings. Twenty-one bulimia nervosa participants and 20 healthy women participants were asked to refrain from any eating for 20 hours and reported, at baseline, after 6 hours and at the end of the fasting period, their mood and craving states. Food consumption was also measured. Fasting increased food cravings in both groups but increased negative mood in healthy women only. Bulimia nervosa participants reported improved mood following food deprivation. Whereas Bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants ate moderate and similar amounts of food following the 20-hour fasting period, food cravings were significantly associated with the number of calories ingested. These findings are congruent with self-regulation theories that predict that prolonged fasting may reduce negative emotions in women with bulimia nervosa.

  19. Gait adaptations with aging in healthy participants and people with knee-joint osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Duffell, Lynsey D; Jordan, Stevan J; Cobb, Justin P; McGregor, Alison H

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between age and gait characteristics in people with and without medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) remains unclear. We aimed to characterize this relationship and to relate biomechanical and structural parameters in a subset of OA patients. Twenty five participants with diagnosed unilateral medial knee OA and 84 healthy participants, with no known knee pathology were recruited. 3D motion capture was used to analyse sagittal and coronal plane gait parameters while participants walked at a comfortable speed. Participants were categorized according to age (18-30, 31-59 and 60+ years), and those with and without OA were compared between and within age groups. In a subset of OA patients, clinically available Computed Tomography images were used to assess joint structure. Differences in coronal plane kinematics at the hip and knee were noted in participants with OA particularly those who were older compared with our healthy controls, as well as increased knee moments. Knee adduction moment correlated with structural parameters in the subset of OA patients. Increased knee moments and altered kinematics were observed in older participants presenting with OA only, which seem to be related to morphological changes in the joint due to OA, as opposed to being related to the initial cause of medial knee OA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Economic impact of tranexamic acid in healthy patients undergoing primary total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Blake P; Maradit Kremers, Hilal; Duncan, Christopher M; Smith, Hugh M; Trousdale, Robert T; Pagnano, Mark W; Sierra, Rafael J

    2013-09-01

    Tranexamic acid (TA) has been shown to reduce perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion. While concern remains about the cost of antifibrinolytic medication, we hypothesized that routine use of tranexamic acid would result in lower direct hospital total cost by decreasing costs associated with blood transfusion, laboratory testing, and room & board. Patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class II or less undergoing primary total hip or knee arthroplasty at a single institution during 2007-2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The estimated mean direct hospital total cost, operating room, blood/lab, room & board, and pharmacy costs were compared between patients who did and did not receive TA. The study population included 1018 patients, and 580 patients received TA. The mean direct total cost of hospitalization with and without TA was $15,099 and $15,978 (P<.0002) respectively, a difference of $879. The only increased cost associated with TA was the pharmacy cost which was $921 versus $781 (P<.0001). The routine use of tranexamic acid TA was associated with lower mean direct hospital total costs after primary total hip and knee arthroplasty as the increase in pharmacy costs was more than offset by cost savings in other categories.

  1. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    PubMed Central

    Gualano, Bruno; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Artioli, Guilherme G; Benatti, Fabiana B; Scagliusi, Fernanda B; Harris, Roger C; Lancha, Antonio H

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Subjects (n = 22) were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR) (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks) or placebo (PL) (dextrose) in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training during three 40-minute sessions per week, over 3 months. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TAG), fasting insulin and fasting glycemia were analyzed in plasma. Thereafter, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was calculated. Tests were performed at baseline (Pre) and after four (Post 4), eight (Post 8) and twelve (Post 12) weeks. We observed main time effects in both groups for HDL (Post 4 versus Post 8; P = 0.01), TAG and VLDL (Pre versus Post 4 and Post 8; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively). However, no between group differences were noted in HDL, LDL, CT, VLDL and TAG. Additionally, fasting insulin, fasting glycemia and HOMA did not change significantly. These findings suggest that Cr supplementation does not exert any additional effect on the improvement in the plasma lipid profile than aerobic training alone. PMID:18831767

  2. Correlation between neck slope angle and deep cervical flexor muscle thickness in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Tadanobu; Kurozumi, Chiharu; Ono, Koji; Ando, Suguru; Watanabe, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the correlation between neck slope angle and deep cervical flexor muscle thickness in healthy subjects. Forty-two healthy male (20.7 ± 2.6 years old) participated in this study. Neck slope angle was measured in a relaxed sitting posture. The deep cervical flexor muscle thickness was measured in a relaxed supine posture. The correlations between neck slope angle and normalized muscle thickness relative to body mass index were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. There was a moderate positive correlation between neck slope angle and normalized muscle thickness (r = 0.414, P = 0.006). The result demonstrated that participants with lower neck slope angles had smaller muscle thicknesses of the deep cervical flexor muscles. It appears that the deep cervical flexor muscle thickness might be associated with neck slope angle in a relaxed sitting posture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Let’s Get Healthy! Health Awareness Through Public Participation in an Education and Research Exhibit

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Lisa K.; Cameron, William E.; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Cetola, Stephano; Ito, Matthew K.; Williams, Craig D.; Newcomb, Kenneth C.; Randall, Joan A.; Messenger, Wyatt B.; Lipus, Adam C.; Shannon, Jackilen

    2013-01-01

    Background Health information technology (HIT) offers a resource for public empowerment through tailored information. Objective Use interactive community health events to improve awareness of chronic disease risk factors while collecting data to improve health. Methods Let’s Get Healthy! is an education and research program in which participants visit interactive research stations to learn about their own health (diet, body composition, blood chemistry). HIT enables computerized data collection that presents participants with immediate results and tailored educational feedback. An anonymous wristband number links collected data in a population database. Results and Lessons Learned Communities tailor events to meet community health needs with volunteers trained to conduct research. Participants experience being a research participant and contribute to an anonymous population database for both traditional research purposes and open-source community use. Conclusions By integrating HIT with community involvement, health fairs become an interactive method for engaging communities in research and raising health awareness. PMID:22982846

  4. Let's Get Healthy! Health awareness through public participation in an education and research exhibit.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Lisa K; Cameron, William E; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Cetola, Stephano; Ito, Matthew K; Williams, Craig D; Newcomb, Kenneth C; Randall, Joan A; Messenger, Wyatt B; Lipus, Adam C; Shannon, Jackilen

    2012-01-01

    Health information technology (HIT) offers a resource for public empowerment through tailored information. Use interactive community health events to improve awareness of chronic disease risk factors while collecting data to improve health. Let's Get Healthy! is an education and research program in which participants visit interactive research stations to learn about their own health (diet, body composition, blood chemistry). HIT enables computerized data collection that presents participants with immediate results and tailored educational feedback. An anonymous wristband number links collected data in a population database. RESULTS AND LESSONS LEARNED: Communities tailor events to meet community health needs with volunteers trained to conduct research. Participants experience being a research participant and contribute to an anonymous population database for both traditional research purposes and open-source community use. By integrating HIT with community involvement, health fairs become an interactive method for engaging communities in research and raising health awareness.

  5. Effective dose assessment for participants in the National Lung Screening Trial undergoing posteroanterior chest radiographic examinations.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Randell; Flynn, Michael J; Judy, Phillip F; Cagnon, Christopher H; Seibert, J Anthony

    2013-07-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) is a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing low-dose helical CT with chest radiography in the screening of older current and former heavy smokers for early detection of lung cancer. Recruitment was launched in September 2002 and ended in April 2004, when 53,454 participants had been randomized at 33 screening sites. The objective of this study was to determine the effective radiation dose associated with individual chest radiographic screening examinations. A total of 73,733 chest radiographic examinations were performed with 92 chest imaging systems. The entrance skin air kerma (ESAK) of participants' chest radiographic examinations was estimated and used in this analysis. The effective dose per ESAK for each examination was determined with a Monte Carlo-based program. The examination effective dose was calculated as the product of the examination ESAK and the Monte Carlo estimate of the ratio of effective dose per ESAK. This study showed that the mean effective dose assessed from 66,157 postero-anterior chest examinations was 0.052 mSv. Additional findings were a median effective dose of 0.038 mSv, a 95th percentile value of 0.136 mSv, and a fifth percentile value of 0.013 mSv. The effective dose for participant NLST chest radiographic examinations was determined and is of specific interest in relation to that associated with the previously published NLST low-dose CT examinations conducted during the trial.

  6. Indulgent thinking? Ecological momentary assessment of overweight and healthy-weight participants' cognitions and emotions.

    PubMed

    Boh, Bastiaan; Jansen, Anita; Clijsters, Ineke; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Lemmens, Lotte H J M; Spanakis, Gerasimos; Roefs, Anne

    2016-12-01

    Cognitions and emotions are considered important determinants of eating behaviour in cognitive behavioural models of obesity. Ecological data on these determinants is still limited. The present study investigated cognitions and emotions of overweight (n = 57) and healthy-weight (n = 43) participants via Ecological Momentary Assessment. It was found that eating-related cognitions mainly focused on desire and taste. Unexpectedly, dysfunctional cognitions (i.e., thoughts that may promote overeating) did not occur more often for overweight participants in almost all cases. So, the present EMA study provides no evidence for a role of dysfunctional cognitions in obesity-promoting eating behaviour when assessing eating-related cognitions immediately prior to eating events using a free-text format assessment. Right before eating events, participants mostly reported feeling calm/relaxed and cheerful/happy. Overweight participants scored higher on negative emotions, both at eating events and non-eating moments, than did healthy-weight participants. In addition, scores on standard questionnaires assessing emotional eating were positively associated with negative emotions reported at both eating and non-eating moments. As such, negative emotions, as assessed in the present study, do not seem to be specific triggers for food consumption.

  7. Eat Smart! Ontario's Healthy Restaurant Program: focus groups with non-participating restaurant operators.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, John J M; Macaskill, Lesley A; Uetrecht, Connie L; Dombrow, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Eat Smart! Ontario's Healthy Restaurant Program is a standard provincial health promotion program. Public health units give an award of excellence to restaurants that meet nutrition, food safety, and non-smoking seating standards. The purpose of this study was to determine why some restaurant operators have not applied to participate in the program, and how to get them to apply. Four focus group interviews were conducted with 35 operators who didn't apply to participate. The analysis of responses yielded various themes. The participants' perceived barriers to participation were misunderstandings about how to qualify for the program, lack of time, concern about different non-smoking bylaw requirements, and potential loss of revenue. Their perceived facilitators to participation were convenience of applying to participate, franchise executives' approval to participate, a 100% non-smoking bylaw, flexibility in the assessment of restaurants, the opportunity for positive advertising, alternative payment for food handler training, and customer demand. Program staff can use the findings to develop and use strategies to encourage participation.

  8. Factors affecting workforce participation and healthy worker biases in U.S. women and men.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Candice Y; Rocheleau, Carissa M; Lawson, Christina C; Grajewski, Barbara; Howards, Penelope P

    2017-08-25

    To investigate potential attenuation of healthy worker biases in populations in which healthy women of reproductive age opt out of the workforce to provide childcare. We used 2013-2015 data from 120,928 U.S. women and men aged 22-44 years participating in the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index. We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted prevalence odds ratios (PORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between health and workforce nonparticipation. Women and men reporting poor health were more likely to be out of the workforce than individuals reporting excellent health (POR: 3.7, 95% CI: 3.2-4.2; POR: 6.7, 95% CI: 5.7-7.8, respectively), suggesting potential for healthy worker bias. For women (P < .001) but not men (P = .30), the strength of this association was modified by number of children in the home: POR: 7.3 (95% CI: 5.8-9.1) for women with no children, decreasing to POR: 0.9 (95% CI: 0.6-1.5) for women with four or more children. These results are consistent with attenuation of healthy worker biases when healthy women opt out of the workforce to provide childcare. Accordingly, we might expect the magnitude of these biases to vary with the proportion of women with differing numbers of children in the population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution in healthy participants and patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Duprez, Joan; Naudet, Florian; Argaud, Soizic; Dondaine, Thibaut; Drapier, Sophie; Robert, Gabriel Hadrien; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-08-15

    The influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution processes is not clearly defined in the literature, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Some studies have shown no effect of reward, while others have demonstrated a beneficial influence. In addition, although the basal ganglia are known to play a critical role in the association between motivation and cognition, the influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution processes in Parkinson's disease (PD) has received little attention. In this context, we assessed the influence of promised rewards on both impulse activation and suppression in 36 healthy participants and 36 patients with PD, using a rewarded Simon task. Analysis of performances revealed that promised rewards worsened the overall congruence effect, but only in healthy participants. Although the incentive context did not modulate the congruence effect in patients, by using the activation-suppression model, we were able to show that promised rewards did influence impulse suppression in patients-but not in healthy participants. Suppressing inappropriate response activation in an incentive context appears to be harder in medically treated Parkinson's disease. This indicates that incentive motivation can modulate at least one cognitive process involved in cognitive action control in patients with medically treated PD. The activation-suppression model provides essential additional information concerning the influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution processes in a pathological population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral morphine dosing predictions based on single dose in healthy children undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Joy M; Cooke, Erin M; Hannam, Jacqueline A; Brand, Katherine A; Winton, Pamela; Jimenez-Mendez, Ricardo; Aleksa, Katarina; Lauder, Gillian R; Carleton, Bruce C; Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael J; Anderson, Brian J; Montgomery, Carolyne J

    2017-01-01

    Oral morphine has been proposed as an effective and safe alternative to codeine for after-discharge pain in children following surgery but there are few data guiding an optimum safe oral dose. The aim of this study was to characterize the absorption pharmacokinetics of enteral morphine in order to simulate time-concentration profiles in children given common oral morphine dose regimens. Children (2-6 years, n = 34) undergoing elective surgery and requiring opioid analgesia were randomized to receive preoperative oral morphine (100 mcg·kg(-1) , 200 mcg·kg(-1) , 300 mcg·kg(-1) ). Blood sampling for morphine assay was performed at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 min. Morphine serum concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using nonlinear mixed effects models. Current data were pooled with published time-concentration profiles from children (n = 1059, age 23 weeks postmenstrual age - 3 years) administered intravenous morphine, to determine oral bioavailability (F), absorption lag time (TLAG ), and absorption half-time (TABS ). These parameter estimates were used to predict concentrations in children given oral morphine (100, 200, 300, 400, 500 mcg·kg(-1) ) at different dosing intervals (3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12 h). The oral morphine formulation had F 0.298 (CV 36.5%), TLAG 0.45 (CV 63.6%) h and TABS 0.71 (CV 55%) h. A single-dose morphine 100 mcg·kg(-1) achieved a mean CMAX 10 mcg·l(-1) . Repeat 4-hourly dosing achieved mean steady-state concentration 13-18 mcg·l(-1) ; concentrations associated with good analgesia after intravenous administration. Serum concentration variability was large ranging from 5 to 55 mcg·l(-1) at steady state. Oral morphine 200 mcg·kg(-1) then 100 mcg·kg(-1) 4 h or 150 mcg·kg(-1) 6 h achieves mean concentrations associated with analgesia. There was high serum concentration variability suggesting that respiration may be compromised in some children given these

  11. Morphological abnormalities in baseline ECGs in healthy normal volunteers participating in phase I studies

    PubMed Central

    Hingorani, Pooja; Natekar, Mili; Deshmukh, Sheetal; Karnad, Dilip R.; Kothari, Snehal; Narula, Dhiraj; Lokhandwala, Yash

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Morphological abnormalities in 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) are seen in subgroups of healthy individuals like athletes and air-force personnel. As these populations may not truly represent healthy individuals, we assessed morphological abnormalities in ECG in healthy volunteers participating in phase I studies, who are screened to exclude associated conditions. Methods: ECGs from 62 phase I studies analyzed in a central ECG laboratory were pooled. A single drug-free baseline ECG from each subject was reviewed by experienced cardiologists. ECG intervals were measured on five consecutive beats and morphological abnormalities identified using standard guidelines. Results: Morphological abnormalities were detected in 25.5 per cent of 3978 healthy volunteers (2495 males, 1483 females; aged 18-76 yr); the presence was higher in males (29.3% vs. 19.2% in females; P<0.001). Rhythm abnormalities were the commonest (11.5%) followed by conduction abnormalities (5.9%), axis deviation (4%), ST-T wave changes (3.1%) and chamber enlargement (1.4%). Incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB), short PR interval and right ventricular hypertrophy were common in young subjects (<20 yr) while atrial fibrillation, first degree atrioventricular block, complete RBBB and left anterior fascicular block were more prevalent in elderly subjects (>65 yr). Prolonged PR interval, RBBB and intraventricular conduction defects were more common in males while sinus tachycardia, short PR interval and non-specific T wave changes were more frequent in females. Interpretation & Conclusions: Morphological abnormalities in ECG are commonly seen in healthy volunteers participating in phase I studies; and vary with age and gender. Further studies are required to determine whether these abnormalities persist or if some of these disappear on follow up. PMID:22561618

  12. Incidental Computer Tomography Radiologic Findings through Research Participation in the North Texas Healthy Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Anna; Malone, Kendra; Balyakina, Elizabeth; Fulda, Kimberly G.; Cardarelli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Although variation exists in the classification and practice of managing clinical findings in research, emerging views suggest that researchers bear some responsibility in the management of incidental findings. This study contributes to the documentation of the population characteristics and prevalence of medical findings incidental to research participation, specifically findings related to coronary calcium scores and computed tomography (CT) scans that investigated cardiovascular disparities in an asymptomatic population. Methods A total of 571 asymptomatic adult participants were recruited in the North Texas Healthy Heart Study. Participants completed a 16-slice CT scan of the heart and abdomen. Findings of radiology reports and 3 years of follow-up documentation were reviewed. Results A total of 246 clinically apparent findings were identified in 169 asymptomatic participants (32.9% of participants who completed a CT scan). Another 245 participants (48%) had findings of unknown significance, a total of 307 findings. At least 4 cases in this study led to a clinically significant intervention. Conclusion Although CT scans were completed for research purposes, study procedures resulted in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals who were previously asymptomatic. Potential clinical benefits in imaging research are moderated by considerations regarding possible harm and costs resulting from uncertain findings and the use of CT scans for nonclinical purposes. The continued development of protocols for the handling of incidental findings in research and the establishment of guidelines are needed to ensure that research procedures mirror the best interests of participants. PMID:24808109

  13. Increased interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity in healthy participants with insomnia symptoms: A randomized clinical consort study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuhua; Guo, Shougang; Wang, Chunjuan; Wang, Baojie; Sun, Hao; Zhang, Xiaoting

    2017-07-01

    Abnormalities within the insular cortex of the salience and thalamus of the hyperarousal network have been increasingly reported in healthy participants with insomnia symptoms by recent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) studies. However, little is known about the changes in functional interaction between the bilateral cerebral hemispheres in healthy participants with insomnia symptoms. In a randomized trial, 27 healthy participants with insomnia symptoms and 27 age-, gender-, and educational level-matched healthy participants without insomnia symptoms underwent rsfMRI. Voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) was used to measure functional connectivity between any pair of symmetrical interhemispheric voxels (i.e., functional homotopy). The healthy participants with insomnia symptoms displayed significantly increased VMHC compared to healthy participants without insomnia symptoms in the bilateral thalamus/posterior insula (including anterior insula), fusiform, middle cingulate gyrus, inferior parietal lobe, and postcentral gyrus. No regions of decreased VMHC were detected in healthy participants with insomnia symptoms. There were significantly positive correlations between the VMHC values in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and sleep disturbance scores in all healthy participants. Insomnia is associated with substantial impairment of interhemispheric coordination within the default mode (ACC), salience (insula), hyperarousal (thalamus/posterior insula), and visual (fusiform) networks.

  14. Intrarater and interrater reliability of the Anteromedial Reach Test in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Bent, Nicholas P; Rushton, Alison B; Wright, Chris C; Petherick, Emma-Jane; Batt, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Background The Anteromedial Reach Test is a performance-based outcome measure for evaluating dynamic knee stability in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury. No previously published study has adequately evaluated intrarater or interrater reliability of the Anteromedial Reach Test, so the purpose of this study was to assess these measurement properties in healthy participants prior to their investigation in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Methods Two raters (A and B) tested 39 healthy university staff and students (20 men, 19 women). For the intrarater reliability investigation, rater A tested participants on three separate test occasions (days 1, 2, and 3) at the same time of day. For the interrater reliability investigation, raters A and B independently tested participants on the same test occasion (day 3). Results There was no significant systematic bias between test occasions or raters. Values of the intraclass correlation coefficient (2,1) were 0.96 for intrarater reliability of both the dominant leg and nondominant leg and 0.97 (dominant leg) and 0.98 (nondominant leg) for interrater reliability. Values for the standard error of measurement were 1.46 (dominant leg) and 1.62 (nondominant leg) for the intrarater investigation, and 1.26 (dominant leg) and 1.04 (nondominant leg) for the interrater investigation. At the 90% confidence level, the minimum detectable change was 3.8% and the error in an individual’s score at a given point in time was ±2.7%. Conclusion The Anteromedial Reach Test demonstrated excellent intrarater and interrater reliability in healthy participants. This provides a basis for future investigation of the measurement properties of the Anteromedial Reach Test in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury. PMID:24648776

  15. Development of the Spanish Healthy Food Reference Budget for an adequate social participation at the minimum.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Álvarez, Elena; Cussó-Parcerisas, Irene; Riera-Romaní, Jordi

    2016-12-01

    It has been observed that diet quality and food choices vary depending on socio-economic status (SES), especially when measured through income and educational level. Although the reasons behind these differences are multiple, diet cost is a critical determinant in those groups that spend a higher proportion of their budget on food. Reference budgets are priced baskets containing the minimum goods and services necessary for well-described types of families to have an adequate social participation. In the current paper we describe the development and content of the Spanish Healthy Food Basket (SHFB). National dietary guidelines were translated into monthly food baskets. Next, these baskets were validated in terms of acceptability and feasibility through focus group discussions, and finally they were priced. The focus group discussions and the pricing were performed in Barcelona, Spain. Twenty adults aged 30-50 years from different SES backgrounds and their children aged 2-22 years participated in three discussion groups. The SHFB complies with the dietary recommendations for the Spanish population. The monthly cost of this basket ranges from 131·63 € to 573·80 € depending on the type of family. The SHFB does not have the purpose of prescribing what people should eat, but of estimating a minimum budget threshold below which healthy eating is not possible for well-described types of families. Thus, the SHFB is an educative guide on how to plan a healthy food budget and orient policies designed to guarantee food access and reduce SES inequalities.

  16. The Safety of Multiple Flexible Sigmoidoscopies with Mucosal Biopsies in Healthy Clinical Trial Participants.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Wai Kan; Brand, Rhonda M; Camp, Danielle; Edick, Stacey; Mitchell, Carol; Karas, Sherri; Zehmisch, Amanda; Ho, Ken; Brand, Randall E; Harrison, Janet; Abo, Steven; Cranston, Ross D; McGowan, Ian

    2017-03-15

    During Phase 1 pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics studies, participants may undergo multiple sigmoidoscopies, with a collection of 10-20 biopsies during each procedure. This article characterizes the safety of flexible sigmoidoscopies in clinical trial participants. We determined the number of flexible sigmoidoscopies and rectal biopsies that participants underwent and analyzed the frequency, duration, and severity of flexible sigmoidoscopy-related adverse events (AEs). During the study period, 278 participants underwent 1,004 flexible sigmoidoscopies with the collection of 15,930 rectal biopsies. The average number of procedures per participant was 3.6 (median 3; range 1-25), with an average time interval between procedures of 61.8 days (median 28 days; range 1-1,159). There were no serious AEs. Sixteen AEs were related to flexible sigmoidoscopy and occurred in 16 participants, leading to an overall 1.6% (16/1,004) AE rate per procedure and 0.1% (16/15,930) AE rate per biopsy. Of the 16 AEs, 8 (50%) involved abdominal pain, diarrhea, bleeding, flatulence, and bloating, with an average duration of 4.7 days (median 1 day; range 1-28). Most (14/16) AEs were categorized as Grade 1 (mild), whereas two of the AEs were Grade 2 (moderate). No participant withdrew due to procedure-related AEs. Overall, the number of AEs caused by flexible sigmoidoscopy with multiple biopsies was low and the severity was mild, suggesting that this procedure can be safely integrated into protocols requiring repeated intestinal mucosal sampling.

  17. Food supply and actions to improve dietary behaviour of students - a comparison between secondary schools participating or not participating in the 'Healthy School Canteen Program'.

    PubMed

    Milder, Ivon E J; Mikolajczak, Jochen; van den Berg, Saskia W; van de Veen-van Hofwegen, Madelon; Bemelmans, Wanda J E

    2015-02-01

    (i) To identify determinants of participation in the 'Healthy School Canteen Program', a programme that encourages schools to set up their canteen in a way that promotes healthy dietary behaviour. (ii) To compare food supply and actions between participating and non-participating schools. (iii) To investigate what reasons schools have to increase attention for nutrition in the curriculum. A cross-sectional study based on information from questionnaires performed in 2010/2011. All secondary schools (age group 12-18 years) in the Netherlands (n 1145). Response was 33 % (n 375). Analyses included all schools with a canteen in which food is offered (28 %, n 325). None of the investigated determinants was associated with participation. Participating schools offered significantly (P < 0·001) more of eleven inventoried healthy foods (e.g. sandwiches, (butter)milk, fruit, light soft drinks, yoghurt and salad) than non-participating schools. However, there was no difference in the number of less healthy products offered (e.g. candy bars, cakes and regular soft drinks). Participating schools reported more often that they took actions to improve dietary behaviour and more often had a policy on nutrition. Participating schools more often increased attention for nutrition in the curriculum in recent years than non-participating schools (57 % v. 43 %, P = 0·01). Reported reasons were similar and included media attention, eating behaviour of students and 'overweight'. Schools that participate in the programme seemed to offer more healthy products in their canteens and took more actions to improve dietary behaviour than non-participating schools. However, at all schools less healthy foods were also available.

  18. Evaluation findings on community participation in the California Healthy Cities and Communities program.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Michelle C; Painter, Julia Ellenberg; Twiss, Joan M; Aronson, Robert; Norton, Barbara L

    2009-12-01

    As part of an evaluation of the California Healthy Cities and Communities (CHCC) program, we evaluated resident involvement, broad representation and civic engagement beyond the local CHCC initiative. The evaluation design was a case study of 20 participating communities with cross-case analysis. Data collection methods included: coalition member surveys at two points in time, semi-structured interviews with key informants, focus groups with coalition members and document review. Participating communities were diverse in terms of population density, geography and socio-demographic characteristics. Over a 3-year period, grantees developed a broad-based coalition of residents and community sectors, produced a shared vision, conducted an asset-based community assessment, identified a priority community improvement focus, developed an action plan, implemented the plan and evaluated their efforts. Local residents were engaged through coalition membership, assessment activities and implementation activities. Ten of the 20 coalitions had memberships comprised of mainly local residents in the planning phase, with 5 maintaining a high level of resident involvement in governance during the implementation phase. Ninety percent of the coalitions had six or more community sectors represented (e.g. education, faith). The majority of coalitions described at least one example of increased input into local government decision-making and at least one instance in which a resident became more actively involved in the life of their community. Findings suggest that the Healthy Cities and Communities model can be successful in facilitating community participation.

  19. Scale-Free Functional Connectivity of the Brain Is Maintained in Anesthetized Healthy Participants but Not in Patients with Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaolin; Ward, B. Douglas; Binder, Jeffrey R.; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hudetz, Anthony G.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of consciousness in anesthetized healthy participants and in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) is associated with substantial alterations of functional connectivity across large-scale brain networks. Yet, a prominent distinction between the two cases is that after anesthesia, brain connectivity and consciousness are spontaneously restored, whereas in patients with UWS this restoration fails to occur, but why? A possible explanation is that the self-organizing capability of the brain is compromised in patients with UWS but not in healthy participants undergoing anesthesia. According to the theory of self-organized criticality, many natural complex systems, including the brain, evolve spontaneously to a critical state wherein system behaviors display spatial and/or temporal scale-invariant characteristics. Here we tested the hypothesis that the scale-free property of brain network organization is in fact fundamentally different between anesthetized healthy participants and UWS patients. We introduced a novel, computationally efficient approach to determine anatomical-functional parcellation of the whole-brain network at increasingly finer spatial scales. We found that in healthy participants, scale-free distributions of node size and node degree were present across wakefulness, propofol sedation, and recovery, despite significant propofol-induced functional connectivity changes. In patients with UWS, the scale-free distribution of node degree was absent, reflecting a fundamental difference between the two groups in adaptive reconfiguration of functional interaction between network components. The maintenance of scale-invariance across propofol sedation in healthy participants suggests the presence of persistent, on-going self-organizing processes to a critical state – a capacity that is compromised in patients with UWS. PMID:24647227

  20. Scale-free functional connectivity of the brain is maintained in anesthetized healthy participants but not in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolin; Ward, B Douglas; Binder, Jeffrey R; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hudetz, Anthony G

    2014-01-01

    Loss of consciousness in anesthetized healthy participants and in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) is associated with substantial alterations of functional connectivity across large-scale brain networks. Yet, a prominent distinction between the two cases is that after anesthesia, brain connectivity and consciousness are spontaneously restored, whereas in patients with UWS this restoration fails to occur, but why? A possible explanation is that the self-organizing capability of the brain is compromised in patients with UWS but not in healthy participants undergoing anesthesia. According to the theory of self-organized criticality, many natural complex systems, including the brain, evolve spontaneously to a critical state wherein system behaviors display spatial and/or temporal scale-invariant characteristics. Here we tested the hypothesis that the scale-free property of brain network organization is in fact fundamentally different between anesthetized healthy participants and UWS patients. We introduced a novel, computationally efficient approach to determine anatomical-functional parcellation of the whole-brain network at increasingly finer spatial scales. We found that in healthy participants, scale-free distributions of node size and node degree were present across wakefulness, propofol sedation, and recovery, despite significant propofol-induced functional connectivity changes. In patients with UWS, the scale-free distribution of node degree was absent, reflecting a fundamental difference between the two groups in adaptive reconfiguration of functional interaction between network components. The maintenance of scale-invariance across propofol sedation in healthy participants suggests the presence of persistent, on-going self-organizing processes to a critical state--a capacity that is compromised in patients with UWS.

  1. Cryotherapy and Joint Position Sense in Healthy Participants: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Joseph T.; Donnelly, Alan E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To (1) search the English-language literature for original research addressing the effect of cryotherapy on joint position sense (JPS) and (2) make recommendations regarding how soon healthy athletes can safely return to participation after cryotherapy. Data Sources: We performed an exhaustive search for original research using the AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and SportDiscus databases from 1973 to 2009 to gather information on cryotherapy and JPS. Key words used were cryotherapy and proprioception, cryotherapy and joint position sense, cryotherapy, and proprioception. Study Selection: The inclusion criteria were (1) the literature was written in English, (2) participants were human, (3) an outcome measure included JPS, (4) participants were healthy, and (5) participants were tested immediately after a cryotherapy application to a joint. Data Extraction: The means and SDs of the JPS outcome measures were extracted and used to estimate the effect size (Cohen d) and associated 95% confidence intervals for comparisons of JPS before and after a cryotherapy treatment. The numbers, ages, and sexes of participants in all 7 selected studies were also extracted. Data Synthesis: The JPS was assessed in 3 joints: ankle (n  =  2), knee (n  =  3), and shoulder (n  =  2). The average effect size for the 7 included studies was modest, with effect sizes ranging from −0.08 to 1.17, with a positive number representing an increase in JPS error. The average methodologic score of the included studies was 5.4/10 (range, 5–6) on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Conclusions: Limited and equivocal evidence is available to address the effect of cryotherapy on proprioception in the form of JPS. Until further evidence is provided, clinicians should be cautious when returning individuals to tasks requiring components of proprioceptive input immediately after a cryotherapy treatment. PMID:20446845

  2. A study on variability of quantitative sensory testing in healthy participants and painful temporomandibular disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangju; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Wang, Kelun; Xie, Qiu-Fei; Svensson, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Quantitative sensory testing has mainly used thresholds to evaluate somatosensory sensitivity so far. The variability of different measures from session to session has also been investigated, but the variability of the single individual measures of a threshold or subject-based reports has not been considered. This study aimed to investigate the potential value of threshold variability in one session as a measure of internal consistency in somatosensory function. The standardized quantitative sensory testing battery developed by the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain was performed bilaterally over the infraorbital, mental, and hand regions in 70 healthy and 22 temporomandibular disorder pain participants. Somatosensory variability was investigated by calculating the Coefficient of Variation of three to five repeated measures in one threshold determination. The influences of side, gender, site, age, and presence of pain on the somatosensory variability were evaluated. In the healthy participants, somatosensory variability was region dependent: hand > mental and/or infraorbital for CDT, WDT, HPT, MDT-N, MPT-Y, MPT-N, WUR, and MPS (p ≤ 0.043), infraorbital > hand for VDT (p = 0.001), mental > infraorbital for HPT and WUR (p ≤ 0.001); and age dependent for WDT, TSL, CPT, HPT, MDT-Y, MDT-N, MPT-N, and WUR (p ≤ 0.017). Gender and side had no main effect on variability (p ≥ 0.136). The pain patients presented higher variability compared with healthy participants for TSL, MDT-N, MPT-Y, WUR, and PPT (p ≤ 0.033). The somatosensory variability along with the threshold would be a more complete method to investigate the somatosensory disorders and underlying pain mechanisms. The correlation between pain duration and somatosensory variability should be studied further with different pain conditions.

  3. Measurement of respiratory system compliance and respiratory system resistance in healthy dogs undergoing general anaesthesia for elective orthopaedic procedures.

    PubMed

    Bradbrook, Carl A; Clark, Louise; Dugdale, Alexandra H A; Burford, John; Mosing, Martina

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate normal values for the dynamic compliance of the respiratory system (Crs) and respiratory system resistance (Rrs) in mechanically ventilated anaesthetized dogs. Prospective clinical study. Forty healthy dogs undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery. Body weight was (mean ± SD) 26.8 ± 10.7 kg (range: 1.9-45.0 kg), age 4.7 ± 2.9 years (range: 0.1-10.6 years). Dogs were premedicated with acepromazine and methadone administered intramuscularly and anaesthesia induced with propofol intravenously. After endotracheal intubation the dog's lungs were connected to an appropriate breathing system depending on body weight and isoflurane in oxygen administered for maintenance of anaesthesia. The lungs were ventilated mechanically with variables set to maintain normocapnia (end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration 4.7-6.0 kPa). Peak inspiratory pressure, Crs, Rrs, tidal volume, respiratory rate and positive end-expiratory pressure were recorded at 5, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after start of mechanical ventilation. Cardiovascular variables were recorded at time of collection of respiratory data. General additive modeling revealed the following relationships: Crs =[0.895 × body weight (kg)] + 8.845 and Rrs=[-0.0966 × body weight (kg)] + 6.965. Body weight and endotracheal tube diameter were associated with Crs (p<0.001 and p=0.002 respectively) and Rrs (p=0.017 and p=0.002 respectively), body weight being linearly related to Crs and inversely to Rrs. Body weight was linearly related to Crs while Rrs has an inverse linear relationship with body weight in mechanically ventilated dogs. The derived values of Crs and Rrs may be used for monitoring of lung function and ventilation in healthy dogs under anaesthesia. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  4. Visual Imagery and False Memory for Pictures: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Stephan-Otto, Christian; Siddi, Sara; Senior, Carl; Muñoz-Samons, Daniel; Ochoa, Susana; Sánchez-Laforga, Ana María; Brébion, Gildas

    2017-01-01

    Background Visual mental imagery might be critical in the ability to discriminate imagined from perceived pictures. Our aim was to investigate the neural bases of this specific type of reality-monitoring process in individuals with high visual imagery abilities. Methods A reality-monitoring task was administered to twenty-six healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging. During the encoding phase, 45 words designating common items, and 45 pictures of other common items, were presented in random order. During the recall phase, participants were required to remember whether a picture of the item had been presented, or only a word. Two subgroups of participants with a propensity for high vs. low visual imagery were contrasted. Results Activation of the amygdala, left inferior occipital gyrus, insula, and precuneus were observed when high visual imagers encoded words later remembered as pictures. At the recall phase, these same participants activated the middle frontal gyrus and inferior and superior parietal lobes when erroneously remembering pictures. Conclusions The formation of visual mental images might activate visual brain areas as well as structures involved in emotional processing. High visual imagers demonstrate increased activation of a fronto-parietal source-monitoring network that enables distinction between imagined and perceived pictures. PMID:28046076

  5. Visual Imagery and False Memory for Pictures: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Healthy Participants.

    PubMed

    Stephan-Otto, Christian; Siddi, Sara; Senior, Carl; Muñoz-Samons, Daniel; Ochoa, Susana; Sánchez-Laforga, Ana María; Brébion, Gildas

    2017-01-01

    Visual mental imagery might be critical in the ability to discriminate imagined from perceived pictures. Our aim was to investigate the neural bases of this specific type of reality-monitoring process in individuals with high visual imagery abilities. A reality-monitoring task was administered to twenty-six healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging. During the encoding phase, 45 words designating common items, and 45 pictures of other common items, were presented in random order. During the recall phase, participants were required to remember whether a picture of the item had been presented, or only a word. Two subgroups of participants with a propensity for high vs. low visual imagery were contrasted. Activation of the amygdala, left inferior occipital gyrus, insula, and precuneus were observed when high visual imagers encoded words later remembered as pictures. At the recall phase, these same participants activated the middle frontal gyrus and inferior and superior parietal lobes when erroneously remembering pictures. The formation of visual mental images might activate visual brain areas as well as structures involved in emotional processing. High visual imagers demonstrate increased activation of a fronto-parietal source-monitoring network that enables distinction between imagined and perceived pictures.

  6. Validation of indirect calorimetry for measurement of energy expenditure in healthy volunteers undergoing pressure controlled non-invasive ventilation support.

    PubMed

    Siirala, Waltteri; Noponen, Tommi; Olkkola, Klaus T; Vuori, Arno; Koivisto, Mari; Hurme, Saija; Aantaa, Riku

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this validation study was to assess the reliability of gas exchange measurement with indirect calorimetry among subjects who undergo non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were measured in twelve healthy volunteers. Respiratory quotient (RQ) and resting energy expenditure (REE) were then calculated from the measured VO2 and VCO2 values. During the measurement period the subjects were breathing spontaneously and ventilated using NIV. Two different sampling air flow values 40 and 80 l/min were used. The gas leakage from the measurement setup was assessed with a separate capnograph. The mean weight of the subjects was 93 kg. Their mean body mass index was 29 (range 22-40) kg/m2. There was no statistically significant difference in the measured values for VO2, VCO2, RQ and REE during NIV-supported breathing and spontaneous breathing. The change of sampling air flow had no statistically significant effect on any of the above parameters. We found that REE can be accurately measured with an indirect calorimeter also during NIV-supported breathing and the change of sampling air flow does not distort the gas exchange measurement. A higher sampling air flow in indirect calorimetry decreases the possibility for air leakages in the measurement system and increases the reliability of REE measurement.

  7. Decision making in healthy participants on the Iowa Gambling Task: new insights from an operant approach

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Peter N.; Tippett, Lynette J.; Addis, Donna Rose

    2015-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has contributed greatly to the study of affective decision making. However, researchers have observed high inter-study and inter-individual variability in IGT performance in healthy participants, and many are classified as impaired using standard criteria. Additionally, while decision-making deficits are often attributed to atypical sensitivity to reward and/or punishment, the IGT lacks an integrated sensitivity measure. Adopting an operant perspective, two experiments were conducted to explore these issues. In Experiment 1, 50 healthy participants completed a 200-trial version of the IGT which otherwise closely emulated Bechara et al.'s (1999) original computer task. Group data for Trials 1–100 closely replicated Bechara et al.'s original findings of high net scores and preferences for advantageous decks, suggesting that implementations that depart significantly from Bechara's standard IGT contribute to inter-study variability. During Trials 101–200, mean net scores improved significantly and the percentage of participants meeting the “impaired” criterion was halved. An operant-style stability criterion applied to individual data revealed this was likely related to individual differences in learning rate. Experiment 2 used a novel operant card task—the Auckland Card Task (ACT)—to derive quantitative estimates of sensitivity using the generalized matching law. Relative to individuals who mastered the IGT, persistent poor performers on the IGT exhibited significantly lower sensitivity to magnitudes (but not frequencies) of rewards and punishers on the ACT. Overall, our findings demonstrate the utility of operant-style analysis of IGT data and the potential of applying operant concurrent-schedule procedures to the study of human decision making. PMID:25904884

  8. Prism adaptation does not alter object-based attention in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Bultitude, Janet H.

    2013-01-01

    Hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’) is a disabling condition that can follow damage to the right side of the brain, in which patients show difficulty in responding to or orienting towards objects and events that occur on the left side of space. Symptoms of neglect can manifest in both space- and object-based frames of reference. Although patients can show a combination of these two forms of neglect, they are considered separable and have distinct neurological bases. In recent years considerable evidence has emerged to demonstrate that spatial symptoms of neglect can be reduced by an intervention called prism adaptation. Patients point towards objects viewed through prismatic lenses that shift the visual image to the right. Approximately five minutes of repeated pointing results in a leftward recalibration of pointing and improved performance on standard clinical tests for neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Here we examined the effect of prism adaptation on the performance of healthy participants who completed a computerised test of space- and object-based attention. Participants underwent adaptation to leftward- or rightward-shifting prisms, or performed neutral pointing according to a between-groups design. Significant pointing after-effects were found for both prism groups, indicating successful adaptation. In addition, the results of the computerised test revealed larger reaction-time costs associated with shifts of attention between two objects compared to shifts of attention within the same object, replicating previous work. However there were no differences in the performance of the three groups, indicating that prism adaptation did not influence space- or object-based attention for this task. When combined with existing literature, the results are consistent with the proposal that prism

  9. Impact of Limiting Visual Input on Gait: Individuals with Parkinson Disease, Age-matched Controls and Healthy Young Participants

    PubMed Central

    Pilgram, Laura M.; Earhart, Gammon M.; Pickett, Kristen A.

    2016-01-01

    Normal and limited vision gait was investigated in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD), healthy older and healthy young individuals. Participants walked a GAITRite mat with normal vision or vision of lower limbs occluded. Results indicate individuals with PD walked more slowly, with shorter and wider steps and spent more time in double support with limited vision as compared to full vision. Healthy young and old individuals took shorter steps but were otherwise unchanged between conditions. PMID:26987577

  10. Increased perceived self-efficacy facilitates the extinction of fear in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Preusser, Friederike; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy has been proposed as an important element of a successful cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT). Positive changes in perceived self-efficacy have been linked to an improved adaptive emotional and behavioral responding in the context of anxiety-provoking situations. Furthermore, a positive influence of increased self-efficacy on cognitive functions has been confirmed. The present study examined the effect of verbal persuasion on perceived self-efficacy and fear extinction. Healthy participants were subjected to a standardized differential fear conditioning paradigm. After fear acquisition, half of the participants received a verbal persuasion aimed at increasing perceived self-efficacy. The extinction of fear was assessed immediately thereafter on both the implicit and explicit level. Our results suggest that an increased perceived self-efficacy was associated with enhanced extinction, evidenced on the psychophysiological level and accompanied by more pronounced decrements in conditioned negative valence. Changes in extinction were not due to a decrease in overall emotional reactivity to conditioned stimuli (CS). In addition, debriefing participants about the false positive feedback did not affect the processing of already extinguished conditioned responses during a subsequent continued extinction phase. Our results suggest that positive changes in perceived self-efficacy can be beneficial for emotional learning. Findings are discussed with respect to strategies aimed at increasing extinction learning in the course of exposure-based treatments. PMID:26528152

  11. Assessing change in health professions volunteers' perceptions after participating in Special Olympics healthy athlete events.

    PubMed

    Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Boyd, Linda D; Tivis, Rick

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed perceptions of health professions student and faculty volunteers who participated with athletes at the 2009 Special Olympics World Winter Games in Healthy Athlete venues. The volunteers' perceptions and expectations of the abilities of intellectually disabled athletes were measured by administering pre-event and post-event questionnaires consisting of demographic questions and the Prognostic Belief Scale (PBS). Invitations to participate in the study were sent to 165 students and faculty members; of those, eighty (48.5 percent response rate) responded to the pre-event questionnaire, and sixty-seven (40.6 percent response rate) responded to the post-event questionnaire. Of the eighty respondents to the pre-event questionnaire, fifty-five (68.7 percent) also completed the post-event questionnaire. The ANOVA comparing pre- and post-event PBS scores between groups found a trend towards higher scores among the volunteers, but analysis did not demonstrate a significant effect in either group (p=.68) or the interaction of group by time (p=.46). Despite the findings from the PBS, participants' statements suggest the experience had an impact on their perceptions and expectations. Although not statistically significant, this study found a positive trend pre- to post-event in the volunteers' perceptions of the abilities of athletes with intellectual disabilities. In addition to didactic and clinical education, volunteer experiences may enhance care providers' knowledge, skill, and confidence levels for treating clients with intellectual disabilities.

  12. Participation in Action: The Healthy African American Families Community Conference Model

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Loretta; Collins, Barry E.

    2013-01-01

    The Healthy African American Families project (HAAF) in Los Angeles developed “community conferences” as a method of engaging local community members in mutually beneficial participatory collaborations with academic and clinical researchers. In these conferences, community voices and concerns about a health issue are translated into the language of scientific inquiry. Scientific information and process are translated into forms that can be understood and utilized by the lay community. Equally important, the conference process enables community members to provide input into scientific projects and to take ownership of subsequent interventions resulting from the research conducted in its community. The HAAF conference model is participation in action. It may be useful for other communities engaging in community participatory prevention research. PMID:20629242

  13. A computerized stroop test for the evaluation of psychotropic drugs in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Pilli, Raveendranadh; Naidu, Mur; Pingali, Usha Rani; Shobha, J C; Reddy, A Praveen

    2013-04-01

    The Stroop paradigm evaluates susceptibility to interference and is sensitive to dysfunction in frontal lobes and drug effects. The aim of the present study was to establish a simple and reliable computerized version of Stroop color-word test, which can be used for screening of various psychotropic drugs. The standardized method was followed in all cases, by recording the reaction time (RT) in msec in 24 healthy participants using computerized version of Stroop color-word test. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by recording the RTs by a single experimenter on two sessions (interday reproducibility). Validity of the model was further tested by evaluating the psychotropic effect of Zolpidem 5 mg, Caffeine 500 mg, or Placebo on 24 healthy subjects in a randomized, double blind three-way crossover design. The method was found to produce low variability with coefficient of variation less than 10%. Interday reproducibility was very good as shown by Bland-Altman plot with most of the values within ±2SD. There was a significant increase in RTs in Stroop performance with Zolpidem at 1 hr and 2 hrs; in contrast, caffeine significantly decreased RTs in Stroop performance at 1 hr only compared to placebo. The Stroop color-word recording and analysis system is simple, sensitive to centrally acting drug effects, and has potential for future experimental psychomotor assessment studies.

  14. Safety and pharmacokinetics of higher doses of caspofungin in healthy adult participants.

    PubMed

    Migoya, Elizabeth M; Mistry, Goutam C; Stone, Julie A; Comisar, Wendy; Sun, Peng; Norcross, Alisha; Bi, Sheng; Winchell, Gregory A; Ghosh, Kalyan; Uemera, Naoto; Deutsch, Paul J; Wagner, John A

    2011-02-01

    Caspofungin was the first in a new class of antifungal agents (echinocandins) indicated for the treatment of primary and refractory fungal infections. Higher doses of caspofungin may provide another option for patients who have failed caspofungin or other antifungal therapy. This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single 150- and 210-mg doses of caspofungin in 16 healthy participants and 100 mg/d for 21 days in 20 healthy participants. Other than infusion site reactions and 1 reversible elevation in alanine aminotransferase (≥2× and <4× upper limit of normal), caspofungin was generally well tolerated. Geometric mean AUC(0-∞) after single 150- and 210-mg doses was 279.7 and 374.9 µg·h/mL, respectively; peak concentrations were 29.4 and 33.5 µg/mL, respectively; and 24-hour postdose concentrations were 2.8 and 4.2 µg/mL, respectively. Steady state was achieved in the third week of dosing. Following multiple 100-mg doses of caspofungin, day 21 geometric mean AUC(0-24) was 227.4 µg·h/mL, peak concentration was 20.9 µg/mL, and trough concentration was 4.7 µg/mL. Beta-phase t(1/2) was ~8 to ~13 hours. Caspofungin pharmacokinetics at these higher doses were dose proportional to and consistent with those observed at lower doses, suggesting a modest nonlinearity of increased accumulation with dose, which was considered not clinically meaningful.

  15. Ankle Bracing, Plantar-Flexion Angle, and Ankle Muscle Latencies During Inversion Stress in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Kernozek, Thomas; Durall, Christopher J; Friske, Allison; Mussallem, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Context: Ankle braces may enhance ankle joint proprioception, which in turn may affect reflexive ankle muscle activity during a perturbation. Despite the common occurrence of plantar-flexion inversion ankle injuries, authors of previous studies of ankle muscle latencies have focused on inversion stresses only. Objective: To examine the latency of the peroneus longus (PL), peroneus brevis (PB), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles in response to various degrees of combined plantar-flexion and inversion stresses in braced and unbraced asymptomatic ankles. Design: Repeated measures. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-eight healthy females and 12 healthy males (n = 40: mean age = 23.63 years, range = 19 to 30 years; height = 172.75 ± 7.96 cm; mass = 65.53 ± 12.0 kg). Intervention(s): Participants were tested under 2 conditions: wearing and not wearing an Active Ankle T1 brace while dropping from a custom-made platform into 10°, 20°, and 30° of plantar flexion and 30° of inversion. Main Outcome Measure(s): The time between platform drop and the onset of PL, PB, and TA electromyographic activity was measured to determine latencies. We calculated a series of 2-way analyses of variance to determine if latencies were different between the conditions (braced and unbraced) and among the plantar-flexion angles (α = .05). Results: No interaction was found between condition and plantar-flexion angle. No significant main effects were found for condition or plantar-flexion angle. Overall means for braced and unbraced conditions were not significantly different for each muscle tested. Overall means for angle for the PL, PB, and TA were not significantly different. Conclusions: Reflexive activity of the PL, PB, or TA was unaffected by the amount of plantar flexion or by wearing an Active Ankle T1 brace during an unanticipated plantar-flexion inversion perturbation. PMID:18335011

  16. Effect of Food on the Bioavailability of Omadacycline in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Tzanis, Evan; Manley, Amy; Tanaka, S. Ken; Bai, Stephen; Loh, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Omadacycline is a first‐in‐class aminomethylcycline antibiotic being evaluated in phase 3 studies as oral and intravenous monotherapy for bacterial infections. This was a phase 1, randomized, open‐label, 4‐period, crossover study that evaluated the effect of food consumption on the bioavailability of omadacycline. Healthy participant were randomized to 1 of 4 sequences, which included the following predose conditions in different orders (A) ≥6‐hour fast, (B) high‐fat, nondairy meal 4 hours before dosing, (C) high‐fat, nondairy meal 2 hours before dosing, and (D) high‐fat meal containing dairy 2 hours before dosing. Participants received a single 300‐mg oral dose of omadacycline during each treatment period; periods were separated by ≥5 days. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis were collected over 24 hours after each dose, and safety assessments were performed during each treatment period. Least‐squares mean and 90% confidence intervals were compared for fed state vs fasted state. Thirty‐one participants were included in the PK analysis. Fasted AUC0‐∞, AUC0‐t, and AUC0‐24 were 10.2, 7.2, and 7.2 μg·h/mL, respectively, and Cmax was 0.6 μg/mL. Compared with a fasted dose, bioavailability was reduced by 15% to 17% by a nondairy meal 4 hours before dosing, 40% to 42% by a nondairy meal 2 hours before dosing, and 59% to 63% for a dairy meal 2 hours before dosing. Two participants experienced adverse events (mild nausea, mild somnolence). A 300‐mg oral dose of omadacycline administered within 2 to 4 hours after food had reduced bioavailability compared with the fasted state. Oral omadacycline should be administered in a fasted state. PMID:27539539

  17. Semagacestat pharmacokinetics are not significantly affected by formulation, food, or time of dosing in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Willis, Brian A; Zhang, Wei; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun; Lowe, Stephen L; Annes, William F; Sirois, Paul J; Friedrich, Stuart; de la Peña, Amparo

    2012-06-01

    Semagacestat, a γ-secretase inhibitor, reduces formation of amyloid beta peptide. Two single-dose (140 mg), open-label, randomized, 3-period, crossover studies evaluated the effect of formulation, food, and time of dosing on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of semagacestat in healthy participants. The first study (n = 14) compared tablet to capsules. For all formulations, the median time to maximum plasma concentration (t(max)) was generally 1.0 hour. Plasma elimination was rapid, with a half-life of approximately 2.5 hours. Tablet form II bioavailability (F) relative to capsule was approximately 100% (F = 1.03 [90% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.10]). In the second study, participants (n = 27) received semagacestat either fed or fasting in the morning or fasting in the evening. No significant change in exposure (AUC(0-∞) [area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity] ratio = 1.02, [90% CI, 0.990-1.05]) occurred with food, whereas maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) declined approximately 15%, and median t(max) was delayed to 1.5 hours. Time of dosing made no significant difference in AUC(0-∞), C(max), or t(max) (AUC(0-∞) ratio 1.01, [90% CI, 0.975-1.04]). No clinically significant safety concerns occurred in either study. Accordingly, semagacestat may be dosed without regard to formulation, food, or time of administration.

  18. Long-Term Body Weight Maintenance among StrongWomen–Healthy Hearts Program Participants

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Miriam E.; Hanson, Karla L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.

    2017-01-01

    Background. The repeated loss and regain of body weight, referred to as weight cycling, may be associated with negative health complications. Given today's obesity epidemic and related interventions to address obesity, it is increasingly important to understand contexts and factors associated with weight loss maintenance. This study examined BMI among individuals who had previously participated in a 12-week, evidence-based, nationally disseminated nutrition and physical activity program designed for overweight and obese middle-aged and older women. Methods. Data were collected using follow-up surveys. Complete height and weight data were available for baseline, 12-week program completion (post-program) and follow-up (approximately 3 years later) for 154 women (response rate = 27.5%; BMI characteristics did not differ between responders and nonresponders). Results. Mean BMI decreased significantly from baseline to post-program (−0.5, P < 0.001) and post-program to follow-up (−0.7, P < 0.001). Seventy-five percent of survey respondents maintained or decreased BMI post-program to follow-up. Self-efficacy and social support for healthy eating behaviors (but not physical activity) were associated with BMI maintenance or additional weight loss. Conclusions. These findings support the durability of weight loss following participation in a relatively short-term intervention. PMID:28352287

  19. Long-Term Body Weight Maintenance among StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts Program Participants.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Folta, Sara C; Nelson, Miriam E; Hanson, Karla L; LaCroix, Andrea Z

    2017-01-01

    Background. The repeated loss and regain of body weight, referred to as weight cycling, may be associated with negative health complications. Given today's obesity epidemic and related interventions to address obesity, it is increasingly important to understand contexts and factors associated with weight loss maintenance. This study examined BMI among individuals who had previously participated in a 12-week, evidence-based, nationally disseminated nutrition and physical activity program designed for overweight and obese middle-aged and older women. Methods. Data were collected using follow-up surveys. Complete height and weight data were available for baseline, 12-week program completion (post-program) and follow-up (approximately 3 years later) for 154 women (response rate = 27.5%; BMI characteristics did not differ between responders and nonresponders). Results. Mean BMI decreased significantly from baseline to post-program (-0.5, P < 0.001) and post-program to follow-up (-0.7, P < 0.001). Seventy-five percent of survey respondents maintained or decreased BMI post-program to follow-up. Self-efficacy and social support for healthy eating behaviors (but not physical activity) were associated with BMI maintenance or additional weight loss. Conclusions. These findings support the durability of weight loss following participation in a relatively short-term intervention.

