Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... Tiredness and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...
Introduction Heart failure occurs in 3% to 4% of adults aged over 65 years, usually as a consequence of coronary artery disease or hypertension, and causes breathlessness, effort intolerance, fluid retention, and increased mortality. The 5-year mortality in people with systolic heart failure ranges from 25% to 75%, often owing to sudden death following ventricular arrhythmia. Risks of cardiovascular events are increased in people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) or heart failure. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of multidisciplinary interventions for heart failure? What are the effects of exercise in people with heart failure? What are the effects of drug treatments for heart failure? What are the effects of devices for treatment of heart failure? What are the effects of coronary revascularisation for treatment of heart failure? What are the effects of drug treatments in people at high risk of heart failure? What are the effects of treatments for diastolic heart failure? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aldosterone receptor antagonists, amiodarone, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, anticoagulation, antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, calcium
Introduction Heart failure occurs in 3% to 4% of adults aged over 65 years, usually as a consequence of coronary artery disease or hypertension, and causes breathlessness, effort intolerance, fluid retention, and increased mortality. The 5-year mortality in people with systolic heart failure ranges from 25% to 75%, often owing to sudden death following ventricular arrhythmia. Risks of cardiovascular events are increased in people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) or heart failure. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug treatments, and of drug and invasive treatments, for heart failure? What are the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in people at high risk of heart failure? What are the effects of treatments for diastolic heart failure? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 85 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aldosterone receptor antagonists, amiodarone, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, anticoagulation, antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, cardiac resynchronisation therapy, digoxin (in people already receiving diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors), exercise, hydralazine plus isosorbide dinitrate, implantable cardiac
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Heart Failure? Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can' ... force. Some people have both problems. The term "heart failure" doesn't mean that your heart has stopped ...
Despite major improvements in the treatment of virtually all cardiac disorders, heart failure (HF) is an exception, in that its prevalence is rising, and only small prolongations in survival are occurring. An increasing fraction, especially older women with diabetes, obesity, and atrial fibrillation exhibit HF with preserved systolic function. Several pathogenetic mechanisms appear to be operative in HF. These include increased hemodynamic overload, ischemia-related dysfunction, ventricular remodeling, excessive neurohumoral stimulation, abnormal myocyte calcium cycling, excessive or inadequate proliferation of the extracellular matrix, accelerated apoptosis, and genetic mutations. Biomarkers released as a consequence of myocardial stretch, imbalance between formation and breakdown of extracellular matrix, inflammation, and renal failure are useful in the identification of the pathogenetic mechanism and, when used in combination, may become helpful in estimating prognosis and selecting appropriate therapy. Promising new therapies that are now undergoing intensive investigation include an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, a naturally-occurring vasodilator peptide, a myofilament sensitizer and several drugs that enhance Ca++ uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Cell therapy, using autologous bone marrow and cardiac progenitor cells, appears to be promising, as does gene therapy. Chronic left ventricular assistance with continuous flow pumps is being applied more frequently and successfully as destination therapy, as a bridge to transplantation, and even as a bridge to recovery and explantation. While many of these therapies will improve the care of patients with HF, significant reductions in prevalence will require vigorous, multifaceted, preventive approaches.
CHF - surgery; Congestive heart failure - surgery; Cardiomyopathy - surgery; HF - surgery; Intra-aortic balloon pumps - heart failure; IABP - heart failure; Catheter based assist devices - heart failure
... your body. An ejection fraction is an important measurement of how well your heart is pumping and ... catheterization and cardiac MRI. This is an important measurement of how well your heart is pumping and ...
CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...
Congestive heart failure - children; Cor pulmonale - children; Cardiomyopathy - children; CHF - children; Congenital heart defect - heart failure in children; Cyanotic heart disease - heart failure in children; Birth defect of the heart - heart ...
Boo, José Fernando Guadalajara
Heart failure is a disease with several definitions. The term "heart failure" is used by has brougth about confusion in the terminology. For this reason, the value of the ejection fraction (< 0.40 or < 0.35) is used in most meganalyses on the treatment of heart failure, avoiding the term "heart failure" that is a confounding concept. In this paper we carefully analyze the meaning of contractility, ventricular function or performance, preload, afterload, heart failure, compensation mechanisms in heart failure, myocardial oxygen consumption, inadequate, adequate and inappropriate hypertrophy, systole, diastole, compliance, problems of relaxation, and diastolic dysfunction. Their definitions are supported by the original scientific descriptions in an attempt to clarify the concepts about ventricular function and heart failure and, in this way, use the same scientific language about the meaning of ventricular function, heart failure, and diastolic dysfunction.
... Heart failure - discharge Heart failure - home monitoring Heart failure - what to ask ... Medical Center, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, ...
Chronic heart failure very often gets worse over time. Many people who have heart failure die of ... failure to take in enough calories and nutrients. Wasting of muscles and weight loss are part of the natural disease process. It can help to eat several small ...
... Heart failure - overview Heart pacemaker High blood pressure Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator Smoking - tips on how to quit Ventricular assist ... ask your doctor How to read food labels Implantable cardioverter defibrillator - discharge Low-salt diet Mediterranean diet Taking warfarin ( ...
CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... An echocardiogram (echo) is a test that uses sound waves to create a moving picture of the heart. The picture is much more detailed than a plain ...
... The most common causes of heart failure are: Coronary artery disease (CAD), a narrowing of the small blood vessels that ... at the same time. A defibrillator sends an electrical pulse to stop life-threatening abnormal heart rhythms. ...
Joseph, Susan M.; Cedars, Ari M.; Ewald, Gregory A.; Geltman, Edward M.; Mann, Douglas L.
Hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure are increasing in the United States. Moreover, the prevalence of heart failure is increasing consequent to an increased number of older individuals, as well as to improvement in therapies for coronary artery disease and sudden cardiac death that have enabled patients to live longer with cardiovascular disease. The main treatment goals in the hospitalized patient with heart failure are to restore euvolemia and to minimize adverse events. Common in-hospital treatments include intravenous diuretics, vasodilators, and inotropic agents. Novel pharmaceutical agents have shown promise in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure and may simplify the treatment and reduce the morbidity associated with the disease. This review summarizes the contemporary management of patients with acute decompensated heart failure. PMID:20069075
Boully, Clémence; Hanon, Olivier
Heart failure is a frequent disease in the elderly. Its clinical presentation is less typical and the prognosis more severe than in younger subjects because heart failure occurs in patients with multiple comorbidities. A comprehensive geriatric assessment should therefore be performed to detect the vulnerabilities and manage the comorbidities. The main diseases associated with heart failure are dementia, depression, malnutrition, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, orthostatic hypotension, renal failure, anemia and iron deficiency. Comorbidities worsen heart failure and makes its treatment more difficult. The identification and treatment of comorbidities improve the prognosis in terms of mortality but especially in terms of quality of life. Caution with drugs is necessary because of pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic changes related to aging and the comorbidities. In this context, clinical and laboratory monitoring should be increased, mostly during an acute event (acute heart failure, infection, dehydration, fall, new therapy…). Therefore, the follow-up of elderly patients with heart failure requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves close cooperation between cardiologists, geriatricians, general practitioners, nurses, and pharmacists.
... help you in the future. Follow Your Treatment Plan Treatment can relieve your symptoms and make daily ... or nurse about getting flu and pneumonia vaccines. Plan Ahead If you have heart failure, it's important ...
... doctors, making good decisions requires teamwork. Through shared decision making, doctors and patients consider both the options and ... care you want to receive. What is shared decision making? When heart failure progresses to an advanced stage, ...
Chiariello, M; Perrone-Filardi, P
Heart failure is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Western countries. Common etiology is mostly represented by ischemic and hypertensive heart disease. Clinically, heart failure can be defined as an impaired cardiac performance, unable to meet the energy requirements of the periphery. Pathophysiologically, the clinical onset of heart failure symptoms already represents an advanced stage of disease when compensatory mechanisms triggered by the underlying decrease in contractility are no longer capable of maintaining adequate cardiac performance during exercise and, subsequently, under resting conditions. Independent of its underlying etiology, cardiac failure is always characterized by an impairment in the intrinsic contractility of myocytes. As a consequence of reduced contractility, a number of central and peripheral compensatory mechanisms take place that are capable of effectively counteracting reduced intravascular intrinsic performance for a long period of time. Among them, recruitment of preload reserve, enhanced neurohormonal stimulation and cardiac hypertrophy are the most important. All of them, however, also carry unfavorable effects that contribute to further deterioration of cardiac function. In fact, increased end-diastolic volume determines increased wall stress that further reduces systolic performance; sympathetic and angiotensin stimulation increases peripheral resistance and contributes to increase volume expansion; hypertrophic myocytes demonstrate impaired intrinsic contractility and relaxation, and hypertrophy causes a clinically relevant deterioration of ventricular relaxation and compliance that substantially participates in increased end-diastolic pressure, and, therefore, to limited exercise performance. Diastolic dysfunction usually accompanies systolic dysfunction, although in some cases it may represent the prevalent mechanism of congestive heart failure in patients in whom systolic performance is preserved. Biological causes
Rutherford, John D
With increasing maternal age and the presence of comorbid conditions such as hypertension, cardiovascular assessment and monitoring is the responsibility of all clinicians caring for pregnant patients. Furthermore, there are specific conditions, such as mitral stenosis, peripartum cardiomyopathy, and preeclampsia, that can be associated with heart failure and secondary maternal (and fetal) mortality and morbidity. The important causes of heart failure in pregnancy are discussed.
Mangini, Sandrigo; Pires, Philippe Vieira; Braga, Fabiana Goulart Marcondes; Bacal, Fernando
ABSTRACT Heart failure is a disease with high incidence and prevalence in the population. The costs with hospitalization for decompensated heart failure reach approximately 60% of the total cost with heart failure treatment, and mortality during hospitalization varies according to the studied population, and could achieve values of 10%. In patients with decompensated heart failure, history and physical examination are of great value for the diagnosis of the syndrome, and also can help the physician to identify the beginning of symptoms, and give information about etiology, causes and prognosis of the disease. The initial objective of decompensated heart failure treatment is the hemodynamic and symptomatic improvement preservation and/or improvement of renal function, prevention of myocardial damage, modulation of the neurohormonal and/or inflammatory activation and control of comorbidities that can cause or contribute to progression of the syndrome. According to the clinical-hemodynamic profile, it is possible to establish a rational for the treatment of decompensated heart failure, individualizing the proceedings to be held, leading to reduction in the period of hospitalization and consequently reducing overall mortality. PMID:24136770
Reda, S; Motloch, L J; Hoppe, U C
Chronic heart failure has an age-dependent prevalence of 2% and is therefore one of the most frequent diseases in western societies. A reduced hemoglobin concentration according to the definition of the World Health Organization is a common comorbidity affecting more than half of all heart failure patients. Elderly patients, patients suffering from renal impairment and women are more likely to develop anemia but a definitive etiology of anemia is only identified in the minority of cases. Anemia is associated with a poor clinical status and a greater risk of hospitalization and is a predictive factor for increased mortality. The incidence of anemia appears to increase with a poorer functional class. Intravenous iron therapy improves the exercise capacity in patients with systolic heart failure and iron deficiency and is currently being recommended for patients with persistent symptoms despite optimal medical and device therapy. However, erythropoietin-stimulating agents as a treatment for anemia in chronic heart failure have failed to improve clinical outcome in a large randomized trial. In patients with heart failure but with maintained ejection fraction, anemia is also associated with a poor prognosis. Specific therapeutic recommendations for these patients are still not available.
Faris, Rajaa F; Flather, Marcus; Purcell, Henry; Poole-Wilson, Philip A; Coats, Andrew J S
Chronic heart failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diuretics are regarded as the first-line treatment for patients with congestive heart failure since they provide symptomatic relief. The effects of diuretics on disease progression and survival remain unclear. To assess the harms and benefits of diuretics for chronic heart failure Updated searches were run in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL Issue 1 of 4, 2011), MEDLINE (1966 to 22 February 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 07) and HERDIN database (1990 to February 2011). We hand searched pertinent journals and reference lists of papers were inspected. We also contacted manufacturers and researchers in the field. No language restrictions were applied. Double-blinded randomised controlled trials of diuretic therapy comparing one diuretic with placebo, or one diuretic with another active agent (e.g. ACE inhibitors, digoxin) in patients with chronic heart failure. Two authors independently abstracted the data and assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of each trial. Extracted data were analysed by determining the odds ratio for dichotomous data, and difference in means for continuous data, of the treated group compared with controls. The likelihood of heterogeneity of the study population was assessed by the Chi-square test. If there was no evidence of statistical heterogeneity and pooling of results was clinically appropriate, a combined estimate was obtained using the fixed-effects model. This update has not identified any new studies for inclusion. The review includes 14 trials (525 participants), 7 were placebo-controlled, and 7 compared diuretics against other agents such as ACE inhibitors or digoxin. We analysed the data for mortality and for worsening heart failure. Mortality data were available in 3 of the placebo-controlled trials (202 participants). Mortality was lower for participants treated with diuretics than for
Scott, Michael C; Winters, Michael E
Patients with acute decompensated heart failure are usually critically ill and require immediate treatment. However, most are not volume overloaded. Emergency department (ED) management is based on rapid initiation of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation and aggressive titration of nitrates. Afterload reduction with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor can be considered. A diuretic should not be administered before optimal preload and afterload reduction has been achieved. Short-term inotropic therapy can be considered in select patients with cardiogenic shock and acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) who fail to respond to standard therapy.
Weismann, D; Wiedmann, S; Bala, M; Frantz, S; Fassnacht, M
Obesity is an important risk factor for the development of heart failure. In normotensive obese patients, a reduced peripheral resistance is typically observed and is accompanied by an increased fluid volume and an increase in cardiac work, resulting in hypertrophy and diastolic heart failure, which can be visualized with echocardiography. However, in the presence of arterial hypertension cardiac geometry is not different to hypertensive heart disease without obesity. Furthermore, the typical changes found with obesity, such as reduced peripheral resistance and increased blood volume, are no longer present. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is very common in obesity and warrants screening but levels of the heart failure marker N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP) might be misleading as the values are lower in obesity than in normal weight controls. Body weight reduction is advisable but difficult to achieve and much more difficult to maintain. Furthermore, diet and exercise has not been proven to enhance life expectancy in obesity. However, with bariatric surgery, long-term weight reduction can be achieved and mortality can be reduced. With effective weight loss and improved clinical outcome after bariatric surgery, treatment of obesity has shifted much more into focus. Regardless of technical challenges in the work-up of obese patients, clinical symptoms suggestive of cardiac disorders warrant prompt investigation with standard techniques following recommendations as established for normal weight patients.
... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Warning Signs of Heart Failure Updated:Feb 9,2017 By themselves, any one ... faster. This content was last reviewed April 2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...
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O'Meara, Eileen; Murphy, Clare; McMurray, John J V
Over the past few years, anemia has emerged as a powerful independent predictor of adverse outcomes in chronic heart failure (CHF). It affects up to 50% of patients with CHF, depending on the definition of anemia used and on the population studied. Even small reductions in hemoglobin are associated with worse outcome. However, the causes of anemia in CHF remain unclear, although impairment of renal function and inflammatory cytokines are proposed mechanisms. Both may act through impairment of the synthesis or action of erythropoietin. Preliminary studies have demonstrated improvement in symptoms, exercise tolerance, quality of life, and reductions in hospitalizations when patients with severe CHF were treated with erythropoietin. The benefits and the potential risks of such therapies will be further addressed in upcoming larger randomized trials. The recent interest in anemia reflects a new perspective in heart failure therapy, focusing on non-cardiovascular comorbidities.
Triposkiadis, Filippos; Pieske, Burkert; Butler, Javed; Parissis, John; Giamouzis, Gregory; Skoularigis, John; Brutsaert, Dirk; Boudoulas, Harisios
The left atrium plays an important role in the maintenance of cardiovascular and neurohumoral homeostasis in heart failure. However, with progressive left ventricular dysfunction, left atrial (LA) dilation and mechanical failure develop, which frequently culminate in atrial fibrillation. Moreover, LA mechanical failure is accompanied by LA endocrine failure [deficient atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) processing-synthesis/development of ANP resistance) and LA regulatory failure (dominance of sympathetic nervous system excitatory mechanisms, excessive vasopressin release) contributing to neurohumoral overactivity, vasoconstriction, and volume overload (global LA failure). The purpose of the present review is to describe the characteristics and emphasize the clinical significance of global LA failure in patients with heart failure. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.
Mestroni, Luisa; Begay, Rene; Graw, Sharon L; Taylor, Matthew RG
Purpose of Review Novel medical approaches and personalized medicine seek to use genetic information to “individualize” and improve diagnosis, prevention, and therapy. The personalized management of cardiovascular disease involves a large spectrum of potential applications, from diagnostics of monogenic disorders, to prevention and management strategies based on modifier genes, to pharmacogenetics in which individual genetic information is used to optimize pharmacological treatments. Recent Findings Evidence suggests that common polymorphic variants of modifier genes could influence drug response in cardiovascular disease in a variety of areas including heart failure, arrhythmias, dyslipidemia and hypertension. In heart failure, common genetic variants of beta-adrenergic receptors, alpha-adrenergic receptors, and endothelin receptors (among others) have been associated with variable response to heart failure therapies. The challenge remains to develop strategies to leverage this information in ways that personalize and optimize cardiovascular therapy based on a patient's genetic profile. Summary While advances in technologies will continue to transition personalized medicine from the research to the clinical setting, health care providers will need to reshape clinical diagnostic paradigms. Ultimately, pharmacogenetics will give providers options for improving patient management on the basis of pharmacogenetic data. PMID:24717669
Mestroni, Luisa; Begay, Rene L; Graw, Sharon L; Taylor, Matthew R G
Novel medical approaches and personalized medicine seek to use genetic information to 'individualize' and improve diagnosis, prevention, and therapy. The personalized management of cardiovascular disease involves a large spectrum of potential applications, from diagnostics of monogenic disorders, to prevention and management strategies based on modifier genes, to pharmacogenetics, in which individual genetic information is used to optimize the pharmacological treatments. Evidence suggests that the common polymorphic variants of modifier genes could influence drug response in cardiovascular disease in a variety of areas, including heart failure, arrhythmias, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. In heart failure, common genetic variants of β-adrenergic receptors, α-adrenergic receptors, and endothelin receptors (among others) have been associated with variable response to heart failure therapies. The challenge remains to develop strategies to leverage this information in ways that personalize and optimize cardiovascular therapy based on a patient's genetic profile. Although advances in technologies will continue to transition personalized medicine from the research to the clinical setting, healthcare providers will need to reshape the clinical diagnostic paradigms. Ultimately, pharmacogenetics will give providers the options for improving patient management on the basis of pharmacogenetic data.
Wang, Yanggan; Hill, Joseph A.
Heart failure affects nearly 6 million Americans, with a half-million new cases emerging each year. Whereas up to 50% of heart failure patients die of arrhythmia, the diverse mechanisms underlying heart failure-associated arrhythmia are poorly understood. As a consequence, effectiveness of antiarrhythmic pharmacotherapy remains elusive. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of heart failure-associated molecular events impacting the electrical function of the myocardium. We approach this from an anatomical standpoint, summarizing recent insights gleaned from pre-clinical models and discussing their relevance to human heart failure. PMID:20096285
Bocchi, Edimar Alcides
Continued assessment of temporal trends in mortality and epidemiology of specific heart failure in South America is needed to provide a scientific basis for rational allocation of the limited health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk and predict the future burden of heart failure. The epidemiology of heart failure in South America was reviewed. Heart failure is the main cause of hospitalization based on available data from approximately 50% of the South American population. The main etiologies of heart failure are ischemic, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, valvular, hypertensive and chagasic etiologies. In endemic areas, Chagas heart disease may be responsible by 41% of the HF cases. Also, heart failure presents high mortality especially in patients with Chagas etiology. Heart failure and etiologies associated with heart failure may be responsible for 6.3% of causes of deaths. Rheumatic fever is the leading cause of valvular heart disease. However, a tendency to reduction of HF mortality due to Chagas heart disease from 1985 to 2006, and reduction in mortality due to HF from 1999 to 2005 were observed in selected states in Brazil. The findings have important public health implications because the allocation of health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk of heart failure should also consider the control of neglected Chagas disease and rheumatic fever in South American countries. PMID:23597301
Mateo Leach, Irene; van der Harst, Pim
Epigenetics studies inheritable changes of genes and gene expression that do not concern DNA nucleotide variation. Such modifications include DNA methylation, several forms of histone modification, and microRNAs. From recent studies, we know not only that genetic changes account for heritable phenotypic variation, but that epigenetic changes also play an important role in the variation of predisposition to disease and to drug response. In this review, we discuss recent evidence of epigenetic changes that play an important role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure and may dictate response to therapy. PMID:20424992
Drozda, Joseph P; Smith, Donna A; Freiman, Paul C; Pursley, Janet; VanSlette, Jeffrey A; Smith, Timothy R
Little is known regarding effectiveness of readmission reduction programs over time. The Heart Failure Management Program (HFMP) of St. John's Physician Group Practice (PGP) Demonstration provided an opportunity to assess outcomes over an extended period. Data from an electronic health record, an inpatient database, a disease registry, and the Social Security Death Master File were analyzed for patients admitted with heart failure (HF) for 5 years before (Period 1) and 5 years after (Period 2) inception of PGP. HF admissions decreased (Period 1, 58.3/month; Period 2, 52.4/month, P = .007). Thirty-day all-cause readmission rate dropped from Period 1 (annual average 18.8% [668/3545]) to year 1 of Period 2 (16.9% [136/804], P = .04) and remained stable thereafter (annual average 16.8% [589/3503]). Thirty-day mortality rate was flat throughout. HFMP was associated with decreased readmissions, primarily related to outpatient case management, while mortality remained stable.
An increasing body of clinical observations and experimental evidence suggests that cardiac dysfunction results from autonomic dysregulation of the contractile output of the heart. Excessive activation of the sympathetic nervous system and a decrease in parasympathetic tone are associated with increased mortality. Elevated levels of circulating catecholamines closely correlate with the severity and poor prognosis in heart failure. Sympathetic over-stimulation causes increased levels of catecholamines, which induce excessive aerobic metabolism leading to excessive cardiac oxygen consumption. Resulting impaired mitochondrial function causes acidosis, which results in reduction in blood flow by impairment of contractility. To the extent that the excessive aerobic metabolism resulting from adrenergic stimulation comes to a halt the energy deficit has to be compensated for by anaerobic metabolism. Glucose and glycogen become the essential nutrients. Beta-adrenergic blockade is used successfully to decrease hyperadrenergic drive. Neurohumoral antagonists block adrenergic over-stimulation but do not provide the heart with fuel for compensatory anaerobic metabolism. The endogenous hormone ouabain reduces catecholamine levels in healthy volunteers, promotes the secretion of insulin, induces release of acetylcholine from synaptosomes and potentiates the stimulation of glucose metabolism by insulin and acetylcholine. Ouabain stimulates glycogen synthesis and increases lactate utilisation by the myocardium. Decades of clinical experience with ouabain confirm the cardioprotective effects of this endogenous hormone. The so far neglected sympatholytic and vagotonic effects of ouabain on myocardial metabolism clearly make a clinical re-evaluation of this endogenous hormone necessary. Clinical studies with ouabain that correspond to current standards are warranted. PMID:28352413
... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement Updated:Feb 15,2017 The ejection fraction (EF) is an important measurement in determining how well your heart is pumping ...
Ashrafian, Houman; Frenneaux, Michael P; Opie, Lionel H
Although neurohumoral antagonism has successfully reduced heart failure morbidity and mortality, the residual disability and death rate remains unacceptably high. Though abnormalities of myocardial metabolism are associated with heart failure, recent data suggest that heart failure may itself promote metabolic changes such as insulin resistance, in part through neurohumoral activation. A detrimental self-perpetuating cycle (heart failure --> altered metabolism --> heart failure) that promotes the progression of heart failure may thus be postulated. Accordingly, we review the cellular mechanisms and pathophysiology of altered metabolism and insulin resistance in heart failure. It is hypothesized that the ensuing detrimental myocardial energetic perturbations result from neurohumoral activation, increased adverse free fatty acid metabolism, decreased protective glucose metabolism, and in some cases insulin resistance. The result is depletion of myocardial ATP, phosphocreatine, and creatine kinase with decreased efficiency of mechanical work. On the basis of the mechanisms outlined, appropriate therapies to mitigate aberrant metabolism include intense neurohumoral antagonism, limitation of diuretics, correction of hypokalemia, exercise, and diet. We also discuss more novel mechanistic-based therapies to ameliorate metabolism and insulin resistance in heart failure. For example, metabolic modulators may optimize myocardial substrate utilization to improve cardiac function and exercise performance beyond standard care. The ultimate success of metabolic-based therapy will be manifest by its capacity further to lessen the residual mortality in heart failure.
Cardiac Failure; Heart Failure; Congestive Heart Failure; Heart Failure, Congestive; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders; Chronic Insomnia; Disorders of Initiating and Maintaining Sleep; Fatigue; Pain; Depressive Symptoms; Sleep Disorders; Anxiety
Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Garnier, Anne; Veksler, Vladimir
Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome resulting from the inability of the cardiac pump to meet the energy requirements of the body. Despite intensive work, the pathogenesis of the cardiac intracellular abnormalities that result from HF remains incompletely understood. Factors that lead to abnormal contraction and relaxation in the failing heart include metabolic pathway abnormalities that result in decreased energy production, energy transfer and energy utilization. Heart failure also affects the periphery. Patients suffering from heart failure always complain of early muscular fatigue and exercise intolerance. This is linked in part to intrinsic alterations of skeletal muscle, among which decreases in the mitochondrial ATP production and in the transfer of energy through the phosphotransfer kinases play an important role. Alterations in energy metabolism that affect both cardiac and skeletal muscles argue for a generalized metabolic myopathy in heart failure. Recent evidence shows that decreased expression of mitochondrial transcription factors and mitochondrial proteins are involved in mechanisms causing the energy starvation in heart failure. This review will focus on energy metabolism alterations in long-term chronic heart failure with only a few references to compensated hypertrophy when necessary. It will briefly describe the energy metabolism of normal heart and skeletal muscles and their alterations in chronic heart failure. It is beyond the scope of this review to address the metabolic switches occurring in compensated hypertrophy; readers could refer to well-documented reviews on this subject. PMID:14660709
Mallick, Aditi; Januzzi, James L
The care of patients with acutely decompensated heart failure is being reshaped by the availability and understanding of several novel and emerging heart failure biomarkers. The gold standard biomarkers in heart failure are B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, which play an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. Novel biomarkers that are increasingly involved in the processes of myocardial injury, neurohormonal activation, and ventricular remodeling are showing promise in improving diagnosis and prognosis among patients with acute decompensated heart failure. These include midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide, soluble ST2, galectin-3, highly-sensitive troponin, and midregional proadrenomedullin. There has also been an emergence of biomarkers for evaluation of acute decompensated heart failure that assist in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea, such as procalcitonin (for identification of acute pneumonia), as well as markers that predict complications of acute decompensated heart failure, such as renal injury markers. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology and usefulness of established and emerging biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
... March 31, 2017 The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) asks the Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA) members to comment on the proposed Organ Procurement and Transplant... Highlights Video from the Managing the Economic Challenges in the Treatment of Heart Failure (Non- ...
Lehrke, Michael; Marx, Nikolaus
Epidemiologic and clinical data from the last 2 decades have shown that the prevalence of heart failure in diabetes is very high, and the prognosis for patients with heart failure is worse in those with diabetes than in those without diabetes. Experimental data suggest that various mechanisms contribute to the impairment in systolic and diastolic function in patients with diabetes, and there is an increased recognition that these patients develop heart failure independent of the presence of coronary artery disease or its associated risk factors. In addition, current clinical data demonstrated that treatment with the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin reduced hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk. This review article summarizes recent data on the prevalence, prognosis, pathophysiology, and therapeutic strategies to treat patients with diabetes and heart failure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lehrke, Michael; Marx, Nikolaus
Epidemiologic and clinical data from the last 2 decades have shown that the prevalence of heart failure in diabetes is very high, and the prognosis for patients with heart failure is worse in those with diabetes than in those without diabetes. Experimental data suggest that various mechanisms contribute to the impairment in systolic and diastolic function in patients with diabetes, and there is an increased recognition that these patients develop heart failure independent of the presence of coronary artery disease or its associated risk factors. In addition, current clinical data demonstrated that treatment with the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin reduced hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk. This review article summarizes recent data on the prevalence, prognosis, pathophysiology, and therapeutic strategies to treat patients with diabetes and heart failure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... blood pressure Other heart conditions or diseases Other factors Coronary Heart Disease Coronary heart disease is a condition in which a waxy substance called plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen- ...
Blair, John E. A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J
Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering
Zarco Gutiérrez, Pedro
One of the scientific missions of the XXI century is the integration of the basic research with the clinical medicine. One example in the change of century is heart failure (HF). The macroscopic anatomy, the cardiac physiology and the molecular biology have modified and enriched the conception of HF. The enigma of cardiac architecture has been solved. The heart works as a piston of explosion machine, a piston in which its walls twisted while shortening ejecting the blood in systole and sucking the blood in diastole. The HF is a single process with three phases; umpired relaxation, diastolic failure and diastolic and systolic failure all together.
Devaux, Yvan; Creemers, Esther E; Boon, Reinier A; Werfel, Stanislas; Thum, Thomas; Engelhardt, Stefan; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Squire, Iain
Cardiovascular disease, and particularly heart failure, is still a serious health care issue for which novel treatments and biomarkers are needed. The RNA family comprises different subgroups, among which the small-sized microRNAs and the larger long non-coding RNAs have shown some potential to aid in moving personalized health care of heart failure patients a step forward. Here, members of the Cardiolinc network review the recent findings suggesting that the less well-known circular RNAs may constitute a novel reservoir of therapeutic targets and biomarkers of heart failure. The knowledge of the mode of biogenesis of circular RNAs will first be reported, followed by a description of different features that make these RNA molecules of interest for the heart failure community. The functions of circular RNAs in the heart will be described, with some emphasis given to their regulation in the failing heart. Circulating in the bloodstream, circular RNAs have appeared as potential biomarkers and recent findings associated with the use of circular RNAs as heart failure biomarkers will be discussed. Finally, some directions for future research will be provided. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.
Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A; Zugck, Christian; Frankenstein, Lutz
Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases.
Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A.; Zugck, Christian
Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases. PMID:27547136
Mysliwiec, Malgorzata; Bonita, Raphael E
Heart failure is an epidemic in the United States and a major health problem worldwide. The syndrome of acute heart failure is marked by a recent onset of symptoms usually in terms of days to a few weeks of worsening fatigue, shortness of breath, orthopnea, swelling, and sudden onset of weight gain. Physicians caring for patients with heart failure must know the risk factors for this disease, pathophysiology, symptomatology, important examination findings, key diagnostic tests, and management approach so as to improve symptoms and reduce mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guadalajara Boo, José Fernando
This paper reviews the concepts of systolic function, diastolic function, heart failure, diastolic dysfunction, and diastolic heart failure. We refer to the historic evolution of the concept of heart failure and the origin of the term diastolic heart failure. Based on the current concepts of the physiology of the heart and its pathophysiology, we discuss the inappropriateness of the term and to the confusion it has generated in clinical practice, treatment, and prognosis, as well as in numerous research papers (of which some examples are given) when terming as "heart failure" the diastolic dysfunction and using both terms indistinctively. We conclude that an increasing need has arisen, ever more imperative, to identify clearly the concepts of heart failure and diastolic dysfunction, emphasizing on their differences to recognize them as distinct clinical entities with their own personality and, hence, having different prognosis and treatment. This would be of great help to achieve more accuracy in the clinical guidelines, standards, and consensus, especially regarding treatment. Besides it would be useful to avoid, inconsistencies in the design of research, which appear in some of the publications just by the lack of a clear meaning of the terms. Finally, at present we have the necessary elements to conclude that the terms "diastolic heart failure" and "cardiac failure with preserved systolic function" are inexact, poorly gauged, and far away from the actual problem they try to define. Therefore, they should be substituted by the concept of Diastolic Dysfunction, which defines clearly the pathophysiology of the functional alteration, without having to state that "the heart is failing".
Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Börste, Rita
Heart failure is one of the most urgent medical and socio-economic challenges of the 21(st) century. Up to three million people are affected in Germany; this means one in ten people over the age of 65 live with heart failure. The current demographic changes will accentuate the importance of this grave health problem. The care of patients with heart failure, as well as the associated research mandates a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach. The Competence Network Heart Failure (CNHF) pursues this objective. CNHF is a research alliance with 11 sites in Germany and was funded by the Federal Ministry of Research (BMBF) from 2003 through 2014. Since January 2015, the network has been an associate cooperating partner of the German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK). During the 12-year funding period by the BMBF, scientists in the field of heart failure from 30 university hospitals, 5 research institutes, 7 heart centers, 17 cardiovascular clinics, over 200 general practitioners, 4 rehabilitation clinics, as well as numerous organizations and associations were involved in cooperative CNHF research. In the context of 22 projects, the CNHF covered basic, clinical, and health care research, and generated numerous groundbreaking insights into disease mechanisms, as well as diagnosis and treatment of heart failure, which are documented in more than 350 publications. With its central study database and bank of biomaterials, the network has set up a Europe-wide unique research resource, which can be used in the future for national and international cooperations with the DZHK and other partners. Furthermore, the CNHF strongly promotes nation- and Europe-wide public relations and heart failure awareness activities.
... May 9,2017 An important part of shared decision making in advanced heart failure is to clarify what ... discontinue LVAD support should be part of the decision-making process before the device is implanted. A thoughtful ...
Müller-Edenborn, Björn; Eriksson, Urs
Heart failure is a common disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality as well as increasing socio-economic costs. General practitioners take care of most of the affected patients. Knowledge on pathophysiology and modern treatment concepts are decisive for rational decision making. Patient management focuses on longer survival and higher quality of life. Major goals include reductions in unnecessary hospital admissions as well as appropriate and timely involvement of heart failure specialists.
Shah, Mahek; Bhalla, Vikas; Patnaik, Soumya; Maludum, Obiora; Lu, Marvin; Figueredo, Vincent M
Studies suggest increased cardiac morbidity and heart failure exacerbations during winter months with a peak around the holiday season. Major sporting events and intense encounters in sports have been shown to affect cardiovascular outcomes amongst its fans. All patients admitted to Einstein Medical Center between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2013 with a diagnosis of congestive heart failure were included in the study. They were included on the basis of the presence of an ICD-9CM code representing congestive heart failure as the primary diagnosis. Comparisons were made between the rates of heart failure admissions on the holiday, 4 days following the holiday and the rest of the month for 5 specific days: Christmas day, New Year's day, Independence day, Thanksgiving day and Super Bowl Sunday. Our study included 22,727 heart failure admissions at an average of 5.65 admissions per day. The mean patient age was 68 ± 15 years. There was a significant increase in daily heart failure admissions following Independence day (5.65 vs. 5; p = 0.027) and Christmas day (6.5 vs. 5.5; p = 0.046) when compared to the rest of the month. A history of alcohol abuse or dependence did not correlate with the reported+ rise in heart failure admissions immediately following the holidays. The mean number of daily admissions on the holidays were significantly lower for all holidays compared to the following 4 days. All holidays apart from Super Bowl Sunday demonstrated lower admission rates on the holiday compared to the rest of the month. Christmas and Independence day were associated with increased heart failure admissions immediately following the holidays. The holidays themselves saw lower admission rates. Overeating on holidays, associated emotional stressors, lesser exercise and postponing medical around holidays may be among the factors responsible for the findings.
Guglin, Maya; Verma, Sameer
The function of the right ventricle (RV) in heart failure (HF) has been mostly ignored until recently. A 2006 report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute identified a gap between RV research efforts and its clinical importance compared with that of the left ventricle. This recent shift in paradigm is fueled by the prognostic value ascribed to RV failure in HF and morbidity/mortality after myocardial infarction and surgery. In this review, we examine the significance of RV failure in the HF setting, its clinical presentation and pathophysiology, and ways to evaluate RV function using echocardiographic measurements. Furthermore, we discuss the medical management of RV failure including traditional therapies like beta-blockers and newer options like nitric oxide, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and calcium sensitizers. Mechanical support is also examined. Finally, this review places an emphasis on RV failure in the setting of left ventricular assist devices and heart transplantation.
... lose a lot of weight. Checking Your Heart Rate and Pulse Know what your normal pulse rate is. Your provider will tell you what yours ... give you special equipment to check your heart rate. Checking Your Blood Pressure Your provider may ask ...
Yancy, Clyde W
The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.
... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Causes and Risks for Heart Failure Updated:Feb 1,2017 Who Develops Heart Failure ( ... HF. This content was last reviewed April 2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...
... minimize just how often re-hospitalizations happen. Shared Decision Making for Advanced HF When HF progresses to an ... Here we delve into the importance of shared decision making. This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart ...
Kovács, Sándor J
Heart failure has reached epidemic proportions, and diastolic heart failure or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) constitutes about 50% of all heart failure admissions. Long-term prognosis of both reduced ejection fraction heart failure and HFpEF are similarly dismal. No pharmacologic agent has been developed that actually treats or repairs the physiologic deficit(s) responsible for HFpEF. Because the physiology of diastole is both subtle and counterintuitive, its role in heart failure has received insufficient attention. In this review, the focus is on the physiology of diastole in heart failure, the dominant physiologic laws that govern the process in all hearts, how all hearts work as a suction pump, and, therefore, the elucidation and characterization of what actually is meant by “diastolic function”. The intent is for the reader to understand what diastolic function actually is, what it is not, and how to measure it. Proper measurement of diastolic function requires one to go beyond the usual E/A, E/E′, etc. phenomenological metrics and employ more rigorous causality (mathematical modeling) based parameters of diastolic function. The method simultaneously provides new physiologic insight into the meaning of in vivo “equilibrium volume” of the left ventricle (LV), longitudinal versus transverse volume accommodation of the chamber, diastatic “ringing” of the mitral annulus, and the mechanism of L-wave generation, as well as availability of a load-independent index of diastolic function (LIIDF). One important consequence of understanding what diastolic function is, is the recognition that all that current therapies can do is basically alter the load, rather than actually “repair” the functional components (chamber stiffness, chamber relaxation). If beneficial (biological/structural/metabolic) remodeling due to therapy does manifest ultimately as improved diastolic function, it is due to resumption of normal physiology (as in
Kovács, Sándor J
Heart failure has reached epidemic proportions, and diastolic heart failure or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) constitutes about 50% of all heart failure admissions. Long-term prognosis of both reduced ejection fraction heart failure and HFpEF are similarly dismal. No pharmacologic agent has been developed that actually treats or repairs the physiologic deficit(s) responsible for HFpEF. Because the physiology of diastole is both subtle and counterintuitive, its role in heart failure has received insufficient attention. In this review, the focus is on the physiology of diastole in heart failure, the dominant physiologic laws that govern the process in all hearts, how all hearts work as a suction pump, and, therefore, the elucidation and characterization of what actually is meant by "diastolic function". The intent is for the reader to understand what diastolic function actually is, what it is not, and how to measure it. Proper measurement of diastolic function requires one to go beyond the usual E/A, E/E', etc. phenomenological metrics and employ more rigorous causality (mathematical modeling) based parameters of diastolic function. The method simultaneously provides new physiologic insight into the meaning of in vivo "equilibrium volume" of the left ventricle (LV), longitudinal versus transverse volume accommodation of the chamber, diastatic "ringing" of the mitral annulus, and the mechanism of L-wave generation, as well as availability of a load-independent index of diastolic function (LIIDF). One important consequence of understanding what diastolic function is, is the recognition that all that current therapies can do is basically alter the load, rather than actually "repair" the functional components (chamber stiffness, chamber relaxation). If beneficial (biological/structural/metabolic) remodeling due to therapy does manifest ultimately as improved diastolic function, it is due to resumption of normal physiology (as in alleviation of
Novel strategies are needed to treat the growing population of heart failure patients. While new drug and device based therapies have improved outcomes over the past several decades, heart failure patients continue to experience amongst the lowest quality of life of any chronic disease, high likelihood of being hospitalized and marked reduction in survival. Better understanding of many of the basic mechanisms involved in the development of heart failure has helped identify abnormalities that could potentially be targeted by gene transfer. Despite success in experimental animal models, translating gene transfer strategies from the laboratory to the clinic remains at an early stage. This review provides an introduction to gene transfer as a therapy for treating heart failure, describes some of the many factors that need to be addressed in order for it to be successful and discusses some of the recent studies that have been carried out in heart failure patients. Insights from these studies highlight both the enormous promise of gene transfer and the obstacles that still need to be overcome for this treatment approach to be successful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Riehle, Christian; Abel, E Dale
Heart failure is associated with generalized insulin resistance. Moreover, insulin-resistant states such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity increases the risk of heart failure even after adjusting for traditional risk factors. Insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus alters the systemic and neurohumoral milieu, leading to changes in metabolism and signaling pathways in the heart that may contribute to myocardial dysfunction. In addition, changes in insulin signaling within cardiomyocytes develop in the failing heart. The changes range from activation of proximal insulin signaling pathways that may contribute to adverse left ventricular remodeling and mitochondrial dysfunction to repression of distal elements of insulin signaling pathways such as forkhead box O transcriptional signaling or glucose transport, which may also impair cardiac metabolism, structure, and function. This article will review the complexities of insulin signaling within the myocardium and ways in which these pathways are altered in heart failure or in conditions associated with generalized insulin resistance. The implications of these changes for therapeutic approaches to treating or preventing heart failure will be discussed.
Riehle, Christian; Abel, E. Dale
Heart failure is associated with generalized insulin resistance. Moreover, insulin resistant states such as type 2 diabetes and obesity increases the risk of heart failure even after adjusting for traditional risk factors. Insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes alters the systemic and neurohumoral milieu leading to changes in metabolism and signaling pathways in the heart that may contribute to myocardial dysfunction. In addition, changes in insulin signaling within cardiomyocytes develop in the failing heart. The changes range from activation of proximal insulin signaling pathways that may contribute to adverse left ventricular remodeling and mitochondrial dysfunction to repression of distal elements of insulin signaling pathways such as forkhead (FOXO) transcriptional signaling or glucose transport which may also impair cardiac metabolism, structure and function. This article will review the complexities of insulin signaling within the myocardium and ways in which these pathways are altered in heart failure or in conditions associated with generalized insulin resistance. The implications of these changes for therapeutic approaches to treating or preventing heart failure will be discussed. PMID:27034277
Mendoza González, Celso; Iturralde Torres, Pedro; Medeiros Domingo, Argelia
The different means for treating congestive heart failure have not yet achieved the improvement in quality of life and the prognosis of people with terminal stage cardiac disease. Some treatment resources, such as cardiac transplant, are only accessible for a selected group of patients. In the last decade, the interest on the role of electromechanic disturbances has grown and has motivated special interest for the use of the pacemaker as a tool for the treatment of congestive heart failure. During this period we have seen an important progress of this kind of treatment and, nowadays, multicenter studies have shown the hemodynamic improvement of the patients treated with this method. Selection of patients for this kind of treatment should be careful; although today it can be known which patients can benefit from this device in the treatment of congestive heart failure.
Van Bakel, Adrian B; Chidsey, Geoffrey
Congestive heart failure (CHF) due to progressive systolic dysfunction has become a modern-day epidemic. Despite the increased incidence and prevalence, significant progress has been made in the past 10 to 15 years in the treatment of CHF at all stages. The current outlook for patients with newly diagnosed, mild heart failure is encouraging. It should be noted, however, that most of the morbidity and health care expenditure is incurred by a minority of patients diagnosed with CHF who are in the advanced stages of their disease. The thrust of this article will be to provide practical advice beyond current guidelines on the management of advanced CHF.
Baldonado, Analiza; Dutra, Danette; Abriam-Yago, Katherine
Heart failure (HF) is the heart's inability to meet the body's need for blood and oxygen. According to the American Heart Association 2013 update, approximately 5.1 million people are diagnosed with HF in the United States in 2006. Heart failure is the most common diagnosis for hospitalization. In the United States, the HF direct and indirect costs are estimated to be US $39.2 billion in 2010. To address this issue, nursing educators designed innovative teaching frameworks on HF management both in academia and in clinical settings. The model was based on 2 resources: the American Association of Heart Failure Nurses (2012) national nursing certification and the award-winning Pierce County Responsive Care Coordination Program. The HF educational program is divided into 4 modules. The initial modules offer foundational levels of Bloom's Taxonomy then progress to incorporate higher-levels of learning when modules 3 and 4 are reached. The applicability of the key components within each module allows formatting to enhance learning in all areas of nursing, from the emergency department to intensive care units to the medical-surgical step-down units. Also applicable would be to provide specific aspects of the modules to nurses who care for HF patients in skilled nursing facility, rehabilitation centers, and in the home-health care setting.
Böhm, Michael; Ewen, Sebastian; Kindermann, Ingrid; Linz, Dominik; Ukena, Christian; Mahfoud, Felix
Renal denervation has been developed in order to lower systolic blood pressure in resistant hypertension by a reduction in renal afferent and efferent sympathetic nerve activity. In heart failure sympathetic activation, in particular, renal norepinephrine release is closely associated with morbidity and mortality. Initial studies have shown that renal denervation is able to reduce not only blood pressure but also heart rate, and is associated with a reduction in myocardial hypertrophy, improved glucose tolerance, and ameliorated microalbuminuria. Since some experimental and observational data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect, it is possible that renal denervation might also play a therapeutic role in arrhythmias often occurring in chronic heart failure. The first proof-of-concept studies are planned to evaluate the clinical effect of this pathophysiologically plausible method, which might be able to change clinical practice.
Heart failure is a major health problem and its relationship to thyroid dysfunction has been increasingly investigated in recent years. Since it has been demonstrated that thyroid hormones (TH) and mainly T3 have cardioprotective effects, it is easy to understand that in the scenario of thyroid disorder, cardiac function may be damaged, and inversely in cardiac dysfunction thyroid dysregulation may be seen. The increase in plasma TH produces a clear neurohormonal activation which impacts negatively on cardiac function. In hypothyroidism, and in addition to extracardiac dysfunction, myocardial and vascular remodelling is altered and they contribute to cardiac failure. Abnormal low plasma TSH has also been shown to be a risk factor for developing HF in several recent studies, and they suggest that TSH is an independent predictor of clinical outcome including death and cardiac hospitalizations. Therefore, physicians should consider all these concepts when managing a patient with heart failure, not only for a clear diagnosis, but also for better and accurate treatment.
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164475.html Can Stem Cell 'Patch' Help Heart Failure? Small improvement seen over ... Scientists report another step in the use of stem cells to help treat people with debilitating heart failure. ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000224.htm Heart failure - what to ask your doctor To use the ... a pump that moves blood through your body. Heart failure occurs when blood does not move well and ...
Anaemia is a relatively frequent co-morbidity of chronic heart as well as chronic renal failure. In both conditions, it represents a strong and independent predictor of increased morbidity and mortality. Aetiology of this anaemia is multi-factorial. A number of various factors play a role in its development, e.g. inadequate erythropoietin production in the kidneys, bone marrow inhibition, iron deficiency as well as haemodilution associated with fluid retention. Treatment strategies aim at two directions. One is the stimulation of erythropoiesis with recombinant human erythropoietin or its analogues such as darbepoetin alpha. The other involves iron substitution, administered preferably intravenously for improved efficacy and tolerability. Clinical studies evaluating treatment of anaemia in chronic heart failure with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents conducted so far were ofa small scale, were not controlled with placebo and usually assessed proxy parameters. Their results suggested that effective treatment of anaemia in patients with chronic heart failure improves exertion tolerance, clinical status (NYHA class) as well as the quality of life and reduces the need for blood transfusions. Recently completed TREAT study was the first large morbidity and mortality study evaluating treatment of anaemia with an erythropoietin analogue compared to placebo. On a sample of more than 4000 patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure and significant anaemia, this study has shown that effective treatment of anaemia with darbepoetin alpha did not affect at all the incidence of cardiovascular and renal events; on the other hand, it had lead to a nearly two-fold increase in the incidence of cerebrovascular events. Some doubts about the safety of treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents have occurred in the past based on the studies of anaemia treatment in patients with cancer and renal diseases. An answer to the question whether the treatment of anaemia
Gil, Victor M; Ferreira, Jorge S
Heart failure is a common problem and a major cause of mortality, morbidity and impaired quality of life. Anemia is a frequent comorbidity in heart failure and further worsens prognosis and disability. Regardless of anemia status, iron deficiency is a common and usually unidentified problem in patients with heart failure. This article reviews the mechanisms, impact on outcomes and treatment of anemia and iron deficiency in patients with heart failure.
... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Updated:Oct 4, ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...
... affect cardiovascular diseases other than heart failure . Medicine Management What is compliance? Compliance simply means following the ... Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Target Heart Rates 4 Heart ...