  20. Effects of a constant rate infusion of magnesium sulphate in healthy dogs anaesthetized with isoflurane and undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Rioja, Eva; Dzikiti, Brighton T; Fosgate, Geoffrey; Goddard, Amelia; Stegmann, Frik G; Schoeman, Johan P

    2012-11-01

    To determine the effects of intravenous (IV) magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4) ) as a bolus followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI) on anaesthetic requirements, neuroendocrine stress response to surgery, haemostasis and postoperative analgesia in healthy dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Blinded randomized clinical trial. Sixteen female dogs. After intramuscular premedication with acepromazine (0.05 mg kg(-1) ) and morphine (0.3 mg kg(-1) ), anaesthesia was induced with diazepam (0.2 mg kg(-1) ) and propofol (2 mg kg(-1) ) intravenously and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen in all dogs. Dogs were randomly assigned to two groups, M and C. Group M received MgSO(4) (50 mg kg(-1) over 15 minutes, followed by a 15 mg kg(-1) hour(-1) CRI). Group C received an equivalent bolus and CRI of lactated Ringer's solution. In addition, all dogs received lactated Ringer's solution (10 mL kg(-1) over 15 minutes followed by 10 mL kg(-1) hour(-1) ). End-tidal isoflurane and carbon dioxide tensions, cardio-respiratory variables, arterial blood gases, electrolytes, ACTH and cortisol concentrations were measured at different time points. Thromboelastography (TEG) was performed pre- and post-anaesthesia. Postoperative pain was evaluated using the short form of the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale. Data were analysed with repeated measures anova and Mann-Whitney U tests (p < 0.05). No statistically significant differences between groups were found in any of the measured variables. However, the alpha angle and maximal amplitude recorded by TEG in group M were significantly increased post-anaesthesia, but remained within the reference interval. One dog in Group M and two in Group C received rescue analgesia during recovery. As used in this study, MgSO(4) failed to decrease isoflurane requirements, postoperative pain and stress hormone concentrations; however, it did not produce any cardio-respiratory or major haemostatic side effects. Administration of intravenous MgSO(4) together with an

  1. Performance of Healthy Braced Participants During Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Rishiraj, Neetu; Taunton, Jack E.; Niven, Brian; Lloyd-Smith, Robert; Regan, William; Woollard, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Context: Knee braces were introduced in sports approximately 30 years ago. However, the effects of a functional knee brace (FKB) on aerobic and anaerobic performance after fatigue are unknown. Objective: To investigate whether FKB use in noninjured participants hindered performance during aerobic (Léger beep test) and anaerobic (repeated high-intensity shuttle test [RHIST]) tasks. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven healthy male provincial and national basketball and field hockey athletes (age = 19.4 ± 3.0 years, range, 17–26 years; height = 182.6 ± 6.8 cm, range, 168–196 cm; mass = 80.0 ± 9.1 kg, range, 66–108 kg). Interventions : Each participant was provided a custom-fitted FKB and performed 5 nonbraced (NBR) testing sessions over 3 days, followed by 5 braced (BR) testing sessions over 3 days, for a total of 17.5 hours of testing per condition. During each testing session, participants performed 1 trial of the Léger beep test and 1 trial of the RHIST in each condition. Main Outcome Measure(s): Predicted maximal oxygen consumption (V˙o2max) and time performance measures were recorded for each NBR and BR trial. Results: Initial performance levels were lower for BR than NBR for both the Léger beep test (BR = 44.3 mL/kg/min, NBR = 47.3 mL/kg/min; F1,26 = 8.726; P = .007) and the RHIST (BR = 16.5 seconds, NBR = 16.2 seconds; F1,26 = 13.98, P = .001). However, with continued FKB use, the aerobic performance measure remained higher for only the first 2 BR testing sessions (NBR = 46.9 mL/kg/min, BR = 42.4 mL/kg/min; F3.0,79.8 = 4.95, P = .003). For the anaerobic test, no performance difference was noted between the testing conditions (NBR = 16.2 seconds, BR = 16.4 seconds; P = .7), whereas fatigue levels were lower during BR testing sessions (NBR = 33%, BR = 31%). After 14.0 hours of FKB use, performance levels were almost equal between the testing conditions (NBR = 47.6 mL/kg/min, BR = 46.1 m

  2. Dietary sodium intake in a multiethnic Asian population of healthy participants and chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Teo, Boon Wee; Bagchi, Soumita; Xu, Hui; Toh, Qi Chun; Li, Jialiang; Lee, Evan J C

    2014-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend using creatinine-based equations to estimate glomerular filtration rates (GFRs). While these equations were formulated for Caucasian-American populations and have adjustment coefficients for African-American populations, they are not validated for other ethnicities. The Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaborative Group (CKD-EPI) recently developed a new equation that uses both creatinine and cystatin C. We aimed to assess the accuracy of this equation in estimating the GFRs of participants (healthy and with chronic kidney disease [CKD]) from a multiethnic Asian population. Serum samples from the Asian Kidney Disease Study and the Singapore Kidney Function Study were used. GFR was measured using plasma clearance of 99mTc-DTPA. GFR was estimated using the CKD-EPI equations. The performance of GFR estimation equations were examined using median and interquartile range values, and the percentage difference from the measured GFR. The study comprised 335 participants (69.3% with CKD; 38.5% Chinese, 29.6% Malays, 23.6% Indians, 8.3% others), with a mean age of 53.5 ± 15.1 years. Mean standardised serum creatinine was 127 ± 86 μmol/L, while mean standardised serum cystatin C and mean measured GFR were 1.43 ± 0.74 mg/L and 67 ± 33 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The creatinine-cystatin C CKD-EPI equation performed the best, with an estimated GFR of 67 ± 35 mL/min/1.73 m2. The new creatinine-cystatin C equation estimated GFR with little bias, and had increased precision and accuracy in our multiethnic Asian population. This two-biomarker equation may increase the accuracy of population studies on CKD, without the need to consider ethnicity.

  3. Biological Variation Estimates Obtained from 91 Healthy Study Participants for 9 Enzymes in Serum.

    PubMed

    Carobene, Anna; Røraas, Thomas; Sølvik, Una Ørvim; Sylte, Marit Sverresdotter; Sandberg, Sverre; Guerra, Elena; Marino, Irene; Jonker, Niels; Barla, Gerhard; Bartlett, William A; Fernandez-Calle, Pilar; Díaz-Garzón, Jorge; Tosato, Francesca; Plebani, Mario; Coşkun, Abdurrahman; Serteser, Mustafa; Unsal, Ibrahim; Ceriotti, Ferruccio

    2017-06-01

    We sought to develop estimates of biological variation (BV) for 9 enzymes in blood serum as part of the European Biological Variation Study. Ninety-one healthy study participants (38 male and 53 female, 21-69 years old) were phlebotomized in each of 10 consecutive weeks at 6 European laboratories. The same preanalytical sample-handling protocol was followed at each center before transport to San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy, for analysis. Sera were stored at -80 °C before analysis in duplicate within a single run on an ADVIA 2400 Clinical Chemistry System (Siemens Healthcare) following a protocol designed to minimize analytical imprecision. Assay traceability was established using frozen sera with target values assigned by reference methods. The results were subjected to outlier analysis before CV-ANOVA to deliver valid BV estimates. Results for 9 enzymes were subsequently partitioned for graphical display allowing visual assessment of the effects of country of origin, sex, and age on BV estimates. We found no effect of country upon the observed variation, but overall sex-related differences were evident for alanine amino transferase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and creatine kinase (CK). The following estimates for within-subject BV (CVI) and between-subject BV (CVG), respectively, were obtained: ALT: 9.3%, 28.2%; aspartate aminotransferase: 9.5%, 20.3%; GGT: 8.9%, 41.7%; alkaline phosphatase : 5.3%, 24.9%; lactate dehydrogenase: 5.2%, 12.6%; CK: 14.5%, 31.5%; amylase: 6.8%, 30.4%; pancreatic α-amylase: 6.3%, 24.9%; and lipase (LIP): 7.7%, 23.8%. All CVI and some CVG estimates were lower than those reported in the online BV 2014 updated database. Analytical performance specifications derived from BV can be applied internationally. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  4. Cough aerosol in healthy participants: fundamental knowledge to optimize droplet-spread infectious respiratory disease management.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Gustavo; Chiang, Ming C; Wong, Eric; MacDonald, Fred; Lange, Carlos F; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; King, Malcolm

    2012-03-21

    The Influenza A H1N1 virus can be transmitted via direct, indirect, and airborne route to non-infected subjects when an infected patient coughs, which expels a number of different sized droplets to the surrounding environment as an aerosol. The objective of the current study was to characterize the human cough aerosol pattern with the aim of developing a standard human cough bioaerosol model for Influenza Pandemic control. 45 healthy non-smokers participated in the open bench study by giving their best effort cough. A laser diffraction system was used to obtain accurate, time-dependent, quantitative measurements of the size and number of droplets expelled by the cough aerosol. Voluntary coughs generated droplets ranging from 0.1 - 900 microns in size. Droplets of less than one-micron size represent 97% of the total number of measured droplets contained in the cough aerosol. Age, sex, weight, height and corporal mass have no statistically significant effect on the aerosol composition in terms of size and number of droplets. We have developed a standard human cough aerosol model. We have quantitatively characterized the pattern, size, and number of droplets present in the most important mode of person-to-person transmission of IRD: the cough bioaerosol. Small size droplets (< 1 μm) predominated the total number of droplets expelled when coughing. The cough aerosol is the single source of direct, indirect and/or airborne transmission of respiratory infections like the Influenza A H1N1 virus. Open bench, Observational, Cough, Aerosol study. © 2012 Zayas et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  5. Effects of Mental Imagery on Muscular Strength in Healthy and Patient Participants: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Slimani, Maamer; Tod, David; Chaabene, Helmi; Miarka, Bianca; Chamari, Karim

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the present review were to (i) provide a critical overview of the current literature on the effects of mental imagery on muscular strength in healthy participants and patients with immobilization of the upper extremity (i.e., hand) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), (ii) identify potential moderators and mediators of the "mental imagery-strength performance" relationship and (iii) determine the relative contribution of electromyography (EMG) and brain activities, neural and physiological adaptations in the mental imagery-strength performance relationship. This paper also discusses the theoretical and practical implications of the contemporary literature and suggests possible directions for future research. Overall, the results reveal that the combination of mental imagery and physical practice is more efficient than, or at least comparable to, physical execution with respect to strength performance. Imagery prevention intervention was also effective in reducing of strength loss after short-term muscle immobilization and ACL. The present review also indicates advantageous effects of internal imagery (range from 2.6 to 136.3%) for strength performance compared with external imagery (range from 4.8 to 23.2%). Typically, mental imagery with muscular activity was higher in active than passive muscles, and imagining "lifting a heavy object" resulted in more EMG activity compared with imagining "lifting a lighter object". Thus, in samples of students, novices, or youth male and female athletes, internal mental imagery has a greater effect on muscle strength than external mental imagery does. Imagery ability, motivation, and self-efficacy have been shown to be the variables mediating the effect of mental imagery on strength performance. Finally, the greater effects of internal imagery than those of external imagery could be explained in terms of neural adaptations, stronger brain activation, higher muscle excitation, greater somatic and sensorimotor

  6. Monoamine oxidase A gene promoter polymorphism affects novelty seeking and reward dependence in healthy study participants.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Akihito; Fukasawa, Takashi; Aoshima, Toshiaki; Ujiie, Yukihiro; Ishii, Genki; Otani, Koichi

    2006-04-01

    It has been suggested that monoamine oxidase A plays an important role in the characterization of personality. Previous studies on the association between the polymorphism of variable number tandem repeat in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene and personality traits have, however, been unproductive. In the present study, the association between the monoamine oxidase A variable number tandem repeat polymorphism and personality traits assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory was examined in 324 Japanese volunteers without psychiatric disorders. The low activity allele with three repeats (allele 3) and high activity allele with four repeats (allele 4) were determined by a polymerase chain reaction method. The carriers of allele 3 in males and the homozygotes of allele 3 in females were classified as the low activity group, the heterozygotes of alleles 3 and 4 in females as the medium activity group, and the carriers of allele 4 in males and the homozygotes of allele 4 in females as the high activity group. One-way analysis of variance showed that the scores of novelty seeking (P=0.006) and reward dependence (P=0.013) were significantly higher in the high activity group than in the low activity group. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the excess in the high activity allele was significantly associated with higher scores of novelty seeking (P=0.004) and reward dependence (P=0.003). The present study thus suggests that the monoamine oxidase A variable number tandem repeat polymorphism affects novelty seeking and reward dependence in healthy study participants.

  7. Effect of quercetin on CYP3A activity in Chinese healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Duan, Kai-Ming; Wang, Sai-Ying; Ouyang, Wen; Mao, Yan-Mei; Yang, Li-Jun

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of quercetin on CYP3A activity in vivo. An open, randomized, 2-period crossover experiment was performed in 18 healthy male volunteers. Genotyped data were available from a total of 165 participants. The allelic frequency was 52.5%. Every volunteer ingested orally 500 mg quercetin or placebo once a day for 13 consecutive days. On day 14, a single 7.5-mg midazolam tablet was administrated orally. The plasma concentrations of midazolam and 1-OH-midazolam were determined over 24 hours. The results showed that coadministration of quercetin in CYP3A5*1/*1 and CYP3A5*1/*3 individuals significantly decreased the area under the curve (AUC(0-12 h)) of midazolam (160.88 ± 45.58 ng·h/mL vs 188.07 ± 65.75 ng·h/mL, P < .05), significantly decreased the AUC(0-∞) of midazolam (165.46 ± 47.15 ng·h/mL vs 211.84 ± 75.80 ng·h/mL, P < .01), shortened t(1/2) (2.06 ± 0.51 h vs 2.75 ± 0.89 h, P < .01), and decreased t(max) significantly (0.48 ± 0.36 h vs 1.06 ± 0.69 h, P < .01), respectively. In conclusion, quercetin significantly induced CYP3A activity to substrate midazolam, and the induction was partly related to the CYP3A5 genotype, being more prominent in CYP3A5*1/*1 and CYP3A5*1/*3 individuals.

  8. Extinction of Fear Generalization: A Comparison Between Fibromyalgia Patients and Healthy Control Participants.

    PubMed

    Meulders, Ann; Meulders, Michel; Stouten, Iris; De Bie, Jozef; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2017-01-01

    Fear learning deficiencies might contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain disability. Fear is often not restricted to movements (conditioned stimulus [CS+]) originally associated with pain (unconditioned stimulus), but expands to similar movements (generalization stimuli [GSs]). This spreading of fear becomes dysfunctional when overgeneralization to safe stimuli occurs. More importantly, persistence of pain-related fear to GSs despite corrective feedback might even be more debilitating and maintain long-term chronic pain disability. Yet, research on this topic is lacking. Using a voluntary joystick movement paradigm, we examined (extinction of) pain-related fear generalization in fibromyalgia patients (FM) and healthy control participants (HC). During acquisition, one movement (CS+) predicted pain; another did not (CS-). We tested (extinction of) fear generalization to 5 GSs varying in similarity with the CS+ and CS-. Results revealed flatter pain expectancy generalization gradients in FM than in HC due to elevated responses to GSs more similar to the CS-; the fear generalization gradients did not differ. Although pain-related fear and expectancy to the GSs decreased during extinction, responses to the GSs remained higher for FM than HC, suggesting that extinction of generalization is impaired in chronic pain patients. Persistence of excessive protective responses may contribute to maintaining long-term chronic pain disability. Pain-related fear and expectancy to movements-varying in similarity with the original painful and nonpainful movement-decrease during extinction in HC and FM. Yet, conditioned responses remain elevated in patients despite corrective feedback, indicating impaired extinction of generalization. Persistent excessive protective responses may contribute to preserving pain disability. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationships between HDL-C, hs-CRP, with Central Arterial Stiffness in Apparently Healthy People Undergoing a General Health Examination

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li; Ye, Ping; Yuan, Ying; Lu, XueChun; Wang, Fan; Zeng, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Some cardiovascular risk factors have been confirmed to be positively correlated with arterial stiffness. However, it is unclear whether HDL-C, a well-established anti-risk factor, has an independent association with arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between HDL-C levels and arterial stiffness and the possible role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in this potential correlation in apparently healthy adults undergoing a general health examination in China. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional survey. In total, 15,302 participants (age range, 18–82 years; mean, 43.88±8.44 years) were recruited during routine health status examinations. A questionnaire was used and we measured the body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and fasting glucose, and serum lipid, uric acid, hs-CRP, and serum creatinine levels of each participant. Central arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV). Results HDL-C levels decreased as cf-PWV increased. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed that HDL-C levels were associated with cf-PWV (r=−0.18, P<0.001). hs-CRP levels were positively associated with cf-PWV (r=0.13). After adjustment for all confounders, HDL-C was inversely independently associated with all quartiles of cf-PWV. Furthermore, HDL-C was associated with cf-PWV in different quartiles of hs-CRP, and the correlation coefficients (r) gradually decreased with increasing hs-CRP levels (quartiles 1–4). Conclusions HDL-C is inversely independently associated with central arterial stiffness. The anti-inflammatory activity of HDL-C may mediate its relationship with cf-PWV. Further, long-term follow-up studies are needed to evaluate whether high HDL-C levels are protective against central artery stiffening through the anti-inflammatory activity of HDL-C. PMID:24312587

  10. Using “Clinical Trial Diaries” to Track Patterns of Participation for Serial Healthy Volunteers in U.S. Phase I Studies

    PubMed Central

    Edelblute, Heather B.; Fisher, Jill A.

    2015-01-01

    Phase I testing of investigational drugs relies on healthy volunteers as research participants. Many U.S. healthy volunteers enroll repeatedly in clinical trials for the financial compensation. Serial participants are incentivized to ignore restrictions on their participation, and no centralized clinical trial registry prevents dual enrollment. Little is currently known about how healthy volunteers participate in studies over time, hampering the development of policies to protect this group. We detail a methodology developed as part of a longitudinal study to track in real-time healthy volunteers’ Phase I participation. Illustrating these data through three case studies, we document how healthy volunteers use strategies, such as qualifying for studies at more than one clinic and traveling significant distances, to maximize their participation. Our findings suggest that “clinical trial diaries” can generate critical information about serial research participation and point to ethical issues unique to healthy volunteers’ involvement in Phase I clinical trials. PMID:25742668

  11. Back-of-pack information in substitutive food choices: A process-tracking study in participants intending to eat healthy.

    PubMed

    van Buul, Vincent J; Bolman, Catherine A W; Brouns, Fred J P H; Lechner, Lilian

    2017-09-01

    People are increasingly aware of the positive effects of a healthy diet. Concurrently, daily food consumption decisions - choices about both the quality and quantity of food that is ingested - are steered more by what consumers consider healthy. Despite the increased aim to eat healthier, however, consumers often do not read or incorrectly interpret on-pack nutrition information, resulting in suboptimal food choices in terms of health. This study aims to unravel the determinants of such inadvertent food choices from these consumers. In an online process-tracking study, we measured the actual usage of available back-of-pack nutrition information during substitutive food choices made by 240 participants who had the intention to eat healthy. Using mouse-tracking software in a computerized task in which participants had to make dichotomous food choices (e.g., coconut oil or olive oil for baking), we measured the frequency and time of nutritional information considered. Combined with demographic and psychosocial data, including information on the level of intention, action planning, self-efficacy, and nutrition literacy, we were able to model the determinants of inadvertent unhealthy substitutive food choices in a sequential multiple regression (R(2) = 0.40). In these consumers who intended to eat healthy, the quantity of obtained nutrition information significantly contributed as an associative factor of the percentage of healthy food choices made. Moreover, the level of correct answers in a nutrition literacy test, as well as taste preferences, significantly predicted the percentage of healthier choices. We discuss that common psychosocial determinants of healthy behavior, such as intention, action planning, and self-efficacy, need to be augmented with a person's actual reading and understanding of nutrition information to better explain the variance in healthy food choice behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional performance testing in participants with functional ankle instability and in a healthy control group.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Amanda S; Docherty, Carrie L; Schrader, John

    2008-01-01

    Functional ankle instability (FAI) affects a large part of the population. Inconsistent findings have been reported regarding the existence of functional performance deficits in individuals with FAI. To examine functional performance in participants with FAI compared with participants in a control group during 2 hopping tests. Case-control study. Athletic training research laboratory. There were 40 college-aged individuals who participated in our study: 20 with FAI and 20 without FAI. We defined FAI as history of an ankle sprain and residual episodes of "giving way." Participants completed 2 functional performance tests (FPTs): the single-limb hopping and the single-limb hurdle tests. Time to complete each test was recorded. Following each FPT, participants were asked if their ankles felt unstable during the test. We found no difference between participants in the FAI and control groups for the hopping or hurdle tests (P > .05). When asked if their ankles felt unstable during the FPTs, approximately half of the participants in the FAI group and none of the participants in the control group reported a feeling of instability. Subsequently, a secondary analysis of variance was calculated with participants grouped into 3 categories: control participants, FAI participants reporting instability symptoms during FPT (FAI-S), and FAI participants not reporting instability symptoms during FPT (FAI-NS). Results revealed a difference among the 3 groups for the single-limb hopping test (P < .01). Post hoc analysis revealed a difference between the FAI-S participants and both the control and the FAI-NS participants. No difference was identified for the single-limb hurdle test (P = .41). The FAI-S participants had performance deficits during the single-limb hopping test. Therefore, clinicians could use this simple hopping test as an additional method to determine the presence of FAI.

  13. Previous experiences and emotional baggage as barriers to lifestyle change - a qualitative study of Norwegian Healthy Life Centre participants.

    PubMed

    Følling, Ingrid S; Solbjør, Marit; Helvik, Anne-S

    2015-06-23

    Changing lifestyle is challenging and difficult. The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that all municipalities establish Healthy Life Centres targeted to people with lifestyle issues. Little is known about the background, experiences and reflections of participants. More information is needed about participants to shape effective lifestyle interventions with lasting effect. This study explores how participants in a lifestyle intervention programme describe previous life experiences in relation to changing lifestyle. Semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews were performed with 23 participants (16 women and 7 men) aged 18 - 70 years. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation searching for issues describing participants' responses, and looking for the essence, aiming to share the basis of life-world experiences as valid knowledge. Participants identified two main themes: being stuck in old habits, and being burdened with emotional baggage from their previous negative experiences. Participants expressed a wish to change their lifestyles, but were unable to act in accordance with the health knowledge they possessed. Previous experiences with lifestyle change kept them from initiating attempts without professional assistance. Participants also described being burdened by an emotional baggage with problems from childhood and/or with family, work and social life issues. Respondents said that they felt that emotional baggage was an important explanation for why they were stuck in old habits and that conversely, being stuck in old habits added load to their already emotional baggage and made it heavier. Behavioural change can be hard to perform as psychological distress from life baggage can influence the ability to change. The study participants' experience of being stuck in old habits and having substantial emotional baggage raises questions as to whether or not Healthy Life Centres are able to help participants who need to make a lifestyle

  14. Single-dose Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Canagliflozin, a Selective Inhibitor of Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2, in Healthy Indian Participants.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Damayanthi; Polidori, David; Curtin, Christopher; Stieltjes, Hans; Tian, Hong; Wajs, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Canagliflozin, an orally active selective inhibitor of sodium glucose cotransporter 2, has been approved in several countries for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study assessed the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties and tolerability of single-dose canagliflozin 200 or 300 mg in healthy Indian participants. In this Phase 1, single-center, open-label, 2-period crossover study, healthy adult participants were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of canagliflozin 200 mg in period 1, followed by canagliflozin 300 mg in period 2, or vice versa. The 2 periods were separated by a washout interval of 14 days. The PK and PD properties and tolerability of canagliflozin were assessed at prespecified time points. Of 15 randomized participants, 14 completed the study. After the administration of single doses of 200 and 300 mg, the mean (SD) Cmax values were 1792 (430) ng/mL and 2789 (941) ng/mL, respectively; AUC0-∞, values were 18,706 (3818) ng·h/mL and 28,207 (5901) ng·h/mL, respectively. The Tmax and t½ of canagliflozin were independent of dose (Tmax, 1.5 hours at both doses; t½, 13.0 and 12.6 hours with 200 and 300 mg). Over the first 4 hours, mean (SD) renal threshold for glucose (RTG) values were 60.8 (8.90) and 61.2 (7.04) mg/dL with the 200- and 300-mg doses, respectively. No effect on plasma glucose concentrations over 0 to 4 hours relative to baseline was observed with either dose. The only treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) reported in >1 participant was dizziness (2 participants with the 200-mg dose). None of the participants in the 300-mg group reported any TEAEs. No deaths, discontinuations due to TEAEs, or hypoglycemic episodes were reported. The mean plasma exposure (Cmax and AUC) to canagliflozin increased in a dose-dependent manner after the administration of single-dose oral canagliflozin 200 and 300 mg in these healthy Indian participants. The Tmax and t½ of canagliflozin appeared to be independent of

  15. Effects of Mental Imagery on Muscular Strength in Healthy and Patient Participants: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Slimani, Maamer; Tod, David; Chaabene, Helmi; Miarka, Bianca; Chamari, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present review were to (i) provide a critical overview of the current literature on the effects of mental imagery on muscular strength in healthy participants and patients with immobilization of the upper extremity (i.e., hand) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), (ii) identify potential moderators and mediators of the “mental imagery-strength performance” relationship and (iii) determine the relative contribution of electromyography (EMG) and brain activities, neural and physiological adaptations in the mental imagery-strength performance relationship. This paper also discusses the theoretical and practical implications of the contemporary literature and suggests possible directions for future research. Overall, the results reveal that the combination of mental imagery and physical practice is more efficient than, or at least comparable to, physical execution with respect to strength performance. Imagery prevention intervention was also effective in reducing of strength loss after short-term muscle immobilization and ACL. The present review also indicates advantageous effects of internal imagery (range from 2.6 to 136.3%) for strength performance compared with external imagery (range from 4.8 to 23.2%). Typically, mental imagery with muscular activity was higher in active than passive muscles, and imagining “lifting a heavy object” resulted in more EMG activity compared with imagining “lifting a lighter object”. Thus, in samples of students, novices, or youth male and female athletes, internal mental imagery has a greater effect on muscle strength than external mental imagery does. Imagery ability, motivation, and self-efficacy have been shown to be the variables mediating the effect of mental imagery on strength performance. Finally, the greater effects of internal imagery than those of external imagery could be explained in terms of neural adaptations, stronger brain activation, higher muscle excitation, greater somatic and

  16. People, planet and participation: the Kuching statement on healthy, just and sustainable urban development.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    This statement was commissioned by the UNU International Institute for Global Health in the run up to Habitat III-the third United Nations conference on housing and sustainable urban development. The statement draws on insights from the World Urban Campaign thinkers campus held during 24-27 January 2016 in Kuching, a WHO-designated healthy city.

  17. A Feasibility Study of Bilateral Anodal Stimulation of the Prefrontal Cortex Using High-Definition Electrodes in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiansong; Healy, Stephen M.; Truong, Dennis Q.; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies often use one anode to increase cortical excitability in one hemisphere. However, mental processes may involve cortical regions in both hemispheres. This study’s aim was to assess the safety and possible effects on affect and working memory of tDCS using two anodes for bifrontal stimulation. A group of healthy subjects participated in two bifrontal tDCS sessions on two different days, one for real and the other for sham stimulation. They performed a working memory task and reported their affect immediately before and after each tDCS session. Relative to sham, real bifrontal stimulation did not induce significant adverse effects, reduced decrement in vigor-activity during the study session, and did not improve working memory. These preliminary findings suggest that bifrontal anodal stimulation is feasible and safe and may reduce task-related fatigue in healthy participants. Its effects on neuropsychiatric patients deserve further study. PMID:26339204

  18. A Feasibility Study of Bilateral Anodal Stimulation of the Prefrontal Cortex Using High-Definition Electrodes in Healthy Participants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiansong; Healy, Stephen M; Truong, Dennis Q; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-09-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies often use one anode to increase cortical excitability in one hemisphere. However, mental processes may involve cortical regions in both hemispheres. This study's aim was to assess the safety and possible effects on affect and working memory of tDCS using two anodes for bifrontal stimulation. A group of healthy subjects participated in two bifrontal tDCS sessions on two different days, one for real and the other for sham stimulation. They performed a working memory task and reported their affect immediately before and after each tDCS session. Relative to sham, real bifrontal stimulation did not induce significant adverse effects, reduced decrement in vigor-activity during the study session, and did not improve working memory. These preliminary findings suggest that bifrontal anodal stimulation is feasible and safe and may reduce task-related fatigue in healthy participants. Its effects on neuropsychiatric patients deserve further study.

  19. Understanding why adult participants at the World Senior Games choose a healthy diet

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Ray M; Shields, Eric C

    2003-01-01

    Background Identifying those seniors most likely to adopt a healthy diet, the relative importance they place on certain perceived benefits associated with a healthy diet, and whether these perceived benefits are associated with selected demographic, lifestyle, and health history variables is important for directing effective dietary health promotion programs. Methods Analyses are based on a cross-sectional convenience sample of 670 seniors aged 50 years and older at the 2002 World Senior Games in St. George, Utah. Data are assessed using frequencies, bivariate analysis, analysis of variance, and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly higher in individuals aged 70–79, in women, in those not overweight or obese, and in those with excellent overall health. Dietary fiber consumption was significantly higher in former or never smokers, current and previous alcohol drinkers, in those not overweight or obese, and in those with excellent health. The strongest motivating factors identified for adopting a healthy diet were to improve the quality of life, to increase longevity, and to prevent disease. Of intermediate importance were the need to feel a sense of control and to satisfy likes or dislikes. Least important were the desire to experience a higher level of spirituality, social reasons, and peer acceptance. Conclusion Seniors who have adopted a healthy diet are more likely to have chosen that behavior because of perceived health benefits than for personal and social benefits. Overweight or obese individuals and those in poor health were less likely to be engaged in healthy eating behavior and require special attention by dieticians and public health professionals. PMID:14633282

  20. Payments to normal healthy volunteers in phase 1 trials: avoiding undue influence while distributing fairly the burdens of research participation.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S

    2009-02-01

    Clinical investigators must engage in just subject recruitment and selection and avoid unduly influencing research participation. There may be tension between the practice of keeping payments to participants low to avoid undue influence and the requirements of justice when recruiting normal healthy volunteers for phase 1 drug studies. By intentionally keeping payments low to avoid unduly influenced participation, investigators, on the recommendation or insistence of institutional review boards, may be targeting or systematically recruiting healthy adult members of lower socio-economic groups for participation in phase 1 studies. Investigators are at risk of routinely failing to fulfill the obligation of justice, which prohibits the systematic targeting and recruiting of subjects for reasons unrelated to the nature of the study. Insofar as we take seriously the obligation to engage in just subject recruitment and selection, I argue that we must acknowledge the implications low payments might have for subject recruitment and selection and examine the effect of low payments. If low payments de facto target the less well-off for phase 1 studies, we must defend the priority ranking of the obligation to avoid undue influence over the obligation of justice or adopt an alternative recruitment approach. This paper identifies a number of alternatives to the current system of low-value payments to research participants.

  1. Payments to Normal Healthy Volunteers in Phase 1 Trials: Avoiding Undue Influence While Distributing Fairly the Burdens of Research Participation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Clinical investigators must engage in just subject recruitment and selection and avoid unduly influencing research participation. There may be tension between the practice of keeping payments to participants low to avoid undue influence and the requirements of justice when recruiting normal healthy volunteers for phase 1 drug studies. By intentionally keeping payments low to avoid unduly influenced participation, investigators, on the recommendation or insistence of institutional review boards, may be targeting or systematically recruiting healthy adult members of lower socio-economic groups for participation in phase 1 studies. Investigators are at risk of routinely failing to fulfill the obligation of justice, which prohibits the systematic targeting and recruiting of subjects for reasons unrelated to the nature of the study. Insofar as we take seriously the obligation to engage in just subject recruitment and selection, I argue that we must acknowledge the implications low payments might have for subject recruitment and selection and examine the effect of low payments. If low payments de facto target the less well-off for phase 1 studies, we must defend the priority ranking of the obligation to avoid undue influence over the obligation of justice or adopt an alternative recruitment approach. This paper identifies a number of alternatives to the current system of low-value payments to research participants. PMID:19190076

  2. Making sense of genetic risk: A qualitative focus-group study of healthy participants in genomic research.

    PubMed

    Viberg Johansson, Jennifer; Segerdahl, Pär; Ugander, Ulrika Hösterey; Hansson, Mats G; Langenskiöld, Sophie

    2017-09-18

    It is well known that research participants want to receive genetic risk information that is about high risks, serious diseases and potential preventive measures. The aim of this study was to explore, by qualitative means, something less well known: how do healthy research participants themselves make sense of genetic risk information? A phenomenographic approach was chosen to explore research participants' understanding and assessment of genetic risk. We conducted four focus-group (N=16) interviews with participants in a research programme designed to identify biomarkers for cardiopulmonary disease. Among the research participants, we found four ways of understanding genetic risk: as a binary concept, as an explanation, as revealing who I am (knowledge of oneself) and as affecting life ahead. Research participants tend to understand genetic risk as a binary concept. This does not necessarily imply a misunderstanding of, or an irrational approach to, genetic risk. Rather, it may have a heuristic function in decision-making. Risk communication may be enhanced by tailoring the communication to the participants' own lay conceptions. For example, researchers and counselors should address risk in binary terms, maybe looking out for how individual participants search for threshold figures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Labor force participation and secondary education of gender inequality index (GII) associated with healthy life expectancy (HLE) at birth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2014-11-18

    What is the factor that affects healthy life expectancy? Healthy life expectancy (HLE) at birth may be influenced by components of the gender inequality index (GII). Notably, this claim is not tested on the between components of the GII, such as population at least secondary education (PLSE) with ages 25 and older, labor force participation rate (LFPR) with ages 15 and older, and the HLE in the world's countries. Thus, this study estimates the associations between the PLSE, LFPR of components of the GII and the HLE. The data for the analysis of HLE in 148 countries were obtained from the World Health Organization. Information regarding the GII indicators for this study was obtained from the United Nations database. Associations between these factors and HLE were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients and regression models. Although significant negative correlations were found between HLE and the LFPR, positive correlations were found between HLE and PLSE. Finally, the HLE predictors were used to form a model of the components of the GII, with higher PLSE as secondary education and lower LFPR as labor force (R(2) = 0.552, P <0.001). Gender inequality of the attainment secondary education and labor force participation seems to have an important latent effect on healthy life expectancy at birth. Therefore, in populations with high HLE, the gender inequalities in HLE are smaller because of a combination of a larger secondary education advantage and a smaller labor force disadvantage in male-females.

  4. Electric and acoustic stimulation during movement preparation can facilitate movement execution in healthy participants and stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Marinovic, Welber; Brauer, Sandra G; Hayward, Kathryn S; Carroll, Timothy J; Riek, Stephan

    2016-04-08

    There has been increasing interest in the use of loud acoustic stimulation (LAS) to gain insight into the preparation and initiation of motor actions. Typically, LAS presented during movement preparation in healthy participants culminates in the earlier than normal initiation of the prepared movement and an increase in the magnitude of the response. Recent reports have shown LAS can also facilitate movement in chronic stroke survivors. This suggests that current therapies for motor recovery after stroke might benefit from employing such alternate methods of triggering movement. In this study we sought to test a new way to facilitate motor actions that could be of relevance in clinical settings. Five individuals with chronic motor impairments due to stroke and eight healthy young adults performed a functional reaching task in response to a visual go-signal. On 30% of the trials, LAS or electric stimuli (collectively, sensory stimuli) were unexpectedly presented in synchrony with the go-signal. Both healthy and stroke participants reacted with shorter latencies and executed faster responses when sensory stimulation was synchronized with the go-signal. We have replicated previous findings showing acoustic stimuli can aid movement execution in chronic stroke survivors and demonstrated the same type of effect can be achieved using electric stimulation. Thus, these two types of sensory stimuli can be easily integrated with current devices available to assist people with stroke to engage in rehabilitation efforts.

  5. Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Du Toit, Nola Cora

    2010-01-01

    Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women--the notion…

  6. Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Du Toit, Nola Cora

    2010-01-01

    Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women--the notion…

  7. Conditioning of amitriptyline-induced REM sleep suppression in healthy participants: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Alexander; Rheker, Julia; Doering, Bettina K; Rief, Winfried

    2016-10-01

    Clinical trials in sleep disorders report substantial improvement in symptoms in their placebo groups. Behavioral conditioning is one of the underlying mechanisms of the placebo response. However, we do not know whether, and if so, the extent to which sleep architecture is influenced by behavioral conditioning, similarly to other physiological responses (i.e., those in the immune system). We therefore applied a conditioning paradigm to 39 healthy adults pairing a novel-tasting drink (conditioned stimulus, CS) with the REM sleep suppressing tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline as unconditioned stimulus during the acquisition phase. Subsequent sole presentation of the CS (together with a placebo pill) in an evocation night led to significantly more REM sleep in the amitriptyline group. Instead of the expected REM sleep suppression in the evocation night, we observed more REM sleep, indicating a rebound that interferes with the conditioned response. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Probiotics and Subclinical Psychological Symptoms in Healthy Participants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    McKean, Jennifer; Naug, Helen; Nikbakht, Elham; Amiet, Bianca; Colson, Natalie

    2017-04-01

    Interest in the gut-brain axis and emerging evidence that the intestinal microbiota can influence central nervous system function has led to the hypothesis that probiotic supplementation can have a positive effect on mood and psychological symptoms such as depression and anxiety. Although several human clinical trials have investigated this, results have been inconsistent. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analytic approach was chosen to examine if probiotic consumption has an effect on psychological symptoms. The online databases PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant studies up to July 2016. Those that were randomized and placebo controlled and measured preclinical psychological symptoms of depression, anxiety, and perceived stress in healthy volunteers pre and post supplementation with a probiotic were included. To control for differences in scales of measurement, data were converted to percentage change, and the standardized mean difference between the probiotic and control groups was investigated using Revman software. A random effects model was used for analysis. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) statistic. Quality assessment was undertaken using the Rosendal scale. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria and provided data for nine comparisons. All studies passed the quality analysis. The meta-analysis showed that supplementation with probiotics resulted in a statistically significant improvement in psychological symptoms (standardized mean difference 0.34; 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.61, Z = 2.49) compared with placebo. These results show that probiotic consumption may have a positive effect on psychological symptoms of depression, anxiety, and perceived stress in healthy human volunteers.

  9. Comparison of surgical variables and short-term postoperative complications in healthy dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy or ovariectomy.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Marijke E; Kirpensteijn, Jolle

    2011-01-15

    To determine whether ovariohysterectomy (OVH) required more time to complete and was associated with more short-term postoperative complications than ovariectomy (OVE) in dogs. Randomized prospective clinical trial. 40 healthy, sexually intact female dogs. OVH (in 20 dogs) or OVE (20 dogs) was performed by use of standardized anesthetic and surgical protocols. Physical characteristics of the dogs, surgical variables, pain scores derived from behavior-based composite pain scales, and surgical wound characteristics were analyzed. Body weight, age, body condition score, and distance between the sternal manubrium and the pubic rim were comparable among dogs that underwent either surgical procedure. Body weight was positively correlated with the total duration of the procedure and with time required for closure of the surgical wound. No effect of body condition score was determined for any variable. Skin and fascia incision lengths relative to the distance from the sternal manubrium to pubic rim were significantly greater in dogs that underwent OVH, compared with those of dogs that underwent OVE, but total surgical time was not different for the 2 procedures. No other significant differences were detected between the 2 groups. Significant differences in total surgical time, pain scores, and wound scores were not observed between dogs that underwent OVH and dogs that underwent OVE via standardized protocols.

  10. Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Toit, Nola Cora Du

    2012-01-01

    Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women—the notion that certain limitations may make women poor marriage partners. Like their male counterparts, we find women also possess qualities that are not considered assets in the marriage market, such as economic constraints, mental and physical health issues, substance use, multiple partner fertility, and gender distrust. We also consider how women participating in a marriage program frame their marriage options, whereas a few opt out of the marriage market altogether. PMID:23258947

  11. Effect of the duration of food withholding prior to anesthesia on gastroesophageal reflux and regurgitation in healthy dogs undergoing elective orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Viskjer, Sivert; Sjöström, Lennart

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the incidence of and risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and regurgitation associated with preanesthetic food withholding for periods of 18 hours (overnight) and 3 hours in healthy dogs undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. ANIMALS 82 healthy (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification I or II) client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Food was withheld for 18 hours (18-hour group [n = 41]) or each dog was allowed to consume half its daily ration of canned food approximately 3 hours (3-hour group [n = 41]) prior to induction of anesthesia. In each anesthetized dog, a pH catheter was introduced through the oropharynx into the distal portion of the esophagus; the pH was continuously recorded throughout the period of anesthesia. Gastroesophageal reflux was defined as pH < 4.0. RESULTS Gastroesophageal reflux was significantly associated with age, dorsal recumbency, and duration of preanesthetic food withholding. Regurgitation was significantly associated with duration of GER and duration of preanesthetic food withholding. During anesthesia, 25 (61%) dogs in the 3-hour group had GER and 12 (48%) of those dogs regurgitated gastric content; 18 (43.9%) dogs in the 18-hour group had GER and 2 (11.1%) of those dogs regurgitated gastric content. The mean lowest pH measured in the refluxate in the 3-hour group (2.3) was significantly greater than that in the 18-hour group (1.3). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Among the study dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery, consumption of a light meal 3 hours prior to anesthesia was associated with significantly greater odds of reflux and regurgitation, compared with overnight food withholding.

  12. Coagulation, thrombophilia and patency of arteriovenous fistula in children undergoing haemodialysis compared with healthy volunteers: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Fatina I; Elshamaa, Manal F; Abdel-Rahman, Safaa M; Thabet, Eman H; Kamel, Solaf; Kandil, Dina; Ibrahim, Mona H; El-Ahmady, Mostafa

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess whether markers of coagulation, fibrinolysis or thrombophilia are increased in children on haemodialysis compared with controls and whether measurement of any of these factors could help to identify patients at an increased risk of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) occlusion. Blood samples were taken from 55 children immediately before a session of haemodialysis and from 20 healthy volunteers. Thrombin-antithrombin (TAT), D-dimer, plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP) and anticardiolipin immunoglobulin G (ACA-Ig G) were measured by ELISA. Factor V Leiden mutation (G1691A) was determined by gene polymorphism [restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)]. Determination of the patency of the AVF was prospectively followed up for a minimum of 4 years or until the AVF was nonfunctioning. Fifty-five patients were studied with a median follow-up of 659 days (range 30-1670 days). A significant increase was found in the levels of D-dimer, PAP and ACA-Ig G in haemodialysis patients with thrombosed and nonthrombosed native AVFs vs. There was a significant difference between both chronic haemodialysis patients with thrombosed and nonthrombosed native AVF with regard to ACA-IgG levels. At 1 year follow-up, primary patency was 61.4% (27 patients). In multivariate analysis, D-dimer was inversely associated with secondary patency.Thrombophilia may predispose children with end stage renal disease to access failure. The promising finding is that in children on haemodialysis, D-dimer levels were increased and inversely correlated with secondary patency. Further evaluation is required into the possible role of D-dimer as a biomarker of AVF occlusion.

  13. Gender- and Ethnicity-Related Differences in Optic Nerve Head Topography in Healthy Indian and Caucasian Participants.

    PubMed

    Pilat, Anastasia V; Gottlob, Irene; Sheth, Viral; Thomas, Mervyn G; Proudlock, Frank A

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of ethnicity and gender on optic nerve head morphology in healthy subjects using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Thirty-five Indian (i.e. Indian subcontinent) females, 34 Caucasian females, 32 Indian males, and 32 Caucasian males were examined using SD-OCT (Copernicus, Optopol Technology). Disc and rim areas were larger in Caucasian males compared with females but smaller in Indians males compared with females. Indian participants had significantly larger cup areas and volumes without significant differences in retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thicknesses between groups. Gender and ethnicity differences should be considered in assessment of patients.

  14. Gender- and Ethnicity-Related Differences in Optic Nerve Head Topography in Healthy Indian and Caucasian Participants

    PubMed Central

    Pilat, Anastasia V.; Gottlob, Irene; Sheth, Viral; Thomas, Mervyn G.; Proudlock, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the effect of ethnicity and gender on optic nerve head morphology in healthy subjects using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Thirty-five Indian (i.e. Indian subcontinent) females, 34 Caucasian females, 32 Indian males, and 32 Caucasian males were examined using SD-OCT (Copernicus, Optopol Technology). Disc and rim areas were larger in Caucasian males compared with females but smaller in Indians males compared with females. Indian participants had significantly larger cup areas and volumes without significant differences in retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thicknesses between groups. Gender and ethnicity differences should be considered in assessment of patients. PMID:27928300

  15. Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of a contraceptive patch in healthy women participants.

    PubMed

    Abrams, L S; Skee, D M; Natarajan, J; Wong, F A; Lasseter, K C

    2001-11-01

    This open-label, randomized study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of norelgestromin (NGMN) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) following the application of a contraceptive patch (1/week) for three cycles (3 weeks/cycle). Healthy women (n = 24) wore a 20-cm(2) patch (ORTHO EVRA/EVRA) on either their abdomen or buttock during blood sampling weeks and on any of four approved sites at other times. Serum was analyzed for NGMN and EE from samples taken during Week 1 of Cycle 1 and Weeks 1-3 of Cycle 3. Steady-state conditions were achieved during the three-cycle study. The patch delivered NGMN and EE at steady-state concentrations within their reference ranges throughout three cycles of treatment; reference ranges are based on studies with ORTHO-CYCLEN/Cilest. Steady-state serum concentrations and area under the curve from 0 to 168 h increased only slightly from Cycle 1, Week 1 to Cycle 3, Week 3 for NGMN and EE, indicating minimal accumulation. Treatment was well tolerated, and patch adhesion was excellent.

  16. A unique association between cognitive inhibition and pain sensitivity in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Oosterman, Joukje M; Dijkerman, H Chris; Kessels, Roy P C; Scherder, Erik J A

    2010-11-01

    The experience of pain constitutes a complex phenomenon that is determined by and reflects the interplay of many factors, including cognitive functions. Little is known, however, about the precise role of executive functions in pain sensitivity. Importantly, these functions may be directly related to the ability to control pain. The present study evaluated the relationship between pain sensitivity and executive functions in a sample of healthy volunteers. Pain sensitivity was assessed with the cold pressor test. The immersion time, here defined as the time until substantial pain was reported, was measured. Additional pain intensity and pain unpleasantness ratings were obtained as an indication of pain experience. The results revealed a unique association between cognitive inhibition (i.e. the Stroop interference score), but not other executive functions, and immersion time, pain intensity, and pain unpleasantness. Specifically, better cognitive inhibition was related to a reduction in pain sensitivity as evident by an increased immersion time and decreased pain intensity and pain unpleasantness ratings. As such, cognitive inhibition may be an important determinant of pain sensitivity. Copyright © 2010 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of three different methods to prevent heat loss in healthy dogs undergoing 90 minutes of general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Clark-Price, Stuart C; Dossin, Olivier; Jones, Katherine R; Otto, Angela N; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2013-05-01

    To compare a towel under, a warm water pad under or a forced warm air blanket over dogs as techniques to reduce heat loss during a standardized anesthetic. Prospective, randomized, crossover study. Eight, healthy, mixed breed dogs weighing 16.3-19.6 kg. Dogs were anesthetized four times for 90 minutes. Dogs were placed on a steel table (treatment TA), with a cotton towel (treatment TO) or a circulating warm water pad (treatment WP) between the dog and the table, or with, a towel under the dog and covered with a forced warm air blanket (treatment WAB). Rectal temperature (RT) was recorded at 5 minute intervals. Changes in temperature (ΔRT) were calculated as the RT at a given point subtracted from the RT before anesthesia (baseline) and compared over time. After 90 minutes of anesthesia, the ΔRT was 3.42 °C ± 0.29 for TA, 2.78 °C ± 0.43 for TO, 1.98 °C ± 0.29 for WP, and 0.91 °C ± 0.27 for WAB. Significant differences in ΔRT occurred between TA and WAB at 20 minutes (0.94 °C ± 0.42, p = 0.0206), between TO and WAB at 30 minutes (1.16 °C ± 0.62, p = 0.0063), between WP and WAB at 50 minutes (0.96 °C ± 0.98, p = 0.0249), between TA and WP at 35 minutes (1.19 °C ± 0.54, p = 0.0091), between TO and WP at 70 minutes (1.12 °C ± 0.56, p = 0.0248), and between TA and TO at 75 minutes (0.96 °C ± 0.62, p = 0.0313). These differences in ΔRT between each treatment persisted from the times indicated until the end of the anesthesia. During anesthesia, forced warm air blankets were superior to other methods tested for limiting heat loss. An efficient heat loss technique should be used for anesthesia longer than 20 minutes duration in medium sized dogs. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  18. Innovation and participation for healthy public policy: the first National Health Assembly in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rasanathan, Kumanan; Posayanonda, Tipicha; Birmingham, Maureen; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2012-03-01

    This paper aims to describe and disseminate the process and initial outcomes of the first National Health Assembly (NHA) in Thailand, as an innovative example of health policy making. The first NHA, held in December 2008 in Bangkok, brought together over 1500 people from government agencies, academia, civil society, health professionals and the private sector to discuss key health issues and produce resolutions to guide policy making. It adapted the approach used at the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization. Findings are derived from a literature review, document analysis, and the views and experiences of the authors, two of whom contributed to the organization of the NHA and two of whom were invited external observers. Fourteen agenda items were discussed and resolutions passed. Potential early impacts on policy making have included an increase in the 2010 public budget for Thailand's universal health coverage scheme as total public expenditure has decreased; cabinet endorsement of proposed Strategies for Universal Access to Medicines for Thai People; and establishment of National Commissions on Health Impact Assessment and Trade and Health. The NHA was successful in bringing together various actors and sectors involved in the social production of health, including groups often marginalized in policy making. It provides an innovative model of how governments may be able to increase public participation and intersectoral collaboration that could be adapted in other contexts. Significant challenges remain in ensuring full participation of interested groups and in implementing, and monitoring the impact of, the resolutions passed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. How to study placebo responses in motion sickness with a rotation chair paradigm in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Weimer, Katja; Horing, Björn; Muth, Eric R; Enck, Paul

    2014-12-14

    Placebo responses occur in every medical intervention when patients or participants expect to receive an effective treatment to relieve symptoms. However, underlying mechanisms of placebo responses are not fully understood. It has repeatedly been shown that placebo responses are associated with changes in neural activity but for many conditions it is unclear whether they also affect the target organ, such as the stomach in motion sickness. Therefore, we present a methodology for the multivariate assessment of placebo responses by subjective, behavioral and objective measures in motion sickness with a rotation chair paradigm. The physiological correlate of motion sickness is a shift in gastric myoelectrical activity towards tachygastria that can be recorded with electrogastrography. The presented study applied the so-called balanced placebo design (BPD) to investigate the effects of ginger compared to placebo and the effects of expectations by verbal information. However, the study revealed no significant main or interactional effects of ginger (as a drug) or information on outcome measures but showed interactions when sex of participants and experimenters are taken into considerations. We discuss limitations of the presented study and report modifications that were used in subsequent studies demonstrating placebo responses when rotation speed was lowered. In general, future placebo studies have to identify the appropriate target organ for the studied placebo responses and to apply the specific methods to assess the physiological correlates.

  20. The Right Supramarginal Gyrus Is Important for Proprioception in Healthy and Stroke-Affected Participants: A Functional MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shabat, Ettie; Matyas, Thomas A.; Pell, Gaby S.; Brodtmann, Amy; Carey, Leeanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Human proprioception is essential for motor control, yet its central processing is still debated. Previous studies of passive movements and illusory vibration have reported inconsistent activation patterns related to proprioception, particularly in high-order sensorimotor cortices. We investigated brain activation specific to proprioception, its laterality, and changes following stroke. Twelve healthy and three stroke-affected individuals with proprioceptive deficits participated. Proprioception was assessed clinically with the Wrist Position Sense Test, and participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. An event-related study design was used, where each proprioceptive stimulus of passive wrist movement was followed by a motor response of mirror ­copying with the other wrist. Left (LWP) and right (RWP) wrist proprioception were tested separately. Laterality indices (LIs) were calculated for the main cortical regions activated during proprioception. We found proprioception-related brain activation in high-order sensorimotor cortices in healthy participants especially in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG LWP z = 4.51, RWP z = 4.24) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd LWP z = 4.10, RWP z = 3.93). Right hemispheric dominance was observed in the SMG (LI LWP mean 0.41, SD 0.22; RWP 0.29, SD 0.20), and to a lesser degree in the PMd (LI LWP 0.34, SD 0.17; RWP 0.13, SD 0.25). In stroke-affected participants, the main difference in proprioception-related brain activation was reduced laterality in the right SMG. Our findings indicate that the SMG and PMd play a key role in proprioception probably due to their role in spatial processing and motor control, respectively. The findings from stroke-­affected individuals suggest that decreased right SMG function may be associated with decreased proprioception. We recommend that clinicians pay particular attention to the assessment and rehabilitation of proprioception following right hemispheric

  1. The Right Supramarginal Gyrus Is Important for Proprioception in Healthy and Stroke-Affected Participants: A Functional MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shabat, Ettie; Matyas, Thomas A; Pell, Gaby S; Brodtmann, Amy; Carey, Leeanne M

    2015-01-01

    Human proprioception is essential for motor control, yet its central processing is still debated. Previous studies of passive movements and illusory vibration have reported inconsistent activation patterns related to proprioception, particularly in high-order sensorimotor cortices. We investigated brain activation specific to proprioception, its laterality, and changes following stroke. Twelve healthy and three stroke-affected individuals with proprioceptive deficits participated. Proprioception was assessed clinically with the Wrist Position Sense Test, and participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. An event-related study design was used, where each proprioceptive stimulus of passive wrist movement was followed by a motor response of mirror -copying with the other wrist. Left (LWP) and right (RWP) wrist proprioception were tested separately. Laterality indices (LIs) were calculated for the main cortical regions activated during proprioception. We found proprioception-related brain activation in high-order sensorimotor cortices in healthy participants especially in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG LWP z = 4.51, RWP z = 4.24) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd LWP z = 4.10, RWP z = 3.93). Right hemispheric dominance was observed in the SMG (LI LWP mean 0.41, SD 0.22; RWP 0.29, SD 0.20), and to a lesser degree in the PMd (LI LWP 0.34, SD 0.17; RWP 0.13, SD 0.25). In stroke-affected participants, the main difference in proprioception-related brain activation was reduced laterality in the right SMG. Our findings indicate that the SMG and PMd play a key role in proprioception probably due to their role in spatial processing and motor control, respectively. The findings from stroke--affected individuals suggest that decreased right SMG function may be associated with decreased proprioception. We recommend that clinicians pay particular attention to the assessment and rehabilitation of proprioception following right hemispheric

  2. Minocycline Prevents Muscular Pain Hypersensitivity and Cutaneous Allodynia Produced by Repeated Intramuscular Injections of Hypertonic Saline in Healthy Human Participants.

    PubMed

    Samour, Mohamad Samir; Nagi, Saad Saulat; Shortland, Peter John; Mahns, David Anthony

    2017-08-01

    Minocycline, a glial suppressor, prevents behavioral hypersensitivities in animal models of peripheral nerve injury. However, clinical trials of minocycline in human studies have produced mixed results. This study addressed 2 questions: can repeated injections of hypertonic saline (HS) in humans induce persistent hypersensitivity? Can pretreatment with minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic with microglial inhibitory effects, prevent the onset of hypersensitivity? Twenty-seven healthy participants took part in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, consisting of 6 test sessions across 2 weeks. At the beginning of every session, pressure-pain thresholds of the anterior muscle compartment of both legs were measured to determine the region distribution and intensity of muscle soreness. To measure changes in thermal sensitivity in the skin overlying the anterior muscle compartment of both legs, quantitative sensory testing was used to measure the cutaneous thermal thresholds (cold sensation, cold pain, warm sensation, and heat pain) and a mild cooling stimulus was applied to assess the presence of cold allodynia. To induce ongoing hypersensitivity, repeated injections of HS were administered into the right tibialis anterior muscle at 48-hour intervals. In the final 2 sessions (days 9 and 14), only sensory assessments were done to plot the recovery after cessation of HS administrations and drug washout. By day 9, nontreated participants experienced a significant bilateral increase in muscle soreness (P < .0001), accompanied by the emergence of bilateral cold allodynia in 44% of participants, thus confirming the effectiveness of the model. Placebo-treated participants experienced a bilateral 35% alleviation in muscle soreness (P < .0001), with no changes to the prevalence of cold allodynia. In contrast, minocycline-treated participants experienced a bilateral 70% alleviation in muscle soreness (P < .0001), additionally, only 10% of minocycline

  3. Innovation and participation for healthy public policy: the first National Health Assembly in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Rasanathan, Kumanan; Posayanonda, Tipicha; Birmingham, Maureen; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aim  This paper aims to describe and disseminate the process and initial outcomes of the first National Health Assembly (NHA) in Thailand, as an innovative example of health policy making. Setting  The first NHA, held in December 2008 in Bangkok, brought together over 1500 people from government agencies, academia, civil society, health professionals and the private sector to discuss key health issues and produce resolutions to guide policy making. It adapted the approach used at the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization. Method  Findings are derived from a literature review, document analysis, and the views and experiences of the authors, two of whom contributed to the organization of the NHA and two of whom were invited external observers. Results  Fourteen agenda items were discussed and resolutions passed. Potential early impacts on policy making have included an increase in the 2010 public budget for Thailand’s universal health coverage scheme as total public expenditure has decreased; cabinet endorsement of proposed Strategies for Universal Access to Medicines for Thai People; and establishment of National Commissions on Health Impact Assessment and Trade and Health. Discussion  The NHA was successful in bringing together various actors and sectors involved in the social production of health, including groups often marginalized in policy making. It provides an innovative model of how governments may be able to increase public participation and intersectoral collaboration that could be adapted in other contexts. Significant challenges remain in ensuring full participation of interested groups and in implementing, and monitoring the impact of, the resolutions passed. PMID:21281413

  4. EEG-neurofeedback for optimising performance. I: a review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John H

    2014-07-01

    A re-emergence of research on EEG-neurofeedback followed controlled evidence of clinical benefits and validation of cognitive/affective gains in healthy participants including correlations in support of feedback learning mediating outcome. Controlled studies with healthy and elderly participants, which have increased exponentially, are reviewed including protocols from the clinic: sensory-motor rhythm, beta1 and alpha/theta ratios, down-training theta maxima, and from neuroscience: upper-alpha, theta, gamma, alpha desynchronisation. Outcome gains include sustained attention, orienting and executive attention, the P300b, memory, spatial rotation, RT, complex psychomotor skills, implicit procedural memory, recognition memory, perceptual binding, intelligence, mood and well-being. Twenty-three of the controlled studies report neurofeedback learning indices along with beneficial outcomes, of which eight report correlations in support of a meditation link, results which will be supplemented by further creativity and the performing arts evidence in Part II. Validity evidence from optimal performance studies represents an advance for the neurofeedback field demonstrating that cross fertilisation between clinical and optimal performance domains will be fruitful. Theoretical and methodological issues are outlined further in Part III.

  5. Effect of standardized aqueous extract of Withania somnifera on tests of cognitive and psychomotor performance in healthy human participants

    PubMed Central

    Pingali, Usharani; Pilli, Raveendranadh; Fatima, Nishat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Withania somnifera is an herbal medicine that has been known to possess memory-enhancing properties. The current study involved an assessment of cognitive and psychomotor effects of Withania somnifera extract in healthy human participants. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, double-blind, multi-dose, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 20 healthy male participants were randomized to receive 250 mg two capsules twice daily of an encapsulated dried aqueous extract of roots and leaves of Withania somnifera or a matching placebo for a period of 14 days. Cognitive and psychomotor performance was assessed pre-dose (day 1) and at 3 hrs post-dose on day 15 using a battery of computerized psychometric tests. After a washout period of 14 days, the subjects crossed-over to receive the other treatment for a further period of 14 days as per prior randomization schedule. Same battery of test procedures were performed to assess cognitive and psychomotor performance. Results: Significant improvements were observed in reaction times with simple reaction, choice discrimination, digit symbol substitution, digit vigilance, and card sorting tests with Withania somnifera extract compared to placebo. However, no effect can be seen with the finger tapping test. Conclusion: These results suggest that Withania somnifera extract can improve cognitive and psychomotor performance and may, therefore, be a valuable adjunct in the treatment of diseases associated with cognitive impairment. PMID:24497737

  6. Substance P in Flush Tears and Schirmer Strips of Healthy Participants.

    PubMed

    Markoulli, Maria; Gokhale, Moneisha; You, Jingjing

    2017-04-01

    To determine the repeatability of the flush tear collection technique and the Schirmer strip for Substance P tear analysis. The tears of 10 healthy non-contact-lens wearers were collected via Schirmer strip and microcapillary following instillation of either 20 μL (F-20) or 60 μL (F-60) of saline. Each technique was conducted on two occasions and in a randomized order. Total protein content (TPC) and Substance P concentrations were determined. The overall protein separation profile of each type of tears was examined using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DGE). Collection rates were significantly faster for the F-60 compared to F-20 (17.3 ± 6.9 μL/min and 11.9 ± 5.3 μL/min, respectively, P < .001), with an average Schirmer strip length of 1.5 ± 2.1 mm/min. The coefficient of repeatability between days and eyes was greatest for the Schirmer strip, with eyes and days being significantly different (P = .03 and P = .03, respectively) for Schirmer strip Substance P. TPC was 3.8 ± 2.6 mg/mL, 3.3 ± 1.8 mg/mL, and 3.6 ± 3.0 mg/mL for F-20, F-60, and Schirmer strip techniques, respectively, with no significant difference between techniques (P = .85). Substance P concentration was 13.1 ± 14.8 ng/mL, 9.1 ± 6.1 ng/mL, and 14.9 ± 10.6 ng/mL for F-20, F-60, and Schirmer strip tears, respectively, with no significant difference between techniques (P = .57). 1DGE profile showed similar electrophoresis patterns among F-20, F-60, and basal tears. The F-60 method allows faster collection than F-20, but the latter results in better repeatability than both the F-60 and Schirmer sampling techniques. All three techniques return the same concentrations of TPC and Substance P. This indicates that tear collection using the F-20 may be more appropriate when conducting comparative analysis, whereas the F-60 may be more appropriate when more volume is required.

  7. Brain and effort: brain activation and effort-related working memory in healthy participants and patients with working memory deficits

    PubMed Central

    Engström, Maria; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Karlsson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Despite the interest in the neuroimaging of working memory, little is still known about the neurobiology of complex working memory in tasks that require simultaneous manipulation and storage of information. In addition to the central executive network, we assumed that the recently described salience network [involving the anterior insular cortex (AIC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)] might be of particular importance to working memory tasks that require complex, effortful processing. Method: Healthy participants (n = 26) and participants suffering from working memory problems related to the Kleine–Levin syndrome (KLS) (a specific form of periodic idiopathic hypersomnia; n = 18) participated in the study. Participants were further divided into a high- and low-capacity group, according to performance on a working memory task (listening span). In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, participants were administered the reading span complex working memory task tapping cognitive effort. Principal findings: The fMRI-derived blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was modulated by (1) effort in both the central executive and the salience network and (2) capacity in the salience network in that high performers evidenced a weaker BOLD signal than low performers. In the salience network there was a dichotomy between the left and the right hemisphere; the right hemisphere elicited a steeper increase of the BOLD signal as a function of increasing effort. There was also a stronger functional connectivity within the central executive network because of increased task difficulty. Conclusion: The ability to allocate cognitive effort in complex working memory is contingent upon focused resources in the executive and in particular the salience network. Individual capacity during the complex working memory task is related to activity in the salience (but not the executive) network so that high-capacity participants evidence a lower signal and possibly

  8. Determinants of participation in prostate cancer screening: A simple analytical framework to account for healthy-user bias

    PubMed Central

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Nakayama, Tomio; Fukushima, Wakaba; Matsunaga, Ichiro; Ohfuji, Satoko; Kondo, Kyoko; Kawano, Eiji; Fukuhara, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yuri; Oshima, Akira

    2015-01-01

    In Japan at present, fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) is recommended for cancer screening while routine population-based prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is not. In future it may be necessary to increase participation in the former and decrease it in the latter. Our objectives were to explore determinants of PSA-screening participation while simultaneously taking into account factors associated with FOBT. Data were gathered from a cross-sectional study conducted with random sampling of 6191 adults in Osaka city in 2011. Of 3244 subjects (return rate 52.4%), 936 men aged 40–64 years were analyzed using log-binomial regression to explore factors related to PSA-screening participation within 1 year. Only responders for cancer screening, defined as men who participated in either FOBT or PSA-testing, were used as main study subjects. Men who were older (prevalence ratio [PR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 2.17 [1.43, 3.28] for 60–64 years compared with 40–49 years), had technical or junior college education (PR [95% CI] = 1.76 [1.19, 2.59] compared with men with high school or less) and followed doctors' recommendations (PR [95% CI] = 1.50 [1.00, 2.26]) were significantly more likely to have PSA-screening after multiple variable adjustment among cancer-screening responders. Attenuation in PR of hypothesized common factors was observed among cancer-screening responders compared with the usual approach (among total subjects). Using the analytical framework to account for healthy-user bias, we found three factors related to participation in PSA-screening with attenuated association of common factors. This approach may provide a more sophisticated interpretation of participation in various screenings with different levels of recommendation. PMID:25456306

  9. Determinants of participation in prostate cancer screening: a simple analytical framework to account for healthy-user bias.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Nakayama, Tomio; Fukushima, Wakaba; Matsunaga, Ichiro; Ohfuji, Satoko; Kondo, Kyoko; Kawano, Eiji; Fukuhara, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yuri; Oshima, Akira

    2015-01-01

    In Japan at present, fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) is recommended for cancer screening while routine population-based prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is not. In future it may be necessary to increase participation in the former and decrease it in the latter. Our objectives were to explore determinants of PSA-screening participation while simultaneously taking into account factors associated with FOBT. Data were gathered from a cross-sectional study conducted with random sampling of 6191 adults in Osaka city in 2011. Of 3244 subjects (return rate 52.4%), 936 men aged 40-64 years were analyzed using log-binomial regression to explore factors related to PSA-screening participation within 1 year. Only responders for cancer screening, defined as men who participated in either FOBT or PSA-testing, were used as main study subjects. Men who were older (prevalence ratio [PR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 2.17 [1.43, 3.28] for 60-64 years compared with 40-49 years), had technical or junior college education (PR [95% CI] = 1.76 [1.19, 2.59] compared with men with high school or less) and followed doctors' recommendations (PR [95% CI] = 1.50 [1.00, 2.26]) were significantly more likely to have PSA-screening after multiple variable adjustment among cancer-screening responders. Attenuation in PR of hypothesized common factors was observed among cancer-screening responders compared with the usual approach (among total subjects). Using the analytical framework to account for healthy-user bias, we found three factors related to participation in PSA-screening with attenuated association of common factors. This approach may provide a more sophisticated interpretation of participation in various screenings with different levels of recommendation. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  10. Single Osteopathic Manipulative Therapy Session Dampens Acute Autonomic and Neuroendocrine Responses to Mental Stress in Healthy Male Participants.

    PubMed

    Fornari, Mauro; Carnevali, Luca; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy (OMTh; manipulative care provided by foreign-trained osteopaths) is supported by observational data and patient feedback, but there is still a need for objective, quantitative biomarkers that allow measurement of the underlying mechanisms. No study exploring the protective potential of OMTh for mental stress has been published, to the authors' knowledge. To explore the modulating effect of OMTh on autonomic neural regulation of the heart and verifiy its ability to influence the activity of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Healthy young adult men who had never received OMTh were exposed to either a brief protocol using craniosacral techniques or sham therapy (control) involving the same anatomical areas. A laboratory stress episode consisting of a 5-minute arithmetic task participants were required to perform in front of a committee preceded the therapy sessions. Continuous electrocardiograph recordings were done before, during, and after the stress episode. Heart rate and frequency-domain parameters of heart rate variability (specifically, high-frequency component power in normalized units and the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power) were measured to quantify the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system and the state of sympathovagal balance at the level of the heart, respectively. Saliva samples were also collected at points throughout the study to determine cortisol levels. Osteopathic manipulative therapy reduced the overall chronotropic effect of the stressor (t=-2.9, P<.05) and counteracted the vagal withdrawal and the shift of autonomic balance toward sympathetic prevalence (t=-2.8, P<.05) that were observed in control participants. Moreover, OMTh participants had a much lower overall cortisol level during the mental stressor compared with control participants (t=-2.3, P<.05). Participants in the OMTh group did not show the statistically significant reduction in the amplitude of

  11. Evaluation of hand function in healthy individuals and patients undergoing uninstrumented central corpectomy for cervical spondylotic myelopathy using nine-hole peg test.

    PubMed

    John, Sanil; Moorthy, Ranjith K; Sebastian, Tunny; Rajshekhar, Vedantam

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the hand function in healthy individuals and in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) undergoing central corpectomy using the nine-hole peg test (NHPT). The NHPT was performed in healthy adults and in patients with CSM; overall, five trials were performed in the right and left hand separately. The preoperative and follow up NHPT score was compared to the normal and correlated with Nurick and modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) scales. The NHPT score was significantly less in adult healthy female compared to adult healthy male subjects (difference, 0.71 s, P < 0.002). The distribution of the NHPT scores in normal adults followed the normal binomial distribution. The time taken to perform the NHPT with the right hand was significantly lower than the time taken to perform the NHPT with the left hand in both the sexes (P < 0.001). Thirty-six of the 47 patients with CSM (76.6%) had a prolonged preoperative NHPT score. There was a strong negative correlation between the preoperative NHPT score and the preoperative upper limb component of the modified-Japanese Orthopedic Association (UlmJOA) score. No significant change was detected in the NHPT score at one week postoperatively. On follow-up at six months or more (n = 21), the NHPT score normalized in five (35.7%) of the 14 patients in whom it was prolonged preoperatively. The NHPT score remained the same as the preoperative status in the other 16 patients, 7 of whom had a normal score preoperatively. The change in the NHPT score at follow-up did not correlate with the change in the UlmJOA score. Normative data among the Indian population suggest that female subjects have significantly lower scores than the male ones, and that there is a difference between the two sides that needs to be considered while reporting the NHPT scores in disease. The NHPT scores were prolonged preoperatively in CSM and showed a correlation with the UlmJOA score, and there was no significant change noted at

  12. Predictors of Seizure Outcomes in Children with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex and Intractable Epilepsy Undergoing Resective Epilepsy Surgery: An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Aria; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Snead, O. Carter; Ebrahim, Shanil; Ibrahim, George M.; Mansouri, Alireza; Reddy, Deven; Walter, Stephen D.; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Bhandari, Mohit; Banfield, Laura; Bhatnagar, Neera; Liang, Shuli; Teutonico, Federica; Liao, Jianxiang; Rutka, James T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis to identify preoperative factors associated with a good seizure outcome in children with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex undergoing resective epilepsy surgery. Data Sources Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Web of Science), archives of major epilepsy and neurosurgery meetings, and bibliographies of relevant articles, with no language or date restrictions. Study Selection We included case-control or cohort studies of consecutive participants undergoing resective epilepsy surgery that reported seizure outcomes. We performed title and abstract and full text screening independently and in duplicate. We resolved disagreements through discussion. Data Extraction One author performed data extraction which was verified by a second author using predefined data fields including study quality assessment using a risk of bias instrument we developed. We recorded all preoperative factors that may plausibly predict seizure outcomes. Data Synthesis To identify predictors of a good seizure outcome (i.e. Engel Class I or II) we used logistic regression adjusting for length of follow-up for each preoperative variable. Results Of 9863 citations, 20 articles reporting on 181 participants were eligible. Good seizure outcomes were observed in 126 (69%) participants (Engel Class I: 102(56%); Engel class II: 24(13%)). In univariable analyses, absence of generalized seizure semiology (OR = 3.1, 95%CI = 1.2–8.2, p = 0.022), no or mild developmental delay (OR = 7.3, 95%CI = 2.1–24.7, p = 0.001), unifocal ictal scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormality (OR = 3.2, 95%CI = 1.4–7.6, p = 0.008) and EEG/Magnetic resonance imaging concordance (OR = 4.9, 95%CI = 1.8–13.5, p = 0.002) were associated with a good postoperative seizure outcome. Conclusions Small retrospective cohort studies are inherently prone to bias, some of which are overcome

  13. The Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire-Revised to evaluate persistent pain and surgery-related symptoms in healthy women undergoing a planned cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Ortner, Clemens M; Turk, Dennis C; Theodore, Brian R; Siaulys, Monica M; Bollag, Laurant A; Landau, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of chronic pain after cesarean delivery (CD) has been estimated to range between 0.3% and 18%. This wide range may be explained by differing study methodologies. Furthermore, a comprehensive characterization of pain quality is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate persistent pain in a healthy obstetric population undergoing planned CD and to provide a comprehensive description of pain quality. Three hundred eighty-one women with no pain history undergoing CD were included in this prospective, observational cohort study. Spinal anesthesia was standardized, and postoperative pain was recorded at 24 hours. In each woman, pain was assessed at 8 weeks, and 6 and 12 months using questionnaires of pain intensity and interference. Pain quality was assessed using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire-Revised. The incidence of persistent pain at 8 weeks was 11% (95% confidence interval, 8%-14%), with pain reported as being mild and interfering with common daily activities by 32% of women. At 6 and 12 months, the incidence was 3% (95% confidence interval, 2%-6%) and 0.6% (95% confidence interval, 0%-2%) respectively, with pain rarely interfering with daily activities. However, 22% of women described other surgery-related symptoms at 12 months. The incidence of chronic pain at 12 months after planned CD is low (0.6%) and if present symptoms are mostly mild and not interfering with common daily activities. Using Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire-Revised, this study provides a comprehensive evaluation of pain quality that can be used as a basis in future post-CD pain trials.

  14. Dietary Protein Intake in a Multi-ethnic Asian Population of Healthy Participants and Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Teo, Boon Wee; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Yang, Adonsia Y T; Lin, Tingxuan; Li, Jialiang; Lee, Evan J C

    2015-04-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend different levels of dietary protein intake in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It is unknown how effectively these recommendations perform in a multi-ethnic Asian population, with varied cultural beliefs and diets. We assess the profi le of protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population, comparing healthy participants and CKD patients. We analysed the 24-hour urine collections of the Asian Kidney Disease Study (AKDS) and the Singapore Kidney Function Study (SKFS) to estimate total protein intake (TPI; g/day). We calculated ideal body weight (IDW; kg): 22.99 × height2 (m). Standard statistical tests were applied where appropriate, and linear regression was used to assess associations of continuous variables with protein intake. There were 232 CKD patients and 103 healthy participants with 35.5% diabetics. The mean TPI in healthy participants was 58.89 ± 18.42 and the mean TPI in CKD patients was 53.64 ± 19.39. By US National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guidelines, 29/232 (12.5%) of CKD patients with measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <25 (in mL/min/1.73 m2) had a TPI-IDW of <0.6 g/kg/day. By Caring for Australasians with Renal Impairment (CARI) guidelines, 76.3% (177/232) of CKD patients had TPI-IDW >0.75g/kg/ day. By American Dietetic Association (ADA) guidelines, 34.7% (44/127) of CKD patients with GFR <50 had TPI-IDW between 0.6 to 0.8 g/kg/day. Only 1/6 non-diabetic CKD patients with GFR <20 had a protein intake of between 0.3 to 0.5 g/kg/day. A total of 21.9% (25/114) of diabetic CKD patients had protein intake between 0.8 to 0.9 g/kg/day. On average, the protein intake of most CKD patients exceeds the recommendations of guidelines. Diabetic CKD patients should aim to have higher protein intakes.

  15. Functional phenotypes determined by fluctuation-based clustering of lung function measurements in healthy and asthmatic cohort participants.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Eckert, Edgar; Fuchs, Oliver; Kumar, Nitin; Pekkanen, Juha; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Riedler, Josef; Lauener, Roger; Kabesch, Michael; Kupczyk, Maciej; Dahlen, Sven-Eric; Mutius, Erika von; Frey, Urs

    2017-09-02

    Asthma is characterised by inflammation and reversible airway obstruction. However, these features are not always closely related. Fluctuations of daily lung function contain information on asthma phenotypes, exacerbation risk and response to long-acting β-agonists. In search of subgroups of asthmatic participants with specific lung functional features, we developed and validated a novel clustering approach to asthma phenotyping, which exploits the information contained within the fluctuating behaviour of twice-daily lung function measurements. Forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were prospectively measured over 4 weeks in 696 healthy and asthmatic school children (Protection Against Allergy - Study in Rural Environments (PASTURE)/EFRAIM cohort), and over 1 year in 138 asthmatic adults with mild-to-moderate or severe asthma (Pan-European Longitudinal Assessment of Clinical Course and BIOmarkers in Severe Chronic AIRway Disease (BIOAIR) cohort). Using enrichment analysis, we explored whether the method identifies clinically meaningful, distinct clusters of participants with different lung functional fluctuation patterns. In the PASTURE/EFRAIM dataset, we found four distinct clusters. Two clusters were enriched in children with well-known clinical characteristics of asthma. In cluster 3, children from a farming environment predominated, whereas cluster 4 mainly consisted of healthy controls. About 79% of cluster 3 carried the asthma-risk allele rs7216389 of the 17q21 locus. In the BIOAIR dataset, we found two distinct clusters clearly discriminating between individuals with mild-to-moderate and severe asthma. Our method identified dynamic functional asthma and healthy phenotypes, partly independent of atopy and inflammation but related to genetic markers on the 17q21 locus. The method can be used for disease phenotyping and possibly endotyping. It may identify participants with specific functional abnormalities

  16. Towards Using Microstate-Neurofeedback for the Treatment of Psychotic Symptoms in Schizophrenia. A Feasibility Study in Healthy Participants.

    PubMed

    Diaz Hernandez, Laura; Rieger, Kathryn; Baenninger, Anja; Brandeis, Daniel; Koenig, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Spontaneous EEG signal can be parsed into sub-second periods of stable functional states (microstates) that assumingly correspond to brief large scale synchronization events. In schizophrenia, a specific class of microstate (class "D") has been found to be shorter than in healthy controls and to be correlated with positive symptoms. To explore potential new treatment options in schizophrenia, we tested in healthy controls if neurofeedback training to self-regulate microstate D presence is feasible and what learning patterns are observed. Twenty subjects underwent EEG-neurofeedback training to up-regulate microstate D presence. The protocol included 20 training sessions, consisting of baseline trials (resting state), regulation trials with auditory feedback contingent on microstate D presence, and a transfer trial. Response to neurofeedback was assessed with mixed effects modelling. All participants increased the percentage of time spent producing microstate D in at least one of the three conditions (p < 0.05). Significant between-subjects across-sessions results showed an increase of 0.42 % of time spent producing microstate D in baseline (reflecting a sustained change in the resting state), 1.93 % of increase during regulation and 1.83 % during transfer. Within-session analysis (performed in baseline and regulation trials only) showed a significant 1.65 % increase in baseline and 0.53 % increase in regulation. These values are in a range that is expected to have an impact upon psychotic experiences. Additionally, we found a negative correlation between alpha power and microstate D contribution during neurofeedback training. Given that microstate D has been related to attentional processes, this result provides further evidence that the training was to some degree specific for the attentional network. We conclude that microstate-neurofeedback training proved feasible in healthy subjects. The implementation of the same protocol in schizophrenia patients may promote

  17. From neural signatures of emotional modulation to social cognition: individual differences in healthy volunteers and psychiatric participants.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Aguado, Jaume; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Ortega, Rodrigo; Sigman, Mariano; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torrente, Fernando; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Torralva, Teresa; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Manes, Facundo

    2014-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that early emotional signals provide relevant information for social cognition tasks. The goal of this study was to test the association between (a) cortical markers of face emotional processing and (b) social-cognitive measures, and also to build a model which can predict this association (a and b) in healthy volunteers as well as in different groups of psychiatric patients. Thus, we investigated the early cortical processing of emotional stimuli (N170, using a face and word valence task) and their relationship with the social-cognitive profiles (SCPs, indexed by measures of theory of mind, fluid intelligence, speed processing and executive functions). Group comparisons and individual differences were assessed among schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their relatives, individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy participants (educational level, handedness, age and gender matched). Our results provide evidence of emotional N170 impairments in the affected groups (SCZ and relatives, ADHD and BD) as well as subtle group differences. Importantly, cortical processing of emotional stimuli predicted the SCP, as evidenced by a structural equation model analysis. This is the first study to report an association model of brain markers of emotional processing and SCP.

  18. From neural signatures of emotional modulation to social cognition: individual differences in healthy volunteers and psychiatric participants

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Jaume; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Ortega, Rodrigo; Sigman, Mariano; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torrente, Fernando; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Torralva, Teresa; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Manes, Facundo

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that early emotional signals provide relevant information for social cognition tasks. The goal of this study was to test the association between (a) cortical markers of face emotional processing and (b) social-cognitive measures, and also to build a model which can predict this association (a and b) in healthy volunteers as well as in different groups of psychiatric patients. Thus, we investigated the early cortical processing of emotional stimuli (N170, using a face and word valence task) and their relationship with the social-cognitive profiles (SCPs, indexed by measures of theory of mind, fluid intelligence, speed processing and executive functions). Group comparisons and individual differences were assessed among schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their relatives, individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy participants (educational level, handedness, age and gender matched). Our results provide evidence of emotional N170 impairments in the affected groups (SCZ and relatives, ADHD and BD) as well as subtle group differences. Importantly, cortical processing of emotional stimuli predicted the SCP, as evidenced by a structural equation model analysis. This is the first study to report an association model of brain markers of emotional processing and SCP. PMID:23685775

  19. Memory for faces with emotional expressions in Alzheimer's disease and healthy older participants: positivity effect is not only due to familiarity.

    PubMed

    Sava, Alina-Alexandra; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Delphin-Combe, Floriane; Cloarec, Morgane; Chainay, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Young individuals better memorize initially seen faces with emotional rather than neutral expressions. Healthy older participants and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients show better memory for faces with positive expressions. The socioemotional selectivity theory postulates that this positivity effect in memory reflects a general age-related preference for positive stimuli, subserving emotion regulation. Another explanation might be that older participants use compensatory strategies, often considering happy faces as previously seen. The question about the existence of this effect in tasks not permitting such compensatory strategies is still open. Thus, we compared the performance of healthy participants and AD patients for positive, neutral, and negative faces in such tasks. Healthy older participants and AD patients showed a positivity effect in memory, but there was no difference between emotional and neutral faces in young participants. Our results suggest that the positivity effect in memory is not entirely due to the sense of familiarity for smiling faces.

  20. The Effect of Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on Item and Associative Recognition of Words and Pictures in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Guez, Jonathan; Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Keha, Eldad; Tiferet-Dweck, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress, induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), has repeatedly been shown to alter memory performance. Although factors influencing memory performance such as stimulus nature (verbal/pictorial) and emotional valence have been extensively studied, results whether stress impairs or improves memory are still inconsistent. This study aimed at exploring the effect of TSST on item versus associative memory for neutral, verbal, and pictorial stimuli. 48 healthy subjects were recruited, 24 participants were randomly assigned to the TSST group and the remaining 24 participants were assigned to the control group. Stress reactivity was measured by psychological (subjective state anxiety ratings) and physiological (Galvanic skin response recording) measurements. Subjects performed an item-association memory task for both stimulus types (words, pictures) simultaneously, before, and after the stress/non-stress manipulation. The results showed that memory recognition for pictorial stimuli was higher than for verbal stimuli. Memory for both words and pictures was impaired following TSST; while the source for this impairment was specific to associative recognition in pictures, a more general deficit was observed for verbal material, as expressed in decreased recognition for both items and associations following TSST. Response latency analysis indicated that the TSST manipulation decreased response time but at the cost of memory accuracy. We conclude that stress does not uniformly affect memory; rather it interacts with the task’s cognitive load and stimulus type. Applying the current study results to patients diagnosed with disorders associated with traumatic stress, our findings in healthy subjects under acute stress provide further support for our assertion that patients’ impaired memory originates in poor recollection processing following depletion of attentional resources. PMID:27148117

  1. Acromiohumeral Distance During Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation of the Lower Trapezius and Serratus Anterior Muscles in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Bdaiwi, Alya H.; Mackenzie, Tanya Anne; Herrington, Lee; Horsley, Ian; Cools, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Context Compromise to the acromiohumeral distance has been reported in participants with subacromial impingement syndrome compared with healthy participants. In clinical practice, patients with subacromial shoulder impingement are given strengthening programs targeting the lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) muscles to increase scapular posterior tilt and upward rotation. We are the first to use neuromuscular electrical stimulation to stimulate these muscle groups and evaluate how the muscle contraction affects the acromiohumeral distance. Objective To investigate if electrical muscle stimulation of the LT and SA muscles, both separately and simultaneously, increases the acromiohumeral distance and to identify which muscle-group contraction or combination most influences the acromiohumeral distance. Design Controlled laboratory study. Setting Human performance laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Twenty participants (10 men and 10 women, age = 26.9 ± 8.0 years, body mass index = 23.8) were screened. Intervention(s) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the LT and SA. Main Outcome Measure(s) Ultrasound measurement of the acromiohumeral distance. Results Acromiohumeral distance increased during contraction via neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the LT muscle (t19 = −3.89, P = .004), SA muscle (t19 = −7.67, P = .001), and combined LT and SA muscles (t19 = −5.09, P = .001). We observed no differences in the increased acromiohumeral distance among the 3 procedures (F2,57 = 3.109, P = .08). Conclusions Our results supported the hypothesis that the muscle force couple around the scapula is important in rehabilitation and scapular control and influences acromiohumeral distance. PMID:25933249

  2. Understanding How Participants Become Champions and Succeed in Adopting Healthy Lifestyles: A Storytelling of a Community Health and Nutrition Program at a Land-Grant University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keo, Phalla Duong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and understand the experiences of participants who become champions and succeed in adopting healthy lifestyles. The setting was a health and nutrition educational program at University of Minnesota Extension. The main research questions were: How do participants in the Community Health Education Program…

  3. Understanding How Participants Become Champions and Succeed in Adopting Healthy Lifestyles: A Storytelling of a Community Health and Nutrition Program at a Land-Grant University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keo, Phalla Duong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and understand the experiences of participants who become champions and succeed in adopting healthy lifestyles. The setting was a health and nutrition educational program at University of Minnesota Extension. The main research questions were: How do participants in the Community Health Education Program…

  4. First PET Imaging Studies With 63Zn-Zinc Citrate in Healthy Human Participants and Patients With Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    DeGrado, Timothy R; Kemp, Bradley J; Pandey, Mukesh K; Jiang, Huailei; Gunderson, Tina M; Linscheid, Logan R; Woodwick, Allison R; McConnell, Daniel M; Fletcher, Joel G; Johnson, Geoffrey B; Petersen, Ronald C; Knopman, David S; Lowe, Val J

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in zinc homeostasis are indicated in many human diseases, including Alzheimer disease (AD). (63)Zn-zinc citrate was developed as a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging probe of zinc transport and used in a first-in-human study in 6 healthy elderly individuals and 6 patients with clinically confirmed AD. Dynamic PET imaging of the brain was performed for 30 minutes following intravenous administration of (63)Zn-zinc citrate (∼330 MBq). Subsequently, body PET images were acquired. Urine and venous blood were analyzed to give information on urinary excretion and pharmacokinetics. Regional cerebral (63)Zn clearances were compared with (11)C-Pittsburgh Compound B ((11)C-PiB) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) imaging data. (63)Zn-zinc citrate was well tolerated in human participants with no adverse events monitored. Tissues of highest uptake were liver, pancreas, and kidney, with moderate uptake being seen in intestines, prostate (in males), thyroid, spleen, stomach, pituitary, and salivary glands. Moderate brain uptake was observed, and regional dependencies were observed in (63)Zn clearance kinetics in relationship with regions of high amyloid-β plaque burden ((11)C-PiB) and (18)F-FDG hypometabolism. In conclusion, zinc transport was successfully imaged in human participants using the PET probe (63)Zn-zinc citrate. Primary sites of uptake in the digestive system accent the role of zinc in gastrointestinal function. Preliminary information on zinc kinetics in patients with AD evidenced regional differences in clearance rates in correspondence with regional amyloid-β pathology, warranting further imaging studies of zinc homeostasis in patients with AD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. First PET Imaging Studies With 63Zn-Zinc Citrate in Healthy Human Participants and Patients With Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Bradley J.; Pandey, Mukesh K.; Jiang, Huailei; Gunderson, Tina M.; Linscheid, Logan R.; Woodwick, Allison R.; McConnell, Daniel M.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Johnson, Geoffrey B.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Knopman, David S.; Lowe, Val J.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in zinc homeostasis are indicated in many human diseases, including Alzheimer disease (AD). 63Zn-zinc citrate was developed as a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging probe of zinc transport and used in a first-in-human study in 6 healthy elderly individuals and 6 patients with clinically confirmed AD. Dynamic PET imaging of the brain was performed for 30 minutes following intravenous administration of 63Zn-zinc citrate (∼330 MBq). Subsequently, body PET images were acquired. Urine and venous blood were analyzed to give information on urinary excretion and pharmacokinetics. Regional cerebral 63Zn clearances were compared with 11C-Pittsburgh Compound B (11C-PiB) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) imaging data. 63Zn-zinc citrate was well tolerated in human participants with no adverse events monitored. Tissues of highest uptake were liver, pancreas, and kidney, with moderate uptake being seen in intestines, prostate (in males), thyroid, spleen, stomach, pituitary, and salivary glands. Moderate brain uptake was observed, and regional dependencies were observed in 63Zn clearance kinetics in relationship with regions of high amyloid-β plaque burden (11C-PiB) and 18F-FDG hypometabolism. In conclusion, zinc transport was successfully imaged in human participants using the PET probe 63Zn-zinc citrate. Primary sites of uptake in the digestive system accent the role of zinc in gastrointestinal function. Preliminary information on zinc kinetics in patients with AD evidenced regional differences in clearance rates in correspondence with regional amyloid-β pathology, warranting further imaging studies of zinc homeostasis in patients with AD. PMID:27941122

  6. Bidirectional variability in motor cortex excitability modulation following 1 mA transcranial direct current stimulation in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Strube, Wolfgang; Bunse, Tilmann; Nitsche, Michael A; Nikolaeva, Alexandra; Palm, Ulrich; Padberg, Frank; Falkai, Peter; Hasan, Alkomiet

    2016-08-01

    Due to the high interindividual response variability following transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), it is apparent that further research of the long-lasting effects of the stimulation technique is required. We aimed to investigate interindividual variability following anodal tDCS and cathodal tDCS in a large-scale prospective cross-over study. Motor cortex physiology measurements were obtained using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 59 healthy participants comparing motor-evoked potential (MEP) magnitudes following two tDCS paradigms: 1 mA anodal tDCS for 13 min and 1 mA cathodal tDCS for 9 min. Analysis compared MEP changes over time for both polarities. Additionally, we applied hierarchical cluster analysis to assess the dynamics of poststimulation changes. Overall, anodal tDCS resulted in a significant increase in corticospinal excitability lasting for 40 min poststimulation, whereas cathodal tDCS did not alter corticospinal excitability. Cluster analysis revealed for cathodal tDCS both a cluster showing significant stable MEP reduction and a second cluster displaying MEP increase over time. Two diametrical clusters were also found for anodal tDCS Regardless of polarity, individuals with MEP increase following stimulation showed steeper cortical recruitment curves compared to the clusters with decreased MEP magnitudes. The observed findings confirm a bidirectional modulation of corticospinal excitability following 1 mA tDCS in separate subgroups and the relationship to cortical recruitment.

  7. Objective and subjective components of the first-night effect in young nightmare sufferers and healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Kis, Anna; Szakadát, Sára; Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Horváth, Klára; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-01-01

    The first-night effect--marked differences between the first- and the second-night sleep spent in a laboratory--is a widely known phenomenon that accounts for the common practice of excluding the first-night sleep from any polysomnographic analysis. The extent to which the first-night effect is present in a participant, as well as its duration (1 or more nights), might have diagnostic value and should account for different protocols used for distinct patient groups. This study investigated the first-night effect on nightmare sufferers (NM; N = 12) and healthy controls (N = 15) using both objective (2-night-long polysomnography) and subjective (Groningen Sleep Quality Scale for the 2 nights spent in the laboratory and 1 regular night spent at home) methods. Differences were found in both the objective (sleep efficiency, wakefulness after sleep onset, sleep latency, Stage-1 duration, Stage-2 duration, slow-wave sleep duration, and REM duration) and subjective (self-rating) variables between the 2 nights and the 2 groups, with a more pronounced first-night effect in the case of the NM group. Furthermore, subjective sleep quality was strongly related to polysomnographic variables and did not differ among 1 regular night spent at home and the second night spent in the laboratory. The importance of these results is discussed from a diagnostic point of view.

  8. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    McNeely, ME; Duncan, RP; Earhart, GM

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations. PMID:26318265

  9. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    McNeely, M E; Duncan, R P; Earhart, G M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations.

  10. An auditory multiclass brain-computer interface with natural stimuli: Usability evaluation with healthy participants and a motor impaired end user

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Nadine; Käthner, Ivo; Ruf, Carolin A.; Pasqualotto, Emanuele; Kübler, Andrea; Halder, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can serve as muscle independent communication aids. Persons, who are unable to control their eye muscles (e.g., in the completely locked-in state) or have severe visual impairments for other reasons, need BCI systems that do not rely on the visual modality. For this reason, BCIs that employ auditory stimuli were suggested. In this study, a multiclass BCI spelling system was implemented that uses animal voices with directional cues to code rows and columns of a letter matrix. To reveal possible training effects with the system, 11 healthy participants performed spelling tasks on 2 consecutive days. In a second step, the system was tested by a participant with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in two sessions. In the first session, healthy participants spelled with an average accuracy of 76% (3.29 bits/min) that increased to 90% (4.23 bits/min) on the second day. Spelling accuracy by the participant with ALS was 20% in the first and 47% in the second session. The results indicate a strong training effect for both the healthy participants and the participant with ALS. While healthy participants reached high accuracies in the first session and second session, accuracies for the participant with ALS were not sufficient for satisfactory communication in both sessions. More training sessions might be needed to improve spelling accuracies. The study demonstrated the feasibility of the auditory BCI with healthy users and stresses the importance of training with auditory multiclass BCIs, especially for potential end-users of BCI with disease. PMID:25620924

  11. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on cytokines in peripheral blood for healthy participants: a prospective, single-blinded Study.

    PubMed

    Truong, Alexander D; Kho, Michelle E; Brower, Roy G; Feldman, Dorianne R; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Needham, Dale M

    2017-05-01

    The effect of exercise on cytokines may improve muscle strength. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a muscle-preserving therapy that benefits patients unable to participate in active exercise. How NMES alters cytokines is unclear. The aim of this study was to study the effects of 1 NMES session on cytokines associated with protein metabolism during exercise. We evaluated the effects of NMES on IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels in peripheral blood. Participants received NMES to bilateral lower extremity muscles (quadriceps, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius) for 30 min. Blood samples immediately pre- and post-NMES were drawn at 15-min intervals to 2-h follow-up, and the mean values of pre-NMES levels were compared to peak and trough post-NMES levels. For cytokines with significant changes, we conducted a repeated-measures linear regression analysis. We also measured post-NMES lactate and creatine kinase levels. We enrolled nine eligible participants. There was a significant increase in peak IL-6 from the mean pre-NMES value [0·65 (0·89) to 1·04 (0·89) pg ml(-1) , P = 0·001] and a significant decrease in trough IL-1 [0·08 (0·07) to 0·02 (0·02) pg ml(-1) , P = 0·041] and TNF-α [2·42 (0·54) to 2·16 (0·59) pg ml(-1) , P = 0·021]. In repeated-measures regression analysis, we identified significantly higher mean IL-6 values throughout the full 120 min post-NMES period, and a significantly higher mean IL-1 value at 30 min post-NMES. There were no significant differences in peak IL-10, trough IL-6, lactate, or creatine kinase values. In nine healthy humans, 30 min of NMES was temporally associated with changes in cytokines similar to the effects of active exercise and may mediate NMES' observed effects on reducing muscle weakness. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A School Based Intervention for Combating Food Insecurity and Promoting Healthy Nutrition in a Developed Country Undergoing Economic Crisis: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalma, A.; Veloudaki, A.; Petralias, A.; Mitraka, K.; Zota, D.; Kastorini, C.-M.; Yannakoulia, M.; Linos, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aiming at reducing the rates of food insecurity and promoting healthy diet for children and adolescents, we designed and implemented the Program on Food Aid and Promotion of Healthy Nutrition-DIATROFI, a school-based intervention program including the daily provision of a free healthy mid-day meal in disadvantaged areas across…

  13. Interoception in insula subregions as a possible state marker for depression—an exploratory fMRI study investigating healthy, depressed and remitted participants

    PubMed Central

    Wiebking, Christine; de Greck, Moritz; Duncan, Niall W.; Tempelmann, Claus; Bajbouj, Malek; Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interoceptive awareness (iA), the awareness of stimuli originating inside the body, plays an important role in human emotions and psychopathology. The insula is particularly involved in neural processes underlying iA. However, iA-related neural activity in the insula during the acute state of major depressive disorder (MDD) and in remission from depression has not been explored. Methods: A well-established fMRI paradigm for studying (iA; heartbeat counting) and exteroceptive awareness (eA; tone counting) was used. Study participants formed three independent groups: patients suffering from MDD, patients in remission from MDD or healthy controls. Task-induced neural activity in three functional subdivisions of the insula was compared between these groups. Results: Depressed participants showed neural hypo-responses during iA in anterior insula regions, as compared to both healthy and remitted participants. The right dorsal anterior insula showed the strongest response to iA across all participant groups. In depressed participants there was no differentiation between different stimuli types in this region (i.e., between iA, eA and noTask). Healthy and remitted participants in contrast showed clear activity differences. Conclusions: This is the first study comparing iA and eA-related activity in the insula in depressed participants to that in healthy and remitted individuals. The preliminary results suggest that these groups differ in there being hypo-responses across insula regions in the depressed participants, whilst non-psychiatric participants and patients in remission from MDD show the same neural activity during iA in insula subregions implying a possible state marker for MDD. The lack of activity differences between different stimulus types in the depressed group may account for their symptoms of altered external and internal focus. PMID:25914633

  14. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) procedure as experienced by healthy participants and stroke patients--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Szameitat, André J; Shen, Shan; Sterr, Annette

    2009-07-31

    An important aspect in functional imaging research employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is how participants perceive the MRI scanning itself. For instance, the knowledge of how (un)comfortable MRI scanning is perceived may help institutional review boards (IRBs) or ethics committees to decide on the approval of a study, or researchers to design their experiments. We provide empirical data from our lab gained from 70 neurologically healthy mainly student subjects and from 22 mainly elderly patients suffering from motor deficits after brain damage. All participants took part in various basic research fMRI studies using a 3T MRI scanner. Directly after the scanning, all participants completed a questionnaire assessing their experience with the fMRI procedure. 87.2% of the healthy subjects and 77.3% of the patients rated the MRI procedure as acceptable to comfortable. In healthy subjects, males found the procedure more comfortable, while the opposite was true for patients. 12.1% of healthy subjects considered scanning durations between 30 and 60 min as too long, while no patient considered their 30 min scanning interval as too long. 93.4% of the healthy subjects would like to participate in an fMRI study again, with a significantly lower rate for the subjects who considered the scanning as too long. Further factors, such as inclusion of a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scan, age, and study duration had no effect on the questionnaire responses. Of the few negative comments, the main issues were noise, the restriction to keep still for the whole time, and occasional feelings of dizziness. MRI scanning in the basic research setting is an acceptable procedure for elderly and patient participants as well as young healthy subjects.

  15. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) procedure as experienced by healthy participants and stroke patients – A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background An important aspect in functional imaging research employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is how participants perceive the MRI scanning itself. For instance, the knowledge of how (un)comfortable MRI scanning is perceived may help institutional review boards (IRBs) or ethics committees to decide on the approval of a study, or researchers to design their experiments. Methods We provide empirical data from our lab gained from 70 neurologically healthy mainly student subjects and from 22 mainly elderly patients suffering from motor deficits after brain damage. All participants took part in various basic research fMRI studies using a 3T MRI scanner. Directly after the scanning, all participants completed a questionnaire assessing their experience with the fMRI procedure. Results 87.2% of the healthy subjects and 77.3% of the patients rated the MRI procedure as acceptable to comfortable. In healthy subjects, males found the procedure more comfortable, while the opposite was true for patients. 12.1% of healthy subjects considered scanning durations between 30 and 60 min as too long, while no patient considered their 30 min scanning interval as too long. 93.4% of the healthy subjects would like to participate in an fMRI study again, with a significantly lower rate for the subjects who considered the scanning as too long. Further factors, such as inclusion of a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scan, age, and study duration had no effect on the questionnaire responses. Of the few negative comments, the main issues were noise, the restriction to keep still for the whole time, and occasional feelings of dizziness. Conclusion MRI scanning in the basic research setting is an acceptable procedure for elderly and patient participants as well as young healthy subjects. PMID:19646238

  16. The effect of shoe lacing on plantar pressure distribution and in-shoe displacement of the foot in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Karin Elisabeth; Stuijfzand, Wijnand Jan A; Harlaar, Jaap; Dekker, Joost; Beckerman, Heleen

    2011-03-01

    A proof of concept study to investigate the effect of shoe lacing on the plantar pressure distribution and in-shoe displacement of the foot during walking. Three randomized shoe-lacing conditions, which differed in lacing tightness (comfortable, loosened, and completely loose) were investigated in 20 healthy adults. On a 10-m walking test, plantar pressures were assessed with the Pedar(®)-X in-shoe measurement system. Perceived in-shoe displacement was scored on a numerical rating scale. With respect to the pressure time integral statistically significant effects were found in the hallux, toes 2-5, first metatarsal head, and lateral midfoot regions. Post hoc comparison showed for the hallux: mean increase of 45.5 kPa s (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.2-87.8 kPa s), and toes 2-5: mean increase of 23.5 kPa s (95% CI: 0.1-46.9 kPa s) between comfortably secured and completely loosened laces; lateral midfoot: mean decrease of -18.1 kPa s (95% CI: -31.5 to -4.8 kPa s) between comfortably secured and loosened laces. No significant effect was found on peak pressure, and average pressure. Participants reported a significant increase in heel slipping and in slipping back and forth of the foot as the laces were loosened. Looser lacing techniques resulted in small peak and average plantar pressure changes (less than 3% and 6.5% respectively). Pressure time integral under the hallux and toes 2-5 increased 16.3% and 14.5% respectively, and perceived in-shoe displacement increased as compared to comfortably secured laces. These results suggest that diabetes patients should be advised to comfortably tighten their shoelaces during the whole day. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety and immunoenhancing effect of a Chlorella-derived dietary supplement in healthy adults undergoing influenza vaccination: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, Scott A.; Smith, Bruce; Nolan, Coleen; Shay, Janet; Kralovec, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Background Enhancement of immune function has been claimed as a benefit of some natural health products, although few have been subjected to randomized clinical trials. We evaluated the effect of an oral dietary supplement derived from the edible microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa on immune response after influenza vaccination. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled community-based clinical trial in a convenience sample of 124 healthy adults at least 50 years of age randomly assigned to receive the study product (200 or 400 mg of a Chlorella-derived dietary supplement) or placebo. Participants took the study product or placebo once daily for 28 days. On day 21, we administered a single dose of a licensed trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine. We obtained serum specimens to measure hemagglutination inhibition titres before and 7 and 21 days after vaccination. The primary immunological outcomes were the proportion of participants with a 4-fold or greater increase in antibodies and geometric mean antibody titres after vaccination; the proportion of participants reporting adverse events during therapy was the safety outcome. Results A total of 117 (94%) participants completed all aspects of the study. There were no differences in the proportions of recipients of 200 or 400 mg of the Chlorella-derived dietary supplement or placebo who achieved at least a 4-fold increase in antibodies (proportions for the 3 virus strains ranged from 17.9% to 28.2% for the 200-mg group, from 11.1% to 22.2% for the 400-mg group and from 19.0% to 21.4% for the placebo group; p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Reports of adverse events were similar for recipients of the supplement and placebo, except with regard to fatigue, which was reported more frequently by recipients of 200 mg of the supplement (18/41 or 44%) than by those who received 400 mg of the supplement (8/40 or 20%; p = 0.032) or placebo (8/42 or 19%; p = 0.019). Recipients of 400 mg of the supplement

  18. Using skin carotenoids to assess dietary changes in students after one academic year of participating in the shaping healthy choices program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To determine whether 4th-grade students participating in the Shaping Healthy Choices Program (SHCP), a school-based nutrition intervention, change vegetable intake Design: quasi-experimental single group pre-test, post-test with a self-selected, convenience sample of students recruited at...

  19. Characteristics of Participants in Australia's Get Healthy Telephone-Based Lifestyle Information and Coaching Service: Reaching Disadvantaged Communities and Those Most at Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Blythe J.; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Venugopal, Kamalesh; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2011-01-01

    To address increasing rates of overweight and obesity, a population-based telephone intervention was introduced in New South Wales, Australia. The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service[R] (GHS) offered participants a 6-month coaching program or detailed self-help information. Determining the population reach of GHS is of public health…

  20. Characteristics of Participants in Australia's Get Healthy Telephone-Based Lifestyle Information and Coaching Service: Reaching Disadvantaged Communities and Those Most at Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Blythe J.; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Venugopal, Kamalesh; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2011-01-01

    To address increasing rates of overweight and obesity, a population-based telephone intervention was introduced in New South Wales, Australia. The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service[R] (GHS) offered participants a 6-month coaching program or detailed self-help information. Determining the population reach of GHS is of public health…

  1. A comparison of impulsivity, depressive symptoms, lifetime stress and sensation seeking in healthy controls versus participants with cocaine or methamphetamine use disorders.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, James J; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G Y; Cooper, Kimberly; Verrico, Christopher D; Newton, Thomas F; De La Garza, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has focused on developing theories of addiction that may explain behavior in cocaine- and methamphetamine-dependent individuals. The primary goal of this report was to compare and contrast the prevalence of self-reported measures of impulsivity, depression, lifetime stress and sensation-seeking in healthy controls versus individuals with cocaine or methamphetamine use disorders. Twenty-nine individuals with cocaine use disorders and 31 individuals with methamphetamine use disorders were matched with 31 healthy control participants on several demographic variables. All participants were administered behavioral questionnaires including the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (assessing impulsivity), Beck Depression Inventory II (assessing depression), Life Stressor Checklist-Revised (assessing lifetime stress) and the Impulsive Sensation Seeking Scale (assessing sensation-seeking). When compared to healthy controls, individuals with cocaine and methamphetamine use disorders had significantly higher levels of impulsivity and sensation-seeking. In addition, when compared to healthy controls, individuals with cocaine use disorders had significantly higher Beck Depression Inventory II scores, while individuals with methamphetamine use disorders had significantly higher Life Stressor Checklist-Revised scores. The results revealed that there were significantly higher levels of impulsivity, depression and sensation-seeking in cocaine users and significantly higher impulsivity, lifetime stress and sensation-seeking in methamphetamine users when compared to healthy controls.

  2. Analysis of the Chaotic Characteristics of Human Colonic Activities and Comparison of Healthy Participants to Costive Subjects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is a common yet distressing disease that has high rates of morbidity and impacts patients' quality of life. However, there is no perfect method to distinguish costive patients from healthy subjects. Is there chaos in human colonic activities? Are there any differences for the chaos indicators of colonic activities between healthy and costive subjects? Can these indicators distinguish patients with constipation from healthy subjects? To answer these questions, colonic pressure data from 16 healthy subjects and 48 patients with constipation were analyzed using the chaos theory. Three chaotic indicators [i.e., the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE), correlation dimension (CorDim), and Kolmogorov entropy (KoEn)] were calculated and compared between groups with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. As a result, the LyE was greater than zero and the CorDim was fractioned, which showed that human colonic activities have clear chaotic characteristics. Statistically significant differences were observed between groups for CorDim (p < 0.05), whereas LyE did not show statistically significant differences between groups. The chaotic indicator of CorDim was able to differentiate between patients with constipation and healthy subjects. The chaos theory provides a new method for learning the nonlinear dynamics of human gastrointestinal activities.

  3. Improving heart healthy lifestyles among participants in a Salud para su Corazón promotores model: the Mexican pilot study, 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Balcázar, Héctor; Fernández-Gaxiola, Ana Cecilia; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana Bertha; Peyron, Rosa Adriana; Ayala, Carma

    2015-03-12

    In Mexico, cardiovascular disease and its risk factors are growing problems and major public health concerns. The objective of this study was to implement cardiovascular health promotion and disease prevention activities of the Salud para su Corazón model in a high-risk, impoverished, urban community in Mexico City. We used a pretest-posttest (baseline to 12-week follow-up) design without a control group. Material from Salud para su Corazón was validated and delivered by promotores (community health workers) to community members from 6 geographic areas. Two validated, self-administered questionnaires that assessed participants' knowledge and behaviors relating to heart health were administered. We used t tests and χ(2) tests to evaluate pretest and posttest differences, by age group (≤60 and >60 years), for participants' 3 heart-healthy habits, 3 types of physical activity, performance skills, and anthropometric and clinical measurements. A total of 452 (82%) adult participants completed the program. Heart-healthy habits from pretest to posttest varied by age group. "Taking action" to modify lifestyle behaviors increased among adults aged 60 or younger from 31.5% to 63.0% (P < .001) and among adults older than 60 from 30.0% to 45.0% (P < .001). Positive responses for cholesterol and fat consumption reduction were seen among participants 60 or younger (P = .03). Among those older than 60, salt reduction and weight control increased (P = .008). Mean blood glucose concentration among adults older than 60 decreased postintervention (P = .03). Significant improvements in some heart-healthy habits were seen among adult participants. The model has potential to improve heart-healthy habits and facilitate behavioral change among high-risk adults.

  4. Seasonal differences in the diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion in healthy participants and those with self-assessed seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Lisa; Evans, Phil; Cannon, Anne; Hucklebridge, Frank; Clow, Angela

    2011-07-01

    This study compared the daily pattern of free salivary cortisol secretion in winter and in summer between two groups; participants with self-assessed seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Fifty-two participants completed the study with an equal number in each group. The diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion was assessed across two consecutive weekdays in summer, and two in winter, with conditions being counterbalanced. On each study day participants collected multiple saliva samples in the domestic setting to capture the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and declining levels across the day. In addition, perceived stress, anxiety, depression, state stress and state arousal were assessed using validated questionnaires. There was no evidence for any seasonal changes in psychological data or cortisol pattern for the healthy control population. In summer, self-assessed SAD and control participants had similar psychological and cortisol profiles. In winter however, SAD participants reported greater depression, stress and anxiety, and lower levels of arousal. Furthermore, the CAR was significantly attenuated in SAD participants during winter months. There was no difference in cortisol levels during the rest of the day between controls and SAD participants in winter. In line with the above findings and previous research, there was an inverse relationship between the increase in cortisol following awakening and a measure of seasonality in winter. Furthermore in winter, a general dysphoria construct correlated inversely with the CAR, indicating that participants reporting greater depression, stress and anxiety and lower arousal, exhibited lower CARs. In conclusion, during the shortened photoperiod in winter, the cortisol response to awakening is attenuated in participants with self-assessed SAD in comparison to controls. These findings contribute to the understanding of the physiology of SAD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Attitudes Toward Cancer Clinical Trial Participation in Young Adults with a History of Cancer and a Healthy College Student Sample: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Grigsby, Timothy J; Kent, Erin E; Montoya, Michael J; Sender, Leonard S; Morris, Rebecca A; Ziogas, Argyrios; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) aged 15-39 at diagnosis have very low cancer clinical trial accrual rates. To date, no studies have examined attitudes toward clinical trial participation in this age range to determine if certain individuals are less likely to enroll if offered participation. The current study assessed attitudes toward participation using the Cancer Treatment Subscale of the Attitudes toward Cancer Trials Scales. Methods: Data were collected from a sample of leukemia and lymphoma survivors (n=99) and a healthy college student sample (n=397). Following a principal components analysis, two subscales-Personal Barriers/Safety and Personal Benefits-were retained for analysis. Results: In the cancer survivor group, only 14 (13.3%) reported being offered participation in a cancer clinical trial, and only 8 of those 14 (7.6% of survivors) participated. Responses from leukemia and lymphoma survivors revealed no significant relationships between age, gender, race/ethnicity, clinical trial participation, insurance status, or social class with Personal Benefits or Personal Barriers/Safety. Healthy college females had more negative Personal Barriers/Safety attitudes compared to males after adjusting for race/ethnicity and social class (p=0.01), but no associations were present when examining Personal Benefits as an outcome. Conclusion: This preliminary investigation suggests that drivers of attitudes toward clinical trial participation in AYAs are not well understood and may impact cancer trial participation. Future work should focus on defining attitudes toward cancer clinical trials in the AYA population and developing interventions to increase awareness, knowledge, and positive attitudes toward participating in cancer research.

  6. Distinct effects of ASD and ADHD symptoms on reward anticipation in participants with ADHD, their unaffected siblings and healthy controls: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Eelco V; von Rhein, Daniel; O'Dwyer, Laurence; Franke, Barbara; Hartman, Catharina A; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) traits are continuously distributed throughout the population, and ASD symptoms are also frequently observed in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both ASD and ADHD have been linked to alterations in reward-related neural processing. However, whether both symptom domains interact and/or have distinct effects on reward processing in healthy and ADHD populations is currently unknown. We examined how variance in ASD and ADHD symptoms in individuals with ADHD and healthy participants was related to the behavioural and neural response to reward during a monetary incentive delay (MID) task. Participants (mean age: 17.7 years, range: 10-28 years) from the NeuroIMAGE study with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD (n = 136), their unaffected siblings (n = 83), as well as healthy controls (n = 105) performed an MID task in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. ASD and ADHD symptom scores were used as predictors of the neural response to reward anticipation and reward receipt. Behavioural responses were modeled using linear mixed models; neural responses were analysed using FMRIB's Software Library (FSL) proprietary mixed effects analysis (FLAMEO). ASD and ADHD symptoms were associated with alterations in BOLD activity during reward anticipation, but not reward receipt. Specifically, ASD scores were related to increased insular activity during reward anticipation across the sample. No interaction was found between this effect and the presence of ADHD, suggesting that ASD symptoms had no differential effect in ADHD and healthy populations. ADHD symptom scores were associated with reduced dorsolateral prefrontal activity during reward anticipation. No interactions were found between the effects of ASD and ADHD symptoms on reward processing. Variance in ASD and ADHD symptoms separately influence neural processing during reward anticipation in both individuals with (an increased risk of) ADHD and healthy

  7. Patients with gout have short telomeres compared with healthy participants: association of telomere length with flare frequency and cardiovascular disease in gout.

    PubMed

    Vazirpanah, N; Kienhorst, L B E; Van Lochem, E; Wichers, C; Rossato, M; Shiels, P G; Dalbeth, N; Stamp, L K; Merriman, T R; Janssen, M; Radstake, T R D J; Broen, J Ca

    2017-07-01

    Chronic inflammation associates with increased senescence, which is a strong predictor for cardiovascular disease. We hypothesised that inflammation accelerates senescence and thereby enhances the risk of cardiovascular disease in gout. We assessed replicative senescence by quantifying telomere length (TL) in a discovery cohort of 145 Dutch patients with gout and 273 healthy individuals and validated our results in 474 patients with gout and 293 healthy participants from New Zealand. Subsequently, we investigated the effect of cardiovascular disease on TL of all participants. Also, we measured TL of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, monocytes, natural killer cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Additionally, we assessed the potential temporal difference in TL and telomerase activity. TL in PBMCs of healthy donors decreased over time, reflecting normal ageing. Patients with gout demonstrated shorter telomeres (p=0.001, R(2)=0.01873). In fact, the extent of telomere erosion in patients with gout was higher at any age compared with healthy counterparts at any age (p<0.0001, R(2)=0.02847). Patients with gout with cardiovascular disease had the shortest telomeres and TL was an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients with gout (p=0.001). TL was inversely associated with the number of gouty flares (p=0.005). Patients with gout have shorter telomeres than healthy participants, reflecting increased cellular senescence. Telomere shortening was associated with the number of flares and with cardiovascular disease in people with gout. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Semantic Memory Is Key to Binding Phonology: Converging Evidence from Immediate Serial Recall in Semantic Dementia and Healthy Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba; Jones, Roy W.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia (SD) make numerous phoneme migration errors when recalling lists of words they no longer fully understand, suggesting that word meaning makes a critical contribution to phoneme binding in verbal short-term memory. Healthy individuals make errors that appear similar when recalling lists of nonwords, which also lack…

  9. Effect of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act on the Nutritional Quality of Meals Selected by Students and School Lunch Participation Rates.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Donna B; Podrabsky, Mary; Rocha, Anita; Otten, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    Effective policies have potential to improve diet and reduce obesity. School food policies reach most children in the United States. To assess the nutritional quality of foods chosen by students and meal participation rates before and after the implementation of new school meal standards authorized through the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act. This descriptive, longitudinal study examined changes in the nutritional quality of 1,741,630 school meals at 3 middle schools and 3 high schools in an urban school district in Washington state. Seventy two hundred students are enrolled in the district; 54% are eligible for free and reduced-price meals. Student food selection data were collected daily from January 2011 through January 2014 during the 16 months prior to and the 15 months after implementation of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act. The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act. Nutritional quality was assessed by calculating monthly mean adequacy ratio and energy density of the foods selected by students each day. Six nutrients were included in the mean adequacy ratio calculations: calcium, vitamin C, vitamin A, iron, fiber, and protein. Monthly school meal participation was calculated as the mean number of daily meals served divided by student enrollment. Mean monthly values of mean adequacy ratio, energy density, and participation were compared before and after policy implementation. After implementation of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act, change was associated with significant improvement in the nutritional quality of foods chosen by students, as measured by increased mean adequacy ratio from a mean of 58.7 (range, 49.6-63.1) prior to policy implementation to 75.6 (range, 68.7-81.8) after policy implementation and decreased energy density from a mean of 1.65 (range, 1.53-1.82) to 1.44 (range, 1.29-1.61), respectively. There was negligible difference in student meal participation following implementation of the new meal standards with 47% meal participation (range, 40

  10. Tools for Prevention: Building Healthy Youths. A Training Program for: School Counselors, School Nurses, School Psychologists. Participant Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Maxie P.; Collins, Charles B., Jr.