Heart failure is a major public health problem throughout the world and it is likely that its prevalence will continue to grow over the next several decades. Despite advances in the treatment of heart failure, morbidity and mortality remain unacceptably high. Gene transfer therapy provides a novel strategy for targeting abnormalities in cardiac cells that adversely affect cardiac function. New vectors for gene delivery, mainly adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) that are preferentially taken up by cardiomyocytes, can result in sustained transgene expression. The cardiac isoform of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)ATPase (SERCA2a) plays a major role in regulating calcium levels in cardiomyocytes. Abnormal calcium handling by the failing heart caused by a reduction in SERCA2a activity adversely affects both systolic and diastolic function. The Calcium Upregulation by Percutaneous Administration of Gene Therapy in Cardiac Disease (CUPID) study was a Phase 2a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study that was performed in patients with advanced heart failure due to systolic dysfunction. Eligible patients received AAV/SERCA2a or placebo by direct antegrade infusion into the coronary circulation. At the end of 12 months, patients receiving high-dose therapy (i.e. 1×10(13) DNase Resistant Particles) had evidence of favorable changes in several clinically relevant domains compared to patients treated with placebo. There were no safety concerns at any dose of AAV/SERCA2a. Patients treated with AAV/SERCA2a exhibited a striking reduction in cardiovascular events that persisted through 36 months of follow-up compared to patients who received placebo. Transgene expression was detected in the myocardium of patients receiving AAV/SERCA2a gene therapy as long as 31 months after delivery. A second Phase 2b study, CUPID 2, designed to confirm this favorable effect on heart failure events, is currently underway with the results expected to be presented later in
Guha, K; McDonagh, T
Heart failure poses an increasing problem for global healthcare systems. The epidemiological data which has been accrued over the last thirty years has predominantly been accumulated from experience within North America and Europe. Initial large cohort, prospective longitudinal studies produced the first publications; however latterly the focus has shifted onto epidemiological data governing hospitalisation and mortality. The emphasis behind this shift has been the resource implications with regards to repetitive, costly and prolonged hospitalisation. The European experience in heart failure, though similar to North America has recently demonstrated differences in hospitalisation which may underlie the differences between healthcare system configuration. Heart failure however remains an increasing global problem and the endpoint of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Allied with the fact of increasingly elderly populations and prior data demonstrating a steep rise in prevalent cases within more elderly populations, it is likely that the increasing burden of disease will continue to pose challenges for modern healthcare. Despite the predicted increase in the number of patients affected by heart failure, over the last thirty years, a clear management algorithm has evolved for the use of pharmacotherapies (neuro-hormonal antagonists), device based therapies (Implantable Cardioverting Defibrillator (ICD) and Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy (CRT)) and mechanical therapies including left ventricular assist devices and cardiac transplantation. Though the management of such patients has been clearly delineated in national and international guidelines, the underuse of all available and appropriate therapies remains a significant problem. When comparing various epidemiological studies from different settings and timepoints, it should be remembered that rates of prevalence and incidence may vary depending upon the definition used, methods of accumulating information (with
Sivadasan Pillai, Harikrishnan; Ganapathi, Sanjay
South Asia (SA) is both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world. The countries in this region are undergoing epidemiological transition and are facing the double burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. Heart failure (HF) is a major and increasing burden all over the world. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of HF in SA today and its impact in the health system of the countries in the region. There are no reliable estimates of incidence and prevalence of HF (heart failure) from this region. The prevalence of HF which is predominantly a disease of the elderly is likely to rise in this region due to the growing age of the population. Patients admitted with HF in the SA region are relatively younger than their western counterparts. The etiology of HF in this region is also different from the western world. Untreated congenital heart disease and rheumatic heart disease still contribute significantly to the burden of HF in this region. Due to epidemiological transition, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking is on the rise in this region. This is likely to escalate the prevalence of HF in South Asia. We also discuss potential developments in the field of HF management likely to occur in the nations in South Asia. Finally, we discuss the interventions for prevention of HF in this region PMID:23597297
Zhang, Yingying; Bauersachs, Johann; Langer, Harald F
Elevated levels of circulating pro-inflammatory biomarkers in patients with both ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart failure (HF) correlate with disease severity and prognosis. Experimental studies have shown activation of immune response mechanisms in the heart to provoke cardiac adverse remodelling and cause left ventricular dysfunction. Consequently, most of the clinical trials targeting elements of the immune response in HF attempted to modulate the inflammatory response. Surprisingly, clinical studies targeting immune effectors were either neutral or even increased pre-specified clinical endpoints, and some studies resulted in worsening of HF. This review discusses immune mediators involved in the pathogenesis and progression of HF and potential therapeutic applications targeting inflammation in HF. Besides more obvious settings featuring immune activation such as inflammatory or ischaemic cardiomyopathy, the relevance of immune activation in acute or chronic HF of other origins, including volume overload or valvular heart disease, is highlighted. Understanding how cell-specific and molecular mechanisms of the immune response interfere with cardiac remodelling in HF may open new avenues to design biomarkers or druggable targets. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.
Pillai, Harikrishnan Sivadasan; Ganapathi, Sanjay
South Asia (SA) is both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world. The countries in this region are undergoing epidemiological transition and are facing the double burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. Heart failure (HF) is a major and increasing burden all over the world. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of HF in SA today and its impact in the health system of the countries in the region. There are no reliable estimates of incidence and prevalence of HF (heart failure) from this region. The prevalence of HF which is predominantly a disease of the elderly is likely to rise in this region due to the growing age of the population. Patients admitted with HF in the SA region are relatively younger than their western counterparts. The etiology of HF in this region is also different from the western world. Untreated congenital heart disease and rheumatic heart disease still contribute significantly to the burden of HF in this region. Due to epidemiological transition, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking is on the rise in this region. This is likely to escalate the prevalence of HF in South Asia. We also discuss potential developments in the field of HF management likely to occur in the nations in South Asia. Finally, we discuss the interventions for prevention of HF in this region.
The exact prevalence of heart failure among children of developing countries is not known, as the data is limited. The relative frequency of different causes of pediatric heart failure varies widely across different countries and even among different parts of large countries like India. Children of developing countries face a double burden of etiologies. Conditions such us congenital heart disease, myocarditis and cardiomyopathies are common causes of pediatric of heart failure. In addition, diseases like rheumatic heart disease, nutritional deficiencies, and other tropical diseases also result in heart failure among children of the developing countries. However, most of the developing countries have low resources and hence management of pediatric heart failure becomes challenging. Advanced therapies for heart failure are rarely used in children of developing countries and cardiac transplant remains a distant dream.
Rodrigo-Troyano, Ana; Mediavilla, Marta M; Garin, Noé; Güell, Rosa
Itraconazole is an antifungal imidazole used for the treatment of aspergillosis. Evidence supporting the association between itraconazole and the onset of congestive heart failure (CHF) is limited and is based on cases reported after drug market release. We report the case of a 76-year-old man with hypertension and COPD GOLD D who experienced heart failure after receiving a new line of treatment with itraconazole. The patient's symptoms resolved completely after the drug's withdrawal and initiation of treatment with diuretic therapy. Using validated algorithms, we concluded that there was a probable association between itraconazole and the onset of CHF. The association between the administration of itraconazole and the onset of CHF is difficult to prove. Further observational studies are needed to assess this association. However, based on the available evidence, we should consider this possible adverse effect and even contraindicate this treatment in patients with a structural heart disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Wang, Zhao V.; Li, Dan L.; Hill, Joseph A.
Heart failure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, currently affecting 5 million Americans. A syndrome defined on clinical terms, heart failure is the end-result of events occurring in multiple heart diseases, including hypertension, myocardial infarction, genetic mutations and diabetes, and metabolic dysregulation is a hallmark feature. Mounting evidence from clinical and preclinical studies suggests strongly that fatty acid uptake and oxidation are adversely affected, especially in end-stage heart failure. Moreover, metabolic flexibility, the heart’s ability to move freely among diverse energy substrates, is impaired in heart failure. Indeed, impairment of the heart’s ability to adapt to its metabolic milieu, and associated metabolic derangement, are important contributing factors in heart failure pathogenesis. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms governing metabolic control in heart failure will provide critical insights into disease initiation and progression, raising the prospect of advances with clinical relevance. PMID:24336014
Wojnowich, Katherine; Korabathina, Ravi
Outpatient management of heart failure (HF) is aimed at treating symptoms and preventing hospitalizations and readmissions. Management is initiated in a stepwise approach. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system is a cornerstone of therapy and should be started, along with beta blockers, as soon as the diagnosis of HF is made. Other drugs, including diuretics, aldosterone antagonists, hydralazine, and nitrates, may be added based on symptoms and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association stage. Despite a great interest in and theoretical benefit of naturoceutical products in the mitigation of oxidative stress and HF progression, none has been proven to be beneficial, and concerns exist regarding their interactions with standard HF drugs. Other nonpharmacologic interventions, including sodium restriction, regular exercise, and/or cardiac rehabilitation, should be initiated at diagnosis. HF often is progressive, and clinicians should be aware of late stage management options, including implantable devices, cardiac transplantation, and hospice care.
Boehmer, John P
Although pharmacologic therapy has made impressive advances in the past decade and is the mainstay of therapy for heart failure (HF), there is still a large unmet need, because morbidity and mortality remain unacceptably high. Implanted medical devices are gaining increasing utility in this group of patients and have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of HF. The majority of devices in clinical use or under active investigation in HF can be grouped into 1 of 4 categories: devices to monitor the HF condition, devices to treat rhythm disturbances, devices to improve the mechanical efficiency of the heart, and devices to replace part or all of the heart's function. There are several devices either approved or under development to monitor the HF condition, ranging from interactive weight scales to implantable continuous pressure monitors. The challenge is to demonstrate that this technology can improve patient outcomes. Pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are used to treat heart rhythms in a broad range of patients with heart disease, but they now have a special place in HF management with the prophylactic use of ICDs in patients who have advanced systolic dysfunction. The Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial (MADIT) II study demonstrated a 29% reduction in all-cause mortality with ICDs in patients with a history of a myocardial infarction and a left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction <0.30. LV and multisite pacing are means of improving the mechanical efficiency of the heart. The concept is to create a more coordinated contraction of the ventricles to overcome the inefficiency associated with conduction system delays, which are common in HF. The acute hemodynamic effect can be impressive and is immediate. Several studies of intermediate duration (3 to 6 months) have consistently demonstrated that biventricular pacing improves symptoms and exercise capacity. Mechanical methods of remodeling the heart into a more
Trullàs, Joan Carles; Morales-Rull, José Luís; Formiga, Francesc
Many of the primary clinical manifestations of heart failure (HF) are due to fluid retention, and treatments targeting congestion play a central role in HF management. Diuretic therapy remains the cornerstone of congestion treatment, and diuretics are prescribed to the majority of HF patients. Despite this ubiquitous use, there is limited evidence from prospective randomized studies to guide the use of diuretics. With the chronic use of diuretic and usually in advanced stages of HF, diuretics may fail to control salt and water retention. This review describes the mechanism of action of available diuretic classes, reviews their clinical use based on scientific evidence and discusses strategies to overcome diuretic resistance.
D'Elia, Emilia; Krum, Henry
Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) have become mandated therapy in patients with reduced ejection fraction (systolic) heart failure (HF) across all symptom classes. These agents should also be prescribed in the early post-myocardial infarction setting in those with reduced ejection fraction and either HF symptoms or diabetes. This article explores the pathophysiological role of aldosterone, an endogenous ligand for the mineralcorticoid receptor (MR), and summarizes the clinical data supporting guideline recommendations for these agents in systolic HF. The use of MRAs in novel areas beyond systolic HF ejection is also explored. Finally, the current status of newer agents will be examined.
Krim, Selim R; Campbell, Patrick; Lavie, Carl J; Ventura, Hector
Heart failure (HF)-associated mortality remains high, despite guideline-recommended medical therapies. Poor nutritional status and unintentional cachexia have been shown to have a strong association with worse survival in HF patients. Importantly, micronutrient deficiencies are potential contributing factors to the progression of HF. This review aims to summarize contemporary evidence on the role of micronutrients in the pathophysiology and outcome of HF patients. Emphasis will be given to the most well-studied micronutrients, specifically, vitamin D, vitamin B complex, coenzyme Q10 and L-carnitine.
Zmily, Hammam D; Daifallah, Suleiman; Ghali, Jalal K
Tolvaptan is the first FDA-approved oral V2 receptor antagonist for the treatment of euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia, in patients with conditions associated with free water excess such as heart failure, cirrhosis, and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Tolvaptan inhibits the binding of arginine vasopressin to the V2 receptors on the collecting ducts of the kidneys resulting in aquaresis, the electrolytes sparing excretion of water. This article reviews the accumulated experience with tolvaptan and all the major clinical trials that were conducted to study its safety and efficacy and concludes by summarizing clinicians’ views of its current application in clinical practice. PMID:21694950
Verdejo, Hugo E; Ferreccio, Catterina; Castro, Pablo F
Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) living in rural areas face an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Even in countries with universal access to health care, rural areas are characteristically underserved, with reduced health care providers supply, greater distance to health care centers, decreased physician density with higher reliance on generalists, and high health care staff turnover. On the other hand, patient-related characteristics vary widely among published data. This review describes the epidemiology of CHF in rural or remote settings, organizational and patient-related factors involved in cardiovascular outcomes, and the role of interventions to improve rural health care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Khaddash, Ibrahim; Hawatmeh, Amer; Altheeb, Zaid; Hamdan, Aiman; Shamoon, Fayez
Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a weakness of the heart muscle. It is an idiopathic cardiomyopathy that presents with heart failure secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction toward the end of pregnancy or in the months after delivery, in the absence of any other cause of heart failure. It is a rare condition that can carry mild or severe symptoms. PMID:28074806
Mehra, Mandeep R; Park, Myung H; Landzberg, Michael J; Lala, Anuradha; Waxman, Aaron B
In this guideline, the International Right Heart Foundation Working Group moves a step forward to develop a common language to describe the development and defects that exemplify the common syndrome of right heart failure. We first propose fundamental definitions of the distinctive components of the right heart circulation and provide consensus on a universal definition of right heart failure. These definitions will form the foundation for describing a uniform nomenclature for right heart circulatory failure with a view to foster collaborative research initiatives and conjoint education in an effort to provide insight into mechanisms of disease unique to the right heart.
Mehra, Mandeep R; Park, Myung H; Landzberg, Michael J; Lala, Anuradha; Waxman, Aaron B
In this perspective, the International Right Heart Foundation Working Group moves a step forward to develop a common language to describe the development and defects that exemplify the common syndrome of right heart failure. We first propose fundamental definitions of the distinctive components of the right heart circulation and provide consensus on a universal definition of right heart failure. These definitions will form the foundation for describing a uniform nomenclature for right heart circulatory failure with a view to foster collaborative research initiatives and conjoint education in an effort to provide insight into echanisms of disease unique to the right heart.
Edelmann, F; Grabs, V; Halle, M
Exercise training in patients with chronic stable heart failure (HF) is a recommended and broadly accepted treatment strategy that is an integral part of an evidence-based management involving pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. There is ample scientific evidence that exercise training in HF with reduced (HFrEF) and with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) improves exercise capacity, HF symptoms and quality of life. This is due to an improvement of central hemodynamics, endothelial function, neurohumoral activation, skeletal muscle structure and function as well as a decrease in inflammatory markers. The largest randomized, controlled HF-ACTION study (Heart Failure-A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of exercise TraiNing) demonstrated that exercise training results in a modest improvement of all-cause mortality and hospitalizations in HFrEF, depending on adequate compliance. Outcome data in HFpEF are lacking. Besides compliance, efficacy of exercise training is dependent on the intensity and type of exercise. Resistance and high intensity endurance training in addition to a standard aerobic exercise seem to be superior in improving the clinical status of HF patients. In the future, individualized exercise programs will help to improve long-term adherence to exercise training.
Bolger, Aidan P; Gatzoulis, Michael A
Injury to the myocardium disrupts geometric integrity and results in changes to intracardiac pressure, wall stress and tension, and the pattern of blood flow through the heart. Significant disruption to pump function results in heart failure which is defined in terms of symptoms: breathlessness and fatigue, signs of salt and water retention, and neurohormonal activation. This syndrome most commonly occurs in the context of injury due to ischaemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy but because patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) are born with sometimes gross distortions of cardiac anatomy they too are subject to the forces that drive heart failure. This paper explores the available data relating to the clinical and neurohormonal manifestations of heart failure in patients with congenital heart disease and describes how, by additionally exploring events at a cellular level, we may be able to arrive at a definition of heart failure relevant to this population.
Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Altay, Hakan; Çetiner, Mustafa; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Temizhan, Ahmet; Ural, Dilek; Yeşilbursa, Dilek; Yıldırım, Nesligül; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan
Heart failure is an important community health problem. Prevalence and incidence of heart failure have continued to rise over the years. Despite recent advances in heart failure therapy, prognosis is still poor, rehospitalization rate is very high, and quality of life is worse. Co-morbidities in heart failure have negative impact on clinical course of the disease, further impair prognosis, and add difficulties to treatment of clinical picture. Therefore, successful management of co-morbidities is strongly recommended in addition to conventional therapy for heart failure. One of the most common co-morbidities in heart failure is presence of iron deficiency and anemia. Current evidence suggests that iron deficiency and anemia are more prevalent in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, as well as those with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. Moreover, iron deficiency and anemia are referred to as independent predictors for poor prognosis in heart failure. There is strong relationship between iron deficiency or anemia and severity of clinical status of heart failure. Over the last two decades, many clinical investigations have been conducted on clinical effectiveness of treatment of iron deficiency or anemia with oral iron, intravenous iron, and erythropoietin therapies. Studies with oral iron and erythropoietin therapies did not provide any clinical benefit and, in fact, these therapies have been shown to be associated with increase in adverse clinical outcomes. However, clinical trials in patients with iron deficiency in the presence or absence of anemia have demonstrated considerable clinical benefits of intravenous iron therapy, and based on these positive outcomes, iron deficiency has become target of therapy in management of heart failure. The present report assesses current approaches to iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure in light of recent evidence.
Díaz Navarro, Rienzi
The usefulness of echocardiography and the new noninvasive cardiac techniques in assessing heart failure is analyzed. The usefulness of non-invasive CT coronary angiography, as well as the growing applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the study of ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is considered. For this puspose, some clinical cases are used. The combined use of these techniques, especially in patients in whom the etiology of heart failure is ischemic heart disease or cardiomyopathy is emphasized.
Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe‘aimoku; Saito, Erin; Mau, Marjorie K.; Latimer, Renee; Seto, Todd B.
Objective To identify the health beliefs, attitudes, practices and social and family relations important in heart failure treatment among Pacific Islanders. Methods Four focus groups were convened with 36 Native Hawaiians and Samoans with heart failure and their family caregivers. Thematic data analysis was used to categorize data into four domains: health beliefs and attitudes, preferred health practices, social support systems, and barriers to heart failure care. Results Common coping styles and emotional experiences of heart failure in this population included avoidance or denial of illness, hopelessness and despair, and reliance on spiritual/religious beliefs as a means of support. Among study participants, more Samoans preferred to be treated by physicians whereas more Native Hawaiians preferred traditional Hawaiian methods of healing. Two types of social support (informational and tangible-instrumental) were identified as important in heart failure care. Barriers to heart failure care included poor knowledge of heart failure, lack of trust in physicians’ care, poor physician-patient relations, finances, dietary changes, and competing demands on time. Conclusion The recruitment, retention, and adherence of Pacific Islanders to heart failure interventions are affected by an array of psychosocial and socio-cultural factors. Practice Implications Interventions might be improved by offering participants accurate and detailed information about heart failure and its treatment, engaging the extended family in providing necessary supports, and providing tools to facilitate physician-patient relationships, among others, within the context of a larger socio-cultural system. PMID:18068939
Puckett, Carrie; Mudd, James O
Heart failure effects millions of people throughout the world and is a growing epidemic with a significant impact on the economics and systems of care delivery. The goal of therapy in advanced heart failure is to improve quality of life and prolong survival. Standard medical therapies may require tailoring as advanced therapies are considered in the context of patient and caregiver goals. The aim of this review is to summarize concepts for tailored medical therapy and monitoring in advanced heart failure and discuss the importance of tailoring systems of care and shared decision making in advanced heart failure.
Richards, Arthur Mark
Contributions from the Asian biomedical community to knowledge of biomarkers in heart failure have grown rapidly since 2000. Japan has made world-leading contributions in the discovery and application of cardiac natriuretic peptides as biomarkers in heart failure, but there has been rapid growth in reports from China. Contributions also come from Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, and Hong Kong. Centers in Asia have established clinical cohorts providing powerful platforms for the discovery and validation of biomarkers in heart failure. This century, Asian enquiry into biomarkers in heart failure will include peptides, cytokines, metabolites, nucleic acids, and other analytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tang, W H Wilson; Yeo, P S Daniel
Anemia is being increasingly recognized as an important comorbidity in patients with heart failure. Despite wide variations in defining anemia, approximately one-fifth to one-third of patients with heart failure may experience anemia at a given time. The prevalence may increase to more than half of patients in the setting of severe heart failure, and it may differ with different settings. Meanwhile, up to a fifth of patients may experience new-onset anemia, even though most cases may resolve over time. Different factors contribute to the development of anemia, including increasing age, renal insufficiency, hemodilution, chronic inflammation, and increasing heart failure disease severity.
Kawarada, Osami; Yasuda, Satoshi; Noguchi, Teruo; Anzai, Toshihisa; Ogawa, Hisao
Atherosclerotic renal artery disease presents with a broad spectrum of clinical features, including heart failure as well as hypertension, and renal failure. Although recent randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate renal artery stenting can reduce blood pressure or the number of cardiovascular or renal events more so than medical therapy, increasing attention has been paid to flash pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure associated with atherosclerotic renal artery disease. This clinical entity "renovascular heart failure" is diagnosed retrospectively. Given the increasing global burden of heart failure, this review highlights the background and catheter-based therapeutic aspects for renovascular heart failure.
De Ferrari, Gaetano M
Heart failure (HF) is accompanied by an autonomic imbalance that is almost always characterized by both increased sympathetic activity and withdrawal of vagal activity. Experimentally, vagal stimulation has been shown to exert profound antiarrhythmic activity and to improve cardiac function and survival in HF models. A open-label pilot clinical study in 32 patients with chronic HF has shown safety and tolerability of chronic vagal stimulation associated with subjective (improved quality of life and 6-min walk test) and objective improvements (reduced left ventricular systolic volumes and improved left ventricular ejection fraction). Three larger clinical studies, including a phase III trial are currently ongoing and will evaluate the clinical role of this new approach.
Afsar, Baris; Ortiz, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Solak, Yalcin; Goldsmith, David; Kanbay, Mehmet
Hospitalizations due to heart failure are increasing steadily despite advances in medicine. Patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure have high mortality in hospital and within the months following discharge. Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure patients. Recent evidence suggests that both deterioration in kidney function and renal congestion are important prognostic factors in heart failure. Kidney congestion in heart failure results from low cardiac output (forward failure), tubuloglomerular feedback, increased intra-abdominal pressure or increased venous pressure. Regardless of the cause, renal congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The impact on outcomes of renal decongestion strategies that do not compromise renal function should be explored in heart failure. These studies require novel diagnostic markers that identify early renal damage and renal congestion and allow monitoring of treatment responses in order to avoid severe worsening of renal function. In addition, there is an unmet need regarding evidence-based therapeutic management of renal congestion and worsening renal function. In the present review, we summarize the mechanisms, diagnosis, outcomes, prognostic markers and treatment options of renal congestion in heart failure.
Afsar, Baris; Ortiz, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Solak, Yalcin; Goldsmith, David; Kanbay, Mehmet
Hospitalizations due to heart failure are increasing steadily despite advances in medicine. Patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure have high mortality in hospital and within the months following discharge. Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure patients. Recent evidence suggests that both deterioration in kidney function and renal congestion are important prognostic factors in heart failure. Kidney congestion in heart failure results from low cardiac output (forward failure), tubuloglomerular feedback, increased intra-abdominal pressure or increased venous pressure. Regardless of the cause, renal congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The impact on outcomes of renal decongestion strategies that do not compromise renal function should be explored in heart failure. These studies require novel diagnostic markers that identify early renal damage and renal congestion and allow monitoring of treatment responses in order to avoid severe worsening of renal function. In addition, there is an unmet need regarding evidence-based therapeutic management of renal congestion and worsening renal function. In the present review, we summarize the mechanisms, diagnosis, outcomes, prognostic markers and treatment options of renal congestion in heart failure. PMID:26798459
Abassade, P; Rabenirina, F; Garcon, P; Antakly, Y; Cador, R
Anemia is a common disorder in congestive heart failure and an independant prognostic factor. The aims of this study are to evaluate the prevalence of anemia among a population of in-hospital congestive heart failure patients, to compare anemic patients (A) with non anemic patients (NA) and to study their cares. One hundred and thirty-two patients, 70 men (53%), et 62 women (47%) are enrolled. Mean age is 76.4+/-13.5 years. The prevalence of anemia (WHO criteria) is 49%. Patients A are older than NA: 79.1+/-13.8 years versus 73.8+/-12.9 years (p=0.025), renal function is more altered in A than in NA, creatinine clearance is 56.5 ml/min (A) versus 76.2 ml/min (NA) (p=0.003). Ejection fraction (EF) is lower in A than in NA: 35.1+/-15.3% versus 50.9+/-15.9%, (p<0.0001.) Anemia is less frequent in preserved EF (28%) than in low EF (63%) (p<0.0001). Hospitalization duration is longer in A than in NA: 10.7+/-10.1 days versus 6.9+/-3.7 days (p=0.005). There are more re hospitalized patients among A than NA: 38 versus 10 (p=0.0001). There is a significant difference of survival of NA versus A at day 614 (p=0.03). Anemia is frequent in our population, and is associated with others prognostic factors and comorbidity.
Herr, Janet K; Salyer, Jeanne; Lyon, Debra E; Goodloe, Lauren; Schubert, Christine; Clement, Dolores G
Heart failure is a prevalent chronic health condition in the United States. Individuals who have heart failure experience as many as 2 to 9 symptoms. The examination of relationships among heart failure symptoms may benefit patients and clinicians who are charged with managing heart failure symptoms. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize what is known about relationships among heart failure symptoms, a precursor to the identification of heart failure symptom clusters, as well as to examine studies specifically addressing symptom clusters described in this population. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed in the conduct of this systematic review. PubMed, PsychINFO, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Cochrane Database were searched using the search term heart failure in combination with a pair of symptoms. Of a total of 1316 studies identified from database searches, 34 were included in this systematic review. More than 1 investigator found a moderate level of correlation between depression and fatigue, depression and anxiety, depression and sleep, depression and pain, anxiety and fatigue, and dyspnea and fatigue. The findings of this systematic review provide support for the presence of heart failure symptom clusters. Depression was related to several of the symptoms, providing an indication to clinicians that individuals with heart failure who experience depression may have other concurrent symptoms. Some symptom relationships such as the relationships between fatigue and anxiety or sleep or pain were dependent on the symptom characteristics studied. Symptom prevalence in the sample and restricted sampling may influence the robustness of the symptom relationships. These findings suggest that studies defining the phenotype of individual heart failure symptoms may be a beneficial step in the study of heart failure symptom clusters.
Although common among patients with heart failure, depression and anxiety have been relatively neglected by researchers and practitioners. Both... depression and anxiety have been implicated in contributing independently to the poor outcomes seen in patients with heart failure. Emphasis in the...This review summarizes and integrates research findings on anxiety and depression and translates these findings to clinical practice. Depression and
... Arabic) هبوط القلب - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Heart Failure Zatajenje srca - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Heart Failure 心力衰竭 - 简体中文 (Chinese - ...
Increased intracardiac filling pressure or congestion causes symptoms and leads to hospital admissions in patients with heart failure, regardless of their systolic function. A history of hospital admission, in turn, predicts further hospitalizations and morbidity, and a higher number of hospitalizations determine higher mortality. Congestion is therefore the driving force of the natural history of heart failure. Congestion is the syndrome shared by heart failure with preserved and reduced systolic function. These two conditions have almost identical morbidity, mortality, and survival because the outcomes are driven by congestion. A small difference in favor of heart failure with preserved systolic function comes from decreased ejection fraction and left ventricular remodeling which is only present in heart failure with decreased systolic function. The magnitude of this difference reflects the contribution of decreased systolic function and ventricular remodeling to the progression of heart failure. The only treatment available for congestion is fluid removal via diuretics, ultrafiltration, or dialysis. It is the only treatment that works equally well for heart failure with reduced and preserved systolic function because it affects congestion, the main pathogenetic feature of the disease. Diuretics are pathogenetic therapy for heart failure. PMID:21403798
Albert, Nancy M
In patients with chronic heart failure, fluid retention (or hypervolemia) is often the stimulus for acute decompensated heart failure that requires hospitalization. The pathophysiology of fluid retention is complex and involves both hemodynamic and clinical congestion. Signs and symptoms of both hemodynamic and clinical congestion should be assessed serially during hospitalization. Core heart failure drug and cardiac device therapies should be provided, and ultrafiltration may be warranted. Critical care, intermediate care, and telemetry nurses have roles in both assessment and management of patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure and fluid retention. Nurse administrators and managers have heightened their attention to fluid retention because the Medicare performance measure known as the risk-standardized 30-day all-cause readmission rate after heart failure hospitalization can be attenuated by fluid management strategies initiated by nurses during a patient's hospitalization.
Murín, Ján; Pernický, Miroslav
Iron deficiency is a frequent comorbidity in a patient with chronic heart failure, and it associates with a worse prognosis of that patient. Mainly worse quality of life and more rehospitalizations are in these iron deficient patients. Iron metabolism is rather complex and there is some new information concerning this complexity in heart failure. We distinquish an absolute and a functional iron deficiency in heart failure. It is this deficit which is important and not as much is anemia important here. Prevalence of anaemia in heart failure is about 30-50%, higher it is in patients suffering more frequently heart failure decompensations. Treatment of iron deficiency is important and it improves prognosis of these patients. Most experiences there are with i.v. iron treatment (FERRIC HF, FAIR HF and CONFIRM HF studies), less so with per oral treatment. There are no clinical trials which analysed mortality influences.
INCREASING PREVALENCE OF HOSPITALISATIONS AND MORTALITY: Heart failure represents a major public health problem. Indeed, the ageing of the population and the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors explain the considerable increase in the prevalence of heart failure over the past few years. SYSTOLIC FUNCTION IS USUALLY PRESERVED: The physiopathological features of cardiovascular ageing have resulted in the high prevalence of heart failure with preserved systolic function. Hence, in patients aged over 75 presenting with heart failure, around 50% exhibit preserved ejection fraction. THE NEED FOR GERONTOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT: The prognosis of heart failure remains severe, notably in elderly, fragile patients often exhibiting several diseases. Within this context, a gerontological assessment is crucial in order to screen for concomitant diseases, the degree of the patients' dependence and the presence of "fragility". This work-up must assess the cognitive function, autonomy, somatic status, living conditions and the medico-social management of these patients.
Searle, Julia; Frick, Johann; Möckel, Martin
Acute heart failure (AHF) is a life-threatening emergency, which largely profits from early diagnosis and treatment. The prevalence of AHF is difficult to assess, estimates range between 1 and 12% in the general population. Despite recent therapeutic advances, in-hospital mortality is high with estimates varying from 4 and 18% in different registries. Due to large differences in AHF definitions and selection criteria AHF populations vary in their characteristics and outcomes. This is especially true for randomized clinical trials and the external validity of some of these trials is questionable. Additionally, the timing of data collection and/or initiation of new therapies vary with the setting of trials. The aim of this article is to call attention to the difference in AHF populations and to emphasize the need for research to clearly define these populations. AHF populations from registries and clinical trials are the basis for evidence-based management strategies. It is important that these populations represent the patients in whom these strategies will be applied in routine care.
Anselm, Anjali H; Gauthier, Nadine; Beanlands, Rob S B; Haddad, Haissam
As heart failure continues to carry significant morbidity and mortality it is crucial to pursue new lines of therapy. Addressing sleep apnea, which is highly prevalent in these patients, offers just such an avenue. We discuss how sleep apnea may contribute to the propagation of heart failure, and how understanding its effects and reversing these effects might benefit heart failure patients. Continuous positive airway pressure ventilation, atrial pacing, and chronic resynchronization therapy have all been studied in sleep apnea. Some of these therapies have shown benefits in heart failure. This offers hope for improved outcomes, particularly with respect to mortality. Delineating how these therapies affect the heart's energetics and metabolism may also provide further understanding of the relationship between sleep apnea and heart failure. As both obstructive and central sleep apnea are highly prevalent in heart failure, treating these patients with continuous positive airway pressure, atrial pacing, or chronic resynchronization therapy may offer morbidity and mortality benefits. Much remains to be understood about the relationship between sleep apnea and heart failure, and understanding the interaction between the two at both the myocardial and clinical level is crucial.
Abdo, Ashraf S
Heart failure (HF) is one of the leading causes of hospitalizations for elderly adults in the United States. One in 5 Americans will be >65 years of age by 2050. Because of the high prevalence of HF in this group, the number of Americans requiring hospitalization for this disorder is expected to rise significantly. We reviewed the most recent and ongoing studies and recommendations for the management of patients hospitalized due to decompensated HF. The Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry, together with the 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation and American Heart Association heart failure guidelines, earlier retrospective and prospective studies including the Diuretic Optimization Strategies Evaluation (DOSE), the Trial of Intensified vs Standard Medical Therapy in the Elderly Patients With Congestive Heart Failure (TIME-CHF), the Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure (OPTIMIZE-HF), the Rapid Emergency Department Heart Failure Outpatient Trial (REDHOT) and the Comparison of Medical, Pacing and Defibrillation Therapies in Heart Failure (COMPANION) trial were reviewed for current practices pertaining to these patients. Gaps in our knowledge of optimal use of patient-specific information (biomarkers and comorbid conditions) still exist.
Butrous, Hoda; Hummel, Scott L
Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality in older adults and a growing public health problem placing a huge financial burden on the health care system. Many challenges exist in the assessment and management of HF in geriatric patients, who often have coexisting multimorbidity, polypharmacy, cognitive impairment, and frailty. These complex "geriatric domains" greatly affect physical and functional status as well as long-term clinical outcomes. Geriatric patients have been under-represented in major HF clinical trials. Nonetheless, available data suggest that guideline-based medical and device therapies improve morbidity and mortality. Nonpharmacologic strategies, such as exercise training and dietary interventions, are an active area of research. Targeted geriatric evaluation, including functional and cognitive assessment, can improve risk stratification and guide management in older patients with HF. Clinical trials that enroll older patients with multiple morbidities and HF and evaluate functional status and quality of life in addition to mortality and cardiovascular morbidity should be encouraged to guide management of this age group.
Maroto Montero, J M
The functional capacity of patients with chronic heart failure usually undergoes significant deterioration. Its decrease can be influenced by a low cardiac output, but is directly related to alterations at the level of the skeletal muscle. Cardiac rehabilitation programmes, which are therapeutic systems of multifactorial action (physical and psychological training, and guidelines for control of risk factors), have shown great benefits in this type of patients. There is an increase in the aerobic capacity, anaerobic threshold, O2 peak, cardiac out put and in the maximum O2 arteriovenous difference. This entails an improvement in functional capacity, which has a very positive influence on the psychological sphere. In view of the small number of cases included in the studies published, it is impossible to get to know the results at a prognosis level. The performance of physical training, which has to be carefully programmed, does not occasion more complications than when performed by low risk groups. There is no evidence proving that physical training deteriorates the ventricular function. The decrease in the ejection fraction found in some patients with very low values at the beginning of the programme could be secondary to other usual factors responsible for the negative evolution of this type of pathology.
Cajita, Maan Isabella; Cajita, Tara Rafaela; Han, Hae-Ra
Background Low health literacy affects millions of Americans, putting those who are affected at a disadvantage and at risk for poorer health outcomes. Low health literacy can act as a barrier to effective disease self-management; this is especially true for chronic diseases such as heart failure (HF) that require complicated self-care regimens. Purpose This systematic review examined quantitative research literature published between 1999 and 2014 to explore the role of health literacy among HF patients. The specific aims of the systematic review are to (1) describe the prevalence of low health literacy among HF patients, (2) explore the predictors of low health literacy among HF patients, and (3) discuss the relationship between health literacy and HF self-care and common HF outcomes. Methods A systematic search of the following databases was conducted, PubMed, CINAHL Plus, Embase, PsycINFO, and Scopus, using relevant keywords and clear inclusion and exclusion criteria. Conclusions An average of 39% of HF patients have low health literacy. Age, race/ethnicity, years of education, and cognitive function are predictors of health literacy. In addition, adequate health literacy is consistently correlated with higher HF knowledge and higher salt knowledge. Clinical Implications Considering the prevalence of low health literacy among in the HF population, nurses and healthcare professionals need to recognize the consequences of low health literacy and adopt strategies that could minimize its detrimental effect on the patient's health outcomes. PMID:25569150
Fink, Anne M.; Sullivan, Shawna L.; Zerwic, Julie J.; Piano, Mariann R.
Background and Research Objective Fatigue is one of the most prevalent symptoms in persons with systolic heart failure (HF). There remains insufficient information about the physiological and psychosocial underpinnings of fatigue in HF. The specific aims of this study were to (1) determine the psychometric properties of 2 fatigue questionnaires in patients with HF, (2) compare fatigue in patients with HF to published scores of healthy adults and patients with cancer undergoing treatment, and (3) identify the physiological (eg, hemoglobin, B-type natriuretic peptide, body mass index, and ejection fraction) and psychosocial (eg, depressed mood) correlates of fatigue in HF. Subjects and Methods A convenience sample of 87 HF outpatients was recruited from 2 urban medical centers. Patients completed the Fatigue Symptom Inventory, Profile of Mood States, and Short Form-36 Health Survey. Results and Conclusions Patients with HF and patients with cancer reported similar levels of fatigue, and both patient groups reported significantly more fatigue than did healthy adults. Physical functioning and hemoglobin categories explained 30% of the variance in Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Interference Scale scores, whereas depressed mood and physical functioning explained 47% of the variance in Profile of Mood States Fatigue subscale scores. Patients with HF experienced substantial fatigue that is comparable with cancer-related fatigue. Low physical functioning, depressed mood, and low hemoglobin level were associated with HF-related fatigue. PMID:19707101
Fargnoli, Anthony S; Katz, Michael G; Bridges, Charles R; Hajjar, Roger J
Heart failure is a significant burden to the global healthcare system and represents an underserved market for new pharmacologic strategies, especially therapies which can address root cause myocyte dysfunction. Modern drugs, surgeries, and state-of-the-art interventions are costly and do not improve survival outcome measures. Gene therapy is an attractive strategy, whereby selected gene targets and their associated regulatory mechanisms can be permanently managed therapeutically in a single treatment. This in theory could be sustainable for the patient's life. Despite the promise, however, gene therapy has numerous challenges that must be addressed together as a treatment plan comprising these key elements: myocyte physiologic target validation, gene target manipulation strategy, vector selection for the correct level of manipulation, and carefully utilizing an efficient delivery route that can be implemented in the clinic to efficiently transfer the therapy within safety limits. This chapter summarizes the key developments in cardiac gene therapy from the perspective of understanding each of these components of the treatment plan. The latest pharmacologic gene targets, gene therapy vectors, delivery routes, and strategies are reviewed.
Witte, K K; Clark, A L; Cleland, J G
Heart failure (HF) is associated with weight loss, and cachexia is a well-recognized complication. Patients have an increased risk of osteoporosis and lose muscle bulk early in the course of the disease. Basal metabolic rate is increased in HF, but general malnutrition may play a part in the development of cachexia, particularly in an elderly population. There is evidence for a possible role for micronutrient deficiency in HF. Selective deficiency of selenium, calcium and thiamine can directly lead to the HF syndrome. Other nutrients, particularly vitamins C and E and beta-carotene, are antioxidants and may have a protective effect on the vasculature. Vitamins B6, B12 and folate all tend to reduce levels of homocysteine, which is associated with increased oxidative stress. Carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and creatine supplementation have resulted in improved exercise capacity in patients with HF in some studies. In this article, we review the relation between micronutrients and HF. Chronic HF is characterized by high mortality and morbidity, and research effort has centered on pharmacological management, with the successful introduction of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-adrenergic antagonists into routine practice. There is sufficient evidence to support a large-scale trial of dietary micronutrient supplementation in HF.
Vinge, Leif Erik; Raake, Philip W.; Koch, Walter J.
With increasing knowledge of basic molecular mechanisms governing the development of heart failure (HF), the possibility of specifically targeting key pathological players is evolving. Technology allowing for efficient in vivo transduction of myocardial tissue with long-term expression of a transgene enables translation of basic mechanistic knowledge into potential gene therapy approaches. Gene therapy in HF is in its infancy clinically with the predominant amount of experience being from animal models. Nevertheless, this challenging and promising field is gaining momentum as recent preclinical studies in larger animals have been carried out and, importantly, there are 2 newly initiated phase I clinical trials for HF gene therapy. To put it simply, 2 parameters are needed for achieving success with HF gene therapy: (1) clearly identified detrimental/beneficial molecular targets; and (2) the means to manipulate these targets at a molecular level in a sufficient number of cardiac cells. However, several obstacles do exist on our way to efficient and safe gene transfer to human myocardium. Some of these obstacles are discussed in this review; however, it primarily focuses on the molecular target systems that have been subjected to intense investigation over the last decade in an attempt to make gene therapy for human HF a reality. PMID:18566312
Szema, Anthony M; Dang, Sophia; Li, Jonathan C
Heart function fails when the organ is unable to pump blood at a rate proportional to the body’s need for oxygen or when this function leads to elevated cardiac chamber filling pressures (cardiogenic pulmonary edema). Despite our sophisticated knowledge of heart failure, even so-called ejection fraction-preserved heart failure has high rates of mortality and morbidity. So, novel therapies are sorely needed. This review discusses current standard therapies for heart failure and launches an exploration into emerging novel treatments on the heels of recently-approved sacubitril and ivbradine. For example, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is protective of the heart, so in the absence of VIP, VIP knockout mice have dysregulation in key heart failure genes: 1) Force Generation and Propagation; 2) Energy Production and Regulation; 3) Ca+2 Cycling; 4) Transcriptional Regulators. VIP administration leads to coronary dilation in human subjects. In heart failure patients, VIP levels are elevated as a plausible endogenous protective effect. With the development of elastin polymers to stabilize VIP and prevent its degradation, VIP may therefore have a chance to satisfy the unmet need as a potential treatment for acute heart failure. PMID:26512208
Bloom, Michelle W; Greenberg, Barry; Jaarsma, Tiny; Januzzi, James L; Lam, Carolyn S P; Maggioni, Aldo P; Trochu, Jean-Noël; Butler, Javed
Heart failure is a global public health problem that affects more than 26 million people worldwide. The global burden of heart failure is growing and is expected to increase substantially with the ageing of the population. Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction accounts for approximately 50% of all cases of heart failure in the United States and is associated with substantial morbidity and reduced quality of life. Several diseases, such as myocardial infarction, certain infectious diseases and endocrine disorders, can initiate a primary pathophysiological process that can lead to reduced ventricular function and to heart failure. Initially, ventricular impairment is compensated for by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, but chronic activation of these pathways leads to worsening cardiac function. The symptoms of heart failure can be associated with other conditions and include dyspnoea, fatigue, limitations in exercise tolerance and fluid accumulation, which can make diagnosis difficult. Management strategies include the use of pharmacological therapies and implantable devices to regulate cardiac function. Despite these available treatments, heart failure remains incurable, and patients have a poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Consequently, the development of new therapies is imperative and requires further research.
This review article addresses the question of whether biomarker-guided therapy is ready for clinical implementation in chronic heart failure. The most well-known biomarkers in heart failure are natriuretic peptides, namely B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-BNP. They are well-established in the diagnostic process of acute heart failure and prediction of disease prognosis. They may also be helpful in screening patients at risk of developing heart failure. Although studied by 11 small- to medium-scale trials resulting in several positive meta-analyses, it is less well-established whether natriuretic peptides are also helpful for guiding chronic heart failure therapy. This uncertainty is expressed by differences in European and American guideline recommendations. In addition to reviewing the evidence surrounding the use of natriuretic peptides to guide chronic heart failure therapy, this article gives an overview of the shortcomings of the trials, how the results may be interpreted and the future directions necessary to fill the current gaps in knowledge. Therapy guidance in chronic heart failure using other biomarkers has not been prospectively tested to date. Emerging biomarkers, such as galectin-3 and soluble ST2, might be useful in this regard, as suggested by several post-hoc analyses. PMID:28785440
Stamos, Thomas D; Silver, Marc A
Anemia is a relatively common finding in heart failure. Anemia in heart failure patients has been independently associated with reduced exercise tolerance, increased heart failure hospitalizations and increased all-cause mortality. Anemia would appear to be a reasonable treatment target for patients with heart failure. The review will discuss the potential causes of anemia in heart failure patients and give an up-to-date overview of treatment trials. Studies assessing the pathophysiology of anemia in heart failure patients have recently demonstrated the potential importance of iron deficiency, abnormal iron metabolism and hemodilution. Treatment studies have focused on the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, with recent trials showing mixed results. Despite initial studies indicating a possible beneficial effect of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in the treatment of anemic heart failure patients, clinical trial data, to date, have failed to show convincing evidence for morbidity or mortality benefit, and information on the long-term safety is lacking. Ongoing large-scale trials will have the potential to provide such information in the future.
Rain, Carmen; Rada, Gabriel
There is controversy about the role of statins in chronic heart failure. Even though it is clear they decrease inflammatory markers and probably improve some echocardiographic parameters, it is not clear if they impact clinically important outcomes. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified six systematic reviews including 21 randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded statins in chronic heart failure do not decrease mortality, and might lead to little or no decrease in hospitalizations for heart failure or other clinical outcomes.
Argulian, Edgar; Messerli, Franz H
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction has become a fashionable diagnosis. An increasing number of elderly patients with dyspnea carry this diagnosis. Evaluation and management of these patients typically labeled as having "diastolic" heart failure are challenging, and misconceptions are common. No drug class has been shown to consistently provide outcome benefit. Therapeutic strategies based on the predominant pathophysiologic mechanism and stage of the disease currently remain the best option in tackling the perplexing syndrome of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Luo, Min; Anderson, Mark E.
Ca2+ plays a crucial role in connecting membrane excitability with contraction in myocardium. The hallmark features of heart failure are mechanical dysfunction and arrhythmias; defective intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is a central cause of contractile dysfunction and arrhythmias in failing myocardium. Defective Ca2+ homeostasis in heart failure can result from pathological alteration in the expression and activity of an increasingly understood collection of Ca2+ homeostatic binding proteins, ion channels and enzymes. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of defective Ca2+ cycling in heart failure and consider how fundamental understanding of these pathways may translate into novel and innovative therapies. PMID:23989713
Nia, Amir M; Gassanov, Natig; Schmidt, Matthias; Kuhn-Régnier, Ferdinand; Erdmann, Erland; Er, Fikret
Right heart failure occurs daily in clinical settings, but an underlying cardiac malignant tumor is very uncommon. We report a case of a 48-year-old man presenting only with palpitations and decompensated heart failure. Echocardiographic imaging revealed a large tumor of the right ventricle. Shortly after a putatively successful surgical approach, the patient was admitted again with heart failure symptoms. On reassessment, a complete relapse with multiple metastases could be seen. Generally, cardiac malignant tumors are diagnosed at a time-point when therapeutic options are very limited or even postmortem. Broad echocardiographic screening in patients with unspecific symptoms might be helpful to detect cardiac malignant tumors at early stages.
Nishimura, Takeshi; Kikuta, Shota; Ishihara, Satoshi; Nakayama, Shinichi
A 65-year-old man was referred to our hospital with dyspnoea due to acute heart failure. He presented with swelling in the left clavicle and pustulosis on both soles. An antihypertensive drug and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation improved his condition rapidly. Since all his physical symptoms were compatible with the criteria of SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteomyelitis) syndrome, we suspected that the SAPHO syndrome might cause acute heart failure. The aetiology between SAPHO syndrome and heart failure is unclear. Further studies are needed to clarify their relationship.
Klein, Liviu; Hsia, Henry
Sudden cardiac deaths account for 350,000 to 380,000 deaths in the United States annually. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators have improved sudden death outcomes in patients with heart failure, but only a minority of patients with defibrillators receives appropriate therapy for ventricular arrhythmias. The risk prediction for sudden death and selection of patients for defibrillators is based largely on left ventricular ejection fraction and heart failure symptoms because there are no other risk stratification tools that can determine the individual patients who will derive the greatest benefit. There are several other pharmacologic strategies designed to prevent sudden death in patients with heart failure. Published by Elsevier Inc.
... echo, often are done during stress testing. Cardiac MRI Cardiac MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) uses radio waves, magnets, and a computer to ... your heart and major blood vessels. A cardiac MRI can show whether parts of your heart are ...