    This training program participants' manual is designed to assist K-12 school counselors, nurses, and psychologists in offering aid to youths at risk for substance abuse. The training objectives for participants in the workshop are to be able to demonstrate: (1) competence in knowledge of basic substance abuse information to include age-appropriate…

  11. Using Balance Tests to Discriminate Between Participants With a Recent Index Lateral Ankle Sprain and Healthy Control Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Pourkazemi, Fereshteh; Hiller, Claire; Raymond, Jacqueline; Black, Deborah; Nightingale, Elizabeth; Refshauge, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Context:  The first step to identifying factors that increase the risk of recurrent ankle sprains is to identify impairments after a first sprain and compare performance with individuals who have never sustained a sprain. Few researchers have restricted recruitment to a homogeneous group of patients with first sprains, thereby introducing the potential for confounding. Objective:  To identify impairments that differ in participants with a recent index lateral ankle sprain versus participants with no history of ankle sprain. Design:  Cross-sectional study. Patients or Other Participants:  We recruited a sample of convenience from May 2010 to April 2013 that included 70 volunteers (age = 27.4 ± 8.3 years, height = 168.7 ± 9.5 cm, mass = 65.0 ± 12.5 kg) serving as controls and 30 volunteers (age = 31.1 ± 13.3 years, height = 168.3 ± 9.1 cm, mass = 67.3 ± 13.7 kg) with index ankle sprains. Main Outcome Measure(s):  We collected demographic and physical performance variables, including ankle-joint range of motion, balance (time to balance after perturbation, Star Excursion Balance Test, foot lifts during single-legged stance, demi-pointe balance test), proprioception, motor planning, inversion-eversion peak power, and timed stair tests. Discriminant analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between explanatory variables and sprain status. Sequential discriminant analysis was performed to identify the most relevant variables that explained the greatest variance. Results:  The average time since the sprain was 3.5 ± 1.5 months. The model, including all variables, correctly predicted a sprain status of 77% (n = 23) of the sprain group and 80% (n = 56) of the control group and explained 40% of the variance between groups ( = 42.16, P = .03). Backward stepwise discriminant analysis revealed associations between sprain status and only 2 tests: Star Excursion Balance Test in the anterior direction and foot lifts during single-legged stance ( = 15

  12. Lack of Healthy Food in Small-Size to Mid-Size Retailers Participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, 2014.

    PubMed

    Laska, Melissa N; Caspi, Caitlin E; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Friebur, Robin; Harnack, Lisa J

    2015-08-27

    The US Department of Agriculture has stocking criteria for healthy foods among Supplemental Nutrition Assistant Program (SNAP)-authorized retailers. Increased access to healthy food could improve diet quality among SNAP participants, which has implications for chronic disease prevention. The objective of this study was to quantify healthy foods stocked in small-size to mid-size retailers who are authorized under SNAP but not under the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). We used formative, cross-sectional data from a large policy evaluation to conduct secondary analyses. Store audits were conducted in 2014 in 91 randomly selected, licensed food stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Supermarkets and retailers participating in WIC, which are required to stock healthy foods, were excluded as were other stores not reasonably expected to stock staple foods, such as specialty stores or produce stands. Availability of milk, fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain-rich foods was assessed. The 91 stores studied were corner stores, food-gas marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies. More than half carried 1 or more varieties of fat-free or low-fat milk, fresh or canned fruit, and whole-grain-rich cereal. However, only one-third stocked 1 or more varieties of fresh vegetables and only one-quarter stocked whole-grain-rich products, such as whole-grain-rich bread (26%) or tortillas (21%) or brown rice (25%). Few stores stocked at least 2 varieties of each product. Many stores did not stock a variety of healthy foods. The US Department of Agriculture should change policies to improve minimum stocking requirements for SNAP-authorized retailers.

  13. Lack of Healthy Food in Small-Size to Mid-Size Retailers Participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Minneapolis–St. Paul, Minnesota, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Caitlin E.; Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Friebur, Robin; Harnack, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The US Department of Agriculture has stocking criteria for healthy foods among Supplemental Nutrition Assistant Program (SNAP)-authorized retailers. Increased access to healthy food could improve diet quality among SNAP participants, which has implications for chronic disease prevention. The objective of this study was to quantify healthy foods stocked in small-size to mid-size retailers who are authorized under SNAP but not under the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Methods We used formative, cross-sectional data from a large policy evaluation to conduct secondary analyses. Store audits were conducted in 2014 in 91 randomly selected, licensed food stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Supermarkets and retailers participating in WIC, which are required to stock healthy foods, were excluded as were other stores not reasonably expected to stock staple foods, such as specialty stores or produce stands. Availability of milk, fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain–rich foods was assessed. Results The 91 stores studied were corner stores, food–gas marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies. More than half carried 1 or more varieties of fat-free or low-fat milk, fresh or canned fruit, and whole-grain–rich cereal. However, only one-third stocked 1 or more varieties of fresh vegetables and only one-quarter stocked whole-grain–rich products, such as whole-grain-rich bread (26%) or tortillas (21%) or brown rice (25%). Few stores stocked at least 2 varieties of each product. Conclusions Many stores did not stock a variety of healthy foods. The US Department of Agriculture should change policies to improve minimum stocking requirements for SNAP-authorized retailers. PMID:26312380

  14. Characteristics of participants in Australia's Get Healthy telephone-based lifestyle information and coaching service: reaching disadvantaged communities and those most at need.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Venugopal, Kamalesh; Bauman, Adrian E

    2011-12-01

    To address increasing rates of overweight and obesity, a population-based telephone intervention was introduced in New South Wales, Australia. The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS) offered participants a 6-month coaching program or detailed self-help information. Determining the population reach of GHS is of public health importance to ensure that the program reaches disadvantaged groups. This paper describes the socio-demographic and risk profile of participants (n = 4828) in the first 18 months of operations, determines how representative they are of the population, assesses changes in participants' socio-demographic profile and compares 'information-only' and 'coaching' participants. The results show that GHS users are representative of the adult population in relation to education, employment status, Aboriginal status, fruit and vegetable consumption and alcohol use. However, more female, middle-aged, English-speaking, rural and socially disadvantaged adults participated in GHS. Coaching Participants were more likely to be overweight and to be ex-smokers than the general population. There was substantial variability in GHS recruitment, when mass-reach television advertising was used, participants enrolled from a major city and from more disadvantaged communities. The GHS has broader population reach than many local interventions, but further efforts are needed to increase reach by Aboriginal communities, other minorities and men.

  15. Improving Heart Healthy Lifestyles Among Participants in a Salud Para Su Corazón Promotores Model: The Mexican Pilot Study, 2009–2012

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Gaxiola, Ana Cecilia; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana Bertha; Peyron, Rosa Adriana; Ayala, Carma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In Mexico, cardiovascular disease and its risk factors are growing problems and major public health concerns. The objective of this study was to implement cardiovascular health promotion and disease prevention activities of the Salud para su Corazón model in a high-risk, impoverished, urban community in Mexico City. Methods We used a pretest–posttest (baseline to 12-week follow-up) design without a control group. Material from Salud para su Corazón was validated and delivered by promotores (community health workers) to community members from 6 geographic areas. Two validated, self-administered questionnaires that assessed participants’ knowledge and behaviors relating to heart health were administered. We used t tests and χ2 tests to evaluate pretest and posttest differences, by age group (≤60 and >60 years), for participants’ 3 heart-healthy habits, 3 types of physical activity, performance skills, and anthropometric and clinical measurements. Results A total of 452 (82%) adult participants completed the program. Heart-healthy habits from pretest to posttest varied by age group. “Taking action” to modify lifestyle behaviors increased among adults aged 60 or younger from 31.5% to 63.0% (P < .001) and among adults older than 60 from 30.0% to 45.0% (P < .001). Positive responses for cholesterol and fat consumption reduction were seen among participants 60 or younger (P = .03). Among those older than 60, salt reduction and weight control increased (P = .008). Mean blood glucose concentration among adults older than 60 decreased postintervention (P = .03). Conclusion Significant improvements in some heart-healthy habits were seen among adult participants. The model has potential to improve heart-healthy habits and facilitate behavioral change among high-risk adults. PMID:25764140

  16. Healthy food availability and participation in WIC (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) in food stores around lower- and higher-income elementary schools

    PubMed Central

    Tester, June M.; Yen, Irene H.; Pallis, Lauren C.; Laraia, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The nutritional intake of schoolchildren is affected not only by what is consumed at school but also by what is available in food outlets near schools. The present study surveys the range of food outlets around schools and examines how the availability of healthy food in the food stores encountered varies by income status of the school and by store participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food assistance programme. Design Network buffer zones were created to reflect a quarter-mile (400m) walk from elementary schools with lower- and higher-income student populations in Oakland, CA, USA. All food outlets within these zones were categorised by type, and audits were conducted within food stores using a checklist to assess for the presence or absence of twenty-eight healthy items (in five domains). Setting Mid-sized city in the USA. Subjects Food outlets near public elementary schools. Results There were considerably more food outlets around lower-income schools. Food stores near higher-income schools had higher scores in two of the five domains (healthy beverages/low-fat dairy and healthy snacks). However, there were more food stores near lower-income schools that accepted WIC vouchers. Stratification showed that WIC stores scored higher than non-WIC stores on four of the five domains. Conclusions Although higher-income students have more access to healthy food in the environment surrounding their school, this disparity appears to be mitigated by stores that accept WIC and offer more healthy snacking options. Federal programmes such as this may be particularly valuable for children in lower-income areas. PMID:21205402

  17. Participant Assisted Data Collection Methods in the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-13

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Singer, Brett C.

    2013-08-01

    From November 2011 to March 2013, air quality was measured over 6-day periods in 324 residences across California using a mail-out strategy. All interactions with study participants, from recruitment, to data collection, to communication of results, were conducted with remote communication methods including conventional mail, electronic mail, telephone and text messaging. Potential participants were reached primarily by sharing study information with community groups and organizations that directed interested individuals to complete an online screening survey. Pollutant concentrations were measured with sampling equipment that was mailed to participants' homes with deployment instructions. Residence and household characteristics and activity data were collected via two phone surveys and an activity log. A comparison of responses to survey questions completed online versus over the phone indicated that a substantial fraction of participants (roughly 20%) required a researcher's assistance to respond to basic questions about appliance characteristics. Using the printed instructions and telephone assistance from researchers, roughly 90% of participants successfully deployed and returned sampling materials accurately and on schedule. The mail-out strategy employed in this study was found to be a cost-effective means for collecting residential air quality data.

  18. Influence of Physical Activity Participation on the Associations between Eating Behaviour Traits and Body Mass Index in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Riou, Marie-Eve; Doucet, Eric; Provencher, Véronique; Weisnagel, S John; Piché, Marie-Eve; Dubé, Marie-Christine; Bergeron, Jean; Lemieux, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Available data reveals inconsistent relationships between eating behaviour traits and markers of adiposity level. It is thus relevant to investigate whether other factors also need to be considered when interpreting the relationship between eating behaviour traits and adiposity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was thus to examine whether the associations between variables of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and adiposity are influenced by the level of physical activity participation. Information from the TFEQ and physical activity was obtained from 113 postmenopausal women (56.7 ± 4.2 years; 28.5 ± 5.9 kg/m(2)). BMI was compared between four groups formed on the basis of the physical activity participation and eating behaviour traits medians. In groups of women with higher physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women who presented higher dietary restraint when compared to women who had lower dietary restraint (25.5 ± 0.5 versus 30.3 ± 1.7 kg/m(2), P < .05). In addition, among women with lower physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women presenting a lower external hunger than in those with a higher external hunger (27.5 ± 0.8 versus 32.4 ± 1.1 kg/m(2), P < .001). Our results suggest that physical activity participation should also be taken into account when interpreting the relationship between adiposity and eating behaviour traits.

  19. Influence of Physical Activity Participation on the Associations between Eating Behaviour Traits and Body Mass Index in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Riou, Marie-Ève; Doucet, Éric; Provencher, Véronique; Weisnagel, S. John; Piché, Marie-Ève; Dubé, Marie-Christine; Bergeron, Jean; Lemieux, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Available data reveals inconsistent relationships between eating behaviour traits and markers of adiposity level. It is thus relevant to investigate whether other factors also need to be considered when interpreting the relationship between eating behaviour traits and adiposity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was thus to examine whether the associations between variables of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and adiposity are influenced by the level of physical activity participation. Information from the TFEQ and physical activity was obtained from 113 postmenopausal women (56.7 ± 4.2 years; 28.5 ± 5.9 kg/m2). BMI was compared between four groups formed on the basis of the physical activity participation and eating behaviour traits medians. In groups of women with higher physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women who presented higher dietary restraint when compared to women who had lower dietary restraint (25.5 ± 0.5 versus 30.3 ± 1.7 kg/m2, P < .05). In addition, among women with lower physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women presenting a lower external hunger than in those with a higher external hunger (27.5 ± 0.8 versus 32.4 ± 1.1 kg/m2, P < .001). Our results suggest that physical activity participation should also be taken into account when interpreting the relationship between adiposity and eating behaviour traits. PMID:20871862

  20. Children after fontan have strength and body composition similar to healthy peers and can successfully participate in daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

    PubMed

    Longmuir, Patricia E; Corey, M; Faulkner, G; Russell, J L; McCrindle, B W

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the active lifestyle capacity (daily physical activity, strength, flexibility, body composition) of children after the Fontan procedure; hypothesized to be lower than healthy peers. Participants (n = 64, 25 females) were 9.0 ± 1.7 years of age (range 6.0-11.7 years). Fontan completion occurred at 3.3 ± 1.4 years of age (5.7 ± 2.0 years prior). Canadian Health Measures Survey protocols assessed aerobic endurance (paced walking up/down steps), strength (handgrip), flexibility (sit and reach), body composition (body mass index), and daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (7-day accelerometry). Difference scores compared participant data to published norms (t tests). Linear regression evaluated age/gender/demographic factor associations. Children after Fontan had strength scores similar (mean difference 1.1 kg) to their peers were less likely to be obese (mean difference of body mass index = 1.1 ± 2.5, p = 0.001) and performed 50 min of moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) per day (12 ± 17 min/day below healthy peers, p < 0.001). Estimated peak endurance (61 % of expected) and flexibility (64 % of expected) were lower than peers (p < 0.001). Almost all (60/63) participants demonstrated the capacity to perform at least 20 min of MVPA per day. Difference from norms was smaller among children younger at Fontan completion (4 ± 2 min/year) and taking antithrombotic medication (7 ± 18 and 22 ± 17 min/day for taking/not taking, respectively). Children after Fontan demonstrate the capacity for the daily physical activity associated with optimal health. They have similar strength and good body composition. We recommend that children after Fontan be counselled that they can successfully participate in healthy, active lifestyles and physically active peer play.

  1. A Multifunctional Brain-Computer Interface Intended for Home Use: An Evaluation with Healthy Participants and Potential End Users with Dry and Gel-Based Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Käthner, Ivo; Halder, Sebastian; Hintermüller, Christoph; Espinosa, Arnau; Guger, Christoph; Miralles, Felip; Vargiu, Eloisa; Dauwalder, Stefan; Rafael-Palou, Xavier; Solà, Marc; Daly, Jean M; Armstrong, Elaine; Martin, Suzanne; Kübler, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Current brain-computer interface (BCIs) software is often tailored to the needs of scientists and technicians and therefore complex to allow for versatile use. To facilitate home use of BCIs a multifunctional P300 BCI with a graphical user interface intended for non-expert set-up and control was designed and implemented. The system includes applications for spelling, web access, entertainment, artistic expression and environmental control. In addition to new software, it also includes new hardware for the recording of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The EEG system consists of a small and wireless amplifier attached to a cap that can be equipped with gel-based or dry contact electrodes. The system was systematically evaluated with a healthy sample, and targeted end users of BCI technology, i.e., people with a varying degree of motor impairment tested the BCI in a series of individual case studies. Usability was assessed in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. Feedback of users was gathered with structured questionnaires. Two groups of healthy participants completed an experimental protocol with the gel-based and the dry contact electrodes (N = 10 each). The results demonstrated that all healthy participants gained control over the system and achieved satisfactory to high accuracies with both gel-based and dry electrodes (average error rates of 6 and 13%). Average satisfaction ratings were high, but certain aspects of the system such as the wearing comfort of the dry electrodes and design of the cap, and speed (in both groups) were criticized by some participants. Six potential end users tested the system during supervised sessions. The achieved accuracies varied greatly from no control to high control with accuracies comparable to that of healthy volunteers. Satisfaction ratings of the two end-users that gained control of the system were lower as compared to healthy participants. The advantages and disadvantages of the BCI and its applications

  2. A Multifunctional Brain-Computer Interface Intended for Home Use: An Evaluation with Healthy Participants and Potential End Users with Dry and Gel-Based Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Käthner, Ivo; Halder, Sebastian; Hintermüller, Christoph; Espinosa, Arnau; Guger, Christoph; Miralles, Felip; Vargiu, Eloisa; Dauwalder, Stefan; Rafael-Palou, Xavier; Solà, Marc; Daly, Jean M.; Armstrong, Elaine; Martin, Suzanne; Kübler, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Current brain-computer interface (BCIs) software is often tailored to the needs of scientists and technicians and therefore complex to allow for versatile use. To facilitate home use of BCIs a multifunctional P300 BCI with a graphical user interface intended for non-expert set-up and control was designed and implemented. The system includes applications for spelling, web access, entertainment, artistic expression and environmental control. In addition to new software, it also includes new hardware for the recording of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The EEG system consists of a small and wireless amplifier attached to a cap that can be equipped with gel-based or dry contact electrodes. The system was systematically evaluated with a healthy sample, and targeted end users of BCI technology, i.e., people with a varying degree of motor impairment tested the BCI in a series of individual case studies. Usability was assessed in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. Feedback of users was gathered with structured questionnaires. Two groups of healthy participants completed an experimental protocol with the gel-based and the dry contact electrodes (N = 10 each). The results demonstrated that all healthy participants gained control over the system and achieved satisfactory to high accuracies with both gel-based and dry electrodes (average error rates of 6 and 13%). Average satisfaction ratings were high, but certain aspects of the system such as the wearing comfort of the dry electrodes and design of the cap, and speed (in both groups) were criticized by some participants. Six potential end users tested the system during supervised sessions. The achieved accuracies varied greatly from no control to high control with accuracies comparable to that of healthy volunteers. Satisfaction ratings of the two end-users that gained control of the system were lower as compared to healthy participants. The advantages and disadvantages of the BCI and its applications

  3. Prediction of “Fear” Acquisition in Healthy Control Participants in a De Novo Fear-Conditioning Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Michael W.; Leyro, Teresa M.; Christian, Kelly; Deveney, Christen M.; Reese, Hannah; Pollack, Mark H.; Orr, Scott P.

    2006-01-01

    Studies using fear-conditioning paradigms have found that anxiety patients are more conditionable than individuals without these disorders, but these effects have been demonstrated inconsistently. It is unclear whether these findings have etiological significance, or whether enhanced conditionability is linked only to certain anxiety characteristics. To further examine these issues, we assessed the predictive significance of relevant subsyndromal characteristics in 72 healthy adults, including measures of worry, avoidance, anxious mood, depressed mood, and fears of anxiety symptoms (anxiety sensitivity), as well as the dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion. Of these variables, we found that the combination of higher levels of subsyndromal worry and lower levels of behavioral avoidance predicted heightened conditionability, raising questions about the etiological significance of these variables in the acquisition or maintenance of anxiety disorders. In contrast, we found that anxiety sensitivity was more linked to individual differences in orienting response than differences in conditioning per se. PMID:17179530

  4. Feasibility study of a randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered problem-solving-occupational therapy intervention to reduce participation restrictions in rural breast cancer survivors undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hegel, Mark T; Lyons, Kathleen D; Hull, Jay G; Kaufman, Peter; Urquhart, Laura; Li, Zhongze; Ahles, Tim A

    2011-10-01

    Breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy often experience functional effects of treatment that limit participation in life activities. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a novel intervention for these restrictions, determine acceptability of the intervention, and preliminarily assess its effects. A pilot RCT of a telephone-delivered Problem-solving and Occupational Therapy intervention (PST-OT) to improve participation restrictions in rural breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Thirty-one participants with Stages 1-3 breast cancer were randomized to 6 weekly sessions of PST-OT (n = 15) and usual care (n = 16). The primary study outcome was the feasibility of conducting the trial. Secondary outcomes were functional, quality of life and emotional status as assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Of 46 patients referred 31 were enrolled (67% recruitment rate), of which 6 participants withdrew (81% retention rate). Twenty-four participants completed all study-related assessments (77%). Ninety-two percent of PST-OT participants were highly satisfied with the intervention, and 92% reported PST-OT to be helpful/very helpful for overcoming participation restrictions. Ninety-seven percent of planned PST-OT treatment sessions were completed. Completion rates for PST-OT homework tasks were high. Measures of functioning, quality of life, and emotional state favored the PST-OT condition. This pilot study suggests that an RCT of the PST-OT intervention is feasible to conduct with rural breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy and that PST-OT may have positive effects on function, quality of life, and emotional state. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Feasibility Study of a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Telephone-Delivered Problem Solving-Occupational Therapy Intervention to Reduce Participation Restrictions in Rural Breast Cancer Survivors Undergoing Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hegel, Mark T.; Lyons, Kathleen D.; Hull, Jay G.; Kaufman, Peter; Urquhart, Laura; Li, Zhongze; Ahles, Tim A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy often experience functional effects of treatment that limit participation in life activities. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a novel intervention for these restrictions, determine acceptability of the intervention, and preliminarily assess its effects. Methods A pilot RCT of a telephone-delivered Problem Solving and Occupational Therapy intervention (PST-OT) to improve participation restrictions in rural breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Thirty-one participants with Stages 1-3 breast cancer were randomized to 6 weekly sessions of PST-OT (n=15) and Usual Care (n=16). The primary study outcome was the feasibility of conducting the trial. Secondary outcomes were functional, quality of life and emotional status as assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Results Of 46 patients referred 31 were enrolled (67% recruitment rate), of which 6 participants withdrew (81% retention rate). Twenty-four participants completed all study-related assessments (77%). Ninety-two percent of PST-OT participants were highly satisfied with the intervention, and 92% reported PST-OT to be helpful/very helpful for overcoming participation restrictions. Ninety-seven percent of planned PST-OT treatment sessions were completed. Completion rates for PST-OT homework tasks were high. Measures of functioning, quality of life and emotional state favored the PST-OT condition. Conclusion This pilot study suggests that an RCT of the PST-OT intervention is feasible to conduct with rural breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy and that PST-OT may have positive effects on function, quality of life, and emotional state. PMID:20821373

  6. Can a novel web-based computer test predict poor simulated driving performance? a pilot study with healthy and cognitive-impaired participants.

    PubMed

    Nef, Tobias; Müri, René M; Bieri, Rahel; Jäger, Michael; Bethencourt, Nora; Tarnanas, Ioannis; Mosimann, Urs P

    2013-10-21

    Driving a car is a complex instrumental activity of daily living and driving performance is very sensitive to cognitive impairment. The assessment of driving-relevant cognition in older drivers is challenging and requires reliable and valid tests with good sensitivity and specificity to predict safe driving. Driving simulators can be used to test fitness to drive. Several studies have found strong correlation between driving simulator performance and on-the-road driving. However, access to driving simulators is restricted to specialists and simulators are too expensive, large, and complex to allow easy access to older drivers or physicians advising them. An easily accessible, Web-based, cognitive screening test could offer a solution to this problem. The World Wide Web allows easy dissemination of the test software and implementation of the scoring algorithm on a central server, allowing generation of a dynamically growing database with normative values and ensures that all users have access to the same up-to-date normative values. In this pilot study, we present the novel Web-based Bern Cognitive Screening Test (wBCST) and investigate whether it can predict poor simulated driving performance in healthy and cognitive-impaired participants. The wBCST performance and simulated driving performance have been analyzed in 26 healthy younger and 44 healthy older participants as well as in 10 older participants with cognitive impairment. Correlations between the two tests were calculated. Also, simulated driving performance was used to group the participants into good performers (n=70) and poor performers (n=10). A receiver-operating characteristic analysis was calculated to determine sensitivity and specificity of the wBCST in predicting simulated driving performance. The mean wBCST score of the participants with poor simulated driving performance was reduced by 52%, compared to participants with good simulated driving performance (P<.001). The area under the receiver

  7. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of canagliflozin, a selective inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter 2, in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Damayanthi; Vaccaro, Nicole; Polidori, David; Stieltjes, Hans; Wajs, Ewa

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of oral canagliflozin and its O-glucuronide metabolites (M7 and M5) after single and multiple doses in healthy adult participants. The pharmacodynamics, safety, and tolerability of canagliflozin were also evaluated. In this open-label, single- (day 1) and multiple-dose (days 4-9), parallel-group, phase 1 study, 27 healthy participants were randomized into three groups (1:1:1) to receive 50, 100, or 300 mg canagliflozin. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were assessed at pre-pecified timepoints on days 1, 9, and 10. Mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve, and the maximum observed plasma concentration of canagliflozin, M7, and M5 increased in a dose-dependent manner, across all the 3 doses, following single- and multiple-dose administration. The mean apparent elimination half-lives of canagliflozin, M7, and M5 were independent of the dose. Canagliflozin decreased the renal threshold for glucose (RTG) and increased the urinary glucose excretion (UGE) in a concentration- and dose-dependent manner. The relationship between drug concentrations and RTG was described by a sigmoidal relationship with RTGmin (minimum value of RTG) of 37.5 ng/mL (95% confidence interval (CI): 34.3, 40.8) and half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 21 ng/mL (95% CI: 18.3, 23.8). No deaths, serious adverse events, hypoglycemic events, or discontinuations due to adverse events were observed. Pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin and its metabolites (M7 and M5) were linear, and no time-dependent changes were observed after single- and multiple-dose administration. Similarly, pharmacodynamic effects of canagliflozin on RTG and UGE were found to be dose- and concentration-dependent. Overall, canagliflozin was well-tolerated in healthy participants.

  8. Patient participation in postoperative care activities in patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery: Multimedia Intervention for Managing patient Experience (MIME). Study protocol for a cluster randomised crossover trial.

    PubMed

    McDonall, Jo; de Steiger, Richard; Reynolds, John; Redley, Bernice; Livingston, Patricia; Botti, Mari

    2016-07-18

    Patient participation is an important indicator of quality care. Currently, there is little evidence to support the belief that participation in care is possible for patients during the acute postoperative period. Previous work indicates that there is very little opportunity for patients to participate in care in the acute context. Patients require both capability, in terms of having the required knowledge and understanding of how they can be involved in their care, and the opportunity, facilitated by clinicians, to engage in their acute postoperative care. This cluster randomised crossover trial aims to test whether a multimedia intervention improves patient participation in the acute postoperative context, as determined by pain intensity and recovery outcomes. A total of 240 patients admitted for primary total knee replacement surgery will be invited to participate in a cluster randomised, crossover trial and concurrent process evaluation in at least two wards at a major non-profit private hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Patients admitted to the intervention ward will receive the multimedia intervention daily from Day 1 to Day 5 (or day of discharge, if prior). The intervention will be delivered by nurses via an iPad™, comprising information on the goals of care for each day following surgery. Patients admitted to the control ward will receive usual care as determined by care pathways currently in use across the organization. The primary endpoint is the "worst pain experienced in the past 24 h" on Day 3 following TKR surgery. Pain intensity will be measured using the numerical rating scale. Secondary outcomes are interference of pain on activities of daily living, length of stay in hospital, function and pain following TKR surgery, overall satisfaction with hospitalisation, postoperative complications and hospital readmission. The results of this study will contribute to our understanding of the effectiveness of interventions that provide knowledge and

  9. Recruitment and retention strategies for minority or poor clinical research participants: lessons from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study.

    PubMed

    Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer H; Mason, Marc A; Cromwell, Bridget C; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K

    2011-06-01

    Investigating health disparities requires studies designed to recruit and retain racially and socioeconomically diverse cohorts. It is critical to address the barriers that disproportionately affect participation in clinical research by minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. This study sought to identify and rectify these barriers to recruit and retain a biracial (African American and non-Hispanic White) and socioeconomically diverse cohort for a longitudinal study. The Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study is a 20-year longitudinal examination of how race and socioeconomic status influence the development of age-related health disparities. One goal was to create a multifactorial recruitment and retention strategy. The recruitment paradigm targeted known barriers and identified those unique to the study's urban environment. The retention paradigm mirrored the recruitment plan but was based on specifically developed approaches. This cohort recruitment required attention to developing community partnerships, designing the research study to meet the study hypotheses and to provide benefit to participants, providing a safe community-based site for the research and creating didactics to develop staff cultural proficiency. These efforts facilitated study implementation and enhanced recruitment resulting in accrual of a biracial and socioeconomically diverse cohort of 3,722 participants. Recruiting and retaining minority or poor research participants is challenging but possible. The essential facets include clear communication of the research hypothesis, focus on providing a direct benefit for participants, and selection of a hypothesis that is directly relevant to the community studied.

  10. Is hunting still healthy? Understanding the interrelationships between indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health.

    PubMed

    King, Ursula; Furgal, Christopher

    2014-05-28

    Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically.

  11. Is Hunting Still Healthy? Understanding the Interrelationships between Indigenous Participation in Land-Based Practices and Human-Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    King, Ursula; Furgal, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically. PMID:24879487

  12. [Cardiovascular function dynamics in healthy Kazakhstan participants of an ecomedical investigation working in extreme conditions (emergency management personnel)].

    PubMed

    Eshmanova, A K; Akanov, A A; Kiyabaev, A M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the investigation was to study group dynamics of seasonal changes in the autonomous nervous and cardiovascular functions in essentially healthy males occupationally dealing with stressful situations (field personnel and firefighters of the Alma Ata Emergency Management Department (Kazakhstan). The investigation was based at the Kazakh National Medical University (Alma Ata) and conducted in conjunction and parallel with the MARS-500 project. Methodology embodied the pre-nosology approach pointed at identification of states in-between the norm and pathology. Results of the year-long investigation demonstrated seasonal variations in the functioning of normal organism that could be associated with occupational factors and "arduous duty", as it follows from the EMD operations summary (autonomous balance shifting toward prevalence of the sympathetic control due to the spring and summer "arduous duties" and the parasympathetic control in the peaceful situation during wintertime). These observations testify to the importance of dynamic health monitoring of normal people occupationally exposed to chronic psycho-emotional strain for pre-nosology diagnosis and timely preventive intervention.

  13. Significant grey matter changes in a region of the orbitofrontal cortex in healthy participants predicts emotional dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Ekman, Carl Johan; Klahr, Johanna; Tigerström, Lars; Rydén, Göran; Johansson, Anette G. M.; Sellgren, Carl; Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas; Öhman, Arne; Ingvar, Martin; Landén, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    The traditional concept of ‘categorical’ psychiatric disorders has been challenged as many of the symptoms display a continuous distribution in the general population. We suggest that this is the case for emotional dysregulation, a key component in several categorical psychiatric disorder constructs. We used voxel-based magnetic resonance imaging morphometry in healthy human subjects (n = 87) to study how self-reported subclinical symptoms associated with emotional dysregulation relate to brain regions assumed to be critical for emotion regulation. To measure a pure emotional dysregulation, we also corrected for subclinical symptoms of non-emotional attentional dysregulation. We show that such subclinical emotional symptoms correlate negatively with the grey matter volume of lateral orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally—a region assumed to be critical for emotion regulation and dysfunctional in psychiatric disorders involving emotional dysregulation. Importantly, this effect is mediated both by a decrease in volume associated with emotional dysregulation and an increase in volume due to non-emotional attentional dysregulation. Exploratory analysis suggests that other regions involved in emotional processing such as insula and ventral striatum also show a similar reduction in grey matter volume mirroring clinical disorders associated with emotional dysregulation. Our findings support the concept of continuous properties in psychiatric symptomatology. PMID:26078386

  14. Labor-Force Participation, Policies & Practices in an Aging America: Adaptation Essential for a Healthy & Resilient Population.

    PubMed

    Berkman, Lisa F; Börsch-Supan, Axel; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Population aging in the United States poses challenges to societal institutions while simultaneously creating opportunities to build a more resilient, successful, and cohesive society. Work organization and labor-force participation are central to both the opportunities and challenges posed by our aging society. We argue that expectations about old age have not sufficiently adapted to the reality of aging today. Our institutions need more adaptation in order to successfully face the consequences of demographic change. Although this adaptation needs to focus especially on work patterns among the "younger elderly," our society has to change its general attitudes toward work organization and labor-force participation, which will have implications for education and health care. We also show that work's beneficial effects on well-being in older ages are often neglected, while the idea that older workers displace younger workers is a misconception emerging from the "lump of labor" fallacy. We conclude, therefore, that working at older ages can lead to better quality of life for older people and to a more productive and resilient society overall.

  15. Labor-Force Participation, Policies & Practices in an Aging America: Adaptation Essential for a Healthy & Resilient Population

    PubMed Central

    Berkman, Lisa F.; Börsch-Supan, Axel; Avendano, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Population aging in the United States poses challenges to societal institutions while simultaneously creating opportunities to build a more resilient, successful, and cohesive society. Work organization and labor-force participation are central to both the opportunities and challenges posed by our aging society. We argue that expectations about old age have not sufficiently adapted to the reality of aging today. Our institutions need more adaptation in order to successfully face the consequences of demographic change. Although this adaptation needs to focus especially on work patterns among the “younger elderly,” our society has to change its general attitudes toward work organization and labor-force participation, which will have implications for education and health care. We also show that work’s beneficial effects on well-being in older ages are often neglected, while the idea that older workers displace younger workers is a misconception emerging from the “lump of labor” fallacy. We conclude, therefore, that working at older ages can lead to better quality of life for older people and to a more productive and resilient society overall. PMID:28042166

  16. Neck muscle fatigue differentially alters scapular and humeral kinematics during humeral elevation in subclinical neck pain participants versus healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Zabihhosseinian, Mahboobeh; Holmes, Michael W R; Howarth, Samuel; Ferguson, Brad; Murphy, Bernadette

    2017-04-01

    Scapular orientation is highly dependent on axioscapular muscle function. This study examined the impact of neck muscle fatigue on scapular and humeral kinematics in participants with and without subclinical neck pain (SCNP) during humeral elevation. Ten SCNP and 10 control participants performed three unconstrained trials of dominant arm humeral elevation in the scapular plane to approximately 120 degrees before and after neck extensor muscle fatigue. Three-dimensional scapular and humeral kinematics were measured during the humeral elevation trials. Humeral elevation plane angle showed a significant interaction between groups (SCNP vs controls) and trial (pre- vs post-fatigue) (p=0.001). Controls began the unconstrained humeral elevation task after fatigue in a more abducted position, (p=0.002). Significant baseline differences in scapular rotation existed between the two groups (Posterior/Anterior tilt, p=0.04; Internal/External Rotation, p=0.001). SCNP contributed to altered scapular kinematics. Neck muscle fatigue influenced humeral kinematics in controls but not the SCNP group; suggesting that altered scapular motor control in the SCNP group resulted in an impaired adaption further to the neck muscle fatigue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gut hormone release and appetite regulation in healthy non-obese participants following oligofructose intake. A dose-escalation study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Camilla; Lefevre, Solenne; Peters, Véronique; Patterson, Michael; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Morgan, Linda M; Frost, Gary S

    2013-07-01

    Prevention of weight gain in adults is a major public health target. Animal experiments have consistently demonstrated a relationship between fermentable carbohydrate intake, such as oligofructose, anorectic gut hormones, and appetite suppression and body weight control. This study was designed to determine the dose of oligofructose which would augment the release of anorectic gut hormones and reduce appetite consistently in non-obese humans. Twelve non-obese participants were recruited for a 5-week dose-escalation study. Following a 9-14-day run-in, participants increased their daily oligofructose intake every week from 15, 25, 35, 45, to 55 g daily. Subjective appetite and side effects were monitored daily. Three-day food diaries were completed every week. Appetite study sessions explored the acute effects of 0, 15, 35, and 55 g oligofructose on appetite-related hormones, glycaemia, subjective appetite, and energy intake. In the home environment, oligofructose suppressed hunger, but did not affect energy intake. Oligofructose dose-dependently increased peptide YY, decreased pancreatic polypeptide and tended to decrease ghrelin, but did not significantly affect appetite profile, energy intake, glucose, insulin, or glucagon-like peptide 1 concentrations during appetite study sessions. In conclusion, oligofructose supplementation at ≥ 35 g/day increased peptide YY and suppressed pancreatic polypeptide and hunger; however, energy intake did not change significantly.

  18. Association between the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) polymorphism and the personality traits of healthy Japanese participants.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sasaki, Kunihiro; Kaneda, Ayako; Sugawara, Norio; Yoshida, Shuichi; Kaneko, Sunao

    2012-08-07

    Dopamine neurotransmitter systems have been associated with reward-related and novelty-seeking personality traits. We investigated the possible relationship between the personality traits measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the TaqI A and -141C Ins/Del polymorphisms in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). The sample consisted of 1084 healthy Japanese medical students and medical staff (age=29.0±9.7 years), each of whom completed the TCI. Their genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood and genotyped using the TaqMan allele-specific assay method. The associations between gene polymorphisms and the scores for TCI were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) adjusting age. Males and females were analyzed separately. Epstatis was assesses using two-way ANCOVA between the DRD2 and ANKK1 genes. Men with the Ins/Del genotype of the -141C Ins/Del polymorphism had significantly higher self-directedness scores than those with the Ins/Ins genotype (p=0.021). None of the TCI scores differed among women with regard to the three genotype groups of the -141C Ins/Del polymorphism. The DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1 A polymorphism did not affect any TCI factor for either men or women. An epistatic analysis did not reveal main effects of the two genes with regard to TCI scores, but an ANKK1×DRD2 interaction significantly predicted TCI scores. These findings suggest the possibility that the -141C Ins/Del polymorphism and the DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1 A polymorphism are not strongly linked to personality traits directly, but influences them under the interaction between the DRD2 and ANKK1 genes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. White bread enriched with polyphenol extracts shows no effect on glycemic response or satiety, yet may increase postprandial insulin economy in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Coe, Shelly; Ryan, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Extracts from different plant sources have been shown to modify starch digestion from carbohydrate-rich foods and lower resulting glycemia. It was hypothesized that extracts rich in polyphenols, added to white bread, would improve the glycemic response and insulin response and increase satiety in healthy participants. An in vitro dose-response analysis was performed to determine the optimal dose of a variety of extracts (baobab fruit extract, green tea extract, grape seed extract, and resveratrol) for reducing rapidly digestible starch in white bread. The 2 extracts with the greatest sugar reducing potential were then used for the human study in which 13 volunteers (9 female and 4 male) were recruited for a crossover trial of 3 different meals. On separate days, participants consumed a control white bread, white bread with green tea extract (0.4%), and white bread with baobab fruit extract (1.88%). Glycemic response, insulin response, and satiety were measured 3 hours postprandially. Although enriched breads did not reduce glycemic response or hunger, white bread with added baobab fruit extract significantly (P < .05) reduced the total (0-180 minutes) and segmental insulin area under the curve at 0 to 90, 0 to 120, and 0 to 150 minutes, and therefore reduced the amount of insulin needed for a given blood glucose response. This preliminary research suggests that there is potential for baobab fruit extract added into white bread to improve insulin economy in healthy adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Financial incentives increase fruit and vegetable intake among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants: a randomized controlled trial of the USDA Healthy Incentives Pilot.

    PubMed

    Olsho, Lauren Ew; Klerman, Jacob A; Wilde, Parke E; Bartlett, Susan

    2016-08-01

    US fruit and vegetable (FV) intake remains below recommendations, particularly for low-income populations. Evidence on effectiveness of rebates in addressing this shortfall is limited. This study evaluated the USDA Healthy Incentives Pilot (HIP), which offered rebates to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants for purchasing targeted FVs (TFVs). As part of a randomized controlled trial in Hampden County, Massachusetts, 7500 randomly selected SNAP households received a 30% rebate on TFVs purchased with SNAP benefits. The remaining 47,595 SNAP households in the county received usual benefits. Adults in 5076 HIP and non-HIP households were randomly sampled for telephone surveys, including 24-h dietary recall interviews. Surveys were conducted at baseline (1-3 mo before implementation) and in 2 follow-up rounds (4-6 mo and 9-11 mo after implementation). 2784 adults (1388 HIP, 1396 non-HIP) completed baseline interviews; data were analyzed for 2009 adults (72%) who also completed ≥1 follow-up interview. Regression-adjusted mean TFV intake at follow-up was 0.24 cup-equivalents/d (95% CI: 0.13, 0.34 cup-equivalents/d) higher among HIP participants. Across all fruit and vegetables (AFVs), regression-adjusted mean intake was 0.32 cup-equivalents/d (95% CI: 0.17, 0.48 cup-equivalents/d) higher among HIP participants. The AFV-TFV difference was explained by greater intake of 100% fruit juice (0.10 cup-equivalents/d; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.17 cup-equivalents/d); juice purchases did not earn the HIP rebate. Refined grain intake was 0.43 ounce-equivalents/d lower (95% CI: -0.69, -0.16 ounce-equivalents/d) among HIP participants, possibly indicating substitution effects. Increased AFV intake and decreased refined grain intake contributed to higher Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores among HIP participants (4.7 points; 95% CI: 2.4, 7.1 points). The HIP significantly increased FV intake among SNAP participants, closing ∼20% of the gap relative to recommendations and

  1. The clinical and biochemical effects of propofol infusion with and without EDTA for maintenance anesthesia in healthy children undergoing ambulatory surgery.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I T; Hannallah, R S; Goodale, D B

    2001-07-01

    We conducted this randomized, double-blinded, comparative, parallel-group study to determine whether adding EDTA to propofol would affect the clinical profile, calcium and magnesium homeostasis, or renal function in healthy children. After the induction of anesthesia with halothane, 69 ambulatory surgical patients (1 mo to <17 yr old), received propofol without EDTA (n = 33) or propofol with EDTA (n = 36). Blood samples were obtained for the measurement of ionized calcium, ionized magnesium, and laboratory indicators of renal function. Hemodynamic measurements, recovery, and adverse events were recorded. Propofol with EDTA produced no significant effects on clinical efficacy or renal function. Propofol and propofol EDTA produced a statistically significant decrease from baseline in serum concentrations of ionized calcium and magnesium during infusion (P<0.05), but with no apparent clinical effect. Hemodynamic measurements generally remained stable and were similar for both groups. Statistically significant changes in systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate were not considered clinically significant. Adverse events were mild or moderate. The addition of EDTA does not alter the clinical profile of propofol in pediatric ambulatory surgical patients. With or without EDTA, propofol is associated with a decrease in ionized calcium with no apparent clinical effect. The addition of EDTA does not alter the clinical profile of propofol in pediatric ambulatory surgical patients. With or without EDTA, propofol is associated with a decrease in ionized calcium with no apparent clinical effect.

  2. Glenohumeral translations during range-of-motion movements, activities of daily living, and sports activities in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Dal Maso, Fabien; Raison, Maxime; Lundberg, Arne; Arndt, Anton; Allard, Paul; Begon, Mickaël

    2015-11-01

    Glenohumeral translations have been mainly investigated during static poses while shoulder rehabilitation exercises, activities of daily living, and sports activities are dynamic. Our objective was to assess glenohumeral translations during shoulder rehabilitation exercises, activities of daily living, and sports activities to provide a preliminary analysis of glenohumeral arthrokinematics in a broad range of dynamic tasks. Glenohumeral translations were computed from trajectories of markers fitted to intracortical pins inserted into the scapula and the humerus. Two participants (P1 and P2) performed full range-of-motion movements including maximum arm elevations and internal-external rotations rehabilitation exercises, six activities of daily living, and five sports activities. During range-of-motion movements, maximum upward translation was 7.5mm (P1) and 4.7mm (P2). Upward translation during elevations was smaller with the arm internally (3.6mm (P1) and 2.9mm (P2)) than neutrally (4.2mm (P1) and 3.7mm (P2)) and externally rotated (4.3mm (P1) and 4.3mm (P2)). For activities of daily living and sports activities, only anterior translation during reach axilla for P1 and upward translation during ball throwing for P2 were larger than the translation measured during range-of-motion movements (108% and 114%, respectively). While previous electromyography-based studies recommended external rotation during arm elevation to minimize upward translation, measures of glenohumeral translations suggest that internal rotation may be better. Similar amplitude of translation during ROM movement and sports activities suggests that large excursions of the humeral head may be caused not only by fast movements, but also by large amplitude movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modulation of the N170 with Classical Conditioning: The Use of Emotional Imagery and Acoustic Startle in Healthy and Depressed Participants

    PubMed Central

    Camfield, David A.; Mills, Jessica; Kornfeld, Emma J.; Croft, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that classical conditioning may be capable of modulating early sensory processing in the human brain, and that there may be differences in the magnitude of the conditioned changes for individuals with major depressive disorder. The effect of conditioning on the N170 event-related potential was investigated using neutral faces as conditioned stimuli (CS+) and emotional imagery and acoustic startle as unconditioned stimuli (UCS). In the first experiment, electroencephalogram was recorded from 24 undergraduate students (M = 21.07 years, SD = 3.38 years) under the following conditions: (i) CS+/aversive imagery, (ii) CS+/aversive imagery and acoustic startle, (iii) CS+/acoustic startle, and (iv) CS+/pleasant imagery. The amplitude of the N170 was enhanced following conditioning with aversive imagery as well as acoustic startle. In the second experiment, 26 healthy control participants were tested (17 females and 9 males, age M = 25.97 years, SD = 9.42) together with 18 depressed participants (13 females and 5 males, age M = 23.26 years, SD = 4.01) and three conditions were used: CS+/aversive imagery, CS+/pleasant imagery, and CS-. N170 amplitude at P7 was increased for the CS+/aversive condition in comparison to CS- in the conditioning blocks versus baseline. No differences between depressed and healthy participants were found. Across both experiments, evaluative conditioning was absent. It was concluded that aversive UCS are capable of modulating early sensory processing of faces, although further research is also warranted in regards to positive UCS. PMID:27445773

  4. Reliability and criterion validity of two applications of the iPhone™ to measure cervical range of motion in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary of background data Recent smartphones, such as the iPhone, are often equipped with an accelerometer and magnetometer, which, through software applications, can perform various inclinometric functions. Although these applications are intended for recreational use, they have the potential to measure and quantify range of motion. The purpose of this study was to estimate the intra and inter-rater reliability as well as the criterion validity of the clinometer and compass applications of the iPhone in the assessment cervical range of motion in healthy participants. Methods The sample consisted of 28 healthy participants. Two examiners measured cervical range of motion of each participant twice using the iPhone (for the estimation of intra and inter-reliability) and once with the CROM (for the estimation of criterion validity). Estimates of reliability and validity were then established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results We observed a moderate intra-rater reliability for each movement (ICC = 0.65-0.85) but a poor inter-rater reliability (ICC < 0.60). For the criterion validity, the ICCs are moderate (>0.50) to good (>0.65) for movements of flexion, extension, lateral flexions and right rotation, but poor (<0.50) for the movement left rotation. Conclusion We found good intra-rater reliability and lower inter-rater reliability. When compared to the gold standard, these applications showed moderate to good validity. However, before using the iPhone as an outcome measure in clinical settings, studies should be done on patients presenting with cervical problems. PMID:23829201

  5. Modulation of the N170 with Classical Conditioning: The Use of Emotional Imagery and Acoustic Startle in Healthy and Depressed Participants.

    PubMed

    Camfield, David A; Mills, Jessica; Kornfeld, Emma J; Croft, Rodney J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that classical conditioning may be capable of modulating early sensory processing in the human brain, and that there may be differences in the magnitude of the conditioned changes for individuals with major depressive disorder. The effect of conditioning on the N170 event-related potential was investigated using neutral faces as conditioned stimuli (CS+) and emotional imagery and acoustic startle as unconditioned stimuli (UCS). In the first experiment, electroencephalogram was recorded from 24 undergraduate students (M = 21.07 years, SD = 3.38 years) under the following conditions: (i) CS+/aversive imagery, (ii) CS+/aversive imagery and acoustic startle, (iii) CS+/acoustic startle, and (iv) CS+/pleasant imagery. The amplitude of the N170 was enhanced following conditioning with aversive imagery as well as acoustic startle. In the second experiment, 26 healthy control participants were tested (17 females and 9 males, age M = 25.97 years, SD = 9.42) together with 18 depressed participants (13 females and 5 males, age M = 23.26 years, SD = 4.01) and three conditions were used: CS+/aversive imagery, CS+/pleasant imagery, and CS-. N170 amplitude at P7 was increased for the CS+/aversive condition in comparison to CS- in the conditioning blocks versus baseline. No differences between depressed and healthy participants were found. Across both experiments, evaluative conditioning was absent. It was concluded that aversive UCS are capable of modulating early sensory processing of faces, although further research is also warranted in regards to positive UCS.

  6. Thrombin-Anti-Thrombin Levels and Patency of Arterio-Venous Fistula in Patients Undergoing Haemodialysis Compared to Healthy Volunteers: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Milburn, James A.; Ford, Isobel; Mutch, Nicola J.; Fluck, Nicholas; Brittenden, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients on haemodialysis (HD) are at an increased risk of sustaining thrombotic events especially to their vascular access which is essential for maintenance of HD. Objectives To assess whether 1) markers of coagulation, fibrinolysis or endothelial activation are increased in patients on HD compared to controls and 2) if measurement of any of these factors could help to identify patients at increased risk of arteriovenous (AVF) access occlusion. Patients/Methods Venous blood samples were taken from 70 patients immediately before a session of HD and from 78 resting healthy volunteers. Thrombin-antithrombin (TAT), D-dimer, von Willebrand factor (vWF), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen (PAI-1) and soluble p-selectin were measured by ELISA. C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured by an immunonephelometric kinetic assay. Determination of the patency of the AVF was based upon international standards and was prospectively followed up for a minimum of four years or until the AVF was non-functioning. Results A total of 70 patients were studied with a median follow-up of 740 days (range 72-1788 days). TAT, D-dimer, vWF, p-selectin and hsCRP were elevated in patients on HD compared with controls. At one year follow-up, primary patency was 66% (46 patients). In multivariate analysis TAT was inversely associated with primary assisted patency (r= -0.250, p= 0.044) and secondary patency (r = -0.267, p= 0.031). Conclusions The novel finding of this study is that in patients on haemodialysis, TAT levels were increased and inversely correlated with primary assisted patency and secondary patency. Further evaluation is required into the possible role of TAT as a biomarker of AVF occlusion. PMID:23844096

  7. “Left Neglected,” but Only in Far Space: Spatial Biases in Healthy Participants Revealed in a Visually Guided Grasping Task

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Natalie; Bryant, Devon C.; Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.

    2014-01-01

    Hemispatial neglect is a common outcome of stroke that is characterized by the inability to orient toward, and attend to stimuli in contralesional space. It is established that hemispatial neglect has a perceptual component, however, the presence and severity of motor impairments is controversial. Establishing the nature of space use and spatial biases during visually guided actions amongst healthy individuals is critical to understanding the presence of visuomotor deficits in patients with neglect. Accordingly, three experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of object spatial location on patterns of grasping. Experiment 1 required right-handed participants to reach and grasp for blocks in order to construct 3D models. The blocks were scattered on a tabletop divided into equal size quadrants: left near, left far, right near, and right far. Identical sets of building blocks were available in each quadrant. Space use was dynamic, with participants initially grasping blocks from right near space and tending to “neglect” left far space until the final stages of the task. Experiment 2 repeated the protocol with left-handed participants. Remarkably, left-handed participants displayed a similar pattern of space use to right-handed participants. In Experiment 3 eye movements were examined to investigate whether “neglect” for grasping in left far reachable space had its origins in attentional biases. It was found that patterns of eye movements mirrored patterns of reach-to-grasp movements. We conclude that there are spatial biases during visually guided grasping, specifically, a tendency to neglect left far reachable space, and that this “neglect” is attentional in origin. The results raise the possibility that visuomotor impairments reported among patients with right hemisphere lesions when working in contralesional space may result in part from this inherent tendency to “neglect” left far space irrespective of the presence of unilateral

  8. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Minority or Poor Clinical Research Participants: Lessons From the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span Study

    PubMed Central

    Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer H.; Mason, Marc A.; Cromwell, Bridget C.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Investigating health disparities requires studies designed to recruit and retain racially and socioeconomically diverse cohorts. It is critical to address the barriers that disproportionately affect participation in clinical research by minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. This study sought to identify and rectify these barriers to recruit and retain a biracial (African American and non-Hispanic White) and socioeconomically diverse cohort for a longitudinal study. Design and Method: The Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study is a 20-year longitudinal examination of how race and socioeconomic status influence the development of age-related health disparities. One goal was to create a multifactorial recruitment and retention strategy. The recruitment paradigm targeted known barriers and identified those unique to the study's urban environment. The retention paradigm mirrored the recruitment plan but was based on specifically developed approaches. Results: This cohort recruitment required attention to developing community partnerships, designing the research study to meet the study hypotheses and to provide benefit to participants, providing a safe community-based site for the research and creating didactics to develop staff cultural proficiency. These efforts facilitated study implementation and enhanced recruitment resulting in accrual of a biracial and socioeconomically diverse cohort of 3,722 participants. Implications: Recruiting and retaining minority or poor research participants is challenging but possible. The essential facets include clear communication of the research hypothesis, focus on providing a direct benefit for participants, and selection of a hypothesis that is directly relevant to the community studied PMID:21565817

  9. Assessment of perception of morphed facial expressions using the Emotion Recognition Task: normative data from healthy participants aged 8-75.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Roy P C; Montagne, Barbara; Hendriks, Angelique W; Perrett, David I; de Haan, Edward H F

    2014-03-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional facial expressions is an important aspect of social cognition. However, existing paradigms to examine this ability present only static facial expressions, suffer from ceiling effects or have limited or no norms. A computerized test, the Emotion Recognition Task (ERT), was developed to overcome these difficulties. In this study, we examined the effects of age, sex, and intellectual ability on emotion perception using the ERT. In this test, emotional facial expressions are presented as morphs gradually expressing one of the six basic emotions from neutral to four levels of intensity (40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). The task was administered in 373 healthy participants aged 8-75. In children aged 8-17, only small developmental effects were found for the emotions anger and happiness, in contrast to adults who showed age-related decline on anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. Sex differences were present predominantly in the adult participants. IQ only minimally affected the perception of disgust in the children, while years of education were correlated with all emotions but surprise and disgust in the adult participants. A regression-based approach was adopted to present age- and education- or IQ-adjusted normative data for use in clinical practice. Previous studies using the ERT have demonstrated selective impairments on specific emotions in a variety of psychiatric, neurologic, or neurodegenerative patient groups, making the ERT a valuable addition to existing paradigms for the assessment of emotion perception.

  10. Effects of hydrochlorothiazide on the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Damayanthi; Vaccaro, Nicole; Polidori, David; Rusch, Sarah; Wajs, Ewa

    2014-05-01

    Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) also have hypertension, which is commonly treated with thiazide diuretics, including hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor developed for the treatment of T2DM, lowers plasma glucose by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion and mild osmotic diuresis. Because patients with T2DM are likely to receive concurrent canagliflozin and HCTZ, potential interactions were evaluated. This study evaluated the effects of HCTZ on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and tolerability of canagliflozin in healthy participants. This Phase I, single-center, open-label, fixed-sequence, 2-period study was conducted in healthy participants. During period 1, participants received canagliflozin 300 mg once daily for 7 days, followed by a 14-day washout period. During period 2, participants received HCTZ 25 mg once daily for 28 days, followed by canagliflozin 300 mg + HCTZ 25 mg once daily for 7 days. Blood samples were taken before and several times after administration on day 7 of period 1 and on days 28 and 35 of period 2 for canagliflozin and HCTZ pharmacokinetic analyses using LC-MS/MS. Blood and urine samples were collected for up to 24 hours after canagliflozin administration on day 1 of period 1 and day 35 of period 2 for pharmacodynamic glucose assessment. Tolerability was also evaluated. Thirty participants were enrolled (16 men, 14 women; all white; mean age, 43.7 years). Canagliflozin AUC during a dosing interval (T) at steady state (AUCτ,ss) and Cmax at steady state (Cmax,ss) were increased when canagliflozin was coadministered with HCTZ, with geometric mean ratios (90% CI) of 1.12 (1.08-1.17) and 1.15 (1.06-1.25), respectively. AUCτ,ss and Cmax,ss for HCTZ were similar with and without canagliflozin coadministration. The 24-hour mean renal threshold for glucose and mean plasma glucose were comparable for canagliflozin

  11. Increasing dopamine levels in the brain improves feedback-based procedural learning in healthy participants: an artificial-grammar-learning experiment.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Meinou H; Ulte, Catrin; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Szymanski, Barbara; Knecht, Stefan

    2010-09-01

    Recently, an increasing number of studies have suggested a role for the basal ganglia and related dopamine inputs in procedural learning, specifically when learning occurs through trial-by-trial feedback (Shohamy, Myers, Kalanithi, & Gluck. (2008). Basal ganglia and dopamine contributions to probabilistic category learning. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 219-236). A necessary relationship has however only been demonstrated in patient studies. In the present study, we show for the first time that increasing dopamine levels in the brain improves the gradual acquisition of complex information in healthy participants. We implemented two artificial-grammar-learning tasks, one with and one without performance feedback. Learning was improved after levodopa intake for the feedback-based learning task only, suggesting that dopamine plays a specific role in trial-by-trial feedback-based learning. This provides promising directions for future studies on dopaminergic modulation of cognitive functioning. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [In the heart of Brazil, a healthy capital--the participation of doctors and sanitarists in the construction of Brasília (1956-1960)].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Tamara Rangel

    2009-07-01

    Projected as an expression of the daring and modernity of an age, Brasília could not overlook planning that considered the conditions where it would be located in the interior of Brazil. Constructed in a region historically associated with isolation, poverty and diseases, the new capital required the participation of doctors and sanitarists from the very beginning of construction to ensure healthy conditions. Seeing the opportunity to expand their sphere of action, until then restricted to the interior, doctors from Goiás stood out in this process, highlighted by concerns of the profession manifested in the periodical published by its association and their extensive mobility and modern practice, contradicting the common conceptions regarding doctors in the interior.

  13. Sex differences in salivary cortisol in response to acute stressors among healthy participants, in recreational or pathological gamblers, and in those with posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Jason J.; Franco, Christine; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Freidenberg, Brian; Gordis, Elana; Anderson, Drew A.; Forsyth, John P.; Wulfert, Edelgard; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Sex differences in incidence and severity of some stress-related, neuropsychiatric disorders are often reported to favor men, suggesting that women may be more vulnerable to aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress. In this review, we discuss several investigations that we, and others, have conducted assessing salivary cortisol as a measure of HPA function. We have examined basal cortisol among healthy men and women and also following acute exposure to stressors. Among healthy participants, men had higher basal cortisol levels than did women. In response to acute stressors, such as carbon dioxide or noise, respectively, cortisol levels were comparable between men and women or higher among women. We have also examined cortisol levels among those with problem eating, gambling, or post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women with restrained eating habits have higher basal cortisol levels than do women without restrained eating habits. Pathological gamblers have more aberrant stress response to gambling stimuli than do recreational gamblers, and these effects are more prominent among men than women. Men who have motor-vehicle accident related PTSD, demonstrate more aberrant cortisol function, than do their female counterparts. Although these sex differences in cortisol seem to vary with type of stress exposure and/or pathophysiological status of the individual, other hormones may influence cortisol response. To address this, cortisol levels among boys and girls with different stress-related experiences, will be the subject of future investigation. PMID:19538960

  14. Is Black Always the Opposite of White? An Investigation on the Comprehension of Antonyms in People with Schizophrenia and in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Cacciari, Cristina; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Gamberoni, Tania; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Lo Russo, Leo; Pedrazzi, Francesca; Melati, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation sought to expand our understanding of the cognitive processes underlying the recognition of antonyms and to evaluate whether these processes differed in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Antonymy is the most robust of the lexico-semantic relations and is relevant to both the mental organization of the lexicon and the organization of coherent discourse, as attested by the resurgence of interest in antonymy in the linguistic and psychological domains. In contrast, the vast literature on semantic processing in schizophrenia almost ignored antonymy. In this study, we tested the online comprehension of antonyms in 39 Italian patients with paranoid schizophrenia and in an equal number of pairwise-matched healthy controls. Participants read a definitional sentence fragment (e.g., the opposite of black is), followed by the correct antonym (white) or by a semantically unrelated word (nice), and judged whether or not the target word was correct. Patients were rather accurate in identifying antonyms, but compared to controls, they showed longer response times and higher priming scores, suggesting an exaggerated contextual facilitation. Presumably, this reflects a deficient controlled semantic processing and an overreliance on stored semantic representations. PMID:25760930

  15. Effects of Acupuncture Stimulation on the Radial artery's Pressure Pulse Wave in Healthy Young Participants: Protocol for a prospective, single-Arm, Exploratory, Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Young; Lee, Jun-Hwan; Ku, Boncho; Bae, Jang Han; Un, Min-Ho; Kim, Jaeuk U; Kim, Tae-Hun

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of acupuncture stimulation on the radial artery's pressure pulse wave, along with various hemodynamic parameters, and to explore the possible underlying mechanism of pulse diagnosis in healthy participants in their twenties. This study is a prospective, single-arm, exploratory clinical study. A total of 25 healthy participants, without regard to gender, in their twenties will be recruited by physicians. Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The participants will receive acupuncture once at ST36 on both sides. The radial arterial pulse waves will be measured on the left arm of the subjects by using an applicable pulse tonometric device (KIOM-PAS). On the right arm (appearing twice), electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), respiration and cardiac output (CO) signals, will be measured using a physiological data acquisition system (Biopac module), while the velocity of blood flow, and the diameter and the depth of the blood vessel will be measured using an ultrasonogram machine on the right arm (appearing twice). All measurements will be conducted before, during, and after acupuncture. The primary outcome will be the spectral energy at high frequencies above 10 Hz (SE10-30Hz) calculated from the KIOM-PAS device signal. Secondary outcomes will be various variables obtained from the KIOM-PAS device, ECG, PPG, impedance cardiography modules, and an ultrasonogram machine. The results of this trial will provide information regarding the physiological and the hemodynamic mechanisms underlying acupuncture stimulation and clinical evidence for the influence of acupuncture on the pressure pulse wave in the radial artery. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of Kyung Hee University's Oriental Medical Center, Seoul, Korea (KOMCIRB-150818-HR-030). The study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. This

  16. Learning real-life cognitive abilities in a novel 360°-virtual reality supermarket: a neuropsychological study of healthy participants and patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Grewe, Philip; Kohsik, Agnes; Flentge, David; Dyck, Eugen; Botsch, Mario; Winter, York; Markowitsch, Hans J; Bien, Christian G; Piefke, Martina

    2013-04-23

    To increase the ecological validity of neuropsychological instruments the use of virtual reality (VR) applications can be considered as an effective tool in the field of cognitive neurorehabilitation. Despite the growing use of VR programs, only few studies have considered the application of everyday activities like shopping or travelling in VR training devices. We developed a novel 360°-VR supermarket, which is displayed on a circular arrangement of 8 touch-screens--the "OctaVis". In this setting, healthy human adults had to memorize an auditorily presented shopping list (list A) and subsequently buy all remembered products of this list in the VR supermarket. This procedure was accomplished on three consecutive days. On day four, a new shopping list (list B) was introduced and participants had to memorize and buy only products of this list. On day five, participants had to buy all remembered items of list A again, but without new presentation of list A. Additionally, we obtained measures of participants' presence, immersion and figural-spatial memory abilities. We also tested a sample of patients with focal epilepsy with an extended version of our shopping task, which consisted of eight days of training. We observed a comprehensive and stable effect of learning for the number of correct products, the required time for shopping, and the length of movement trajectories in the VR supermarket in the course of the training program. Task performance was significantly correlated with participants' figural-spatial memory abilities and subjective level of immersion into the VR. Learning effects in our paradigm extend beyond mere verbal learning of the shopping list as the data show evidence for multi-layered learning (at least visual-spatial, strategic, and verbal) on concordant measures. Importantly, learning also correlated with measures of figural-spatial memory and the degree of immersion into the VR. We propose that cognitive training with the VR supermarket program

  17. Effects of Acupuncture Stimulation on the Radial artery’s Pressure Pulse Wave in Healthy Young Participants: Protocol for a prospective, single-Arm, Exploratory, Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae-Young; Lee, Jun-Hwan; Ku, Boncho; Bae, Jang Han; un, Min-Ho; Kim, Jaeuk U.; Kim, Tae-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to investigate the effects of acupuncture stimulation on the radial artery’s pressure pulse wave, along with various hemodynamic parameters, and to explore the possible underlying mechanism of pulse diagnosis in healthy participants in their twenties. Methods and analysis: This study is a prospective, single-arm, exploratory clinical study. A total of 25 healthy participants, without regard to gender, in their twenties will be recruited by physicians. Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The participants will receive acupuncture once at ST36 on both sides. The radial arterial pulse waves will be measured on the left arm of the subjects by using an applicable pulse tonometric device (KIOM-PAS). On the right arm (appearing twice), electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), respiration and cardiac output (CO) signals, will be measured using a physiological data acquisition system (Biopac module), while the velocity of blood flow, and the diameter and the depth of the blood vessel will be measured using an ultrasonogram machine on the right arm (appearing twice). All measurements will be conducted before, during, and after acupuncture. The primary outcome will be the spectral energy at high frequencies above 10 Hz (SE10-30Hz) calculated from the KIOM-PAS device signal. Secondary outcomes will be various variables obtained from the KIOM-PAS device, ECG, PPG, impedance cardiography modules, and an ultrasonogram machine. Discussion: The results of this trial will provide information regarding the physiological and the hemodynamic mechanisms underlying acupuncture stimulation and clinical evidence for the influence of acupuncture on the pressure pulse wave in the radial artery. Ethics and dissemination: This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of Kyung Hee University’s Oriental Medical Center, Seoul, Korea (KOMCIRB-150818-HR-030). The study findings will be published in peer

  18. An investigation into the effects of frequency-modulated transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on experimentally-induced pressure pain in healthy human participants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chung; Johnson, Mark I

    2009-10-01

    Frequency-modulated transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) delivers currents that fluctuate between preset boundaries over a fixed period of time. This study compared the effects of constant-frequency TENS and frequency-modulated TENS on blunt pressure pain in healthy human volunteers. Thirty-six participants received constant-frequency TENS (80 pps), frequency-modulated TENS (20 to 100 pps), and placebo (no current) TENS at a strong nonpainful intensity in a randomized cross-over manner. Pain threshold was taken from the forearm using pressure algometry. There were no statistical differences between constant-frequency TENS and frequency-modulated TENS after 20 minutes (OR = 1.54; CI, 0.29, 8.23, P = 1.0). Both constant-frequency TENS and frequency-modulated TENS were superior to placebo TENS (OR = 59.5, P < .001 and OR = 38.5, P < .001, respectively). Frequency-modulated TENS does not influence hypoalgesia to any greater extent than constant-frequency TENS when currents generate a strong nonpainful paraesthesia at the site of pain. The finding that frequency-modulated TENS and constant-frequency TENS were superior to placebo TENS provides further evidence that a strong yet nonpainful TENS intensity is a prerequisite for hypoalgesia. This study provides evidence that TENS, delivered at a strong nonpainful intensity, increases pain threshold to pressure algometry in healthy participants over and above that seen with placebo (no current) TENS. Frequency-modulated TENS does not increase hypoalgesia to any appreciable extent to that seen with constant-frequency TENS.

  19. Social role participation and the life course in healthy adults and individuals with osteoarthritis: are we overlooking the impact on the middle-aged?

    PubMed

    Gignac, Monique A M; Backman, Catherine L; Davis, Aileen M; Lacaille, Diane; Cao, Xingshan; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2013-03-01

    Little is known about life course differences in social role participation among those with chronic diseases. This study examined role salience (i.e., importance), role limitations, and role satisfaction among middle- and older-aged adults with and without osteoarthritis (OA) and its relationship to depression, stress, role conflict, health care utilization and coping behaviours. Participants were middle- and older-aged adults with OA (n = 177) or no chronic disabling conditions (n = 193), aged ≥40 years. Respondents were recruited through community advertising and clinics in Ontario, Canada (2009-2010). They completed a 45-50 min telephone interview and 20 min self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics (e.g., age, gender); health (e.g., pain, functional limitations, health care utilization); the Social Role Participation Questionnaire (SRPQ) (role salience, limitations, satisfaction in 12 domains), and psychological variables (e.g., depression, stress, role conflict, behavioural coping). Analyses included two-way ANOVAs, correlations, and linear regression. Results indicated that middle-aged adults (40-59 years) reported greater role salience than older-aged adults (60 + years). Middle-aged adults with OA reported significantly greater role limitations and more health care utilization than all other groups. Middle-aged adults and those with OA also reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping efforts than older adults or healthy controls. Controlling for age and OA, those with higher role salience and greater role limitations reported more health care utilization. Those with greater role limitations and lower role satisfaction reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping. This study has implications for research and interventions, highlighting the need to characterize role participation as multidimensional. It points to the importance of taking into account the meaning of roles at

  20. Agave Inulin Supplementation Affects the Fecal Microbiota of Healthy Adults Participating in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial.

    PubMed

    Holscher, Hannah D; Bauer, Laura L; Gourineni, Vishnupriya; Pelkman, Christine L; Fahey, George C; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Prebiotics resist digestion, providing fermentable substrates for select gastrointestinal bacteria associated with health and well-being. Agave inulin differs from other inulin type fibers in chemical structure and botanical origin. Preclinical animal research suggests these differences affect bacterial utilization and physiologic outcomes. Thus, research is needed to determine whether these effects translate to healthy adults. We evaluated agave inulin utilization by the gastrointestinal microbiota by measuring fecal fermentative end products and bacterial taxa. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-period, crossover trial was undertaken in healthy adults (n = 29). Participants consumed 0, 5.0, or 7.5 g agave inulin/d for 21 d with 7-d washouts between periods. Participants recorded daily dietary intake; fecal samples were collected during days 16-20 of each period and were subjected to fermentative end product analysis and 16S Illumina sequencing. Fecal Actinobacteria and Bifidobacterium were enriched (P < 0.001) 3- and 4-fold after 5.0 and 7.5 g agave inulin/d, respectively, compared with control. Desulfovibrio were depleted 40% with agave inulin compared with control. Agave inulin tended (P < 0.07) to reduce fecal 4-methyphenol and pH. Bivariate correlations revealed a positive association between intakes of agave inulin (g/kcal) and Bifidobacterium (r = 0.41, P < 0.001). Total dietary fiber intake (total fiber plus 0, 5.0, or 7.5 g agave inulin/d) per kilocalorie was positively associated with fecal butyrate (r = 0.30, P = 0.005), tended to be positively associated with Bifidobacterium (r = 0.19, P = 0.08), and was negatively correlated with Desulfovibrio abundance (r = -0.31, P = 0.004). Agave inulin supplementation shifted the gastrointestinal microbiota composition and activity in healthy adults. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether the observed changes translate into health benefits in human populations. This trial was

  1. Phase I Randomized Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Study of the Safety and Tolerability of Bremelanotide Coadministered With Ethanol in Healthy Male and Female Participants.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Anita H; Lucas, Johna; DeRogatis, Leonard R; Jordan, Robert

    2017-03-01

    This was a Phase I study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and hemodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects of bremelanotide (BMT) coadministered with ethanol to healthy male and female participants. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 3-period, 3-way crossover study. Individuals meeting the inclusion/exclusion criteria received BMT or placebo with or without ethanol at the research facility for 7 consecutive days. Participants were randomized to receive 1 of 6 treatment paths; each participant received single intranasal doses of BMT (20 mg) or placebo on days 1, 4, and 7, with or without oral ethanol (0.6 g/kg) while in a fasted state. The intranasal 20-mg dose of BMT has an exposure equivalent to ~1 to 2 times the subcutaneous dose currently being evaluated in Phase III studies. Vital signs, self-rated sedation scores, nursing and medical observations, and spontaneous reporting by participants provided the basis for evaluation of adverse events. A physical examination and a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram were performed at baseline and on study day 7. Blood and urine samples were obtained for clinical safety profile laboratory tests. A total of 24 participants were enrolled (12 men; 12 women) and completed the study. Single doses of 20 mg intranasal BMT, administered with or without 0.6 g/kg ethanol, were found to be safe and generally well tolerated with mean maximum ethanol concentrations exceeding 80 mg/dL in women. No clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions were found between ethanol and BMT either overall or by sex. No significant drug-related hypotensive or orthostatic hypotensive effects were noted. Treatment with BMT did not result in an increased frequency of treatment-emergent adverse events, and no participants discontinued the study because of adverse events. Physical examination, electrocardiography, and laboratory tests disclosed no clinically significant changes. Female sexual dysfunction is a multifactorial

  2. Kinetics of L-theanine uptake and metabolism in healthy participants are comparable after ingestion of L-theanine via capsules and green tea.

    PubMed

    Scheid, Lisa; Ellinger, Sabine; Alteheld, Birgit; Herholz, Hannes; Ellinger, Jörg; Henn, Thomas; Helfrich, Hans-Peter; Stehle, Peter

    2012-12-01

    L-Theanine, an amino acid in green tea, is suggested to improve cognition and mood. Therefore, L-theanine is available as a supplement and is now used as an ingredient in functional drinks. Because data on the metabolic fate of L-theanine from human studies are lacking, we investigated the kinetics of L-theanine uptake and its metabolites, ethylamine and glutamic acid, in healthy participants. Within a randomized crossover study, 12 participants ingested a bolus of 100 mg L-theanine via capsules or green tea. On further occasions, 3 participants received 50 and 200 mg L-theanine via capsules. Blood and urine were collected before and up to 24 h postconsumption to determine the concentrations of L-theanine, proteinogenic amino acids, and ethylamine in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine by HPLC. L-Theanine increased in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine with comparable results after both treatments. The maximum plasma concentration of L-theanine occurred 0.8 h after intake of 100 mg L-theanine via capsules (24.3 ± 5.7 μmol/L) and tea (26.5 ± 5.2 μmol/L), respectively. The AUC of L-theanine in plasma increased dose dependently after intake of 50, 100, and 200 mg L-theanine via capsules. Moreover, ethylamine and glutamic acid increased in plasma and were excreted by urine after intake of capsules and tea. In conclusion, L-theanine is rapidly absorbed and seems to be hydrolyzed to ethylamine and glutamic acid. A minor part of L-theanine is retained in erythrocytes. Kinetics and urinary excretion of L-theanine, ethylamine, and glutamic acid are comparable after both treatments. Thus, functional effects of L-theanine intake may result from L-theanine, ethylamine, or glutamic acid.

  3. A comparison of lower limb EMG and ground reaction forces between barefoot and shod gait in participants with diabetic neuropathic and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is known that when barefoot, gait biomechanics of diabetic neuropathic patients differ from non-diabetic individuals. However, it is still unknown whether these biomechanical changes are also present during shod gait which is clinically advised for these patients. This study investigated the effect of the participants own shoes on gait biomechanics in diabetic neuropathic individuals compared to barefoot gait patterns and healthy controls. Methods Ground reaction forces and lower limb EMG activities were analyzed in 21 non-diabetic adults (50.9 ± 7.3 yr, 24.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2) and 24 diabetic neuropathic participants (55.2 ± 7.9 yr, 27.0 ± 4.4 kg/m2). EMG patterns of vastus lateralis, lateral gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior, along with the vertical and antero-posterior ground reaction forces were studied during shod and barefoot gait. Results Regardless of the disease, walking with shoes promoted an increase in the first peak vertical force and the peak horizontal propulsive force. Diabetic individuals had a delay in the lateral gastrocnemius EMG activity with no delay in the vastus lateralis. They also demonstrated a higher peak horizontal braking force walking with shoes compared to barefoot. Diabetic participants also had a smaller second peak vertical force in shod gait and a delay in the vastus lateralis EMG activity in barefoot gait compared to controls. Conclusions The change in plantar sensory information that occurs when wearing shoes revealed a different motor strategy in diabetic individuals. Walking with shoes did not attenuate vertical forces in either group. Though changes in motor strategy were apparent, the biomechanical did not support the argument that the use of shoes contributes to altered motor responses during gait. PMID:20128894

  4. Learning real-life cognitive abilities in a novel 360°-virtual reality supermarket: a neuropsychological study of healthy participants and patients with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To increase the ecological validity of neuropsychological instruments the use of virtual reality (VR) applications can be considered as an effective tool in the field of cognitive neurorehabilitation. Despite the growing use of VR programs, only few studies have considered the application of everyday activities like shopping or travelling in VR training devices. Methods We developed a novel 360°- VR supermarket, which is displayed on a circular arrangement of 8 touch-screens – the “OctaVis”. In this setting, healthy human adults had to memorize an auditorily presented shopping list (list A) and subsequently buy all remembered products of this list in the VR supermarket. This procedure was accomplished on three consecutive days. On day four, a new shopping list (list B) was introduced and participants had to memorize and buy only products of this list. On day five, participants had to buy all remembered items of list A again, but without new presentation of list A. Additionally, we obtained measures of participants’ presence, immersion and figural-spatial memory abilities. We also tested a sample of patients with focal epilepsy with an extended version of our shopping task, which consisted of eight days of training. Results We observed a comprehensive and stable effect of learning for the number of correct products, the required time for shopping, and the length of movement trajectories in the VR supermarket in the course of the training program. Task performance was significantly correlated with participants’ figural-spatial memory abilities and subjective level of immersion into the VR. Conclusions Learning effects in our paradigm extend beyond mere verbal learning of the shopping list as the data show evidence for multi-layered learning (at least visual-spatial, strategic, and verbal) on concordant measures. Importantly, learning also correlated with measures of figural-spatial memory and the degree of immersion into the VR. We propose that

  5. Effects of rifampin, cyclosporine A, and probenecid on the pharmacokinetic profile of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Devineni, Damayanthi; Vaccaro, Nicole; Murphy, Joe; Curtin, Christopher; Mamidi, Rao N.V.S.; Weiner, Sveta; Wang, Shean-Sheng; Ariyawansa, Jay; Stieltjes, Hans; Wajs, Ewa; Di Prospero, Nicholas A.; Rothenberg, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, approved for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is metabolized by uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) 1A9 and UGT2B4, and is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Canagliflozin exposures may be affected by coadministration of drugs that induce (e.g., rifampin for UGT) or inhibit (e.g. probenecid for UGT; cyclosporine A for P-gp) these pathways. The primary objective of these three independent studies (single-center, open-label, fixed-sequence) was to evaluate the effects of rifampin (study 1), probenecid (study 2), and cyclosporine A (study 3) on the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin in healthy participants. Methods: Participants received; in study 1: canagliflozin 300 mg (days 1 and 10), rifampin 600 mg (days 4 – 12); study 2: canagliflozin 300 mg (days 1 – 17), probenecid 500 mg twice daily (days 15 – 17); and study 3: canagliflozin 300 mg (days 1 – 8), cyclosporine A 400 mg (day 8). Pharmacokinetics were assessed at pre-specified intervals on days 1 and 10 (study 1); on days 14 and 17 (study 2), and on days 2 – 8 (study 3). Results: Rifampin decreased the maximum plasma canagliflozin concentration (Cmax) by 28% and its area under the curve (AUC) by 51%. Probenecid increased the Cmax by 13% and the AUC by 21%. Cyclosporine A increased the AUC by 23% but did not affect the Cmax. Conclusion: Coadministration of canagliflozin with rifampin, probenecid, and cyclosporine A was well-tolerated. No clinically meaningful interactions were observed for probenecid or cyclosporine A, while rifampin coadministration modestly reduced canagliflozin plasma concentrations and could necessitate an appropriate monitoring of glycemic control. PMID:25407255

  6. Effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin/metformin (150/1,000 mg) immediate-release fixed-dose combination tablet in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Joseph; Wang, Shean-Sheng; Stieltjes, Hans; Wajs, Ewa; Devineni, Damayanthi

    2015-03-01

    To assess the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of canagliflozin and metformin following administration of a canagliflozin/metformin (150/1,000 mg) immediate-release (IR) fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet. A randomized, open-label, singlecenter, single-dose, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy participants. Participants were randomized to 2 sequences of fasted and fed (or vice versa) administration of one 150/1,000 mg canagliflozin/metformin IR FDC, with 10-14 day washout between treatments PK parameters (AUC, Cmax, tmax, t1/2) were assessed for canagliflozin and metformin. Safety was evaluated. When comparing the IR FDC tablet administered with and without food, PK parameters of canagliflozin were bioequivalent as the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for log-transformed AUClast, AUC∞, and Cmax were within the bioequivalence limits of 80-125%. For metformin, overall exposure was similar under fed and fasted conditions as geometric mean ratios for AUC and associated 90% CI were contained within the bioequivalence limits, but geometric mean Cmax decreased by 16% in the fed compared to fasted state. Both treatments were well tolerated with similar adverse events and most common were gastrointestinal events, generally attributed to metformin. Food did not affect canagliflozin bioavailability parameters (Cmax and AUCs) or AUCs of metformin. The Cmax of metformin was decreased by 16%, which is not considered clinically meaningful. The canagliflozin/metformin FDC tablet is recommended to be taken with meals to reduce the symptoms of gastrointestinal intolerability associated with metformin.

  7. Effects of rifampin, cyclosporine A, and probenecid on the pharmacokinetic profile of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Damayanthi; Vaccaro, Nicole; Murphy, Joe; Curtin, Christopher; Mamidi, Rao N V S; Weiner, Sveta; Wang, Shean-Sheng; Ariyawansa, Jay; Stieltjes, Hans; Wajs, Ewa; Di Prospero, Nicholas A; Rothenberg, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, approved for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is metabolized by uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) 1A9 and UGT2B4, and is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Canagliflozin exposures may be affected by coadministration of drugs that induce (e.g., rifampin for UGT) or inhibit (e.g. probenecid for UGT; cyclosporine A for P-gp) these pathways. The primary objective of these three independent studies (single-center, open-label, fixed-sequence) was to evaluate the effects of rifampin (study 1), probenecid (study 2), and cyclosporine A (study 3) on the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin in healthy participants. Participants received; in study 1: canagliflozin 300 mg (days 1 and 10), rifampin 600 mg (days 4-12); study 2: canagliflozin 300 mg (days 1-17), probenecid 500 mg twice daily (days 15-17); and study 3: canagliflozin 300 mg (days 1-8), cyclosporine A 400 mg (day 8). Pharmacokinetics were assessed at prespecified intervals on days 1 and 10 (study 1); on days 14 and 17 (study 2), and on days 2-8 (study 3). Rifampin decreased the maximum plasma canagliflozin concentration (Cmax) by 28% and its area under the curve (AUC) by 51%. Probenecid increased the Cmax by 13% and the AUC by 21%. Cyclosporine A increased the AUC by 23% but did not affect the Cmax. Coadministration of canagliflozin with rifampin, probenecid, and cyclosporine A was well-tolerated. No clinically meaningful interactions were observed for probenecid or cyclosporine A, while rifampin coadministration modestly reduced canagliflozin plasma concentrations and could necessitate an appropriate monitoring of glycemic control.

  8. Longitudinal reproducibility of default-mode network connectivity in healthy elderly participants: A multicentric resting-state fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Jovicich, Jorge; Minati, Ludovico; Marizzoni, Moira; Marchitelli, Rocco; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Bartrés-Faz, David; Arnold, Jennifer; Benninghoff, Jens; Fiedler, Ute; Roccatagliata, Luca; Picco, Agnese; Nobili, Flavio; Blin, Oliver; Bombois, Stephanie; Lopes, Renaud; Bordet, Régis; Sein, Julien; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Didic, Mira; Gros-Dagnac, Hélène; Payoux, Pierre; Zoccatelli, Giada; Alessandrini, Franco; Beltramello, Alberto; Bargalló, Núria; Ferretti, Antonio; Caulo, Massimo; Aiello, Marco; Cavaliere, Carlo; Soricelli, Andrea; Parnetti, Lucilla; Tarducci, Roberto; Floridi, Piero; Tsolaki, Magda; Constantinidis, Manos; Drevelegas, Antonios; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Marra, Camillo; Schönknecht, Peter; Hensch, Tilman; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Kuijer, Joost P; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Barkhof, Frederik; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2016-01-01

    To date, limited data are available regarding the inter-site consistency of test-retest reproducibility of functional connectivity measurements, in particular with regard to integrity of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in elderly participants. We implemented a harmonized resting-state fMRI protocol on 13 clinical scanners at 3.0T using vendor-provided sequences. Each site scanned a group of 5 healthy elderly participants twice, at least a week apart. We evaluated inter-site differences and test-retest reproducibility of both temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR) and functional connectivity measurements derived from: i) seed-based analysis (SBA) with seed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), ii) group independent component analysis (ICA) separately for each site (site ICA), and iii) consortium ICA, with group ICA across the whole consortium. Despite protocol harmonization, significant and quantitatively important inter-site differences remained in the tSNR of resting-state fMRI data; these were plausibly driven by hardware and pulse sequence differences across scanners which could not be harmonized. Nevertheless, the tSNR test-retest reproducibility in the consortium was high (ICC=0.81). The DMN was consistently extracted across all sites and analysis methods. While significant inter-site differences in connectivity scores were found, there were no differences in the associated test-retest error. Overall, ICA measurements were more reliable than PCC-SBA, with site ICA showing higher reproducibility than consortium ICA. Across the DMN nodes, the PCC yielded the most reliable measurements (≈4% test-retest error, ICC=0.85), the medial frontal cortex the least reliable (≈12%, ICC=0.82) and the lateral parietal cortices were in between (site ICA). Altogether these findings support usage of harmonized multisite studies of resting-state functional connectivity to characterize longitudinal effects in studies that assess disease progression and treatment response.

  9. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of phentermine in healthy participants receiving taranabant, a novel cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) inverse agonist.

    PubMed

    Addy, Carol; Jumes, Patricia; Rosko, Kimberly; Li, Susie; Li, Hankun; Maes, Andrea; Johnson-Levonas, Amy O; Chodakewitz, Jeffrey; Stoch, S Aubrey; Wagner, John A

    2009-10-01

    This study assessed the potential pharmacokinetic interaction and safety/tolerability of taranabant and phentermine coadministration. This was a randomized, double-blind, 3-panel, fixed-sequence study in healthy participants. Panels A, B, and C evaluated the safety/tolerability of phentermine 15 mg coadministered with taranabant 0.5, 1, and 2 mg for 7 days (panel A) and 28 days (panels B and C). In panels A and C, phentermine 15 mg was administered both with (7 days, panel A; 28 days, panel C) and without (7 days) taranabant 0.5 mg or 2 mg to evaluate pharmacokinetics. The primary endpoint was phentermine AUC(0-24 h) in panels A and C. Secondary endpoints were changes from baseline in blood pressure and heart rate for all panels. The geometric mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals for phentermine AUC(0-24 h) in the presence/absence of taranabant 0.5 mg and 2 mg were 1.08 (0.99, 1.17) and 1.04 (0.98, 1.10), respectively. No significant differences in blood pressure and heart rate were observed with any treatment versus placebo. Coadministration of taranabant 0.5 mg, 1 mg, and 2 mg with phentermine was well tolerated with no pharmacokinetic interaction and did not result in meaningful changes in blood pressure or heart rate versus placebo.

  10. BACE1 Dynamics Upon Inhibition with a BACE Inhibitor and Correlation to Downstream Alzheimer’s Disease Markers in Elderly Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, Maarten; Barão, Soraia; Van Broeck, Bianca; Tesseur, Ina; Slemmon, John; De Waepenaert, Katja; Bogert, Jennifer; Shaw, Leslie M.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Moechars, Dieder; Mercken, Marc; Van Nueten, Luc; Tritsmans, Luc; de Strooper, Bart; Streffer, Johannes Rolf

    2017-01-01

    The β-site amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) is the rate limiting enzyme in the generation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) from AβPP, one of the major pathways in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Increased BACE1 levels and activity have been reported in the brain of patients with sporadic AD. Therefore, changes of BACE1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have also been investigated as a possible biomarker of the disease. We analyzed BACE1 levels in CSF of elderly healthy participants before and after chronic treatment with a BACE inhibitor (BACEi) and evaluated the correlation between BACE1 levels and downstream AD markers. Overall, BACE1 CSF levels showed strong correlations to all downstream AD markers investigated. This is the first reported finding that shows BACE1 levels in CSF were well correlated to its end product Aβ1 - 42. As previously described, BACE1 levels were strongly correlated to total-tau and phosphorylated tau levels in CSF. Generally, chronic BACE inhibition did not influence BACE1 CSF protein levels. Follow-up studies including early-stage AD pathophysiology and prodromal AD patients will help to understand the importance of measuring BACE1 routinely in daily clinical practice and AD clinical trials. PMID:28157093

  11. An investigation into the magnitude of the current window and perception of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) sensation at various frequencies and body sites in healthy human participants.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nicola; Bennett, Michael I; Johnson, Mark I

    2013-02-01

    Strong nonpainful transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is prerequisite to a successful analgesic outcome although the ease with which this sensation is achieved is likely to depend on the magnitude of current amplitude (mA) between sensory detection threshold (SDT) and pain threshold, that is, the current window. To measure the current window and participant's perception of the comfort of the TENS sensation at different body sites. A repeated measure cross-over study was conducted using 30 healthy adult volunteers. Current amplitudes (mA) of TENS [2 pulses per second (pps); 30 pps; 80 pps] at SDT, pain threshold, and strong nonpainful intensities were measured at the tibia (bone), knee joint (connective tissue), lower back [paraspinal (skeletal) muscle], volar surface of forearm (nerve) and waist (fat). The amplitude to achieve a strong nonpainful intensity was represented as a percentage of the current window. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. Effects were detected for body site and frequency for SDT (P<0.001, P=0.018, respectively), current window (P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively), and strong nonpainful TENS as a percentage of the current window (P=0.002, P<0.001, respectively). The current window was larger for the knee joint compared with tibia (difference [95% confidence interval]=12.76 mA [4.25, 21.28]; P=0.001) and forearm (10.33 mA [2.62, 18.40]; P=0.006), and for the lower back compared with tibia (12.10 mA [1.65, 22.52]; P=0.015) and forearm (9.65 mA [1.06, 18.24]; P=0.019). The current window was larger for 2 pps compared with 30 pps (P<0.001) and 80 pps (P<0.001). Participants rated strong nonpainful TENS as most comfortable at the lower back (P<0.001) and least comfortable at the tibia and forearm (P<0.001). TENS is most comfortable and easiest to titrate to a strong nonpainful intensity when applied over areas of muscle and soft tissue.

  12. Sucrose preload reduces snacking after mild mental stress in healthy participants as a function of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene promoter polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Markus, C Rob; Jonkman, Lisa M; Capello, Aimee; Leinders, Sacha; Hüsch, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) dysfunction is considered to promote food intake and eating-related disturbances, especially under stress or negative mood. Vulnerability for 5-HT disturbances is considered to be genetically determined, including a short (S) allele polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) that is associated with lower serotonin function. Since 5-HT function may be slightly increased by carbohydrate consumption, S-allele 5-HTTLPR carriers in particular may benefit from a sugar-preload due to their enhanced 5-HT vulnerability. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a sugar-containing preload may reduce appetite and energy intake after exposure to stress to induce negative mood, depending on genetic 5-HT vulnerability. From a population of 771 healthy young male and female genotyped college students 31 S/S carriers (8 males, 23 females) and 26 long allele (L/L) carriers (9 males, 17 females) (mean ± S.D. 22 ± 1.6 years; body mass index, BMI, 18-33 kg/m(2)) were monitored for changes in appetite and snacking behavior after stress exposure. Results revealed an increased energy intake after mild mental stress (negative mood) mainly for high-fat sweet foods, which was significantly greater in S/S carriers, and only in these genotypes this intake was significantly reduced by a sucrose-containing preload. Although alternative explanations are possible, it is suggested that S/S participants may have enhanced brain (hypothalamic) 5-HT responsiveness to food that makes them more susceptible to the beneficial satiation effects of a sucrose-preload as well as to the negative effects of mild mental stress on weight gain.

  13. Effect of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of oral contraceptives, warfarin, and digoxin in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Damayanthi; Manitpisitkul, Prasarn; Vaccaro, Nicole; Bernard, Apexa; Skee, Donna; Mamidi, Rao N V S; Tian, Hong; Weiner, Sveta; Stieltjes, Hans; Sha, Sue; Rothenberg, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Drug-drug interactions between canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor approved for the management of type-2 diabetes mellitus, and an oral contraceptive (OC), warfarin, and digoxin were evaluated in three phase 1 studies in healthy participants. All studies were open-label; study 1 included a fixed-sequence design, and studies 2 and 3 used a crossover design. Regimens were: study 1: OC (levonorgestrel (150 μg) + ethinyl estradiol (30 μg))/day (day 1), canagliflozin 200 mg/day (days 4 - 8), and canagliflozin with OC (day 9); study 2: canagliflozin 300 mg/day (days 1 - 12) with warfarin 30 mg/day (day 6) in period 1, and only warfarin 30 mg/day (day 1) in period 2, or vice versa; study 3: digoxin alone (0.5 mg/day (day 1) + 0.25 mg/day (days 2 - 7)) in period 1, and with canagliflozin 300 mg/day (days 1 - 7) in period 2, or vice versa. Pharmacokinetics (PK) were assessed at prespecified intervals; OC: days 1 and 9, canagliflozin: days 8 - 9 (study 1); warfarin: days 6 (period 1) and 1 (period 2) (study 2); and digoxin: days 5 - 7 (periods 1 and 2) (study 3). Warfarin's pharmacodynamics (PD; International Normalized Ratio (INR)) was assessed on days 6 (period 1) and 1 (period 2). Canagliflozin increased the plasma exposure of OC (maximum plasma concentration (Cmax): 22%, area under the curve (AUC): 6%) and digoxin (Cmax: 36%, AUC: 20%); but did not alter warfarin'€™s PK and PD. No clinically relevant safety findings (including hypoglycemia) were noted. Canagliflozin can be coadministered with OC, warfarin, or digoxin without dose adjustments. All treatments were well-tolerated.

  14. Comparative effects of artemisia vulgaris and charcoal moxa stimulating Zhongwan (CV 12) on body temperature in healthy participants: a cross-over single-blind randomized study.

    PubMed

    Go, Ho-Yeon; Lee, Ju Ah; Park, Sunyoung; Park, Sunju; Park, Jeong-Su; Cheon, Chunhoo; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Kong, Kyung-Hwan; Jun, Chan-yong; Park, Jong-hyeong; Shin, Mi-Ran; Lee, Se-Hoon

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, safety, satisfaction, discomfort and patient preference of moxa cones of artemisia vulgaris and charcoal moxa. This comparative study of moxibustion treatment with Artemisia vulgaris and charcoal moxa cone stimulating Zhongwan (CV 12) is a cross-over single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. A total of 40 healthy subjects (24 males and 16 females) participated in this study. Two subjects dropped out of the trial. Thirty-eight subjects were treated with Artemisia vulgaris and charcoal moxa cones for 30 min in a cross-over design. After treatment, the patients underwent a 30 minute waiting period, and then the temperatures at Tanzhong (CV 17), Zhongwan (CV 12) and Guanyuan (CV 4) were measured using digital infrared thermal imaging. After the use of Artemisia vulgaris moxa, the patients' body temperatures were slightly lowered at Tanzhong (CV 17), Zhongwan (CV 12) and Guanyuan (CV 4), but the changes were not statistically significant. After the use of charcoal moxa, the patients' body temperatures were somewhat increased at Zhongwan (CV 12) and Guanyuan (CV 4), but the changes were not statistically significant. After Artemisia vulgaris moxa use, the body temperature difference between Zhongwan (CV 12) and Guanyuan (CV 4) was significantly increased. After charcoal moxa use, the body temperature difference between Tanzhong (CV 17) and Zhongwan (CV 12) was significantly decreased in males and in the whole group. This change was caused by the difference in the moxibustion type and by gender differences. This pilot study found that moxibustion did not raise the body temperature, but temperature differences between acupoints were affected. Further large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed for the effect of moxibustion on body temperature.

  15. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular disease risk factors and exercise performance in healthy participants: a randomized placebo-controlled preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dujaili, Emad A. S.; Munir, Nimrah; Iniesta, Raquel Revuelta

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Evidence suggests associations between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including hypertension and excessive cortisol levels. Also, vitamin D levels may impact exercise performance. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D intake on cardiovascular risk factors, free urinary cortisol and exercise performance. Methods: A randomized placebo-controlled single-blinded parallel trial was conducted in healthy participants (n = 15). They received 2000 IU (50 µg) vitamin D3 per day (n = 9) or placebo (lactose) (n = 6) for 14 days. Body composition, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and arterial elasticity (as measured by pulse wave velocity, PWV) were recorded at baseline, day 7 and day 14 of intervention. A total of two 24-hour urine samples were collected to estimate free cortisol and cortisone levels. Exercise performance was assessed at the baseline and day 14 of the intervention using a bike ergometer in which BP and PWV were measured before and after exercise. The distance cycled in 20 minutes and the Borg Scale rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Results: In the intervention arm, at day 14, vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced SBP and DBP from 115.8 ± 17.1 and 75.4 ± 10.3 at baseline to 106.3 ± 10.9 (p = 0.022) and 68.5 ± 10.1 mmHg (p = 0.012) respectively. Also arterial stiffness was markedly reduced in the vitamin D group (from 7.45 ± 1.55 to 6.11 ± 1.89, p = 0.049). Urinary free cortisol levels and cortisol/cortisone ratio were significantly reduced from 162.65 ± 58.9 nmol/day and 2.22 ± 0.7 to 96.4 ± 37.2 (p = 0.029) and 1.04 ± 0.4 (p = 0.017) respectively. Exercise-induced SBP and DBP were significantly reduced post vitamin D intake from 130.7 ± 12.2 to 116.1 ± 8.1 (p = 0.012) and from 76.2 ± 8.4 to 70.5 ± 7.7 mmHg (p = 0.042) respectively. The distance cycled in 20 minutes significantly increased from 4.98 ± 2.65 to 6

  16. Manipulation of starch bioaccessibility in wheat endosperm to regulate starch digestion, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and gut hormone responses: a randomized controlled trial in healthy ileostomy participants.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Cathrina H; Grundy, Myriam Ml; Grassby, Terri; Vasilopoulou, Dafni; Frost, Gary S; Butterworth, Peter J; Berry, Sarah Ee; Sanderson, Jeremy; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-10-01

    Cereal crops, particularly wheat, are a major dietary source of starch, and the bioaccessibility of starch has implications for postprandial glycemia. The structure and properties of plant foods have been identified as critical factors in influencing nutrient bioaccessibility; however, the physical and biochemical disassembly of cereal food during digestion has not been widely studied. The aims of this study were to compare the effects of 2 porridge meals prepared from wheat endosperm with different degrees of starch bioaccessibility on postprandial metabolism (e.g., glycemia) and to gain insight into the structural and biochemical breakdown of the test meals during gastroileal transit. A randomized crossover trial in 9 healthy ileostomy participants was designed to compare the effects of 55 g starch, provided as coarse (2-mm particles) or smooth (<0.2-mm particles) wheat porridge, on postprandial changes in blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, lipids, and gut hormones and on the resistant starch (RS) content of ileal effluent. Undigested food in the ileal output was examined microscopically to identify cell walls and encapsulated starch. Blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations were significantly lower (i.e., 33%, 43%, 40%, and 50% lower 120-min incremental AUC, respectively) after consumption of the coarse porridge than after the smooth porridge (P < 0.01). In vitro, starch digestion was slower in the coarse porridge than in the smooth porridge (33% less starch digested at 90 min, P < 0.05, paired t test). In vivo, the structural integrity of coarse particles (∼2 mm) of wheat endosperm was retained during gastroileal transit. Microscopic examination revealed a progressive loss of starch from the periphery toward the particle core. The structure of the test meal had no effect on the amount or pattern of RS output. The structural integrity of wheat endosperm is largely retained during gastroileal digestion

  17. Manipulation of starch bioaccessibility in wheat endosperm to regulate starch digestion, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and gut hormone responses: a randomized controlled trial in healthy ileostomy participants12

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Cathrina H; Grundy, Myriam ML; Grassby, Terri; Vasilopoulou, Dafni; Frost, Gary S; Butterworth, Peter J; Berry, Sarah EE; Sanderson, Jeremy; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cereal crops, particularly wheat, are a major dietary source of starch, and the bioaccessibility of starch has implications for postprandial glycemia. The structure and properties of plant foods have been identified as critical factors in influencing nutrient bioaccessibility; however, the physical and biochemical disassembly of cereal food during digestion has not been widely studied. Objectives: The aims of this study were to compare the effects of 2 porridge meals prepared from wheat endosperm with different degrees of starch bioaccessibility on postprandial metabolism (e.g., glycemia) and to gain insight into the structural and biochemical breakdown of the test meals during gastroileal transit. Design: A randomized crossover trial in 9 healthy ileostomy participants was designed to compare the effects of 55 g starch, provided as coarse (2-mm particles) or smooth (<0.2-mm particles) wheat porridge, on postprandial changes in blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, lipids, and gut hormones and on the resistant starch (RS) content of ileal effluent. Undigested food in the ileal output was examined microscopically to identify cell walls and encapsulated starch. Results: Blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations were significantly lower (i.e., 33%, 43%, 40%, and 50% lower 120-min incremental AUC, respectively) after consumption of the coarse porridge than after the smooth porridge (P < 0.01). In vitro, starch digestion was slower in the coarse porridge than in the smooth porridge (33% less starch digested at 90 min, P < 0.05, paired t test). In vivo, the structural integrity of coarse particles (∼2 mm) of wheat endosperm was retained during gastroileal transit. Microscopic examination revealed a progressive loss of starch from the periphery toward the particle core. The structure of the test meal had no effect on the amount or pattern of RS output. Conclusion: The structural integrity of wheat

  18. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of 2% lidocaine HCl with different epinephrine concentration for local anesthesia in participants undergoing surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, crossover, phase IV trial.

    PubMed

    Karm, Myong-Hwan; Park, Fiona Daye; Kang, Moonkyu; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Kang, Jeong Wan; Kim, Seungoh; Kim, Yong-Deok; Kim, Cheul-Hong; Seo, Kwang-Suk; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Woo; Hong, Sung-Woon; Lim, Mi Hyoung; Nam, Seung Kwan; Cho, Jae Min

    2017-05-01

    The most commonly impacted tooth is the third molar. An impacted third molar can ultimately cause acute pain, infection, tumors, cysts, caries, periodontal disease, and loss of adjacent teeth. Local anesthesia is employed for removing the third molar. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 or 1:200,000 epinephrine for surgical extraction of bilateral impacted mandibular third molars. Sixty-five healthy participants underwent surgical extraction of bilateral impacted mandibular third molars in 2 separate visits while under local anesthesia with 2% lidocaine with different epinephrine concentration (1:80,000 or 1:200,000) in a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial. Visual analog scale pain scores obtained immediately after surgical extraction were primarily evaluated for the 2 groups receiving different epinephrine concentrations. Visual analog scale pain scores were obtained 2, 4, and 6 hours after administering an anesthetic. Onset and duration of analgesia, onset of pain, intraoperative bleeding, operator's and participant's overall satisfaction, drug dosage, and hemodynamic parameters were evaluated for the 2 groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in any measurements except hemodynamic factors (P >.05). Changes in systolic blood pressure and heart rate following anesthetic administration were significantly greater in the group receiving 1:80,000 epinephrine than in that receiving 1:200,000 epinephrine (P ≤.01). The difference in epinephrine concentration between 1:80,000 and 1:200,000 in 2% lidocaine liquid does not affect the medical efficacy of the anesthetic. Furthermore, 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine has better safety with regard to hemodynamic parameters than 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. Therefore, we suggest using 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine rather than 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine for surgical extraction of impacted

  19. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  20. Propranolol’s effects on the consolidation and reconsolidation of long-term emotional memory in healthy participants: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lonergan, Michelle H.; Olivera-Figueroa, Lening A.; Pitman, Roger K.; Brunet, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Background Considering the pivotal role of negative emotional experiences in the development and persistence of mental disorders, interfering with the consolidation/reconsolidation of such experiences would open the door to a novel treatment approach in psychiatry. We conducted a meta-analysis on the experimental evidence regarding the capacity of the β-blocker propranolol to block the consolidation/reconsolidation of emotional memories in healthy adults. Methods Selected studies consisted of randomized, double-blind experiments assessing long-term memory for emotional material in healthy adults and involved at least 1 propranolol and 1 placebo condition. We searched PsycInfo, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Central, PILOTS, Google Scholar and clinicaltrials.org for eligible studies from the period 1995–2012. Ten consolidation (n = 259) and 8 reconsolidation (n = 308) experiments met the inclusion criteria. We calculated effect sizes (Hedges g) using a random effects model. Results Compared with placebo, propranolol given before memory consolidation reduced subsequent recall for negatively valenced stories, pictures and word lists (Hedges g = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14–0.74). Propranolol before reconsolidation also reduced subsequent recall for negatively valenced emotional words and the expression of cue-elicited fear responses (Hedges g = 0.56, 95% CI 0.13–1.00). Limitations Limitations include the moderate number of studies examining the influence of propranolol on emotional memory consolidation and reconsolidation in healthy adults and the fact that most samples consisted entirely of young adults, which may limit the ecological validity of results. Conclusion Propranolol shows promise in reducing subsequent memory for new or recalled emotional material in healthy adults. However, future studies will need to investigate whether more powerful idiosyncratic emotional memories can also be weakened and whether this weakening can bring about long

  1. Barriers and enablers for participation in healthy lifestyle programs by adolescents who are overweight: a qualitative study of the opinions of adolescents, their parents and community stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyla L; Straker, Leon M; McManus, Alexandra; Fenner, Ashley A

    2014-02-19

    Overweight or obesity during adolescence affects almost 25% of Australian youth, yet limited research exists regarding recruitment and engagement of adolescents in weight-management or healthy lifestyle interventions, or best-practice for encouraging long-term healthy behaviour change. A sound understanding of community perceptions, including views from adolescents, parents and community stakeholders, regarding barriers and enablers to entering and engaging meaningfully in an intervention is critical to improve the design of such programs. This paper reports findings from focus groups and semi-structured interviews conducted with adolescents (n?=?44), parents (n?=?12) and community stakeholders (n?=?39) in Western Australia. Three major topics were discussed to inform the design of more feasible and effective interventions: recruitment, retention in the program and maintenance of healthy change. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Data were categorised into barriers and enablers across the three main topics. For recruitment, identified barriers included: the stigma associated with overweight, difficulty defining overweight, a lack of current health services and broader social barriers. The enablers for recruitment included: strategic marketing, a positive approach and subsidising program costs. For retention, identified barriers included: location, timing, high level of commitment needed and social barriers. Enablers for retention included: making it fun and enjoyable for adolescents, involving the family, having an on-line component, recruiting good staff and making it easy for parents to attend. For maintenance, identified barriers included: the high degree of difficulty in sustaining change and limited services to support change. Enablers for maintenance included: on-going follow up, focusing on positive change, utilisation of electronic media and transition back to community services. This study highlights significant barriers for

  2. Barriers and enablers for participation in healthy lifestyle programs by adolescents who are overweight: a qualitative study of the opinions of adolescents, their parents and community stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight or obesity during adolescence affects almost 25% of Australian youth, yet limited research exists regarding recruitment and engagement of adolescents in weight-management or healthy lifestyle interventions, or best-practice for encouraging long-term healthy behaviour change. A sound understanding of community perceptions, including views from adolescents, parents and community stakeholders, regarding barriers and enablers to entering and engaging meaningfully in an intervention is critical to improve the design of such programs. Methods This paper reports findings from focus groups and semi-structured interviews conducted with adolescents (n?=?44), parents (n?=?12) and community stakeholders (n?=?39) in Western Australia. Three major topics were discussed to inform the design of more feasible and effective interventions: recruitment, retention in the program and maintenance of healthy change. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Results Data were categorised into barriers and enablers across the three main topics. For recruitment, identified barriers included: the stigma associated with overweight, difficulty defining overweight, a lack of current health services and broader social barriers. The enablers for recruitment included: strategic marketing, a positive approach and subsidising program costs. For retention, identified barriers included: location, timing, high level of commitment needed and social barriers. Enablers for retention included: making it fun and enjoyable for adolescents, involving the family, having an on-line component, recruiting good staff and making it easy for parents to attend. For maintenance, identified barriers included: the high degree of difficulty in sustaining change and limited services to support change. Enablers for maintenance included: on-going follow up, focusing on positive change, utilisation of electronic media and transition back to community services. Conclusions This study

  3. “I'm healthy, I don't have pain”- health screening participation and its association with chronic pain in a low socioeconomic status Singaporean population

    PubMed Central

    Sin, David; Cher, Wen Qi; Li, Zong Chen; Tsang, Tammy; Shibli, Sabina; Koh, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Background We sought to determine the association between chronic pain and participating in routine health screening in a low socioeconomic-status (SES) rental-flat community in Singapore. In Singapore, ≥ 85% own homes; public rental flats are reserved for those with low-income. Methods Chronic pain was defined as pain ≥ 3 months. From 2009−2014, residents aged 40−60 years in five public rental-flat enclaves were surveyed for chronic pain; participation in health screening was also measured. We compared them to residents staying in adjacent owner-occupied public housing. We also conducted a qualitative study to better understand the relationship between chronic pain and health screening participation amongst residents in these low-SES enclaves. Results In the rental-flat population, chronic pain was associated with higher participation in screening for diabetes (aOR = 2.11, CI = 1.36−3.27, P < 0.001), dyslipidemia (aOR = 2.06, CI = 1.25−3.39, P = 0.005), colorectal cancer (aOR = 2.28, CI = 1.18−4.40, P = 0.014), cervical cancer (aOR = 2.65, CI = 1.34−5.23, P = 0.005) and breast cancer (aOR = 3.52, CI = 1.94−6.41, P < 0.001); this association was not present in the owner-occupied population. Three main themes emerged from our qualitative analysis of the link between chronic pain and screening participation: pain as an association of “major illness”; screening as a search for answers to pain; and labelling pain as an end in itself. Conclusions Chronic pain was associated with higher cardiovascular and cancer screening participation in the low-SES population. In low-SES populations with limited access to pain management services, chronic pain issues may surface during routine health screening. PMID:28119769

  4. Dissociated deficits of visuo-spatial memory in near space and navigational space: evidence from brain-damaged patients and healthy older participants.

    PubMed

    Piccardi, L; Iaria, G; Bianchini, F; Zompanti, L; Guariglia, C

    2011-05-01

    Defects confined to spatial memory can severely affect a variety of daily life activities, such as remembering the location of objects or navigating the environment, until now the skills involved have been mostly assessed with regard to the visual domain using traditional pencil and paper tests. Our aim was to test the efficacy of a recently developed psychometric instrument (Walking Corsi Test: WalCT) to assess the specific contribution of spatial memory to the complex task of retrieving route knowledge. The WalCT is a 3 × 2.5-m version of the well-known Corsi Block-tapping Test (CBT), in which patients are required to memorize (and replicate) a sequence of body displacements. We assessed the ability of left and right brain-damaged patients, as well as healthy young and senior controls, to perform both the CBT and the WalCT. Results showed differences related to age in the healthy individuals and specific functional dissociations in the brain-damaged patients. The double dissociations found in this study demonstrate the importance of having a task able to detect navigational disorders, because virtual reality tasks are often much too difficult for aged brain-damaged patients to perform.

  5. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Minority or Poor Clinical Research Participants: Lessons from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer H.; Mason, Marc A.; Cromwell, Bridget C.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Investigating health disparities requires studies designed to recruit and retain racially and socioeconomically diverse cohorts. It is critical to address the barriers that disproportionately affect participation in clinical research by minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. This study sought to identify and…

  6. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Minority or Poor Clinical Research Participants: Lessons from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer H.; Mason, Marc A.; Cromwell, Bridget C.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Investigating health disparities requires studies designed to recruit and retain racially and socioeconomically diverse cohorts. It is critical to address the barriers that disproportionately affect participation in clinical research by minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. This study sought to identify and…

  7. Orosensory detection of bitter in fat-taster healthy and obese participants: Genetic polymorphism of CD36 and TAS2R38.

    PubMed

    Karmous, Inchirah; Plesník, Jiří; Khan, Amira Sayed; Šerý, Omar; Abid, Abdelmajid; Mankai, Amani; Aouidet, Abdellah; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2017-06-21

    We assessed orosensory detection of a long-chain fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA), and a bitter taste marker, 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), and correlated lipid-taster subjects with PROP detection and polymorphism in genes encoding bitter and lipid taste receptors, respectively, TAS2R38 and CD36, in normal weight and obese subjects. The normal weight (n = 52, age = 35.3 ± 4.10 years, BMI = 23.22 ± 1.44 kg/m(2)) and obese (n = 52, age = 35.0 ± 5.43 years, BMI = 34.29 ± 5.31 kg/m(2)) participants were recruited to determine fat and bitter detection thresholds. The genomic DNA was used to determine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of CD36 (rs1761667) and TAS2R38 (rs1726866 and rs10246939). The study included the participants who could detect LA, i.e., lipid-tasters. There was a positive correlation between BMI and detection thresholds for fat and bitter taste in normal weight and obese subjects. Obese participants showed a positive correlation between LA and PROP detection thresholds. PROP detection thresholds were higher for CD36 SNP (rs1761667) and TAS2R38 SNPs (rs1726866 and rs10246939) in obese participants compared to normal weight subjects. LA detection thresholds were not high for CD36 SNP (rs1761667) or TAS2R38 SNP (rs1726866 and rs10246939) in obese participants. Orosensory detection thresholds for fat and bitter taste are associated with BMI, and CD36 and TAS2R38 genotypes are not always associated with taste phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep spindles and rapid eye movement sleep as predictors of next morning cognitive performance in healthy middle-aged and older participants.

    PubMed

    Lafortune, Marjolaine; Gagnon, Jean-François; Martin, Nicolas; Latreille, Véronique; Dubé, Jonathan; Bouchard, Maude; Bastien, Célyne; Carrier, Julie

    2014-04-01

    Spindles and slow waves are hallmarks of non-rapid eye movement sleep. Both these oscillations are markers of neuronal plasticity, and play a role in memory and cognition. Normal ageing is associated with spindle and slow wave decline and cognitive changes. The present study aimed to assess whether spindle and slow wave characteristics during a baseline night predict cognitive performance in healthy older adults the next morning. Specifically, we examined performance on tasks measuring selective and sustained visual attention, declarative verbal memory, working memory and verbal fluency. Fifty-eight healthy middle-aged and older adults (aged 50-91 years) without sleep disorders underwent baseline polysomnographic sleep recording followed by neuropsychological assessment the next morning. Spindles and slow waves were detected automatically on artefact-free non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalogram. All-night stage N2 spindle density (no./min) and mean frequency (Hz) and all-night non-rapid eye movement sleep slow wave density (no./min) and mean slope (μV/s) were analysed. Pearson's correlations were performed between spindles, slow waves, polysomnography and cognitive performance. Higher spindle density predicted better performance on verbal learning, visual attention and verbal fluency, whereas spindle frequency and slow wave density or slope predicted fewer cognitive performance variables. In addition, rapid eye movement sleep duration was associated with better verbal learning potential. These results suggest that spindle density is a marker of cognitive functioning in older adults and may reflect neuroanatomic integrity. Rapid eye movement sleep may be a marker of age-related changes in acetylcholine transmission, which plays a role in new information encoding.