Angelidis, George; Giamouzis, Gregory; Karagiannis, Georgios; Butler, Javed; Tsougos, Ioannis; Valotassiou, Varvara; Giannakoulas, George; Dimakopoulos, Nikolaos; Xanthopoulos, Andrew; Skoularigis, John; Triposkiadis, Filippos; Georgoulias, Panagiotis
Heart failure is a common clinical syndrome associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of heart failure, at least in the industrialized countries. Proper diagnosis of the syndrome and management of patients with heart failure require anatomical and functional information obtained through various imaging modalities. Nuclear cardiology techniques play a main role in the evaluation of heart failure. Myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with thallium-201 or technetium-99 m labelled tracers offer valuable data regarding ventricular function, myocardial perfusion, viability, and intraventricular synchronism. Moreover, positron emission tomography (PET) permits accurate evaluation of myocardial perfusion, metabolism, and viability, providing high-quality images and the ability of quantitative analysis. As these imaging techniques assess different parameters of cardiac structure and function, variations of sensitivity and specificity have been reported among them. In addition, the role of SPECT and PET guided therapy remains controversial. In this comprehensive review, we address these controversies and report the advances in patient's investigation with SPECT and PET in ischemic heart failure. Furthermore, we present the innovations in technology that are expected to strengthen the role of nuclear cardiology modalities in the investigation of heart failure.
de Lucia, Claudio; Femminella, Grazia D.; Gambino, Giuseppina; Pagano, Gennaro; Allocca, Elena; Rengo, Carlo; Silvestri, Candida; Leosco, Dario; Ferrara, Nicola; Rengo, Giuseppe
Heart failure (HF) is a chronic clinical syndrome characterized by the reduction in left ventricular (LV) function and it represents one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite considerable advances in pharmacological treatment, HF represents a severe clinical and social burden. Sympathetic outflow, characterized by increased circulating catecholamines (CA) biosynthesis and secretion, is peculiar in HF and sympatholytic treatments (as β-blockers) are presently being used for the treatment of this disease. Adrenal gland secretes Epinephrine (80%) and Norepinephrine (20%) in response to acetylcholine stimulation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors on the chromaffin cell membranes. This process is regulated by adrenergic receptors (ARs): α2ARs inhibit CA release through coupling to inhibitory Gi-proteins, and β ARs (mainly β2ARs) stimulate CA release through coupling to stimulatory Gs-proteins. All ARs are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and GPCR kinases (GRKs) regulate their signaling and function. Adrenal GRK2-mediated α2AR desensitization and downregulation are increased in HF and seem to be a fundamental regulator of CA secretion from the adrenal gland. Consequently, restoration of adrenal α2AR signaling through the inhibition of GRK2 is a fascinating sympatholytic therapeutic strategy for chronic HF. This strategy could have several significant advantages over existing HF pharmacotherapies minimizing side-effects on extra-cardiac tissues and reducing the chronic activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone and endothelin systems. The role of adrenal ARs in regulation of sympathetic hyperactivity opens interesting perspectives in understanding HF pathophysiology and in the identification of new therapeutic targets. PMID:25071591
Di Somma, Salvatore; Magrini, Laura
Acute heart failure is globally one of most frequent reasons for hospitalization and still represents a challenge for the choice of the best treatment to improve patient outcome. According to current international guidelines, as soon as patients with acute heart failure arrive at the emergency department, the common therapeutic approach aims to improve their signs and symptoms, correct volume overload, and ameliorate cardiac hemodynamics by increasing vital organ perfusion. Recommended treatment for the early management of acute heart failure is characterized by the use of intravenous diuretics, oxygen, and vasodilators. Although these measures ameliorate the patient's symptoms, they do not favorably impact on short- and long-term mortality. Consequently, there is a pressing need for novel agents in acute heart failure treatment with the result that research in this field is increasing worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
... and excessively. Also, your doctor will probably prescribe diuretic medicines (water pills) and other medications to help ... let your doctor or healthcare professional know. The diuretic medications are very helpful for chronic heart failure ...
Increasing numbers of patients are being diagnosed with heart failure because of the ageing population and improved survival rates following myocardial infarction. Marina Nicholas examines the causes, signs and symptoms, and treatment of this condition.
... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How Can I Live With Heart Failure? Updated:Dec 8, ... recover. Medicine Notes: Diet Notes: Exercise Notes: How can I learn more? Call 1-800-AHA-USA1 ( ...
Szczurek, Wioletta; Suliga, Kamil; Rempega, Grzegorz; Rajwa, Paweł
The increasing number of end-stage heart failure patients eligible for heart transplant and the disproportionately low number of donor hearts have led to increased interest in ventricular assist devices (VAD). These devices can be used as a bridge to decision, bridge to recovery, or bridge to candidacy. The main advantage of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is the improvement of organ perfusion and function, which leads to better quality of life and survival. The MCS can also be used as a destination therapy in end-stage heart failure patients who are not eligible for heart transplant. It should be remembered that, despite the tangible benefits, VAD implantation may also be associated with the risk of serious complications, such as bleeding, infection, arrhythmias, blood clots, right ventricular failure, and cardiovascular events. This study presents an up-to-date overview of the current knowledge on the role of MCS in modern medicine. PMID:27516785
Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Tang, Daniel G; Katlaps, Gundars J; Shah, Keyur B
Treatment options for late-stage biventricular heart failure are limited but include medical therapy with intravenous inotropes, biventricular assist devices (Bi-VADs) and the total artificial heart (TAH). In this manuscript, we review the indications, surgical techniques and outcomes for the TAH. The TAH offers biventricular replacement, rather than 'assistance', as the device is placed orthotopically after excision of the entire ventricular myocardium and all four native valves. In contrast to patients with Bi-VADs, patients with the TAH have no postoperative inotrope requirements, arrhythmias or inflow/outflow cannulae-related complications. Additionally, patients participate in rehabilitation early after device placement and the development of a portable drive may facilitate hospital discharge in the USA. Furthermore, total heart replacement may be ideal for heart failure associated with unique anatomical and mechanical complications. The TAH is an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of patients dying of heart failure who may not be suitable candidates for left ventricular assist devices.
Frangiosa, A; De Santo, L S; Anastasio, P; De Santo, N G
In end-stage heart failure, various acid-base disorders can be discovered due to the renal loss of hydrogen ions and hydrogen ion movements into cells, the reduction of the effective circulating volume, hypoxemia and renal failure. This justifies the occurrence of metabolic alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, as well as respiratory acidosis alone or in combination. Several studies have been published on the acid-base state in heart failure. In a 1951 study, Squires et al analyzed the distribution of body fluid in congestive heart failure by taking into consideration the abnormalities in serum electrolyte concentration and in acid-base equilibrium. A recent study by Milionis et al, analyzed 86 patients with congestive heart failure receiving conventional treatment; the majority of these patients exhibited hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia. Disorders in acid-base balance were noted in 37.2% of patients. In a recent study, 70 patients with severe congestive heart failure before heart transplantation showed high-normal pH, slightly reduced pCO 2 and a slight loss of hydrogen ions. After heart transplantation, stability of blood pH and hydrogen ion concentrations was found. In contrast, bicarbonate and pCO 2 increased significantly. The data led us to formulate the diagnosis of a mixed acid-base disorder that includes respiratory alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis before heart transplantation. In heart failure, the presence of acid-base imbalance associated with the activation of mechanisms that lead to salt and water retention reveals evidence concerning the pivotal role of the kidney in determining the outcome of these patients.
▼ Sacubitril valsartan (Entresto-Novartis) is a new oral drug licensed for the treatment of symptomatic chronic heart failure in adults with reduced ejection fraction.(1) It is described as an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor and contains the neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril and the angiotensin II receptor antagonist, valsartan.(1-3) Here, we review the evidence for sacubitril valsartan and consider its place in the management of heart failure.
Aramburu Bodas, Oscar; Conde Martel, Alicia; Salamanca Bautista, Prado
Acute heart failure episodes, whether onset or decompensation of a chronic form, are most often precipitated by a concurrent process or disease, described as precipitating factors of heart failure. In this article, we review these precipitating factors, their proportions and clinical relevance in general and in subgroups of patients, their relationship with prognosis, and their possible prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Plácido, Rui; Mebazaa, Alexandre
Acute heart failure is a major and growing public health problem worldwide with high morbidity, mortality, and cost. Despite recent advances in pharmacological management, the prognosis of patients with acute decompensated heart failure remains poor. Consequently, nonpharmacological approaches are being developed and increasingly used. Such techniques may include several modalities of ventilation, ultrafiltration, mechanical circulatory support, myocardial revascularization, and surgical treatment, among others. This document reviews the nonpharmacological approach in acute heart failure, indications, and prognostic implications.
Ventricular dysfunction due to an abnormality of the heart which is associated with typical hemodynamic, renal and hormonal reactions, characterizes the clinical syndrome heart failure. The traditional definition of heart failure as the inability to pump an amount of blood sufficient to cover the metabolic needs of the body in the presence of adequate venous return, emphasizes mainly the reduction in cardiac output but not the increase in intracardiac pressures. Pressure or volume overload, decreased contractility, loss of muscle mass or restricted filling represent the most important pathological processes leading to heart failure. The disturbance of systolic ventricular function due to pressure or volume overload or diminished contractility is characterized by a decrease in the ejection fraction, the disturbance in diastolic ventricular function associated with restricted filling is characterized by elevated chamber stiffness. Decreased contractility is most commonly responsible for the development of heart failure. Impairment of diastolic ventricular function can only be regarded as the dominant mechanism leading to heart failure in the presence of a small noncompliant ventricle. Impairment of diastolic ventricular function in an enlarged heart is always associated with an impairment of systolic ventricular function and is, then, relegated to a subordinate role. Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, hypertension, cardiomyopathies, valvular heart diseases and congenital heart diseases, for the incidence of which coronary artery disease is most frequently responsible. Most of these diseases lead to heart failure not via a single, but rather several of the specified pathophysiological processes. Possible mechanisms for loss of contractility include structural changes as well as alterations in excitation-contraction coupling. Possible mechanisms responsible for impaired diastolic ventricular function encompass, in addition to altered calcium
Bloomfield, Gerald S; Barasa, Felix A; Doll, Jacob A; Velazquez, Eric J
The heart failure syndrome has been recognized as a significant contributor to cardiovascular disease burden in sub-Saharan African for many decades. Seminal knowledge regarding heart failure in the region came from case reports and case series of the early 20th century which identified infectious, nutritional and idiopathic causes as the most common. With increasing urbanization, changes in lifestyle habits, and ageing of the population, the spectrum of causes of HF has also expanded resulting in a significant burden of both communicable and non-communicable etiologies. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa is notable for the range of etiologies that concurrently exist as well as the healthcare environment marked by limited resources, weak national healthcare systems and a paucity of national level data on disease trends. With the recent publication of the first and largest multinational prospective registry of acute heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa, it is timely to review the state of knowledge to date and describe the myriad forms of heart failure in the region. This review discusses several forms of heart failure that are common in sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, pericardial disease, various dilated cardiomyopathies, HIV cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis, ischemic heart disease, cor pulmonale) and presents each form with regard to epidemiology, natural history, clinical characteristics, diagnostic considerations and therapies. Areas and approaches to fill the remaining gaps in knowledge are also offered herein highlighting the need for research that is driven by regional disease burden and needs. PMID:23597299
Burke, Christopher R.; McMullan, D. Michael
Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) represents an essential component in the treatment of the pediatric patient with refractory heart failure. Defined as the use of an extracorporeal system to provide cardiopulmonary support, ECLS provides hemodynamic support to facilitate end-organ recovery and can be used as a salvage therapy during acute cardiorespiratory failure. Support strategies employed in pediatric cardiac patients include bridge to recovery, bridge to therapy, and bridge to transplant. Advances in extracorporeal technology and refinements in patient selection have allowed wider application of this therapy in pediatric heart failure patients. PMID:27812522
Jönsson, Sofia; Agic, Mediha Becirovic; Narfström, Fredrik; Melville, Jacqueline M; Hultström, Michael
Decompensation in heart failure occurs when the heart fails to balance venous return with cardiac output, leading to fluid congestion and contributing to mortality. Decompensated heart failure can cause acute kidney injury (AKI), which further increases mortality. Heart failure activates signaling systems that are deleterious to kidneys such as renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and vasopressin secretion. All three reduce renal blood flow (RBF) and increase tubular sodium reabsorption, which may increase renal oxygen consumption causing AKI through renal tissue hypoxia. Vasopressin contributes to venous congestion through aquaporin-mediated water retention. Additional water retention may be mediated through vasopressin-induced medullary urea transport and hyaluronan but needs further study. In addition, there are several systems that could protect the kidneys and reduce fluid retention such as natriuretic peptides, prostaglandins, and nitric oxide. However, the effect of natriuretic peptides and nitric oxide are blunted in decompensation, partly due to oxidative stress. This review considers how neurohormonal signaling in heart failure drives fluid retention by the kidneys and thus exacerbates decompensation. It further identifies areas where there is limited data, such as signaling systems 20-HETE, purines, endothelin, the role of renal water retention mechanisms for congestion, and renal hypoxia in AKI during heart failure.
Bang, Claudia; Antoniades, Charalambos; Antonopoulos, Alexios S; Eriksson, Ulf; Franssen, Constantijn; Hamdani, Nazha; Lehmann, Lorenz; Moessinger, Christine; Mongillo, Marco; Muhl, Lars; Speer, Thimoteus; Thum, Thomas
Cell-cell or inter-organ communication allows the exchange of information and messages, which is essential for the coordination of cell/organ functions and the maintenance of homeostasis. It has become evident that dynamic interactions of different cell types play a major role in the heart, in particular during the progression of heart failure, a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Heart failure is associated with compensatory structural and functional changes mostly in cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, which finally lead to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis. Intercellular communication within the heart is mediated mostly via direct cell-cell interaction or the release of paracrine signalling mediators such as cytokines and chemokines. However, recent studies have focused on the exchange of genetic information via the packaging into vesicles as well as the crosstalk of lipids and other paracrine molecules within the heart and distant organs, such as kidney and adipose tissue, which might all contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. In this review, we discuss emerging communication networks and respective underlying mechanisms which could be involved in cardiovascular disease conditions and further emphasize promising therapeutic targets for drug development. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.
Whellan, David J
Millions of dollars are being spent to identify new therapies to improve mortality and morbidity for the growing epidemic of patients sustaining heart failure. However, in clinical practice, these therapies are currently underused. To bridge the gap between proven therapies and clinical practice, the medical community has turned to disease management. Heart failure disease management interventions vary from vital-sign monitoring to multidisciplinary approaches involving a pharmacist, nutritionist, nurse practitioner, and physician. This review attempts to categorize these inventions based on location. We compared the published results from randomized, controlled trials of the following types of heart failure disease management interventions: inpatient, clinic visits, home visits, and telephone follow up. Although research shows an improvement in the quality of care and a decrease in hospitalizations for patients sustaining heart failure, the economic impact of disease management is still unclear. The current reimbursement structure is a disincentive to providers wanting to offer disease management services to patients sustaining heart failure. Additionally, the cost of providing disease management services such as additional clinical visits, patient education materials, or additional personnel time has not been well documented. Most heart failure disease management studies do confirm the concept that providing increased access to healthcare providers for an at-risk group of patients sustaining heart failure does improve outcomes. However, a large-scale randomized, controlled clinical trial based in the United States is needed to prove that this concept can be implemented beyond a single center and to determine how much it will cost patients, providers, healthcare systems, and payers.
... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure? The most common signs and symptoms of heart ... in your lungs. The condition requires emergency treatment. Heart Failure Signs and Symptoms The image shows the major ...
ElGuindy, Ahmed; Yacoub, Magdi H
Abstract Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has recently emerged as a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Contrary to initial beliefs, HFpEF is now known to be as common as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and carries an unacceptably high mortality rate. With a prevalence that has been steadily rising over the past two decades, it is very likely that HFpEF will represent the dominant heart failure phenotype over the coming few years. The scarcity of trials in this semi-discrete form of heart failure and lack of unified enrolment criteria in the studies conducted to date might have contributed to the current absence of specific therapies. Understanding the epidemiological, pathophysiological and molecular differences (and similarities) between these two forms of heart failure is cornerstone to the development of targeted therapies. Carefully designed studies that adhere to unified diagnostic criteria with the recruitment of appropriate controls and adoption of practical end-points are urgently needed to help identify effective treatment strategies. PMID:25610841
Gauthier, Nadine; Anselm, Anjali H; Haddad, Haissam
Hospitalization and mortality rates associated with heart failure are persistently high. This is due partly to aging of the population but mostly to delayed progress in the pharmacological treatment of decompensated heart failure. We will review the current recommendations and most recent advancement in the pharmacological treatment of acute decompensated heart failure while providing a systematic approach to the management of this prevalent condition. Loop diuretics, nitrates and inotropes such as dobutamine and milrinone are the current mainstay of acute heart failure management although their associated morbidity and possible mortality have raised serious concerns. Recent vasoactive agents such as Nesiritide, Tolvaptan and more recently the inotropic agent Levosimedan could offer improved hemodynamics and congestive relief to patients in acute pulmonary edema. Despite the promising results of these agents, further clinical trials are required prior to their international approval as first-line therapy. Although we can be optimistic that these vasoactive drugs might have favorable clinical outcomes and improve the intricate management of decompensated heart failure, their associated mortality benefit remains unclear and controversial.
Costa, Sandra de Araújo; Rassi, Salvador; Freitas, Elis Marra da Madeira; Gutierrez, Natália da Silva; Boaventura, Fabiana Miranda; Sampaio, Larissa Pereira da Costa; Silva, João Bastista Masson
Background Prognostic factors are extensively studied in heart failure; however, their role in severe Chagasic heart failure have not been established. Objectives To identify the association of clinical and laboratory factors with the prognosis of severe Chagasic heart failure, as well as the association of these factors with mortality and survival in a 7.5-year follow-up. Methods 60 patients with severe Chagasic heart failure were evaluated regarding the following variables: age, blood pressure, ejection fraction, serum sodium, creatinine, 6-minute walk test, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, QRS width, indexed left atrial volume, and functional class. Results 53 (88.3%) patients died during follow-up, and 7 (11.7%) remained alive. Cumulative overall survival probability was approximately 11%. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (HR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.04 - 4.31; p<0.05) and indexed left atrial volume ≥ 72 mL/m2 (HR = 3.51; 95% CI: 1.63 - 7.52; p<0.05) were the only variables that remained as independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions The presence of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia on Holter and indexed left atrial volume > 72 mL/m2 are independent predictors of mortality in severe Chagasic heart failure, with cumulative survival probability of only 11% in 7.5 years. PMID:28443956
Liu, Wei-Hua; Luo, Qin; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Qing; Xi, Qun-Ying; Zhao, Zhi-Hui
Exercise impairment is common in chronic left heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Exercise impairment degree is a strong predictor of clinical outcome. Our purpose was to evaluate differences in exercise capacity using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) in patients with chronic left and right heart failure, and determine which factors were related to exercise impairment. 102 patients with class II/III New York Heart Association were involved in the study (41 with chronic left heart failure, 61 with chronic right heart failure secondary to PAH). All patients underwent CPX to evaluate exercise capacity. Patients with right heart failure had significantly lower peak oxygen uptake (VO2), peak VO2/kg ratio, peak oxygen uptake/heart rate (VO2/HR) ratio and increases in oxygen uptake/increase in work rate (ΔVO2/ΔWR) slope, and had higher minute ventilation/CO2 production ratio and peak dead space volume/tidal volume during exercise. In patients with left heart failure, peak VO2/HR ratio was positively correlated with ΔVO2/ΔWR slope. However, VO2 and VO2/HR ratio were positively correlated with ΔVO2/ΔWR slope in patients with right heart failure. Compared with left heart failure, patients with right heart failure showed worse exercise capacity resulting from worse pulmonary and cardiovascular adaptation to exercise. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... your blood vessels so your heart doesn’t work as hard to pump blood. Studies have shown that this medicine can reduce the risk of death in blacks. More studies are needed to find out whether this medicine will benefit other racial groups. Take all medicines regularly, as ...
Price, Jack F; Goldstein, Stuart L
Concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunction has been termed the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). This clinical condition usually manifests as heart failure with worsening renal function and occurs frequently in the acute care setting. A consistent definition of CRS has not been universally agreed upon, although a recent classification of CRS describes several subtypes depending on the primary organ injured and the chronicity of the injury. CRS may develop in adults and children and is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized and ambulatory patients. The underlying physiology of CRS is not well understood, creating a significant challenge for clinicians when treating heart failure patients with renal insufficiency. This review summarizes recent data characterizing the incidence, physiology, and management of children who have heart failure and acute kidney injury.
Mukherjee, Sayan; Palit, Sanjay Kumar; Banerjee, Santo; Ariffin, M. R. K.; Rondoni, Lamberto; Bhattacharya, D. K.
The complexity of a signal can be measured by the Recurrence period density entropy (RPDE) from the reconstructed phase space. We have chosen a window based RPDE method for the classification of signals, as RPDE is an average entropic measure of the whole phase space. We have observed the changes in the complexity in cardiac signals of normal healthy person (NHP) and congestive heart failure patients (CHFP). The results show that the cardiac dynamics of a healthy subject is more complex and random compare to the same for a heart failure patient, whose dynamics is more deterministic. We have constructed a general threshold to distinguish the border line between a healthy and a congestive heart failure dynamics. The results may be useful for wide range for physiological and biomedical analysis.
Costanzo, Maria Rosa; Ronco, Claudio
Most heart failure hospitalizations are due to volume overload, which contributes to disease progression. Heart failure decompensation is typically treated with intravenous diuretics, which are of limited efficacy especially in patients with underlying chronic kidney disease. Since the introduction of hemodialysis, ultrafiltration has been used to remove excess body fluid. Newer, simplified isolated ultrafiltration devices make ultrafiltration feasible at most hospitals and in less acute care settings. Veno-venous ultrafiltration is characterized by transport of solutes and water across a semipermeable membrane in response to a transmembrane pressure gradient generated by a peristaltic pump. Monitoring of ultrafiltration requires a combination of clinical and biomarkers values. Hemodynamic instability due to overaggressive fluid removal must be avoided. Based on recent clinical trials, practice guidelines state that ultrafiltration is reasonable for patients with congestion refractory to medical therapy (Class IIa, Level of Evidence B). Unanswered questions regarding ultrafiltration in heart failure patients include optimal fluid removal rates, effect on long-term survival, and cost.
Cermakova, P; Eriksdotter, M; Lund, L H; Winblad, B; Religa, P; Religa, D
It has recently been proposed that heart failure is a risk factor for Alzheimer′s disease. Decreased cerebral blood flow and neurohormonal activation due to heart failure may contribute to the dysfunction of the neurovascular unit and cause an energy crisis in neurons. This leads to the impaired clearance of amyloid beta and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, resulting in the formation of amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In this article, we will summarize the current understanding of the relationship between heart failure and Alzheimer′s disease based on epidemiological studies, brain imaging research, pathological findings and the use of animal models. The importance of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and valve disease as well as the effect of relevant medications will be discussed. PMID:25041352
Levine, Avi; Hecht, Harvey S
Cardiac CT angiography has become an important tool for the diagnosis and treatment of congestive heart failure. Differentiation of ischemic from nonischemic cardiomyopathy; evaluation of myocardial perfusion; characterization of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, left ventricular noncompaction, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia; and delineation of congenital heart defects and valvular abnormalities are the primary diagnostic applications. Therapeutic use includes visualization of the coronary venous anatomy for optimal implementation of cardiac resynchronization therapy and evaluation of left ventricular assist devices and transplant vasculopathy.
Pillekamp, F; Khalil, M; Emmel, M; Brockmeier, K; Hescheler, J
Pediatric heart failure could be a target for regenerative therapy. Stem cell-based therapy has the potential to provide functional cardiomyocytes. Whereas adult stem cells have shown no or only minimal therapeutic benefit in adults with no evidence of transdifferentiation, embryonic stem cells can differentiate to any cell type, including cardiomyocytes. However, ethical concerns and immunological problems are associated with embryonic stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts. Recently, somatic cells could be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state (i.e. induced pluripotent stem cells) with the help of transcription factors. This technique removes ethical and probably also immunological concerns. Nevertheless extensive experimental research will be necessary before cell replacement strategies become clinically applicable. Because the underlying pathophysiology differs significantly with age, caution is warranted extrapolating data obtained in experimental models of cardiac ischemia and clinical studies in adults to the pediatric population. Pediatric heart failure has a good prognosis if causal therapy is possible. However, some forms of congenital heart disease and especially dilated cardiomyopathy still have limited therapeutic options. Almost half of children with symptomatic cardiomyopathy receive a transplant or die within two years. The authors will review the relevant stem cell sources for cell-based treatments. And, given the differences of the underlying diseases between adult and pediatric patients with heart failure, it is contemplated which condition of pediatric patients with heart failure is most likely to benefit and which cell type would be appropriate.
Lal, Sean; Nguyen, Lisa; Tezone, Rhenan; Ponten, Fredrik; Odeberg, Jacob; Li, Amy; Dos Remedios, Cristobal
Tissue MicroArrays (TMAs) are a versatile tool for high-throughput protein screening, allowing qualitative analysis of a large number of samples on a single slide. We have developed a customizable TMA system that uniquely utilizes cryopreserved human cardiac samples from both heart failure and donor patients to produce formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections. Confirmatory upstream or downstream molecular studies can then be performed on the same (biobanked) cryopreserved tissue. In a pilot study, we applied our TMAs to screen for the expression of four-and-a-half LIM-domain 2 (FHL2), a member of the four-and-a-half LIM family. This protein has been implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure in a variety of animal models. While FHL2 is abundant in the heart, not much is known about its expression in human heart failure. For this purpose, we generated an affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal anti-human FHL2 antibody. Our TMAs allowed high-throughput profiling of FHL2 protein using qualitative and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry that proved complementary to Western blot analysis. We demonstrated a significant relative reduction in FHL2 protein expression across different forms of human heart failure. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Buckley, Una; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L.
Autonomic Regulation Therapy (ART) is a rapidly emerging therapy in the management of congestive heart failure secondary to systolic dysfunction. Modulation of the cardiac neuronal hierarchy can be achieved with bioelectronics modulation of the spinal cord, cervical vagus, baroreceptor, or renal nerve ablation. This review will discuss relevant preclinical and clinical research in ART for systolic heart failure. Understanding mechanistically what is being stimulated within the autonomic nervous system by such device-based therapy and how the system reacts to such stimuli is essential for optimizing stimulation parameters and for the future development of effective ART. PMID:26054327
Castro-Gutiérrez, Victoria; Rada, Gabriel
Fluid restriction is usually recommended in chronic heart failure. However, the evidence base to support this is not that clear. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases, we identified five systematic reviews evaluating 11 studies addressing the question of this article, including seven randomized trials. We extracted data, combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded fluid restriction probably decreases hospital readmission in chronic heart failure and might decrease mortality, but the certainty of the evidence for the latter is low.
Pérez Calvo, J I; Josa Laorden, C; Giménez López, I
Renal function is one of the most consistent prognostic determinants in heart failure. The prognostic information it provides is independent of the ejection fraction and functional status. This article reviews the various renal function assessment measures, with special emphasis on the fact that the patient's clinical situation and response to the heart failure treatment should be considered for the correct interpretation of the results. Finally, we review the literature on the performance of tubular damage biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Basraon, Jagroop; Deedwani, Prakash C
This review discusses the role of diuretics in heart failure by focusing on different classifications and mechanisms of action. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of diuretics are elucidated. The predominant discussion highlights the use of loop diuretics, which are the most commonly used drugs in heart failure. Different methods of using this therapy in different settings along with a comprehensive review of the side-effect profile are highlighted. Special situations necessitating adjustment and the phenomenon of diuretic resistance are explained. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sands, Scott A; Owens, Robert L
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is among the most common causes of admission to hospitals in the United States, especially in those over age 65. Few data exist regarding the prevalence CHF of Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) owing to congestive heart failure in the intensive care unit (ICU). Nevertheless, CSR is expected to be highly prevalent among those with CHF. Treatment should focus on the underlying mechanisms by which CHF increases loop gain and promotes unstable breathing. Few data are available to determine prevalence of CSR in the ICU, or how CSR might affect clinical management and weaning from mechanical ventilation.
Pureza, Vincent; Florea, Viorel G
The combination of profound muscle wasting and severe weight loss that occurs in heart failure is a complex phenomenon that involves the interplay of numerous factors. In this article, we describe processes that contribute to cachexia, as part of the clinical sequelae of heart failure, and their potential underlying mechanisms. While multiple mechanisms of cardiac cachexia have been described, we propose a multifactorial etiology for this condition that includes, but is not limited to, nutritional and gastrointestinal alterations, immunological and neurohormonal activation, and anabolic and catabolic imbalance.
Gehlbach, Brian K; Geppert, Eugene
Determining whether a patient's symptoms are the result of heart or lung disease requires an understanding of the influence of pulmonary venous hypertension on lung function. Herein, we describe the effects of acute and chronic elevations of pulmonary venous pressure on the mechanical and gas-exchanging properties of the lung. The mechanisms responsible for various symptoms of congestive heart failure are described, and the significance of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with heart disease is considered. While the initial clinical evaluation of patients with dyspnea is imprecise, measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide levels may prove useful in this setting.
Casademont, Jordi; Miró, Oscar
In recent years, the possibility that disorders of cardiac metabolism play a role in the mechanisms that lead to ventricular dilatation and dysfunction in heart failure has attracted much attention. Electron transport chain is constituted by a series of multimeric protein complexes, located in the inner mitochondrial membranes, whose genes are distributed over both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Its normal function is essential to provide the energy for cardiac function. Many studies have described abnormalities in mitochondrial DNA genes encoding for electron transport chain (ETC) in dilated cardiomyopathies. In some cases, heart failure is one more or less relevant symptom among other multisystem manifestations characteristic of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies, being heart failure imputable to a primary mitochondrial disease. In the case of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathies (IDC), many mitochondrial abnormalities have also been described using hystological, biochemical or molecular studies. The importance of such findings is under debate. The great variability in the mitochondrial abnormalities described has prompted the proposal that mitochondrial dysfunction could be a secondary phenomenon in IDC, and not a primary one. Among other possible explanations for such findings, the presence of an increased oxidative damage due to a free radical excess has been postulated. In this setting, the dysfunction of ETC could be a consequence, but also a cause of the presence of an increased free radical damage. Independently of its origin, ETC dysfunction may contribute to the persistence and worsening of heart failure. If this hypothesis, still to be proven, was certain, the modulation of cardiac metabolism could be an interesting approach to treat IDC. The precise mechanisms that lead to ventricular dilatation and dysfunction in heart failure are still nowadays poorly understood. Circumstances such as cytotoxic insults, viral infections, immune abnormalities
Ancheta, Irma B
An epidemic disease - a major cause of chronic disability - congestive heart failure adversely affects the health of millions. Congestive heart failure is the most frequent cause of cardiovascular hospital admissions and shares a significant responsibility for the high cost of healthcare. Despite medical and technological advances, studies show that the treatment of heart failure is suboptimal. Physician knowledge and awareness of appropriate treatment may contribute to patient compliance and improve delivery of healthcare. The purpose of this article is to examine how patients with heart failure in a heart failure clinic are managed. Recommendations are proposed and the role of nurses and clinicians in heart failure management is discussed.
Pérez del Villar, Candelas; Yotti, Raquel; Bermejo, Javier
In recent years, imaging techniques have revolutionized the diagnosis of heart failure. In patients with a clinical picture of acute decompensation, prognosis is largely determined by early implementation of general measures and treatment of the underlying cause. Given its diagnostic yield and portability, ultrasound has become an essential tool in the setting of acute heart failure, and is currently found in all medical departments involved in the care of the critically ill patient. Cardiac magnetic resonance and computed tomography allow detailed characterization of multiple aspects of cardiac structure and function that were previously unavailable. This helps guide and monitor many of the treatment decisions in the acute heart failure population in an entirely noninvasive way. This article aims to review the usefulness of the imaging techniques that are clinically relevant in the context of an episode of acute heart failure. We discuss the indications and limitations of these techniques in detail and describe the general principles for the appropriate interpretation of results. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Callan, Paul D; Clark, Andrew L
Physicians responsible for the care of patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction have access to a broad range of evidence-based treatments that prolong life and reduce symptoms. In spite of the significant progress made over the last four decades, there is an ongoing need for novel therapies to treat a condition that is associated with stubbornly high morbidity and mortality. In this article, we discuss the findings of SERVE-HF, a randomised controlled trial of adaptive servo-ventilation in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, as well as EMPA-REG, a study of the effects of a novel diabetic agent that may be of greater interest to heart failure specialists than diabetologists. We also examine further analyses of the groundbreaking PARADIGM-HF trial, which attempt to answer some of the unresolved questions from the original study of the first combined angiotensin-receptor blocker and neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril valsartan. The recently published National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines for the management of acute heart failure and plans to introduce best practice tariffs bring into focus the need for well-organised, multidisciplinary care. We discuss the challenges involved in developing and delivering a specialist service that meets the needs of a growing population of patients living with heart failure.
Leschke, M; Wädlich, A
Whereas the right ventricle tolerates volume loads without any substantial increase of the pressure in the pulmonary circulation by recruiting capacitance vessels and capillaries, it possesses only small contractile reserves and reacts unadapted with right ventricular dysfunction. Its size and pressure load are relevant factors for prognosis of all forms of pulmonary hypertension, in particular if linked to left-sided heart failure. Differentiation of pulmonary hypertension according to the Venice classification is highly important. Right-sided ventricular heart failure worsens left ventricular hemodynamics due to reduced ejection fraction and in addition due to direct diastolic ventricular interaction in which left ventricular diastolic dysfunction increases even though the left ventricular systolic function is still intact. Right ventricular ejection fraction <40% is an important predictor of prognosis after myocardial infarction or chronic stages of left ventricular heart failure. The most important noninvasive diagnostic method is transthoracic echocardiography with determination of the Tei index and Doppler echocardiographic estimation of pulmonary artery pressure. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the most frequent cause of cor pulmonale. While long-term oxygen therapy in patients with COPD and cor pulmonale and for example the administration of endothelin receptor antagonists in patients with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension is beneficial, the therapeutic use of drugs effective for left-sided heart failure is very limited in patients with right ventricular dysfunction.
Le Huu Nho, R; Renard, S; Maurin, C; Souteyrand, P; Le Treut, Y P
We report the case of a 63-year-old woman presenting a 26cm right renal angiomyolipoma with intratumoral arteriovenous fistula responsible for a high-output right heart failure. A radical surgical treatment after preoperative embolization allowed rapid improvement of cardiac symptoms with an uneventful postoperative course.
Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Takeishi, Yasuchika
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is frequently observed in patients with heart failure (HF), and complex pathologic conditions exist between both conditions. In this review article, we describe the characteristics of SDB complicated with HF, the prognostic impact of SDB in HF patients, and the favorable effects of positive airway pressure in HF patients with SDB.
Schneider, Nina M
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is the leading cause of rehospitalization and loss of revenue for home care agencies and hospitals. This article outlines how an agency used telehealth to provide CHF patients quality care and improved outcomes while decreasing the number of skilled home nursing visits and reducing rehospitalization rates to 1.2%.
... getting worse. It is very important that your child take the medicine as directed by the health care team. These ... salt (sodium) Your child should take heart failure medicines as directed. DO NOT allow your child to take any other drugs or herbs without ...
Sica, D S
The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can be accompanied by a number of adverse events, including cough, angioedema, and hyperkalemia, as well as a peculiar form of functional renal insufficiency. Other, less obvious side effects accompany ACE inhibitor use, such as a reduction in red blood cell production. This feature of ACE inhibitor use may be employed to good effect, as in the management of post-transplant erythrocytosis. Alternatively, the suppressive effect of ACE inhibitors on red blood cell production may intensify the anemia of chronic renal failure and/or congestive heart failure. The untreated congestive heart failure patient typically has an increased red blood cell mass as a consequence of increased erythropoietin levels, with the latter governed by congestive heart failure-related renal hypoxia. This is not expressed as an increase in hemoglobin concentration because of the increase in plasma volume that marks advanced congestive heart failure. ACE inhibitor therapy can be expected to both reduce plasma volume and decrease red blood cell production. As a result, the hemoglobin concentration changes very little in the ACE inhibitor-treated congestive heart failure patient and usually falls in the low normal range. Recently, erythropoietin has been employed to good effect in congestive heart failure patients with borderline anemia. (c)2000 by CHF, Inc.
Pleister, Adam; Kahwash, Rami; Haas, Garrie; Ghio, Stefano; Cittadini, Antonio; Baliga, Ragavendra R
The catastrophic consequences for patients in the settings of certain clinical conditions such as acute right ventricular infarction or massive pulmonary embolism with right heart failure illustrate the essential role that the right ventricle plays in sustaining life. With the development of more sophisticated diagnostic imaging technologies at the end of the last century and the dawn of this century, the importance of the right ventricle has been clearly demonstrated. The continued and evolving nature of our understanding of the right ventricle was emphasized in 2006, when the National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute formed a working group focused on developing a better understanding of the right ventricle in both healthy and disease states. The objective of this review paper is to examine the right ventricle structure and function and describe the role of echocardiography in the evaluation of the right ventricle and right heart failure. Special focus will be on echocardiographic images and major society guidelines. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rosca, Mariana G.; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L.
Heart failure (HF) frequently is the unfavorable outcome of pathological heart hypertrophy. In contrast to physiological cardiac hypertrophy, which occurs in response to exercise and leads to full adaptation of contractility to the increased wall stress, pathological hypertrophy occurs in response to volume or pressure overload, ultimately leading to contractile dysfunction and HF. Because cardiac hypertrophy impairs the relationship between ATP demand and production, mitochondrial bioenergetics must keep up with the cardiac hypertrophic phenotype. We review data regarding the mitochondrial proteomic and energetic remodeling in cardiac hypertrophy, as well as the temporal and causal relationship between mitochondrial failure to match the increased energy demand and progression to cardiac decompensation. We suggest that the maladaptive effect of sustained neuroendocrine signals on mitochondria leads to bioenergetic fading which contributes to the progression from cardiac hypertrophy to failure. PMID:22982369
Rosca, Mariana G; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L
Heart failure (HF) frequently is the unfavorable outcome of pathological heart hypertrophy. In contrast to physiological cardiac hypertrophy, which occurs in response to exercise and leads to full adaptation of contractility to the increased wall stress, pathological hypertrophy occurs in response to volume or pressure overload, ultimately leading to contractile dysfunction and HF. Because cardiac hypertrophy impairs the relationship between ATP demand and production, mitochondrial bioenergetics must keep up with the cardiac hypertrophic phenotype. We review data regarding the mitochondrial proteomic and energetic remodeling in cardiac hypertrophy, as well as the temporal and causal relationships between mitochondrial failure to match the increased energy demand and progression to cardiac decompensation. We suggest that the maladaptive effect of sustained neuroendocrine signals on mitochondria leads to bioenergetic fading which contributes to the progression from cardiac hypertrophy to failure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Focus on Cardiac Metabolism". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
"The Teledactyl (Tele, far; Dactyl, finger--from the Greek) is a future instrument by which it will be possible for us to 'feel at a distance.' This idea is not at all impossible, for the instrument can be built today with means available right now. It is simply the well known telautograph, translated into radio terms, with additional refinements. The doctor of the future, by means of this instrument, will be able to feel his patient, as it were, at a distance...The doctor manipulates his controls, which are then manipulated at the patient's room in exactly the same manner. The doctor sees what is going on in the patient's room by means of a television screen." -Hugo Gernsback, Science and Invention Magazine, February 1925 Heart failure continues to be a major burden on our health care system. As the number of patients with heart failure increases, the cost of hospitalization alone is contributing significantly to the overall cost of this disease. Readmission rate and hospital length of stay are emerging as quality markers of heart failure care along with reimbursement policies that force hospitals to optimize these outcomes. Apart from maintaining quality assurance, the disease process of heart failure per-se requires demanding and close attention to vitals, diet, and medication compliance to prevent acute decompensation episodes. Remote patient monitoring is morphing into a key disease management strategy to optimize care for heart failure. Innovative implantable technologies to monitor intracardiac hemodynamics also are evolving, which potentially could offer better and substantial parameters to monitor.
“The Teledactyl (Tele, far; Dactyl, finger — from the Greek) is a future instrument by which it will be possible for us to ‘feel at a distance.’ This idea is not at all impossible, for the instrument can be built today with means available right now. It is simply the well known telautograph, translated into radio terms, with additional refinements. The doctor of the future, by means of this instrument, will be able to feel his patient, as it were, at a distance…The doctor manipulates his controls, which are then manipulated at the patient’s room in exactly the same manner. The doctor sees what is going on in the patient’s room by means of a television screen.” —Hugo Gernsback, Science and Invention Magazine, February 1925 Heart failure continues to be a major burden on our health care system. As the number of patients with heart failure increases, the cost of hospitalization alone is contributing significantly to the overall cost of this disease. Readmission rate and hospital length of stay are emerging as quality markers of heart failure care along with reimbursement policies that force hospitals to optimize these outcomes. Apart from maintaining quality assurance, the disease process of heart failure per-se requires demanding and close attention to vitals, diet, and medication compliance to prevent acute decompensation episodes. Remote patient monitoring is morphing into a key disease management strategy to optimize care for heart failure. Innovative implantable technologies to monitor intracardiac hemodynamics also are evolving, which potentially could offer better and substantial parameters to monitor. PMID:23519115
Kappagoda, Tissa; Amsterdam, Ezra A
In this review, we will examine the physiological responses to exercise in elderly populations (age > 65 years) with and without evidence of heart failure. Aging per se in both men and women is associated with a ~40% lower maximum oxygen consumption in sedentary subjects. In trained individuals, this value is 25-32% lower. A smaller SV accounts for nearly 50% of these age-related differences, and the remainder is explained by a lower maximal HR and reduced oxygen extraction. Exercise training is also associated with an increase in the arteriovenous O(2) difference in previously sedentary elderly men and women, which probably contributes to the overall beneficial effect of training in the elderly. However, during vigorous exercise (125 W), the cardiac output in the elderly is dependent upon an age-related increase in end-diastolic volume and stroke volume, which "compensates" partially for the age-related decrease in heart rate. Hence, in elderly individuals, the stroke volume during exercise depends upon diastolic filling. The changes that occur in the heart are also associated with an overall reduction in efferent sympathetic nerve activity. Despite this decline, the metaboreflex initiated by receptors in exercising muscles remains the main determinant of sympathetic activation (to maintain blood pressure) during exercise in the elderly. It is recognized that aging is associated with the development of heart failure, particularly in women in whom its prevalence increases >twofold from age 65-69 (6.6%) to age 85 years (14%). Almost half the people presenting with heart failure appear to have normal left ventricular systolic function, a phenomenon that is more common in women. Exercise training in elderly people with and without heart failure appears to have a beneficial effect in terms of enhancing the quality of life and functional capacity. Mortality benefit in the latter has not been established with certainty.
Vitali, Ettore; Colombo, Tiziano; Fratto, Pasquale; Russo, Claudio; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Frigerio, Maria
Congestive heart failure (CHF) affects about 1% of adults in the United States and is a contributing factor in >250,000 deaths per year. In an increasingly elderly population, the surgical treatment of CHF made great progress during the past 3 decades, consuming enormous health care resources. Heart transplantation is still the most effective therapy for end-stage heart disease, with the 10-year survival rate after transplantation approaching 50%. Efforts to increase the supply of donor organs have failed to improve the shortage, underscoring the crucial need for alternatives to cardiac allotransplantation. Alternative surgical options to end-stage heart transplantation are rapidly evolving. Left ventricular assist devices have been used as a bridge to heart transplantation for patients who otherwise might die awaiting a new heart. There is also continued interest in the use of these devices either to bridge patients to full recovery or to destination therapy, without the need for heart replacement. Left ventricular reconstruction, including the Batista and Dor procedures, along with mitral valve repair, cardiomyoplasty, and extreme coronary artery bypass graft surgery, are now being increasingly performed as alternative options. The history, status, and personal experience of surgical treatment of end-stage heart disease are discussed.
McDonald, Ken; Conlon, Carmel; Ledwidge, Mark
The development of disease management programs has been a major advance in heart failure care, bringing about significant improvements for the heart failure population, with reduction in readmission, better use of guideline therapy and improved survival. However, at present, the majority of such programs focus their attention only on the sicker segment of this population, with little application of this important service to the broader heart failure population, where potentially benefits may be even more impressive. This has led to an imbalance in the care of patients with heart failure, where aspects of management such as regular structured review and education are preferentially given to the group at the later stages of the natural history of the syndrome. This paper argues for a far wider application of the disease management program concept in heart failure care so as to bring the benefits of specialist care, patient education and follow-up to patients at an earlier stage in the natural history of heart failure.
Bergman, Suzanne M
Dialysis in patients with severe congestive heart failure and low blood pressure is difficult even in a hospital setting. We retrospectively recorded the effects and usefulness of an alpha (1) agonist in an outpatient dialysis unit in 5 patients with end-stage renal disease with symptomatic heart failure and low blood pressure. To provide outpatient dialysis, they were given midodrine before and during their dialysis sessions. The volume of fluid removed, the lowest blood pressure, and postdialysis blood pressure measurements were recorded during a 3- to 4-week period just before initiating therapy (control period) and were compared with the measurements while using midodrine (treatment period). The blood pressures were expressed as the average of the mean arterial pressures (MAP). All patients had an increase in the lowest MAP during dialysis and in the postdialysis MAP. Each was significant at P = 0.03. Fluid removal was significant at P = 0.04. All the patients improved in their symptoms of orthopnea and shortness of breath. Outpatient dialysis is possible and relieves the symptoms of congestive heart failure in patients with poor heart function, low blood pressure, and advanced age when midodrine is given immediately before and during the procedure.
Gilstrap, Lauren G; Snipelisky, David; AbouEzzeddine, Omar; Vader, Justin; Cooper, Lauren; Kelley, Jacob; Perez, Antonio; Varian, Kenneth; Lala, Anuradha; Shah, Monica; Stevenson, Lynne W
The epidemiology of heart failure (HF) is changing. This study aimed to describe questions that arise during the routine care of HF patients that are unanswered by the current literature and describe how the type and focus of these questions has changed over time. Investigators from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Heart Failure Apprentice Network collected and categorized questions from 5 academic hospitals over 12 months. A total of 174 unanswered questions were collected and analyzed. Compared with 2004, there were more unanswered questions about "whether" to use therapies and fewer about "how" to use therapies. There were fewer questions about what therapeutic targets, therapy adjustment, and combination therapies. There were more questions about whether or how to stop therapies and how to add therapies back. Newly prominent topics, not observed in 2004, including novel therapeutics, refractory ventricular tachycardia, right heart failure, and nutrition/frailty, accounted for 24% of questions. Compared with 2004, there are fewer unanswered questions about how to use, adjust, and combine therapies. There were more unanswered questions about whether and how to stop therapies. Almost 25% of unanswered questions dealt with topics indicative of more advanced disease which were not observed in 2004. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapa, Deborah W; Akintade, Bimbola; Son, Heesook; Woltz, Patricia; Hunt, Dennis; Friedmann, Erika; Hartung, Mary Kay; Thomas, Sue Ann
Depression and anxiety are common comorbid conditions in patients with heart failure. Patients with heart failure and depression have increased mortality. The association of anxiety with increased mortality in patients with heart failure is not established. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the similarities of the underlying pathophysiology of heart failure, depression, and anxiety by using the Biopsychosocial Holistic Model of Cardiovascular Health. Depression and anxiety affect biological processes of cardiovascular function in patients with heart failure by altering neurohormonal function via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic dysregulation, and activation of cytokine cascades and platelets. Patients with heart failure and depression or anxiety may exhibit a continued cycle of heart failure progression, increased depression, and increased anxiety. Understanding the underlying pathophysiological relationships in patients with heart failure who experience comorbid depression and/or anxiety is critical in order to implement appropriate treatments, educate patients and caregivers, and educate other health professionals.
... selection of therapies and state-of-the-art technologies for advanced heart failure has made decision making ... bypass graft : If heart failure is caused by coronary artery disease , bypass surgery may be an option. Using arteries ...
... News on Cardiac Arrest Heart Failure Pacemakers and Implantable Defibrillators Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cardiac Arrest Heart Failure Pacemakers and Implantable Defibrillators About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...
... other cases, heart failure may be caused by stiffness, or stenosis , of the aortic valve. When the ... other cases, heart failure may be caused by stiffness, or stenosis , of the aortic valve. When the ...
Smith, S; Rossignol, P; Willis, S; Zannad, F; Mentz, R; Pocock, S; Bisognano, J; Nadim, Y; Geller, N; Ruble, S; Linde, C
Hypertension (HTN) and heart failure (HF) have a significant global impact on health, and lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Despite recent advances in pharmacologic and device therapy for these conditions, there is a need for additional treatment modalities. Patients with sub-optimally treated HTN have increased risk for stroke, renal failure and heart failure. The outcome of HF patients remains poor despite modern pharmacological therapy and with established device therapies such as CRT and ICDs. Therefore, the potential role of neuromodulation via renal denervation, baro-reflex modulation and vagal stimulation for the treatment of resistant HTN and HF is being explored. In this manuscript, we review current evidence for neuromodulation in relation to established drug and device therapies and how these therapies may be synergistic in achieving therapy goals in patients with treatment resistant HTN and heart failure. We describe lessons learned from recent neuromodulation trials and outline strategies to improve the potential for success in future trials. This review is based on discussions between scientists, clinical trialists, and regulatory representatives at the 11th annual CardioVascular Clinical Trialist Forum in Washington, DC on December 5-7, 2014. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Davies, Ed J; Moxham, Tiffany; Rees, Karen; Singh, Sally; Coats, Andrew Js; Ebrahim, Shah; Lough, Fiona; Taylor, Rod S
From previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses there is consensus about the positive effect of exercise training on exercise capacity; however, the effects on health-related quality of life, mortality and hospital admissions in heart failure remain uncertain. To update the previous systematic review which determined the effectiveness of exercise-based interventions on the mortality, hospitalisation admissions, morbidity and health-related quality of life for patients with systolic heart failure. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 4). To update searches from the previous review, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched (2001 to January 2008). ISI Proceedings and bibliographies of identified reviews were checked. Randomised controlled trials of exercise-based interventions with six months follow up or longer compared to usual medical care or placebo. The study population comprised adults of all ages (> 18 years) with evidence of chronic systolic heart failure. All identified references were independently screened by two review authors and those that were clearly ineligible were rejected. Full papers of potentially relevant trials were obtained. Data were independantly extracted from the included trials and their risk of bias assessed by a single review author and checked by a second. Nineteen trials (3647 participants) met the inclusion criteria. One large trial recuited 2331 of the participants. There was no significant difference in pooled mortality between groups in the 13 trials with < 1 year follow up. There was evidence of a non-significant trend toward a reduction in pooled mortality with exercise in the four trials with > 1 year follow up. A reduction in the hospitalisation rate was demonstrated with exercise training programmes. Hospitalisations due to systolic heart failure were reduced with exercise and there was a significant improvement in health-related quality of
Costanzo, Maria Rosa
Congestion causes the majority of hospitalizations for heart failure and contributes to heart failure progression and mortality. Intravenous loop diuretics reduce the signs and symptoms of congestion. Loop diuretics, however, may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to deleterious effects on neurohormonal activation, electrolyte balance, and cardiac and renal function. Ultrafiltration, an alternative method of sodium and water removal, safely improves hemodynamics in heart failure patients. Recent clinical trial data suggest that ultrafiltration may also reduce rehospitalizations for worsening heart failure.
Suradi, Hussam S; Hijazi, Ziyad M
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect, occurring in approximately 0.8% to 1.0% of neonates. Advances in medical and surgical therapies for children with CHD have resulted in a growing population of patients reaching adulthood, with survival rates exceeding 85%. Many of these patients, especially if managed inappropriately, face the prospect of future complications including heart failure and premature death. For adults with uncorrected or previously palliated CHD, percutaneous therapies have become the primary treatment for many forms of CHD. In this article, we discuss the role of transcatheter interventions in the treatment of adults with CHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rees, Karen; Taylor, Rod RS; Singh, Sally; Coats, Andrew JS; Ebrahim, Shah
Background The prevalence of chronic heart failure is increasing, and increases with increasing age. Major symptoms include breathlessness and restricted activities of daily living due to reduced functional capacity, which in turn affects quality of life. Exercise training has been shown to be effective in patients with coronary heart disease and has been proposed as an intervention to improve exercise tolerance in patients with heart failure. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of exercise based interventions compared with usual medical care on the mortality, morbidity, exercise capacity and health related quality of life, of patients with heart failure. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2001), MEDLINE (2000 to March 2001), EMBASE (1998 to March 2001), CINAHL (1984 to March 2001) and reference lists of articles. We also sought advice from experts. Selection criteria RCTs of exercise based interventions. The comparison group was usual medical care as defined by the study, or placebo. Adults of all ages with chronic heart failure. Only those studies with criteria for diagnosis of heart failure (based on clinical findings or objective indices) have been included. Data collection and analysis Studies were selected, and data were abstracted, independently by two reviewers. Authors were contacted where possible to obtain missing information. Main results Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria, with 1126 patients randomised. The majority of studies included both patients with primary and secondary heart failure, NYHA class II or III. Only one study specifically examined the effect of exercise training on mortality and morbidity. Exercise training significantly increased VO2 max by (WMD random effects model) 2.16 ml/kg/min (95% CI 2.82 to 1.49), exercise duration increased by 2.38 minutes (95% CI 2.85 to 1.9), work capacity by 15.1 Watts (95% CI 17.7 to 12.6) and distance on the six minute walk
Jerkins, James H.; Suciu, Anca; Mazimba, Sula; Calvo, Alejandro
The clinical manifestations of anti-cancer drug associated cardiac side effects are diverse and can range from acutely induced cardiac arrhythmias to severe contractile dysfunction, and potentially fatal heart failure. Anthracyclines and trastuzumab cardiac toxicity have been well described and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) evaluation is commonly performed before their use. Bortezomib (Velcade), a potent, specific and reversible proteasome inhibitor is approved for treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). The incidence of cardiac failure associated with bortezomib therapy in clinical trials remains incidental. Acute exacerbation of pre-existing congestive cardiac failure has been associated with this therapy but de novo cardiomyopathy has been reported in only one patient receiving bortezomib for small cell lung cancer. As a result, cardiac evaluation is not normally ordered before its use. We describe a 50-year-old female with newly diagnosed MM and no risk factors for cardiac disease that unexpectedly developed florid heart failure after 2 cycles of bortezomib and low-dose dexamethasone. 2-D echocardiogram showed dilated cardiomyopathy with severely decreased LVEF; no changes consistent with amyloid deposits or myocardial scarring were described. Coronary angiogram ruled out coronary artery disease. The mechanism of bortezomib-induced cardiomyopathy has been postulated to be through fluid retention. Based on literature review we hypothesize that the disruption of the ubiquitin-proteasome system by bortezomib may cause cardiomyopathy and severe cardiac failure. As Bortezomib is a new and promising therapy for MM patients, we recommend routinely monitoring cardiac parameters in patients undergoing this treatment.
Miller, Robin K; Thornton, Nathaniel
Chronic heart failure is a chronic condition that is associated with increased health care expenditures and high rates of morbidity and mortality. Mainstay in heart failure management has been the prescription of a fluid restriction. The purpose of this article is to review the available evidence for fluid restriction in chronic heart failure patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Congestive heart failure is still one of the most common causes of death in our society. Treatment should be approached systematically with a set of well-defined objectives, which include rest, a low-sodium diet, inotropic agents, diuretics, and peripheral vasodilators. Patients receiving treatment for congestive heart failure should be examined daily for symptomatic improvement, cardiac signs, and accurate recording of total fluid intake and output. Serum electrolyte levels and chest X-ray films should also be checked intermittently. When using powerful diuretics or vasodilators, the physician should be aware of the risk-benefit ratio because many of these drugs, alone or in combination, may produce undesirable or even fatal side-effects. PMID:20469506
Ellis, Ethan R; Josephson, Mark E
Congestive heart failure is a major health care concern affecting almost six million Americans and an estimated 23 million people worldwide, and its prevalence is increasing with time. Long-standing tachycardia is a well-recognized cause of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction and has led to the nomenclature, tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy is generally a reversible cardiomyopathy with effective treatment of the causative arrhythmia, either with medications, surgery, or catheter ablation. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy remains poorly understood and is likely under-diagnosed. A better understanding of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy and improved recognition of its presence in clinical practice is vital to the health of patients with this disorder. The goal of this review is to discuss the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy, as well as approaches to its diagnosis and treatment.
Casado Cerrada, J; Zabaleta Camino, J P; Fontecha Ortega, M
Acute heart failure is a prognostic factor due to its high mortality during the acute phase and the increased frequency of medium to long-term adverse events. The pathophysiological mechanisms triggered during these exacerbations can persist after reaching clinical stability, remaining even after the acute episode has ended. A certain degree of neurohormonal activation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation (among other conditions) can therefore persist, resulting in organ damage, not just of the myocardium but likely the entire cardiovascular apparatus. This new insight into the persistence of harmful mechanisms that last beyond the exacerbations could be the start of a change in perspective for developing new therapeutic strategies that seek an overall control of hemodynamic and congestive changes that occur during acute decompensated heart failure and changes that remain after achieving clinical stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Cesselli, Daniela; Aleksova, Aneta; Mazzega, Elisa; Caragnano, Angela; Beltrami, Antonio Paolo
A side effect of the medical improvements of the last centuries is the progressive aging of the world population, which is estimated to reach the impressive number of 2 billion people with more than 65 years by 2050. As a consequence, age-related diseases, such as heart failure, will affect more and more patients in the next years. To understand the biological bases of these diseases will be a crucial task in order to find better treatments, and possibly slow age-related morbidity and mortality. Cardiac stem cells have been at the center of a heated debate and their potential involvement in cardiac homeostasis has been questioned. In this review, we summarize evidence obtained by independent groups, on different animal models and humans, that strongly support the important role played by immature, cardiac resident cells in the cardioprotection against heart failure.
Wetsch, Wolfgang A; Lahm, Tim; Hinkelbein, Jochen; Happel, Christoph M; Padosch, Stephan A
Acute right heart failure (RHF) is a frequent and severe complication during perioperative and intensive care treatment in intensive care units (ICUs). The most common causes are pulmonary hypertension, left heart failure, pulmonary embolism, sepsis, acute lung injury (ALI) and thoracosurgical procedures. Acute RHF is not only a major contributor to morbidity and mortality; it also influences efficacy and outcome of routinely performed procedures, such as vasopressors, in critically ill patients. In contrast to the left ventricle, the right ventricle's physiology and pathophysiology are understudied, and the diagnosis of acute RHF is frequently challenging. Although many drugs are available for the treatment of RHF, randomized trials for this setting are still missing. This article gives an overview of aetiology and pathogenesis of RHF and reviews the diagnostic and therapeutic interventions currently available for providers in anaesthesiology and critical care. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.
Kasznicki, Jacek; Drzewoski, Jozef
Evidence from clinical trials repeatedly confirms the association of diabetes with heart failure, independent of hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease and valvular heart disease. However, the importance of coexistence of diabetes and heart failure is not universally recognized, despite the fact that it may significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality of the diabetic population. It seems that prevention of heart failure, early diagnosis, and appropriate management could improve the outcome. Unfortunately, the etiology of heart failure in diabetic patients is still to be elucidated. It is multifactorial in nature and several cellular, molecular and metabolic factors are implicated. Additionally, there are still no definite guidelines on either the diagnosis and treatment of heart failure in diabetic patients or on the therapy of diabetes in subjects with heart failure. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prevention of heart failure in the diabetic population as well as management of both comorbidities.
Saraon, Tajinderpal; Katz, Stuart D
Iron deficiency is common in heart failure (HF) patients, and is associated with increased risk of adverse clinical outcomes. Clinical trials of intravenous iron supplementation in iron-deficient HF patients have demonstrated short-term improvement in functional capacity and quality of life. In some trials, the benefits of iron supplementation were independent of the hemoglobin levels. Additional investigations of iron supplementation are needed to characterize the mechanisms contributing to clinical benefit and long-term safety in HF.
Heart failure has significant prevalence in older people: the mean average age of patients with the condition is 77. It has serious prognostic and quality of life implications for patients, as well as health service costs. Diagnosis requires confirmatory investigations and consideration of causative processes. First-line treatment involves education, lifestyle modification, symptom-controlling and disease-modifying medication. Further treatment may include additional medications, cardiac devices and surgery. End of life planning is part of the care pathway.
Phan, Thanh Trung; Frenneaux, Michael
Whilst resting disturbances of both diastolic and long-axis systolic function are observed in patients with heart failure who have normal left ventricular ejection fraction, recent evidence suggests that dynamic disturbances in cardiac function occur during exercise. A paradoxical slowing of left ventricular active relaxation during exercise limits cardiac filling and therefore stroke volume and appears to be due to the combination of cardiac energetic impairment and disturbed ventricular-vascular coupling.
Phan, Thanh Trung
Whilst resting disturbances of both diastolic and long-axis systolic function are observed in patients with heart failure who have normal left ventricular ejection fraction, recent evidence suggests that dynamic disturbances in cardiac function occur during exercise. A paradoxical slowing of left ventricular active relaxation during exercise limits cardiac filling and therefore stroke volume and appears to be due to the combination of cardiac energetic impairment and disturbed ventricular-vascular coupling. PMID:20948816
Wang, Peng; Xu, Lei; Sun, Aijun
Heart failure (HF) is a major global problem in public health with no curative treatment currently available. Energy remodeling is one of the features in HF, preceding cardiac structure remodeling. As an important energy organelle, mitochondrion plays critical roles in the progress of HF. This review focuses on the potential mechanisms linking mitochondrial functions and energy remodeling in HF including the energy starvation theory and energy substrate metabolism. It also highlights the potentials of novel drugs targeting HF energy metabolism.
Ramani, Gautam V; Uber, Patricia A; Mehra, Mandeep R
Chronic heart failure (CHF) remains the only cardiovascular disease with an increasing hospitalization burden and an ongoing drain on health care expenditures. The prevalence of CHF increases with advancing life span, with diastolic heart failure predominating in the elderly population. Primary prevention of coronary artery disease and risk factor management via aggressive blood pressure control are central in preventing new occurrences of left ventricular dysfunction. Optimal therapy for CHF involves identification and correction of potentially reversible precipitants, target-dose titration of medical therapy, and management of hospitalizations for decompensation. The etiological phenotype, absolute decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction and a widening of QRS duration on electrocardiography, is commonly used to identify patients at increased risk of progression of heart failure and sudden death who may benefit from prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy. Patients who transition to advanced stages of disease despite optimal traditional medical and device therapy may be candidates for hemodynamically directed approaches such as a left ventricular assist device; in selected cases, listing for cardiac transplant may be warranted.
Ouzounian, Maral; Lee, Douglas S; Liu, Peter P
Epidemiological and experimental studies have documented both the rising burden of diastolic heart failure (DHF) and several mechanisms that distinguish this disease from systolic heart failure (SHF). Controversies continue to surround the term 'DHF' as well as its existence as a pathophysiological entity distinct from SHF. Approximately half of all patients who present with heart failure have near-normal systolic function and predominately abnormal diastolic function. Recent reports counter the commonly held belief that survival of patients with DHF is better than that of patients with SHF. The challenges associated with managing the DHF phenotype arise from the heterogeneous etiologies of the condition that include aging, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and ischemia. Lack of diastolic distensibility in DHF has been attributed primarily to hypertrophy and fibrosis. Extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal components including matrix metalloproteinases, titin isoforms, and the quality and quantity of collagen are implicated in DHF development. Impaired active relaxation of the contractile apparatus also contributes to DHF. Novel therapeutic targets that address the pathophysiology of this disease are being actively explored, although as yet there are no proven therapies for DHF. New epidemiologic and mechanistic data regarding DHF highlight the urgency with which the scientific community must address this important public health problem.
Abstract Cardiac gene and cell therapy have both entered clinical trials aimed at ameliorating ventricular dysfunction in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. The transduction of myocardial cells with viral constructs encoding a specific cardiomyocyte Ca2+ pump in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), SRCa2+-ATPase has been shown to correct deficient Ca2+ handling in cardiomyocytes and improvements in contractility in preclinical studies, thus leading to the first clinical trial of gene therapy for heart failure. In cell therapy, it is not clear whether beneficial effects are cell-type specific and how improvements in contractility are brought about. Despite these uncertainties, a number of clinical trials are under way, supported by safety and efficacy data from trials of cell therapy in the setting of myocardial infarction. Safety concerns for gene therapy center on inflammatory and immune responses triggered by viral constructs, and for cell therapy with myoblast cells, the major concern is increased incidence of ventricular arrhythmia after cell transplantation. Principles and mechanisms of action of gene and cell therapy for heart failure are discussed, together with the potential influence of reactive oxygen species on the efficacy of these treatments and the status of myocardial-delivery techniques for viral constructs and cells. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 2025–2042. PMID:19416058
Dimitriou, Alexandros Merkourios; Dapunt, Otto; Knez, Igor; Wasler, Andrae; Oberwalder, Peter; Koerfer, Reiner; Tenderich, Gero; Spiliopoulos, Sotirios
Congestive hepatopathy (CH) and acute liver failure (ALF) are common among biventricular heart failure patients. We sought to evaluate the impact of total artificial heart (TAH) therapy on hepatic function and associated clinical outcomes. A total of 31 patients received a Syncardia Total Artificial Heart. Preoperatively 17 patients exhibited normal liver function or mild hepatic derangements that were clinically insignificant and did not qualify as acute or chronic liver failure, 5 patients exhibited ALF and 9 various hepatic derangements owing to CH. Liver associated mortality and postoperative course of liver values were prospectively documented and retrospectively analyzed. Liver associated mortality in normal liver function, ALF and CH cases was 0%, 20% (P=0.03) and 44.4% (P=0.0008) respectively. 1/17 (5.8%) patients with a normal liver function developed an ALF, 4/5 (80%) patients with an ALF experienced a markedly improvement of hepatic function and 6/9 (66.6%) patients with CH a significant deterioration. TAH therapy results in recovery of hepatic function in ALF cases. Patients with CH prior to surgery form a high risk group with increased liver associated mortality.
Ramani, Gautam V.; Uber, Patricia A.; Mehra, Mandeep R.
Chronic heart failure (CHF) remains the only cardiovascular disease with an increasing hospitalization burden and an ongoing drain on health care expenditures. The prevalence of CHF increases with advancing life span, with diastolic heart failure predominating in the elderly population. Primary prevention of coronary artery disease and risk factor management via aggressive blood pressure control are central in preventing new occurrences of left ventricular dysfunction. Optimal therapy for CHF involves identification and correction of potentially reversible precipitants, target-dose titration of medical therapy, and management of hospitalizations for decompensation. The etiological phenotype, absolute decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction and a widening of QRS duration on electrocardiography, is commonly used to identify patients at increased risk of progression of heart failure and sudden death who may benefit from prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy. Patients who transition to advanced stages of disease despite optimal traditional medical and device therapy may be candidates for hemodynamically directed approaches such as a left ventricular assist device; in selected cases, listing for cardiac transplant may be warranted. PMID:20118395
Melenovsky, Vojtech; Hwang, Seok-Jae; Lin, Grace; Redfield, Margaret M.; Borlaug, Barry A.
Aim Right heart function is not well characterized in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The goal of this study was to examine the haemodynamic, clinical, and prognostic correlates of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in HFpEF. Methods and results Heart failure and preserved ejection fraction patients (n = 96) and controls (n = 46) underwent right heart catheterization, echocardiographic assessment, and follow-up. Right and left heart filling pressures, pulmonary artery (PA) pressures, and right-sided chamber dimensions were higher in HFpEF compared with controls, while left ventricular size and EF were similar. Right ventricular dysfunction (defined by RV fractional area change, FAC <35%) was present in 33% of HFpEF patients and was associated with more severe symptoms and greater comorbidity burden. Right ventricular function was impaired in HFpEF compared with controls using both load-dependent (FAC: 40 ± 10 vs. 53 ± 7%, P < 0.0001) and load-independent indices (FAC adjusted to PA pressure, P = 0.003), with enhanced afterload-sensitivity compared with controls (steeper FAC vs. PA pressure relationship). In addition to haemodynamic load, RVD in HFpEF was associated with male sex, atrial fibrillation, coronary disease, and greater ventricular interdependence. Over a median follow-up of 529 days (IQR: 143–1066), 31% of HFpEF patients died. In Cox analysis, RVD was the strongest predictor of death (HR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.6–2.6; P < 0.0001). Conclusion Right heart dysfunction is common in HFpEF and is caused by both RV contractile impairment and afterload mismatch from pulmonary hypertension. Right ventricular dysfunction in HFpEF develops with increasing PA pressures, atrial fibrillation, male sex, and left ventricular dysfunction, and may represent a novel therapeutic target. PMID:24875795
Cho, Young Kuk; Ma, Jae Sook
Despite developments in surgical techniques and other interventions, right ventricular (RV) failure remains an important clinical problem in several congenital heart diseases (CHD). RV function is one of the most important predictors of mortality and morbidity in patients with CHD. RV failure is a progressive disorder that begins with myocardial injury or stress, neurohormonal activation, cytokine activation, altered gene expression, and ventricular remodeling. Pressure-overload RV failure caused by RV outflow tract obstruction after total correction of tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary stenosis, atrial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries, congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, and systemic RV failure after the Fontan operation. Volume-overload RV failure may be caused by atrial septal defect, pulmonary regurgitation, or tricuspid regurgitation. Although the measurement of RV function is difficult because of many reasons, the right ventricle can be evaluated using both imaging and functional modalities. In clinical practice, echocardiography is the primary mode for the evaluation of RV structure and function. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used for evaluating RV structure and function. A comprehensive evaluation of RV function may lead to early and optimal management of RV failure in patients with CHD.
Rich, Michael W.
Synopsis Heart failure is the quintessential cardiovascular syndrome of aging that results from common cardiovascular conditions in older adults in conjunction with age-associated changes in cardiovascular structure and function. To a large extent, heart failure is a geriatric syndrome in much the same way that dementia, falls, and frailty are geriatric syndromes. The incidence and prevalence of heart failure increase strikingly with age and make heart failure the most common reason for hospitalization among older adults. While outcomes for older adults with heart failure have improved over time, mortality, hospitalization, and rehospitalization rates remain high. PMID:17905375
Damluji, Salem F.; Al-Saffar, Ghanim; Thamer, Mahmoud A.; Mary, Adil S.
Stimulated by the world-wide interest in cardiovascular diseases, the authors made a study of 1001 consecutive admissions to a female medical ward in Baghdad, Iraq, and found that 146 patients were in congestive failure on admission, and an additional 197 patients were suffering from primary cardiovascular disease without failure. Of the group in failure, 47.9% had rheumatic heart disease; none of these patients had been on chemoprophylaxis. Bilharziasis was associated with a considerable number of cases of hypertension and with a small percentage of cases of cor pulmonale. The authors feel that prevention of rheumatic fever and bilharziasis should constitute the corner-stone of any effective control programme of cardiovascular disease at this stage of medical development in Iraq. PMID:14267742
Vest, Amanda R
The new pharmacological classes of GLP-1 agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors are now widely used in diabetes and have been postulated as beneficial in heart failure. These proposed benefits arise from the inter-related pathophysiologies of diabetes and heart failure (diabetes increases the risk of heart failure, and heart failure can induce insulin resistance) and also in light of the dysfunctional myocardial energetics seen in heart failure. The normal heart utilizes predominantly fatty acids for energy production, but there is some evidence to suggest that increased myocardial glucose uptake may be beneficial for the failing heart. Thus, GLP-1 agonists, which stimulate glucose-dependent insulin release and enhance myocardial glucose uptake, have become a focus of investigation in both animal models and humans with heart failure. Limited pilot data for GLP-1 agonists shows potential improvements in systolic function, hemodynamics, and quality of life, forming the basis for current phase II trials.
Major pathophysiology of heart failure is an autonomic nervous system dysfunction as a result of excess sympathoexcitation and/or withdrawal of vagal nerve activity. Although we already have various pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies for heart failure, survival of heart failure patients remains around 50%. To achieve further reductions in morbidity and mortality of heart failure, neuromodulations with devices, such as baroreflex activating therapy, vagal nerve stimulation, renal sympathetic denervation, spinal cord stimulation, and left cardiac sympathetic denervation, have been expected. Although all of these neuromodulations have benefits on heart failure, efficacy, and safety in preclinical and small-sized clinical studies, the benefits on heart failure have been insufficient and controversial compared to our expectations in large-sized randomized trials. However, we should develop and apply these novel therapies for the patients with heart failure in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brake, Rebecca; Jones, Ian David
Chronic heart failure is a common and complex clinical syndrome that results from impaired cardiac relaxation or contraction. There have been considerable advances in the management of chronic heart failure; however, the mortality rate remains high. Patients with chronic heart failure may experience multiple debilitating symptoms, such as fatigue, pain, and peripheral oedema. However, breathlessness may be considered the most debilitating symptom. The management of chronic heart failure aims to improve the patient's quality of life by reducing symptoms and supporting the patient to manage their condition. Treatment of patients with chronic heart failure may involve a combination of pharmacological therapy, device implantation and cardiac rehabilitation. This is the second of two articles on chronic heart failure. Part 1 discussed the pathophysiology of chronic heart failure, its causes, assessment, signs and symptoms. Part 2 outlines the treatment and management of patients with the condition, including pharmacological strategies, device implantation, lifestyle modification, cardiac rehabilitation and palliative care.
Abraham, William T
Heart failure is associated with high rates of hospitalization and rehospitalization, resulting in substantial clinical and economic burden. Current approaches to monitoring patients with heart failure have done little to reduce these high rates of heart failure hospitalization. Implantable hemodynamic monitors have been developed to remotely provide direct measurement of intracardiac and pulmonary artery pressures in ambulatory patients with heart failure. These devices have the potential to direct day-to-day management of patients with heart failure to reduce hospitalization rates. The use of a pulmonary artery pressure measurement system has been shown to reduce the risk of heart failure hospitalization in patients with systolic and diastolic heart failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abraham, William T
Heart failure is associated with high rates of hospitalization and rehospitalization, resulting in substantial clinical and economic burden. Current approaches to monitoring patients with heart failure have done little to reduce these high rates of heart failure hospitalization. Implantable hemodynamic monitors have been developed to remotely provide direct measurement of intracardiac and pulmonary artery pressures in ambulatory patients with heart failure. These devices have the potential to direct day-to-day management of patients with heart failure to reduce hospitalization rates. The use of a pulmonary artery pressure measurement system has been shown to reduce the risk of heart failure hospitalization in patients with systolic and diastolic heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nimdet, Kachaporn; Techakehakij, Win
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is one of the most common cardiac complications of pneumonia in adulthood leading to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Little is known, however, of CHF and pneumonia in children. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the characteristics and factors associated with CHF in under-5 children with pneumonia and respiratory failure. A retrospective cohort was conducted in hospitalized patients aged 2-59 months with community-acquired pneumonia and respiratory failure from June 2011 to June 2014 at Suratthani Hospital, Thailand. The characteristics, therapeutic strategy, and clinical outcomes of CHF were reviewed. Baseline characteristics and basic laboratory investigations on admission were compared between the CHF and non-CHF groups. Of 135 patients, 14 (10%) had CHF. Compared with patients without CHF, the CHF group had prolonged intubation and hospital stay and high rates of associated complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia, sepsis, shock, and 30 day mortality. CHF was significantly associated with certain characteristics, including male sex and bacterial pneumonia. Pneumonia with respiratory failure is associated with CHF even in healthy children without cardiac risks. The awareness and early recognition of CHF, particularly in male, and bacterial pneumonia, is important in order to provide immediate treatment to reduce complications. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.
Fedele, Francesco; Severino, Paolo; Calcagno, Simone; Mancone, Massimo
Staging of heart failure represents a major issue in clinical practice. In this setting, the MOGE(S) classification was designed to be similar to the TNM classification used in oncology. Nevertheless, MOGE(S) nosology differs greatly from the key elements of the TNM classification, as well as its simplicity and clinical applicability. In fact, MOGE(S) acronym stands for morphofunctional characteristics (M), organ involvement (O), genetic or familial inheritance pattern (G), etiological information (E), and functional status (S). Recently, a new TNM-like classification for heart failure was proposed. This classification, named HLM, refers to heart damage arising from an initial stage of impaired systolic or diastolic function, without structural injury, to an advanced stage of biventricular dysfunction (H), different stages of lung involvement (L), and malfunction of peripheral organs such as the kidney, liver, and brain (M). HLM classification was influenced by the key elements of TNM staging: simplicity, clinical usefulness, efficacy for planning a therapeutic strategy, and ability to determine patient prognosis. HLM classification seems to be easily applied in the real world and valuable for balancing economic resources with the clinical complexity of patients. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rademaker, Miriam T; Richards, A Mark
The urocortins (Ucns), endogenous peptides belonging to the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family, are increasingly recognized as having diverse and important multi-system functions, especially within the cardiovascular system. The biological actions of the three Ucns (Ucn1, Ucn2, Ucn3) are mediated via G-protein-coupled CRF receptors, with both peptides and receptors widely distributed throughout tissues and organs contributing to pressure/volume homeostasis including the heart, vasculature, kidneys and adrenals. The Ucns activate a variety of signaling cascades in cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells including, but not limited to, adenyl cyclase/cAMP and several kinase pathways, with downstream effects comprising vasodilation, augmented cardiac contractility, and protection against hypoxic injury. Increasing evidence suggests the Ucns may be clinically significant molecules in the pathogenesis, treatment and/or management of several conditions, with some of the most compelling data demonstrating a therapeutic potential for the peptides in the setting of heart failure. Circulating levels of the Ucns are elevated in this setting, and antagonism of the endogenous peptides exacerbates manifestations of the syndrome in animal models. All three Ucns exert salutary hemodynamic, neurohormonal and renal effects in experimental heart failure and recent clinical trials have demonstrated hemodynamic benefits of Ucn2 administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ferrão de Oliveira, J; Antunes, Manuel J
Although advanced heart failure has been considered the main indication for heart transplantation, the increasing number of candidates and shortage of organs for transplantation, with accumulating waiting lists, has originated another look into more conventional surgery, previously considered of prohibitive risk. In fact, many cases are a result of anatomic lesions that can be corrected by conventional surgery, and in the past decade many surgical groups have obtained good and even excellent results in the treatment of aortic stenosis with low output, and in aortic and mitral regurgitation with severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Also, ischemic and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy have been successfully treated by several types of LV remodeling surgery, with or without coronary grafting. Many of these procedures achieved excellent operative, medium-, and long-term results and survival, which match well those observed with cardiac transplantation, most often with advantages in the quality of life and, not unimportantly, in financial costs. For operated patients, especially those with ischemic cardiomyopathy, close follow-up for cardiac failure is extremely important in order to detect the right moment for heart transplantation, if it becomes necessary.
Mandras, Stacy A; Uber, Patricia A; Mehra, Mandeep R
Little has been published about sexual function in chronic heart failure (CHF) and knowledge among clinicians in this regard is sparse. To review data regarding sexual function and dysfunction in patients with CHF, 2 of the authors (S.A.M. and P.A.U.) independently conducted a literature search using the MEDLINE database. English-language articles and cited bibliographies published between January 1996 and November 2006 were reviewed. Search terms included heart failure or CHF or ventricular dysfunction or heart disease in conjunction with sexual activity, erectile dysfunction, impotence, or sex. Articles were selected for inclusion if they had a primary focus on CHF and sexual function or dysfunction. Critical reviews of the literature, observational studies using self-reported patient surveys, and prospective, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trials were included. Articles were not excluded on the basis of patient sample size but were excluded if the article concerned a broad aspect of cardiovascular disease rather than CHF. When properly screened and treated, most patients with CHF can safely engage in sexual activity and be treated for erectile dysfunction with sildenafil, provided that they do not have active ischemia and do not require treatment with nitrates. Clinicians should know the physiological requirements of sexual activity and the impact CHF has on sexual performance. Fear of a cardiac event during intercourse can interfere with patients' ability to perform and enjoy sex, and so it is important that the physician be able to counsel patients with CHF about sexual activity.
Ogah, Okechukwu S; Sliwa, Karen; Akinyemi, Joshua O; Falase, Ayodele O; Stewart, Simon
Data from the Abeokuta Heart Failure Registry were used to determine the clinical characteristics, mode of treatment, and short- and medium-term outcomes of patients with hypertensive heart failure. A total of 320 patients were consecutively studied, comprising 184 men (57.5%) and 136 women (42.5%) aged 58.4±12.4 and 60.6±14.5 years, respectively. Most patients (80%) presented with New York Heart Association functional class III or IV and around one third (35%) had preserved systolic function. Median hospital stay was 9 days (interquartile range 5-21) while intra-hospital mortality was 3.4%. The 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day mortality rates were 0.9% (95% confidence interval, -0.2 to 3.5), 3.5% (95% confidence interval, -1.7 to 7.3), and 11.7% (95% confidence interval, -7.8 to 17.5), respectively. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, only serum creatinine was an independent predictor of mortality at 180 days (adjusted odds ratio, 1.76; 95% confidence interval, -1.17 to 2.64). Hypertension is the most common etiological risk factor for heart failure in Nigeria. Most patients present in the fourth decade of life with severe heart failure and secondary valvular dysfunction and significant in-hospital mortality.
Hummel, M; Warnecke, H; Schüler, S; Hempel, B; Spiegelsberger, S; Hetzer, R
Heart transplantation (HTx) has now become an accepted treatment modality for end-stage heart disease. The limited supply of suitable donor organs imposes constraints upon the decision of who should be selected for transplantation. Usually patients are candidates for HTx, who remain NYHA functional class III or IV despite maximal medical therapy. Further criteria are low left ventricular ejection fraction (less than 20%) with heart rhythm disturbances class IIIA-V (LOWN), which are associated with poor prognosis. Additionally, the suffering of the patient and also the course of heart failure are essential for judging the urgency of HTx. Contraindications are absolute in patients with untreated infections, fixed pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) above 8 WOOD-degrees, severe irreversible kidney and liver disease, active ventricular or duodenal ulcers and acute, psychiatric illness. HTx is relatively contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus, age over 60 years, PVR above 6 WOOD-degrees and an unstable psychosocial situation. To prevent rejection of the transplant heart, live-long immunosuppressive therapy is needed. Most immunosuppressive regimes consist of Cyclosporine A and Azathioprine (double drug therapy) or in combination (tripple drug therapy) with Prednisolone. For monitoring of this therapy, control of hole blood cyclosporine A level and white blood count is needed. Rejection episodes can be suspected if there is a greater than 20 mmHg decrease of systolic blood pressure, elevated body temperature, malaise, tachycardia or heart rhythm disturbance. The diagnosis of cardiac rejection can be established by endomyocardial biopsy. Measurement of the voltage of either the surface or intramyocardial ECG, echocardiography with special consideration to early left ventricular filling time as well as immunological methods are additionally used tools. Graft sclerosis as the main risk factor of the late transplant period remains an unsolved problem.
Frankenstein, Lutz; Fröhlich, Hanna; Cleland, John G F
Acute heart failure describes the rapid deterioration, over minutes, days or hours, of symptoms and signs of heart failure. Its management is an interdisciplinary challenge that requires the cooperation of various specialists. While emergency providers, (interventional) cardiologists, heart surgeons, and intensive care specialists collaborate in the initial stabilization of acute heart failure patients, the involvement of nurses, discharge managers, and general practitioners in the heart failure team may facilitate the transition from inpatient care to the outpatient setting and improve acute heart failure readmission rates. This review highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to acute heart failure with particular focus on the chain-of-care delivered by the various services within the healthcare system. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lionetti, Vincenzo; Stanley, William C.; Recchia, Fabio A.
In the advanced stages of heart failure, many key enzymes involved in myocardial energy substrate metabolism display various degrees of down-regulation. The net effect of the altered metabolic phenotype consists of reduced cardiac fatty oxidation, increased glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and rigidity of the metabolic response to changes in workload. Is this metabolic shift an adaptive mechanism that protects the heart or a maladaptive process that accelerates structural and functional derangement? The question remains open; however, the metabolic remodelling of the failing heart has induced a number of investigators to test the hypothesis that pharmacological modulation of myocardial substrate utilization might prove therapeutically advantageous. The present review addresses the effects of indirect and direct modulators of fatty acid (FA) oxidation, which are the best pharmacological agents available to date for ‘metabolic therapy’ of failing hearts. Evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic strategies based on modulators of FA metabolism is mixed, pointing to the possibility that the molecular/biochemical alterations induced by these pharmacological agents are more complex than originally thought. Much remains to be understood; however, the beneficial effects of molecules such as perhexiline and trimetazidine in small clinical trials indicate that this promising therapeutic strategy is worthy of further pursuit. PMID:21289012
Lionetti, Vincenzo; Stanley, William C; Recchia, Fabio A
In the advanced stages of heart failure, many key enzymes involved in myocardial energy substrate metabolism display various degrees of down-regulation. The net effect of the altered metabolic phenotype consists of reduced cardiac fatty oxidation, increased glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and rigidity of the metabolic response to changes in workload. Is this metabolic shift an adaptive mechanism that protects the heart or a maladaptive process that accelerates structural and functional derangement? The question remains open; however, the metabolic remodelling of the failing heart has induced a number of investigators to test the hypothesis that pharmacological modulation of myocardial substrate utilization might prove therapeutically advantageous. The present review addresses the effects of indirect and direct modulators of fatty acid (FA) oxidation, which are the best pharmacological agents available to date for 'metabolic therapy' of failing hearts. Evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic strategies based on modulators of FA metabolism is mixed, pointing to the possibility that the molecular/biochemical alterations induced by these pharmacological agents are more complex than originally thought. Much remains to be understood; however, the beneficial effects of molecules such as perhexiline and trimetazidine in small clinical trials indicate that this promising therapeutic strategy is worthy of further pursuit.
Ruiz-Romero, Victoria; Lorusso, Nicola; Expósito García, Sebastián; Páez-Pinto, José María; Palmero-Palmero, César; Caballero-Delgado, Gema; Zapico Moreno, María José; Fernández-Moyano, Antonio
The avoidable hospital admissions for heart failure are a problem for health systems worldwide, as they waste resources, generate additional morbidities and high mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors in patients hospitalized for heart failure. A group of medical from Hospital and Primary Care was established. We realized an audit of a sample of 110 patients from Aljarafe towns with highest hospital admissions for heart failure. The analysis used Student T test and Mann Whitney for quantitative variables; Chi-square test and Fisher exact test for qualitative variables. Patients admitted for HF had a mean age of 78.1 years (SD: 9.56); 73 (66.4%) were women; Barthel Index was 45.0 on average; 53.5% had New York Health Association (NYHA) class III and 17 (15.5%) were institutionalized, 70% had between 3 and 5 comorbidities, mainly hypertension (87.3%), dyslipidemia (60.0%), diabetes (57.3%), chronic kidney disease (56.4%), anemia (53.2% ) or atrial fibrillation (52.7%). During hospitalization, 23 patients (20.9%) died. They were mostly women, elderly, had a previous admission and without beta-blockers treatment. The admission in the last 12 months was associated with identification of the primary caregiver; ischemic HF; re-vascularization; inclusion in the COMPARTE Program; treatment change decompensation. The hospital admissions were more frequently an aging population with multiple diseases (hypertension, diabetes, COPD, renal disease) and low capacity for basic activities of daily life. The hospital mortality associated with elderly, women, less use of beta-blockers and the non-inclusion of the patient in the care process.
Billeci, Lucia; Guerriero, Lorenzo; L'Abbate, Antonio; Pioggia, Giovanni; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Trivella, Maria Giovanna
Telemedicine has the potential to constitute the central element of the future primary care and become an effective means of prevention and early warning of acute exacerbation of chronic diseases. Up to now, the application of telemedicine has found a variety of difficulties, regarding the types and methods of acquisition and transmission of biological signals, the acceptance and cooperation of the patient, etc. The latest technological developments involve the combined use of wireless technologies and smartphones, for the collection and the transmission of data, and specific softwares for their automatic analysis. This paper examines some of the critical aspects in the application of new technologies for heart failure remote management.
Gunawardena, Shanti; Dunlap, Mark E
Anemia is a common comorbidity in heart failure (HF), and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, it remains unclear whether anemia is merely a marker of poor prognosis or whether anemia itself confers risk. The pathogenesis of anemia in HF is multifactorial. Iron deficiency also confers risk in HF, either with or without associated anemia, and treatment of iron deficiency improves the functional status of patients with HF. An ongoing large clinical trial studying the use of darbepoetin-alfa in patients with anemia and systolic HF is expected to provide information that should improve our understanding of anemia in HF.
Arora, Natasha P; Ghali, Jalal K
Anemia and iron deficiency are quite prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF) and may overlap. Both anemia and iron deficiency are associated with worse symptoms and adverse clinical outcomes. In the past few years, there has been an enormous interest in the subject of iron deficiency and its management in patients with HF. In this review, the etiology and relevance of iron deficiency, iron metabolism in the setting of HF, studies on iron supplementation in patients with HF and potential cardiovascular effects of subclinical iron overload are discussed.
Mattu, Amal; Lawner, Benjamin
The evolution of prehospital treatment of decompensated congestive heart failure has in some ways come full circle: rather than emphasizing a battery of new pharmacotherapies, out-of-hospital providers have a renewed focus on aggressive use of nitrates, optimization of airway support, and rapid transport. The use of furosemide and morphine has become de-emphasized, and a flurry of research activity and excitement revolves around the use of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. Further research will clarify the role of bronchodilators and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in the prehospital setting.
Borlaug, Barry A.; Kass, David A.
Synopsis Nearly half of all patients with heart failure have preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). HFpEF patients tend to be older, female, and hypertensive, and characteristically display increased ventricular and arterial stiffening. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology of abnormal ventriculoarterial stiffening and how the latter affects ventricular function, cardiovascular hemodynamics, reserve capacity, and symptoms. We conclude by exploring how novel treatment strategies targeting abnormal ventricular-arterial interaction might prove useful in the treatment of patients with HFpEF. PMID:18313622
Arora, Natasha P; Ghali, Jalal K
Anemia is a common comorbidity in patients with heart failure (HF) and is associated with poor prognosis. Iron deficiency, with or without anemia, confers increased risk of mortality and morbidity. Along with the altered iron metabolism in HF patients, inflammation creates challenges in the interpretation of laboratory parameters used to diagnose anemia in HF. Since the RED-HF trial failed to demonstrate any benefit from the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) on mortality or morbidity in HF patients, ESAs are no longer considered a treatment option, although intravenous iron has potential as therapy for anemic and nonanemic HF patients.
Ural, Dilek; Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Eren, Mehmet; Karaüzüm, Kurtuluş; Temizhan, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Zoghi, Mehdi; Ramassubu, Kumudha; Bozkurt, Biykem
Acute heart failure (AHF) is a life threatening clinical syndrome with a progressively increasing incidence in general population. Turkey is a country with a high cardiovascular mortality and recent national statistics show that the population structure has turned to an ‘aged’ population. As a consequence, AHF has become one of the main reasons of admission to cardiology clinics. This consensus report summarizes clinical and prognostic classification of AHF, its worldwide and national epidemiology, diagnostic work-up, principles of approach in emergency department, intensive care unit and ward, treatment in different clinical scenarios and approach in special conditions and how to plan hospital discharge. PMID:26574757
Marquez, Jubert; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Nari; Han, Jin
Heart failure (HF) is a multifactorial disease brought about by numerous, and oftentimes complex, etiological mechanisms. Although well studied, HF continues to affect millions of people worldwide and current treatments can only prevent further progression of HF. Mitochondria undoubtedly play an important role in the progression of HF, and numerous studies have highlighted mitochondrial components that contribute to HF. This review presents an overview of the role of mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial oxidative stress, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore in HF, discusses ongoing studies that attempt to address the disease through mitochondrial targeting, and provides an insight on how these studies can affect future research on HF treatment.
β-Blockers (metoprolol, bisoprolol, and carvedilol) are a cornerstone of heart failure (HF) treatment. However, it is well recognized that responses to a β-blocker are variable among patients with HF. Numerous studies now suggest that genetic polymorphisms may contribute to variability in responses to a β-blocker, including left ventricular ejection fraction improvement, survival, and hospitalization due to HF exacerbation. This review summarizes the pharmacogenetic data for β-blockers in patients with HF and discusses the potential implications of β-blocker pharmacogenetics for HF patients. PMID:18437562
Iyngkaran, P; Toukhsati, S R; Biddagardi, N; Zimmet, H; J Atherton, J; Hare, D L
The interface between eHealth technologies and disease management in chronic conditions such as chronic heart failure (CHF) has advanced beyond the research domain. The substantial morbidity, mortality, health resource utilization and costs imposed by chronic disease, accompanied by increasing prevalence, complex comorbidities and changing client and health staff demographics, have pushed the boundaries of eHealth to alleviate costs whilst maintaining services. Whilst the intentions are laudable and the technology is appealing, this nonetheless requires careful scrutiny. This review aims to describe this technology and explore the current evidence and measures to enhance its implementation.
Ural, Dilek; Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Eren, Mehmet; Karaüzüm, Kurtuluş; Temizhan, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Zoghi, Mehdi; Ramassubu, Kumudha; Bozkurt, Biykem
Acute heart failure (AHF) is a life threatening clinical syndrome with a progressively increasing incidence in general population. Turkey is a country with a high cardiovascular mortality and recent national statistics show that the population structure has turned to an 'aged' population.As a consequence, AHF has become one of the main reasons of admission to cardiology clinics. This consensus report summarizes clinical and prognostic classification of AHF, its worldwide and national epidemiology, diagnostic work-up, principles of approach in emergency department,intensive care unit and ward, treatment in different clinical scenarios and approach in special conditions and how to plan hospital discharge.
Giri, S; Bansal, P; Malik, S; Bansal, R
Sheehan's syndrome (SS) develops as a result of ischemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum hemorrhage and is characterized by various degrees of hypopituitarism. Although the occurrence of SS is now rare, it should still be considered in any woman with a history of peripartum hemorrhage who develops manifestations of pituitary hormone deficiency any time following the event. Appropriate hormone replacement therapy results in marked clinical improvement. We present an unusual case of SS in a young lady who continued to have normal menstruation after the index event, had two spontaneous pregnancies, and was diagnosed only 11 years later when she presented to us with acute heart failure.
Wong, Chiew; Chen, Sylvia; Iyngkaran, Pupalan
Imaging modalities stand at the frontiers for progress in congestive heart failure (CHF) screening, risk stratification and monitoring. Advancements in echocardiography (ECHO) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have allowed for improved tissue characterizations, cardiac motion analysis, and cardiac performance analysis under stress. Common cardiac comorbidities such as hypertension, metabolic syndromes and chronic renal failure contribute to cardiac remodeling, sharing similar pathophysiological mechanisms starting with interstitial changes, structural changes and finally clinical CHF. These imaging techniques can potentially detect changes earlier. Such information could have clinical benefits for screening, planning preventive therapies and risk stratifying patients. Imaging reports have often focused on traditional measures without factoring these novel parameters. This review is aimed at providing a synopsis on how we can use this information to assess and monitor improvements for CHF with comorbidities.
Gheorghiade, Mihai; Larson, Christopher J; Shah, Sanjiv J; Greene, Stephen J; Cleland, John G F; Colucci, Wilson S; Dunnmon, Preston; Epstein, Stephen E; Kim, Raymond J; Parsey, Ramin V; Stockbridge, Norman; Carr, James; Dinh, Wilfried; Krahn, Thomas; Kramer, Frank; Wahlander, Karin; Deckelbaum, Lawrence I; Crandall, David; Okada, Shunichiro; Senni, Michele; Sikora, Sergey; Sabbah, Hani N; Butler, Javed
Compared with heart failure (HF) care 20 to 30 years ago, there has been tremendous advancement in therapy for ambulatory HF with reduced ejection fraction with the use of agents that block maladaptive neurohormonal pathways. However, during the past decade, with few notable exceptions, the frequency of successful drug development programs has fallen as most novel therapies have failed to offer incremental benefit or raised safety concerns (ie, hypotension). Moreover, no therapy has been approved specifically for HF with preserved ejection fraction or for worsening chronic HF (including acutely decompensated HF). Across the spectrum of HF, preliminary results from many phase II trials have been promising but are frequently followed by unsuccessful phase III studies, highlighting a disconnect in the translational process between basic science discovery, early drug development, and definitive clinical testing in pivotal trials. A major unmet need in HF drug development is the ability to identify homogeneous subsets of patients whose underlying disease is driven by a specific mechanism that can be targeted using a new therapeutic agent. Drug development strategies should increasingly consider therapies that facilitate reverse remodeling by directly targeting the heart itself rather than strictly focusing on agents that unload the heart or target systemic neurohormones. Advancements in cardiac imaging may allow for more focused and direct assessment of drug effects on the heart early in the drug development process. To better understand and address the array of challenges facing current HF drug development, so that future efforts may have a better chance for success, the Food and Drug Administration facilitated a meeting on February 17, 2015, which was attended by clinicians, researchers, regulators, and industry representatives. The following discussion summarizes the key takeaway dialogue from this meeting. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Krum, Henry; Maggioni, Aldo
Renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) activation is a key neurohormonal contributor to the progression of chronic heart failure. Strategies that block this activation have consistently demonstrated major beneficial impacts on morbidity and mortality in this setting. Direct renin inhibitors (DRIs) present a novel opportunity to block at an additional or alternative step in this pathway, that being conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. Theoretical benefits of blocking at the level of renin include: inhibition of the reflex activation of plasma renin activity induced by conventional downstream RAAS blockers. Minimization of angiotensin II and/or aldosterone escape and blocking upstream at the rate-limiting step of angiotensin I production. Preclinical and early-phase clinical studies have largely supported this hypothesis. In the Aliskiren Observation of Heart Failure Treatment study, patients with systolic chronic heart failure receiving background angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers and β-blockers benefited from aliskiren in reduction vs placebo of plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide, the primary efficacy endpoint of that study. Large-scale outcome trials are, however, required to definitively determine the benefits of a DRI strategy additional to, or as an alternative to, conventional approaches such as ACE inhibitors in the systolic chronic heart failure setting. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kitai, Takeshi; Kirsop, Jennifer; Tang, W H Wilson
Recent years have brought interesting insights into the human gut microbiota and have highlighted its increasingly recognized impact on cardiovascular (CV) diseases, including heart failure (HF). Changes in composition of gut microbiota, called dysbiosis, can trigger systemic inflammation, which is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of HF. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is derived from gut microbiota metabolites of specific dietary nutrients, has emerged as a key contributor to cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. Elevated TMAO levels have been reported to be associated with poor outcomes in patients with both HF and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Dysbiosis of gut microbiota can contribute to higher levels of TMAO and the generation of uremic toxins, progressing to both HF and CKD. Therefore, this bidirectional relationship between HF and CKD through gut microbiota may be a novel therapeutic target for the cardiorenal syndrome. However, the mechanisms by which gut microbiota could influence the development of heart failure are still unknown, and there are still some questions regarding the causative effects of TMAO and the underlying mechanistic link that explains how TMAO might directly or indirectly promote CV diseases including HF. Further studies are warranted to clarify the function of TMAO on the pathophysiology of cardiorenal syndrome and the handling of TMAO levels by the kidneys.