  9. The role of the precuneus in metaphor comprehension: evidence from an fMRI study in people with schizophrenia and healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Mashal, Nira; Vishne, Tali; Laor, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    Comprehension of conventional and novel metaphors involves traditional language-related cortical regions as well as non-language related regions. While semantic processing is crucial for understanding metaphors, it is not sufficient. Recently the precuneus has been identified as a region that mediates complex and highly integrated tasks, including retrieval of episodic memory and mental imagery. Although the understanding of non-literal language is relatively easy for healthy individuals, people with schizophrenia exhibit deficits in this domain. The present study aims to examine whether people with schizophrenia differentially recruit the precuneus, extending to the superior parietal (SP) cortex (SPL), to support their deficit in metaphor comprehension. We also examine interregional associations between the precuneus/SPL and language-related brain regions. Twelve people with schizophrenia and twelve healthy controls were scanned while silently reading literal word pairs, conventional metaphors, and novel metaphors. People with schizophrenia showed reduced comprehension of both conventional and novel metaphors. Analysis of functional connectivity found that the correlations between activation in the left precuneus/SPL and activation in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS) were significant for both literal word pairs and novel metaphors, and significant correlations were found between activation in the right precuneus/SPL and activation in the right PSTS for the three types of semantic relations. These results were found in the schizophrenia group alone. Furthermore, relative to controls, people with schizophrenia demonstrated increased activation in the right precuneus/SPL. Our results may suggest that individuals with schizophrenia use mental imagery to support comprehension of both literal and metaphoric language. In particular, our findings indicate over-integration of language and non-language brain regions during more effortful processes of novel

  10. Healthy Living, Healthy Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  11. Population pharmacokinetics of teduglutide following repeated subcutaneous administrations in healthy participants and in patients with short bowel syndrome and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Marier, Jean-Francois; Mouksassi, Mohamad-Samer; Gosselin, Nathalie H; Beliveau, Martin; Cyran, Jane; Wallens, John

    2010-01-01

    Teduglutide is a GLP-2 analog currently evaluated for the treatment of short bowel syndrome, Crohn's disease, and other gastrointestinal disorders. The population pharmacokinetics (PK) of teduglutide were assessed following daily subcutaneous (SC) administrations of 2.5 to 80 mg doses in a total of 256 patients. A 1-compartment model with a site-specific rate constant of absorption in the abdomen, arm, and thigh was used to assess the PK of teduglutide. Apparent clearance (CL/F) of teduglutide in male participants was approximately 18% higher than that observed in female participants (12.4 vs 10.5 L/h, respectively). Body weight was detected as a significant covariate explaining the volume of distribution of teduglutide. The elimination half-life (t((1/2))) of teduglutide was also influenced by the body weight of participants. For a male patient weighing 50 and 90 kg, t((1/2)) of teduglutide was 0.897 and 2.99 hours, respectively. Renal and hepatic function of patients did not affect the PK of teduglutide. As a result, no dose adjustment was deemed necessary in patients with altered renal or liver function. The population PK model will help to support adequate drug labeling following SC administrations in patients and determine whether an individualized dosage is required.

  12. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  13. Ipsilateral Putamen and Insula Activation by Both Left and Right GB34 Acupuncture Stimulation: An fMRI Study on Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    The modulatory effects on the brain during right versus left side acupuncture stimulation of the same acupuncture point have been a subject of controversy. For clarification of this important methodological issue, the present study was designed to compare the blood oxygen level-dependent responses of acupuncture stimulation on the right versus left Yanglingquan (GB34). Twenty-two healthy subjects received right or left GB34 acupuncture. Our results show that acupuncture on the left GB34 induced neural responses in the left putamen, caudate body, insula, postcentral gyrus, claustrum, right and left thalamus, right middle frontal gyrus, hypothalamus, and subthalamic nucleus. Acupuncture on the right GB34 induced neural responses in the right middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, thalamus, putamen, lateral globus pallidus, medial globus pallidus, and insula. Interestingly, the putamen and insula were ipsilaterally activated by acupuncture on either the left or right GB34; therefore, they seem to be the main target areas affected by GB34 acupuncture. This is the first reported functional magnetic resonance imaging study directly comparing needling on the right and left GB34. Although more replication studies are needed, our preliminary results prove that acupuncture has different modulatory effects on the brain when performed on the right versus left side. PMID:28053642

  14. Differential patterns of initial and sustained responses in amygdala and cortical regions to emotional stimuli in schizophrenia patients and healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Pineda, Pilar; Fakra, Eric; Delaveau, Pauline; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Blin, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Background We sought to investigate the altered brain responses to emotional stimuli in patients with schizophrenia. Methods We analyzed data from 14 patients with schizophrenia and 14 healthy controls who performed an emotional face matching task. We evaluated brain activity and connectivity in the amygdala and cortical regions during the initial (first 21 seconds of each stimulation block) and sustained (last 21 seconds) stages of an emotional processing task, and we determined changes in amygdala activity across the emotional processing task. Results The patients with schizophrenia showed similar amygdala activation to the controls during the initial stage of processing, but their activation decreased during the sustained stage. The controls showed increasing amygdala activity across the emotional blocks, whereas activity progressively decreased in the schizophrenia group. The patients with schizophrenia showed increased cortical activity and interconnectivity in the medial frontal and inferior parietal cortex in the initial stage of emotional processing. There was increased activity in the superior temporal cortex and greater connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex in the sustained stage. Performance accuracy was lower in the schizophrenia group in the first part of the block, while their reaction time was longer in the latter part of the block. Limitations It was not possible to specify the moment at which the switch in amygdala response occurred. Conclusion Our findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have an initial automatic emotional response but that they need to switch to a compensatory cognitive strategy to solve the task. PMID:20040245

  15. Methods and participant characteristics of a randomized intervention to promote physical activity and healthy eating among brazilian high school students: the Saude na Boa project.

    PubMed

    Nahas, Markus V; de Barros, Mauro V G; de Assis, Maria Alice A; Hallal, Pedro C; Florindo, Alex A; Konrad, Lisandra

    2009-03-01

    A cross-cultural, randomized study was proposed to observe the effects of a school-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among high school students in 2 cities from different regions in Brazil: Recife and Florianopolis. The objective of this article is to describe the methodology and subjects enrolled in the project. Ten schools from each region were matched and randomized into intervention and control conditions. A questionnaire and anthropometry were used to collect data in the first and last month of the 2006 school year. The sample (n=2155 at baseline; 55.7% females; 49.1% in the experimental group) included students 15 to 24 years, attending nighttime classes. The intervention focused on simple environmental/organizational changes, diet and physical activity education, and personnel training. The central aspects of the intervention have been implemented in all 10 intervention schools. Problems during the intervention included teachers' strikes in both sites and lack of involvement of the canteen owners in schools. The Saude na Boa study provides evidence that public high schools in Brazil represent an important environment for health promotion. Its design and simple measurements increase the chances of it being sustained and disseminated to similar schools in Brazil.

  16. Ipsilateral Putamen and Insula Activation by Both Left and Right GB34 Acupuncture Stimulation: An fMRI Study on Healthy Participants.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Sujung; van den Noort, Maurits; Bosch, Peggy; Lim, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    The modulatory effects on the brain during right versus left side acupuncture stimulation of the same acupuncture point have been a subject of controversy. For clarification of this important methodological issue, the present study was designed to compare the blood oxygen level-dependent responses of acupuncture stimulation on the right versus left Yanglingquan (GB34). Twenty-two healthy subjects received right or left GB34 acupuncture. Our results show that acupuncture on the left GB34 induced neural responses in the left putamen, caudate body, insula, postcentral gyrus, claustrum, right and left thalamus, right middle frontal gyrus, hypothalamus, and subthalamic nucleus. Acupuncture on the right GB34 induced neural responses in the right middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, thalamus, putamen, lateral globus pallidus, medial globus pallidus, and insula. Interestingly, the putamen and insula were ipsilaterally activated by acupuncture on either the left or right GB34; therefore, they seem to be the main target areas affected by GB34 acupuncture. This is the first reported functional magnetic resonance imaging study directly comparing needling on the right and left GB34. Although more replication studies are needed, our preliminary results prove that acupuncture has different modulatory effects on the brain when performed on the right versus left side.

  17. Successful long-term weight loss among participants with diabetes receiving an intervention promoting an adapted Mediterranean-style dietary pattern: the Heart Healthy Lenoir Project

    PubMed Central

    Embree, Genevieve G R; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Johnston, Larry F; Garcia, Beverly A; Gizlice, Ziya; Evenson, Kelly R; DeWalt, Darren A; Ammerman, Alice S; Keyserling, Thomas C

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine weight change by diabetes status among participants receiving a Mediterranean-style diet, physical activity, and weight loss intervention adapted for delivery in the southeastern USA, where rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are disproportionately high. Research design and methods The intervention included: Phase I (months 1–6), an individually tailored intervention promoting a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern and increased walking; Phase II (months 7–12), option of a 16-week weight loss intervention for those with BMI≥25 kg/m2 offered as 16 weekly group sessions or 5 group sessions and 10 phone calls, or a lifestyle maintenance intervention; and Phase III (months 13–24), weight loss maintenance intervention for those losing ≥8 pounds with all others receiving a lifestyle maintenance intervention. Weight change was assessed at 6, 12, and 24-month follow-up. Results Baseline characteristics (n=339): mean age 56, 77% female, 65% African-American, 124 (37%) with diabetes; mean weight 103 kg for those with diabetes and 95 kg for those without. Among participants with diabetes, average weight change was −1.2 kg (95% CI −2.1 to −0.4) at 6 months (n=92), −1.5 kg (95% CI −2.9 to −0.2) at 12 months (n=96), and −3.7 kg (95% CI −5.2 to −2.1) at 24 months (n=93). Among those without diabetes, weight change was −0.4 kg (95% CI −1.4 to 0.6) at 24 months (n=154). Conclusions Participants with diabetes experienced sustained weight loss at 24-month follow-up. High-risk US populations with diabetes may experience clinically important weight loss from this type of lifestyle intervention. Trial registration number NCT01433484. PMID:28405344

  18. Beneficial effects of Korean red ginseng on lymphocyte DNA damage, antioxidant enzyme activity, and LDL oxidation in healthy participants: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Park, Ju Yeon; Kang, Hee Jung; Kim, Oh Yoen; Lee, Jong Ho

    2012-07-17

    The reported health benefits of Korean red ginseng (KRG) include antioxidant, antitumor, antimutagenic, and immunomodulatory activities; however, the effects on oxidative stress have not yet been evaluated. Therefore, we assessed the effect of KRG on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers in humans. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with three groups, including placebo, low-dose (3 g/day), and high-dose (6 g/day), which were randomly assigned to healthy subjects aged 20-65 years. Lymphocyte DNA damage, antioxidative enzyme activity, and lipid peroxidation were assessed before and after the 8-week supplementation. Fifty-seven subjects completed the protocol. Plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity after the 8-week KRG supplementation was significantly higher in the low-and high-dose groups compared to baseline. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase activities were also increased after the high-dose supplementation. Furthermore, the DNA tail length and tail moment were significantly reduced after the supplementation (low-dose and high-dose), and plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were reduced in low-dose and high-dose groups, but increased in the placebo group. The net changes in oxidized LDL after the supplementation differed significantly between both KRG supplementation groups and the placebo group. Net changes in GPx, SOD and catalase activities, and DNA tail length and tail moment were significantly different between the high-dose group and the placebo group. Additionally, the net changes in urinary 8-epi-PGF(2α) were significantly different between the KRG supplementation groups and the placebo group. KRG supplementation may attenuate lymphocyte DNA damage and LDL oxidation by upregulating antioxidant enzyme activity.

  19. ‘You need a support. When you don’t have that . . . chocolate looks real good’. Barriers to and facilitators of behavioural changes among participants of a Healthy Living Program

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Holly Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background. Health behavioural change is complex, especially for underserved patients who have higher rates of obesity and physical inactivity. Behavioural change interventions that show high efficacy in clinical trials may be difficult to disseminate and may not be effective in the office. Objective. We sought to identify factors that facilitate or hinder behavioural change among past participants of a healthy lifestyle intervention in an urban underserved health centre. Methods. Between March and October 2011, we conducted five focus group sessions with a total of 23 past participants. The focus group transcripts were analysed with a framework approach using the Social Ecological Model as a coding structure. Results. We found four interconnected levels of social contexts: individual, interpersonal, programmatic and community levels. Themes of social support and the importance of relationships for making and maintaining behavioural changes were found at all levels. Conclusion. Social support and relatedness were key facilitators of healthy lifestyle changes and influenced individual motivation and perseverance. Harnessing the power of social support and motivation may be a way for future behavioural change interventions to bridge the gap between efficacy and effectiveness. PMID:23515375

  20. Isotretinoin conundrum: a randomized, openlabel, crossover study in Mexico to evaluate the bioavailability and bioequivalence of three pharmaceutical preparations of isotretinoin in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Piñeyro-Garza, Everardo; Gómez-Silva, Magdalena; Gamino Peña, María Elena; Palmer, Jonathan; Berber, Arturo

    2015-10-01

    The oral retinoid agent isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) is approved for the treatment of severe recalcitrant cystic acne. For registrational renewal of Oratane® in Mexico (isotretinoin; Laboratorios Dermatologicos Darier S.A. de C.V., Mexico), it was necessary to establish bioequivalence to the reference product Roaccutan® (Isotretinoin; Roche, Mannheim, Germany). Three prior studies failed to establish the bioequivalence of Oratane to Mexican-sourced Roaccutan. However, 13 studies demonstrated the bioequivalence of Oratane to Roaccutane® from multiple sources. This study compared the bioavailability of Oratane with that of Mexicansourced Roaccutan and Australian-sourced Roaccutane. Study participants received each of the three agents in a randomized, open-label, 6-sequence, 3-way crossover study with a 2-week washout period between treatments. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 (dosing) to infinite time (AUC0-∞) were lower for Roaccutan than for Roaccutane and Oratane (Cmax: 1,023.35, 1,223.08, and 1,224.25 ng/mL, respectively; AUC0-∞: 13,653.65, 15,681.35 and 15,733.55 ng/mL x h, respectively). The 90% CIs (test/reference) for the ratios of the geometric means indicated that Oratane was bioequivalent to Roaccutane but not to Roaccutan. In addition, Roaccutane (R2) was not bioequivalent to Roaccutan (R1; R1/R2 90% CIs: Cmax, 76.12 - 91.04; AUC0-t, 82.19 - 91.13; AUC0-∞, 82.94 - 91.57). Oratane and Australian-sourced Roaccutane could be considered bioequivalent, but neither formulation was found to be bioequivalent to Mexican-sourced Roaccutan.

  1. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  2. Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 > Staying Healthy Font: What is Alpha-1? Emphysema Alpha-1 Symptoms Diagnosing Alpha-1 Current Treatments ... Healthy What can people with Alpha-1-related emphysema do to stay as healthy as possible? First ...

  3. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of ... Get the screening tests you need Maintain a healthy weight Eat a variety of healthy foods, and ...

  4. The Effect of Task-Irrelevant Fearful-Face Distractor on Working Memory Processing in Mild Cognitive Impairment versus Healthy Controls: An Exploratory fMRI Study in Female Participants

    PubMed Central

    Burhan, Amer M.; Anazodo, Udunna C.; Chung, Jun Ku; Arena, Amanda; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Mitchell, Derek G. V.

    2016-01-01

    In mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a risk state for Alzheimer's disease, patients have objective cognitive deficits with relatively preserved functioning. fMRI studies have identified anomalies during working memory (WM) processing in individuals with MCI. The effect of task-irrelevant emotional face distractor on WM processing in MCI remains unclear. We aim to explore the impact of fearful-face task-irrelevant distractor on WM processing in MCI using fMRI. Hypothesis. Compared to healthy controls (HC), MCI patients will show significantly higher BOLD signal in a priori identified regions of interest (ROIs) during a WM task with a task-irrelevant emotional face distractor. Methods. 9 right-handed female participants with MCI and 12 matched HC performed a WM task with standardized task-irrelevant fearful versus neutral face distractors randomized and counterbalanced across WM trials. MRI images were acquired during the WM task and BOLD signal was analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to identify signal patterns during the task response phase. Results. Task-irrelevant fearful-face distractor resulted in higher activation in the amygdala, anterior cingulate, and frontal areas, in MCI participants compared to HC. Conclusions. This exploratory study suggests altered WM processing as a result of fearful-face distractor in MCI. PMID:26949290

  5. [Healthy Cities projects].

    PubMed

    Takano, Takehito

    2002-05-01

    This is a review article on "Healthy Cities". The Healthy Cities programme has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to tackle urban health and environmental issues in a broad way. It is a kind of comprehensive policy package to carry out individual projects and activities effectively and efficiently. Its key aspects include healthy public policy, vision sharing, high political commitment, establishment of structural organization, strategic health planning, intersectoral collaboration, community participation, setting approach, development of supportive environment for health, formation of city health profile, national and international networking, participatory research, periodic monitoring and evaluation, and mechanisms for sustainability of projects. The present paper covered the Healthy Cities concept and approaches, rapid urbanization in the world, developments of WHO Healthy Cities, Healthy Cities developments in the Western Pacific Region, the health promotion viewpoint, and roles of research.

  6. Healthy Schools

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Healthy Schools School Health Guidelines Data & Statistics Multimedia Infographics Podcasts Videos Professional Development & Training Professional Development 101 Professional Development 201 FAQs E-Learning Series: Training Tools for Healthy Schools Comprehensive School ...

  7. Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Healthy Weight Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ...

  8. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Under Control Nutrition Guide for Toddlers Healthy Food Shopping What Should Preschoolers Drink? Healthy Drinks for Kids ... to Eating Right Learning About Calories Smart Supermarket Shopping Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Quick Guide to ...

  9. Relative bioavailability of single doses of prolonged-release tacrolimus administered as a suspension, orally or via a nasogastric tube, compared with intact capsules: a phase 1 study in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Undre, Nasrullah; Dickinson, James

    2017-01-01

    Objective Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant widely used in solid organ transplantation, is available as a prolonged-release capsule for once-daily oral administration. In the immediate postsurgical period, if patients cannot take intact capsules orally, tacrolimus therapy is often initiated as a suspension of the capsule contents, delivered orally or via a nasogastric tube. This study evaluated the relative bioavailability of prolonged-release tacrolimus suspension versus intact capsules in healthy participants. Design A phase 1, open-label, single-dose, cross-over study. Setting A single clinical research unit. Participants In total, 20 male participants, 18–55 years old, entered and completed the study. Interventions All participants received nasogastric administration of tacrolimus 10 mg suspension in treatment period 1, with randomisation to oral administration of suspension or intact capsules in periods 2 and 3. Blood concentration–time profile over 144 hours was used to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary end point: relative bioavailability of prolonged-release intact capsule versus oral or nasogastric administration of prolonged-release tacrolimus suspension (area under the concentration–time curve (AUC) from time 0 to infinity post-tacrolimus dose (AUC0–∞); AUC measured until the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0–tz); maximum observed concentration (Cmax); time to Cmax (Tmax)). Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results Relative bioavailability of prolonged-release tacrolimus suspension administered orally was similar to intact capsules, with a ratio of least-square means for AUC0–tz and AUC0–∞ of 1.05 (90% CI 0.96 to 1.14). Bioavailability was lower with suspension administered via a nasogastric tube versus intact capsules (17%; ratio 0.83; CI 0.76 to 0.92). Cmax was higher for oral and nasogastric suspension (30% and 28%, respectively), and median Tmax was shorter

  10. Healthy Colon, Healthy Life

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Judith M.E.; Salazar, Rene; Nguyen, Tung T.; Kaplan, Celia; Nguyen, Lamkieu; Hwang, Jimmy; McPhee, Stephen J.; Pasick, Rena J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are increasing, but they are still low, particularly in ethnic minority groups. In many resource-poor settings, fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is the main screening option. Intervention Culturally tailored telephone counseling by community health advisors employed by a community-based organization, culturally tailored brochures, and customized FOBT kits. Design RCT. Participants were randomized to (1) basic intervention: culturally tailored brochure plus FOBT kit (n=765); (2) enhanced intervention: brochure, FOBT plus telephone counseling (n=768); or (3) usual care (n=256). Setting/participants Latino and Vietnamese primary care patients at a large public hospital. Main outcome measures Self-reported receipt of FOBT or any CRC screening at 1-year follow-up. Results 1358 individuals (718 Latinos and 640 Vietnamese) completed the follow-up survey. Self-reported FOBT screening rates increased by 7.8 % in the control group, by 15.1 % in the brochure group, and by 25.1 % in the brochure/telephone counseling group (p<0.01 for differences between each intervention and usual care and for the difference between brochure/telephone counseling and brochure alone). For any CRC screening, rates increased by 4.1 % in the usual care group, by 11.9 % in the FOBT/brochure group, and by 21.4 % in the brochure/telephone counseling group (p<0.01 for differences between each intervention and usual care and for the difference between the basic and the enhanced intervention). Conclusions An intervention that included culturally tailored brochures and tailored telephone counseling increased CRC screening in Latinos and the Vietnamese. Brochure and telephone counseling together had the greatest impact. Future research should address replication and dissemination of this model for Latinos and Vietnamese in other communities, and adaptation of the model for other groups. PMID:20547275

  11. Comparison of post-treatment effects of conventional and acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS): A randomised placebo-controlled study using cold-induced pain and healthy human participants.

    PubMed

    Francis, Richard P; Marchant, Paul R; Johnson, Mark I

    2011-11-01

    TENS can be administered in conventional (high frequency, low intensity) or acupuncture-like (AL-TENS: low frequency, high intensity) formats. It is claimed that AL-TENS produces stronger and longer-lasting hypoalgesia than conventional TENS, although evidence is lacking. This randomised controlled parallel group study compared the effects of 30 minutes of AL-TENS, conventional TENS, and placebo (no current) TENS, on cold-pressor pain threshold (CPT), in 43 healthy participants. Results showed a greater increase in mean log(e) cold-pressor pain threshold relative to baseline for both AL-TENS and conventional TENS vs. placebo TENS, and for AL-TENS vs. placebo 5 and 15 minutes after TENS was switched off. There were no statistically significant differences between conventional TENS vs. placebo or between AL-TENS vs. conventional TENS at 5 or 15 minutes after TENS was switched off. In conclusion, AL-TENS but not conventional TENS prolonged post-stimulation hypoalgesia compared to placebo TENS. However, no differences between AL-TENS and conventional TENS were detected in head-to-head comparisons.

  12. Relative bioavailability of single doses of prolonged-release tacrolimus administered as a suspension, orally or via a nasogastric tube, compared with intact capsules: a phase 1 study in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Undre, Nasrullah; Dickinson, James

    2017-04-04

    Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant widely used in solid organ transplantation, is available as a prolonged-release capsule for once-daily oral administration. In the immediate postsurgical period, if patients cannot take intact capsules orally, tacrolimus therapy is often initiated as a suspension of the capsule contents, delivered orally or via a nasogastric tube. This study evaluated the relative bioavailability of prolonged-release tacrolimus suspension versus intact capsules in healthy participants. A phase 1, open-label, single-dose, cross-over study. A single clinical research unit. In total, 20 male participants, 18-55 years old, entered and completed the study. All participants received nasogastric administration of tacrolimus 10 mg suspension in treatment period 1, with randomisation to oral administration of suspension or intact capsules in periods 2 and 3. Blood concentration-time profile over 144 hours was used to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. Primary end point: relative bioavailability of prolonged-release intact capsule versus oral or nasogastric administration of prolonged-release tacrolimus suspension (area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to infinity post-tacrolimus dose (AUC0-∞); AUC measured until the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0-tz); maximum observed concentration (Cmax); time to Cmax (Tmax)). Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Relative bioavailability of prolonged-release tacrolimus suspension administered orally was similar to intact capsules, with a ratio of least-square means for AUC0-tz and AUC0-∞ of 1.05 (90% CI 0.96 to 1.14). Bioavailability was lower with suspension administered via a nasogastric tube versus intact capsules (17%; ratio 0.83; CI 0.76 to 0.92). Cmax was higher for oral and nasogastric suspension (30% and 28%, respectively), and median Tmax was shorter (difference 1.0 and 1.5 hours postdose, respectively) versus intact capsules (2.0 hours). Single 10 mg doses of

  13. Adapalene-benzoyl peroxide once-daily, fixed-dose combination gel for the treatment of acne vulgaris: a randomized, bilateral (split-face), dose-assessment study of cutaneous tolerability in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Andres, Philippe; Pernin, Colette; Poncet, Michel

    2008-03-01

    Combination therapy is an effective approach to simultaneously target multiple pathogenic factors of acne. International consensus guidelines recommend the use of topical retinoids and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) for acne treatment. These drugs are often prescribed as a free combination without any safety concern associated with antibiotic use. A 3-week, randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, single-center, bilateral (split-face), dose-assessment study was conducted comparing the cutaneous tolerability of 2 adapalene-BPO fixed-dose combination products versus various concentrations of BPO monotherapy applied once daily. Sixty healthy participants were randomized to one of the following treatment groups: adapalene 0.1%-BPO 2.5% combination product versus BPO 2.5% monotherapy; adapalene 0.1%-BPO 2.5% combination product versus BPO 5% monotherapy; adapalene 0.1%-BPO 5% combination product versus BPO 5% monotherapy; and adapalene 0.1%-BPO 5% combination product versus BPO 10% monotherapy. Assessments included total sum score (TSS) of irritation signs/ symptoms (erythema, scaling/desquamation, dryness, pruritus, stinging/burning) averaged over all postbaseline visits, individual irritation signs/symptoms (worst score), and adverse events. The overall cutaneous tolerability profile of the adapalene 0.1%-BPO 2.5% combination product was better than the combination with BPO 5% and similar to BPO 2.5% or 5% monotherapy. The combination product with BPO 5% induced significantly more irritation than BPO 5% monotherapy (P < .001) or BPO 10% monotherapy (P = .001). In conclusion, the new fixed-dose adapalene 0.1%-BPO 2.5% combination product provided the best overall cutaneous tolerability profile relative to BPO monotherapy.

  14. Activity Levels in Healthy Older Adults: Implications for Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Thorp, Laura E; Orozco, Diego; Block, Joel A; Sumner, Dale R; Wimmer, Markus A

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluated activity levels in a group of healthy older adults to establish a target activity level for adults of similar age after total joint arthroplasty (TJA).With the decreasing age of TJA patients, it is essential to have a reference for activity level in younger patients as activity level affects quality of life and implant design. 54 asymptomatic, healthy older adults with no clinical evidence of lower extremity OA participated. The main outcome measure, average daily step count, was measured using an accelerometer-based activity monitor. On average the group took 8813 ± 3611 steps per day, approximately 4000 more steps per day than has been previously reported in patients following total joint arthroplasty. The present work provides a reference for activity after joint arthroplasty which is relevant given the projected number of people under the age of 65 who will undergo joint arthroplasty in the coming years.

  15. Healthy Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sexual experience is safe, healthy, and enjoyable. Sexual health is a vital part of a person’s total well-being. Of course, sex is essential for reproduction, but it can also build intimacy in relationships ...

  16. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  17. Assessing research participants' perceptions of their clinical research experiences.

    PubMed

    Kost, Rhonda G; Lee, Laura M; Yessis, Jennifer; Coller, Barry S; Henderson, David K

    2011-12-01

    Participants' perceptions of their research experiences provide valuable measures of ethical treatment, yet no validated instruments exist to measure these experiences. We conducted focus groups of research participants and professionals as the initial step in developing a validated instrument. Research participants enrolled in 12 focus groups, consisting of: (1) individuals with disorders undergoing interventions; (2) in natural history studies; or (3) healthy volunteers. Research professionals participated in six separate groups of: (1) institutional review board members, ethicists, and Research Subject Advocates; (2) research nurses/coordinators; or (3) investigators. Focus groups used standard methodologies. Eighty-five participants and 29 professionals enrolled at eight academic centers. Altruism and personal relevance of the research were commonly identified motivators; financial compensation was less commonly mentioned. Participants were satisfied with informed consent processes but disappointed if not provided test results, or study outcomes. Positive relationships with research teams were valued highly. Research professionals were concerned about risks, undue influence, and informed consent. Participants join studies for varied, complex reasons, notably altruism and personal relevance. They value staff relationships, health gains, new knowledge, and compensation, and expect professionalism and good organization. On the basis of these insights, we propose specific actions to enhance participant recruitment, retention, and satisfaction. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Healthy Person

    PubMed Central

    Høye, Sevald; Kvigne, Kari; Aiyub, Ilyas; Gillund, Margrethe V.; Hermansyah, Hasan; Nordström, Gun; Rystedt, Ingrid; Suwarni, Abubakar; Trollvik, Anne; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Hov, Reidun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate how nursing students in Indonesia and Scandinavia characterize a healthy person. Two hundred thirty-two nursing students from Indonesia, 50 students from Sweden, and 119 students from Norway participated by answering an open-ended question. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify patterns of health in a cultural and national context. The characteristics of a healthy person were summarized in the theme “external and inner balance,” which are intertwined because of the wholeness of self-image and appearance. The subcategories were having a strong and positive body image, feeling well and having inner harmony, following the rules of life, coping with challenges, and acting in unison with the environment. There were more similarities than differences between the Indonesian and Scandinavian nursing students’ understanding of being a healthy person. The difference is that the Scandinavian students mentioned individuality, whereas the Indonesian students referred to collective values. PMID:28462342

  19. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  20. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  1. Hyposalivation after undergoing stapedectomy.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Treatment for otosclerosis involves patients' undergoing stapedectomy. Inadvertent damage to the chorda tympani nerve's (CTN's) secretory fibers during stapedectomy can result in inadequate secretory stimulation of the submandibular salivary glands (SMSGs) and sublingual salivary glands (SLSGs). Because most saliva originates from these glands, hyposalivation and subjective xerostomia manifest during resting periods when parotid gland secretions are minimal. Stimulation with food increases parotid gland salivation enough to overcome the subjective sense of dryness. The author examined a 52-year-old man who had undergone bilateral stapedectomy because of hearing loss; his rheumatologist referred him to the Salivary Gland Center (New York City) because of a complaint of dry mouth. After the author examined the patient, he concluded that the patient had decreased SMSG and SLSG secretion and recommended that the patient use sugarless chewing gum or sour candy frequently to stimulate his parotid glands and use oral lubricants and sip water as needed. Stimulation of parotid gland secretion is independent of SMSG and SLSG activation. Therefore, the dental practitioner must become aware of the innervation of the salivary glands and each gland's secretory production during periods of oral stimulation and of rest.

  2. Tools for Healthy Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Fleischhacker, Sheila; Byrd, Randi R.; Ramachandran, Gowri; Vu, Maihan; Ries, Amy; Bell, Ronny A.; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing recognition that policymakers can promote access to healthy, affordable foods within neighborhoods, schools, childcare centers, and workplaces. Despite the disproportionate risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes among American Indian children and adults, comparatively little attention has been focused on the opportunities tribal policymakers have to implement policies or resolutions to promote access to healthy, affordable foods. This paper presents an approach for integrating formative research into an action-oriented strategy of developing and disseminating tribally led environmental and policy strategies to promote access to and consumption of healthy, affordable foods. This paper explains how the American Indian Healthy Eating Project evolved through five phases and discusses each phase’s essential steps involved, outcomes derived, and lessons learned. Using community-based participatory research and informed by the Social Cognitve Theory and ecologic frameworks, the American Indian Healthy Eating Project was started in fall 2008 and has evolved through five phases: (1) starting the conversation; (2) conducting multidisciplinary formative research; (3) strengthening partnerships and tailoring policy options; (4) disseminating community-generated ideas; and (5) accelerating action while fostering sustainability. Collectively, these phases helped develop and disseminate Tools for Healthy Tribes—a toolkit used to raise awareness among participating tribal policymakers of their opportunities to improve access to healthy, affordable foods. Formal and informal strategies can engage tribal leaders in the development of culturally appropriate and tribe-specific sustainable strategies to improve such access, as well as empower tribal leaders to leverage their authority toward raising a healthier generation of American Indian children. PMID:22898161

  3. Empowering communities: action research through healthy cities.

    PubMed

    Flynn, B C; Ray, D W; Rider, M S

    1994-01-01

    The Healthy Cities process uses action research to empower communities to take action for health. Five concepts that link community empowerment and action research are: focus on community, citizen participation, information and problem solving, sharing of power, and quality of life. Two city examples from Healthy Cities Indiana, a pilot program of CITYNET Healthy Cities, provide illustrations of these concepts. The dynamics of community participation in action research and the successes and barriers to community participation are presented. Outcomes that empowered the community are suggested: the extent to which Healthy City projects are initiated, their progress monitored, continued action in health supported, resources obtained, and policies promoted that contribute equity in health.

  4. 'Is Going through Clinical Test a Headache?' An HRV Study and Descriptive Report of Subjective Experience of Undergoing EEG Testing.

    PubMed

    Kathrotia, Rajesh; Singh, Yogesh; Goel, Arun; Patil, Prashant

    2016-03-01

    To explore the heart rate variability (HRV) changes and subjective perception of undergoing electroencephalography (EEG). We conducted a study on 35 healthy male volunteers. The intervention consisted of placing 23 disc-type EEG electrodes of 5-7 mm diameter with long flexible lead according to international 10-20 system for the duration of 30 min, in a sitting position, on the scalp. The outcome measures were time and frequency domain parameters of HRV analysis and descriptive report of subjective experiences on a 3-point Likert scale. The perception of undergoing EEG ranged from pleasant to uneasy. For 13 (37%) participants it was soothing and relaxing, for 11 (31.5%) it was neutral and for the rest 11 (31.5%) it was uneasy and restrictive in nature. However, HRV analysis of the pre and post EEG, showed no statistically significant difference. In our study, the mixed subjective experience of undergoing EEG may be due to individual variation in the perception of the intervention. No difference in HRV parameters may be because of 2 possibilities. The first possibility is varied experiences of procedure with temporal progression. Same participants may have experienced 2 opposite extremes of experiences over and over again, which may have cancelled out sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. The second possibility may be that no stress is generated during clinical test.

  5. Change in regional cartilage morphology and joint space width in osteoarthritis participants versus healthy controls: a multicentre study using 3.0 Tesla MRI and Lyon-Schuss radiography.

    PubMed

    Le Graverand, M-P Hellio; Buck, R J; Wyman, B T; Vignon, E; Mazzuca, S A; Brandt, K D; Piperno, M; Charles, H C; Hudelmaier, M; Hunter, D J; Jackson, C; Kraus, V Byers; Link, T M; Majumdar, S; Prasad, P V; Schnitzer, T J; Vaz, A; Wirth, W; Eckstein, F

    2010-01-01

    Cartilage morphology displays sensitivity to change in osteoarthritis (OA) with quantitative MRI (qMRI). However, (sub)regional cartilage thickness change at 3.0 Tesla (T) has not been directly compared with radiographic progression of joint space narrowing in OA participants and non-arthritic controls. A total of 145 women were imaged at 7 clinical centres: 86 were non-obese and asymptomatic without radiographic OA and 55 were obese with symptomatic and radiographic OA (27 Kellgren-Lawrence grade (KLG)2 and 28 KLG3). Lyon-Schuss (LS) and fixed flexion (FF) radiographs were obtained at baseline, 12 and 24 months, and coronal spoiled gradient echo MRI sequences at 3.0 T at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. (Sub)regional, femorotibial cartilage thickness and minimum joint space width (mJSW) in the medial femorotibial compartment were measured and the standardised response means (SRMs) determined. At 6 months, qMRI demonstrated a -3.7% "annualised" change in cartilage thickness (SRM -0.33) in the central medial femorotibial compartment (cMFTC) of KLG3 subjects, but no change in KLG2 subjects. The SRM for mJSW in 12-month LS/FF radiographs of KLG3 participants was -0.68/-0.13 and at 24 months was -0.62/-0.20. The SRM for cMFTC changes measured with qMRI was -0.32 (12 months; -2.0%) and -0.48 (24 months; -2.2%), respectively. qMRI and LS radiography detected significant change in KLG3 participants at high risk of progression, but not in KLG2 participants, and only small changes in controls. At 12 and 24 months, LS displayed greater, and FF less, sensitivity to change in KLG3 participants than qMRI.

  6. Beware Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Arfon

    1978-01-01

    In 1972 Sidney Stringer Community School and College was established in the inner city of Coventry. Its aims directed attention to community participation and the enlargement of the decision making process. Discusses the problems with delegating educational responsibility to the community. (Author/RK)

  7. Beware Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Arfon

    1978-01-01

    In 1972 Sidney Stringer Community School and College was established in the inner city of Coventry. Its aims directed attention to community participation and the enlargement of the decision making process. Discusses the problems with delegating educational responsibility to the community. (Author/RK)

  8. Qualitative study exploring healthy eating practices and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sedibe, Heather M; Kahn, Kathleen; Edin, Kerstin; Gitau, Tabitha; Ivarsson, Anneli; Norris, Shane A

    2014-08-26

    Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. A qualitative study was conducted in the rural Agincourt subdistrict, covered by a health and sociodemographic surveillance system, in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Semistructured "duo-interviews" were carried out with 11 pairs of adolescent female friends aged 16 to 19 years. Thematic content analysis was used. The majority of participants considered locally grown and traditional foods, especially fruits and vegetables, to be healthy. Their consumption was limited by availability, and these foods were often sourced from family or neighbourhood gardens. Female caregivers and school meal programmes facilitated healthy eating practices. Most participants believed in the importance of breakfast, even though for the majority, limited food within the household was a barrier to eating breakfast before going to school. The majority cited limited accessibility as a major barrier to healthy eating, and noted the increasing intake of "convenient and less healthy foods". Girls were aware of the benefits of physical activity and engaged in various physical activities within the home, community, and schools, including household chores, walking long distances to school, traditional dancing, and extramural activities such as netball and soccer. The findings show widespread knowledge about healthy eating and the benefits of consuming locally grown and traditional food items in a population that is undergoing nutrition transition. Limited access and food availability are strong barriers to healthy eating practices. School meal programmes are an important facilitator of healthy eating, and breakfast

  9. Participative Design for Participative Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Merrelyn, Ed.

    This four-part volume addresses design principles for introducing democratic forms in workplaces, educational institutions, and social institutions, based on a trend toward participative democracy in Australia. Following an introduction, part I sets the context with two papers: "The Agenda for the Next Wave" and "Educational…

  10. Participative Design for Participative Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Merrelyn, Ed.

    This four-part volume addresses design principles for introducing democratic forms in workplaces, educational institutions, and social institutions, based on a trend toward participative democracy in Australia. Following an introduction, part I sets the context with two papers: "The Agenda for the Next Wave" and "Educational…

  11. Designing the Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls Church-Based Diabetes Prevention Program through a Participatory Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Amber; Confair, Amy R.; Flamm, Laura; Goheer, Attia; Graham, Karlene; Muindi, Mwende; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls (HBHS) program aims to reduce diabetes risk among urban African Americans by creating healthy food and physical activity environments within churches. Participant engagement supports the development of applicable intervention strategies by identifying priority concerns, resources, and opportunities.…

  12. Designing the Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls Church-Based Diabetes Prevention Program through a Participatory Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Amber; Confair, Amy R.; Flamm, Laura; Goheer, Attia; Graham, Karlene; Muindi, Mwende; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls (HBHS) program aims to reduce diabetes risk among urban African Americans by creating healthy food and physical activity environments within churches. Participant engagement supports the development of applicable intervention strategies by identifying priority concerns, resources, and opportunities.…

  13. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  14. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  15. Exercise capacity in apparently healthy survivors of cancer.

    PubMed

    De Caro, E; Fioredda, F; Calevo, M G; Smeraldi, A; Saitta, M; Hanau, G; Faraci, M; Grisolia, F; Dini, G; Pongiglione, G; Haupt, R

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate cardiopulmonary exercise tolerance in a large cohort of apparently healthy paediatric cancer survivors in order to determine their participation in sporting activities. A total of 84 young (<21 years) asymptomatic childhood cancer survivors, who had been exposed to anthracyclines (mean dose 212 mg/m2) and/or chest irradiation (median dose 2000 cGy), with normal left ventricular systolic function at rest (fractional shortening >29%), and 79 healthy controls were studied. Exercise testing was performed on a treadmill ergometer. Gas exchange analysis and derived variables were measured on a breath-by-breath basis. Pulmonary functional evaluation was performed before exercise. Echocardiographic evaluation at rest was performed within one month before the exercise test. There were no differences in exercise responses between patients and controls. In boys <13 years, mean VO2 max was slightly but significantly lower than in controls. This finding was thought to be a result of decreased physical fitness as all the other exercise parameters were similar to those in the controls. Results show that apparently healthy survivors of paediatric cancer can take part in dynamic sporting activities if they exhibit a normal response to cardiopulmonary exercise testing, while those that exhibit a reduced VO2 max should be re-evaluated after an aerobic training programme, and should undergo tailored dynamic physical activity if the VO2 max does not normalise.

  16. Inhibitory effect of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of a multireceptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor BMS-690514 in healthy participants: assessing the mechanism of the interaction with physiologically-based pharmacokinetic simulations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zheng; Vakkalagadda, Blisse; Shen, Guoxiang; Ahlers, Christoph M; Has, Teresa; Christopher, Lisa J; Kurland, John F; Roongta, Vikram; Masson, Eric; Zhang, Steven

    2013-02-01

    BMS-690514, a selective inhibitor of the ErbB and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, has shown antitumor activity in early clinical development. The compound is metabolized by multiple enzymes, with CYP3A4 responsible for the largest fraction (34%) of metabolism. It is also a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro. To assess the effect of ketoconazole on BMS-690514 pharmacokinetics, 17 healthy volunteers received 200 mg BMS-690514 alone followed by 100 mg BMS-690514 with ketoconazole (400 mg once daily for 4 days). The AUC(∞) of 100 mg BMS-690514 concomitantly administered with ketoconazole was similar to that of 200 mg BMS-690514 alone. The dose-normalized C(max) and AUC(∞) of BMS-690514 from the 100-mg BMS-690514/400-mg ketoconazole treatment increased by 55% and 127%, respectively, relative to those from 200 mg BMS-690514 alone. Prediction of the drug-drug interaction (DDI) using a population-based simulator (Simcyp) indicated that, in addition to CYP3A4 inhibition, the inhibition of P-gp by ketoconazole in the intestine, liver, and kidneys must be invoked to fully account for the DDI observed. This finding suggests that the inhibition of P-gp by ketoconazole, along with its effect on CYP3A4, needs to be considered when designing a DDI study of ketoconazole with a victim drug that is a dual substrate.

  17. Oral breathing challenge in participants with vocal attrition.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V

    2003-12-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (Pth) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is more detrimental to phonation in healthy participants with a history of temporary vocal attrition. The effects of a 15-min oral or nasal breathing challenge on Pth and perceived expiratory vocal effort were compared for participants reporting symptoms of vocal attrition (N = 18, ages 19-38 years) and normal controls (N = 20, ages 19-33 years). Post-challenge-prechallenge differences in Pth (deltaPth) and effort (deltaEffort) revealed that oral breathing, but not nasal breathing, increased Pth (p < .001 ) and effort (p < .001) at low, comfortable, and high pitch. deltaPth was significantly greater in participants with vocal attrition than in normal controls (p < .001). Nasal breathing reduced Pth for all controls but not for all participants reporting vocal attrition. deltaPth was significantly and linearly correlated with deltaEffort (rvocal attrition = .81, p < .001; rcontrol = .84, p < .001). We speculate that the greater increases in Pth in participants reporting vocal attrition may result from delayed or inadequate compensatory response to superficial laryngeal dehydration. Obligatory oral breathing may place voice users at risk for exacerbating vocal attrition. That sol layer depletion by obligatory oral breathing increased Pth and vocal effort provides support for the role of superficial hydration in maintaining ease of phonation.

  18. Psychological functioning in parents of children undergoing elective cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Wray, Jo; Sensky, Tom

    2004-04-01

    To assess levels of distress, the marital relationship, and styles of coping of parents of children with congenital heart disease, to evaluate any change in these parameters following elective cardiac surgery for their child, and to compare these parents with parents of children undergoing another form of hospital treatment, and with parents of healthy children. A prospective study in which parents were assessed the day before the surgical procedure being undergone by their child, and 12 months afterwards. We assessed three groups of parents of 75 children, aged from birth to 16.9 years. The first was a group whose children were undergoing surgery because of congenital heart disease, the second was a group whose children were undergoing transplantation of bone marrow, and the third was a group whose children were healthy. Measures used for assessment included the General Health Questionnaire, the Dyadic adjustment scale, and the Utrecht coping list. Parents in both groups of children undergoing surgery had significantly higher rates of distress prior to the surgical procedures than did the parents of the healthy children, but within those whose children were undergoing cardiac surgery, there were no differences between parents of children with cyanotic and acyanotic lesions. Following treatment, there was a significant reduction in the levels of distress in both groups whose children had undergone surgery. There were few differences between any of the groups on the other parameters, and the evaluated indexes showed stability over time. Despite elevated levels of psychological distress prior to surgical procedures, which had fallen after one year, the stability of other parameters of parental functioning over time suggests that the surgical interventions are of less significance than either factors attributable to the presence of chronic illness, or the individual characteristics of the parents.

  19. Emotional personality/proximity versus emotional authenticity in patient-physician communication in healthy study participants, and in patients with benign breast disease, and breast cancer: a prospective case-control study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Eskelinen, Matti; Korhonen, Riika; Selander, Tuomas; Ollonen, Paula

    2015-03-01

    The associations between emotional personality, proximity and authenticity in patient-physician communication during breast cancer (BC) consultations are rarely considered together in a prospective study. We, therefore, investigated emotional personality/proximity versus authenticity in patient-physician communication in healthy study subjects (HSS) and in patients with benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer (BC). In the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study, 115 women with breast symptoms were evaluated regarding emotional personality, proximity and authenticity in their a patient-physician communication before any diagnostic procedures were carried-out. The emotional personality and the emotional proximity in patient-physician communication was highly significantly positively correlated in the BBD group. The kappa-values for emotional personality versus emotional proximity in the HSS, BBD and BC groups were statistically significant. There was also a highly significant positive correlation between emotional personality and emotional authenticity in the HSS, BBD and BC groups and the kappa values in the HSS, BBD and BC groups were statistically significant. There was a highly significant positive correlation between emotional proximity and emotional authenticity in the BBD group, and the weighted kappa-values in the BBD group were statistically significant. The results of the present study support a powerful link between emotional personality/proximity and emotional authenticity, and provides new information in patient-physician communication in the HSS, BBD and BC groups. This finding is of clinical importance, since during breast disease consultation, barriers to patient-physician communication may be associated with difficulties in early BC diagnosis in the breast cancer diagnostic unit. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. Neural correlates of correct and failed response inhibition in heavy versus light social drinkers: an fMRI study during a go/no-go task by healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Salvatore; Absil, Julie; Carbia Sinde, Carina; Schroder, Elisa; Peigneux, Philippe; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Petieau, Mathieu; Metens, Thierry; Nouali, Mustapha; Goldman, Serge; Cheron, Guy; Verbanck, Paul; De Tiège, Xavier

    2016-11-10

    The ability to suppress responses that are inappropriate, as well as the mechanisms monitoring the accuracy of actions in order to compensate for errors, is central to human behavior. Neural alterations that prevent stopping an inaccurate response, combined with a decreased ability of error monitoring, are considered to be prominent features of alcohol abuse. Moreover, (i) alterations of these processes have been reported in heavy social drinkers (i.e. young healthy individuals who do not yet exhibit a state of alcohol dependence); and (ii) through longitudinal studies, these alterations have been shown to underlie subsequent disinhibition that may lead to future alcohol use disorders. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, using a contextual Go/No-Go task, we investigated whether different neural networks subtended correct inhibitions and monitoring mechanisms of failed inhibitory trials in light versus heavy social drinkers. We show that, although successful inhibition did not lead to significant changes, neural networks involved in error monitoring are different in light versus heavy drinkers. Thus, while light drinkers exhibited activations in their right inferior frontal, right middle cingulate and left superior temporal areas; heavy drinkers exhibited activations in their right cerebellum, left caudate nucleus, left superior occipital region, and left amygdala. These data are functionally interpreted as reflecting a "visually-driven emotional strategy" vs. an "executive-based" neural response to errors in heavy and light drinkers, respectively. Such a difference is interpreted as a key-factor that may subtend the transition from a controlled social heavy consumption to a state of clinical alcohol dependence.

  1. An Investigation of the Effects of Different Pulse Patterns of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on Perceptual Embodiment of a Rubber Hand in Healthy Human Participants With Intact Limbs.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Matthew R; Fawkner, Helen J; Johnson, Mark I

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the strength of perceptual embodiment achieved during an adapted version of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) in response to a series of modified transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) pulse patterns with dynamic temporal and spatial characteristics which are more akin to the mechanical brush stroke in the original RHI. A repeated-measures counterbalanced experimental study was conducted where each participant was exposed to four TENS interventions: continuous pattern TENS; burst pattern TENS (fixed frequency of 2 bursts per second of 100 pulses per second); amplitude-modulated pattern TENS (intensity increasing from zero to a preset level, then back to zero again in a cyclical fashion); and sham (no current) TENS. Participants rated the intensity of the RHI using a three-item numerical rating scale (each item was ranked from 0 to 10). Friedman's analysis of ranks (one-factor repeated measure) was used to test the differences in perceptual embodiment between TENS innervations; alpha was set at p ≤ 0.05. There were statistically significant differences in the intensity of misattribution and perceptual embodiment between sham and active TENS interventions, but no significant differences between the three active TENS conditions (amplitude-modulated TENS, burst TENS, and continuous TENS). Amplitude-modulated and burst TENS produced significantly higher intensity scores for misattribution sensation and perceptual embodiment compared with sham (no current) TENS, whereas continuous TENS did not. The findings provide tentative, but not definitive, evidence that TENS parameters with dynamic spatial and temporal characteristics may produce more intense misattribution sensations and intense perceptual embodiment than parameters with static characteristics (e.g., continuous pulse patterns). © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  2. Healthy eating champions award for elementary schools.

    PubMed

    He, Meizi; Callaghan, Christine; Evans, Anita; Mandich, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    The Healthy Eating Champions Award for Elementary Schools (HEC) is a public health initiative that recognizes and rewards schools for their outstanding commitment to the promotion of nutrition, for nutrition education, and for making healthy foods and beverages available. This process evaluation assessed HEC implementation, identified benefits and barriers, and solicited suggestions for program improvement. In-person interviews with principals or their designates from 28 HEC participating schools were conducted in fall 2006. Participants had positive feelings about the HEC program and shared many success stories. Perceived program benefits included increased student awareness about healthy eating, more student involvement in healthy eating initiatives, the creation of opportunities for goal setting and spirit boosting, and improved hygiene practices. The challenge of getting parents and teachers involved and the significant financial needs of schools in low-income areas were identified as challenges. Participants view the HEC program as having a positive impact on the healthy eating environment in schools.

  3. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... for steady, modest loss. Seek emotional support from family and friends. Expect setbacks; forgive yourself. Make physical ...

  4. Healthy Family 2009: Practicing Healthy Adult Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Practicing Healthy Adult Living Past Issues / Winter ... diabetes, or if heart disease runs in your family, begin checking cholesterol at age 20. Colorectal Cancer : ...

  5. Healthy Places for Healthy People 2016 Application

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Application form for the 2016 round of Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance to help communities work with health care partners to revitalize downtowns and neighborhoods while helping residents live healthier lives.

  6. Inflammatory response in heroin addicts undergoing methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yuan-Yu; Yang, Szu-Nian; Lin, Jyh-Chyang; Chang, Junn-Liang; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lo, Wan-Yu

    2015-03-30

    Opioid addiction influences many physiological functions including reactions of the immune system. The objective of this study was to investigate the immune system function in heroin addicted patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) compared to healthy controls. We tested the cytokine production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α from a group of heroin addicts (n=34) and healthy controls (n=20). The results show that production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 was significantly higher in the group of methadone-maintained patients than in the healthy control group. Plasma TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly correlated with the dairy methadone dosage administered, and the IL-1β level was significantly correlated with the duration of methadone maintenance treatment. These findings suggest that methadone maintenance treatment influences the immune system functions of opioid-dependent patients and may also induce long-term systemic inflammation.

  7. Evaluation of peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Kelli Maria Souza; de Cerqueira Neto, Manoel Luiz; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; de Santana Filho, Valter Joviniano; da Silva Junior, Walderi Monteiro; Araújo Filho, Amaro Afrânio; Cerqueira, Telma Cristina Fontes; Cacau, Lucas de Assis Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral muscle strength has been little explored in the literature in the context of cardiac rehabilitation. Objective To evaluate the peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods This was a longitudinal observational study. The peripheral muscle strength was measured using isometric dynamometry lower limb (knee extensors and flexors) at three different times: preoperatively (M1), the day of discharge (M2) and hospital discharge (M3). Participants received physiotherapy pre and postoperatively during the days of hospitalization during the morning and afternoon. Results Twenty-two patients were evaluated. The values of peripheral muscle strength of knee extensors preoperative found were about 50% lower than those predicted for the healthy population. When comparing muscle strength prior (M1), with the remaining evaluation, found himself in a fall of 29% for the movement of knee extension and 25% for knee flexion in M2 and a decrease of 10% movement for knee extension and 13% for knee flexion in M3 when comparing with M1. Conclusion The values of peripheral muscle strength prior of the study patients were lower than predicted for the healthy population of the same age. After the surgical event this reduction is even more remarkable, being reestablished until the time of discharge, to values close to baseline. PMID:25372909

  8. Dextromethorphan attenuated inflammation and combined opioid use in humans undergoing methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Tao, Pao-Luh; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Chen, Po See; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies show that proinflammatory cytokines might be related to the development of opioid dependence (physiological, psychological, or both). In a double-blind, randomly stratified clinical trial investigating whether add-on dextromethorphan (60-120 mg/day) attenuated inflammation and the combined use of opioids in heroin-dependent patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment, we evaluated whether inflammation is related to the progression of opioid dependence. All participants (107 heroin-dependent patients and 84 nondependent healthy controls) were recruited from National Cheng Kung University Hospital. Their plasma cytokine levels were measured to evaluate the effect of add-on dextromethorphan. Plasma TNF-α and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in long-term heroin-dependent patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.001). Chronic heroin-use-induced TNF-α and IL-8 levels were significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated in patients treated for 12 weeks with add-on dextromethorphan. Moreover, both tolerance to methadone and the combined use of opioids were significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated in patients taking dextromethorphan. We conclude that dextromethorphan might be a feasible adjuvant therapeutic for attenuating inflammation and inhibiting methadone tolerance and combined opioid use in heroin-dependent patients.

  9. Having a Healthy Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Having a Healthy Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Teens > Having a Healthy Pregnancy A ... or she can help you to get treatment. Pregnancy Discomforts Pregnancy can cause some uncomfortable side effects. ...

  10. Healthy Sleep Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  11. Energy Innovations for Healthy Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Bogucz, Edward A.

    2016-09-23

    Healthy buildings provide high indoor environmental quality for occupants while simultaneously reducing energy consumption. This project advanced the development and marketability of envisioned healthy, energy-efficient buildings through studies that evaluated the use of emerging technologies in commercial and residential buildings. The project also provided resources required for homebuilders to participate in DOE’s Builders Challenge, concomitant with the goal to reduce energy consumption in homes by at least 30% as a first step toward achieving envisioned widespread availability of net-zero energy homes by 2030. In addition, the project included outreach and education concerning energy efficiency in buildings.

  12. [Nutritional status of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Bober, Joanna; Mazur, Olech; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Bogacka, Anna; Sznabel, Karina; Stańkowska-Walczak, Dobrosława; Kabat-Koperska, Joanna; Stachowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The main causes of death in patients undergoing dialysis are cardiovascular diseases. Their presence is related to the nutritional status of patients treated with peritoneal dialysis, and has a predicted value in this kind of patient. Long-term therapy entails unfavourable changes, from which a clinically significant complication is protein-energy malnutrition and intensification of inflammatory processes. The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney disease treated with peritoneal dialysis based on anthropometric, biochemical parameters analysis, a survey, as well as the determination of changes in measured parameters occurring over time. The study involved 40 people undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 30 healthy people. For dialyzed patients testing material was collected twice, every 6 months. Proteins, albumins, prealbumins, C-reactive protein and glucose levels were measured. Anthropometric measurements included body height, body weight, triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold thickness. Body mass index (BMI) value and exponent of tissue protein source were calculated. The examined patients completed the questionnaire, which included, among other factors, the daily intake of nutrients, and lifestyle information. During the 6 month observation of the PD group a stastically significant increase in the energy value of intake food and amount of calories intake from carbohydrates was found. Analysis of nutritional status dependent on the BMI showed that overweight and obese patients are characterized by higher concentrations of the C-reactive protein and glucose, as well as lower concentrations of prealbumin compared to patients with normal body weight. At the same time, the energy value of food and the amount of protein in the group with BMI > 25 were smaller than in the other groups. During the 6 month observation a decrease the concentration of prealbumin and an increase in C-reactive protein in BMI > 25 group

  13. ‘Is Going through Clinical Test a Headache?’ An HRV Study and Descriptive Report of Subjective Experience of Undergoing EEG Testing

    PubMed Central

    Kathrotia, Rajesh; Singh, Yogesh; Goel, Arun; Patil, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    To explore the heart rate variability (HRV) changes and subjective perception of undergoing electroencephalography (EEG). We conducted a study on 35 healthy male volunteers. The intervention consisted of placing 23 disc-type EEG electrodes of 5-7 mm diameter with long flexible lead according to international 10-20 system for the duration of 30 min, in a sitting position, on the scalp. The outcome measures were time and frequency domain parameters of HRV analysis and descriptive report of subjective experiences on a 3-point Likert scale. The perception of undergoing EEG ranged from pleasant to uneasy. For 13 (37%) participants it was soothing and relaxing, for 11 (31.5%) it was neutral and for the rest 11 (31.5%) it was uneasy and restrictive in nature. However, HRV analysis of the pre and post EEG, showed no statistically significant difference. In our study, the mixed subjective experience of undergoing EEG may be due to individual variation in the perception of the intervention. No difference in HRV parameters may be because of 2 possibilities. The first possibility is varied experiences of procedure with temporal progression. Same participants may have experienced 2 opposite extremes of experiences over and over again, which may have cancelled out sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. The second possibility may be that no stress is generated during clinical test. PMID:27536017

  14. Evaluating Maori community initiatives to promote healthy eating, healthy action.

    PubMed

    Hamerton, Heather; Mercer, Christine; Riini, Denise; McPherson, Brighid; Morrison, Laurie

    2014-03-01

    Māori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand, experience poorer health than non-Māori across a range of health measures. Interventions focused at an individual level have proved largely ineffective; 'bottom-up' approaches where communities determine their own priorities may be more sustainable than 'top-down' approaches where goals are determined by health authorities. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate an innovative health promotion programme aimed at improving Māori health and to discuss the importance of ownership and control of health initiatives by Māori. Evaluators conducted a comprehensive evaluation of a Healthy Eating Healthy Action programme in six small Māori health agencies, gathering information from programme managers and co-ordinators, participants and wider community members about what changes were occurring at individual, family and community levels. Effective interventions built on cultural values and practices and were delivered by Māori with close connections to the community. Changes in nutrition and physical activity made by participants also benefitted their wider families and community. The changes demonstrated subtle but important shifts in thinking about healthy eating and healthy activity that in the longer term could lead to more measurable change towards improved quality of life for people within communities.