Kurmani, Sameer; Squire, Iain
The purpose of this review is to describe the extent and scope of acute heart failure (AHF), place it within its clinical context and highlight some of the difficulties in defining it as a pathophysiological entity. A diagnosis of AHF is made when patients present acutely with signs and symptoms of heart failure, often with decompensation of pre-existing cardiomyopathy. The most current guidelines classify based on clinical features at initial presentation and are used to both risk stratify and guide the management of haemodynamic compromise. Despite this, AHF remains a diagnosis with a poor prognosis and there is no therapy proven to have long-term mortality benefits. We provide an introduction to AHF and discuss its definition, causes and precipitants. We also present epidemiological and demographic data to suggest that there is significant patient heterogeneity and that AHF is not a single pathology, but rather a range of pathophysiological entities. This poses a challenge when designing clinical trials and may, at least in part, explain why the results in this area have been largely disappointing.
Gheorghiade, Mihai; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Fonarow, Gregg C; Bonow, Robert O
With a prevalence of 5.8 million in the United States alone, heart failure (HF) is associated with high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare expenditures. Close to 1 million hospitalizations for heart failure (HHF) occur annually, accounting for over 6.5 million hospital days and a substantial portion of the estimated $37.2 billion that is spent each year on HF in the United States. Although some progress has been made in reducing mortality in patients hospitalized with HF, rates of rehospitalization continue to rise, and approach 30% within 60 to 90 days of discharge. Approximately half of HHF patients have preserved or relatively preserved ejection fraction (EF). Their post-discharge event rate is similar to those with reduced EF. HF readmission is increasingly being used as a quality metric, a basis for hospital reimbursement, and an outcome measure in HF clinical trials. In order to effectively prevent HF readmissions and improve overall outcomes, it is important to have a complete and longitudinal characterization of HHF patients. This paper highlights management strategies that when properly implemented may help reduce HF rehospitalizations and include adopting a mechanistic approach to cardiac abnormalities, treating noncardiac comorbidities, increasing utilization of evidence-based therapies, and improving care transitions, monitoring, and disease management.
Inamdar, Arati A.; Inamdar, Ajinkya C.
Despite the advancement in medicine, management of heart failure (HF), which usually presents as a disease syndrome, has been a challenge to healthcare providers. This is reflected by the relatively higher rate of readmissions along with increased mortality and morbidity associated with HF. In this review article, we first provide a general overview of types of HF pathogenesis and diagnostic features of HF including the crucial role of exercise in determining the severity of heart failure, the efficacy of therapeutic strategies and the morbidity/mortality of HF. We then discuss the quality control measures to prevent the growing readmission rates for HF. We also attempt to elucidate published and ongoing clinical trials for HF in an effort to evaluate the standard and novel therapeutic approaches, including stem cell and gene therapies, to reduce the morbidity and mortality. Finally, we discuss the appropriate utilization/documentation and medical coding based on the severity of the HF alone and with minor and major co-morbidities. We consider that this review provides an extensive overview of the HF in terms of disease pathophysiology, management and documentation for the general readers, as well as for the clinicians/physicians/hospitalists. PMID:27367736
Trullàs, Joan Carles; Morales-Rull, José Luis; Formiga, Francesc
Diuretics are widely recommended in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Unfortunately, despite their widespread use, limited data are available from randomized clinical trials to guide clinicians on the appropriate management of diuretic therapy. Loop diuretics are considered the first-line diuretic therapy, especially intravenous furosemide, but the best mode of administration (high-dose versus low-dose and continuous infusion versus bolus) is unclear. When diuretic resistance develops, different therapeutic strategies can be adopted, including combined diuretic therapy with thiazide diuretics and/or aldosterone antagonists. Low or "non-diuretic" doses (25-50mg QD) of aldosterone antagonists have been demonstrated to confer a survival benefit in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction and consequently should be prescribed in all such patients, unless contraindicated by potassium and/or renal function values. There is less evidence on the use of aldosterone antagonists at higher or "diuretic" doses (≥ 100mg QD) but these drugs could be useful in relieving congestive symptoms in combination with furosemide. Thiazide diuretics can also be helpful as they have synergic effects with loop diuretics by inhibiting sodium reabsorption in distal parts of the nephron. The effect of diuretic therapy in AHF should be monitored with careful observation of clinical signs and symptoms of congestion. Serum electrolytes and kidney function should also be monitored during the use of intravenous diuretics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Camici, Paolo G; Rimoldi, Ornella E
For many years the functional sequelae of chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) were considered irreversible. Evidence accrued over the past three decades proves that this concept is not necessarily true. Non-randomised studies demonstrated that coronary revascularisation (CR) confers symptomatic and prognostic benefits to patients with CAD and heart failure. Based on available studies, one can assume that the beneficial effect of CR in heart failure derives primarily from recovery of contractile function in 'hibernating myocardium' (HM), i.e., chronically dysfunctional, but viable, myocardium subtended by stenosed coronary arteries which recovers after CR. Cardiac imaging with echocardiography, single photon and positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance allows the identification of HM. These techniques have comparable predictive values in patients with moderate left ventricular impairment. PET studies have shown that resting myocardial blood flow is preserved in most cases of HM while its main feature is a severe impairment of coronary flow reserve. Thus, the pathophysiology of HM is more complex than initially postulated. Recent evidence that repetitive ischaemia in patients can be cumulative and lead to more severe and prolonged stunning, lends further support to the hypothesis that, at least initially, stunning and HM are two facets of the same coin.
Bonsu, Kwadwo Osei; Kadirvelu, Amudha; Reidpath, Daniel Diamond
Statins lower serum cholesterol and are employed for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Clinical evidence from observational studies, retrospective data, and post hoc analyses of data from large statin trials in various cardiovascular conditions, as well as small scale randomized trials, suggest survival and other outcome benefits for heart failure. Two recent large randomized controlled trials, however, appear to suggest statins do not have beneficial effects in heart failure. In addition to lowering cholesterol, statins are believed to have many pleotropic effects which could possibly influence the pathophysiology of heart failure. Following the two large trials, evidence from recent studies appears to support the use of statins in heart failure. This review discusses the role of statins in the pathophysiology of heart failure, current evidence for statin use in heart failure, and suggests directions for future research. PMID:23807852
Sarcon, Annahita; Liu, Xiaoli; Ton, David; Haywood, James; Hitchcock, Todd
Background. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) is a complication of an underlying disease and not a primary illness. It is most commonly associated with sepsis, trauma, obstetrical complications, and malignancies. There are very few cases in the literature illustrating the association between DIC and congestive heart failure. Findings. In this report, we present a case of severe congestive heart failure, leading to biventricular thrombi and subsequently DIC. Conclusion. We suggest that the association between congestive heart failure and DIC is an underrecognized one. Congestive heart failure continues to remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality despite advances in medical therapies. Thus far, the precise role of coagulation factors in congestive heart failure is unknown. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure and coagulation factors.
Heart failure (HF) is frequent in the elderly population and is associated with high mortality, prolonged and frequent hospitalisations. In old patients with multiple comorbid diseases, clinical symptoms of HF are less typical and the prognosis is poorer. Comprehensive geriatric assessment, using simple tests to evaluate cognitive function, falls, depression, malnutrition, dependency, comorbidities, context of life and social conditions, is needed in order to screen concomitant diseases and loss of autonomy. Because of lack of specific studies on octogenarians, most recommendations for HF treatment in this population have been extrapolated from data based on younger populations. Epidemiological studies show that recommended HF therapies as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers are underused in elderly patients with HF. Reasons for this under prescription are various and include the absence of well-defined therapeutic strategy especially in case of preserved ejection fraction, the existence of comorbidities and the fear of adverse events. Special precautions for the use of HF drugs must be followed because of the comorbidities and age-related changes in drug pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. Increase of drug dose must be closely monitored for adverse reactions. Overall, the therapeutic strategy must not be based on the subject's age, but rather on the individual analysis taking into account the severity of the heart disease, the geriatric assessment, the life expectancy and the quality of life. Clinical and laboratory monitoring should be intensified, especially in case of acute episode (infection, dehydration, introduction of a new treatment, fall…). Therefore, monitoring of heart failure in the elderly, involves multidisciplinary collaboration between cardiologists, geriatricians, general practitioners, pharmacists and paramedical team.
Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh; Nolan, Mark T
Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of mortality globally. Cardiovascular complications of cancer therapy significantly contribute to the global burden of cardiovascular disease. Heart failure (HF) in particular is a relatively common and life-threatening complication. The increased risk is driven by the shared risk factors for cancer and HF, the direct impact of cancer therapy on the heart, an existing care gap in the cardiac care of patients with cancer and the increasing population of adult cancer survivors. The clear relationship between cancer treatment initiation and the potential for myocardial injury makes this population attractive for prevention strategies, targeted cardiovascular monitoring and treatment. However, there is currently no consensus on the optimal strategy for managing this at-risk population. Uniform treatment using cardioprotective medications may reduce the incidence of HF, but would impose frequently unnecessary and burdensome side effects. Ideally we could use validated risk-prediction models to target HF-preventive strategies, but currently no such models exist. In the present review, we focus on evidence and rationales for contemporary clinical decision-making in this novel field and discuss issues, including the burden of HF in patients with cancer, the reasons for the elevated risk and potential prevention strategies. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.
Jahng, James Won Suk; Song, Erfei; Sweeney, Gary
Mediators from peripheral tissues can influence the development and progression of heart failure (HF). For example, in obesity, an altered profile of adipokines secreted from adipose tissue increases the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI). Less appreciated is that heart remodeling releases cardiokines, which can strongly impact various peripheral tissues. Inflammation, and, in particular, activation of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors with pyrin domain (NLRP3) inflammasome are likely to have a central role in cardiac remodeling and mediating crosstalk with other organs. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to cardiac injury induces the production and secretion of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. In addition to having local effects in the myocardium, these pro-inflammatory cytokines are released into circulation and cause remodeling in the spleen, kidney, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The collective effects of various cardiokines on peripheral organs depend on the degree and duration of myocardial injury, with systematic inflammation and peripheral tissue damage observed as HF progresses. In this article, we review mechanisms regulating myocardial inflammation in HF and the role of factors secreted by the heart in communication with peripheral tissues.
D'Addio, Gianni; Cesarelli, Mario; Corbi, Graziamaria; Romano, Maria; Furgi, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Nicola; Rengo, Franco
Cardiovascular oscillations following spontaneous ventricular premature complexes (VPC) are characterized by a short-term heart rate fluctuation known as heart rate turbulence (HRT) described by the so-called turbulence onset (TO) and slope (TS). Despite a recent written consensus on the standard of HRT measurement, reproducibility data are lacking. Aim of the paper was a reproducibility study of HRT indexes in heart failure patients (HF). Eleven HF patients underwent two 24h ECG Holter recordings, spaced 7 ± 5 days. A paired t test was used to assess the clinical stability of patients during the study period and the number of PVC in Holter recordings' couples. Both TO and TS indexes were calculated for each isolated VPC, and due to their skewed distribution, reproducibility of median and mean TO and TS was studied by Bland-Altman technique. Results showed that median HRT indexes might be preferred to commonly suggested mean values and that, although TO showed lower bias value than TS, TS can be considered much more reproducible than TO, comparing limits of agreements with normal values. This preliminary results suggest the use of medians instead of mean HRT indexes values and a reliability of the turbulence slope greater than the turbulence onset index.
... 162447.html Heart Failure Protein May Signal Early Brain Damage Higher levels indicated potential trouble, study showed ... a specific heart disease protein are associated with brain damage, a new study suggests. N-terminal Pro- ...
... who are at increased risk for heart failure. Cardiovascular disease includes all types of heart disease, high blood ... than one-third of adults (92 million) have cardiovascular disease. In 2014, nearly 808,000 Americans died from ...
heart failure (Levy, Larson, Vasan, Kannel, & Ho, 1996). Similarly, patients with diabetes are more likely to develop heart failure than nondiabetic...risk for acute myocardial infarction, emerging as a more potent risk factor than recognized predictors such as diabetes , obesity, poor nutrition...e.g., hypertension, diabetes ) that are common for persons with heart failure. Findings from this investigation, therefore, ought to be interpreted in
Dennis, Alicia Therese
Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare but important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Women with peripartum cardiomyopathy often present with symptoms and signs of heart failure. The diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy is made after all other causes of heart failure are excluded. Emphasis is on the immediate recognition of an unwell pregnant or recently pregnant woman, early diagnosis with the use of echocardiography, and the correct treatment of heart failure.
Stough, W G; Patterson, J H
Effectively managing heart failure requires a multidisciplinary, holistic approach attuned to many factors: diagnosis of structural and functional cardiac abnormalities; medication, device, or surgical management; concomitant treatment of comorbidities; physical rehabilitation; dietary considerations; and social factors. This practice paper highlights the pharmacist's role in the management of patients with heart failure, the evidence supporting their functions, and steps to ensure the pharmacist resource is available to the broad population of patients with heart failure. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Subirana, M Teresa; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Manito, Nicolás; Oliver, José M; Ripoll, Tomás; Lambert, Jose Luis; Zunzunegui, José L; Bover, Ramon; García-Pinilla, José Manuel
This article presents the most relevant developments in 2013 in 3 key areas of cardiology: congenital heart disease, clinical cardiology, and heart failure and transplant. Within the area of congenital heart disease, we reviewed contributions related to sudden death in adult congenital heart disease, the importance of specific echocardiographic parameters in assessing the systemic right ventricle, problems in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and indication for pulmonary valve replacement, and confirmation of the role of specific factors in the selection of candidates for Fontan surgery. The most recent publications in clinical cardiology include a study by a European working group on correct diagnostic work-up in cardiomyopathies, studies on the cost-effectiveness of percutaneous aortic valve implantation, a consensus document on the management of type B aortic dissection, and guidelines on aortic valve and ascending aortic disease. The most noteworthy developments in heart failure and transplantation include new American guidelines on heart failure, therapeutic advances in acute heart failure (serelaxin), the management of comorbidities such as iron deficiency, risk assessment using new biomarkers, and advances in ventricular assist devices.
Valdivia-Arenas, Martin A.; Powers, Michael
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has a higher prevalence in patients with heart failure than in the general middle-aged population. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), one of the forms of SBD, promotes poorly controlled hypertension, coronary events, and atrial fibrillation events that can lead to acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF), and evidence suggests that untreated OSA increases mortality in patients with heart failure. Cheyne–Stokes respiration and central sleep apnea (CSA) have long been associated with heart failure and, in many patients, can coexist with OSA. In this article, we propose a systematic approach to diagnose and treat OSA in patients with ADHF based on current evidence. PMID:18758944
Taylor, Stephanie JC; Bestall, Janine C; Cotter, Sarah; Falshaw, Margaret; Hood, Sonja G; Parsons, Suzanne; Wood, Lesley; Underwood, Martin
Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a serious, common condition associated with frequent hospitalisation. Several different disease management interventions (clinical service organisation interventions) for patients with CHF have been proposed. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of disease management interventions for patients with CHF. Search methods We searched: Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials (to June 2003); MEDLINE (January 1966 to July 2003); EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2003); CINAHL (January 1982 to July 2003); AMED (January 1985 to July 2003); Science Citation Index Expanded (searched January 1981 to March 2001); SIGLE (January 1980 to July 2003); DARE (July 2003); National Research Register (July 2003); NHS Economic Evaluations Database (March 2001); reference lists of articles and asked experts in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing disease management interventions specifically directed at patients with CHF to usual care. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently extracted data information and assessed study quality. Study authors were contacted for further information where necessary. Main results Sixteen trials involving 1,627 people were included. We classified the interventions into three models: multidisciplinary interventions (a holistic approach bridging the gap between hospital admission and discharge home delivered by a team); case management interventions (intense monitoring of patients following discharge often involving telephone follow up and home visits); and clinic interventions (follow up in a CHF clinic). There was considerable overlap within these categories, however the components, intensity and duration of the interventions varied. Case management interventions tended to be associated with reduced all cause mortality but these findings were not statistically significant (odds ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.10, P = 0.23), although the
Brown, David A.; Perry, Justin B.; Allen, Mitchell E.; Sabbah, Hani N.; Stauffer, Brian L.; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Cleland, John G. F.; Colucci, Wilson S.; Butler, Javed; Voors, Adriaan A.; Anker, Stefan D.; Pitt, Bertram; Pieske, Burkert; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Greene, Stephen J.; Gheorghiade, Mihai
Heart failure is a pressing worldwide public-health problem with millions of patients having worsening heart failure. Despite all the available therapies, the condition carries a very poor prognosis. Existing therapies provide symptomatic and clinical benefit, but do not fully address molecular abnormalities that occur in cardiomyocytes. This shortcoming is particularly important given that most patients with heart failure have viable dysfunctional myocardium, in which an improvement or normalization of function might be possible. Although the pathophysiology of heart failure is complex, mitochondrial dysfunction seems to be an important target for therapy to improve cardiac function directly. Mitochondrial abnormalities include impaired mitochondrial electron transport chain activity, increased formation of reactive oxygen species, shifted metabolic substrate utilization, aberrant mitochondrial dynamics, and altered ion homeostasis. In this Consensus Statement, insights into the mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction in heart failure are presented, along with an overview of emerging treatments with the potential to improve the function of the failing heart by targeting mitochondria. PMID:28004807
Lavine, Kory J.; Mann, Douglas L.
The incidence and economic burden of heart failure continue to rise worldwide, despite implementation of a number of effective heart failure therapies. Although there have been a number phase I–II studies of potential novel heart failure therapies over the past decade, none of these new compounds have been successful in phase III clinical trials. While there are likely a number of reasons for this failure, one of the problems that has become increasingly apparent is the inability of phase II trials to correctly identify novel therapies that will be successful in phase III clinical trials. In the following review, we will discuss the some of the problems inherent with current phase II heart failure clinical trials, as well as discuss possible ways to rethink phase II development of new therapies for heart failure. PMID:25343020
Alconero-Camarero, Ana Rosa; Arozamena-Pérez, Jorge; García-Garrido, Lluïsa
Given its prevalence, high mortality rate, morbidity, chronicity and use of resources, heart failure (HF) is a priority issue from a social and health standpoint, due to the ageing population and to lack of adherence to and the complexity of treatment. For these reasons, an individualized care plan needs to be established to meet the real and potential needs of the patient diagnosed with HF. A clinical case is presented of a patient admitted to the Cardiology Critical Care (CCC) unit of a tertiary hospital. A patient care plan was prepared following the steps of the scientiﬁc method and relying on the NANDA taxonomy, and the NOC and NIC to design goals and nursing interventions, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Montero-Pérez-Barquero, M; Morales-Rull, J L
Unlike chronic heart failure (HF), the treatment for acute HF has not changed over the last decade. The drugs employed have shown their ability to control symptoms but have not achieved organ protection or managed to reduce medium to long-term morbidity and mortality. Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute HF suggest that treatment should be directed not only towards correcting the haemodynamic disorders and achieving symptomatic relief but also towards preventing organ damage, thereby counteracting myocardial remodelling and cardiac and extracardiac disorders. Compounds that exert vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory action in the acute phase of HF and can stop cell death, thereby boosting repair mechanisms, could have an essential role in organ protection.
Fountain, Lorna B
With high mortality and readmission rates among patients with heart failure (HF), multiple disease management models have been and continue to be tested, with mixed results. Early postdischarge care improves outcomes for patients. Telemonitoring also can assist in reducing mortality and HF-related hospitalizations. Office-based team care improves patient outcomes, with important components including rapid access to physicians, partnerships with clinical pharmacists, education, monitoring, and support. Pay-for-performance measures developed for HF, primarily use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta blockers, also improve patient outcomes, but the influence of adherence to other measures has been minimal. Evaluating comorbid conditions, including diabetes and hypertension, and making drug adjustments for patients with HF to include blood pressure control and use of metformin, when possible, can reduce mortality and morbidity. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Chang, Kay-Won; Fox, Sutton; Mojaver, Sean; Maisel, Alan S
Biomarkers have revolutionized the diagnosis of heart failure (HF), but it remains unclear how to use biomarkers to guide management of HF. Areas covered: An exhaustive literature search on using biomarkers to guide HF management was performed. HF guidelines were carefully scrutinized for references pertaining to this topic, and Medline was employed to identify further references. This review focused on natriuretic peptides, troponin, and ST2 as biomarkers used to guide HF management. Most trials have examined secondary prevention of chronic HF patients, and data on primary prevention of HF and therapy of acute HF are emerging. Expert commentary: While the current data on using biomarkers to guide HF management remain mixed, more research is necessary to better understand how to utilize biomarkers to improve HF management.
Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Mishkin, Aaron; Aronow, Wilbert S; Kalra, Ankur; Frishman, William H
Heart failure (HF) poses a significant economic burden on our health-care resources with very high readmission rates. Remote monitoring has a substantial potential to improve the management and outcome of patients with HF. Readmission for decompensated HF is often preceded by a stage of subclinical hemodynamic decompensation, where therapeutic interventions would prevent subsequent clinical decompensation and hospitalization. Various methods of remote patient monitoring include structured telephone support, advanced telemonitoring technologies, remote monitoring of patients with implanted cardiac devices such as pacemakers and defibrillators, and implantable hemodynamic monitors. Current data examining the efficacy of remote monitoring technologies in improving outcomes have shown inconsistent results. Various medicolegal and financial issues need to be addressed before widespread implementation of this exciting technology can take place.
Smith, Carol E; Koehler, Julie; Moore, Janice M; Blanchard, Elizabeth; Ellerbeck, Edward
This pilot study tested a videotape intervention designed to improve patient self-management of heart failure (HF). Content of the video series (produced professionally under a federal grant) is based on national, scientifically validated guidelines for HF home management. Outcomes tested were HF knowledge, symptom reporting, and functional status. Participants were 10 newly diagnosed HF patients (mean age 67). After viewing the tapes, data indicated participants had a clinically relevant improvement in HF knowledge, and improved or maintained HF health status. None were rehospitalized during the 60-day follow-up period. One patient contacted his/her physician to report weight gain, as prompted by the videotapes. The cost data indicated that patients paid $177 out of pocket monthly for medications and all were low income. These results indicate the need for further testing of the videotape as a potentially cost-effective method of teaching about HF self-management and daily home self-monitoring.
Choudhary, Rajiv; Gopal, Dipika; Kipper, Ben A.; De La Parra Landa, Alejandro; Lee, Hermineh Aramin Elizabeth; Shah, Saloni; Maisel, Alan S.
Managing patients with heart failure (HF) is a challenging task within itself, but the presence of associated worsening renal function can greatly increase mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to prevent re-hospitalizations and reduce healthcare costs. Biomarkers have long been established as highly sensitive and specific tools in diagnosing and prognosticating patients with HF. Reflecting distinct pathophysiological events and ongoing cellular insult, biomarkers have been proven superior to conventional laboratory tests. Availability of better assays and rapid analysis has allowed the use of biomarkers as point-of-care tests in the emergency department and at the patient's bed-side. Acute HF patients often go on to develop worsening renal function, termed as acute cardiorenal syndrome. The growing breadth of studies has shown the implications of combining multiple biomarkers to better chart outcomes and produce desirable results in such patients. PMID:23097660
Wener, J.; Schucher, R.; Friedman, R.
Triamterene, a newer oral diuretic, was administered to nine hospitalized patients with congestive heart failure for an average of 15 days, and to 22 ambulatory patients for a period of three to 11 months. The daily dosage of triamterene ranged from 50 to 250 mg., but usually 100-200 mg. was administered daily in two divided doses, with or without the addition of 50 mg. of hydrochlorothiazide daily. Triamterene is a safe and effective diuretic at doses of 100-200 mg. daily and no drug tolerance develops with long-term therapy. However, when used alone, it is not as effective as hydrochlorothiazide, but in combination with the latter drug the resultant diuresis is unsurpassed by any other oral diuretic therapy that we have used to date. Triamterene itself does not produce kaliuresis and it blocks thiazide-induced kaliuresis. Serum uric acid levels may rise slightly, but no clinical gout was seen in this study. PMID:14259336
Sciatti, Edoardo; Lombardi, Carlo; Ravera, Alice; Vizzardi, Enrico; Bonadei, Ivano; Carubelli, Valentina; Gorga, Elio; Metra, Marco
Heart failure (HF) is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in Western countries. Although evidence-based treatments have substantially improved outcomes, prognosis remains poor with high costs for health care systems. In patients with HF, poor dietary behaviors are associated with unsatisfactory quality of life and adverse outcome. The HF guidelines have not recommended a specific nutritional strategy. Despite the role of micronutrient deficiency it has been extensively studied, and data about the efficacy of supplementation therapy in HF are not supported by large randomized trials and there is limited evidence regarding the outcomes. The aim of the present review is to analyze the state-of-the-art of nutritional deficiencies in HF, focusing on the physiological role and the prognostic impact of micronutrient supplementation. PMID:27455314
Mottet, Fannie; Vardeny, Orly; de Denus, Simon
Heart failure (HF) and multiple HF-related phenotypes are heritable. Genes implicated in the HF pathophysiology would be expected to influence the response to treatment. We conducted a series of systematic literature searches on the pharmacogenetics of HF therapy to assess the current knowledge on this field. Existing data related to HF pharmacogenomics are still limited. The ADRB1 gene is a likely candidate to predict response to β-blockers. Moreover, the cytochrome P450 2D6 coding gene (CYP2D6) clearly affects the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol, although the clinical impact of this association remains to be established. Given the rising prevalence of HF and related costs, a more personalized use of HF drugs could have a remarkable benefit for patients, caregivers and healthcare systems.
Van Tassell, Benjamin W; Raleigh, Juan M Valle; Abbate, Antonio
Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by dyspnea, fatigue, and poor exercise capacity due to insufficient cardiac function. HF represents the leading cause of hospitalization among adult patients over 65 years of age. Neurohormonal blockade has improved clinical outcomes; however, HF incidence continues to rise, suggesting an urgent need to develop novel drugs that target a different pathophysiological paradigm. Inflammation plays a central role in many cardiovascular diseases. Interleukin-1 (IL-1), a prototypical proinflammatory cytokine, is upregulated in HF and associated with worse prognosis. Preclinical models suggest a beneficial effect of IL-1 blockade, and pilot clinical trials are currently underway to evaluate the role of IL-1 blockade to reduce inflammation, ameliorate ventricular remodeling, and improve exercise capacity in patients with HF.
Bauters, Christophe; Lamblin, Nicolas; Mc Fadden, Eugène P; Van Belle, Eric; Millaire, Alain; de Groote, Pascal
Our aim is to summarize and discuss the recent literature linking diabetes mellitus with heart failure, and to address the issue of the optimal treatment for diabetic patients with heart failure. The studies linking diabetes mellitus (DM) with heart failure (HF) The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in heart failure populations is close to 20% compared with 4 to 6% in control populations. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased risk of heart failure in diabetics; moreover, in diabetic populations, poor glycemic control has been associated with an increased risk of heart failure. Various mechanisms may link diabetes mellitus to heart failure: firstly, associated comorbidities such as hypertension may play a role; secondly, diabetes accelerates the development of coronary atherosclerosis; thirdly, experimental and clinical studies support the existence of a specific diabetic cardiomyopathy related to microangiopathy, metabolic factors or myocardial fibrosis. Subgroup analyses of randomized trials demonstrate that diabetes is also an important prognostic factor in heart failure. In addition, it has been suggested that the deleterious impact of diabetes may be especially marked in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Treatment of heart failure in diabetic patients The knowledge of the diabetic status may help to define the optimal therapeutic strategy for heart failure patients. Cornerstone treatments such as ACE inhibitors or beta-blockers appear to be uniformly beneficial in diabetic and non diabetic populations. However, in ischemic cardiomyopathy, the choice of the revascularization technique may differ according to diabetic status. Finally, clinical studies are needed to determine whether improved metabolic control might favorably influence the outcome of diabetic heart failure patients. PMID:12556246
Almenar, Luis; Zunzunegui, José Luis; Barón, Gonzalo; Carrasco, José Ignacio; Gómez-Doblas, Juan José; Comín, Josep; Barrios, Vivencio; Subirana, M Teresa; Díaz-Molina, Beatriz
In the year 2012, 3 scientific sections-heart failure and transplant, congenital heart disease, and clinical cardiology-are presented together in the same article. The most relevant development in the area of heart failure and transplantation is the 2012 publication of the European guidelines for heart failure. These describe new possibilities for some drugs (eplerenone and ivabradine); expand the criteria for resynchronization, ventricular assist, and peritoneal dialysis; and cover possibilities of percutaneous repair of the mitral valve (MitraClip(®)). The survival of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome in congenital heart diseases has improved significantly. Instructions for percutaneous techniques and devices have been revised and modified for the treatment of atrial septal defects, ostium secundum, and ventricular septal defects. Hybrid procedures for addressing structural congenital heart defects have become more widespread. In the area of clinical cardiology studies have demonstrated that percutaneous prosthesis implantation has lower mortality than surgical implantation. Use of the CHA2DS2-VASc criteria and of new anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban) is also recommended. In addition, the development of new sequencing techniques has enabled the analysis of multiple genes.
Bläuer, Cornelia; Pfister, Otmar; Bächtold, Christa; Junker, Therese; Spirig, Rebecca
Patients with chronic heart failure (HF) are limited in their quality of life, have a poor prognosis and face frequent hospitalisations. Patient self-management was shown to improve quality of life, reduce rehospitalisations and costs in patients with chronic HF. Comprehensive disease management programmes are critical to foster patient self-management. The chronic care model developed by the WHO serves as the basis of such programmes. In order to develop self-management skills a needs orientated training concept is mandatory, as patients need both knowledge of the illness and the ability to use the information to make appropriate decisions according to their individual situation. Switzerland has no established system for the care of patients with chronic diseases in particular those with HF. For this reason a group of Swiss experts for HF designed a model for disease management for HF patients in Switzerland. Since 2009 the Swiss Heart Foundation offers an education programme based on this model. The aim of this programme is to offer education and support for practitioners, patients and families. An initial pilot evaluation of the program showed mixed acceptance by practitioners, whereas patient assessed the program as supportive and in line with their requirements.
Sabbah, Hani N.; Ilsar, Itamar; Zaretsky, Asaph; Rastogi, Sharad; Wang, Mengjun; Gupta, Ramesh C.
Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with autonomic dysregulation characterized by a sustained increase of sympathetic drive and by withdrawal of parasympathetic activity. Sympathetic overdrive and increased heart rate are predictors of poor long-term outcome in patients with HF. Considerable evidence exists that supports the use of pharmacologic agents that partially inhibit sympathetic activity as effective long-term therapy for patients with HF; the classic example is the wide use of selective and non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blockers. In contrast, modulation of parasympathetic activation as potential therapy for HF has received only limited attention over the years given its complex cardiovascular effects. In this article, we review results of recent experimental animal studies that provide support for the possible use of electrical Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) as a long-term therapy for the treatment of chronic HF. In addition to exploring the effects of chronic VNS on left ventricular (LV) function, the review will also address the effects of VNS on potential modifiers of the HF state that include cytokine production and nitric oxide elaboration. Finally, we will briefly review other nerve stimulation approaches also currently under investigation as potential therapeutic modalities for treating chronic HF. PMID:21128115
Park, Misun; Shen, You-Tang; Gaussin, Vinciane; Heyndrickx, Guy R; Bartunek, Jozef; Resuello, Ranillo R G; Natividad, Filipinas F; Kitsis, Richard N; Vatner, Dorothy E; Vatner, Stephen F
The goal of this investigation was to determine the distribution of myocardial apoptosis in myocytes and nonmyocytes in primates and patients with heart failure (HF). Almost all clinical cardiologists and cardiovascular investigators believe that myocyte apoptosis is considered to be a cardinal sign of HF and a major factor in its pathogenesis. However, with the knowledge that 75% of the number of cells in the heart are nonmyocytes, it is important to determine whether the apoptosis in HF is occurring in myocytes or in nonmyocytes. We studied both a nonhuman primate model of chronic HF, induced by rapid pacing 2-6 mo after myocardial infarction (MI), and biopsies from patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Dual labeling with a cardiac muscle marker was used to discriminate apoptosis in myocytes versus nonmyocytes. Left ventricular ejection fraction decreased following MI (from 78% to 60%) and further with HF (35%, P < 0.05). As expected, total apoptosis was increased in the myocardium following recovery from MI (0.62 cells/mm(2)) and increased further with the development of HF (1.91 cells/mm(2)). Surprisingly, the majority of apoptotic cells in MI and MI + HF, and in both the adjacent and remote areas, were nonmyocytes. This was also observed in myocardial biopsies from patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. We found that macrophages contributed the largest fraction of apoptotic nonmyocytes (41% vs. 18% neutrophils, 16% fibroblast, and 25% endothelial and other cells). Although HF in the failing human and monkey heart is characterized by significant apoptosis, in contrast to current concepts, the apoptosis in nonmyocytes was eight- to ninefold greater than in myocytes.
Park, Misun; Shen, You-Tang; Gaussin, Vinciane; Heyndrickx, Guy R.; Bartunek, Jozef; Resuello, Ranillo R. G.; Natividad, Filipinas F.; Kitsis, Richard N.; Vatner, Dorothy E.; Vatner, Stephen F.
The goal of this investigation was to determine the distribution of myocardial apoptosis in myocytes and nonmyocytes in primates and patients with heart failure (HF). Almost all clinical cardiologists and cardiovascular investigators believe that myocyte apoptosis is considered to be a cardinal sign of HF and a major factor in its pathogenesis. However, with the knowledge that 75% of the number of cells in the heart are nonmyocytes, it is important to determine whether the apoptosis in HF is occurring in myocytes or in nonmyocytes. We studied both a nonhuman primate model of chronic HF, induced by rapid pacing 2–6 mo after myocardial infarction (MI), and biopsies from patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Dual labeling with a cardiac muscle marker was used to discriminate apoptosis in myocytes versus nonmyocytes. Left ventricular ejection fraction decreased following MI (from 78% to 60%) and further with HF (35%, P < 0.05). As expected, total apoptosis was increased in the myocardium following recovery from MI (0.62 cells/mm2) and increased further with the development of HF (1.91 cells/mm2). Surprisingly, the majority of apoptotic cells in MI and MI + HF, and in both the adjacent and remote areas, were nonmyocytes. This was also observed in myocardial biopsies from patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. We found that macrophages contributed the largest fraction of apoptotic nonmyocytes (41% vs. 18% neutrophils, 16% fibroblast, and 25% endothelial and other cells). Although HF in the failing human and monkey heart is characterized by significant apoptosis, in contrast to current concepts, the apoptosis in nonmyocytes was eight- to ninefold greater than in myocytes. PMID:19465551
Caccamo, Marco A; Eckman, Peter M
As the incidence of heart failure increases, the number of patients with advanced heart failure is anticipated to grow. Substantial progress in the treatment of heart failure has been achieved over the past few decades. Several classes of medications have been studied and found effective, including beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, aldosterone antagonists, vasodilators, digoxin, and inotropes. The evidence base for the use of these medications in the treatment of patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV heart failure is reviewed.
Burns, Kristin M
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, of the National Institutes of Health, is committed to supporting research in paediatric heart failure. The Institute's support of paediatric heart failure research includes both investigator-initiated grants and Institute initiatives. There were 107 funded grants in paediatric heart failure over the past 20 years in basic, translational and clinical research, technology development, and support of registries. Such research includes a broad diversity of scientific topics and approaches. The Institute also supports several initiatives for paediatric heart failure, including the Pediatric Circulatory Support Program, the Pumps for Kids, Infants, and Neonates (PumpKIN) Program, PediMACS, and the Pediatric Heart Network. This review article describes the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's past, present, and future efforts to promote a better understanding of paediatric heart failure, with the ultimate goal of improving outcomes.
Cermakova, Pavla; Lund, Lars H; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Johnell, Kristina; Winblad, Bengt; Dahlström, Ulf; Eriksdotter, Maria; Religa, Dorota
Heart failure (HF) and dementia frequently coexist, but little is known about their types, relationships to each other and prognosis. The aims were to (i) describe patients with HF and dementia, assess (ii) the proportion of specific dementia disorders in types of HF based on ejection fraction and (iii) the prognostic role of types of HF and dementia disorders. The Swedish Heart Failure Registry (RiksSvikt) and The Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem) were record-linked. Associations between dementia disorders and HF types were assessed with multinomial logistic regression and survival was investigated with Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariable Cox regression. We studied 775 patients found in both registries (55% men, mean age 82 years). Ejection fraction was preserved in 38% of patients, reduced in 34%, and missing in 28%. The proportions of dementia disorders were similar across HF types. Vascular dementia was the most common dementia disorder (36%), followed by other dementias (28%), mixed dementia (20%), and Alzheimer disease (16%). Over a mean follow-up of 1.5 years, 76% of patients survived 1 year. We observed no significant differences in survival with regard to HF type (P = 0.2) or dementia disorder (P = 0.5). After adjustment for baseline covariates, neither HF types nor dementia disorders were independently associated with survival. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction was the most common HF type and vascular dementia was the most common dementia disorder. The proportions of dementia disorders were similar across HF types. Neither HF types nor specific dementia disorders were associated with survival. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society of Cardiology.
Patients with type 2 diabetes are at a high risk for cardiovascular disease. A common co-morbidity is heart failure, resulting in increased mortality rates. Research on thiazolidinediones (glitazones) has revealed protective effects on the cardiovascular system. On the other hand, this antidiabetic class causes fluid retention that may promote congestive heart failure. The clinical manifestation of heart failure occurs more frequently on either pioglitazone or rosiglitazone treatment than with other oral antidiabetic drugs. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiological background of fluid retention, the incidence of congestive heart failure with thiazolidinedione treatment and the clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes with and without a pre-existing condition. A review of the currently available data discloses the following relevant facts: treatment of diabetes with a thiazolidinedione appears to increase the signs of congestive heart failure, but not the risk of cardiovascular and overall death. On the contrary, type 2 diabetics with pre-existing heart failure benefits from a reduction in cardiovascular end-points. All these data suggest that heart failure precipitated by thiazolidinedione drugs is qualitatively different from other causes. This implies the need for a new prognostic evaluation of patients with thiazolidinedione-promoted heart failure.
Heart failure is one of the most common diagnoses and reason for hospitalization in the United States. Ace inhibitors, diuretics, beta-blockers and digitalis are the leading agents in pharmacologic management of heart failure. In order to improve patient outcomes, adult-health nurses need to understand the diagnosis, pathophysiology, nursing interventions, and pharmacologic treatment of this common disorder.
Santulli, Gaetano; Iaccarino, Guido
Both cardiovascular disease and aging are associated with changes in the sympathetic nervous system. Indeed, mounting evidence indicates that adrenergic receptors are functionally involved in numerous processes underlying both aging and cardiovascular disorders, in particular heart failure. This article will review the pathophysiological role of the sympathetic nervous system in heart failure and cardiovascular aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mejhert, M; Persson, H; Edner, M; Kahan, T
In Sweden heart failure is the most frequent discharge diagnosis within internal medicine. The prevalence of heart failure seems to be increasing, mainly due to an ageing population, but also because of improved survival in patients with cardiovascular diseases. To describe the epidemiology of heart failure in Sweden from a perspective based on demographic and health care data. The national registers in Sweden provide detailed information on health care consumption in relation to different diagnoses. Pharmaceutical sales are also registered. There are national epidemiological reports, reports on health care utilization and on health economics concerning heart failure patients. There has been structural changes in the Swedish health care system due to financial restraints in the health care budget. Aiming at reducing hospital costs, the total amount of hospital beds has been cut down markedly during the last decade. The number of heart failure patients and the number of hospital stays have increased during the same period. Hospital stays have become shorter. The number of patients and hospital stays more than double when heart failure as both primary and secondary discharge diagnoses are included. The available national registers provide a good opportunity to study epidemiology of heart failure in Sweden. The number of hospital beds has decreased markedly within the last decade due to changes in the Swedish health care system. Nevertheless, there has been an increase in the number of patients discharged with heart failure from the hospitals, suggesting an increase in prevalence.
Tadic, Marijana; Pieske-Kraigher, Elisabeth; Cuspidi, Cesare; Morris, Daniel A; Burkhardt, Franziska; Baudisch, Ana; Haßfeld, Sabine; Tschöpe, Carsten; Pieske, Burket
The number of studies demonstrating the importance of right ventricular remodelling in a wide range of cardiovascular diseases has increased in the past two decades. Speckle-tracking imaging provides new variables that give comprehensive information about right ventricular function and mechanics. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of right ventricular mechanics in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and preserved ejection fraction. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid and Embase databases for studies published from January 2000 to December 2016 in the English language using the following keywords: "right ventricle"; "strain"; "speckle tracking"; "heart failure with reduced ejection fraction"; and "heart failure with preserved ejection fraction". Investigations showed that right ventricular dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular and overall mortality in patients with heart failure, irrespective of ejection fraction. The number of studies investigating right ventricular strain in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is constantly increasing, whereas data on right ventricular mechanics in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction are limited. Given the high feasibility, accuracy and clinical implications of right ventricular strain in the population with heart failure, it is of great importance to try to include the evaluation of right ventricular strain as a regular part of each echocardiographic examination in patients with heart failure. However, further investigations are necessary to establish right ventricular strain as a standard variable for decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
MacIver, David H; Dayer, Mark J; Harrison, Andrew J I
Current concepts of heart failure propose multiple heterogeneous pathophysiological mechanisms. Recently a theoretical framework for understanding chronic heart failure was suggested. This paper develops this framework to include acute heart failure syndromes. We propose that all acute heart failure syndromes may be understood in terms of a relative fall in left ventricular stroke volume. The initial compensatory mechanism is frequently a tachycardia often resulting in a near normal cardiac output. In more severe forms a fall in cardiac output causes hypotension or cardiogenic shock. In chronic heart failure the stroke volume and cardiac output is returned to normal predominantly through ventricular remodeling or dilatation. Ejection fraction is simply the ratio of stroke volume and end-diastolic volume. The resting stroke volume is predetermined by the tissue's needs; therefore, if the ejection fraction changes, the end-diastolic volume must change in a reciprocal manner. The potential role of the right heart in influencing the presentation of left heart disease is examined. We propose that acute pulmonary edema occurs when the right ventricular stroke volume exceeds left ventricular stroke volume leading to fluid accumulation in the alveoli. The possible role of the right heart in determining pulmonary hypertension and raised filling pressures in left-sided heart disease are discussed. Different clinical scenarios are presented to help clarify these proposed mechanisms and the clinical implications of these theories are discussed. Finally an alternative definition of heart failure is proposed.
Pereira-Barretto, Antonio Carlos; Bacal, Fernando; de Albuquerque, Denilson Campos
Careful review of the literature of the last 20 years since the appearance of the first positive trials in heart failure indicates an evolution in the mode of death moving from sudden death to a predominance of pump failure death (i.e., death due to progression of heart failure). Pump failure is becoming a leading cause of mortality in a range of patient profiles, including patients with newly diagnosed or severe heart failure, patients with devices, and patients with heart failure associated with Chagas' disease. Indeed, the evidence suggests that modern management strategies, such as beta-blockers and devices, are successful in preventing sudden death. However, this means that optimally treated patients are at greater risk for the consequences of pump failure (death, hospitalization, and reduced quality of life). This highlights a new important unmet need in heart failure, and a priority for current research should be therapies that reduce pump failure death and hospitalization for more cost-effective management of the disease. Insofar as one-third of heart failure patients do not survive more than 3 years after diagnosis, properly addressing pump failure is an essential target in heart failure.
Fonseca, Cândida; Ceia, Fátima; Brito, Dulce; Madeira, Hugo
The prevalence of heart failure is increasing all over the world. It is a common and growing public health problem in Portugal as in many other European countries. This article provides a review of health service organization and current heart failure management in Portugal, discusses primary care and ward practices in different hospitals and reports on the use of proven standard therapies for the treatment of heart failure in the community. Despite major advances in diagnosis and treatment, heart failure is only satisfactorily managed. Furthermore efforts are necessary before the beneficial effects observed in trials have a real impact in clinical practice. A broader view and priority for the management of this syndrome on a national level are needed to improve the quality of heart failure care in Portugal.
Sherrod, Melissa M; Cheek, Dennis J; Seale, Ashlie
Hospitals are under immense pressure to reduce heart failure readmissions that occur within 30 days of discharge, and to improve the quality of care for these patients. Penalties mandated by the Affordable Care Act decrease hospital reimbursement and ultimately the overall cost of caring for these patients increases if they are not well managed. Approximately 25% of patients hospitalized for heart failure are at high risk for readmission and these rates have not changed over the past decade. As a result of an aging population, the incidence of heart failure is expected to increase to one in five Americans over the age of 65. Pharmacologic management can reduce the risk of death and help prevent unnecessary hospitalizations. Healthcare providers who have knowledge of heart failure medications and drug interactions and share this information with their patients contribute to improved long-term survival and physical functioning as well as fewer hospitalizations and a delay of progressive worsening of heart failure.
Ewen, Sebastian; Mahfoud, Felix
The activation of the sympathetic nervous system is associated with cardiovascular hospitalizations and death in heart failure. Renal denervation has been shown to effectively reduce sympathetic overdrive in certain patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Pilot trials investigating renal denervation as a potential treatment approach for heart failure were initiated. Heart failure comorbidities like obstructive sleep apnea, metabolic syndrome and arrhythmias could also be targets for renal denervation, because these occurrences are also mediated by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, renal denervation in heart failure is worthy of further investigation, although its effectiveness still has to be proven. Herein, we describe the pathophysiological rationale and the effect of renal denervation on surrogates of the heart failure syndrome. PMID:28154583
Nishimura, Yuki; Inoue, Teruo; Nitto, Takeaki; Morooka, Toshifumi; Node, Koichi
A great number of basic and clinical studies have demonstrated that inflammatory cytokines play an important role in development and progress of heart failure. However, there is limited information about allergic cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13). The inflammatory responses mediated by allergic cytokines can cause significant morbidity and mortality when they become chronic. Therefore, we elucidated the role of IL-13 in the pathophysiology of chronic heart failure. We measured plasma IL-13 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 110 patients with chronic heart failure and 20 control subjects. Plasma IL-13 levels were increased in heart failure patients, compared with the controls, in association with NYHA functional class. In addition, IL-13 levels were correlated positively with plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein, and negatively with left ventricular ejection fraction. Plasma IL-13 levels may be useful for evaluating disease severity in chronic heart failure.
Naughton, Matthew T
Respiratory sleep disorders (RSD) occur in about 40-50% of patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure (CHF). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is considered a cause of CHF, whereas central sleep apnea (CSA) is considered a response to heart failure, perhaps even compensatory. In the setting of heart failure, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has a definite role in treating OSA with improvements in cardiac parameters expected. However in CSA, CPAP is an adjunctive therapy to other standard therapies directed towards the heart failure (pharmacological, device and surgical options). Whether adaptive servo controlled ventilatory support, a variant of CPAP, is beneficial is yet to be proven. Supplemental oxygen therapy should be used with caution in heart failure, in particular, by avoiding hyperoxia as indicated by SpO2 values >95%.
Böhm, Michael; Ewen, Sebastian; Mahfoud, Felix
The activation of the sympathetic nervous system is associated with cardiovascular hospitalizations and death in heart failure. Renal denervation has been shown to effectively reduce sympathetic overdrive in certain patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Pilot trials investigating renal denervation as a potential treatment approach for heart failure were initiated. Heart failure comorbidities like obstructive sleep apnea, metabolic syndrome and arrhythmias could also be targets for renal denervation, because these occurrences are also mediated by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, renal denervation in heart failure is worthy of further investigation, although its effectiveness still has to be proven. Herein, we describe the pathophysiological rationale and the effect of renal denervation on surrogates of the heart failure syndrome.
Shah, Ravish; Agarwal, Anil K
Anemia is a frequent comorbidity of heart failure and is associated with poor outcomes. Anemia in heart failure is considered to develop due to a complex interaction of iron deficiency, kidney disease, and cytokine production, although micronutrient insufficiency and blood loss may contribute. Currently, treatment of anemia of heart failure lacks clear targets and specific therapy is not defined. Intravenous iron use has been shown to benefit anemic as well as nonanemic patients with heart failure. Treatment with erythropoietin-stimulating agents has been considered alone or in combination with iron, but robust evidence to dictate clear guidelines is not currently available. Available and emerging new agents in the treatment of anemia of heart failure will need to be tested in randomized, controlled studies. PMID:23403618
Shah, Ravish; Agarwal, Anil K
Anemia is a frequent comorbidity of heart failure and is associated with poor outcomes. Anemia in heart failure is considered to develop due to a complex interaction of iron deficiency, kidney disease, and cytokine production, although micronutrient insufficiency and blood loss may contribute. Currently, treatment of anemia of heart failure lacks clear targets and specific therapy is not defined. Intravenous iron use has been shown to benefit anemic as well as nonanemic patients with heart failure. Treatment with erythropoietin-stimulating agents has been considered alone or in combination with iron, but robust evidence to dictate clear guidelines is not currently available. Available and emerging new agents in the treatment of anemia of heart failure will need to be tested in randomized, controlled studies.
DAVEY, B.; SZWAST, A.; RYCHIK, J.
Heart failure can be defined as the inability of the heart to sufficiently support the circulation. In the fetus, heart failure can be caused by a myriad of factors that include fetal shunting abnormalities, genetic cardiomyopathies, extracardiac malformations, arrhythmias and structural congenital heart disease. With advances in ultrasound has come the ability to characterize many complex conditions, previously poorly understood. Fetal echocardiography provides the tools necessary to evaluate and understand the various physiologies that contribute to heart failure in the fetus. In this review, we will explore the different mechanisms of heart failure in this unique patient population and highlight the role of fetal echocardiography in the current management of these conditions PMID:22992530
Rahman, Iffat; Bellavia, Andrea; Wolk, Alicja
Physical activity is a modifiable health-related behavior shown to be associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. There is some evidence that this could also be the case for heart failure. We investigated whether total physical activity, as well as different domains of physical activity, was associated with heart failure risk. The Swedish Mammography Cohort was used in which 27 895 women were followed up from 1997 to 2011. First event of heart failure was ascertained through the Swedish National Patient Register and Cause of Death Register. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. We also analyzed survival percentiles by applying Laplace regression. During an average follow-up time of 13 years (369 207 person-years), we ascertained 2402 first events of heart failure hospitalizations and deaths. We found that moderate to high levels of total physical activity were associated with a reduced risk of future heart failure. When looking into different domains of physical activity, walking/bicycling >20 minutes/d was associated with 29% lower risk of heart failure (95% confidence interval, -36% to -21%), when investigating survival percentiles this could be translated into 18 months longer heart failure-free survival. Our study shows that physical activity could protect against heart failure in women. When looking closer into different domains of physical activity, walking or biking ≥20 minutes every day was associated with the largest risk reduction of heart failure. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Gallagher, Joseph; James, Stephanie; Keane, Ciara; Fitzgerald, Annie; Travers, Bronagh; Quigley, Etain; Hecht, Christina; Zhou, Shuaiwei; Watson, Chris; Ledwidge, Mark; McDonald, Kenneth
We undertook a mixed-methods evaluation of a Web-based conferencing service (virtual consult) between general practitioners (GPs) and cardiologists in managing patients with heart failure in the community to determine its effect on use of specialist heart failure services and acceptability to GPs. All cases from June 2015 to October 2016 were recorded using a standardized recording template, which recorded patient demographics, medical history, medications, and outcome of the virtual consult for each case. Quantitative surveys and qualitative interviewing of 17 participating GPs were also undertaken. During this time, 142 cases were discussed-68 relating to a new diagnosis of heart failure, 53 relating to emerging deterioration in a known heart failure patient, and 21 relating to therapeutic issues. Only 17% required review in outpatient department following the virtual consultation. GPs reported increased confidence in heart failure management, a broadening of their knowledge base, and a perception of overall better patient outcomes. These data from an initial experience with Heart Failure Virtual Consultation present a very positive impact of this strategy on the provision of heart failure care in the community and acceptability to users. Further research on the implementation and expansion of this strategy is warranted. © 2017 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.
Lipsic, Erik; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J
Chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system leads to deterioration of cardiovascular function in heart failure patients. In systolic heart failure, beta-blockers were proven to be effective in decreasing the number of deaths and improving morbidity. However, beta-blockers are a heterogeneous drug group, consisting of agents with different selectivity for adrenergic receptors and/or additional effects in heart or peripheral circulation. We describe the role of the sympathetic nervous system, beta-blockers and specifically nebivolol in chronic heart failure. Nebivolol is a third-generation beta-blocker, with high beta(1)/beta(2) selectivity. Moreover, it has important vasodilating properties, by stimulating the production of nitric oxide. Smaller studies have already shown beneficial effects of nebivolol treatment on surrogate end points in heart failure patients. The recently published SENIORS (Phase III) study in an elderly heart failure population demonstrated a decreased number of clinical events in patients treated with nebivolol. Importantly, this effect was observed in patients with both impaired and preserved left ventricular systolic function. Specific beta-blockers may have distinct effects in various subgroups of heart failure patients. So far, nebivolol is the only beta-blocker to have been shown effective in elderly heart failure patients, regardless of their left ventricular ejection fraction.
Farmakis, Dimitrios; Parissis, John; Lekakis, John; Filippatos, Gerasimos
Acute heart failure represents the first cause of hospitalization in elderly persons and is the main determinant of the huge healthcare expenditure related to heart failure. Despite therapeutic advances, the prognosis of acute heart failure is poor, with in-hospital mortality ranging from 4% to 7%, 60- to 90-day mortality ranging from 7% to 11%, and 60- to 90-day rehospitalization from 25% to 30%. Several factors including cardiovascular and noncardiovascular conditions as well as patient-related and iatrogenic factors may precipitate the rapid development or deterioration of signs and symptoms of heart failure, thus leading to an acute heart failure episode that usually requires patient hospitalization. The primary prevention of acute heart failure mainly concerns the prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and heart disease, including coronary artery disease, while the secondary prevention of a new episode of decompensation requires the optimization of heart failure therapy, patient education, and the development of an effective transition and follow-up plan. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Verbrugge, Frederik H; Dupont, Matthias; Steels, Paul; Grieten, Lars; Malbrain, Manu; Tang, W H Wilson; Mullens, Wilfried
Current pathophysiological models of congestive heart failure unsatisfactorily explain the detrimental link between congestion and cardiorenal function. Abdominal congestion (i.e., splanchnic venous and interstitial congestion) manifests in a substantial number of patients with advanced congestive heart failure, yet is poorly defined. Compromised capacitance function of the splanchnic vasculature and deficient abdominal lymph flow resulting in interstitial edema might both be implied in the occurrence of increased cardiac filling pressures and renal dysfunction. Indeed, increased intra-abdominal pressure, as an extreme marker of abdominal congestion, is correlated with renal dysfunction in advanced congestive heart failure. Intriguing findings provide preliminary evidence that alterations in the liver and spleen contribute to systemic congestion in heart failure. Finally, gut-derived hormones might influence sodium homeostasis, whereas entrance of bowel toxins into the circulatory system, as a result of impaired intestinal barrier function secondary to congestion, might further depress cardiac as well as renal function. Those toxins are mainly produced by micro-organisms in the gut lumen, with presumably important alterations in advanced heart failure, especially when renal function is depressed. Therefore, in this state-of-the-art review, we explore the crosstalk between the abdomen, heart, and kidneys in congestive heart failure. This might offer new diagnostic opportunities as well as treatment strategies to achieve decongestion in heart failure, especially when abdominal congestion is present. Among those currently under investigation are paracentesis, ultrafiltration, peritoneal dialysis, oral sodium binders, vasodilator therapy, renal sympathetic denervation and agents targeting the gut microbiota.
Dekker, Rebecca L; Peden, Ann R; Lennie, Terry A; Schooler, Mary P; Moser, Debra K
Patients with heart failure often experience depressive symptoms that affect health-related quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. Researchers have not described the experience of patients with heart failure living with depressive symptoms. Understanding this experience will help in developing interventions to decrease depressive symptoms. To describe the experience of patients with heart failure living with depressive symptoms. This study was conducted by using a qualitative descriptive design. The sample consisted of 10 outpatients (50% female, mean age 63 [SD, 13] years, 70% New York Heart Association class III or IV) with heart failure who were able to describe depressive symptoms. Data were collected via taped, individual, 30- to 60-minute interviews. ATLAS ti (version 5) was used for content analysis. Participants described emotional and somatic symptoms of depression. Negative thinking was present in all participants and reinforced their depressed mood. The participants experienced multiple stressors that worsened depressive symptoms. The overarching strategy for managing depressive symptoms was "taking my mind off of it." Patients managed depressive symptoms by engaging in activities such as exercise and reading, and by using positive thinking, spirituality, and social support. Patients with heart failure experience symptoms of depression that are similar to those experienced by the general population. Clinicians should assess patients with heart failure for stressors that worsen depressive symptoms. Strategies that researchers and clinicians can use to reduce depressive symptoms in patients with heart failure include engaging patients in activities, positive thinking, and spirituality. Helping patients find enhanced social support may also be important.
Tayal, Upasana; Prasad, Sanjay; Cook, Stuart A
Heart failure is a major health burden, affecting 40 million people globally. One of the main causes of systolic heart failure is dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the leading global indication for heart transplantation. Our understanding of the genetic basis of both DCM and systolic heart failure has improved in recent years with the application of next-generation sequencing and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This has enabled rapid sequencing at scale, leading to the discovery of many novel rare variants in DCM and of common variants in both systolic heart failure and DCM. Identifying rare and common genetic variants contributing to systolic heart failure has been challenging given its diverse and multiple etiologies. DCM, however, although rarer, is a reasonably specific and well-defined condition, leading to the identification of many rare genetic variants. Truncating variants in titin represent the single largest genetic cause of DCM. Here, we review the progress and challenges in the detection of rare and common variants in DCM and systolic heart failure, and the particular challenges in accurate and informed variant interpretation, and in understanding the effects of these variants. We also discuss how our increasing genetic knowledge is changing clinical management. Harnessing genetic data and translating it to improve risk stratification and the development of novel therapeutics represents a major challenge and unmet critical need for patients with heart failure and their families.
Mortara, Andrea; Pinna, Gian Domenico; Johnson, Paul; Maestri, Roberto; Capomolla, Soccorso; La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Ponikowski, Piotr; Tavazzi, Luigi; Sleight, Peter
Aims The Home or Hospital in Heart failure (HHH) study was a European Community-funded, multinational, randomized controlled clinical trial, conducted in the UK, Poland, and Italy, to assess the feasibility of a new system of home telemonitoring (HT). The HT system was used to monitor clinical and physiological parameters, and its effectiveness (compared with usual care) in reducing cardiac events in heart failure (HF) patients was evaluated. Measurements were patient-managed. Methods and results From 2002 to 2004, 461 HF patients (age 60 ± 11 years, New York Heart Association class 2.4 ± 0.6, left ventricular ejection fraction 29 ± 7%) were enrolled at 11 centres and randomized (1:2) to either usual outpatient care or HT administered as three randomized strategies: (i) monthly telephone contact; (ii) strategy 1 plus weekly transmission of vital signs; and (iii) strategy 2 plus monthly 24 h recording of cardiorespiratory activity. Patients completed 81% of vital signs transmissions, as well as 92% of cardiorespiratory recordings. Over a 12-month follow-up, there was no significant effect of HT in reducing bed-days occupancy for HF or cardiac death plus HF hospitalization. Post hoc analysis revealed a heterogeneous effect of HT in the three countries with a trend towards a reduction of events in Italy. Conclusion Home or Hospital in Heart failure indicates that self-managed HT of clinical and physiological parameters is feasible in HF patients, with surprisingly high compliance. Whether HT contributes to a reduction of cardiac events requires further investigation. PMID:19228800
Rosenkranz, Stephan; Gibbs, J. Simon R.; Wachter, Rolf; De Marco, Teresa; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc
In patients with left ventricular heart failure (HF), the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are frequent and have important impact on disease progression, morbidity, and mortality, and therefore warrant clinical attention. Pulmonary hypertension related to left heart disease (LHD) by far represents the most common form of PH, accounting for 65–80% of cases. The proper distinction between pulmonary arterial hypertension and PH-LHD may be challenging, yet it has direct therapeutic consequences. Despite recent advances in the pathophysiological understanding and clinical assessment, and adjustments in the haemodynamic definitions and classification of PH-LHD, the haemodynamic interrelations in combined post- and pre-capillary PH are complex, definitions and prognostic significance of haemodynamic variables characterizing the degree of pre-capillary PH in LHD remain suboptimal, and there are currently no evidence-based recommendations for the management of PH-LHD. Here, we highlight the prevalence and significance of PH and RV dysfunction in patients with both HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and provide insights into the complex pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary interaction in LHD, which may lead to the evolution from a ‘left ventricular phenotype’ to a ‘right ventricular phenotype’ across the natural history of HF. Furthermore, we propose to better define the individual phenotype of PH by integrating the clinical context, non-invasive assessment, and invasive haemodynamic variables in a structured diagnostic work-up. Finally, we challenge current definitions and diagnostic short falls, and discuss gaps in evidence, therapeutic options and the necessity for future developments in this context. PMID:26508169
Heart failure is a global problem with an estimated prevalence of 38 million patients worldwide, a number that is increasing with the ageing of the population. It is the most common diagnosis in patients aged 65 years or older admitted to hospital and in high-income nations. Despite some progress, the prognosis of heart failure is worse than that of most cancers. Because of the seriousness of the condition, a declaration of war on five fronts has been proposed for heart failure. Efforts are underway to treat heart failure by enhancing myofilament sensitivity to Ca(2+); transfer of the gene for SERCA2a, the protein that pumps calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the cardiomyocyte, seems promising in a phase 2 trial. Several other abnormal calcium-handling proteins in the failing heart are candidates for gene therapy; many short, non-coding RNAs--ie, microRNAs (miRNAs)--block gene expression and protein translation. These molecules are crucial to calcium cycling and ventricular hypertrophy. The actions of miRNAs can be blocked by a new class of drugs, antagomirs, some of which have been shown to improve cardiac function in animal models of heart failure; cell therapy, with autologous bone marrow derived mononuclear cells, or autogenous mesenchymal cells, which can be administered as cryopreserved off the shelf products, seem to be promising in both preclinical and early clinical heart failure trials; and long-term ventricular assistance devices are now used increasingly as a destination therapy in patients with advanced heart failure. In selected patients, left ventricular assistance can lead to myocardial recovery and explantation of the device. The approaches to the treatment of heart failure described, when used alone or in combination, could become important weapons in the war against heart failure.
Simuel, Gloria J.
Heart Failure continues to be a major public health problem associated with high mortality and morbidity. Heart Failure is the leading cause of hospitalization for persons older than 65 years, has a poor prognosis and is associated with poor quality of life. More than 5.3 million American adults are living with heart failure. Despite maximum medical therapy and frequent hospitalizations to stabilize their condition, one in five heart failure patients die within the first year of diagnosis. Several disease-management programs have been proposed and tested to improve the quality of heart failure care. Studies have shown that hospital admissions and emergency room visits decrease with increased nursing interventions in the home and community setting. An alternative strategy for promoting self-management of heart failure is the use of electronic home monitoring. The purpose of this study was to examine what effects heart failure has on patient's quality of life that had been monitoring on an electronic home monitor longer than 2 months. Twenty-one questionnaires were given to patients utilizing an electronic home monitor by their home health agency nurse. Eleven patients completed the questionnaire. The findings showed that there is some deterioration in quality of life with more association with the physical aspects of life than with the emotional aspects of life, which probably was due to the small sample size. There was no significant difference in readmission rates in patients utilizing an electronic home monitor. Further research is needed with a larger population of patients with chronic heart failure and other chronic diseases which may provide more data, and address issues such as patient compliance with self-care, impact of heart failure on patient's quality of life, functional capacity, and heart failure patient's utilization of the emergency rooms and hospital. Telemonitoring holds promise for improving the self-care abilities of persons with HF.
Dang, Nicholas C; Topkara, Veli K; Mercando, Michelle; Kay, Joy; Kruger, Kurt H; Aboodi, Michael S; Oz, Mehmet C; Naka, Yoshifumi
Right heart failure (RHF) is not an infrequent complication of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Few studies have examined outcomes for LVAD patients who subsequently develop RHF. This study details one center's experience with RHF in chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. One hundred eight patients with chronic CHF (>or=6 months) who underwent HeartMate LVAD implantation were identified during June 1996 to July 2004. Acute heart failure patients requiring LVADs were excluded to eliminate the impact of confounding non-cardiac factors. RHF was defined as the need for a subsequent right ventricular assist device (RVAD), >or=14 days of intravenous inotropes/pulmonary vasodilators, or both. Forty-two (38.9%) RHF patients were identified. Fourteen of these required RVAD insertion. Outcome parameters included early (
Porcel, José M
In heart failure (HF), pleural effusion results from increased interstitial fluid in the lung due to elevated pulmonary capillary pressure. Rarely, pleural effusions may occur in association with isolated right HF. HF-associated effusions are typically bilateral, but if unilateral, they are more commonly seen on the right side. The fluid typically meets the biochemical characteristics of a transudate, although in 25% of the cases it may fall into the exudative range. Testing for natriuretic peptides, such as NT-proBNP, significantly aids in diagnosing or excluding HF in patients with pleural effusion of unknown origin. The measurement of pleural fluid NT-proBNP is the best way to identify pleural effusions that meet the exudative criteria of Light but are due to HF. However, if natriuretic peptide assays are not available, calculation of the serum to pleural fluid albumin gradient represents a good substitute for making this distinction. Loop diuretics are the mainstay of therapy, although a therapeutic thoracentesis for very large effusions may occasionally be required.
Spinale, Francis G.; Janicki, Joseph S.; Zile, Michael R.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex entity containing a large portfolio of structural proteins, signaling molecules, and proteases. Changes in the overall integrity and activational state of these ECM constituents can contribute to tissue structure and function, which is certainly true of the myocardium. Changes in the expression patterns and activational states of a family of ECM proteolytic enzymes, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), have been identified in all forms of LV remodeling and can be a contributory factor for the progression to heart failure. However, new clinical and basic research has identified some surprising and unpredicted changes in MMP profiles in LV remodeling processes, such as with pressure or volume overload, as well as with myocardial infarction. From these studies, it has become recognized that proteolytic processing of signaling molecules by certain MMP types, particularly the transmembrane MMPs, may actually facilitate ECM accumulation as well as modulate fibroblast transdifferentiation – both critical events in adverse LV remodeling. Based upon the ever increasing substrates and diversity of biological actions of MMPs, it is likely that continued research regarding the relationship of LV remodeling to this family of proteases will yield new insights into the ECM remodeling process itself as well as new therapeutic targets. PMID:23287455
Wong, Lee Lee; Wang, Juan; Liew, Oi Wah; Richards, Arthur Mark; Chen, Yei-Tsung
Heart failure (HF) imposes significant economic and public health burdens upon modern society. It is known that disturbances in neurohormonal status play an important role in the pathogenesis of HF. Therapeutics that antagonize selected neurohormonal pathways, specifically the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, have significantly improved patient outcomes in HF. Nevertheless, mortality remains high with about 50% of HF patients dying within five years of diagnosis thus mandating ongoing efforts to improve HF management. The discovery of short noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) and our increasing understanding of their functions, has presented potential therapeutic applications in complex diseases, including HF. Results from several genome-wide miRNA studies have identified miRNAs differentially expressed in HF cohorts suggesting their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of HF and their potential as both biomarkers and as therapeutic targets. Unravelling the functional relevance of miRNAs within pathogenic pathways is a major challenge in cardiovascular research. In this article, we provide an overview of the role of miRNAs in the cardiovascular system. We highlight several HF-related miRNAs reported from selected cohorts and review their putative roles in neurohormonal signaling. PMID:27058529
von Lueder, Thomas G; Krum, Henry
Heart failure (HF) can rightfully be called the epidemic of the 21(st) century. Historically, the only available medical treatment options for HF have been diuretics and digoxin, but the capacity of these agents to alter outcomes has been brought into question by the scrutiny of modern clinical trials. In the past 4 decades, neurohormonal blockers have been introduced into clinical practice, leading to marked reductions in morbidity and mortality in chronic HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Despite these major advances in pharmacotherapy, our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms of HF from epidemiological, clinical, pathophysiological, molecular, and genetic standpoints remains incomplete. This knowledge gap is particularly evident with respect to acute decompensated HF and HF with normal (preserved) LVEF. For these clinical phenotypes, no drug has been shown to reduce long-term clinical event rates substantially. Ongoing developments in the pharmacotherapy of HF are likely to challenge our current best-practice algorithms. Novel agents for HF therapy include dual-acting neurohormonal modulators, contractility-enhancing agents, vasoactive and anti-inflammatory peptides, and myocardial protectants. These novel compounds have the potential to enhance our armamentarium of HF therapeutics.
Margulies, Kenneth B.; Bednarik, Daniel P.; Dries, Daniel L.
Associated with technological progress in DNA and mRNA profiling, advances in basic biology have led to a more complete and sophisticated understanding of interactions between genes, environment and affected tissues in the setting of complex and heterogeneous conditions like heart failure (HF). Ongoing identification of mutations causing hereditary hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies has provided both pathophysiological insights and clinically applicable diagnostics for these relatively rare conditions. Genotyping clinical trial participants and genome wide association studies (GWAS) have accelerated the identification of much more common disease-modifying and treatment modifying genes that explain patient-to-patient differences that have long been recognized by practicing clinicians. At the same time, increasingly detailed characterization of gene expression within diseased tissues and circulating cells from animal models and patients are providing new insights into pathophysiology of HF that permit identification of novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. In this rapidly evolving field, there is already ample support for the concept that genetic and expression profiling can enhance diagnostic sensitivity and specificity while providing a rational basis for prioritizing alternative therapeutic options in patients with cardiomyopathies and HF. Though the extensive characterizations provided by genomic and transcriptional profiling will increasingly challenge clinicians’ abilities to utilize complex and diverse information, advances in clinical information technology and user interfaces will permit greater individualization of prevention and treatment strategies to address the HF epidemic. PMID:19422981
Gallego Galiana, Juan; López Castellanos, Genoveva; Gioia, Francesca; Ruiz Ortega, Raúl Antonio; Cobo Reinoso, Maria Eugenia; Manzano Espinosa, Luis
Severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) secondary to interference pacemaker (PM) cable is a rare cause of progressive right heart failure (HF), which can worsen patient outcomes. We present 3 clinical cases of right HF secondary to TR after PM implantation. In these patients the clinic is right HF, which can appear early, as in our second patient, or after years of implementation of the PM, as in the first and third patients. The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography, the most accurate 3D, followed by transesophageal. The 2D transthoracic can not detect it, because it has low sensitivity for TR associated with PM. Medical treatment is always the first choice, since any other procedure carries significant morbidity and mortality. Probably this is a condition that we will diagnose with increasing frequency, because there are more and more patients with devices and, at the same time, the diagnostic tools are improving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Shoemaker, J. K.; Naylor, H. L.; Hogeman, C. S.; Sinoway, L. I.
BACKGROUND: Exercise intolerance in heart failure (HF) may be due to inadequate vasodilation, augmented vasoconstriction, and/or altered muscle metabolic responses that lead to fatigue. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vascular and metabolic responses to rhythmic forearm exercise were tested in 9 HF patients and 9 control subjects (CTL) during 2 protocols designed to examine the effect of HF on the time course of oxygen delivery versus uptake (protocol 1) and on vasoconstriction during exercise with 50 mm Hg pressure about the forearm to evoke a metaboreflex (protocol 2). In protocol 1, venous lactate and H+ were greater at 4 minutes of exercise in HF versus CTL (P<0.05) despite similar blood flow and oxygen uptake responses. In protocol 2, mean arterial pressure increased similarly in each group during ischemic exercise. In CTL, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance were similar at the end of ischemic and ambient exercise. In HF, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance were reduced during ischemic exercise compared with the ambient trial. CONCLUSIONS: Intrinsic differences in skeletal muscle metabolism, not vasodilatory dynamics, must account for the augmented glycolytic metabolic responses to moderate-intensity exercise in class II and III HF. The inability to increase forearm vascular conductance during ischemic handgrip exercise, despite a normal pressor response, suggests that enhanced vasoconstriction of strenuously exercising skeletal muscle contributes to exertional fatigue in HF.
Velez, Mauricio; Kohli, Smita; Sabbah, Hani N.
The incidence of heart failure (HF) and diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing and is associated with poor prognosis. In spite of the advances in therapy, HF remains a major health problem with high morbidity and mortality. When HF and diabetes coexist, clinical outcomes are significantly worse. The relationship between these two conditions has been studied in various experimental models. However, the mechanisms for this interrelationship are complex, incompletely understood, and have become a matter of considerable clinical and research interest. There are only few animal models that manifest both HF and diabetes. However, the translation of results from these models to human disease is limited and new models are needed to expand our current understanding of this clinical interaction. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of insulin signaling and insulin resistance, the clinical association between insulin resistance and HF and its proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms. Finally, we discuss available animal models of insulin resistance and HF and propose requirements for future new models. PMID:23456447
Shoemaker, J. K.; Naylor, H. L.; Hogeman, C. S.; Sinoway, L. I.
BACKGROUND: Exercise intolerance in heart failure (HF) may be due to inadequate vasodilation, augmented vasoconstriction, and/or altered muscle metabolic responses that lead to fatigue. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vascular and metabolic responses to rhythmic forearm exercise were tested in 9 HF patients and 9 control subjects (CTL) during 2 protocols designed to examine the effect of HF on the time course of oxygen delivery versus uptake (protocol 1) and on vasoconstriction during exercise with 50 mm Hg pressure about the forearm to evoke a metaboreflex (protocol 2). In protocol 1, venous lactate and H+ were greater at 4 minutes of exercise in HF versus CTL (P<0.05) despite similar blood flow and oxygen uptake responses. In protocol 2, mean arterial pressure increased similarly in each group during ischemic exercise. In CTL, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance were similar at the end of ischemic and ambient exercise. In HF, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance were reduced during ischemic exercise compared with the ambient trial. CONCLUSIONS: Intrinsic differences in skeletal muscle metabolism, not vasodilatory dynamics, must account for the augmented glycolytic metabolic responses to moderate-intensity exercise in class II and III HF. The inability to increase forearm vascular conductance during ischemic handgrip exercise, despite a normal pressor response, suggests that enhanced vasoconstriction of strenuously exercising skeletal muscle contributes to exertional fatigue in HF.
Jaarsma, T; Strömberg, A; De Geest, S; Fridlund, B; Heikkila, J; Mårtensson, J; Moons, P; Scholte op Reimer, W; Smith, K; Stewart, S; Thompson, D R
The ESC guidelines recommend that an organised system of specialist heart failure (HF) care should be established to improve outcomes of HF patients. The aim of this study was therefore to identify the number and the content of HF management programmes in Europe. A two-phase descriptive study was conducted: an initial screening to identify the existence of HF management programmes; and a survey to describe the content in countries where at least 30% of the hospitals had a programme. Of the 43 European countries approached, 26 (60%) estimated the percentage of HF management programmes. Seven countries reported that they had such programmes in more than 30% of their hospitals. Of the 673 hospitals responding to the questionnaire, 426 (63%) had a HF management programme. Half of the programmes (n = 205) were located in an outpatient clinic. In the UK a combination of hospital and home-based programmes was common (75%). The most programmes included physical examination, telephone consultation, patient education, drug titration and diagnostic testing. Most (89%) programmes involved nurses and physicians. Multi-disciplinary teams were active in 56% of the HF programmes. The most prominent differences between the 7 countries were the degree of collaboration with home care and GP's, the role in palliative care and the funding. Only a few European countries have a large number of organised programmes for HF care and follow up. To improve outcomes of HF patients throughout Europe more effort should be taken to increase the number of these programmes in all countries.
Physicians working in Europe and the United States should suspect Chagas heart failure in every patient coming from Latin America with chronic heart failure. Diagnosis should be confirmed by positive serology. Right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block on 12-lead electrocardiogram, enlarged cardiac silhouette with no pulmonary congestion on chest X-ray and left ventricular apical aneurysm on echocardiography are the distinctive features of this condition. The clinical course is poorer than that of non-Chagas heart failure; however, medical treatment is similar. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators are useful in the primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. Cardiac resynchronisation therapy can be given to patients on optimal medical therapy and with lengthened QRS complex. Heart transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage Chagas heart failure. PMID:28785459
Nayor, Matthew; Vasan, Ramachandran S
Heart failure prevention is an important public health goal. Increased physical activity and exercise may help to prevent heart failure, as they are associated with reduced heart failure incidence and potentially act through a variety of mechanisms to slow disease progression. Increased physical activity, higher cardiorespiratory fitness, and lower sedentary time are associated with reduced heart failure incidence. These associations are consistent for occurrence of heart failure with both preserved and reduced ejection fraction, the common subphenotypes of the condition. Physiologic cardiac and vascular remodeling occurs across the normal range of physical activity in the community, and regular exercise (four to five sessions per week) is necessary to mitigate age-associated reductions in ventricular compliance and cardiac mass. Greater physical activity, less sedentary time, and improved cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reductions in heart failure risk. Various mechanisms may explain these findings, including: reducing the prevalence of standard and novel cardiovascular risk factors, inhibiting pathologic cardiovascular remodeling, promoting physiologic remodeling, and improving cardiac, neurohormonal, skeletal muscle, pulmonary, renal, and vascular performance. Future research is needed to elucidate the optimal timing, duration, and modality of physical activity and exercise training necessary to prevent the development of heart failure.
Krim, Selim R.; Campbell, Patrick T.; Desai, Sapna; Mandras, Stacy; Patel, Hamang; Eiswirth, Clement; Ventura, Hector O.
Background Hospital admission for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure is an unfortunate certainty in the vast majority of patients with heart failure. Regardless of the etiology, inpatient treatment for acute decompensated heart failure portends a worsening prognosis. Methods This review identifies patients with heart failure who need inpatient therapy and provides an overview of recommended therapies and management of these patients in the hospital setting. Results Inpatient therapy for patients with acute decompensated heart failure should be directed at decongestion and symptom improvement. Clinicians should also treat possible precipitating events, identify comorbid conditions that may exacerbate heart failure, evaluate and update current guideline-directed medical therapy, and perform risk stratification for all patients. Finally, efforts should be made to educate patients about the importance of restricting salt and fluid, monitoring daily weights, and adhering to a graded exercise program. Conclusion Early discharge follow-up and continued optimization of guideline-directed medical therapy are key to preventing future heart failure readmissions. PMID:26413005
Fridman, Michael D; Mital, Seema
In 2015, President Obama launched the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI), which introduced new funding to a method of research with the potential to study rare and complex diseases. Paediatric heart failure, a heterogeneous syndrome affecting approximately 1 in 100000 children, is one such condition in which precision medicine techniques may be applied with great benefit. Current heart failure therapies target downstream effects of heart failure rather than the underlying cause of heart failure. As such, they are often ineffective in paediatric heart failure, which is typically of primary (e.g. genetic) rather than secondary (e.g. acquired) aetiology. It is, therefore, important to develop therapies that can target the causes of heart failure in children with greater specificity thereby decreasing morbidity, mortality and burden of illness on both patients and their families. The benefits of co-ordinated research in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics and phenomics along with dietary, lifestyle and social factors have led to novel therapeutic and prognostic applications in other fields such as oncology. Applying such co-ordinated research efforts to heart failure constitutes an important step in advancing care and improving the lives of those affected.
Bianchi, C.; Thibault, G.; Wrobel-Konrad, E.; De Lean, A.; Genest, J.; Cantin, M. )
A quantitative in vitro autoradiographic study was performed on the aorta, renal glomeruli, and adrenal cortex of cardiomyopathic hamsters in various stages of heart failure and correlated, in some instances, with in vivo autoradiography. The results indicate virtually no correlation between the degree of congestive heart failure and the density of 125I-labeled atrial natriuretic factor ((Ser99, Tyr126)ANF) binding sites (Bmax) in the tissues examined. Whereas the Bmax was increased in the thoracic aorta in moderate and severe heart failure, there were no significant changes in the zona glomerulosa. The renal glomeruli Bmax was lower in mild and moderate heart failure compared with control and severe heart failure. The proportion of ANF B- and C-receptors was also evaluated in sections of the aorta, adrenal, and kidney of control and cardiomyopathic hamsters with severe heart failure. (Arg102, Cys121)ANF (des-(Gln113, Ser114, Gly115, Leu116, Gly117) NH2) (C-ANF) at 10(-6) M displaced approximately 505 of (Ser99, Tyr126)125I-ANF bound in the aorta and renal glomeruli and approximately 20% in the adrenal zona glomerulosa in both series of animals. These results suggest that ANF may exert a buffering effect on the vasoconstriction of heart failure and to a certain extent may inhibit aldosterone secretion. The impairment of renal sodium excretion does not appear to be related to glomerular ANF binding sites at any stage of the disease.
Nayor, Matthew; Vasan, Ramachandran S.
Purpose of review Heart failure prevention is an important public health goal. Increased physical activity and exercise may help to prevent heart failure, as they are associated with reduced heart failure incidence and potentially act through a variety of mechanisms to slow disease progression. Recent findings Increased physical activity, higher cardiorespiratory fitness, and lower sedentary time are associated with reduced heart failure incidence. These associations are consistent for occurrence of both heart failure with preserved versus reduced ejection fraction, the common subphenotypes of the condition. Physiologic cardiac and vascular remodeling occur across the normal range of physical activity in the community, and regular exercise (4–5 sessions per week) is necessary to mitigate age-associated reductions in ventricular compliance and cardiac mass. Summary Greater physical activity, lesser sedentary time and improved cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reductions in heart failure risk. Various mechanisms may explain these findings including: reducing the prevalence of standard and novel cardiovascular risk factors, inhibiting pathologic cardiovascular remodeling, promoting physiologic remodeling, and improving cardiac, neurohormonal, skeletal muscle, pulmonary, renal, and vascular performance. Future research is needed to elucidate the optimal timing, duration, and modality of physical activity and exercise training necessary to prevent the development of heart failure. PMID:26154074
Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram; Banach, Maciej; Ahmed, Ali; Aronow, Wilbert S
Heart failure (HF) and obesity are major public health problems. Studies have shown that obesity may increase the risk of developing new HF but after patients have developed HF, obesity may be associated with improved outcomes. This paradoxical association of obesity with HF remains poorly understood. It is believed that the obesity paradox may in part be due to the inherent limitations of body mass index (BMI) as a measure of obesity. BMI may not appropriately measure important components of body mass like body fat, fat distribution, lean body mass, and body fluid content and may not be ideal for examining the relationship of body composition with health outcomes. Differentiating between body fat and lean body mass may explain some of the paradoxical association between higher BMI and better prognosis in patients with HF. Paradoxical outcomes in HF may also be due to phenotypes of obesity. Future studies need to develop and test metrics that may better measure body composition and may serve as a better tool for the estimation of the true association of obesity and outcomes in HF and determine whether the association may vary by obesity phenotypes. KEY MESSAGES Obesity predisposes to heart failure in all age groups. But obesity in heart failure is an area of controversy, because of obesity paradox, the apparent protective effect of overweight and mild obesity on mortality after development of heart failure. Traditional markers of obesity do not measure different components of body weight like muscle mass, fat, water, and skeletal weight. Body Mass Index in heart failure subjects does not measure accurately body fat or fluid retention. So new markers of obesity like visceral adiposity index, body composition analysis, sarcopenic status assessment may be helpful in the assessment of heart failure outcomes. Different phenotypes of obesity may be responsible for the different morbidity, mortality as well as therapeutic outcomes in heart failure.
Martin, M W S
The understanding of heart failure is no longer based on a supply and demand model of pump failure. Rather, heart failure is seen as a complex pathophysiological process with activation of various neuroendocrine systems. The goals of treatment have changed towards modifying these counterproductive neuroendocrine systems and slowing myocardial maladaptation. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are the only licensed drugs in veterinary practice that have a direct effect on neurohormones in heart failure. The range of drug options in human medicine is greater and some of these drugs are also increasingly being used in veterinary cardiology practice. This review describes the neuroendocrine systems involved in heart failure and discusses the range of drugs available in human and veterinary medicine. In doing so, it concentrates on the evidence available from good quality randomised trials in both the veterinary field and, where relevant, the human medical field.
Ozdemir, Murat; Arslan, Uğur; Türkoğlu, Sedat; Balcioğlu, Serhat; Cengel, Atiye
Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate turbulence are known to be disturbed and associated with excess mortality in heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether losartan, when added on top of beta-blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) therapy, could improve these indices in patients with systolic heart failure. Seventy-seven patients (mean age 60.4 +/- 8.0, 80.5% male) with ischemic cardiomyopathy (mean ejection fraction 34.5 +/- 4.4%) and New York Heart Association Class II-III heart failure symptoms, already receiving a beta-blocker and an ACEI, were randomly assigned to either open-label losartan (losartan group) or no additional drug (control group) in a 2:1 ratio and the patients were followed for 12 weeks. The HRV and heart rate turbulence indices were calculated from 24-hour Holter recordings both at the beginning and at the end of follow-up. The baseline clinical characteristics, HRV, and heart rate turbulence indices were similar in the 2 groups. At 12 weeks of follow-up, all HRV parameters except pNN50 increased (SDNN: 113.2 +/- 34.2 versus 127.8 +/- 24.1, P = .001; SDANN: 101.5 +/- 31.7 versus 115.2 +/- 22.0, P = .001; triangular index: 29.9 +/- 11.1 versus 34.2 +/- 7.9, P = .008; RMSSD: 29.1 +/- 20.2 versus 34.3 +/- 23.0, P = .009; NN50: 5015.3 +/- 5554.9 versus 6446.7 +/- 6101.1, P = .024; NN50: 5.65 +/- 6.41 versus 7.24 +/- 6.99, P = .089; SDNNi: 45.1 +/- 13.3 versus 50.3 +/- 14.5, P = .004), turbulence onset decreased (-0. 61 +/- 1.70 versus -1.24 +/- 1.31, P = .003) and turbulence slope increased (4.107 +/- 3.881 versus 5.940 +/- 4.281, P = .004) significantly in the losartan group as compared with controls. A 12-week-long losartan therapy significantly improved HRV and heart rate turbulence in patients with Class II-III heart failure and ischemic cardiomyopathy already on beta-blockers and ACEI.
Segers, Vincent F M; Brutsaert, Dirk L; De Keulenaer, Gilles W
Pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure are common findings in patients suffering from heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension related to heart failure. HFpEF is a clinical syndrome with increasing prevalence and a mortality rate similar to heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Because the pathophysiology and even the definition of this disease are still controversial, we will first outline the current conceptual framework around heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Next, we will outline our current knowledge on the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension related to left ventricular failure and diastolic dysfunction. Diastolic dysfunction induces pulmonary hypertension through passive transmission of elevated end diastolic pressures, reactive pulmonary vasoconstriction, and vascular remodeling. Eventually, right ventricular failure develops that can further potentiate left ventricular failure because of their close mechanical, cellular, and biochemical integration. Exciting new studies have led to an increased understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and indicate that pulmonary hypertension in heart failure may be treatable.
Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Abreu-Afonso, Javier; Rodríguez, Sergio; Juarez-Prera, Ruben A; Arroyo-Ucar, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Yenny; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Avanzas, Pablo
AIM: To study whether the concentrations of particulate matter in ambient air are associated with hospital admission due to heart failure in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and reduced ejection fraction. METHODS: We studied 353 consecutive patients admitted into a tertiary care hospital with a diagnosis of heart failure. Patients with ejection fraction of ≥ 45% were classified as having heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and those with an ejection fraction of < 45% were classified as having heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. We determined the average concentrations of different sizes of particulate matter (< 10, < 2.5, and < 1 μm) and the concentrations of gaseous pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone) from 1 d up to 7 d prior to admission. RESULTS: The heart failure with preserved ejection fraction population was exposed to higher nitrogen dioxide concentrations compared to the heart failure with reduced ejection fraction population (12.95 ± 8.22 μg/m3 vs 4.50 ± 2.34 μg/m3, P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that nitrogen dioxide was a significant predictor of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (odds ratio ranging from (1.403, 95%CI: 1.003-2.007, P = 0.04) to (1.669, 95%CI: 1.043-2.671, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that short-term nitrogen dioxide exposure is independently associated with admission in the heart failure with preserved ejection fraction population. PMID:23538391
Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Abreu-Afonso, Javier; Rodríguez, Sergio; Juarez-Prera, Ruben A; Arroyo-Ucar, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Yenny; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Avanzas, Pablo
To study whether the concentrations of particulate matter in ambient air are associated with hospital admission due to heart failure in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and reduced ejection fraction. We studied 353 consecutive patients admitted into a tertiary care hospital with a diagnosis of heart failure. Patients with ejection fraction of ≥ 45% were classified as having heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and those with an ejection fraction of < 45% were classified as having heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. We determined the average concentrations of different sizes of particulate matter (< 10, < 2.5, and < 1 μm) and the concentrations of gaseous pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone) from 1 d up to 7 d prior to admission. The heart failure with preserved ejection fraction population was exposed to higher nitrogen dioxide concentrations compared to the heart failure with reduced ejection fraction population (12.95 ± 8.22 μg/m(3) vs 4.50 ± 2.34 μg/m(3), P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that nitrogen dioxide was a significant predictor of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (odds ratio ranging from (1.403, 95%CI: 1.003-2.007, P = 0.04) to (1.669, 95%CI: 1.043-2.671, P = 0.03). This study demonstrates that short-term nitrogen dioxide exposure is independently associated with admission in the heart failure with preserved ejection fraction population.
Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed
Brum, P C; Bacurau, A V; Cunha, T F; Bechara, L R G; Moreira, J B N
Reduced aerobic capacity, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake, is a hallmark in cardiovascular diseases and strongly predicts poor prognosis and higher mortality rates in heart failure patients. While exercise capacity is poorly correlated with cardiac function in this population, skeletal muscle abnormalities present a striking association with maximal oxygen uptake. This fact draws substantial attention to the clinical relevance of targeting skeletal myopathy in heart failure. Considering that skeletal muscle is highly responsive to aerobic exercise training, we addressed the benefits of aerobic exercise training to combat skeletal myopathy in heart failure, focusing on the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise training counteracts skeletal muscle atrophy.
Washburn, Susan C; Hornberger, Cynthia A
Heart failure is a chronic illness that poses a significant societal burden in the United States. Health care facilities are challenged to provide the most current treatment options available for patients with heart failure. Patient education focusing on self-management is recognized as essential. Nurses play a key role in the delivery of patient education. This article reviews the limited available evidence regarding nurses' knowledge of heart failure self-management principles. The key topics of symptom and weight management, dietary recommendations, medications, and activity are discussed.
Heart failure is a prevalent and costly disease, and its management with polypharmacy is complex. Commonly available biomarkers primarily help to 1) establish or refute the diagnosis of heart failure; 2) help to determine the disease severity; and 3) identify adverse consequences of treatment. Although several of them are commonly ordered (such as electrolytes, renal and liver function), their use is primarily based on broad clinical experience rather than established evidence. The availability of cardiac-specific natriuretic peptide testing has provided an evidence-based breakthrough in our abilities to establish the diagnosis and severity of heart failure, yet the appropriate boundaries to guide management are still in refinement. PMID:24085636
Guo, Mengqi; Guo, Guanlun
Objective To review possible associations reported between genetic variants and the risk, therapeutic response and prognosis of heart failure. Methods Electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science and CNKI) were systematically searched for relevant papers, published between January 1995 and February 2015. Results Eighty-two articles covering 29 genes and 39 polymorphisms were identified. Conclusion Genetic association studies of heart failure have been highly controversial. There may be interaction or synergism of several genetic variants that together result in the ultimate pathological phenotype for heart failure. PMID:26769713
Adams, Monica Colvin; Ali, Syed Sohail
Despite the recent advancement in medical therapy for heart failure, morbidity associated with heart failure continues to be excessive, with rising hospitalization rates and costs. Disease management models have been instituted successfully for several chronic disease states, and observational trials have shown different models to be beneficial. A multidisciplinary approach to management of heart failure improves outcomes. Multiple recent trials involving various models of integrated and comprehensive disease management have demonstrated promising results, such as reduction in mortality and hospitalizations. Future models for disease monitoring may include implantable devices that directly monitor hemodynamics combined with multidisciplinary care.
Robles Perez-Monteoliva, Nicolás Roberto; Macías Núñez, Juan Francisco; Herrera Pérez de Villar, Julio
Congestive heart failure is a disease of high incidence and prevalence in the elderly. Anemia is associated with an increased mortality in these patients. This article reviews the cumulated evidence about the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in congestive heart failure patients. Although some improvement in quality of life has been shown, it has not been found any decrement on mortality and, as a result, together with the high drug cost, it is not recommended the use of this kind of drugs in heart failure patients.
Vizzardi, Enrico; Bonadei, Ivano; Rovetta, Riccardo; D'Aloia, Antonio; Quinzani, Filippo; Curnis, Antonio; Dei Cas, Livio
Organic nitrates remain among the oldest and most commonly employed drugs in cardiology. Although, in most cases, their use in acute and chronic heart failure is based on clinical practice, only a few clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate their use in acute and chronic heart failure, most of which compare them with other drugs to evaluate differing endpoints. The purpose of this review is to examine the various trials that have evaluated the use of nitrates in acute and chronic heart failure.
Senni, Michele; D'Elia, Emilia; Emdin, Michele; Vergaro, Giuseppe
Biomarkers are increaingly being used in the management of heart failure not only for the purpose of screening, diagnosis, and risk stratification, but also as a guide to evaluate the response to treatment in the individual patient and as an entry criterion and/or a surrogate marker of efficacy in clinical trials testing novel drugs. In this chapter, we review the role of established biomarkers for heart failure management, according to the main classification of HF phenotypes, based on the measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction, including heart failure with reduced (<40%), preserved (≥50%), and, as recently proposed, mid-range (40-49%) ejection fraction.
Doshi, Darshan; Burkhoff, Daniel
Mathematical modeling and simulation allows for an in-depth examination of the cardiovascular system and provides the opportunity to develop deeper understanding. This review summarizes recent efforts at modeling the cardiovascular system and how these models have been useful in providing greater comprehension of the pathophysiology of heart failure, explaining the hemodynamic impact of various heart failure devices, predicting the hemodynamic effects and clinical outcomes of certain heart failure clinical trials, and perhaps aiding in patient selection for new therapies. The potential future use of these models in clinical research and clinical practice are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nyolczas, Noémi; Heltai, Krisztina; Borbély, Attila; Habon, Tamás; Járai, Zoltán; Sziliczei, Erzsébet; Stadler, Péter; Faludi, Réka; Herczeg, Béla; Papp, Előd; Lakatos, Ferenc; Nagy, Katalin; Katona, András; Kovács, Imre; Tomcsányi, János; Nagy, András; Sepp, Róbert
Heart failure is associated with a poor prognosis despite significant advances in the pharmacological and device therapy and incurs very high cost because of frequent hospitalizations. Therefore, professional high-quality care is essential for both patients and the healthcare system. The best way to evaluate the quality of care for a particular disease is the use of disease-specific registries. Until now, there has not been a registry evaluating characteristics and management of heart failure patients in Hungary. For that reason, the Hungarian Society of Cardiology initiated the set-up of the Hungarian Heart Failure Registry. The Aim of this paper is to present the goals, methods and first year results of the Hungarian Heart Failure Registry. The goal of the Registry is to create a modern, web-based database that summarizes the data of large number of patients who are currently or were previously admitted to hospital or who are currently or were previously patients in an outpatient department due to severe heart failure (NYHA III-IV). Currently 17 cardiology departments participate in the development of the Registry. The planned number of patients is 2000. Initially follow-up was planned for one year (pilot study). After the evaluation of the relevant experiences of the pilot study, long-term follow-up is planned. The Registry collects information about the type of heart failure (heart failure with reduced - LVEF≤45% - vs. preserved - LVEF>45% - ejection fraction), etiology, co-morbidities, diagnostic methods, treatment as well as morbidity and mortality. After the first year, assessing the baseline parameters of 698 patients enrolled in the Registry we found that the majority of patients (87.8%) has heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and in 39.8% of the patients heart failure has an ischaemic origin. The most frequent co-morbidity was hypertension followed by diabetes, renal insufficiency and COPD. The patients were treated with ACE inhibitors or ARBs
Grewal, Jasmine; Silversides, Candice K; Colman, Jack M
Heart disease, present in 0.5% to 3% of pregnant women, is an important cause of morbidity and the leading cause of death among pregnant women in the developed world. Certain heart conditions are associated with an increased risk of heart failure during pregnancy or the postpartum period; for these conditions, management during pregnancy benefits from multidisciplinary care at a center with expertise in pregnancy and heart disease. This article focuses on cardiac risks and management strategies for women with acquired and congenital heart disease who are at increased risk of heart failure during pregnancy.
Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Quintessenza, James A; Karl, Tom R; Asante-Korang, Alfred; Everett, Allen D; Collins, Susan B; Ramirez-Correa, Genaro A; Burns, Kristin M; Cohen, Mitchell; Colan, Steven D; Costello, John M; Daly, Kevin P; Franklin, Rodney C G; Fraser, Charles D; Hill, Kevin D; Huhta, James C; Kaushal, Sunjay; Law, Yuk M; Lipshultz, Steven E; Murphy, Anne M; Pasquali, Sara K; Payne, Mark R; Rossano, Joseph; Shirali, Girish; Ware, Stephanie M; Xu, Mingguo; Jacobs, Marshall L
In the United States alone, ∼14,000 children are hospitalised annually with acute heart failure. The science and art of caring for these patients continues to evolve. The International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute was held on February 4 and 5, 2015. The 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute was funded through the Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program Endowment, a philanthropic collaboration between All Children's Hospital and the Morsani College of Medicine at the University of South Florida (USF). Sponsored by All Children's Hospital Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program, the International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit assembled leaders in clinical and scientific disciplines related to paediatric heart failure and created a multi-disciplinary "think-tank". The purpose of this manuscript is to summarise the lessons from the 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute, to describe the "state of the art" of the treatment of paediatric cardiac failure, and to discuss future directions for research in the domain of paediatric cardiac failure.
Steckler, Anne E; Bishu, Kalkidan; Wassif, Heba; Sigurdsson, Gardar; Wagner, Judy; Jaenicke, Connie; Vats, Shashank; Rector, Thomas; Anand, Inder S
In clinical practice, heart failure (HF) medications are underused and prescribed at lower than recommended doses. Telephone care is an option that could help to titrate HF medication in a timely manner. We describe our experience of a nurse-run, cardiologist- or nurse practitioner-supervised clinic to up-titrate HF medications via telephone. Patients with the diagnosis of HF, New York Heart Association classes I to III, were referred to a registered nurse-run, cardiologist-/nurse practitioner-supervised HF medication titration clinic. Clinical and medication data collected at enrollment to the clinic and at 3 to 6 months after optimization of HF medications in patients who did or did not reach the target doses were compared. Effect on left ventricular (LV) function was also evaluated. There were 79 patients in the evaluation: 64 with HF and LV systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and the remaining 15 with HF and preserved ejection fraction (EF). Seventy-two percent of patients with LVSD were on an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), and 61% were on a β-blocker at baseline, and this increased to 98% and 97%, respectively, after optimization. Target doses was achieved in 50% of patients for ACEI or ARB, and in 41% for β-blockers. The median time to optimization was 54 days (interquartile range, 20-97 days). The average number of phone calls at the time of optimization were 5.4 (SD, 3.7), and the average number of clinic visits was 1.9 (SD, 1.3). Reasons for not reaching the target doses included hypotension, hyperkalemia, and renal dysfunction for ACEI and bradycardia for β-blockers. Overall, the EF increased by 10% (SD, 10%) after 6 months, and 35% or greater in 42% of patients whose baseline EF was less than 35%. There were no adverse events related to the dose up-titration. Telephonic titration of HF medications was feasible and safe and was achieved in 97% patients on ACEI/ARB and β-blockers. Medication titration was
Gallagher, Joseph; James, Stephanie; Keane, Ciara; Fitzgerald, Annie; Travers, Bronagh; Quigley, Etain; Hecht, Christina; Zhou, Shuaiwei; Watson, Chris; Ledwidge, Mark
Abstract Aims We undertook a mixed‐methods evaluation of a Web‐based conferencing service (virtual consult) between general practitioners (GPs) and cardiologists in managing patients with heart failure in the community to determine its effect on use of specialist heart failure services and acceptability to GPs. Methods and results All cases from June 2015 to October 2016 were recorded using a standardized recording template, which recorded patient demographics, medical history, medications, and outcome of the virtual consult for each case. Quantitative surveys and qualitative interviewing of 17 participating GPs were also undertaken. During this time, 142 cases were discussed—68 relating to a new diagnosis of heart failure, 53 relating to emerging deterioration in a known heart failure patient, and 21 relating to therapeutic issues. Only 17% required review in outpatient department following the virtual consultation. GPs reported increased confidence in heart failure management, a broadening of their knowledge base, and a perception of overall better patient outcomes. Conclusions These data from an initial experience with Heart Failure Virtual Consultation present a very positive impact of this strategy on the provision of heart failure care in the community and acceptability to users. Further research on the implementation and expansion of this strategy is warranted. PMID:28772044
Søreide, E; Harboe, S; Søndenaa, K
A young trauma patient developed severe adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), right heart failure, hepatic congestion and an extreme hepatomegaly but no hepatic failure. The patient needed 100% oxygen during ventilatory support for 80 days and was weaned from the ventilator after more than 100 days. The hepatomegaly gradually disappeared. Four months after the injury, the anatomical shape of the lungs, heart and liver were normalized. This case illustrates that severe ARDS may cause right heart failure and extreme hepatomegaly due to venous congestion in the liver and spleen, but without hepatic failure.
Doenst, Torsten; Nguyen, T. Dung; Abel, E. Dale
The heart has a high rate of ATP production and turnover which is required to maintain its continuous mechanical work. Perturbations in ATP generating processes may therefore affect contractile function directly. Characterizing cardiac metabolism in heart failure revealed several metabolic alterations termed metabolic remodeling, ranging from changes in substrate utilization to mitochondrial dysfunction, ultimately resulting in ATP deficiency and impaired contractility. However, ATP depletion is not the only relevant consequence of metabolic remodeling during heart failure. By providing cellular building blocks and signaling molecules, metabolic pathways control essential processes such as cell growth and regeneration. Thus, alterations in cardiac metabolism may also affect the progression to heart failure by mechanisms beyond ATP supply. Our aim is therefore to highlight that metabolic remodeling in heart failure not only results in impaired cardiac energetics, but also induces other processes implicated in the development of heart failure such as structural remodeling and oxidative stress. Accordingly, modulating cardiac metabolism in heart failure may have significant therapeutic relevance that goes beyond the energetic aspect. PMID:23989714
Keith, Mary E; Walsh, Natalie A; Darling, Pauline B; Hanninen, Stacy A; Thirugnanam, Subarna; Leong-Poi, Howard; Barr, Aiala; Sole, Michael J
The impact of heart failure and its treatment on specific nutrient requirements is unknown. Furthermore, depletion of water-soluble B vitamins that play key roles in the production of cellular energy in patients with heart failure can contribute to depletion of energy reserves observed in the failing heart. A cross-sectional study recently reported that approximately one third of hospitalized patients with heart failure had tissue levels suggestive of thiamin deficiency (vitamin B-1). Riboflavin (vitamin B-2) and pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) are similar to thiamin in that they are water-soluble, subject to renal excretion, have limited tissue storage, and are dependent on intake. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the status of these B vitamins may also be adversely affected by heart failure. As a result, the prevalence of patients at risk of vitamin B-2 (erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient > or = 1.2) and B-6 deficiency (plasma B-6 < or = 20 nmol/L) was determined in a cross-section of 100 patients hospitalized with heart failure between April 2001 and June 2002 as well as in a group of volunteers without heart failure. Twenty-seven percent of patients with heart failure had biochemical evidence of vitamin B-2 deficiency, while 38% had evidence of B-6 deficiency. These prevalence rates were significantly higher than those observed in the volunteers without heart failure (2% and 19%, respectively; P < or = 0.02). Use of common B-vitamin-containing supplements by patients with heart failure did not significantly reduce deficiency rates in comparison with those who did not use supplements (B-2 P=0.38 or B-6 P=0.18)). Finally, while 80% of patients with heart failure took diuretics, neither the dose nor the duration of furosemide use was related to the presence of either B-2 or B-6 deficiency. Given the physiologic importance of these vitamins, further investigations aimed at determining the effect of heart failure on specific nutrient requirements as
Ning, Ning; Gao, Dengfeng; Triggiani, Vincenzo; Iacoviello, Massimo; Mitchell, Judith E.; Ma, Rui; Zhang, Yan; Kou, Huijuan
Abstract Hypothyroidism is a risk factor of heart failure (HF) in the general population. However, the relationship between hypothyroidism and clinical outcomes in patients with established HF is still inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association of hypothyroidism and all-cause mortality as well as cardiac death and/or hospitalization in patients with HF. We searched MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases for studies of hypothyroidism and clinical outcomes in patients with HF published up to the end of January 2015. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risk (RR) statistics. We included 13 articles that reported RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for hypothyroidism with outcomes in patients with HF. For the association of hypothyroidism with all-cause mortality and with cardiac death and/or hospitalization, the pooled RR was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.29–1.61) and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.22–1.55), respectively. However, the association disappeared on adjustment for B-type natriuretic protein level (RR 1.17, 95% CI: 0.90–1.52) and in studies of patients with mean age <65 years (RR 1.23, 95% CI: 0.88–1.76). We found hypothyroidism associated with increased all-cause mortality as well as cardiac death and/or hospitalization in patients with HF. Further diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for hypothyroidism may be needed for patients with HF. PMID:26222845
Boulanger, C M
The endothelium is a major regulator of vascular tone, releasing vasoactive substances such as endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDRF), endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor(s), cycloxygenase metabolites, endothelin and other endothelium-derived contracting factors (EDCF). In a number of cardiovascular pathologies, such as hypertension or heart failure, the balance in the endothelial production of vasodilating and vasoconstricting mediators is altered. The resulting apparent decrease in endothelium-dependent relaxations is termed 'endothelial dysfunction'. In hypertensive patients and in animal models of hypertension, endothelium-dependent relaxations are impaired. However, this endothelial dysfunction presents different characteristics depending on the model studied. In Dahl-salt-sensitive rats, the decrease in endothelium-dependent relaxations is associated with impaired constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity. The presence of an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and a decreased response of vascular smooth muscle to the mediator may contribute also to the dysfunction observed in this model. In other animal models of hypertension (such as spontaneous hypertension). the contribution of the L-arginine nitric oxide pathway to endothelium-dependent responses appears normal or impaired despite reports of increased nitric oxide synthase activity or expression. In large arteries from SHR, endothelium-dependent relaxations are impaired mainly because of the concomitant augmented release of endoperoxides activating thromboxane-endoperoxide receptors. Superoxide anions may also play a role in some models, but only in the early phase of the disease: whether or not these species contribute to further development of endothelial dysfunction or to increases in blood pressure remains to be examined. The endothelial dysfunction observed in hypertension is likely to be a consequence of high blood pressure. but it could facilitate the maintenance of elevated
Goebel, Joy R.; Doering, Lynn V.; Shugarman, Lisa R.; Asch, Steve M.; Sherbourne, Cathy D.; Lanto, Andy B.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Nyamathi, Adeline M.; Maliski, Sally L.; Lorenz, Karl A.
Although dyspnea and fatigue are hallmark symptoms of heart failure (HF), the burden of pain may be underrecognized. This study assessed pain in HF and identified contributing factors. As part of a multicenter study, 96 veterans with HF (96% male, 67 ± 11 years) completed measures of symptoms, pain (Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), functional status (Functional Morbidity Index), and psychological state (Patient Health Questionnaire-2 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2). Single items from the BPI interference and the quality of life-end of life measured social and spiritual well-being. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained by chart audit. Correlation and linear regression models evaluated physical, emotional, social, and spiritual factors associated with pain. Fifty-three (55.2%) HF patients reported pain, with a majority (36 [37.5%]) rating their pain as moderate to severe (pain ≥ 4/10). The presence of pain was reported more frequently than dyspnea (67 [71.3%] vs. 58 [61.7%]). Age (P = 0.02), psychological (depression: P = 0.002; anxiety: P = 0.001), social (P < 0.001), spiritual (P = 0.010), and physical (health status: P = 0.001; symptom frequency: P = 0.000; functional status: P = 0.002) well-being were correlated with pain severity. In the resulting model, 38% of the variance in pain severity was explained (P < 0.001); interference with relations (P < 0.001) and symptom number (P = 0.007) contributed to pain severity. The association of physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domains with pain suggests that multidisciplinary interventions are needed to address the complex nature of pain in HF. PMID:19733032
Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Ois, Angel; Roquer, Jaume
Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the ventricle to fill with or eject blood. Due to the aging of the population it has become a growing public health problem in recent decades. Diagnosis of HF is clinical and there is no diagnostic test, although some basic complementary testing should be performed in all patients. Depending on the ejection fraction (EF), the syndrome is classified as HF with low EF or HF with normal EF (HFNEF). Although prognosis in HF is poor, HFNEF seems to be more benign. HF and ischemic stroke (IS) share vascular risk factors such as age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation. Persons with HF have higher incidence of IS, varying from 1.7% to 10.4% per year across various cohort studies. The stroke rate increases with length of follow-up. Reduced EF, independent of severity, is associated with higher risk of stroke. Left ventricular mass and geometry are also related with stroke incidence, with concentric hypertrophy carrying the greatest risk. In HF with low EF, the stroke mechanism may be embolism, cerebral hypoperfusion or both, whereas in HFNEF the mechanism is more typically associated with chronic endothelial damage of the small vessels. Stroke in patients with HF is more severe and is associated with a higher rate of recurrence, dependency, and short term and long term mortality. Cardiac morbidity and mortality is also high in these patients. Acute stroke treatment in HF includes all the current therapeutic options to more carefully control blood pressure. For secondary prevention, optimal control of all vascular risk factors is essential. Antithrombotic therapy is mandatory, although the choice of a platelet inhibitor or anticoagulant drug depends on the cardiac disease. Trials are ongoing to evaluate anticoagulant therapy for prevention of embolism in patients with low EF who are at
Lima, Aline Regina Ruiz; Martinez, Paula Felippe; Damatto, Ricardo Luiz; Cezar, Marcelo Diarcadia Mariano; Guizoni, Daniele Mendes; Bonomo, Camila; Oliveira, Silvio Assis; Dal-Pai Silva, Maeli; Zornoff, Leonardo Antonio Mamede; Okoshi, Katashi; Okoshi, Marina Politi
Intracellular signaling pathways involved in skeletal myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform alterations during heart failure (HF) are not completely understood. We tested the hypothesis that diaphragm expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and myogenic regulatory factors is changed in rats with myocardial infarction (MI) induced HF. Six months after MI rats were subjected to transthoracic echocardiography. After euthanasia, infarcted rats were subdivided in MI/HF- group (with no HF evidence; n=10), and MI/HF+ (with right ventricular hypertrophy and lung congestion; n=10). Sham-operated rats were used as controls (n=10). MyHC isoforms were analyzed by electrophoresis. ANOVA and Pearson correlation. MI/HF- had left cardiac chambers dilation with systolic and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction. Cardiac injury was more intense in MI/HF+ than MI/HF-. MyHC I isoform percentage was higher in MI/HF+ than MI/HF-, and IIb isoform lower in MI/HF+ than Sham. Left atrial diameter-to-body weight ratio positively correlated with MyHC I (p=0.005) and negatively correlated with MyHC IIb (p=0.02). TNF-α serum concentration positively correlated with MyHC I isoform. Total and phosphorylated ERK was lower in MI/HF- and MI/HF+ than Sham. Phosphorylated JNK was lower in MI/HF- than Sham. JNK and p38 did not differ between groups. Expression of NF-κB and the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD, myogenin, and MRF4 was similar between groups. Diaphragm MyHC fast-to-slow shift is related to cardiac dysfunction severity and TNF-α serum levels in infarcted rats. Reduced ERK expression seems to participate in MyHC isoform changes. Myogenic regulatory factors and NF-κB do not modulate diaphragm MyHC distribution during chronic HF. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Andrikopoulou, Efstathia; Abbate, Kariann; Whellan, David J
The objective of this review is to propose a conceptual model for heart failure (HF) disease management (HFDM) and to define the components of an efficient HFDM plan in reference to this model. Articles that evaluated 1 or more of the following aspects of HFDM were reviewed: (1) outpatient clinic follow-up; (2) self-care interventions to enhance patient skills; and (3) remote evaluation of worsening HF either using structured telephone support (STS) or by monitoring device data (telemonitoring). The success of programs in reducing readmissions and mortality were mixed. Outpatient follow-up programs generally resulted in improved outcomes, including decreased readmissions. Based on 1 meta-analysis, specialty clinics improved outcomes and nonspecialty clinics did not. Results from self-care programs were inconsistent and might have been affected by patient cognitive status and educational level, and intervention intensity. Telemonitoring, despite initially promising meta-analyses demonstrating a decrease in the number and duration of HF-related readmissions and all-cause mortality rates at follow-up, has not been shown in randomized trials to consistently reduce readmissions or mortality. However, evidence from device monitoring trials in particular might have been influenced by technology and design issues that might be rectified in future trials. Results from the literature suggest that the ideal HFDM plan would include outpatient follow-up at an HF specialty clinic and continuous education to improve patient self-care. The end result of this plan would lead to better understanding on the part of the patient and improved patient ability to recognize and respond to signs of decompensation.
Bikdeli, Behnood; Strait, Kelly M; Dharmarajan, Kumar; Li, Shu-Xia; Mody, Purav; Partovian, Chohreh; Coca, Steven G; Kim, Nancy; Horwitz, Leora I; Testani, Jeffrey M; Krumholz, Harlan M
This study sought to determine the use of intravenous fluids in the early care of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (HF) who are treated with loop diuretics. Intravenous fluids are routinely provided to many hospitalized patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with HF to 346 hospitals from 2009 to 2010. We assessed the use of intravenous fluids during the first 2 days of hospitalization. We determined the frequency of adverse in-hospital outcomes. We assessed variation in the use of intravenous fluids across hospitals and patient groups. Among 131,430 hospitalizations for HF, 13,806 (11%) were in patients treated with intravenous fluids during the first 2 days. The median volume of administered fluid was 1,000 ml (interquartile range: 1,000 to 2,000 ml), and the most commonly used fluids were normal saline (80%) and half-normal saline (12%). Demographic characteristics and comorbidities were similar in hospitalizations in which patients did and did not receive fluids. Patients who were treated with intravenous fluids had higher rates of subsequent critical care admission (5.7% vs. 3.8%; p < 0.0001), intubation (1.4% vs. 1.0%; p = 0.0012), renal replacement therapy (0.6% vs. 0.3%; p < 0.0001), and hospital death (3.3% vs. 1.8%; p < 0.0001) compared with those who received only diuretics. The proportion of hospitalizations that used fluid treatment varied widely across hospitals (range: 0% to 71%; median: 12.5%). Many patients who are hospitalized with HF and receive diuretics also receive intravenous fluids during their early inpatient care, and the proportion varies among hospitals. Such practice is associated with worse outcomes and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heart failure (HF) is a major and growing health problem in western communities. Recent data indicate that more than 50% of patients with the clinical syndrome of HF have a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HF with preserved ejection fraction, HFpEF). In contrast to the calculated expectations, the observed incidence of HF is rising. Despite the fact that the relative proportion of patients with preserved left ventricular function is also increasing, other factors, such as ageing of the population and the concomitant change of compound risk factors may also contribute to the actual rise in the incidence of HF. Patients with HF suffer from reduced exercise capacity, impaired quality of life and also from recurrent hospitalization due to HF. Over the past decades, an increase of recurrent HF events has been documented. In contrast to earlier reports in which HFpEF was considered to be more benign than HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), recent data suggest that once hospitalized for HF, patients with HFpEF and those with HFrEF have a comparable prognosis in terms of morbidity and mortality. Despite increasing clinical and economic relevance, no treatment has yet been shown to convincingly reduce mortality in HFpEF. In contrast, strategies for improving survival have now been established for HFrEF. The problem of HF will continue to be major challenge for the healthcare systems in western communities; therefore, consolidated clinical research is necessary to further improve therapeutic strategies for HFrEF and to generally establish treatment options for HFpEF.
Moreno, Irineu Blanco; Del Carlo, Carlos Henrique; Pereira-Barretto, Antônio Carlos
Background Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome that leads to poor outcome in advanced forms. The neurohormonal blockade modifies this natural history; however, it is often suboptimal. Objective The aim of this study is to assess at what percentage cardiologists used to treating HF can prescribe target doses of drugs of proven efficacy. Methods A total of 104 outpatients with systolic dysfunction were consecutively enrolled, all under stabilized treatment. Demographic and treatment data were evaluated and the doses achieved were verified. The findings are shown as percentages and correlations are made between different variables. Results The mean age of patients was 64.1 ± 14.2 years, with SBP =115.4 ± 15.3, HR = 67.8 ± 9.4 bpm, weight = 76.0 ± 17.0 kg and sinus rhythm (90.4%). As for treatment, 93.3% received a RAS blocker (ACEI 52.9%), all received beta-blockers (BB), the most often prescribed being carvedilol (92.3%). As for the doses: 97.1% of those receiving an ARB were below the optimal dose and of those who received ACEI, 52.7% received an optimized dose. As for the BB, target doses were prescribed to 76.0% of them. In this group of patients, most with BB target dose, it can be seen that 36.5% had HR ≥ 70 bpm in sinus rhythm. Conclusion Cardiologists used to treating HF can prescribe target doses of ACEI and BB to most patients. Even though they receive the recommended doses, about one third of patients persists with HR > 70 bpm and should have their treatment optimized. PMID:24100693
Atienza, F.; Martinez-Alzamora, N.; De Velasco, J. A.; Dreiseitl, S.; Ohno-Machado, L.
Accurate risk stratification of heart failure patients is critical to improve management and outcomes. Heart failure is a complex multisystem disease in which several predictors are categorical. Neural network models have successfully been applied to several medical classification problems. Using a simple neural network, we assessed one-year prognosis in 132 patients, consecutively admitted with heart failure, by classifying them in 3 groups: death, readmission and one-year event-free survival. Given the small number of cases, the neural network model was trained using a resampling method. We identified relevant predictors using the Automatic Relevance Determination (ARD) method, and estimated their mean effect on the 3 different outcomes. Only 9 individuals were misclassified. Neural networks have the potential to be a useful tool for making prognosis in the domain of heart failure. PMID:11079839
Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki General Medical Center has formed a heart failure team. Here, I report on the role of the pharmacist in this heart failure team at this hospital. Patient education is one of the roles of the pharmacist. It is the pharmacist's responsibility to improve medication adherence among patients. For this purpose, the pharmacist uses a brochure created by the heart failure team. The brochure outlines drug information in an easy-to-understand manner. The roles of a pharmacist were addressed in a lecture presented to the heart failure team. These lectures helped improve the pharmaceutical knowledge of the team, allowing the team to prescribe medicines more safely and appropriately. Maintaining co-operation between hospital and community pharmacies is another important role of a hospital pharmacist. This allows patients to be properly educated by pharmacists even after discharge from the hospital.
Hannah-Shmouni, Fady; Seidelmann, Sara B; Sirrs, Sandra; Mani, Arya; Jacoby, Daniel
The causes of heart failure are diverse. Inherited causes represent an important clinical entity and can be divided into 2 major categories: familial and metabolic cardiomyopathies. The distinct features that might be present in early disease states can become broadly overlapping with other diseases, such as in the case of inherited cardiomyopathies (ie, familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or mitochondrial diseases). In this review article, we focus on genetic issues related to advanced heart failure. Because of the emerging importance of this topic and its breadth, we sought to focus our discussion on the known genetic forms of heart failure syndromes, genetic testing, and newer data on pharmacogenetics and therapeutics in the treatment of heart failure, to primarily encourage clinicians to place a priority on the diagnosis and treatment of these potentially treatable conditions. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165588.html Timing of Menopause May Affect Heart Failure Risk Women whose periods ... May 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Women who entered menopause early or who never gave birth might have ...
Hannah-Shmouni, Fady; Seidelmann, Sara B.; Sirrs, Sandra; Mani, Arya; Jacoby, Daniel
The causes of heart failure are diverse. Inherited causes represent an important clinical entity and can be divided into 2 major categories: familial and metabolic cardiomyopathies. The distinct features that might be present in early disease states can become broadly overlapping with other diseases, such as in the case of inherited cardiomyopathies (ie, familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or mitochondrial diseases). In this review article, we focus on genetic issues related to advanced heart failure. Because of the emerging importance of this topic and its breadth, we sought to focus our discussion on the known genetic forms of heart failure syndromes, genetic testing, and newer data on pharmacogenetics and therapeutics in the treatment of heart failure, to primarily encourage clinicians to place a priority on the diagnosis and treatment of these potentially treatable conditions. PMID:26518444
Lum, Hillary D; Horney, Carolyn; Koets, David; Kutner, Jean S; Matlock, Daniel D
Availability of cardiac medications in hospice for acute symptom management of heart failure is unknown. This study explored hospice approaches to cardiac medications for patients with heart failure. Descriptive study using a quantitative survey of 46 US hospice agencies and clinician interviews. Of 31 hospices that provided standard home medication kits for acute symptom management, only 1 provided medication with cardiac indications (oral furosemide). Only 22% of the hospice agencies had a specific cardiac medication kit. Just over half (57%) of the agencies could provide intravenous inotropic therapy, often in multiple hospice settings. Clinicians described an individualized approach to cardiac medications for patients with heart failure. This study highlights opportunities for practice guidelines that inform medical therapy for hospice patients with heart failure. © The Author(s) 2015.
Moser, D K
Heart failure is the single most costly health care expenditure in the United States. The major proportion of these costs is attributable to rehospitalizations, and by many estimates the majority of rehospitalizations might be preventable with better health care delivery. The past 5 years have seen an explosion in the number of heart failure disease management programs put in place across the country to try to decrease the economic burden of heart failure and improve patient outcomes. Yet few of these are based on programs tested by researchers, let alone tested in randomized, controlled trials. This chapter summarizes findings from studies of heart failure disease management programs from 1980 to the present, critiques those studies, and offers suggestions for future research in this area.
Susic, Dinko; Frohlich, Edward D
Approximately 5 million people in the United States have heart failure. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that at least one half of patients who have clinically overt heart failure have diastolic heart failure (DHF), or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. DHF is characterized by concentric remodeling with normal left ventricular end-diastolic volume, abnormalities of active relaxation, and increased passive ventricular stiffness. Diuretics are an essential component of therapy for most patients who have DHF, and treatment of hypertension is a cornerstone of therapy designed to prevent or to treat DHF. Several antihypertensive agents have been shown to effectively reduce wave reflection, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, calcium antagonists, and nitrates. Lifestyle changes may also be helpful.
Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Seybert, Amy L; Lazar, Jessica; Shatzer, Melanie B; Saul, Melissa I; Kirisci, Levent; Murali, Srinivas
The purpose of this study was to quantify the total hospital resource use for decompensated heart failure according to disease progression categories. Clinical and cost information was obtained from an electronic data repository and chart review. During the 1-year period from June 2002 to June 2003, qualified patients were categorized based on disease progression as (1) new onset, (2) known heart failure, or (3) readmission. The primary outcome variables were total hospital resource use and resource use by services. Analysis of variance, Scheffé analysis for pairwise comparisons, and chi-square analysis were performed to determine differences among groups. Total hospitalization costs are similar whether it is a new diagnosis of heart failure, known diagnosis, or readmission. Among the 3 categories, 5 services contained statistically significant differences in costs (P<.05): echocardiography, electrophysiology, neurodiagnostic, nuclear cardiology, and pharmacy. Careful analysis of hospital resource use by services for heart failure patients provides opportunities for institutional cost containment.
Galli, Alessio; Lombardi, Federico
Heart failure is a chronic disease with high morbidity and mortality, which represents a growing challenge in medicine. A major risk factor for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is a history of myocardial infarction. The expansion of a large infarct scar and subsequent regional ventricular dilatation can cause postinfarct remodelling, leading to significant enlargement of the left ventricular chamber. It has a negative prognostic value, because it precedes the clinical manifestations of heart failure. The characteristics of the infarcted myocardium predicting postinfarct remodelling can be studied with cardiac magnetic resonance and experimental imaging modalities such as diffusion tensor imaging can identify the changes in the architecture of myocardial fibers. This review discusses all the aspects related to postinfarct left ventricular remodelling: definition, pathogenesis, diagnosis, consequences, and available therapies, together with experimental interventions that show promising results against postinfarct remodelling and heart failure. PMID:26989555
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167498.html Aspirin Safe for Heart Failure Patients, Study Finds Large trial comparing it to warfarin finds aspirin not tied to more hospitalizations or deaths To ...
Hewitson, Ruth; Dargan, James; Collis, David; Green, Aneta; Moorjani, Narain; Ohri, Sunil; Townsend, Paul A
Heart failure, a state in which cardiac output is unable to meet the metabolic demands of the tissues, poses a significant health burden; following an initial hospital admission with heart failure, five-year mortality is close to 50%. Cardiac hypertrophy, characterised by increased cardiomyocyte size and protein synthesis, has deleterious effects when prolonged and contributes to heart failure. Cardiac hypertrophy itself increases risk of morbidity and mortality. Histone deacetylases are chromatin modifiers which deacetylate the N-terminal tails of histones and have been implicated in common cardiac pathologies associated with hypertrophy. There are 18 histone deacetylases separated into four classes. Class I histone deacetylases interact with heat shock proteins and are pro-hypertrophic, class IIa histone deacetylases repress hypertrophy by inhibiting the activity of transcription factors such as myocyte enhancer factor 2. Histone deacetylases present an exciting new target in combating cardiac hypertrophy and progression to heart failure.
Levy, Phillip D.; Laribi, Said; Mebazaa, Alexandre
Vasodilators play an important role in the management of acute heart failure, particularly when increased afterload is the precipitating cause of decompensation. The time-honored approach to afterload reduction has been largely focused on use of intravenous nitrovasodilators and, when properly dosed, this class of agents does provide substantial symptom relief for patients with acute hypertensive heart failure. Despite this, nitrovasodilators have never been shown to diminish mortality or provide any post-discharge outcome benefit leading to an on-going search for viable and more effective alternatives. While no new vasodilators have been approved for use in acute heart failure since nesiritide more than a decade ago, a number of novel agents have been developed, with some showing significant promise in recent clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the latest study data as it relates to vasodilator therapy and provide a glimpse into the not too distant future state of acute heart failure care. PMID:24855585
Caboral-Stevens, Meriam F
Heart failure (HF) is a complex chronic condition with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this article is to present a snapshot of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guidelines focusing on management and treatment of HF in primary care.
Wong, Chih M; Hawkins, Nathaniel M; Petrie, Mark C; Jhund, Pardeep S; Gardner, Roy S; Ariti, Cono A; Poppe, Katrina K; Earle, Nikki; Whalley, Gillian A; Squire, Iain B; Doughty, Robert N; McMurray, John J V
Our understanding of heart failure in younger patients is limited. The Meta-analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure (MAGGIC) database, which consisted of 24 prospective observational studies and 7 randomized trials, was used to investigate the clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of younger patients. Patients were stratified into six age categories: <40 (n = 876), 40-49 (n = 2638), 50-59 (n = 6894), 60-69 (n = 12 071), 70-79 (n = 13 368), and ≥80 years (n = 6079). Of 41 926 patients, 2.1, 8.4, and 24.8% were younger than 40, 50, and 60 years of age, respectively. Comparing young (<40 years) against elderly (≥80 years), younger patients were more likely to be male (71 vs. 48%) and have idiopathic cardiomyopathy (63 vs. 7%). Younger patients reported better New York Heart Association functional class despite more severe left ventricular dysfunction (median ejection fraction: 31 vs. 42%, all P < 0.0001). Comorbidities such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, and atrial fibrillation were much less common in the young. Younger patients received more disease-modifying pharmacological therapy than their older counterparts. Across the younger age groups (<40, 40-49, and 50-59 years), mortality rates were low: 1 year 6.7, 6.6, and 7.5%, respectively; 2 year 11.7, 11.5, 13.0%; and 3 years 16.5, 16.2, 18.2%. Furthermore, 1-, 2-, and 3-year mortality rates increased sharply beyond 60 years and were greatest in the elderly (≥80 years): 28.2, 44.5, and 57.2%, respectively. Younger patients with heart failure have different clinical characteristics including different aetiologies, more severe left ventricular dysfunction, and less severe symptoms. Three-year mortality rates are lower for all age groups under 60 years compared with older patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Gillam, Marianne H; Pratt, Nicole L; Inacio, Maria C S; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Shakib, Sepehr; Nicholls, Stephen J; Graves, Stephen E
Background and purpose — It is unclear whether metal particles and ions produced by mechanical wear and corrosion of hip prostheses with metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have systemic adverse effects on health. We compared the risk of heart failure in patients with conventional MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA) and in those with metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THA. Patients and methods — We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the Australian Government Department of Veterans’ Affairs health claims database on patients who received conventional THA for osteoarthritis between 2004 and 2012. The MoM THAs were classified into groups: Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) XL Acetabular System, other large-head (LH) (> 32 mm) MoM, and small-head (SH) (≤ 32 mm) MoM. The primary outcome was hospitalization for heart failure after THA. Results — 4,019 patients with no history of heart failure were included (56% women). Men with an ASR XL THA had a higher rate of hospitalization for heart failure than men with MoP THA (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.6–6.5). No statistically significant difference in the rate of heart failure was found with the other LH MoM or SH MoM compared to MoP in men. There was no statistically significant difference in heart failure rate between exposure groups in women. Interpretation — An association between ASR XL and hospitalization for heart failure was found in men. While causality between ASR XL and heart failure could not be established in this study, it highlights an urgent need for further studies to investigate the possibility of systemic effects associated with MoM THA. PMID:27759468
Chin & Goldman, 1997; Tsuchihashi-Makaya, Kato, Chishaki, Takeshita, & Tsutsui, 2009; Vinson, Rich, Sperry , Shah, & McNamara, 1990). Upon examining...Failure Project. American Heart Journal, 152, 371-378. Roger , V. L., Weston, S. A., Redfield, M. M., Hellermann-Homan, J. P., Killlian, J. Yawn, B...Association, 292, 344-350. 62 Rogers , H. (2008). Social support, heart failure, and acute coronary syndromes: The role of inflammatory markers
Mitnovetski, Sergei; Almeida, Aubrey A; Barr, Althea; Peters, William S; Milsom, F Paget; Ho, Betty; Smith, Julian A
Extra-aortic counterpulsation for the management of chronic heart failure is a novel approach. We report the use of an extra-aortic implantable counterpulsation pump in the management of a 73-year-old patient with severe heart failure refractory to medical therapy. The implantable counterpulsation pump prolonged his life and greatly improved its quality. The patient lived almost 7 months after the implantation of the device and died of septic complications secondary to gas line infection.
Chowdhury, Punam; Choudhary, Rajiv; Maisel, Alan
Natriuretic peptides and troponins have been extensively studied and used in heart failure, and their value has been extensively discussed. Renal markers, such as cystasin-C, NGAL, and KIM-1, have shown growing utility in heart failure. The activation of compensatory pathways and ongoing hemodynamic changes result in the release of biomarkers that can be monitored to chart disease progression and possibly target for therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bonilla-Palomas, Juan L; Gámez-López, Antonio L; Castillo-Domínguez, Juan C; Moreno-Conde, Mirian; López Ibáñez, María C; Alhambra Expósito, Rosa; Ramiro Ortega, Esmeralda; Anguita-Sánchez, Manuel P; Villar-Ráez, Antonia
Hospitalized patients with heart failure who are malnourished present a worse prognosis than those with an adequate nutritional status. We undertook this study to assess whether a nutritional intervention in malnourished hospitalized patients with heart failure benefits morbidity and mortality. A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted. A total of 120 malnourished hospitalized patients due to acute heart failure were randomised to conventional heart failure treatment or conventional heart failure treatment combined with an individualized nutritional intervention. The primary endpoint of this study was a composite of all-cause death or readmission for worsening of HF, with a maximum follow-up of 12 months. Analysis was by intention to treat. Recruitment was stopped early according to the study protocol after completing the follow-up of the first 120 patients enrolled (59 in the intervention group and 61 in the control group). Both groups were homogeneous in baseline characteristics. At 12 months, the primary outcome occurred in 27.1% of patients in the intervention group and in 60.7% of patients in the control group (hazard ratio 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.62, p = 0.0004). In total, 20.3% of patients died in the intervention group and 47.5% in the control group (hazard ratio 0.37, 95% CI, 0.19-0.72, p = 0.003). Readmission due to heart failure was also lower in the intervention group (10.2 vs. 36.1%, p = 0.001). Nutritional intervention in malnourished hospitalized patients with heart failure reduces the risk of death from any cause and the risk of readmission for worsening of heart failure (ClinicalTrial.govNCT01472237). Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ponikowski, Piotr; Jankowska, Ewa A
Acute heart failure constitutes a heterogeneous clinical syndrome, whose pathophysiology is complex and not completely understood. Given the diversity of clinical presentations, several different pathophysiological mechanisms along with factors triggering circulatory decompensation are involved. This article discusses the available evidence on the pathophysiological phenomena attributed or/and associated with episodes of acute heart failure and describes different clinical profiles, which, from a clinical perspective, constitute a key element for therapeutic decision-making.
Liang, Kelly V; Williams, Amy W; Greene, Eddie L; Redfield, Margaret M
Heart failure is one of the leading causes of hospitalizations in the United States. Concomitant and significant renal dysfunction is common in patients with heart failure. Increasingly, the syndrome of heart failure is one of cardiorenal failure, in which concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunctions exist, with each accelerating the progression of the other. One fourth of patients hospitalized for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure will experience significant worsening of renal function, which is associated with worse outcomes. It remains unclear whether worsening renal function specifically contributes to poor outcomes or whether it is merely a marker of advanced cardiac and renal dysfunction. Diuretic resistance, with or without worsening renal function, is also common in acute decompensated heart failure, although the definition of diuretic resistance, its prevalence, and prognostic implications are less well defined. The term cardiorenal syndrome has been variably associated with cardiorenal failure, worsening renal function, and diuretic resistance but is more comprehensively defined as a state of advanced cardiorenal dysregulation manifest by one or all of these specific features. The pathophysiology of the cardiorenal syndrome is poorly understood and likely involves interrelated hemodynamic and neurohormonal mechanisms. When conventional therapy for acute decompensated heart failure fails, mechanical fluid removal via ultrafiltration, hemofiltration, or hemodialysis may be needed for refractory volume overload. While ultrafiltration can address diuretic resistance, whether ultrafiltration prevents worsening renal function or improves outcomes in patients with cardiorenal syndrome remains unclear. Evidence regarding the potential renal-preserving effects of nesiritide is mixed, and further studies on the efficacy and safety of different doses of nesiritide in heart failure therapy are warranted. Newer therapeutic agents, including vasopressin
Taylor, Rod S; Sagar, Viral A; Davies, Ed J; Briscoe, Simon; Coats, Andrew J S; Dalal, Hayes; Lough, Fiona; Rees, Karen; Singh, Sally
Previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses consistently show the positive effect of exercise-based rehabilitation for heart failure (HF) on exercise capacity; however, the direction and magnitude of effects on health-related quality of life, mortality and hospital admissions in HF remain less certain. This is an update of a Cochrane systematic review previously published in 2010. To determine the effectiveness of exercise-based rehabilitation on the mortality, hospitalisation admissions, morbidity and health-related quality of life for people with HF. Review inclusion criteria were extended to consider not only HF due to reduced ejection fraction (HFREF or 'systolic HF') but also HF due to preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF or 'diastolic HF'). We updated searches from the previous Cochrane review. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue1, 2013) from January 2008 to January 2013. We also searched MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCO) and PsycINFO (Ovid) (January 2008 to January 2013). We handsearched Web of Science, bibliographies of systematic reviews and trial registers (Controlled-trials.com and Clinicaltrials.gov). Randomised controlled trials of exercise-based interventions with six months' follow-up or longer compared with a no exercise control that could include usual medical care. The study population comprised adults over 18 years and were broadened to include individuals with HFPEF in addition to HFREF. Two review authors independently screened all identified references and rejected those that were clearly ineligible. We obtained full-text papers of potentially relevant trials. One review author independently extracted data from the included trials and assessed their risk of bias; a second review author checked data. We included 33 trials with 4740 people with HF predominantly with HFREF and New York Heart Association classes II and III. This latest update identified a further 14 trials. The overall risk
Lother, Achim; Hein, Lutz
Chronic heart failure is one of the leading causes for hospitalization in the United States and Europe, and is accompanied by high mortality. Current pharmacological therapy of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is largely based on compounds that inhibit the detrimental action of the adrenergic and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems on the heart. More than one decade after spironolactone, two novel therapeutic principles have been added to the very recently released guidelines on heart failure therapy: the HCN-channel inhibitor ivabradine and the combined angiotensin and neprilysin inhibitor valsartan/sacubitril. New compounds that are in phase II or III clinical evaluation include novel non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, guanylate cyclase activators or myosine activators. A variety of novel candidate targets have been identified and the availability of gene transfer has just begun to accelerate translation from basic science to clinical application. This review provides an overview of current pharmacology and pharmacotherapy in chronic heart failure at three stages: the updated clinical guidelines of the American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology, new drugs which are in clinical development, and finally innovative drug targets and their mechanisms in heart failure which are emerging from preclinical studies will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stern, Adam B; Klemmer, Philip J
In the hemodialysis patient population, a surgically created arteriovenous fistula is the preferred vascular access option. Development of high-output heart failure may be an underappreciated complication in patients who have undergone this procedure. When a large proportion of arterial blood is shunted from the left-sided circulation to the right-sided circulation via the fistula, the increase in preload can lead to increased cardiac output. Over time, the demands of an increased workload may lead to cardiac hypertrophy and eventual heart failure. Patients may present with the usual signs of high-output heart failure including tachycardia, elevated pulse pressure, hyperkinetic precordium, and jugular venous distension. Typically, the AV fistula is quite large and is likely located in the upper arm, more proximal to the heart. Routine access flow monitoring should demonstrate blood flows (Qa) >2000 ML/min. Echocardiogram may reveal either a low or high left ventricular ejection fraction, and right-heart catheterization demonstrates an elevated cardiac output with a low to normal systemic vascular resistance. When addressing the problem of high-output heart failure, the nephrologist is faced with the dilemma of preventing progression of heart failure at the expense of loss of vascular access. Nevertheless, treatment should be directed at correcting the underlying problem by surgical banding or ligation of the fistula. © 2011 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2011 International Society for Hemodialysis.
In heart failure, it has been recognized that the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is activated and the imbalance of the activity of the SNS and vagal activity interaction occurs. The abnormal activation of the SNS leads to further worsening of heart failure. Many previous clinical and basic studies have demonstrated that the abnormal activation of the SNS is caused by the enhancement of excitatory inputs including changes in: (1) peripheral baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes; (2) chemical mediators that control sympathetic outflow; and (3) central sites that integrate sympathetic outflow. In particular, the abnormalities in central SNS regulation due to the renin angiotensin system-oxidative stress axis have recently been in focus. In the treatment of heart failure, the inhibition of the activated SNS, such as with beta-blockers and/or exercise training, is important. Furthermore, many experimental studies have demonstrated that vagal stimulation has beneficial effects on heart failure, and recently several clinical studies have also demonstrated that vagal stimulation is a possible novel therapy for heart failure. In conclusion, we must recognize that heart failure is a complex syndrome with an autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and that the autonomic imbalance with the activation of the SNS and the reduction of vagal activity should be treated. Copyright Â© 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rabah, Ali; Wazni, Oussama
Atrial fibrillation and heart failure commonly coexist in the same patient. Each may adversely affect the other. Atrial fibrillation leads to heart failure exacerbation, left ventricular function deterioration and an increase in thrombo-embolic risk. Therapeutic options targeting atrial fibrillation in heart failure patients include pharmacological and non-pharmacological means. Pharmacological therapy is directed at either rate control using nodal blocking agents or rhythm control using anti-arrhythmic agents, of which the options are limited in patients with heart failure. The landmark AF-CHF trial did not show any benefit of rhythm control strategy as opposed to rate control in patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation. However, patients in this trial as well as in others used mostly amiodarone for rhythm control. This might have negated any positive effects of achieving normal sinus rhythm. Non-pharmacological therapy both for rate and rhythm control is appealing. This includes AV node ablation for rate control, catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation and surgical therapy of atrial fibrillation. This review will address non-pharmacologic treatment of AF in heart failure patients.
Wang, Yutang; Seto, Sai-Wang; Golledge, Jonathan
Sympathetic nerve activity has been reported to be increased in both humans and animals with chronic heart failure. One of the mechanisms believed to be responsible for this phenomenon is increased systemic and cerebral angiotensin II signaling. Plasma angiotensin II is increased in humans and animals with chronic heart failure. The increase in angiotensin II signaling enhances sympathetic nerve activity through actions on both central and peripheral sites during chronic heart failure. Angiotensin II signaling is enhanced in different brain sites such as the paraventricular nucleus, the rostral ventrolateral medulla and the area postrema. Blocking angiotensin II type 1 receptors decreases sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex when therapy is administered to the paraventricular nucleus. Injection of an angiotensin receptor blocker into the area postrema activates the sympathoinhibitory baroreflex. In peripheral regions, angiotensin II elevates both norepinephrine release and synthesis and inhibits norepinephrine uptake at nerve endings, which may contribute to the increase in sympathetic nerve activity seen in chronic heart failure. Increased circulating angiotensin II during chronic heart failure may enhance the sympathoexcitatory chemoreflex and inhibit the sympathoinhibitory baroreflex. In addition, increased circulating angiotensin II can directly act on the central nervous system via the subfornical organ and the area postrema to increase sympathetic outflow. Inhibition of angiotensin II formation and its type 1 receptor has been shown to have beneficial effects in chronic heart failure patients.
Liu, Stanley S; Monti, Jennifer; Kargbo, Hamid M; Athar, Muhammad W; Parakh, Kapil
This review broadly covers advances in heart failure, which is responsible for significant morbidity, mortality, and cost in the United States. It is a heterogeneous condition, and accurate classification helps ensure appropriate application of evidence-based therapies. Hemodynamics are important in acute heart failure syndromes and may help tailor therapy. Neurohormonal modulation forms the cornerstone of chronic systolic heart failure treatment but does not affect outcomes in diastolic heart failure where management goals emphasize optimization of central volume, blood pressure, and atrial rhythm, as well as the treatment of comorbidities. Frontiers of heart failure therapy range from advances in pharmacology (novel inotropic agents and neurohormonal modulators), to cell biology (nucleic acid-based drugs and cell therapy) to biomedical engineering (devices such as ultrafiltration, biventricular pacemakers, implantable cardiac defibrillators, remote monitoring systems, and left ventricular assist devices), and to health systems (risk stratification and integrated care of comorbidities). The ultimate frontier will be to integrate these data effectively to ensure that patients with heart failure consistently receive the best evidenced-based care possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Krishnamoorthy, Arun; Felker, G Michael
Fluid removal and relief of congestion are central to treatment of acute heart failure. Diuretics have been the decongestive mainstay but their known limitations have led to the exploration of alternative strategies. This review compares diuretics with ultrafiltration and examines the recent evidence evaluating their use. Relevant recent studies are the Diuretic Optimization Strategies Evaluation trial (of diuretics) and the Cardiorenal Rescue Study in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (of ultrafiltration). The Diuretic Optimization Strategies Evaluation study evaluated strategies of loop diuretic use during acute heart failure (continuous infusion versus intermittent bolus and high dose versus low dose). After 72 h, there was no significant difference with either comparison for the coprimary end points. Patients treated with a high-dose strategy tended to have greater diuresis and more decongestion compared with low-dose therapy, at the cost of transient changes in renal function. The Cardiorenal Rescue Study in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure study showed that in acute heart failure patients with persistent congestion and worsening renal function, ultrafiltration, as compared with a medical therapy, was associated with similar weight loss but greater increase in serum creatinine and more adverse events. Decongestion remains a major challenge in acute heart failure. Although recent studies provide useful data to guide practice, the relatively poor outcomes point to the continued need to identify better strategies for safe and effective decongestion.
Warren, Joshua D; Aitken-Palmer, Copper; Weldon, Alan D; Flanagan, Joseph P; Howard, Lauren L; Garner, Michael M; Citino, Scott B
Acute signs associated with cardiovascular disease occurred in three pregnant okapi ( Okapia johnstoni ) during early to midgestation and progressed to congestive heart failure. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed antemortem using echocardiography and plasma cardiac troponin levels. Clinical signs included decreased activity, hyporexia, tachypnea, dyspnea, flared nostrils, and productive coughing with copious amounts of foamy nasal discharge. Parenteral and oral treatment with furosemide, enalapril, and spironolactone controlled clinical signs in the three okapi allowing each to carry out one pregnancy to term. Two okapi carried the first pregnancy to term after showing signs, while one okapi aborted the first calf and gave birth to a healthy calf in a subsequent pregnancy. Subsequent pregnancy in one okapi ended with abortion and associated dystocia and endometritis. Following parturition, clinical signs associated with heart failure resolved in all three individuals; serial echocardiography in two individuals showed improvement in fractional shortening and left atrial size and all three okapi showed markedly decreased pleural effusion and resolution of pulmonary edema. However, subsequent pregnancies in all three okapi induced respiratory distress and recurrence of congestive heart failure; one okapi died from congestive heart failure associated with subsequent pregnancy. This case series describes the clinical presentation and pathologic findings of congestive heart failure during pregnancy in adult okapi.