  15. Remote limb ischemic conditioning enhances motor learning in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Cherry-Allen, Kendra M.; Gidday, Jeff M.; Lee, Jin-Moo; Hershey, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Brief bouts of sublethal ischemia have been shown to protect exposed tissue (ischemic conditioning) and tissues at remote sites (remote ischemic conditioning) against subsequent ischemic challenges. Given that the mechanisms of this protective phenomenon are multifactorial and epigenetic, we postulated that remote limb ischemic conditioning (RLIC) might enhance mechanisms responsible for neural plasticity, and thereby facilitate learning. Specifically, we hypothesized that conditioning of the nervous system with RLIC, achieved through brief repetitive limb ischemia prior to training, would facilitate the neurophysiological processes of learning, thus making training more effective and more long-lasting. Eighteen healthy adults participated in this study; nine were randomly allocated to RLIC and nine to sham conditioning. All subjects underwent seven consecutive weekday sessions and 2-wk and 4-wk follow-up sessions. We found that RLIC resulted in significantly greater motor learning and longer retention of motor performance gains in healthy adults. Changes in motor performance do not appear to be due to a generalized increase in muscle activation or muscle strength and were not associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration. Of note, RLIC did not enhance cognitive learning on a hippocampus-dependent task. While future research is needed to establish optimal conditioning and training parameters, this inexpensive, clinically feasible paradigm might ultimately be implemented to enhance motor learning in individuals undergoing neuromuscular rehabilitation for brain injury and other pathological conditions. PMID:25867743

  16. Remote limb ischemic conditioning enhances motor learning in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Cherry-Allen, Kendra M; Gidday, Jeff M; Lee, Jin-Moo; Hershey, Tamara; Lang, Catherine E

    2015-06-01

    Brief bouts of sublethal ischemia have been shown to protect exposed tissue (ischemic conditioning) and tissues at remote sites (remote ischemic conditioning) against subsequent ischemic challenges. Given that the mechanisms of this protective phenomenon are multifactorial and epigenetic, we postulated that remote limb ischemic conditioning (RLIC) might enhance mechanisms responsible for neural plasticity, and thereby facilitate learning. Specifically, we hypothesized that conditioning of the nervous system with RLIC, achieved through brief repetitive limb ischemia prior to training, would facilitate the neurophysiological processes of learning, thus making training more effective and more long-lasting. Eighteen healthy adults participated in this study; nine were randomly allocated to RLIC and nine to sham conditioning. All subjects underwent seven consecutive weekday sessions and 2-wk and 4-wk follow-up sessions. We found that RLIC resulted in significantly greater motor learning and longer retention of motor performance gains in healthy adults. Changes in motor performance do not appear to be due to a generalized increase in muscle activation or muscle strength and were not associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration. Of note, RLIC did not enhance cognitive learning on a hippocampus-dependent task. While future research is needed to establish optimal conditioning and training parameters, this inexpensive, clinically feasible paradigm might ultimately be implemented to enhance motor learning in individuals undergoing neuromuscular rehabilitation for brain injury and other pathological conditions.

  17. Factors that motivate people to undergo cosmetic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian; Levitas, James

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 204 British participants completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude toward cosmetic surgery as well as measures of self-esteem, life satisfaction, self-rated physical attractiveness, religiosity and media consumption. Two factors emerged from a factor analysis of their attitudes toward surgery: likelihood to undergo, and benefits of undergoing, cosmetic surgery. Females with low self-esteem, low life satisfaction, low self-rated attractiveness and little religious beliefs who were heavy television watchers reported a greater likelihood of undergoing cosmetic surgery. Stepwise regression analysis with the two attitude factors as criterion variables showed two major predictors for likelihood: religiousness and low self-esteem, and four major predictors for benefit: religousness, media consumption, life satisfaction and sex. The role of religion is considered in this context. PMID:24294026

  18. Factors that motivate people to undergo cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Levitas, James

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 204 British participants completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude toward cosmetic surgery as well as measures of self-esteem, life satisfaction, self-rated physical attractiveness, religiosity and media consumption. Two factors emerged from a factor analysis of their attitudes toward surgery: likelihood to undergo, and benefits of undergoing, cosmetic surgery. Females with low self-esteem, low life satisfaction, low self-rated attractiveness and little religious beliefs who were heavy television watchers reported a greater likelihood of undergoing cosmetic surgery. Stepwise regression analysis with the two attitude factors as criterion variables showed two major predictors for likelihood: religiousness and low self-esteem, and four major predictors for benefit: religousness, media consumption, life satisfaction and sex. The role of religion is considered in this context.

  19. Recruiting healthy volunteers for research participation via internet advertising.

    PubMed

    Bramstedt, Katrina A

    2007-06-01

    The Internet is frequently used as a tool to recruit research subjects, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides general guidance regarding such advertising. The goal of this study was to explore the incidence and nature of ethically inappropriate recruiting advertisements on the Internet and to provide descriptive guidance to researchers for responsible Internet recruiting. In this study, 119 advertisements recruiting health volunteers and listed on the CenterWatch Clinical Trials Listing Service website were reviewed for content as well as text style and visual effects. The majority of advertisements satisfied FDA guidance. However, 21 (18%) were ethically troubling with regard to font size, font style, and/or verbiage. In many advertisements, it was unclear if "medication" meant "investigational drug," "over-the-counter medication" or US FDA approved "prescription medication." Nearly 30% of the 119 advertisements used the terms "free," "no charge" or "no cost" as lures. Ethically problematic recruiting advertisements can be coercive and misleading. Descriptive guidance provided in this paper can help clinical researchers create ethically appropriate recruiting advertisements.

  20. Recruiting Healthy Volunteers for Research Participation via Internet Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Bramstedt, Katrina A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The Internet is frequently used as a tool to recruit research subjects, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides general guidance regarding such advertising. The goal of this study was to explore the incidence and nature of ethically inappropriate recruiting advertisements on the Internet and to provide descriptive guidance to researchers for responsible Internet recruiting. Methods: In this study, 119 advertisements recruiting health volunteers and listed on the CenterWatch Clinical Trials Listing Service website were reviewed for content as well as text style and visual effects. Results: The majority of advertisements satisfied FDA guidance. However, 21 (18%) were ethically troubling with regard to font size, font style, and/or verbiage. In many advertisements, it was unclear if “medication” meant “investigational drug,” “over-the-counter medication” or US FDA approved “prescription medication.” Nearly 30% of the 119 advertisements used the terms “free,” “no charge” or “no cost” as lures. Conclusion: Ethically problematic recruiting advertisements can be coercive and misleading. Descriptive guidance provided in this paper can help clinical researchers create ethically appropriate recruiting advertisements. PMID:17607043

  1. Investigation of the effect of food and omeprazole on the relative bioavailability of a single oral dose of 240 mg faldaprevir, a selective inhibitor of HCV NS3/4 protease, in an open-label, randomized, three-way cross-over trial in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Gießmann, Thomas; Lang, Benjamin; Elgadi, Mabrouk; Huang, Fenglei

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of food and coadministration of omeprazole on the relative bioavailability (BA) of faldaprevir (FDV). Fifteen healthy participants participated in this open-label, randomized, three-way cross-over study. Faldaprevir was administered as a 240 mg single dose during fasting state, following intake of a high-fat breakfast, or following omeprazole 40 mg q.d. dosing for 5 days. PK samples were collected on the day of faldaprevir administration. We found geometric mean (gMean) AUC0-∞ values for faldaprevir of 48 200, 37 900 and 36 000 ng h/ml under the fed, fasted and omeprazole coadministration conditions respectively. Similarly, gMean Cmax values for faldaprevir were 2600, 2030, 1920 ng/ml under the same respective conditions. The adjusted gMean ratio between the fed and fasted condition was approximately 120% for both AUC0-∞ and Cmax , while the ratio of omeprazole coadministration to fasted condition was approximately 94%. Faldaprevir was safe and well tolerated in the study. Administration of a single dose of 240 mg faldaprevir after high-fat breakfast led to a modest, clinically irrelevant increase in faldaprevir exposure, while coadministration of omeprazole did not influence faldaprevir exposure. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.

  2. A functional assessment methodology for alcohol dependent patients undergoing rehabilitative treatments.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, E M; Vittadini, G; Bossi, D; Sverzellati, S; Facioli, M; Montomoli, C; Dalla Toffola, E

    2003-11-04

    We propose a functional assessment approach for patients with alcoholic dependence of working age undergoing aerobic training. The background is the WHO indication (ICIDH-2) to use measurable 'activities' as a means to assess the individual 'participation' in social life which also implies work capacity. Defining sustainable energetic levels for the individual is an important issue for both the quantification of an effective training and the evaluation of possible improvements following training. Fifty-six 'alcohol dependent' patients, as defined by DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), admitted to our Unit in a 16 month-period participated in the study. Eighteen healthy subjects served as controls (Group C). Out of all the 56 patients, 33 (Group A) underwent an aerobic training and 23 subjects (Group N) underwent the same pharmacological and psychological therapy but without aerobic training. Patients were assigned to the treatment (A) or no treatment (N) group according to a 'quasi-experimental' design (i.e. temporal selection criteria). The evaluation protocol consisted of submaximal symptom-limited tests. The tests consisted of bouts of 'basic' activities (walking, lifting, arm-work) to be performed at different intensities. We estimated the total energetic work (TW) performed in the tests by means of formulas available in the literature. The maximal energetic intensity (EI) reached during the tests was also estimated and expressed in MET (multiple of the basal metabolism). Significant differences in work capacity were observed between patients and healthy subjects at baseline. Group A significantly increased TW after rehabilitation, while Group N did not increment their performance at the re-test. The proposed approach could be useful in the functional assessment of deconditioned subjects with alcohol dependence in working age, and could monitor the changes in work capacity following training.

  3. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. [Heart rate recovery after exercise in subjects undergoing cardiologic rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Mejer, Anna; Urzedowicz, Beata; Rembek-Wieliczko, Magdalena; Koziróg, Marzena; Ciećwierz, Julita; Kowalski, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Research indicates that slow heart rate recovery 1-2 minutes after exercise is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality, sudden mortality as well. It is hardly related to myocardial ischemia; most of all, it is related to impaired activities of the parasympathetic system. The purpose of this study was to assess HRR in subjects after a surgical treatment (percutaneous coronary intervention - PCI) of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), undergoing cardiologic rehabilitation. The study comprised 58 subjects, 42 men and 16 women aged 49-68 (56.8 +/- 7.6) after ACS treated with PCI undergoing cardiologic rehabilitation (stage 2)--group I. The comparative group comprised 34 subjects, 25 men and 9 women aged 46-61 (55.5 +/- 8.9 lat) who were clinically healthy and who underwent a single sub-maximal exercise test--group II. In subjects undergoing rehabilitation, an exercise test was performed twice --before and after stage 2 of rehabilitation. HRR was defined as a difference between the peak heart rate and those after the 1st (HRR1) and 2nd (HRR) minute of recovery. After stationary rehabilitation as a part of stage 2 of cardiologic rehabilitation, HRR2 was 26.3 +/- 10.6/min and was 40.8/min +/- 13.8/min; both these values were not significantly different from values observed in healthy subjects (p > 0.05). Significant increase in HRR1 and HRR2 was observed after the completion of stage 2 of cardiologic rehabilitation in ill subjects (p < 0.05) as compared to initial values. In subjects after ACS treated with PCI, it is observed that HRR changes back to normal values observed in healthy subjects as a result of underwent cardiologic rehabilitation. HRR should become an important factor in assessing effectiveness of conducted cardiologic rehabilitation.

  5. Healthy Kids, Healthy Cuba: findings from a group model building process in the rural Southwest.

    PubMed

    Keane, Patricia; Ortega, Alejandro; Linville, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    Healthy Kids, Healthy Cuba (HKHCuba) is 1 of 49 community partnerships that participated in the national Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. One method of evaluation was to introduce systems thinking at the community level by identifying the essential parts of the HKHCuba system and how it influences policy and environmental changes to promote healthy eating and active living as well as to prevent childhood obesity in this unique, triethnic, rural community in New Mexico. In this cross-sectional design, 12 HKHCuba partners participated in a group model building (GMB) session to develop behavior over time graphs and a causal loop diagram. Twenty-seven influences identified in the behavior over time graphs emerged as feedback loops and 5 subsystems emerged within the causal loop diagram. In addition to specific strategy-related influences (eg, access to healthy food, participation in community gardens), sense of cultural pride, sense of community, and social engagement, particularly among youth, were highly salient topics. The GMB process provided participants with the opportunity to explore the connections across their specific areas of work and make connections between policy and environmental influences on healthy eating and active living behaviors. The GMB processes and systems thinking approaches were new to the majority of participants, received positively, and perhaps should have been introduced earlier in the project period.

  6. Educational Needs of Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    MacKay, Crystal; Saryeddine, Tina; Davis, Aileen M.; Flannery, John F.; Jaglal, Susan B.; Levy, Charissa; Mahomed, Nizar

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the educational needs of adults who undergo total hip and total knee replacement surgery. Methods: A qualitative research design using a semi-standardized interviewing method was employed. A purposive sampling technique was used to recruit participants, who were eligible if they were scheduled to undergo total hip or total knee replacement or had undergone total hip or total knee replacement in the previous 3 to 6 months. A comparative contrast method of analysis was used. Results: Of 22 potential participants who were approached, 15 participated. Five were booked for upcoming total hip or total knee replacement and 10 had undergone at least one total hip or total knee replacement in the previous 3 to 6 months. Several themes related to specific educational needs and factors affecting educational needs, including access, preoperative phase, surgery and medical recovery, rehabilitation process and functional recovery, fears, and expectations counterbalanced with responsibility, emerged from the interviews. Conclusions: Educational needs of adults who undergo total hip and knee replacement surgery encompass a broad range of topics, confirming the importance of offering an all-inclusive information package regarding total hip and total knee replacement. PMID:21629598

  7. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-03-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy 30 October-1 November, 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  8. [Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People].

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-11-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  9. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.; Bourne, Peter G.; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security. PMID:23385371

  10. Bellagio report on healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-02-05

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  11. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... habitat loss from warmer water temperatures associated with climate change already has been observed in the southern ... altered water flow and availability, invasive species and climate change. Healthy Watersheds EPA Awards Healthy Watersheds Consortium ...

  12. Live Healthy, Live Longer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  13. The New York State Healthy Neighborhoods Program: Findings From an Evaluation of a Large-Scale, Multisite, State-Funded Healthy Homes Program.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Amanda L; Gomez, Marta; Dixon, Sherry L

    A growing evidence base suggests that a comprehensive healthy homes approach may be an effective strategy for improving housing hazards that affect health, but questions remain about the feasibility of large-scale implementation. To evaluate the impact of a large-scale, multisite, state-funded healthy homes program. Homes in high-risk neighborhoods of 13 counties funded under the New York State Healthy Neighborhoods Program (NYS HNP) from 2008 to 2012. A total of 28 491 homes received an initial visit and 6436 dwellings received a revisit (follow-up assessment 3 to 6 months after the intervention). A majority of residents are low-income renters living in buildings built prior to 1950. The NYS HNP is a low-intensity healthy homes program. Participating homes undergo a visual assessment to identify potential environmental health and safety hazards, and interventions (education, referrals, and products) are provided to address any hazards identified during the visit. The proportion of homes affected by several types of housing hazards, improvement in hazards among revisited homes, and the change in the overall number of hazards per home were assessed. Among the homes that were revisited, there were significant improvements in the conditions assessed for tobacco control, fire safety, lead poisoning prevention, indoor air quality, and other hazards (including pests and mold). There was a significant reduction in the number of hazards per home (2.8 to 1.5; P < .001), but homes were not hazard-free at the revisit. This evaluation suggests that a comprehensive, low-intensity healthy housing approach can produce short-term impacts with public health significance. This evaluation provides information about hazards that are common, easily assessed, and easily corrected or improved, which may be of use to a variety of programs that already provide in-home services and are seeking to expand the scope of their visits or to inform the development of new programs.

  14. Cell-free DNA and telomere length among women undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment.

    PubMed

    Czamanski-Cohen, J; Sarid, O; Cwikel, J; Douvdevani, A; Levitas, E; Lunenfeld, E; Har-Vardi, I

    2015-11-01

    The current research is aimed at finding potential non-invasive bio-markers that will help us learn more about the mechanisms at play in failed assisted reproduction treatment. This exploratory pilot study examined the relationship between cell-free DNA (CFD) in plasma and telomere length in lymphocytes among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and compared telomere length and CFD levels to a healthy control group. Blood of 20 women undergoing IVF was collected at three time points during the IVF cycle. We assessed the relationship between CFD and telomere length as well as controlling for morning cortisol levels. We also collected blood of 10 healthy controls at two time points (luteal and follicular phases of the menstrual cycle) and compared mean telomere length, CFD, and cortisol levels between the IVF patients and healthy controls. The results revealed an inverse relationship between CFD levels and telomere lengths at several time points that remained significant even after controlling for cortisol levels. Women undergoing IVF had statistically significant higher levels of CFD and shorter telomeres compared to healthy controls. The relationship between telomere length and CFD should be further explored in larger studies in order to uncover potential mechanisms that cause both shortened telomere length and elevated CFD in women undergoing IVF.

  15. Evaluation of neopterin levels in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Asci, Ali; Baydar, Terken; Cetinkaya, Ramazan; Dolgun, Anil; Sahin, Gonul

    2010-04-01

    Neopterin is a diagnostic or a prognostic biomarker for several pathologies including renal diseases. However, the association between neopterin status and causative main reasons such as diabetes and hypertension for renal disease remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate neopterin levels in diabetes and hypertension patients treated with/without hemodialysis. According to primary renal disorders, the patients undergoing hemodialysis were classified into 4 groups as diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, reflux nephropathy or interstitial nephritis, and others. The controls consisted of healthy subjects, hypertensive subjects, and diabetic individuals without any renal disorder. In the study, both urinary and serum neopterin levels were measured using high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay in patients undergoing regular hemodialysis therapy (n=71). The effects of the duration of hemodialysis and treatment of erythropoietin and/or iron on neopterin levels were also evaluated. Neopterin levels were found to be higher in hemodialysis patients than in the healthy controls (P<0.05). A significant difference in neopterin levels was also found between diabetic control patients and diabetic nephropathy patients (P<0.05). A similar significant difference was detected in neopterin levels between hypertensive patients with/without nephropathy (P<0.05). Neopterin may be an early critical marker for progression of nephropathy in diabetic and hypertensive patients in early stages.

  16. Food intake and the nutritional status of women undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabela Borges; Marinho, Eduarda da Costa; Custódio, Isis Danyelle Dias; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Maia, Yara Cristina de Paiva

    2016-06-01

    The objective behind this study was the analysis of food intake and the nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC) undergoing chemotherapy (CT). The quantitative dietary evaluation was performed in accordance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), whereas the qualitative evaluation was performed through the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R).From among the total number of patients (n = 20), 60% (n = 12) presented waist circumference, equal to or higher than 88cm. It was noted that 75% (n = 15) individuals were overweight. The average intake for calcium, copper, iron, dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, vitamin B6 and zinc, were found to be below adequate intake levels, while the intake of vitamin C, phosphorus, manganese, sodium and thiamine were all found to be above DRIs recommendations. As for the analysis of the BHEI-R, 80% (n = 16) of the patients presented a "diet that needs modifications", while 20% (n = 4) presented a "healthy diet". Noted from these observations was the presence of a high overweight rate, a discrepancy in the intake of micronutrients and a diet that needed improvements. In this manner, the establishment and use of a nutritional intervention protocol are very important when it comes to the improvement of the diet in patients with BC and who are undergoing CT.

  17. Many women undergoing fertility treatment make poor lifestyle choices that may affect treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Gormack, Alice A; Peek, John C; Derraik, José G B; Gluckman, Peter D; Young, Natalie L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2015-07-01

    What are the lifestyle choices and dietary aspects of women about to undergo fertility treatment in New Zealand? A considerable proportion of women about to undergo fertility treatment make poor lifestyle choices, including the consumption of alcohol and caffeine. Women undergoing fertility treatment are highly motivated to achieve pregnancy, but there are relatively few published data on their lifestyle, lifestyle changes or dietary aspects. This was a cross-sectional study of 250 women aged 20-43 years, taking place between March 2010 and August 2011. Women about to undergo IVF or ICSI treatment in two large fertility clinics in Auckland and Hamilton, New Zealand. Lifestyle and dietary intake questionnaires were individually administered once to each participant 35 days (SD = 22) prior to fertility treatment initiation. Outcome measures included incidence of smoking, consumption of alcohol and caffeinated beverages, BMI, detailed intake of dietary supplements and fertility treatment success. Consumption of certain nutrient supplements was compared with the general female New Zealand population. There were high rates of alcohol (50.8%) and caffeine (86.8%) consumption. Most women (82.8%) reported at least one lifestyle change in preparation for fertility treatment, but less than half of women who consumed alcohol regularly reduced their intake and 60% did not change consumption of caffeinated beverages. Similarly, the majority of women did not change their exercise levels (64.4%) or BMI (83.6%) ahead of fertility treatment. Coffee intake appeared unrelated to treatment outcome, but women who consumed caffeinated herbal tea (36.4% of the study population consumed green tea) had lower odds of becoming pregnant (odds ratio, OR 0.52; P = 0.041 versus those not consuming caffeinated herbal tea). Women who abstained from drinking or reduced alcohol intake had twice the odds of becoming pregnant than those who maintained their drinking habits prior to fertility treatment

  18. Who Participates and Why: Building a Process Model of Citizen Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster-Fishman, Pennie G.; Pierce, Steven J.; Van Egeren, Laurie A.

    2009-01-01

    Initiating and sustaining sufficient levels of participation among residents in low-income and urban neighborhoods have become significant focuses of many initiatives that strive to develop healthy communities. This study examines the factors associated with citizen participation levels in resident leaders and followers in seven low-income…

  19. Problem-solving strategies of women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen D; Erickson, Kelly S; Hegel, Mark T

    2012-02-01

    Many women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer experience side effects that make it difficult to perform daily occupations. To summarize the types of challenges, goals, and adaptive strategies identified by women with stage 1-3 breast cancer participating in a pilot study of Problem-solving Treatment-Occupational Therapy (PST-OT). Content analysis of 80 PST-OT sessions. Women addressed 11 types of challenging activities, with exercise and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) being the most common. Most women set a goal to adapt a current activity, but also set goals to find a new activity, plan the steps of a current activity, or gather information about a possible activity change in the future. The adaptive strategies generated by the women were grouped into five types. Most often they found ways to add a new step to an activity, but they also brainstormed about when, how, where, and with whom they could do activities. The women were usually trying to adapt familiar activities but also were looking for ways to include new, healthy occupations into their routines.

  20. Problem-solving Strategies of Women Undergoing Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Erickson, Kelly; Hegel, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer experience side effects that make it difficult to perform daily occupations. Purpose To summarize the types of challenges, goals, and adaptive strategies identified by women with Stage 1–3 breast cancer participating in a pilot study of Problem-solving Treatment-Occupational Therapy (PST-OT). Methods Content analysis of 80 PST-OT sessions. Findings Women addressed eleven types of challenging activities, with exercise and independent activities of daily living (IADLs) being the most common. Women most commonly set a goal to adapt a current activity, but also set goals to find a new activity, plan an activity, or gather information about a possible activity change in the future. The adaptive strategies generated by the women were grouped into five types. Most often they found ways to add a new step to an activity, but they also brainstormed when, how, where, and with whom they could do activities. Implications The women were usually trying to adapt familiar activities, but also were looking for ways to include new, healthy occupations into their routines. PMID:22439290

  1. Comprehension of Idioms in Turkish Aphasic Participants.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Burcu; Barin, Muzaffer; Yagiz, Oktay

    2017-06-19

    Brain damaged participants offer an opportunity to evaluate the cognitive and linguistic processes and make assumptions about how the brain works. Cognitive linguists have been investigating the underlying mechanisms of idiom comprehension to unravel the ongoing debate on hemispheric specialization in figurative language comprehension. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the comprehension of idiomatic expressions in left brain damaged (LBD) aphasic, right brain damaged (RBD) and healthy control participants. Idiom comprehension in eleven LBD aphasic participants, ten RBD participants and eleven healthy control participants were assessed with three tasks: String to Picture Matching Task, Literal Sentence Comprehension Task and Oral Idiom Definition Task. The results of the tasks showed that in overall idiom comprehension category, the left brain-damaged aphasic participants interpret idioms more literally compared to right brain-damaged participants. What is more, there is a significant difference in opaque idiom comprehension implying that left brain-damaged aphasic participants perform worse compared to right brain-damaged participants. On the other hand, there is no statistically significant difference in scores of transparent idiom comprehension between the left brain-damaged aphasic and right brain-damaged participants. This result also contribute to the idea that while figurative processing system is damaged in LBD aphasics, the literal comprehension mechanism is spared to some extent. The results of this study support the view that idiom comprehension sites are mainly left lateralized. Furthermore, the results of this study are in consistence with the Giora's Graded Salience Hypothesis.

  2. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects.

  3. Toward a healthy democracy.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, D; Gates, C T

    2000-01-01

    Because it represents a revival of citizen responsibility, the Healthy Communities movement is not only a health and quality-of-life movement but a civic and democratic movement as well. Healthy Communities efforts need to seek meaningful partnerships with local governments and work their collaborative and citizen-based efforts into formal local political structures. As the foundation of the Healthy Communities movement, civic renewal should be elevated as a major theme and goal for its future. PMID:10968748

  4. Toward a healthy democracy.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, D; Gates, C T

    2000-01-01

    Because it represents a revival of citizen responsibility, the Healthy Communities movement is not only a health and quality-of-life movement but a civic and democratic movement as well. Healthy Communities efforts need to seek meaningful partnerships with local governments and work their collaborative and citizen-based efforts into formal local political structures. As the foundation of the Healthy Communities movement, civic renewal should be elevated as a major theme and goal for its future.

  5. Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2003-01-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

  6. Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2003-01-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

  7. Phase I/II randomized trial of safety and immunogenicity of LIPO-5 alone, ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) alone, and ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) prime/LIPO-5 boost in healthy, HIV-1-uninfected adult participants.

    PubMed

    Frey, Sharon E; Peiperl, Laurence; McElrath, M Juliana; Kalams, Spyros; Goepfert, Paul A; Keefer, Michael C; Baden, Lindsey R; Lally, Michelle A; Mayer, Kenneth; Blattner, William A; Harro, Clayton D; Hammer, Scott M; Gorse, Geoffrey J; Hural, John; Tomaras, Georgia D; Levy, Yves; Gilbert, Peter; deCamp, Allan; Russell, Nina D; Elizaga, Marnie; Allen, Mary; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-11-01

    Finding an effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine remains a major global health priority. In a phase I/II, placebo-controlled trial, healthy, HIV-1-negative adults were randomized to receive one of 5 vaccine regimens: LIPO-5 (combination of 5 lipopeptides) alone (250 μg), ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) alone, or 3 groups of ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) followed by ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) plus LIPO-5 (250, 750, and 2,500 μg). Only 73/174 participants (42%) received all four vaccinations due to a study halt related to myelitis. There were no significant differences in systemic reactions between groups or in local reactogenicity between groups receiving ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452). Significant differences in local reactogenicity occurred between groups receiving LIPO-5 (P ≤ 0.05). Gag and Env antibodies were undetectable by ELISA 2 weeks after the fourth vaccination for all but one recipient. Antibodies to Gag and Env were present in 32% and 24% of recipients of ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) alone and in 47% and 35% of ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452)+LIPO recipients, respectively. Coadministration of LIPO-5 did not significantly increase the response rate compared to ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) alone, nor was there a significant relationship between dose and antibody responses among ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452)+LIPO groups. Over 90% of study participants had no positive gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISpot) responses to any peptide pool at any time point. The study was halted due to a case of myelitis possibly related to the LIPO-5 vaccine; this case of myelitis remains an isolated event. In general, there was no appreciable cell-mediated immunity detected in response to the vaccines used in this study, and antibody responses were limited. The clinical trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with registry number NCT00076063. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. [Adapting immunisation schedules for children undergoing chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Prada, María; Rodríguez-Martínez, María; García-García, Rebeca; García-Corte, María Dolores; Martínez-Ortega, Carmen

    2016-10-20

    Children undergoing chemotherapy for cancer have special vaccination needs after completion of the treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptation of post-chemotherapy vaccination schedules. An observational study was performed on a retrospective cohort that included all children aged from 0 to 14 years, who completed chemotherapy in a tertiary hospital between 2009 and 2015. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Immunisation was administered in accordance with the guidelines of the Vaccine Advisory Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics. Primary Care immunisation and clinical records of the Preventive Medicine and Public Health Department were reviewed. Of the 99 children who had received chemotherapy, 51 (70.6% males) were included in the study. As regards the type of tumour, 54.9% had a solid organ tumour, and 45.1% had a haematological tumour. Post-chemotherapy immunisation was administered to 70.6%. The most common vaccines received were: diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis or diphtheria-tetanus (54.9%), meningococcus C (41.2%), and seasonal influenza (39.2%). The rate of adaptation of the immunisation schedule after chemotherapy was 9.8%. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against 7v or 13v was administered to 21.6% of study subjects. However, only 17.6% received polysaccharide 23v. None received vaccination against hepatitis A. No statistically significant differences were observed between adherence to immunisation schedules and type of tumour (P=.066), gender (P=.304), or age (P=.342). Post-chemotherapy immunisation of children with cancer is poor. The participation of health professionals in training programs and referral of paediatric cancer patients to Vaccine Units could improve the rate of schedule adaptation and proper immunisation of this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Perspectives on Healthy Eating Among Appalachian Residents

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Howell, Britteny M.; Swanson, Mark; Grosh, Christopher; Bardach, Shoshana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Extensive attention has been focused on improving the dietary intake of Americans. Such focus is warranted due to increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and other dietary-related disease. To address suboptimal dietary intake requires an improved, contextualized understanding of the multiple and intersecting influences on healthy eating, particularly among those populations at greatest risk of and from poor diet, including rural residents. Methods During 8 focus groups (N=99) and 6 group key informant interviews (N=20), diverse Appalachian rural residents were queried about their perceptions of healthy eating, determinants of healthy food intake, and recommendations for improving the dietary intake of people in their communities. Participants included church members and other laypeople, public health officials, social service providers, health care professionals, and others. Findings Participants offered insights on healthy eating consistent with the categories of individual, interpersonal, community, physical, environmental and society-level influences described in the socioecological model. Although many participants identified gaps in dietary knowledge as a persistent problem, informants also identified extra-individual factors, including the influence of family, fellow church members, and schools, policy, advertising and media, and general societal trends, as challenges to healthy dietary intake. We highlight Appalachian residents’ recommendations for promoting healthier diets, including support groups, educational workshops, cooking classes, and community gardening. Conclusions We discuss the implications of these findings for programmatic development in the Appalachian context. PMID:23944277

  10. Having a Healthy Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lunch Planner Having a Healthy Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Teens > Having a Healthy Pregnancy Print A A A What's in this article? ... you might hear your doctor call problems "complications"). Teens are more at risk for certain problems during pregnancy, such as anemia, high blood pressure, and giving ...

  11. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  12. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content New research shows that maintaining a healthy weight before and during pregnancy can reduce the likelihood of negative effects for mothers and babies We’ve heard the ...

  13. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  14. Healthy Birth Practices Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2014-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education describes this special issue where distiguished authors provide updated evidence-based reviews of the Lamaze International Six Healthy Birth Practices that promote, support, and protect natural, safe, and healthy birth. This issue is dedicated to Elisabeth Bing on the occasion of her 100th birthday.

  15. Healthy Homes Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina; Lyon, Melinda; Russ, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Extension is focusing on healthy homes programming. Extension educators are not qualified to diagnose consumers' medical problems as they relate to housing. We cannot give medical advice. Instead, we can help educate consumers about home conditions that may affect their well-being. Extension educators need appropriate healthy homes tools to…

  16. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  17. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  18. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  19. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  20. Healthy Homes Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina; Lyon, Melinda; Russ, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Extension is focusing on healthy homes programming. Extension educators are not qualified to diagnose consumers' medical problems as they relate to housing. We cannot give medical advice. Instead, we can help educate consumers about home conditions that may affect their well-being. Extension educators need appropriate healthy homes tools to…

  1. Health status of people undergoing foreclosure in the Philadelphia region.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Craig Evan; Lynch, Julia

    2009-10-01

    We assessed the health status of people undergoing mortgage foreclosure in the Philadelphia region to determine if there was a relationship between foreclosure and health. Participants were recruited in partnership with a mortgage counseling agency. Participants' health status and health care use were compared with a community sample from the 2008 Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey. We used publicly filed foreclosure records to assess response bias. Of the 250 people recruited, 36.7% met screening criteria for major depression. The foreclosure sample was significantly more likely than the community sample to not have insurance coverage (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49, 3.48) and to not have filled a prescription because of cost in the preceding year (AOR = 3.44; 95% CI = 2.45, 4.83). Approximately 9% of the participants reported that their own or a family member's medical condition was the primary reason they were undergoing foreclosure. More than a quarter of those in foreclosure (27.7%) stated that they owed money to medical creditors. Foreclosure affects already-vulnerable populations. Public health practitioners may be able to leverage current efforts to connect homeowners with mortgage counseling agencies to improve health care access.

  2. Health Status of People Undergoing Foreclosure in the Philadelphia Region

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the health status of people undergoing mortgage foreclosure in the Philadelphia region to determine if there was a relationship between foreclosure and health. Methods. Participants were recruited in partnership with a mortgage counseling agency. Participants' health status and health care use were compared with a community sample from the 2008 Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey. We used publicly filed foreclosure records to assess response bias. Results. Of the 250 people recruited, 36.7% met screening criteria for major depression. The foreclosure sample was significantly more likely than the community sample to not have insurance coverage (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49, 3.48) and to not have filled a prescription because of cost in the preceding year (AOR = 3.44; 95% CI = 2.45, 4.83). Approximately 9% of the participants reported that their own or a family member's medical condition was the primary reason they were undergoing foreclosure. More than a quarter of those in foreclosure (27.7%) stated that they owed money to medical creditors. Conclusions. Foreclosure affects already-vulnerable populations. Public health practitioners may be able to leverage current efforts to connect homeowners with mortgage counseling agencies to improve health care access. PMID:19696373

  3. Cortisol levels and sleep patterns in infants with orofacial clefts undergoing surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Andreas A; Kalak, Nadeem; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, Katja; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Background Traumatic events during early infancy might damage infants’ psychobiological functioning, such as sleep and cortisol secretion. Infants born with orofacial clefts (OFCs) undergo functional, anatomical, and aesthetic surgery. The aim of the present study was to determine whether infants with OFC and undergoing OFC surgery show deteriorated sleep and cortisol secretion compared with healthy controls and with their presurgery status. Methods A total of 27 infants with OFC (mean age: 22 weeks) and 30 healthy controls (mean age: 23 weeks) took part in the study. For infants with OFC, sleep actigraphy was performed and saliva cortisol was analyzed 5 days before, during, and 5 days after surgery. For controls, sleep and saliva cortisol were assessed similarly, except for the period taken up with surgery. Results Compared with healthy controls, infants with OFC undergoing OFC surgery did not differ in sleep and cortisol secretion. Their sleep and cortisol secretion did deteriorate during the perisurgical period but recovered 5 days postsurgery. Conclusion In infants with OFC undergoing corrective surgery, the pattern of results for sleep and cortisol suggests that OFC surgery does not seem to constitute a traumatic event with long-term consequences. PMID:25342905

  4. Future perspective and healthy lifestyle choices in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir-Ozdes, Aylin; Strickland-Hughes, Carla M; Bluck, Susan; Ebner, Natalie C

    2016-09-01

    Regardless of age, making healthy lifestyle choices is prudent. Despite that, individuals of all ages sometimes have difficulty choosing the healthy option. We argue that individuals' view of the future and position in the life span affects their current lifestyle choices. We capture the multidimensionality of future thinking by assessing 3 types of future perspective. Younger and older men and women (N = 127) reported global future time perspective, future health perspective, and perceived importance of future health-related events. They also rated their likelihood of making healthy lifestyle choices. As predicted, older participants indicated greater intention to make healthy choices in their current life than did younger participants. Compared to younger participants, older participants reported shorter global future time perspective and anticipated worse future health but perceived future health-related events as more important. Having a positive view of one's future health and seeing future health-related events as important were related to greater intention to make healthy lifestyle choices, but greater global future time perspective was not directly related to healthy choices. However, follow-up analyses suggested that greater global future time perspective indirectly affected healthy choices via a more positive view of future health. None of these relations were moderated by age. Individuals' perspective on the future is shown to be an important multidimensional construct affecting everyday healthy lifestyle choices for both younger and older adults. Implications for encouraging healthy choices across the adult life span are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Unemployment risk among individuals undergoing medical treatment for chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, N; Nakamura, T; Tsuchiya, N; Tsuji, I; Hozawa, A; Tomita, H

    2016-03-01

    Chronic diseases increase the risk of unemployment even in non-disaster settings; therefore, in post-disaster settings, special attention needs to be paid to the employment status of those suffering from chronic diseases. To examine the association between chronic disease and the risk of unemployment in a disaster area. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shichigahama Town, Miyagi, north-eastern Japan, where had been severely inundated by the 2011 tsunami. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between undergoing medical treatment for a combination of chronic diseases (stroke, cancer, myocardial infarction and angina) and unemployment risk. Confounders such as psychological distress and levels of daily life activity were considered. Among the 2588 individuals studied, there was a statistically significant association between undergoing medical treatment for chronic disease and the risk of unemployment [odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-2.7, P < 0.05]. In participants with a lower degree of psychological distress and better levels of daily life activity (n = 1967), no significant associations were observed (OR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.6-2.1). Conversely, in 536 participants with a higher degree of psychological distress and/or poorer levels of daily life activity, statistically significant associations were found (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.01-6.6, P < 0.05). The association between undergoing medical treatment for chronic disease and unemployment risk was observed only in participants with a higher degree of psychological distress and/or poorer levels of daily life activity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Participation during first social encounters in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G T; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia are socially excluded. The aim of this study was to investigate how patients participate in first encounters with unfamiliar healthy participants, who are unaware of their diagnosis. Patterns of participation were investigated during interactions involving three-people. Three conversation roles were analysed: (i) speaker, (ii) primary recipient- focus of the speaker's attention and (iii) secondary recipient- unaddressed individual. Twenty patient interactions (1 patient, 2 healthy controls) and 20 control interactions (3 healthy participants) were recorded and motion captured in 3D. The participation of patients and their partners, in each conversation role, was compared with controls at the start, middle and end of the interaction. The relationship between patients' participation, their symptoms and the rapport others experienced with them was also explored. At the start of the interaction patients spoke less (ß = -.639, p = .02) and spent more time as secondary recipient (ß = .349, p = .02). Patients' participation at the middle and end of the interaction did not differ from controls. Patients' partners experienced poorer rapport with patients who spent more time as a primary recipient at the start of the interaction (Rho(11) = -.755, p<.01). Patients' participation was not associated with symptoms. Despite their increased participation over time, patients' initial participation appears to be associated with others' experience of rapport with them. Thus, the opening moments of patients' first encounters appear to be interpersonally significant. Further investigation of patient and others' behaviour during these critical moments is warranted in order to understand, and possibly develop interventions to address, the difficulties schizophrenia patients experience here.

  7. Comprehensive Evaluation of Hawaii's Healthy Start Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Anne K.; Buchbinder, Sharon B.; Fuddy, Loretta; Sia, Calvin; Young, Elizabeth

    This conference paper discusses the results of a study that investigated the characteristics and needs of mothers participating in Hawaii's Healthy Start Program (HSP). The HSP is a screening and outreach program with two components: (1) the early identification component, which consists of community-based screening to identify newborns at…

  8. Healthy Child Care Colorado, 2002: Outcome Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Susan

    This report describes the impact of nurse consultant services to child care programs in Colorado on the children, parents, and staff of the centers they serve as part of the Healthy Child Care Colorado (HCCC) initiative. Study participants included 25 child care center directors and 24 nurse consultants, representing large and small centers in…

  9. The Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities national program.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Sarah L; Bussel, Jamie B

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation announced a bold and unprecedented commitment of $500 million to reverse the epidemic of childhood obesity by 2015, especially in communities at greatest risk based on income, race, ethnicity, and geographic location. To support this work, the foundation launched an array of complementary initiatives aimed at building the evidence base, testing advocacy approaches, and supporting on-the-ground action to reverse the childhood obesity epidemic. Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities (HKHC), a 5-year $33.4 million national program, was one of the foundation's earliest such investments. Building on previous successes, HKHC was designed to address the policies, systems, and environments that make it easier for low-income children and their families to engage in physical activity and play and to access healthy food in their communities. As part of its strategy, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded 50 multidisciplinary partnerships across the country, with a special focus on 15 southern states where health disparities were most significant. The selection of Active Living By Design to lead the HKHC National Program Office and Transtria, LLC, to lead the evaluation leveraged these organizations' experience in addressing the systemic issues that contribute to physical inactivity and unhealthy eating, using a broader healthy community lens. Key elements of HKHC included funding, ongoing technical assistance and consultation, a peer learning network, and participatory evaluation. The successes of the HKHC grant program are well documented in this journal as well as through case studies and case reports, spotlights, leadership profiles, and other products available at www.healthykidshealthycommunities.org and http://www.transtria.com/hkhc.php.

  10. Healthy Municipios in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, H E; Llanos, G; Contreras, A; Rocabado, F; Gross, S; Suárez, J; González, J

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the Healthy Municipios movement in Latin America and gives examples of some PAHO projects that could become demonstration projects. The Healthy Municipios movement was established in the early 1990s. The movement aims to promote healthy municipalities according to objectives set forth in the 1987 Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion, the 1992 Declaration of Bogota, and the 1993 Caribbean Health Promotion Charter. The movement is a joint effort of government, the health sector, and the community in promoting health locally. Key features of the movement are its creativity, variety, political strength, and adaptation to local conditions. Technical cooperation serves the purpose of facilitating information exchange and promotes the use of modern techniques of analysis and scientific and technical information. All projects shared the following common features: initiation by the local community with strong political commitment, intersectoral organizational structure, widespread community mobilization and participation, problem solving activities, and a recognizable leader. Pioneering projects include the Comprehensive Project for Cienfuegos, Cuba; the Health Manizales, Colombia; the Network in Mexico; Baruta and El Hatillo, Venezuela; Valdivia, Chile; and San Carlos Canton, Costa Rica. It is concluded that these projects and most others aim to assure equity. These efforts are important for placing health on the political agenda and implementing healthy policies. The Valdivia project, for example, serves a population of about 120,000 in the urban city of Valdivia, the semi-urban area, and rural areas. The project was officially sanctioned by the President of Chile on World Health Day in 1993. Progress was reported in mass communication and school-based programs. Attention was directed also to prevention of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases and to the problem of traffic accidents.

  11. Who participates and why: building a process model of citizen participation.

    PubMed

    Foster-Fishman, Pennie G; Pierce, Steven J; Van Egeren, Laurie A

    2009-06-01

    Initiating and sustaining sufficient levels of participation among residents in low-income and urban neighborhoods have become significant focuses of many initiatives that strive to develop healthy communities. This study examines the factors associated with citizen participation levels in resident leaders and followers in seven low-income neighborhoods in one community. Overall, the findings suggest that different factors facilitate participation in leaders and followers. Leaders are more likely to actively participate in neighborhood and community affairs if they perceive themselves as having the skills needed to organize others and make change happen. Whereas perceived skill levels also matter for followers, these residents are strongly influenced by the norms for activism within their neighborhood. These norms mediate the impact of neighborhood readiness and capacity for change on citizen participation levels. Implications for funders and practitioners interested in promoting healthy communities are discussed.

  12. Opportunistic microorganisms in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Querido, Silvia Maria Rodrigues; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy may cause changes in the resident oral microbiota, with the increase of opportunistic pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of Candida, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of fifty patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and systemically healthy controls. Oral rinsing and subgingival samples were obtained, plated in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, mannitol agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated for 48 h at 37°C. Candida spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified by phenotypic tests, C. dubliniensis, by multiplex PCR, and coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., by the API systems. The number of Candida spp. was significantly higher in tuberculosis patients, and C. albicans was the most prevalent specie. No significant differences in the prevalence of other microorganisms were observed. In conclusion, the antimicrobial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis induced significant increase only in the amounts of Candida spp. PMID:24031759

  13. The effect of a healthy school tuck shop program on the access of students to healthy foods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kirang; Hong, Seo Ah; Yun, Sung Ha; Ryou, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sang Sun; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a healthy school tuck shop program, developed as a way of creating a healthy and nutritional school environment, on students' access to healthy foods. Five middle schools and four high schools (775 students) participated in the healthy school tuck shop program, and nine schools (1,282 students) were selected as the control group. The intervention program included restriction of unhealthy foods sold in tuck shops, provision of various fruits, and indirect nutritional education with promotion of healthy food products. The program evaluation involved the examination of students' purchase and intake patterns of healthy foods, satisfaction with the available foodstuffs, and utilization of and satisfaction with nutritional educational resources. Our results indicated that among of the students who utilized the tuck shop, about 40% purchased fruit products, showing that availability of healthy foods in the tuck shop increased the accessibility of healthy foods for students. Overall food purchase and intake patterns did not significantly change during the intervention period. However, students from the intervention schools reported higher satisfaction with the healthy food products sold in the tuck shop than did those from the control schools (all P < 0.001), and they were highly satisfied with the educational resources provided to them. In conclusion, the healthy school tuck shop program had a positive effect on the accessibility of healthy food. The findings suggest that a healthy school tuck shop may be an effective environmental strategy for promoting students' access to healthy foods.

  14. The effect of a healthy school tuck shop program on the access of students to healthy foods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kirang; Hong, Seo Ah; Yun, Sung Ha; Ryou, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sang Sun

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a healthy school tuck shop program, developed as a way of creating a healthy and nutritional school environment, on students' access to healthy foods. Five middle schools and four high schools (775 students) participated in the healthy school tuck shop program, and nine schools (1,282 students) were selected as the control group. The intervention program included restriction of unhealthy foods sold in tuck shops, provision of various fruits, and indirect nutritional education with promotion of healthy food products. The program evaluation involved the examination of students' purchase and intake patterns of healthy foods, satisfaction with the available foodstuffs, and utilization of and satisfaction with nutritional educational resources. Our results indicated that among of the students who utilized the tuck shop, about 40% purchased fruit products, showing that availability of healthy foods in the tuck shop increased the accessibility of healthy foods for students. Overall food purchase and intake patterns did not significantly change during the intervention period. However, students from the intervention schools reported higher satisfaction with the healthy food products sold in the tuck shop than did those from the control schools (all P < 0.001), and they were highly satisfied with the educational resources provided to them. In conclusion, the healthy school tuck shop program had a positive effect on the accessibility of healthy food. The findings suggest that a healthy school tuck shop may be an effective environmental strategy for promoting students' access to healthy foods. PMID:22586503

  15. The healthy aged

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Marshall; Pike, Andrea; McCrate, Farah; Parsons, Karen; Parsons, Wanda; Pitcher, Heather; Buehler, Sharon; Gadag, Veeresh; Miller, Robert; Sclater, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe a population of cognitively functioning seniors aged 80 years and older who are living independently in the community. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study based on the enrolment cohort of a randomized controlled trial. Setting St John’s, Nfld. Participants A total of 236 cognitively functioning seniors aged 80 years and older living independently in the community. Main outcome measures Demographic characteristics including age, sex, marital status, and education; health status and quality of life measured by the Short Form–36 and the CASP-19 (control, autonomy, self-realization, and pleasure); use of formal and informal community services; satisfaction with family physician care as measured by the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire–18; and use of health care resources (family physician visits, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and laboratory and diagnostic imaging tests). Results Overall, 66.5% of those in the group were women and the average age was 85.5 years. A quarter had postsecondary diplomas or degrees; 54.7% were widowed (69.4% of women and 25.3% of men). The cohort scored well in terms of health status and quality of life, with a range of scores on the Short Form–36 from 57.5 to 93.5 out of 100, and a score of 44 out of 57 on the CASP-19; they were satisfied with the care received from family physicians, with scores between 3.8 and 4.3 out of 5 on the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire–18; and use of health services was low—70% had no emergency department visits in the previous year and 80% had not used any laboratory or diagnostic services. Conclusion Seniors aged 80 years and older living independently are involved in the social fabric of society. They are generally well educated, slightly more than half are widowed, and two-thirds are female. They score well on scales that measure well-being and quality of life, and they use few health services. They are the healthy aged. Trial registration

  16. Healthy Muscles Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my muscles more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles ... If you have been inactive, “start low and go slow” by gradually increasing how often and how ...

  17. Healthy Bones Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my bones more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Reprinted from The Surgeon General’s Report on ... women who don’t smoke, and they often go through menopause earlier. Smokers also may absorb less ...

  18. Healthy Pets and People

    MedlinePlus

    ... Keep Your Pet Healthy Whether you have a dog, cat, horse, parakeet, gerbil, or bearded dragon, providing ... Good Pet Hygiene Make sure to remove your dog’s feces (poop) from your yard or public places ...

  19. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

  20. Healthy Environments for Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... THEY NEED CARE AND AFFECTION IN A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT! ...AT SCHOOL... 2 ...AT HOME... ...EVEN IN THEIR ... SOLUTIONS FOR ALL THESE PROBLEMS... BY PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT, ESPECIALLY RIVERS AND FORESTS, WE CAN IMPROVE THE ...

  1. Healthy grocery shopping

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000336.htm Healthy grocery shopping To use the sharing features on this page, ... a conscious decision about eating that food. Smart Shopping Avoid buying snack foods in bulk and shopping ...

  2. Thalassemia: Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe anemia and possible organ damage from iron overload, respectively. Healthy Choices for People Living with Thalassemia ... Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Related Information UDC System File Formats Help: How do I ...

  3. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, with ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters State of the Air Ask ...

  4. Heart-Healthy Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Heart-Healthy Exercise Lauren Healey Mellett , Gisele Bousquet Download PDF https:// ... if you already have heart disease. How Can Exercise Help? There are many modifiable risk factors for ...

  5. Healthy Living after Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Healthy Living After Stroke Nutrition Good nutrition is one way to reduce ... reviewed on 04/30/2014. Register for the Stroke Rehab Webinar Join rehab experts as they discuss ...

  6. Physical activity and healthy diet: determinants and implicit relationship.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Aida Isabel

    2014-06-01

    People who decide to lose weight by dieting often do so without participating in any associated physical activity. Although some people who participate in sports are unconcerned about their diet, it is generally believed that people who exercise tend to eat a healthy diet and those who do not exercise eat a less healthy diet. There is no clear relationship between the decisions regarding participation in physical activity and eating a healthy diet when choices are taken freely and not influenced by policy factors promoting healthy behaviour. However, these decisions may reveal some common explanatory factors and an implicit link. As such the aim of this study was to identify the common explanatory factors and investigate the existence of an implicit relationship. Econometric estimate - bivariate probit estimation. Using data from the Portuguese National Health Survey, a bivariate probit was undertaken for decisions regarding participation in physical activity and eating a healthy diet. The correlation between the residuals gives information on the implicit relationship between the healthy choices. Common explanatory factors were found between the decisions to eat healthy snacks and participate in physical activity, such as being married. However, holding voluntary private health insurance, smoking, getting older, living alone and unemployment were found to dissuade people from making healthy choices. Positive correlation was found between the residuals of the probit estimations, indicating that other unmeasurable variables have a similar influence on both decisions, such as peer pressure, cultural values, fashion, advertising and risk aversion. Further research is needed to improve understanding of decision making related to participation in physical activity and eating a healthy diet. This will facilitate the design of policies that will make a greater contribution to healthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier

  7. The prevalence of depression in pediatric oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Arabiat, Diana H; Elliott, Barbara; Draper, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression in pediatric oncology patients in Jordan, comparing them with peers who suffered from chronic conditions or were healthy. The authors investigated 58 children with cancer, 56 with chronic illnesses, and 64 healthy controls using the Arabic version of the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). There was no significant difference in CDI scores between children with cancer, children with chronic illnesses, and healthy controls. Using the conventional cutoff point of a score of 20 gives a prevalence of 20.68% for child-reported depression in the cancer group. This is toward the high end of the range for similar studies in other countries. The results suggest that children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy are no more likely to be depressed than children with chronic illnesses or healthy controls, although further research is warranted.

  8. Preoperative expectations and values of patients undergoing Mohs micrographic surgery.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Gary S; Leach, Brian C; Wheless, Lee; Lang, Pearon G; Cook, Joel

    2011-03-01

    Dermatologists have championed Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) for its unsurpassed treatment success for skin cancers, safety profile, cost-effectiveness, and tissue-sparing quality. It is unclear whether patients undergoing MMS also value these characteristics. To evaluate patients' preoperative expectations of MMS and identify the factors that may influence such expectations The study prospectively recruited participants who were newly diagnosed with skin cancer and referred for MMS. A questionnaire listing the characteristics of MMS was given to the participants asking them to score the importance of each characteristic on a 10-point scale. The participants were also asked to provide information regarding their gender, age, subjective health status, education level, family annual income, and their referral source On average, participants placed the highest value, in descending order, on a treatment that yielded the highest cure rate, reconstruction initiation only after complete tumor removal, and the surgeon being a skin cancer specialist. Overall, participants placed high values on characteristics of MMS that dermatologists have long esteemed. Our data corroborate that MMS is a valuable procedure that meets the expectations not just of physicians, but also of patients. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  9. Status of selected nutrients in obese dogs undergoing caloric restriction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that dog plasma concentrations of selected nutrients decrease after undergoing caloric restriction for weight loss. Thirty-one overweight dogs that had successfully lost at least 15% of initial body weight were included in the study. Nutrients that had been previously identified to be at potential risk of deficiency during caloric restriction were measured in plasma (choline, amino acids) and urine (selenium) at the initiation and completion of a standardized weight loss regimen in dogs. Results Dogs remained healthy throughout the study, and no signs attributable to nutrient deficiency were noted. Percentage weight loss was 28.3% (16.0-40.1%) starting body weight, over a period of 250 days (91–674 days). Median energy intake during the weight loss period was 62 (44 to 74) Kcal/kg0.75 target weight per day. Choline (P = 0.046) and threonine (P = 0.02) decreased after weight loss. Glycine (P = 0.041), and urinary selenium:creatinine ratio (P = 0.006) both increased after weight loss. There were no other significant differences in plasma nutrient concentrations. Conclusions Since concentrations of most measured nutrients did not change significantly, the data are not consistent with widespread nutrient deficiency in dogs undergoing caloric restriction using a diet formulated for weight loss. However, the significance of the decrease in plasma choline concentration requires further assessment. PMID:24156605

  10. Attentional bias modification encourages healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Kakoschke, Naomi; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2014-01-01

    The continual exposure to unhealthy food cues in the environment encourages poor dietary habits, in particular consuming too much fat and sugar, and not enough fruit and vegetables. According to Berridge's (2009) model of food reward, unhealthy eating is a behavioural response to biased attentional processing. The present study used an established attentional bias modification paradigm to discourage the consumption of unhealthy food and instead promote healthy eating. Participants were 146 undergraduate women who were randomly assigned to two groups: one was trained to direct their attention toward pictures of healthy food ('attend healthy' group) and the other toward unhealthy food ('attend unhealthy' group). It was found that participants trained to attend to healthy food cues demonstrated an increased attentional bias for such cues and ate relatively more of the healthy than unhealthy snacks compared to the 'attend unhealthy' group. Theoretically, the results support the postulated link between biased attentional processing and consumption (Berridge, 2009). At a practical level, they offer potential scope for interventions that focus on eating well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PETE Students' Perceptions of a Healthy and Active Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Pennington, Todd; Barney, David; Lockhart, Barbara; Hager, Ron; Prusak, Keven

    2014-01-01

    Participants were male and female students (n = 12) in a physical education teacher education (PETE) program with a healthy and active lifestyle management (HALM) focus, at a university in the Intermountain West. The purpose of the study was to examine PETE students' perceptions of a healthy and active lifestyle (HAL). Following inductive content…

  12. PETE Students' Perceptions of a Healthy and Active Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Pennington, Todd; Barney, David; Lockhart, Barbara; Hager, Ron; Prusak, Keven

    2014-01-01

    Participants were male and female students (n = 12) in a physical education teacher education (PETE) program with a healthy and active lifestyle management (HALM) focus, at a university in the Intermountain West. The purpose of the study was to examine PETE students' perceptions of a healthy and active lifestyle (HAL). Following inductive content…

  13. Coalition releases declaration for healthy and productive oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-06-01

    Coalition releases declaration for healthy and productive oceans A coalition of 13 countries or federal agencies participating in a new Global Partnership for Oceans (GPO) indicated its support for a “Declaration for Healthy and Productive Oceans to Help Reduce Poverty” on 16 June, just prior to the Rio+20 conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  14. Hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant: the importance of sunlight exposure.

    PubMed

    Vilarta, Cristiane F; Unger, Marianna D; Dos Reis, Luciene M; Dominguez, Wagner V; David-Neto, Elias; Moysés, Rosa M; Titan, Silvia; Custodio, Melani R; Hernandez, Mariel J; Jorgetti, Vanda

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies have shown a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 30 ng/ml, in both healthy populations and patients with chronic kidney disease. Patients undergoing kidney transplant are at an increased risk of skin cancer and are advised to avoid sunlight exposure. Therefore, these patients might share two major risk factors for hypovitaminosis D: chronic kidney disease and low sunlight exposure. This paper describes the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hypovitaminosis D among patients undergoing kidney transplant. We evaluated 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in a representative sample of patients undergoing kidney transplant. We sought to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, compare these patients with a control group, and identify factors associated with hypovitaminosis D (e.g., sunlight exposure and dietary habits). Hypovitaminosis D was found in 79% of patients undergoing kidney transplant, and the major associated factor was low sunlight exposure. These patients had higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone serum levels, with 25-hydroxyvitamin D being inversely correlated with intact parathyroid hormone serum levels. Compared with the control group, patients undergoing kidney transplant presented a higher prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and lower serum calcium, phosphate and albumin but higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone levels. Our results confirmed the high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant. Therapeutic strategies such as moderate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation should be seriously considered for this population.

  15. Hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant: the importance of sunlight exposure

    PubMed Central

    Vilarta, Cristiane F.; Unger, Marianna D.; dos Reis, Luciene M.; Dominguez, Wagner V.; David-Neto, Elias; Moysés, Rosa M.; Titan, Silvia; Custodio, Melani R.; Hernandez, Mariel J.; Jorgetti, Vanda

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 30 ng/ml, in both healthy populations and patients with chronic kidney disease. Patients undergoing kidney transplant are at an increased risk of skin cancer and are advised to avoid sunlight exposure. Therefore, these patients might share two major risk factors for hypovitaminosis D: chronic kidney disease and low sunlight exposure. This paper describes the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hypovitaminosis D among patients undergoing kidney transplant. METHODS: We evaluated 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in a representative sample of patients undergoing kidney transplant. We sought to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, compare these patients with a control group, and identify factors associated with hypovitaminosis D (e.g., sunlight exposure and dietary habits). RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D was found in 79% of patients undergoing kidney transplant, and the major associated factor was low sunlight exposure. These patients had higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone serum levels, with 25-hydroxyvitamin D being inversely correlated with intact parathyroid hormone serum levels. Compared with the control group, patients undergoing kidney transplant presented a higher prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and lower serum calcium, phosphate and albumin but higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirmed the high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant. Therapeutic strategies such as moderate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation should be seriously considered for this population. PMID:28793001

  16. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index of Water-Related Topics Featured Partners Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global WASH Other Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related ...

  17. Federal participation in LEED

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher; Dyer, Beverly

    2004-11-10

    The federal government has been an active participant in the development and use of USGBC's Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design Green Building Rating System (LEED). This paper presents a review of this participation and some expectations for ongoing partnership.

  18. Participative Training Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, John

    Based on extensive field experience, this two-part book is intended to be a practical guide for maximizing participative training methods. The first part of the book looks at the principles and the core skills involved in participative training. It shows how trainee participation corresponds to the processes of adult learning and describes each…

  19. Participative Training Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, John

    Based on extensive field experience, this two-part book is intended to be a practical guide for maximizing participative training methods. The first part of the book looks at the principles and the core skills involved in participative training. It shows how trainee participation corresponds to the processes of adult learning and describes each…

  20. School Lunch Program Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucchino, Lori; Ranney, Christine K.

    1990-01-01

    Reductions in participation in National School Lunch Program in 1981-82 are of concern to hunger groups and legislators. Extent to which Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Acts (OBRA) of 1980-81 contributes to participation decline was measured by simulation model in New York State. Results suggest that OBRA increased participation; declining…

  1. Widening Participation: What Works?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In this brief article, the author talks about what--other than money--works to widen higher education (HE) participation for adult learners. He also discusses the problems in trying to discover what works to widen participation for adults. One problem is that the decision to participate in any formal learning episode, including HE, is not a simple…

  2. Ambivalence toward undergoing invasive prenatal testing: an exploration of its origins

    PubMed Central

    Sapp, Julie Chevalier; Hull, Sara Chandros; Duffer, Shelby; Zornetzer, Sarah; Sutton, Erica; Marteau, Theresa M; Biesecker, Barbara Bowles

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study explores ambivalence toward undergoing amniocentesis among pregnant women with overall positive attitudes. Its novelty lies in the characterization of the type and origins of the ambivalence. Method Thirty-six women between 35 and 44 years of age were recruited from a U.S. prenatal testing center to participate in structured telephone interviews. Results Thirty women chose to undergo testing. Attitudes toward undergoing amniocentesis were generally positive, although all participants simultaneously described feeling ambivalent. The women desired the information that amniocentesis could provide yet did not want to place their fetus at risk. Participants cited religious, moral, ethical, and intellectual values important in shaping their attitudes toward undergoing amniocentesis. Important referents such as partners, other pregnant women, family members, and physicians influenced their decisions. Conclusion Tensions were evident among the intellectual, moral, and spiritual values that contribute to ambivalence toward undergoing amniocentesis. Illuminating and discussing such tensions during the genetic counseling sessions prior to testing may resolve some of this ambivalence and thereby increase the quality of decisions women make. PMID:19924734

  3. Ambivalence toward undergoing invasive prenatal testing: an exploration of its origins.

    PubMed

    Sapp, Julie Chevalier; Hull, Sara Chandros; Duffer, Shelby; Zornetzer, Sarah; Sutton, Erica; Marteau, Theresa M; Biesecker, Barbara Bowles

    2010-01-01

    This study explores ambivalence toward undergoing amniocentesis among pregnant women with overall positive attitudes. Its novelty lies in the characterization of the type and origins of the ambivalence. Thirty-six women between 35 and 44 years of age were recruited from a US prenatal testing center to participate in structured telephone interviews. Thirty women chose to undergo testing. Attitudes toward undergoing amniocentesis were generally positive, although all participants simultaneously described feeling ambivalent. The women desired the information that amniocentesis could provide yet did not want to place their fetus at risk. Participants cited religious, moral, ethical and intellectual values important in shaping their attitudes toward undergoing amniocentesis. Important referents such as partners, other pregnant women, family members and physicians influenced their decisions. Tensions were evident among the intellectual, moral and spiritual values that contribute to ambivalence toward undergoing amniocentesis. Illuminating and discussing such tensions during the genetic counseling sessions prior to testing may resolve some of this ambivalence and thereby increase the quality of decisions women make. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Healthy human gut phageome

    PubMed Central

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20–50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health. PMID:27573828

  5. Serum Sclerostin Increases in Healthy Adult Men during Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Pajevic, P. Divieti; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, J. D.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton's response to mechanical unloading in part by an increase in sclerostin. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Objective: We determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men undergoing controlled bed rest. Design, Setting, and Participants: Seven healthy adult men (31 ± 3 yr old) underwent 90 d of 6° head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch Institute for Translational Sciences-Clinical Research Center. Outcomes: Serum sclerostin, PTH, vitamin D, bone resorption and formation markers, urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24-h pooled urinary markers of bone resorption were evaluated before bed rest [baseline (BL)] and at bed rest d 28 (BR-28), d 60 (BR-60), and d 90 (BR-90). Bone mineral density was measured at BL, BR-60, and 5 d after the end of the study (BR+5). Data are reported as mean ± sd. Results: Consistent with prior reports, bone mineral density declined significantly (1–2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites. Serum sclerostin was elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29 ± 20%; P = 0.003) and BR-60 (+42 ± 31%; P < 0.001), with a lesser increase at BR-90 (+22 ± 21%; P = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (−17 ± 16%; P = 0.02) and BR-60 (−24 ± 14%; P = 0.03) and remained lower than BL at BR-90 (−21 ± 21%; P = 0.14), but did not reach statistical significance. Serum bone turnover markers were unchanged; however, urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated at all time points after bed rest (P < 0.01). Conclusions: In healthy men subjected to controlled bed rest for 90 d, serum sclerostin increased, with a peak at 60, whereas serum PTH declined, and urinary calcium and bone resorption markers increased. PMID:22767636

  6. Formal education of patients about to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Vaughan, Jessica; Davidson, Brian R

    2014-02-28

    Generally, before being operated on, patients will be given informal information by the healthcare providers involved in the care of the patients (doctors, nurses, ward clerks, or healthcare assistants). This information can also be provided formally in different formats including written information, formal lectures, or audio-visual recorded information. To compare the benefits and harms of formal preoperative patient education for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2, 2013), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded to March 2013. We included only randomised clinical trials irrespective of language and publication status. Two review authors independently extracted the data. We planned to calculate the risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI for continuous outcomes based on intention-to-treat analyses when data were available. A total of 431 participants undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised to formal patient education (215 participants) versus standard care (216 participants) in four trials. The patient education included verbal education, multimedia DVD programme, computer-based multimedia programme, and Power Point presentation in the four trials. All the trials were of high risk of bias. One trial including 212 patients reported mortality. There was no mortality in either group in this trial. None of the trials reported surgery-related morbidity, quality of life, proportion of patients discharged as day-procedure laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the length of hospital stay, return to work, or the number of unplanned visits to the doctor. There were insufficient details to calculate the mean difference and 95% CI for the difference in pain scores at 9 to 24 hours (1 trial; 93 patients); and we did not identify clear evidence of

  7. Oklahoma Healthy Homes initiative.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fahad

    2011-01-01

    Compelling scientific evidence suggests that a strong association exists between housing-related hazards and the health and safety of their residents. Health, safety, and environmental hazards (such as asthma and allergy triggers), unintentional injury hazards, lead-based paint hazards, and poor indoor air quality are interrelated with substandard housing conditions. This article describes a Healthy Homes initiative to address these hazards in a coordinated fashion in the home, rather than taking a categorical approach, even in the presence of multiple hazards. It also provides an overview of Oklahoma's Healthy Homes initiative and its pilot project, the Tulsa Safe and Healthy Housing Project, which is currently administered in Tulsa in collaboration with Children First, Oklahoma's Nurse-Family Partnership program. This pilot project seeks to open new areas of research that can lead to a greater understanding of environmental health issues related to substandard housing in the United States, which will eventually make homes safer and healthier.

  8. Pre-surgical Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Asthma Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Türk, Yasemin; van Huisstede, Astrid; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Taube, Christian; Braunstahl, Gert-Jan

    2017-08-22

    This pilot study was performed to investigate the feasibility of pre-surgical pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in morbidly obese patients with uncontrolled asthma, undergoing bariatric surgery. Four morbidly obese female patients with asthma participated in a 12-week PR program (exercise, diet, and psychological intervention) before undergoing bariatric surgery, and the outcomes were compared to a matched group of seven female controls (bariatric surgery only). In patients who participated in PR, asthma control and asthma quality of life improved dramatically after 3 months of PR. Besides, asthma control was better at the moment of surgery. The results of this pilot study show that PR is feasible in morbidly obese asthmatics and should be considered for a selected group of patients with uncontrolled asthma before undergoing bariatric surgery.

  9. Indicators for Healthy Ageing — A Debate

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Judith; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Hinrichs, Timo; Mergenthaler, Andreas; Stein, Janine; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Grill, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Definitions of healthy ageing include survival to a specific age, being free of chronic diseases, autonomy in activities of daily living, wellbeing, good quality of life, high social participation, only mild cognitive or functional impairment, and little or no disability. The working group Epidemiology of Ageing of the German Association of Epidemiology organized a workshop in 2012 with the aim to present different indicators used in German studies and to discuss their impact on health for an ageing middle-European population. Workshop presentations focused on prevalence of chronic diseases and multimorbidity, development of healthy life expectancy at the transition to oldest-age, physical activity, assessment of cognitive capability, and functioning and disability in old age. The communication describes the results regarding specific indicators for Germany, and hereby contributes to the further development of a set of indicators for the assessment of healthy ageing. PMID:24317381

  10. Ceramides and barrier function in healthy skin.

    PubMed

    Mutanu Jungersted, Jakob; Hellgren, Lars I; Høgh, Julie K; Drachmann, T; Jemec, Gregor B E; Agner, Tove

    2010-07-01

    Lipids in the stratum corneum are key components in the barrier function of the skin. Changes in lipid composition related to eczematous diseases are well known, but limited data are available on variations within healthy skin. The objective of the present study was to compare ceramide subgroups and ceramide/cholesterol ratios in young, old, male and female healthy skin. A total of 55 participants with healthy skin was included in the study. Lipid profiles were correlated with transepidermal water loss and with information on dry skin from a questionnaire including 16 people. No statistically significant differences were found between young and old skin for ceramide subgroups or ceramide/cholesterol ratios, and there was no statistically significant correlation between answers about dry skin and ceramide levels. Interestingly, a statistically significant higher ceramide/cholesterol ratio was found for men than for women (p = 0.02).

  11. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  12. Social Participation and Older Adults’ Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jen-Hao; Lauderdale, Diane; Waite, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Sleep complaints are common among older adults, and poor sleep has been found to predict chronic diseases and mortality. Many studies suggest that social participation benefits healthy aging. We examined the relationships between older adults’ social participation and their sleep using two waves (2005–2006–2010–2011) of data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). The NSHAP recorded older adults’ social participation (including religious attendance, volunteer work, and attendance at meetings of organized groups) over five years, and included self-reported sleep duration in both waves and, in the second wave, measures of insomnia symptoms and measures of sleep patterns and rhythms using actigraphy for a subsample. Cross-sectional analysis of the second wave indicates that those reporting higher levels of social participation had better actigraphic sleep but not better self-reported sleep. However, longitudinal analysis suggests that change in social participation was not associated with actigraphic or self-reported sleep characteristics in the second wave data. Further analysis using fixed-effects models showed no association between changes in social participation and changes in self-reported sleep duration. Thus, although older adults with greater social participation slept better, we did not find that increasing social participation improved sleep. These findings imply that a self-selection process may at work; or if social participation does affect sleep, the causal effect may be over a much shorter time frame than five years. PMID:26724432

  13. Social participation and older adults' sleep.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Hao; Lauderdale, Diane S; Waite, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Sleep complaints are common among older adults, and poor sleep has been found to predict chronic diseases and mortality. Many studies suggest that social participation benefits healthy aging. We examined the relationships between older adults' social participation and their sleep using two waves (2005-2006, 2010-2011) of data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). The NSHAP recorded older adults' social participation (including religious attendance, volunteer work, and attendance at meetings of organized groups) over five years, and included self-reported sleep duration in both waves and, in the second wave, measures of insomnia symptoms and measures of sleep patterns and rhythms using actigraphy for a subsample. Cross-sectional analysis of the second wave indicates that those reporting higher levels of social participation had better actigraphic sleep but not better self-reported sleep. However, longitudinal analysis suggests that change in social participation was not associated with actigraphic or self-reported sleep characteristics in the second wave data. Further analysis using fixed-effects model showed no association between change in social participation and change in self-reported sleep duration. Thus, although older adults with greater social participation slept better, we did not find that increasing social participation improved sleep. These findings imply that a self-selection process may at work; or if social participation does affect sleep, the causal effect may be over a much shorter time frame than five years.

  14. Deficient Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation in Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Jared W; Cody, Mark J; McManus, Meghann P; Pulsipher, Michael A; Schiffman, Joshua D; Yost, Christian Con

    2016-01-01

    Overwhelming infection causes significant morbidity and mortality among patients treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for primary immune deficiencies, syndromes of bone marrow failure, or cancer. The polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN; neutrophil) is the first responder to microbial invasion and acts within the innate immune system to contain and clear infections. PMNs contain, and possibly clear, infections in part by forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are extensive lattices of extracellular DNA and decondensed chromatin decorated with antimicrobial proteins and degradative enzymes, such as histones, myeloperoxidase, and neutrophil elastase. They trap and contain microbes, including bacteria and fungi, and may directly affect extracellular microbial killing. Whether or not deficient NET formation contributes to the increased risk for overwhelming infection in patients undergoing BMT remains incompletely characterized, especially in the pediatric population. We examined NET formation in vitro in PMNs isolated from 24 patients who had undergone BMT for 13 different clinical indications. For these 24 study participants, the median age was 7 years. For 6 of the 24 patients, we examined NET formation by PMNs isolated from serial, peripheral blood samples drawn at three different clinical time points: pre-BMT, pre-engraftment, and post-engraftment. We found decreased NET formation by PMNs isolated from patients prior to BMT and during the pre-engraftment and post-engraftment phases, with decreased NET formation compared with healthy control PMNs detected even out to 199 days after their BMT. This decrease in NET formation after BMT did not result from neutrophil developmental immaturity as we demonstrated that >80% of the PMNs tested using flow cytometry expressed both CD10 and CD16 as markers of terminal differentiation along the neutrophilic lineage. These pilot study results mandate further exploration regarding the mechanisms or factors

  15. Deficient Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation in Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Jared W.; Cody, Mark J.; McManus, Meghann P.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Yost, Christian Con

    2016-01-01

    Overwhelming infection causes significant morbidity and mortality among patients treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for primary immune deficiencies, syndromes of bone marrow failure, or cancer. The polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN; neutrophil) is the first responder to microbial invasion and acts within the innate immune system to contain and clear infections. PMNs contain, and possibly clear, infections in part by forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are extensive lattices of extracellular DNA and decondensed chromatin decorated with antimicrobial proteins and degradative enzymes, such as histones, myeloperoxidase, and neutrophil elastase. They trap and contain microbes, including bacteria and fungi, and may directly affect extracellular microbial killing. Whether or not deficient NET formation contributes to the increased risk for overwhelming infection in patients undergoing BMT remains incompletely characterized, especially in the pediatric population. We examined NET formation in vitro in PMNs isolated from 24 patients who had undergone BMT for 13 different clinical indications. For these 24 study participants, the median age was 7 years. For 6 of the 24 patients, we examined NET formation by PMNs isolated from serial, peripheral blood samples drawn at three different clinical time points: pre-BMT, pre-engraftment, and post-engraftment. We found decreased NET formation by PMNs isolated from patients prior to BMT and during the pre-engraftment and post-engraftment phases, with decreased NET formation compared with healthy control PMNs detected even out to 199 days after their BMT. This decrease in NET formation after BMT did not result from neutrophil developmental immaturity as we demonstrated that >80% of the PMNs tested using flow cytometry expressed both CD10 and CD16 as markers of terminal differentiation along the neutrophilic lineage. These pilot study results mandate further exploration regarding the mechanisms or factors

  16. Healthy Schools Network, 2011 Yearbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the 2011 Yearbook of the Healthy Schools Network. This yearbook contains: (1) Tough Time To Be a Child: Parents and Taxpayers Should Be Enraged; (2) National Coalition For Healthier Schools: Healthy Schools 2015--Sustaining Momentum In Tough Times; (3) Healthy Schools Heroes Award Program; (4) National Healthy Schools Day…

  17. Healthy People 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, Catherine M.

    2001-01-01

    Major Healthy People (HP) 2000 goals closely tied to prevention were not met nationally: physical activity did not improve; evidence that it actually decreased; obesity did not decrease but instead increased in all groups, actually doubling in children; and incidence of type 2 diabetes did not decrease, but instead evidence showed that it increased in all age groups.

  18. Keeping Kids Healthy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Sharon; And Others

    This pamphlet offers a collection of items relating to child health in the day care setting. Included is an overview of a collaborative project to develop a comprehensive set of national standards for health, nutrition, safety, and sanitation in child care programs. Contents of the project's resource kit, "Keeping Kids Healthy and Parents at…

  19. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly-Foley, Georgina

    2016-08-31

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The CPD article discussed strategies to promote healthy sleep. It considered theories related to the function of sleep and the potential consequences of sleep deficit.

  20. Keeping Kids Healthy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Sharon; And Others

    This pamphlet offers a collection of items relating to child health in the day care setting. Included is an overview of a collaborative project to develop a comprehensive set of national standards for health, nutrition, safety, and sanitation in child care programs. Contents of the project's resource kit, "Keeping Kids Healthy and Parents at…

  1. Healthy People 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, Catherine M.

    2001-01-01

    Major Healthy People (HP) 2000 goals closely tied to prevention were not met nationally: physical activity did not improve; evidence that it actually decreased; obesity did not decrease but instead increased in all groups, actually doubling in children; and incidence of type 2 diabetes did not decrease, but instead evidence showed that it increased in all age groups.

  2. Credentialing for participation in clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Followill, David S.; Urie, Marcia; Galvin, James M.; Ulin, Kenneth; Xiao, Ying; FitzGerald, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical cooperative groups have been instrumental over the past 50 years in developing clinical trials and evidence-based clinical trial processes for improvements in patient care. The cooperative groups are undergoing a transformation process to launch, conduct, and publish clinical trials more rapidly. Institutional participation in clinical trials can be made more efficient and include the expansion of relationships with international partners. This paper reviews the current processes that are in use in radiation therapy trials and the importance of maintaining effective credentialing strategies to assure the quality of the outcomes of clinical trials. The paper offers strategies to streamline and harmonize credentialing tools and processes moving forward as the NCI undergoes transformative change in the conduct of clinical trials. PMID:23272300

  3. Red blood cell transfusion for people undergoing hip fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, Susan J; Millette, Sarah L; Shokoohi, Ali; Pulford, E C; Doree, Carolyn; Murphy, Michael F; Stanworth, Simon

    2015-04-21

    The incidence of hip fracture is increasing and it is more common with increasing age. Surgery is used for almost all hip fractures. Blood loss occurs as a consequence of both the fracture and the surgery and thus red blood cell transfusion is frequently used. However, red blood cell transfusion is not without risks. Therefore, it is important to identify the evidence for the effective and safe use of red blood cell transfusion in people with hip fracture. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of red blood cell transfusion in people undergoing surgery for hip fracture. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (31 October 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, 2014, Issue 10), MEDLINE (January 1946 to 20 November 2014), EMBASE (January 1974 to 20 November 2014), CINAHL (January 1982 to 20 November 2014), British Nursing Index Database (January 1992 to 20 November 2014), the Systematic Review Initiative's Transfusion Evidence Library, PubMed for e-publications, various other databases and ongoing trial registers. Randomised controlled trials comparing red blood cell transfusion versus no transfusion or an alternative to transfusion, different transfusion protocols or different transfusion thresholds in people undergoing surgery for hip fracture. Three review authors independently assessed each study's risk of bias and extracted data using a study-specific form. We pooled data where there was homogeneity in the trial comparisons and the timing of outcome measurement. We used GRADE criteria to assess the quality (low, moderate or high) of the evidence for each outcome. We included six trials (2722 participants): all compared two thresholds for red blood cell transfusion: a 'liberal' strategy to maintain a haemoglobin concentration of usually 10 g/dL versus a more 'restrictive' strategy based on symptoms of anaemia or a lower haemoglobin concentration, usually 8 g/dL. The exact

  4. Improving risk estimates for metabolically healthy obesity and mortality using a refined healthy reference group.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark; Johnson, William; Bell, Joshua A

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to re-examine mortality risk estimates for metabolically healthy obesity by using a 'stable' healthy non-obese referent group. Prospective cohort study. Participants were 5427 men and women (aged 65.9 ± 9.4 years, 45.9% men) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) (vs non-obese as below this threshold). Based on blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glycated hemoglobin and C-reactive protein, participants were classified as 'healthy' (0 or 1 metabolic abnormality) or 'unhealthy' (≥2 metabolic abnormalities). Totally, 671 deaths were observed over an average follow-up of 8 years. When defining the referent group based on 1 clinical assessment, the unhealthy non-obese (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.45) and unhealthy obese (HR = 1.29; CI: 1.05, 1.60) were at greater risk of all-cause mortality compared to the healthy non-obese, yet no excess risk was seen in the healthy obese (HR = 1.14; CI: 0.83, 1.52). When we re-defined the referent group based on 2 clinical assessments, effect estimates were accentuated and healthy obesity was at increased risk of mortality (HR = 2.67; CI: 1.64, 4.34). An unstable healthy referent group may make 'healthy obesity' appear less harmful by obscuring the benefits of remaining never obese without metabolic dysfunction. © 2017 The authors.

  5. Phase Transition in a Healthy Human Heart Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyono, Ken; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Aoyagi, Naoko; Togo, Fumiharu; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2005-07-01

    A healthy human heart rate displays complex fluctuations which share characteristics of physical systems in a critical state. We demonstrate that the human heart rate in healthy individuals undergoes a dramatic breakdown of criticality characteristics, reminiscent of continuous second order phase transitions. By studying the germane determinants, we show that the hallmark of criticality—highly correlated fluctuations—is observed only during usual daily activity, and a breakdown of these characteristics occurs in prolonged, strenuous exercise and sleep. This finding is the first reported discovery of the dynamical phase transition phenomenon in a biological control system and will be a key to understanding the heart rate control system in health and disease.

  6. Patterns of public participation.

    PubMed

    Slutsky, Jean; Tumilty, Emma; Max, Catherine; Lu, Lanting; Tantivess, Sripen; Hauegen, Renata Curi; Whitty, Jennifer A; Weale, Albert; Pearson, Steven D; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Wang, Hufeng; Staniszewska, Sophie; Weerasuriya, Krisantha; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Cubillos, Leonardo

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - The paper summarizes data from 12 countries, chosen to exhibit wide variation, on the role and place of public participation in the setting of priorities. The purpose of this paper is to exhibit cross-national patterns in respect of public participation, linking those differences to institutional features of the countries concerned. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is an example of case-orientated qualitative assessment of participation practices. It derives its data from the presentation of country case studies by experts on each system. The country cases are located within the historical development of democracy in each country. Findings - Patterns of participation are widely variable. Participation that is effective through routinized institutional processes appears to be inversely related to contestatory participation that uses political mobilization to challenge the legitimacy of the priority setting process. No system has resolved the conceptual ambiguities that are implicit in the idea of public participation. Originality/value - The paper draws on a unique collection of country case studies in participatory practice in prioritization, supplementing existing published sources. In showing that contestatory participation plays an important role in a sub-set of these countries it makes an important contribution to the field because it broadens the debate about public participation in priority setting beyond the use of minipublics and the observation of public representatives on decision-making bodies.

  7. Healthy eating habits protect against temptations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Wood, Wendy; Monterosso, John

    2016-08-01

    Can healthy food-choice habits protect people against temptations of consuming large portion sizes and unhealthy foods? In two studies, we show that the answer is yes, good habits serve this protective role, at least in contexts in which people are not deliberating and thus fall back on habitual responses. In the first study, participants trained with unhealthy habits to approach eating chocolate, but not those trained with healthy habits, succumbed to temptation and ate more chocolates when their self-control resources were depleted. Study 2 extended and clarified these findings by demonstrating the role of environmental cues in eliciting healthy habits when self-control resources are depleted. Participants who had been trained to choose carrots habitually to a pictorial stimulus (i.e., habit cue) subsequently resisted choosing M&Ms as long as the cue was present. This effect of habit cues on healthy food choices suggests the usefulness of manipulating such cues as a means of meeting self-regulatory goals such as portion control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [The health of adults undergoing an eviction process].

    PubMed

    Bolívar Muñoz, Julia; Bernal Solano, Mariola; Mateo Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Daponte Codina, Antonio; Escudero Espinosa, Cecilia; Sánchez Cantalejo, Carmen; González Usera, Isis; Robles Ortega, Humbelina; Mata Martín, José Luis; Fernández Santaella, M Carmen; Vila Castellar, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    To analyze perceived health status and other health-related indicators in the adult population in Granada (Spain) undergoing an eviction process from their homes, whether rented or owned, in comparison with health indicators in the general adult population in Andalusia. A cross-sectional survey was administered by trained staff. The survey included instruments from the Andalusian Health Survey 2011 for measuring variables related to physical and mental health, as well as health-related habits. We compared the results with those obtained from the Andalusian general population through the Andalusian Health Survey. A bivariate analysis using the χ2 test and a multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted. We obtained a total sample of 205 people in the process of eviction. A total of 59.5% (n=122) were women, and 40.5% (n=83) were men. Participants were more likely to have poor health (odds ratio [OR]: 12.63, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 8.74-18.27), have cardiovascular diseases (OR: 3.08; 95%CI: 1.54- 6.16), or to smoke (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.21-2.33) compared with the Andalusian general population. Most of the health indicators analyzed showed a worse outcome for women undergoing an eviction process. Our results suggest that, in the current context of economic crisis, people undergoing a process of eviction in Granada and its metropolitan area show poorer health than the Andalusian general population. Further research is needed on health and evictions from different methodological approaches, for a better understanding of the topic. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Perioperative Methylprednisolone and Outcome in Neonates Undergoing Heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jennifer S.; He, Xia; Jacobs, Marshall L.; O’Brien, Sean M.; Hall, Matthew; Jaquiss, Robert D. B.; Welke, Karl F.; Peterson, Eric D.; Shah, Samir S.; Gaynor, J. William; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have called into question the benefit of perioperative corticosteroids in children undergoing heart surgery, but have been limited by the lack of placebo control, limited power, and grouping of various steroid regimens together in analysis. We evaluated outcomes across methylprednisolone regimens versus no steroids in a large cohort of neonates. METHODS: Clinical data from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database were linked to medication data from the Pediatric Health Information Systems Database for neonates (≤30 days) undergoing heart surgery (2004–2008) at 25 participating centers. Multivariable analysis adjusting for patient and center characteristics, surgical risk category, and within-center clustering was used to evaluate the association of methylprednisolone regimen with outcome. RESULTS: A total of 3180 neonates were included: 22% received methylprednisolone on both the day before and day of surgery, 12% on the day before surgery only, and 28% on the day of surgery only; 38% did not receive any perioperative steroids. In multivariable analysis, there was no significant mortality or length-of-stay benefit associated with any methylprednisolone regimen versus no steroids, and no difference in postoperative infection. In subgroup analysis by surgical-risk group, there was a significant association of methylprednisolone with infection consistent across all regimens (overall odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.3–5.2) in the lower-surgical-risk group. CONCLUSIONS: This multicenter observational analysis did not find any benefit associated with methylprednisolone in neonates undergoing heart surgery and suggested increased infection in certain subgroups. These data reinforce the need for a large randomized trial in this population. PMID:22271697

  10. Classroom Teachers' Efficacy in Teaching Healthy Behaviour Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Cothran, Donetta; Kloeppel, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    This study, grounded in Self-Efficacy Theory, investigated classroom teachers' self-efficacy changes related to teaching healthy behaviour content after participating in ongoing workshops. Participants were 50 male and female teachers at the primary (n = 17) and secondary (n = 33) levels from two schools in one Native American community. Teacher…

  11. Children's Participation in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig

    2012-01-01

    In (post) modern society children are seen as active subjects and participants who have a legitimate basis in the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child. As a consequence of this, children are able to play an active role in the planning of/and participation in both education and research in their own preschool settings. This article…

  12. Outdoor recreation participation trends

    Treesearch

    H. Ken Cordell; Barbara L. McDonald; R. Jeff Teasley; John C. Bergstrom; Jack Martin; Jim Bason; Vernon R. Leeworthy

    1999-01-01

    As part of the national assessment of outdoor recreation trends, the authors have taken a look at participation patterns and levels of participation across activities and across segments of our society. The primary source of data is the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE). The NSRE is the latest in the continuing series of National Recreation...

  13. Reduction of Cortisol Levels and Participants' Responses Following Art Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaimal, Girija; Ray, Kendra; Muniz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of visual art making on the cortisol levels of 39 healthy adults. Participants provided saliva samples to assess cortisol levels before and after 45 minutes of art making. Participants also provided written responses about the experience at the end of the session. Results indicate that art…

  14. Reduction of Cortisol Levels and Participants' Responses Following Art Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaimal, Girija; Ray, Kendra; Muniz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of visual art making on the cortisol levels of 39 healthy adults. Participants provided saliva samples to assess cortisol levels before and after 45 minutes of art making. Participants also provided written responses about the experience at the end of the session. Results indicate that art…

  15. Obesity, Poverty, and Participation in Nutrition Assistance Programs: Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The national nutrition safety net consists of 15 programs that provide millions of low-income Americans access to a healthy and nutritious diet. It has been observed that many low income individuals are both overweight and participants in one or more nutrition assistance programs. This has led some to question whether participation in the…

  16. Obesity, Poverty, and Participation in Nutrition Assistance Programs: Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The national nutrition safety net consists of 15 programs that provide millions of low-income Americans access to a healthy and nutritious diet. It has been observed that many low income individuals are both overweight and participants in one or more nutrition assistance programs. This has led some to question whether participation in the…

  17. Depression and Political Participation*

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument—whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group. PMID:26924857

  18. Depression and Political Participation.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument-whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group.

  19. Supporting and Empowering Nurses Undergoing Critical Care Certification.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Geneviève; St-Louis, Lyne; Alderson, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Nurses working in critical care settings face multiple sources of stress, such as complex clinical situations and the use of new advanced technologies, which can affect their psychological health. Literature suggests that the promotion of educational activities, such as a certification process within a specialty, can contribute to nurses' empowerment, professional growth, and personal satisfaction. However, it is of utmost importance that the institutional organizations support nurses undergoing the certification process to optimize positive impacts of this educational activity on the nurses, on the patients, and within the institutions. In the course of a graduate studies stage, an educational program aiming at supporting and creating an empowering environment for nurses undergoing a critical care certification process was developed and implemented, in a Canadian intensive care unit, over a 7-month period. The Humanist model was used as a theoretical framework and was complemented by the problem-based learning pedagogical approach. A postintervention qualitative questionnaire revealed that the program was tailored to nurses' learning needs and that participants felt supported by their institution throughout the process. This program could help institutions support nurses in achieving higher professional and personal development levels through specialty certification.

  20. Kidney Function in Severely Obese Adolescents Undergoing Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Nianzhou; Jenkins, Todd M; Nehus, Edward; Inge, Thomas H; Michalsky, Marc P; Harmon, Carroll M.; Helmrath, Michael A.; Brandt, Mary L.; Courcoulas, Anita; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Mitsnefes, Mark M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe objective measures of kidney function and analyze factors associated with kidney dysfunction in severely obese adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery. Design and Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 242 adolescent participants in the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) study before weight loss surgery. Kidney status was assessed by measuring urine albumin creatinine ratio to determine microalbuminuria and by calculating serum cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to assess kidney function. Results Mean age and median body mass index (BMI) were 17.1 years and 50.5kg/m2, respectively; 76% were females and 65% were non-Hispanic white race. Fourteen percent of the cohort had microalbuminuria, and 3% had macroalbuminuria; 3% had eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2, and 7.1% had eGFR >150 ml/min/1.73m2. In adjusted analyses, female gender and increasing ferritin levels were significantly associated with the presence of microalbuminuria/macroalbuminuria. Increasing BMI and HOMA-IR values were significantly associated with lower eGFR. Conclusions A significant number of severely obese adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery have evidence of early kidney dysfunction. Longitudinal studies following weight loss surgery in these individuals are needed to determine whether these kidney abnormalities are reversible following weight loss therapy. PMID:25376399

  1. Healthy Aging in China.

    PubMed

    Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-12-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution-,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence.

  2. Healthy Aging in China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution—,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence. PMID:25621202

  3. Paying for healthy rivers.

    PubMed

    Pigram, J J J

    2002-01-01

    Concerted efforts are being made at state and federal levels to restore Australia's rivers and waterways to a healthy condition. Yet, there is little consensus on what constitutes a "healthy river" and even less on how to achieve this, or how far to go towards restoration. Some advocate removal of storages and weirs along rivers to revert to some natural state. Others, particularly water users, question the trade-offs involved in leaving more water in the rivers and how the costs of restoration are to be met. At present it seems that the major share of the costs is borne by irrigators, with the wider community essentially enjoying a "free-ride". This situation is justified on the basis of the impactor pays principle whereby water diversions, primarily for irrigation, are held to have contributed most to degradation of the river systems. The altemative-beneficiary pays principle--is of more relevance where demands are made on resource users to mitigate environmental impacts or bring about environmental improvements, eg. healthy rivers, where the beneficiaries are the wider public and the general community. Many resource users are voluntarily undertaking action on private land to conserve biodiversity and achieve sustainability. In these circumstances, the cost-sharing principle should apply, with governments, interest groups and the community contributing to the investment required to attain the desired resource condition objectives.

  4. Dielectric elastomer energy harvesting undergoing polarization saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liwu; Luo, Xiaojian; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2012-04-01

    Mechanical energy can be converted into electrical energy by using a dielectric elastomer generator. The elastomer is susceptible to various models of failure, including electrical breakdown, electromechanical instability, loss of tension, and rupture by stretching. The models of failure define a cycle of maximal energy that can be converted. On the other hand, when subjected to voltage, the charge will be induced on a dielectric elastomer. When the voltage is small, the charge increases with the voltage. Along with the continuously increase of voltage, when the charge approaches a certain value, it would become saturated. This paper develops a thermodynamic model of dielectric elastomers undergoing polarization saturation. We studied the typical failure model with three variables of Gent Model silicone energy harvester and obtained an analytical solution of the constitutive equation of dielectric elastomer undergoing polarization saturation. These results can be used to facilitate the design and manufacture of dielectric elastomer energy harvesters.

  5. Promoting Healthy Lifestyles in High School Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O’Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although obesity and mental health disorders are two major public health problems in adolescents that affect academic performance, few rigorously designed experimental studies have been conducted in high schools. Purpose The goal of the study was to test the efficacy of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotions, Exercise, Nutrition) Program, versus an attention control program (Healthy Teens) on: healthy lifestyle behaviors, BMI, mental health, social skills, and academic performance of high school adolescents immediately after and at 6 months post-intervention. Design A cluster RCT was conducted. Data were collected from January 2010 to May of 2012 and analyzed in 2012–2013. Setting/participants A total of 779 culturally diverse adolescents in the U.S. Southwest participated in the trial. Intervention COPE was a cognitive–behavioral skills-building intervention with 20 minutes of physical activity integrated into a health course, taught by teachers once a week for 15 weeks. The attention control program was a 15-session, 15-week program that covered common health topics. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes assessed immediately after and 6 months post-intervention were healthy lifestyle behaviors and BMI. Secondary outcomes included mental health, alcohol and drug use, social skills, and academic performance. Results Post-intervention, COPE teens had a greater number of steps per day (p=0.03) and a lower BMI (p=0.01) than did those in Healthy Teens, and higher average scores on all Social Skills Rating System subscales (p-values <0.05). Alcohol use was 11.17% in the COPE group and 21.46% in the Healthy Teens group (p=0.04). COPE teens had higher health course grades than did control teens. At 6 months post-intervention, COPE teens had a lower mean BMI than teens in Healthy Teens (COPE=24.72, Healthy Teens=25.05, adjusted M= −0.34, 95% CI= −0.56, −0.11). The proportion of those

  6. Anxious Attachment Style and Salivary Cortisol Dysregulation in Healthy Female Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskis, Andrea; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Clow, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attachment style has been linked with basal cortisol secretion in healthy adult women. We investigated whether dysregulation in basal cortisol secretion may be evident in younger healthy females. Methods: Sixty healthy females aged 9-18 years (mean 14.16, SD [plus or minus] 2.63 years) participated in the Attachment Style Interview…

  7. Anxious Attachment Style and Salivary Cortisol Dysregulation in Healthy Female Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskis, Andrea; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Clow, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attachment style has been linked with basal cortisol secretion in healthy adult women. We investigated whether dysregulation in basal cortisol secretion may be evident in younger healthy females. Methods: Sixty healthy females aged 9-18 years (mean 14.16, SD [plus or minus] 2.63 years) participated in the Attachment Style Interview…

  8. Empowering a healthy practice environment.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Jodi; Ruffin, Tasha

    2015-03-01

    This article provides frontline nurses a tool kit so they can advocate a healthy practice environment. The healthy nurse, healthy work hours, job satisfaction, adequate sleep, power naps at work, and balancing family/work are discussed. The overweight nurse, nurse fatigue, compassion fatigue, shift work sleep disorder, and role strain are discussed as barriers to a healthy practice environment. Case reports with analysis and recommendations are discussed to overcome these barriers. Resources are presented for frontline nurses to develop a tool kit for transforming their environment to a healthy practice environment and to empower them to become healthy nurses.

  9. What is a healthy body weight? Perspectives of overweight youth.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Heather M; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative assessment was completed of overweight/obese youths' perceptions of the meaning of "healthy body weight," barriers and facilitators to healthy body weight attainment, and what would effectively enhance and support their healthy body weight behaviours. This qualitative study targeted a sample of overweight and obese youth, aged 14 to 16 years. An experienced interviewer conducted 11 in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three qualitative researchers conducted independent and simultaneous inductive content analysis to facilitate confirmability. Data trustworthiness was supported via member checking, peer debriefing, and reflexive journalling. Most participants characterized healthy body weight as a combination of healthy eating and regular physical activity. Some included a psychological dimension in the definition. Perceived facilitators of a healthy body weight included family support, access to nutritious food at home, physical activity encouragement, and a physical activity environment at school. Perceived barriers included lack of family support, a poor nutrition environment, an unsupportive school environment, time, self-esteem, and bullying. Participants identified preferences for an intervention that would include opportunities for unstructured coeducational recreational activities, coeducational nutrition education sessions, and a gender-specific discussion forum. Participants provided a wealth of information to form the foundation of future youth-focused efficacious healthy body weight interventions.

  10. Differences in Kinematic Variables in Single-Leg Stance between Patients with Stroke and Healthy Elderly People Measured with Inertial Sensors: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cruzado, David; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Manuel; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio

    2017-09-19

    The study aimed to analyze the differences between kinematic parameters in the single-leg stance (SLS) in patients with stroke and in healthy elderly people measured with 2 inertial sensors-1 in the trunk and 1 in the lumbar region. Two groups of participants were measured: the first group consisted of 5 healthy elderly people over 65 years of age; the second group consisted of 5 patients with stroke over 65 years of age, recovering for more than 6 months after suffering a stroke, and who had been undergoing rehabilitation treatment for at least 6 months. Two inertial sensors were located in the participants: in the trunk region (T7-T8) and in the lumbar region (L5-S1). The SLS test was performed in 4 conditions: right-dominant leg, open eyes; right-dominant leg, closed eyes; left-nondominant leg, open eyes; and left-nondominant leg, closed eyes. Significant differences in displacement in the lumbar and trunk sensors are highlighted in 6 of 36 variables. In the velocity variables, significant differences were only found in 1 variable. Differences during SLS between the affected and the nonaffected legs in patients with stroke were found in 5 of the 36 analyzed variables and in 1 variable in velocity. The intraclass correlation coefficients were higher than .866 (95% confidence interval: .828-.857) for all variables. Only significant differences were found in 7 of the 128 kinematic variables analyzed in both groups, so that it could be confirmed that there are no significant differences in the static balance between healthy elderly people and people with stroke who undergo the rehabilitative treatment. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Coagulation management in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Robba, Chiara; Bertuetti, Rita; Rasulo, Frank; Bertuccio, Alessando; Matta, Basil

    2017-10-01

    Management of coagulation in neurosurgical procedures is challenging. In this contest, it is imperative to avoid further intracranial bleeding. Perioperative bleeding can be associated with a number of factors, including anticoagulant drugs and coagulation status but is also linked to the characteristic and the site of the intracranial disorder. The aim of this review will be to focus primarily on the new evidence regarding the management of coagulation in patients undergoing craniotomy for neurosurgical procedures. Antihemostatic and anticoagulant drugs have shown to be associated with perioperative bleeding. On the other hand, an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and hypercoagulative state after elective and emergency neurosurgery, in particular after brain tumor surgery, has been described in several patients. To balance the risk between thrombosis and bleeding, it is important to be familiar with the perioperative changes in coagulation and with the recent management guidelines for anticoagulated patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures, in particular for those taking new direct anticoagulants. We have considered the current clinical trials and literature regarding both safety and efficacy of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in the neurosurgical population. These were mainly trials concerning both elective surgical and intensive care patients with a poor grade intracranial bleed or multiple traumas with an associated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Coagulation management remains a major issue in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. However, in this field of research, literature quality is poor and further studies are necessary to identify the best strategies to minimize risks in this group of patients.

  12. Hypovitaminosis D in healthy schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    El-Hajj Fuleihan, G; Nabulsi, M; Choucair, M; Salamoun, M; Hajj Shahine, C; Kizirian, A; Tannous, R

    2001-04-01

    Vitamin D is essential for skeletal growth, but there are currently no guidelines for vitamin D supplementation after infancy. This study investigates vitamin D insufficiency in healthy children. Children ages 10 to 16 years from 3 private schools in Beirut, Lebanon, with differing socioeconomic status (SES) were studied: 169 in the spring of 1999 and 177 in the following fall; 83 students participated in both study phases. They had a physical examination, answered a dietary questionnaire, and blood was drawn for calciotropic hormones and indices of bone turnover. Overall, 52% of the students were vitamin D-insufficient; the proportion of insufficiency was 65% in the winter and 40% at the end of the summer. During both seasons, girls had lower vitamin D levels than did boys; those who followed the dress code of covered head, arms, and legs had the lowest levels. Students in the mid-SES school had lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels than did the ones from the high-SES school. After adjusting for confounders, gender, SES, and body mass index remained the significant predictors of vitamin D levels in both seasons (R(2) = 0.53, for spring and 0.28 for fall). There was a significant inverse correlation between 25-OHD levels and parathyroid hormone levels that was best fitted by a curvilinear model (R(2) = 0.19). Even in a sunny country, hypovitaminosis D is common in schoolchildren, more so in the winter. Girls, especially those with a lower SES, are at particular risk. The inverse changes in parathyroid hormone suggest that insufficient vitamin D levels may deleteriously affect skeletal metabolism in healthy adolescents. Vitamin D insufficiency may be prevalent in many other countries where supplementation of milk with vitamin D is not mandatory. Our results call to a reconsideration of vitamin D supplementation in high-risk adolescents to further optimize skeletal health. vitamin D insufficiency, bone metabolism, nutrition, gender, socioeconomic status.

  13. National networks of Healthy Cities in Europe.

    PubMed

    Janss Lafond, Leah; Heritage, Zoë

    2009-11-01

    National networks of Healthy Cities emerged in the late 1980s as a spontaneous reaction to a great demand by cities to participate in the Healthy Cities movement. Today, they engage at least 1300 cities in the European region and form the backbone of the Healthy Cities movement. This article provides an analysis of the results of the regular surveys of national networks that have been carried out principally since 1997. The main functions and achievements of national networks are presented alongside some of their most pressing challenges. Although networks have differing priorities and organizational characteristics, they do share common goals and strategic directions based on the Healthy Cities model (see other articles in this special edition of HPI). Therefore, it has been possible to identify a set of organizational and strategic factors that contribute to the success of networks. These factors form the basis of a set of accreditation criteria for national networks and provide guidance for the establishment of new national networks. Although national networks have made substantial achievements, they continue to face a number of dilemmas that are discussed in the article. Problems a national network must deal with include how to obtain sustainable funding, how to raise the standard of work in cities without creating exclusive participation criteria and how to balance the need to provide direct support to cities with its role as a national player. These dilemmas are similar to other public sector networks. During the last 15 years, the pooling of practical expertise in urban health has made Healthy Cities networks an important resource for national as well as local governments. Not only do they provide valuable support to their members but they often advise ministries and other national institutions on effective models to promote sustainable urban health development.

  14. Participative Management at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Business Review, 1977

    1977-01-01

    This interview with the chief executive of Donnelly Mirrors, Inc. explains the basis of the company's leadership in participative management and discusses why it is more successful than traditional authority-based management styles. (Author/JG)

  15. Pulsed photothermal depth profiling of tattoos undergoing laser removal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanic, Matija; Majaron, Boris

    2012-02-01

    Pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) allows noninvasive determination of temperature depth profiles induced by pulsed laser irradiation of strongly scattering biological tissues and organs, including human skin. In present study, we evaluate the potential of this technique for investigational characterization and possibly quantitative evaluation of laser tattoo removal. The study involved 5 healthy volunteers (3 males, 2 females), age 20-30 years, undergoing tattoo removal treatment using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. There were four measurement and treatment sessions in total, separated by 2-3 months. Prior to each treatment, PPTR measurements were performed on several tattoo sites and one nearby healthy site in each patient, using a 5 ms Nd:YAG laser at low radiant exposure values and a dedicated radiometric setup. The laser-induced temperature profiles were then reconstructed by applying a custom numerical code. In addition, each tatoo site was documented with a digital camera and measured with a custom colorimetric system (in tristimulus color space), providing an objective evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy to be correlated with our PPTR results. The results show that the laser-induced temperature profile in untreated tattoos is invariably located at a subsurface depth of 300 μm. In tattoo sites that responded well to laser therapy, a significant drop of the temperature peak was observed in the profiles obtained from PPTR record. In several sites that appeared less responsive, as evidenced by colorimetric data, a progressive shift of the temperature profile deeper into the dermis was observed over the course of consecutive laser treatments, indicating that the laser tattoo removal was efficient.

  16. Profiling healthy eaters. Determining factors that predict healthy eating practices among Dutch adults.

    PubMed

    Swan, Emily; Bouwman, Laura; Hiddink, Gerrit Jan; Aarts, Noelle; Koelen, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's salutogenic framework for health development to examine a set of factors that predict healthy eating in a cross-sectional study of Dutch adults. Data were analyzed from participants (n = 703) who completed the study's survey in January 2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association of survey factors on the outcome variable high dietary score. In the multivariate logistic regression model, five factors contributed significantly (p < .05) to the predictive ability of the overall model: being female; living with a partner; a strong sense of coherence (construct from the salutogenic framework), flexible restraint of eating, and self-efficacy for healthy eating. Findings complement what is already known of the factors that relate to poor eating practices. This can provide nutrition promotion with a more comprehensive picture of the factors that both support and hinder healthy eating practices. Future research should explore these factors to better understand their origins and mechanisms in relation to healthy eating practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Warmth is Analgesic in Healthy Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Colleen W.; Porges, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies a behavioral and nonpharmacologic means of preventing and reducing newborn pain. Our objective was to determine whether warmth is analgesic in newborn infants undergoing vaccination—a routine painful hospital procedure. We used a prospective randomized controlled trial of 47 healthy full-term newborn infants. Infants were randomized into one of three conditions prior to vaccination: warmth exposure, pacifier suckling, or sucrose taste. Crying, grimacing, and heart rate differences were analyzed between groups before, during, and after vaccination as outcome measures. Warmer infants cried significantly less than sucrose taste or pacifier suckling after vaccination. Heart rate patterns reflected this analgesia. Core temperature did not differ between study groups. Providing natural warmth to newborn infants during a painful procedure decreases the crying and grimacing on par with the “gold” standard treatments of sucrose or pacifier. PMID:22424877

  18. Social Norms Shift Preferences for Healthy and Unhealthy Foods.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Emma M; Stanton, Michael V; Zaki, Jamil

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated whether people change their food preferences and eating behavior in response to health-based social norms. One hundred twenty participants rated a series of healthy and unhealthy food images. After each rating, participants sometimes viewed a rating that ostensibly represented the average rating of previous participants. In fact, these average ratings were manipulated to convey a particular social norm. Participants either saw average ratings that favored healthy foods, favored unhealthy foods, or did not see any average ratings. Participants then re-rated those same food images after approximately ten minutes and again three days later. After the norm manipulation, participants were given the chance to take as many M&Ms as they wanted. Participants exposed to a healthy social norm consistently reported lower preferences for unhealthy foods as compared to participants in the other two conditions. This preference difference persisted three days after the social norm manipulation. However, health-based social norm manipulations did not influence the amount of M&Ms participants took. Although health-based social norm manipulations can influence stated food preferences, in this case they did not influence subsequent eating behavior.

  19. Social Norms Shift Preferences for Healthy and Unhealthy Foods

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Emma M.; Stanton, Michael V.; Zaki, Jamil

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated whether people change their food preferences and eating behavior in response to health-based social norms. One hundred twenty participants rated a series of healthy and unhealthy food images. After each rating, participants sometimes viewed a rating that ostensibly represented the average rating of previous participants. In fact, these average ratings were manipulated to convey a particular social norm. Participants either saw average ratings that favored healthy foods, favored unhealthy foods, or did not see any average ratings. Participants then re-rated those same food images after approximately ten minutes and again three days later. After the norm manipulation, participants were given the chance to take as many M&Ms as they wanted. Participants exposed to a healthy social norm consistently reported lower preferences for unhealthy foods as compared to participants in the other two conditions. This preference difference persisted three days after the social norm manipulation. However, health-based social norm manipulations did not influence the amount of M&Ms participants took. Although health-based social norm manipulations can influence stated food preferences, in this case they did not influence subsequent eating behavior. PMID:27861518

  20. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed ...

  1. Healthy food trends -- brussels sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... the vitamin C is lost with this cooking method. Where to Find Brussels Sprouts Brussels sprouts are ... with the sauce. Source: United States Department of Agriculture Alternative Names Healthy food trends - Brussels cabbage; Healthy ...

  2. Healthy Post-Play Snacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing Your Child's ...

  3. Healthy obesity and objective physical activity.

    PubMed

    Bell, Joshua A; Hamer, Mark; van Hees, Vincent T; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika; Sabia, Séverine

    2015-08-01

    Disease risk is lower in metabolically healthy obese adults than in their unhealthy obese counterparts. Studies considering physical activity as a modifiable determinant of healthy obesity have relied on self-reported measures, which are prone to inaccuracies and do not capture all movements that contribute to health. We aimed to examine differences in total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity between healthy and unhealthy obese groups by using both self-report and wrist-worn accelerometer assessments. Cross-sectional analyses were based on 3457 adults aged 60-82 y (77% male) participating in the British Whitehall II cohort study in 2012-2013. Normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults were considered "healthy" if they had <2 of the following risk factors: low HDL cholesterol, hypertension, high blood glucose, high triacylglycerol, and insulin resistance. Differences across groups in total physical activity, based on questionnaire and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer assessments (GENEActiv), were examined by using linear regression. The likelihood of meeting 2010 World Health Organization recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥2.5 h/wk) was compared by using prevalence ratios. Of 3457 adults, 616 were obese [body mass index (in kg/m²) ≥30]; 161 (26%) of those were healthy obese. Obese adults were less physically active than were normal-weight adults, regardless of metabolic health status or method of physical activity assessment. Healthy obese adults had higher total physical activity than did unhealthy obese adults only when assessed by accelerometer (P = 0.002). Healthy obese adults were less likely to meet recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than were healthy normal-weight adults based on accelerometer assessment (prevalence ratio: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.79) but were not more likely to meet these recommendations than were unhealthy obese adults (prevalence ratio: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.80). Higher total physical

  4. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  5. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-09

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer.

  6. Improving park space access for the Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities partnership in Denver, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Moreland, Jennifer Wieczorek

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, Denver Public Health at Denver Health was awarded a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities (HKHC) grant that supported policy, system, and environmental changes to expand healthy food access through gardens and large-chain grocery stores and expand environments that are safe for all children to play, walk, and bike. Systems-thinking approaches enhanced the Denver partnership's work to identify and address the multiple and complex factors affecting the environment changes implemented to increase active living and healthy eating. Continued application of the systems-thinking approach in Denver will sustain outcomes for obesity prevention efforts beyond the grant project cycle, specifically in park space redevelopment. Key members of the Denver HKHC coalition were invited to participate in a half-day group model-building workshop to create behavior-over-time graphs and a causal loop diagram. These activities were intended to build on the Denver HKHC partnership's work by identifying factors that affect or are affected by policy, system, and environmental changes that influence active living, healthy eating or childhood obesity. Environments (ie, park space, farms, gardens) developed or renovated should consider identifying and addressing a range of factors that may influence access and utilization of active living and healthy eating. Denver's partnership found the experience highly valuable for identifying the policy, system, and environment change pathways that lead to increases in active living and healthy food access. In addition, it highlighted the need to identify and address the multiple and complex change pathways to ensure the outcomes of environment change, especially with park space, implemented in Denver achieve increased access to active living and healthy eating.

  7. Improving sleep: outcomes from a worksite healthy sleep program.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Mark W; Hazelton, Angela C; Moore, Wendy R; Jenkins, Sarah M; Clark, Matthew M; Hagen, Philip T

    2015-01-01

    Unhealthy and inadequate sleep is a common and significant problem impacting absenteeism, presenteeism, health, and productivity. This study aimed at analyzing the effect of a worksite-based healthy sleep program. Retrospective analysis of 53 adult members of a worksite wellness center who participated in an 8-week healthy sleep program and completed pre- and postintervention health behavior questionnaires. Following the intervention participants felt significantly more rested, more confident in their ability to deal with sleep problems, and more knowledgeable about sleep. In addition, they reported a reduction in their stress level, improved quality of life, and increase energy level. These results support the effectiveness of worksite programs designed to promote healthy sleep. Future randomized studies are needed to further investigate the effectiveness and optimal delivery of healthy sleep promotion.

  8. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions.

    PubMed

    Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar S; Martínez-Jiménez, Mario A; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L; González, Francisco J; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury J; Campos-Lara, Nadia P; Pierdant-Perez, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p < 0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p < 0.001) and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim.

  9. Myoinositol Improves Embryo Development in PCOS Patients Undergoing ICSI

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of myoinositol, in a court of 217 PCOS women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), on pregnancy rate, embryo development, estradiol, and progesterone concentration in blood serum, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in follicular fluid. Concerning the court of patient, 112 (groups I and II) out of 217 were PCOS women, whereas group III consisted of healthy subjects (not PCOS). Group I patients were treated with 400 μg of folic acid per day for 3 months before ICSI, whereas group II patients received 4000 mg of myoinositol and 400 μg of folic acid per day for 3 months before ICSI. Group II revealed a shorter embryo/blastocyst development period between microinjection and 5-cell stage compared to group I. The difference in SOD concentration between groups I and II and between groups II and III was statistically significant. In group II, 34.62% of pregnancies were obtained, whereas in group I this number reached 20% (NS). Myoinositol increased embryo development dynamics and accelerated blastocyst stage reaching time; however, no effect was shown on clinical pregnancy. Furthermore, it restored SOD concentration, lowered in PCOS women, but did not exert any effect on CAT concentration. PMID:27777587

  10. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions

    PubMed Central

    Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar S.; Martínez-Jiménez, Mario A.; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L.; González, Francisco J.; Campos-Lara, Nadia P.; Pierdant-Perez, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p < 0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p < 0.001) and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim. PMID:27445611

  11. [Healthy school environments].

    PubMed

    Quintero-Corzo, Josefina; Munévar-Molina, Raúl A; Munévar-Quintero, Fabio I

    2015-04-01</