Torre, Matthew; Jarolim, Petr
Cardiac troponins I and T are established biomarkers of cardiac injury. Testing for either of these two cardiac troponins has long been an essential component of the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. In addition, cardiac troponin concentrations after acute myocardial infarction predict future adverse events including development of ischemic heart failure and chronic elevations of cardiac troponin correlate with heart failure severity. These predictions and correlations are particularly obvious when cardiac troponin concentrations are measured using the new high sensitivity cardiac troponin assays. Thus, a growing body of literature suggests that cardiac troponin testing may have important clinical implications for heart failure patients with reduced or preserved ejection fraction. In this review, we explore the prognostic utility of measuring cardiac troponin concentrations in patients with acute or chronic heart failure and in populations at risk of developing heart failure and the relationship between cardiac troponin levels and disease severity. We also summarize the ongoing debates and research on whether serial monitoring of cardiac troponin levels may become a useful tool for guiding therapeutic interventions in patients with heart failure.
Rodriguez, Fred H; Marelli, Ariane J
The impact of lifelong exposure to myocardial dysfunction in populations with congenital heart disease (CHD) is becoming increasingly recognized. Most children born with CHD now reach adulthood and the long-term sequelae of treatment are contributing to substantial comorbidity. The combination of structural changes present at birth with changes resulting from cardiac surgery can result in heart failure. This article reports on the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology of heart failure in this patient population.
Bordes, Julien; Jop, Bertrand; Imbert, Sandrine; Hraiech, Sami; Collard, Frédéric; Kerbaul, François
Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium is a rare cardiomyopathy due to an arrest of myocardial morphogenesis. The characteristic echocardiographic findings are prominent myocardial trabeculations and deep intertrabecular spaces communicating with the left ventricular cavity. The clinical manifestations include heart failure (HF) signs, ventricular arrhythmias, and cardioembolic events. We describe an illustrative case of noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium associated with bicuspid aortic valve, a 42-year-old male presenting a refractory acute heart failure successfully treated by emergency heart transplantation.
Vegter, Eline L; Ovchinnikova, Ekaterina S; Silljé, Herman H W; Meems, Laura M G; van der Pol, Atze; van der Velde, A Rogier; Berezikov, Eugene; Voors, Adriaan A; de Boer, Rudolf A; van der Meer, Peter
We recently identified a set of plasma microRNAs (miRNAs) that are downregulated in patients with heart failure in comparison with control subjects. To better understand their meaning and function, we sought to validate these circulating miRNAs in 3 different well-established rat and mouse heart failure models, and correlated the miRNAs to parameters of cardiac function. The previously identified let-7i-5p, miR-16-5p, miR-18a-5p, miR-26b-5p, miR-27a-3p, miR-30e-5p, miR-199a-3p, miR-223-3p, miR-423-3p, miR-423-5p and miR-652-3p were measured by means of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in plasma samples of 8 homozygous TGR(mREN2)27 (Ren2) transgenic rats and 8 (control) Sprague-Dawley rats, 6 mice with angiotensin II-induced heart failure (AngII) and 6 control mice, and 8 mice with ischemic heart failure and 6 controls. Circulating miRNA levels were compared between the heart failure animals and healthy controls. Ren2 rats, AngII mice and mice with ischemic heart failure showed clear signs of heart failure, exemplified by increased left ventricular and lung weights, elevated end-diastolic left ventricular pressures, increased expression of cardiac stress markers and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. All miRNAs were detectable in plasma from rats and mice. No significant differences were observed between the circulating miRNAs in heart failure animals when compared to the healthy controls (all P>0.05) and no robust associations with cardiac function could be found. The previous observation that miRNAs circulate in lower levels in human patients with heart failure could not be validated in well-established rat and mouse heart failure models. These results question the translation of data on human circulating miRNA levels to experimental models, and vice versa the validity of experimental miRNA data for human heart failure.
Foerster, Susan R; Canter, Charles E
Management of chronic heart failure in pediatrics has been altered by the adult literature showing improvements in mortality and hospitalization rates with the use of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (beta-blockers) for routine therapy of all classes of ischemic and non-ischemic heart failure. Many pediatric heart failure specialists have incorporated these agents into their routine management of pediatric heart failure related to dilated cardiomyopathy or ventricular dysfunction in association with congenital heart disease. Retrospective and small prospective case series have shown encouraging improvements in cardiac function and symptoms, but interpretation has been complicated by the high rate of spontaneous recovery in pediatric patients. A recently completed pediatric double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial showed no difference between placebo and two doses of carvedilol over a 6-month period of follow-up, with significant improvement of all three groups over the course of evaluation. Experience with adults has suggested that only certain beta-blockers, including carvedilol, bisoprolol, nebivolol, and metoprolol succinate, should be used in the treatment of heart failure and that patients with high-grade heart failure may derive the most benefit. Other studies surmise that early or prophylactic use of these medications may alter the risk of disease progression in some high-risk subsets, such as patients receiving anthracyclines or those with muscular dystrophy. This article reviews these topics using experience as well as data from all the recent pediatric studies on the use of beta-blockers to treat congestive heart failure, especially when related to systolic ventricular dysfunction.
A 6-month-old domestic shorthair cat was referred for evaluation of sudden lethargy and tachypnea following ovariohysterectomy. Upon failure of improvement with supportive care, a cardiologist identified congenital tricuspid dysplasia with signs of heart failure. Furosemide, enalapril, and pimobendan were used to reduce clinical signs and improve length and quality of life.
Kalogeropoulos, Andreas; Psaty, Bruce M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki; Smith, Andrew L; Smith, Nicholas L; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Wilson, Peter W F; Newman, Anne B; Harris, Tamara B; Butler, Javed
The recently developed and internally validated Health ABC HF model uses 9 routinely available clinical variables to determine incident heart failure risk. In this study, we sought to externally validate the Health ABC HF model. Observed 5-year incidence of heart failure, defined as first hospitalization for new-onset heart failure, was compared with 5-year risk estimates derived from the Health ABC HF model among participants without heart failure at baseline in the Cardiovascular Health Study. During follow-up, 400 of 5335 (7.5%) participants developed heart failure over 5 years versus 364 (6.8%) predicted by the Health ABC HF model (predicted-to-observed ratio, 0.90). Observed versus predicted 5-year heart failure probabilities were 3.2% versus 2.8%, 9.0% versus 7.0%, 15.9% versus 13.7%, and 24.6% versus 30.8% for the <5%, 5% to 10%, 10% to 20%, and >20% 5-year risk categories, respectively. The Hosmer-Lemeshow chi(2) was 14.72 (degrees of freedom, 10; P=0.14), and the C index was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.76). Calibration and discrimination demonstrated adequate performance across sex and race overall; however, risk was underestimated in white men, especially in the 5% to 10% risk category. Model performance was optimal when participants with normal left ventricular function at baseline were assessed separately. Performance was consistent across age groups. Analyses with death as a competing risk yielded similar results. The Health ABC HF model adequately predicted 5-year heart failure risk in a large community-based study, providing support for the external validity of the model. This tool may be used to identify individuals to whom to target heart failure prevention efforts.
Williams, Lavonn A
Congestive heart failure, the most common form of heart disease in aged ferrets, is only one of the diseases to which ferrets are susceptible. Congestive heart failure is an insidious, progressive disease for which there is no cure. Once the diagnosis is made and the proper medication is determined, the ferret must remain on the medication. The case report included with this article, which was submitted by a pet owner, and the accompanying formula is an example of how a compounding pharmacist can work with the veterinarian to aid in the treatment of a small veterinary patient by preparing specific medications.
Kahwash, Rami; Burkhoff, Daniel; Abraham, William T
Cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) is a novel device-based therapy for heart failure that involves applying electrical signals during the absolute refractory period of the myocardial action potential. This therapy has been shown to augment the strength of left ventricular contraction independent of myocardial oxygen consumption in animal models as well as human studies of patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fractions. The mechanism underlying CCM is an alteration of myocardial calcium handling in a fashion that extends beyond the traditional pharmacological effects of inotropic agents. Analysis of myocardial tissue from both animal models and human hearts treated by CCM demonstrates a shift of abnormally expressed genes towards normal function, positively affecting pathways involving proteins that regulate calcium cycling and myocardial contraction. CCM effects are proven to be independent of QRS duration; however, clinical studies to date have primarily focused on patients with normal QRS since cardiac resynchronization therapy is a well-established option for patients with heart failure and a prolonged QRS duration. Clinical trials show that CCM improves exercise tolerance, as measured by VO(2,peak) and quality of life, assessed by the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. The device is currently available for the treatment of heart failure in Europe. Approval in the USA is pending additional testing currently underway using a protocol approved by the US FDA.
Buggey, Jonathan; Mentz, Robert J; Pitt, Bertram; Eisenstein, Eric L; Anstrom, Kevin J; Velazquez, Eric J; O'Connor, Christopher M
The health and economic burden of heart failure is significant and continues to grow each year. Loop diuretics are an integral part of symptom management in heart failure. Furosemide is used disproportionately compared with other loop diuretics, and there is currently no guidance for physicians regarding which agent to choose. However, there exist pharmacologic differences as well as other mechanistic differences that appear to favor torsemide use over furosemide. Compared with furosemide, torsemide improves surrogate markers of heart failure severity such as left ventricular function, plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels, and New York Heart Association functional class and may also reduce hospitalizations, readmissions, and mortality. Data suggest that these benefits could be mediated through torsemide's ability to positively affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Specifically, torsemide has been shown to inhibit aldosterone secretion, synthesis, and receptor binding in vitro, as well as decrease transcardiac extraction of aldosterone, myocardial collagen production, and cardiac fibrosis in patients with heart failure. We identified pertinent literature using keyword MEDLINE searches and cross-referencing prior bibliographies. We summarize the available data suggesting potential benefits with torsemide over furosemide, and call attention to the need for a reappraisal of diuretic use in heart failure patients and also for a well-powered, randomized control trial assessing torsemide versus furosemide use.
Basaraba, Jade E; Barry, Arden R
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) constitutes ~50% of all heart failure diagnoses and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The treatment of HFpEF can be challenging due to a lack of evidence supporting the benefit of various drug therapies. In practice, treatment can be divided into acute and chronic management. Acute therapy for decompensated heart failure is similar for both HFpEF and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The mainstay of treatment is diuretics to reduce volume overload and improve dyspnea. Patients with an acute exacerbation of HFpEF and rapid atrial fibrillation (AF) should be rate controlled with negative chronotropic agents. For chronic therapy, patients with HFpEF should not be treated like patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Chronic management of HFpEF can be simplified by using three strategies based on applicability: treat precipitating conditions (e.g., hypertension, AF), control symptoms by maintaining euvolemia with diuretics, and avoid therapies that have been shown not to be beneficial unless another compelling indication exists. Nondrug interventions for HFpEF include salt and fluid restriction, regular physical activity, and referral to a heart function clinic, if appropriate.
Klotz, Stefan; Scheld, Hans H
End-stage heart failure is a challenging disease with growing incidence. With decreasing heart transplant rates worldwide organ preserving therapies become, again, of interest. The purpose of the present review is to examine the potential challenges of surgical therapies in patients with end-stage heart failure. The gold-standard for end-stage heart failure is and will be cardiac transplantation. However, due to organ shortage this therapy is limited to a few patients. Therefore implantation of ventricular assist devices (VADs) or long-term minimal-invasive partial support devices will increase. Improvements in device design with smaller devices, easier implantation techniques, and modified anticoagulation outcome and long-term success will likely improve. In addition, good quality of life as destination therapy is almost available. Organ conservation surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting and surgical ventricular restoration or surgical repair of mitral valve regurgitation) in end-stage heart failure patients could not prove the expected results. Transcatheter or minimal-invasive approaches of these therapies might become routine in the near future. Due to the overwhelming outcome rates, cardiac transplantation is the most established surgical therapy for end-stage heart failure. VAD therapy is increasing and minimized VADs might further open the market for destination therapy/permanent support.
Lewis, Basil S; Karkabi, Basheer; Jaffe, Ronen; Yuval, Rita; Flugelman, Moshe Y; Halon, David A
While advances in treatment strategies and pharmacotherapy have produced a dramatic reduction in the mortality of patients with heart failure during the past 15 years, there is still a major challenge to improve patient well being, reduce hospitalizations and reduce mortality further. The prevalence of heart failure is not decreasing, and heart failure is currently a cause for hospitalization in >25% of admissions to internal medicine and cardiology departments. It has recently become apparent that anaemia is present in 20-30% of patients with heart failure, and the severity of anaemia has important implications regarding outcome and prognosis. Anaemia may be due to a number of causes, including iron and vitamin deficiency, insidious blood loss, haemodilution, renal impairment and bone marrow depression with resistance to erythropoietin. In the presence of a damaged heart and often coronary artery disease, anaemia may worsen contractile ability and systolic function, while the necessary volume load and ventricular hypertrophy which accompany anaemia contribute to diastolic dysfunction. Preliminary data show that appropriate treatment of anaemia, based on correction of the underlying cause, with, in most patients, the addition of exogenous erythropoietin and iron therapy, improves ventricular function and clinical status. Treatment of anaemia has opened a new frontier in the management of heart failure. We await the results of ongoing clinical trials for more detailed information regarding appropriate haemoglobin targets, choice of medication and dosing and the degree of improvement that may be expected when the issue of anaemia is properly addressed.
Chen, Chaofei; Chen, Haixuan; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; Ji, Weidong; Min, Wang
Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2) is a pivotal mitochondrial protein that regulates redox signaling. The mitochondrial Trx2 is expressed ubiquitously, but it is found at the highest levels in metabolically active tissues like the heart. Global gene knockout of Trx2 results in embryonic lethality, likely due to the increased cellular oxidative stress. Moreover, mice with cardiac-specific Trx2 deletion develop spontaneous dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), correlating with increased apoptosis stress kinase-1 (ASK1) signaling and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a common mechanism in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Our results show that Trx2 is essential for maintaining cardiac function. In this chapter, we summarize the key mechanistic role of Trx2 in preserving cardiac function by suppressing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and by inhibiting ASK1-dependent apoptosis in heart failure. Trx2 and ASK1 represent promising targets to develop therapeutic strategies for the treatment of DCM and heart failure.
Clauser, M; Altenberger, J
Obesity as well as cardiac cachexia in heart failure patients are not fully understood and therefore of high scientific interest. Obesity as a common risk factor for cardiovascular disease is associated with a high mortality. In contrast obesity in patients suffering from chronic heart failure seems to be accompanied with a favorable outcome in contrast to people with normal weight, known as the obesity paradox. In the last decade there has been growing interest in cachexia, which is common in advanced stages of chronic diseases, such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cancer and renal failure and is associated with a poor prognosis. Until now cachexia has been underdiagnosed and undertreated. This review discusses the complex underlying pathomechanisms as well as potential therapeutic approaches.
... at Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago. But why haven't those improvements narrowed the ... and inclusion, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago; Rachel Bond, M.D., associate director, women's heart ...
... 4) may be asked to perform an exercise stress test to evaluate heart-lung function. At times a ... Your Doctor What Is Echocardiography? What Is a Stress Test? Why Should I Limit Sodium? How Do I ...
Agnetti, Giulio; Piepoli, Massimo F.; Siniscalchi, Giuseppe; Nicolini, Francesco
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the US and in westernized countries with ischemic heart disease accounting for the majority of these deaths. Paradoxically, the improvements in the medical and surgical treatments of acute coronary syndrome are leading to an increasing number of “survivors” who are then developing heart failure. Despite considerable advances in its management, the gold standard for the treatment of end-stage heart failure patients remains heart transplantation. Nevertheless, this procedure can be offered only to a small percentage of patients who could benefit from a new heart due to the limited availability of donor organs. The aim of this review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of innovative approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of patients refractory to standard medical therapy and excluded from cardiac transplantation lists. PMID:26634204
Bona, Renata L; Bonezi, Artur; da Silva, Paula Figueiredo; Biancardi, Carlo M; de Souza Castro, Flávio Antônio; Clausel, Nadine Oliveira
Chronic heart failure patients present higher cost of transport and some changes in pattern of walking, but the same aspects have not yet been investigated in heart transplant patients. The aim of this study was to investigate both metabolic and mechanicals parameters, at five different walking speeds on treadmill, in chronic heart failure and heart transplant patients. Twelve chronic heart failure patients, twelve healthy controls and five heart transplant patients participated in the study. Tridimensional kinematics data and oxygen uptake were collected simultaneously. In both experimental groups the self-selected walking speed was lower than in controls, and lower than the expected optimal walking speed. At that speed all groups showed the best ventilatory efficiency. On contrary, chronic heart failure and heart transplant patients reached the minimum cost of transport and the maximum recovery at greater speeds than the self-selected walking speed. Their mechanical efficiency was lower than in controls, while their metabolic cost and mechanical work were on average larger. We conclude that actions, like a physical training, that could increase the self-selected walking speed in these patients, could also increase their economy and optimize the mechanical parameters of walking. We propose a rehabilitation index, based on the theoretical optimal walking speed, to measure the improvements during a physical rehabilitation therapy. These results have an important clinical relevance and can help to improve the quality of life of heart failure and transplant patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Page, Robert L; O'Bryant, Cindy L; Cheng, Davy; Dow, Tristan J; Ky, Bonnie; Stein, C Michael; Spencer, Anne P; Trupp, Robin J; Lindenfeld, JoAnn
Heart failure is a common, costly, and debilitating syndrome that is associated with a highly complex drug regimen, a large number of comorbidities, and a large and often disparate number of healthcare providers. All of these factors conspire to increase the risk of heart failure exacerbation by direct myocardial toxicity, drug-drug interactions, or both. This scientific statement is designed to serve as a comprehensive and accessible source of drugs that may cause or exacerbate heart failure to assist healthcare providers in improving the quality of care for these patients.
Fabbri, Gianna; Gorini, Marco; Maggioni, Aldo P; Oliva, Fabrizio
Heart failure remains a growing public health problem, hospitalizations represent the main cost component of heart failure care and the poor quality of life of patients is often worsened by frequent admissions. A multidisciplinary approach and specific disease management programs are a potentially useful instrument to reducing hospitalizations in heart failure patients. These concepts have recently been discussed in a consensus document by all the Scientific Societies involved in the care of heart failure patients. The effectiveness of intervention programs delivering continuity of care by a multidisciplinary team achieved a promising reduction in admissions, but the results of the studies have not been univocal for category of strategies and about the effect on survival. Telephone intervention significantly decreased heart failure admissions but not all-cause admissions and mortality. The multicenter randomized DIAL study, comparing a centralized telephone intervention program delivering continuity of care by a multidisciplinary team with usual care in patients with heart failure, confirms these findings. After a mean 16-month follow-up, there was a benefit mostly due to a significant reduction in admissions for heart failure, but mortality was similar in both groups. Data on 9000 patients from the IN-CHF registry show that hospitalizations are a serious problem in Italy: 44% of the patients had at least one hospitalization for heart failure in the year prior to the entry visit and this is the most powerful independent predictor of rehospitalization during the follow-up. Nearly a quarter of the population with follow-up data availability (92%) has been rehospitalized in the year after enrollment; patients in advanced functional class (32.1% hospitalization rate) and with ischemic etiology (25.0%) are more likely to be hospitalized than those in NYHA class I-II and without ischemic etiology. In a survey carried out recently in Italy, in 1152 patients admitted for
Atrial fibrillation in heart failure often occur together. The relationship between atrial fibrillation and heart failure has remained a subject of research. The main manifestation of the violation of hydrodynamics in heart failure is the increased end-diastolic pressure, which is transmitted through the intercommunicated system (left ventricle-left atrium-pulmonary veins-alveolar capillaries) causing increased pulmonary wedge pressure with the danger for pulmonary edema. End-diastolic pressure is the sum of left ventricle diastolic pressure and left atrial systolic pressure. Stopping the mechanical systole of the left atrium can reduce the pressure in the system in heart failure. Atrial fibrillation stops the mechanical systole of the left atrium and decreases the intercommunicating pressure and pulmonary wedge pressure. It is possible that atrial fibrillation is a mechanism for protection from increasing end-diastolic pressure and pulmonary wedge pressure, and prevents the danger of pulmonary edema. This hypothesis may explain the relationship between heart failure and atrial fibrillation and their frequent association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cohen-Solal, Alain; Leclercq, Christophe; Deray, Gilbert; Lasocki, Sigismond; Zambrowski, Jean-Jacques; Mebazaa, Alexandre; de Groote, Pascal; Damy, Thibaud; Galinier, Michel
In patients with heart failure, iron deficiency is frequent but overlooked, with a prevalence of 30%-50%. Since it contributes to cardiac and peripheral muscle dysfunction, iron deficiency is associated with poorer clinical outcomes and a greater risk of death, independent of haemoglobin level. Therefore, iron deficiency emerges as a new comorbidity and a therapeutic target of chronic heart failure in addition to chronic renal insufficiency, anaemia and diabetes. In a series of placebo-controlled, randomised studies in patients with heart failure and iron deficiency, intravenous iron had a favourable effect on exercise capacity, functional class, LVEF, renal function and quality of life. These clinical studies were performed in the context of a renewed interest in iron metabolism. During the past 10 years, knowledge about the transport, storage and homeostasis of iron has improved dramatically, and new molecules involved in iron metabolism have been described (eg, hepcidin, ferroportin, divalent metal transporter 1). Recent European guidelines recommend the monitoring of iron parameters (ie, serum ferritin, transferrin saturation) for all patients with heart failure. Ongoing clinical trials will explore the benefits of iron deficiency correction on various heart failure parameters.
Heart failure is a complex syndrome, whose treatment associates diet, medicine, educational sessions, exercise training, psychological and social help. During cardiac rehabilitation, heart failure patients start exercise training against reconditioning and wasting muscle tissues: segmental rehabilitation, steady state exercise or interval training, breathing physiotherapy, swimming pool, low frequency electric muscle stimulation, according to individualized training program, in association with salt free diet and fight against cardiovascular risk factors. Rehabilitation also helps to increase the dose of drugs according to international recommendations, looking after clinical and biological parameters, and allows including patients in educational sessions. These two last points seem to be a key role of rehabilitation. Thanks to these many actions, hold by multidisciplinary team trained to take care of chronic heart failure patients and to lead therapeutic education, cardiac rehabilitation is very useful for chronic heart failure patients, to help hospital and liberal management therapy of chronic heart failure and reduce medical cost. Rehabilitation counsels should be carried on in home-based program. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Kohan, Luke; Holland, Eric; Keeley, Ellen C.; Mazimba, Sula
Abstract Obesity and heart failure are two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. The relationship between obesity and cardiovascular diseases is complex and not fully understood. While the risk of developing heart failure has been shown to be higher in patients who are obese, there is a survival advantage for obese and overweight patients compared with normal weight or low weight patients. This phenomenon was first described by Horwich et al. and was subsequently confirmed in other large trials. The advantage exists irrespective of the type, aetiology, or stage of heart failure. Patients with morbid obesity (body mass index >40 kg/m2), however, do not have the same survival advantage of their obese counterparts. There are several alternative indices of obesity available that may be more accurate than body mass index. The role of weight loss in patients with heart failure is unclear; thus, providing sound clinical advice to patients remains difficult. Future prospective trials designed to evaluate the link between obesity and heart failure will help us understand more fully this complex relationship. PMID:27867523
Cajita, Maan Isabella; Rodney, Tamar; Xu, Jingzhi; Hladek, Melissa; Han, Hae-Ra
The ubiquity of the Internet is changing the way people obtain their health information. Although there is an abundance of heart failure information online, the quality and health literacy demand of these information are still unknown. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality and health literacy demand (readability, understandability, and actionability) of the heart failure information found online. Google, Yahoo, Bing, Ask.com, and DuckDuckGo were searched for relevant heart failure Web sites. Two independent raters then assessed the quality and health literacy demand of the included Web sites. The quality of the heart failure information was assessed using the DISCERN instrument. Readability was assessed using 7 established readability tests. Finally, understandability and actionability were assessed using the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool for Print Materials. A total of 46 Web sites were included in this analysis. The overall mean quality rating was 46.0 ± 8.9 and the mean readability score was 12.6 grade reading level. The overall mean understandability score was 56.3% ± 16.2%. Finally, the overall mean actionability score was 34.7% ± 28.7%. The heart failure information found online was of fair quality but required a relatively high health literacy level. Web content authors need to consider not just the quality but also the health literacy demand of the information found in their Web sites. This is especially important considering that low health literacy is likely prevalent among the usual audience.
Rivas Estany, Eduardo; Hernández García, Susana
Chronic heart failure has become one of the main global health problems; 23 million people suffer from this disease worldwide and age of onset has varied considerably over the past five decades, coinciding with other co-morbidities as longevity in the population increases. Treatment of heart failure has also shown striking variations in recent years. Such is the case of the substitution of sympathomimetic drugs by beta-blocking agents, which primarily means a conceptual change in the pathophysiological interpretation of this syndrome. Incorporating to the treatment of heart failure drugs such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers has meant a great step forward in the treatment of patients with this condition that significantly has decreased mortality and morbidity. The latest introduction of the drug identified as angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (LCZ696), launched in August 2014 with an even greater reduction in mortality and morbidity of heart failure and fewer side effects, offers a valid hope in the treatment of this pathology. Training and physical activity is another area of treatment being completely reassessed. Pathophysiological aspects that link the practice of systematic physical exercise with heart failure and how they both relate to clinical outcomes, morbidity and mortality in the trained patient are reviewed in this paper.
Sica, Domenic A
Thiamine, or vitamin B1, is a water-soluble B complex vitamin that was first discovered in 1910 in the process of exploring how rice bran cured patients of beriberi. Thiamine is not synthesized in humans, therefore its availability for necessary cellular processes hinges on its continual ingestion. The amount of thiamine one needs to ingest to maintain balance is disease state-dependent or medication-dependent. Severe chronic thiamine deficiency can have significant neurologic and cardiac effects, the latter is reflected in a particular type of heart failure called wet beriberi. This form of heart failure clearly benefits from thiamine supplementation. It is unclear, however, whether thiamine supplementation offers any benefit in other forms of heart failure. Despite this, it is not unreasonable for heart failure patients to routinely ingest a thiamine-containing multivitamin; patients using diuretics have an increased urinary excretion of thiamine and thus are at a higher risk for developing thiamine deficiency. The role of thiamine in heart failure, however, remains arguable.
Cook, Christopher; Cole, Graham; Asaria, Perviz; Jabbour, Richard; Francis, Darrel P
Heart failure (HF) imposes both direct costs to healthcare systems and indirect costs to society through morbidity, unpaid care costs, premature mortality and lost productivity. The global economic burden of HF is not known. We estimated the overall cost of heart failure in 2012, in both direct and indirect terms, across the globe. Existing country-specific heart failure costs analyses were expressed as a proportion of gross domestic product and total healthcare spend. Using World Bank data, these proportional values were used to interpolate the economic cost of HF for countries of the world where no published data exists. Countries were categorized according to their level of economic development to investigate global patterns of spending. 197 countries were included in the analysis, covering 98.7% of the world's population. The overall economic cost of HF in 2012 was estimated at $108 billion per annum. Direct costs accounted for ~60% ($65 billion) and indirect costs accounted for ~40% ($43 billion) of the overall spend. Heart failure spending varied widely between high-income and middle and low-income countries. High-income countries spend a greater proportion on direct costs: a pattern reversed for middle and low-income countries. Heart failure imposes a huge economic burden, estimated at $108 billion per annum. With an aging, rapidly expanding and industrializing global population this value will continue to rise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sicras Mainar, Antoni; Navarro Artieda, Ruth; Ibáñez Nolla, Jordi
To evaluate the use of health care resources and their cost according to the effects of kidney failure in heart failure patients during 2-year follow-up in a population setting. Observational retrospective study based on a review of medical records. The study included patients ≥ 45 years treated for heart failure from 2008 to 2010. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence/absence of KF. Main outcome variables were comorbidity, clinical status (functional class, etiology), metabolic syndrome, costs, and new cases of cardiovascular events and kidney failure. The cost model included direct and indirect health care costs. Statistical analysis included multiple regression models. The study recruited 1600 patients (prevalence, 4.0%; mean age 72.4 years; women, 59.7%). Of these patients, 70.1% had hypertension, 47.1% had dyslipidemia, and 36.2% had diabetes mellitus. We analyzed 433 patients (27.1%) with kidney failure and 1167 (72.9%) without kidney failure. Patients with kidney failure were associated with functional class III-IV (54.1% vs 40.8%) and metabolic syndrome (65.3% vs 51.9%, P<.01). The average unit cost was €10,711.40. The corrected cost in the presence of kidney failure was €14,868.20 vs €9,364.50 (P=.001). During follow-up, 11.7% patients developed ischemic heart disease, 18.8% developed kidney failure, and 36.1% developed heart failure exacerbation. Comorbidity associated with heart failure is high. The presence of kidney failure increases the use of health resources and leads to higher costs within the National Health System. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Ferreira, Ana Rita; Mendes, Sofia; Leite, Luís; Monteiro, Sílvia; Pego, Mariano
Pulse pressure (PP) is the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). PP rises markedly after the fifth decade of life. High PP is a risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease and heart failure. The aim of this study was to assess whether PP can be used as a prognostic marker in advanced heart failure. We retrospectively studied patients in NYHA class III-IV who were hospitalized in a single heart failure unit between January 2003 and August 2012. Demographic characteristics, laboratory tests, and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. PP was calculated as the difference between systolic and diastolic BP at admission, and the patients were divided into two groups (group 1: PP >40 mmHg and group 2: PP ≤40 mmHg). Median follow-up was 666 ± 50 days for the occurrence of cardiovascular death and heart transplantation. During follow-up 914 patients in NYHA class III-IV were hospitalized, 520 in group 1 and 394 in group 2. The most important difference between the groups was in left ventricular dysfunction, which was greater in patients with lower PP. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, group 2 had higher mortality (38 vs. 24 patients, log-rank p=0.002). PP is easily calculated, and enables prediction of cardiovascular death in patients with advanced heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Sweeney, Mark; Yiu, Angela
Functional changes in the heart in patients with cancer can be a result of both the disease itself and various cancer therapies, and limiting cardiac damage has become an increasingly important issue as survival rates in patients with cancer have improved. Processes involved in cancer-induced cardiac atrophy may include cardiomyocyte atrophy and apoptosis, decreased protein synthesis, increased autophagy and proteolysis via the ubiquitin-proteosome system. Further to direct effects of malignancy on the heart, several chemotherapeutic agents are known to affect the myocardium, in particular the anthracyclines. The aim of this report is to review the effects of cancer and cancer treatment on the heart and what is known about the underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, clinical strategies to limit and treat cancer-associated cardiac atrophy are discussed, emphasising the benefit of a multidisciplinary approach by cardiologists and oncologists to optimise models of care to improve outcomes for patients with cancer. PMID:28785478
Sweeney, Mark; Yiu, Angela; Lyon, Alexander R
Functional changes in the heart in patients with cancer can be a result of both the disease itself and various cancer therapies, and limiting cardiac damage has become an increasingly important issue as survival rates in patients with cancer have improved. Processes involved in cancer-induced cardiac atrophy may include cardiomyocyte atrophy and apoptosis, decreased protein synthesis, increased autophagy and proteolysis via the ubiquitin-proteosome system. Further to direct effects of malignancy on the heart, several chemotherapeutic agents are known to affect the myocardium, in particular the anthracyclines. The aim of this report is to review the effects of cancer and cancer treatment on the heart and what is known about the underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, clinical strategies to limit and treat cancer-associated cardiac atrophy are discussed, emphasising the benefit of a multidisciplinary approach by cardiologists and oncologists to optimise models of care to improve outcomes for patients with cancer.
Tariq, Sohaib; Aronow, Wilbert S
The most common use of inotropes is among hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure, with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and with signs of end-organ dysfunction in the setting of a low cardiac output. Inotropes can be used in patients with severe systolic heart failure awaiting heart transplant to maintain hemodynamic stability or as a bridge to decision. In cases where patients are unable to be weaned off inotropes, these agents can be used until a definite or escalated supportive therapy is planned, which can include coronary revascularization or mechanical circulatory support (intra-aortic balloon pump, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, impella, left ventricular assist device, etc.). Use of inotropic drugs is associated with risks and adverse events. This review will discuss the use of the inotropes digoxin, dopamine, dobutamine, norepinephrine, milrinone, levosimendan, and omecamtiv mecarbil. Long-term inotropic therapy should be offered in selected patients. A detailed conversation with the patient and family shall be held, including a discussion on the risks and benefits of use of inotropes. Chronic heart failure patients awaiting heart transplants are candidates for intravenous inotropic support until the donor heart becomes available. This helps to maintain hemodynamic stability and keep the fluid status and pulmonary pressures optimized prior to the surgery. On the other hand, in patients with severe heart failure who are not candidates for advanced heart failure therapies, such as transplant and mechanical circulatory support, inotropic agents can be used for palliative therapy. Inotropes can help reduce frequency of hospitalizations and improve symptoms in these patients.
Scicchitano, Pietro; Cortese, Francesca; Ricci, Gabriella; Carbonara, Santa; Moncelli, Michele; Iacoviello, Massimo; Cecere, Annagrazia; Gesualdo, Michele; Zito, Annapaola; Caldarola, Pasquale; Scrutinio, Domenico; Lagioia, Rocco; Riccioni, Graziano; Ciccone, Marco Matteo
Elevated heart rate could negatively influence cardiovascular risk in the general population. It can induce and promote the atherosclerotic process by means of several mechanisms involving endothelial shear stress and biochemical activities. Furthermore, elevated heart rate can directly increase heart ischemic conditions because of its skill in unbalancing demand/supply of oxygen and decreasing the diastolic period. Thus, many pharmacological treatments have been proposed in order to reduce heart rate and ameliorate the cardiovascular risk profile of individuals, especially those suffering from coronary artery diseases (CAD) and chronic heart failure (CHF). Ivabradine is the first pure heart rate reductive drug approved and currently used in humans, created in order to selectively reduce sinus node function and to overcome the many side effects of similar pharmacological tools (ie, β-blockers or calcium channel antagonists). The aim of our review is to evaluate the role and the safety of this molecule on CAD and CHF therapeutic strategies. PMID:24940047
Krishna, Bandi Hari; Pal, Pravati; G K, Pal; J, Balachander; E, Jayasettiaseelon; Y, Sreekanth; M G, Sridhar; G S, Gaur
It is well known that a hall mark of heart failure is adverse changes in autonomic function. Elevated blood pressure is a powerful predictor of congestive heart failure and other Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) outcomes. In this study, we planned to examine the effects of a 12 week yoga therapy on blood pressure, heart rate, heart rate variability, and rate pressure product (RPP). Out of 130 heart failure patients recruited for the study, 65 patients were randomly selected to receive 12 week yoga therapy along with standard medical therapy (yoga group). Other patients (n=65) received only standard medical therapy (control group). Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac autonomic function (by short-term heart-rate variability analysis) and myocardial oxygen consumption (by RPP) were assessed before and after 12 weeks. In the yoga group, 44 patients and in the control group, 48 patients completed the study. There was a significant decrease in heart rate, blood pressure and RPP in yoga group compared to control group. Also, LFnu and LF-HF ratio decreased significantly and HFnu increased significantly in yoga group compared to control group. Twelve-week yoga therapy significantly improved the parasympathetic activity and decreased the sympathetic activity in heart failure patients (NYHA I&II).
Lavine, Kory J; Sierra, Oscar L
Heart failure represents a systemic disease with profound effects on multiple peripheral tissues including skeletal muscle. Within the context of heart failure, perturbations in skeletal muscle physiology, structure, and function strongly contribute to exercise intolerance and the morbidity of this devastating disease. There is growing evidence that chronic heart failure imparts specific pathological changes within skeletal muscle beds resulting in muscle dysfunction and tissue atrophy. Mechanistically, systemic and local inflammatory responses drive critical aspects of this pathology. In this review, we will discuss pathological mechanisms that drive skeletal muscle inflammation and highlight emerging roles for distinct innate immune subsets that reside within damage muscle tissue focusing on the recently described embryonic and monocyte-derived macrophage lineages. Within this context, we will discuss how immune mechanisms can be differentially targeted to stimulate skeletal muscle inflammation, catabolism, fiber atrophy, and regeneration.
Shah, Shreena; Dungu, Jason; Dubrey, Simon William
This case presents a patient with biopsy-proven, wild-type transthyretin (TTR) senile amyloidosis. The case was that of a man in his early 70s who presented with gradually progressive symptoms and signs of heart failure. The recent history included an episode of severe pancreatitis secondary to cholelithiasis and subsequently (and incidentally) noted hepatomegaly and marked ascites. Further evaluation of the aetiology of the heart failure, through echocardiography, coronary angiography and endomyocardial biopsy, led to an exact diagnosis of SSA. The patient is being treated with conventional heart failure medications while consideration is given to the use of diflusinal as an antiamyloidogenic small molecular stabiliser of TTR. Monitoring and further management advice are being coordinated by the National Amyloidosis Centre. PMID:23391947
Ruiz-Laiglesia, F J; Garcés-Horna, V; Formiga, F
The prevalence of heart failure increases with age and is accompanied by other diseases, which are encompassed within a «cardiometabolic phenotype». Their interrelation changes the evolution and treatment that each disease would have in isolation. Patients with heart failure and comorbidity are frail and complex. They require a comprehensive assessment (not just biomedical), which includes functional, cognitive, affective and psychosocial aspects. The overall treatment, which is not covered in the clinical practice guidelines, should adapt to each and every one of the comorbidities. Polypharmacy should be avoided as much as possible, due to its interactions and reduced adherence. Treatment needs to be optimised and adapted to the evolutionary phase of the disease and the specific needs of each patient. The complexity of the care process for patients with heart failure and comorbidities requires the coordination of healthcare providers and support from family and others involved in the patient's care.
Sindelić, Radomir; Vlajković, Gordana; Davidović, Lazar; Marković, Dejan; Marković, Miroslav
Careful assessment of fluid balance is required in the perioperative period since appropriate fluid therapy is essential for successful patient outcomes. Volume status is frequently assessed by different hemodynamic variables that could be targeted as endpoints for fluid therapy and resuscitation. Goal directed fluid therapy is a method for correction of fluid status in individual patients that includes invasive hemodynamic monitoring and aggressive perioperative correction of hemodynamics. Heart failure is a syndrome of ventricular dysfunction. It is associated with a variety of patophysiological disturbances, hydro-electrolyte balance disorders and compensatory mechanisms. Heart failure indicates careful assessment of fluid balance in perioperative period. The aim of this article is to describe actual techniques of hemodynamic measurements as well as main principles of fluid therapy to maintain hydro-electrolyte balance in patients with heart failure.
Chaudhry, Sunit-Preet; Stewart, Garrick C
Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome resulting from impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood associated with symptoms of dyspnea, fatigue, as well as peripheral and/or pulmonary edema. This syndrome is progressive and characterized by worsening quality of life despite escalating levels of care, affecting 5.7 million Americans with an annual cost of over ≥30 billion US dollars. Treatment for this syndrome has evolved over three distinct eras: the nonpharmacological era, the pharmacological era, and the device era, with the focus shifting from symptomatic relief to decreasing morbidity and mortality. Over the past 10 years, the field has undergone a renaissance, with the development of new pharmacologic, hemodynamic monitoring, and device therapies proven to improve outcomes in patients with heart failure. This article will review several recent innovations in the management of patients with heart failure. PMID:28356751
Chaudhry, Sunit-Preet; Stewart, Garrick C
Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome resulting from impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood associated with symptoms of dyspnea, fatigue, as well as peripheral and/or pulmonary edema. This syndrome is progressive and characterized by worsening quality of life despite escalating levels of care, affecting 5.7 million Americans with an annual cost of over ≥30 billion US dollars. Treatment for this syndrome has evolved over three distinct eras: the nonpharmacological era, the pharmacological era, and the device era, with the focus shifting from symptomatic relief to decreasing morbidity and mortality. Over the past 10 years, the field has undergone a renaissance, with the development of new pharmacologic, hemodynamic monitoring, and device therapies proven to improve outcomes in patients with heart failure. This article will review several recent innovations in the management of patients with heart failure.
Butts, Brittany; Gary, Rebecca A; Dunbar, Sandra B; Butler, Javed
Patients with heart failure continue to suffer adverse health consequences despite advances in therapies over the past 2 decades. Identification of novel therapeutic targets that may attenuate disease progression is therefore needed. The inflammasome may play a central role in modulating chronic inflammation and in turn affecting heart failure progression. The inflammasome is a complex of intracellular interaction proteins that trigger maturation of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 to initiate the inflammatory response. This response is amplified through production of tumor necrosis factor α and activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent evidence implicating this inflammatory pathway in the pathophysiology of heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beard, Walter L; Long, R Craig; Geraci, Stephen A
Heart failure is a chronic disease afflicting millions of patients worldwide. Advances in treatment have allowed sufferers to enjoy overall prolonged survival and enhanced quality of life. Yet, a consequence of these therapeutic successes is that more patients survive to end-stage disease, with severe symptoms, poor quality of life, and no options available to prolong their survival reasonably. End-stage heart failure patients require a comprehensive palliative approach to care during their final months, with treatment goals focusing on symptom relief. Often, specific heart failure therapies can further this cause and should be administered when appropriate to alleviate specific symptoms, while other general palliative measures should also be considered as with other terminal patients. End-of-life palliative strategies must conform to accepted principles of ethical care. Constant communication with patients and families is essential to achieve best treatment goals for this growing segment of the population.
Hassan, Mustafa; Sheps, David S.
Heart failure affects millions of Americans and new diagnosis rates are expected to almost triple over the next 30 years as our population ages. Affective disorders including clinical depression and anxiety are common in patients with congestive heart failure. Furthermore, the presence of these disorders significantly impacts quality of life, medical outcomes, and healthcare service utilization. In recent years, the literature has attempted to describe potential pathophysiologic mechanisms relating affective disorders and psychosocial stress to heart failure. Several potential mechanisms have been proposed including autonomic nervous system dysfunction, inflammation, cardiac arrhythmias, and altered platelet function. These mechanisms are reviewed in this article. Additional novel mechanisms such as mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia are also discussed. PMID:18368481
Subramaniam, Veeran; Davis, Russell C; Shantsila, Eduard; Lip, Gregory Y H
Although the risk of thromboembolism in chronic heart failure is high even in the absence of atrial fibrillation, the risk to benefit ratio of anticoagulation vs. antiplatelet therapy or no antithrombotic therapy is poorly defined in this population. Post hoc analysis of large therapeutic heart failure trials has estimated the risk of thromboembolism to be between 1 and 4.5%. However, most of these studies have included some patients with atrial fibrillation, and thromboembolism was not a predefined endpoint. At present, the evidence for either anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy is limited and the results from current large-scale randomized studies are awaited. From the randomized studies carried out thus far, there is a beneficial trend in favour of anticoagulation therapy, with less hospitalization for heart failure compared with patients taking aspirin.
Rubio Gracia, J; Sánchez Marteles, M; Pérez Calvo, J I
Systemic venous congestion has gained significant importance in the interpretation of the pathophysiology of acute heart failure, especially in the development of renal function impairment during exacerbations. In this study, we review the concept, clinical characterisation and identification of venous congestion. We update current knowledge on its importance in the pathophysiology of acute heart failure and its involvement in the prognosis. We pay special attention to the relationship between abdominal congestion, the pulmonary interstitium as filtering membrane, inflammatory phenomena and renal function impairment in acute heart failure. Lastly, we review decongestion as a new therapeutic objective and the measures available for its assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Terrovitis, John V; Anastasiou-Nana, Maria; Kaldara, Elissavet; Drakos, Stavros G; Nanas, Serafeim N; Nanas, John N
Anemia has been recognized as a very common and serious comorbidity in heart failure, with a prevalence ranging from 10 to 79%, depending on diagnostic definition, disease severity and patient characteristics. A clear association of anemia with worse prognosis has been confirmed in multiple heart failure trials. This finding has recently triggered intense scrutiny in order to identify the underlying pathophysiology and the best treatment options. Etiology is multifactorial, with iron deficiency and cytokine activation (anemia of chronic disease) playing the most important roles. Treatment is aimed at not only restoring hemoglobin values back to normal, but also at improving the patient's symptoms, functional capacity and hopefully the outcome. Iron supplementation and erythropoietin-stimulating agents have been used for this purpose, either alone or in combination. In this review, the recent advances in elucidating the mechanisms leading to anemia in the setting of heart failure are presented and the evidence supporting the use of different treatment approaches are discussed.
Cho, Geoffrey W.; Altamirano, Francisco; Hill, Joseph A.
Robust successes have been achieved in recent years in conquering the acutely lethal manifestations of heart disease. Many patients who previously would have died now survive to enjoy happy and productive lives. Nevertheless, the devastating impact of heart disease continues unabated, as the spectrum of disease has evolved with new manifestations. In light of this ever-evolving challenge, insights that culminate in novel therapeutic targets are urgently needed. Here, we review fundamental mechanisms of heart failure, both with reduced (HFrEF) and preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction. We discuss pathways that regulate cardiomyocyte remodeling and turnover, focusing on Ca2+ signaling, autophagy, and apoptosis. In particular, we highlight recent insights pointing to novel connections among these events. We also explore mechanisms whereby potential therapeutic approaches targeting these processes may improve morbidity and mortality in the devastating syndrome of heart failure. PMID:26775029
Dehlin, Heather M.; Levick, Scott P.
The tachykinin, substance P, is found primarily in sensory nerves. In the heart, substance P-containing nerve fibers are often found surrounding coronary vessels, making them ideally situated to sense changes in the myocardial environment. Recent studies in rodents have identified substance P as having dual roles in the heart, depending on disease etiology and/or timing. Thus far, these studies indicate that substance P may be protective acutely following ischemia-reperfusion, but damaging long-term in non-ischemic induced remodeling and heart failure. Sensory nerves may be at the apex of the cascade of events leading to heart failure, therefore, they make a promising potential therapeutic target that warrants increased investigation. PMID:24286592
Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Tyagi, Suresh C
Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloprotease 4 (TIMP4) is endogenously one of the key modulators of matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP9) and we have reported earlier that cardiac specific TIMP4 instigates contractility and helps in differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells. Although studies show that the expression of TIMP4 goes down in heart failure but the mechanism is unknown. This study aims to determine the mechanism of silencing of TIMP4 in heart failure progression created by aorta-vena cava (AV) fistula. We hypothesize that there is epigenetic silencing of TIMP4 in heart failure. To validate this hypothesis, we created heart failure model by creating AV fistula in C57BL/6 mice and looked into the promoter methylation (methylation specific PCR, high resolution melting, methylation sensitive restriction enzyme and Na bisulphite treatment followed by sequencing), histone modification (ChIP assay) and microRNAs that regulate TIMP4 (mir122a) and MMP9 (mir29b and mir455-5p). The physiological parameters in terms of cardiac function after AV fistula were assessed by echocardiography. We observed that there are 7 CpG islands in the TIMP4 promoter which get methylated during the progression of heart failure which leads to its epigenetic silencing. In addition, the up-regulated levels of mir122a in part, contribute to regulation of TIMP4. Consequently, MMP9 gets up-regulated and leads to cardiac remodeling. This is a novel report to explain the epigenetic silencing of TIMP4 in heart failure.
Chioncel, Ovidiu; Collins, Sean P; Greene, Stephen J; Ambrosy, Andrew P; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Macarie, Cezar; Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai
Heart failure is a clinical syndrome that manifests from various cardiac and noncardiac abnormalities. Accordingly, rapid and readily accessible methods for diagnosis and risk stratification are invaluable for providing clinical care, deciding allocation of scare resources, and designing selection criteria for clinical trials. Natriuretic peptides represent one of the most important diagnostic and prognostic tools available for the care of heart failure patients. Natriuretic peptide testing has the distinct advantage of objectivity, reproducibility, and widespread availability.The concept of tailoring heart failure management to achieve a target value of natriuretic peptides has been tested in various clinical trials and may be considered as an effective method for longitudinal biomonitoring and guiding escalation of heart failure therapies with overall favorable results.Although heart failure trials support efficacy and safety of natriuretic peptide-guided therapy as compared with usual care, the relationship between natriuretic peptide trajectory and clinical benefit has not been uniform across the trials, and certain subgroups have not shown robust benefit. Furthermore, the precise natriuretic peptide value ranges and time intervals of testing are still under investigation. If natriuretic peptides fail to decrease following intensification of therapy, further work is needed to clarify the optimal pharmacologic approach. Despite decreasing natriuretic peptide levels, some patients may present with other high-risk features (e.g. elevated troponin). A multimarker panel investigating multiple pathological processes will likely be an optimal alternative, but this will require prospective validation.Future research will be needed to clarify the type and magnitude of the target natriuretic peptide therapeutic response, as well as the duration of natriuretic peptide-guided therapy in heart failure patients.
Shen, Li; Jhund, Pardeep S; Petrie, Mark C; Claggett, Brian L; Barlera, Simona; Cleland, John G F; Dargie, Henry J; Granger, Christopher B; Kjekshus, John; Køber, Lars; Latini, Roberto; Maggioni, Aldo P; Packer, Milton; Pitt, Bertram; Solomon, Scott D; Swedberg, Karl; Tavazzi, Luigi; Wikstrand, John; Zannad, Faiez; Zile, Michael R; McMurray, John J V
The risk of sudden death has changed over time among patients with symptomatic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction with the sequential introduction of medications including angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists. We sought to examine this trend in detail. We analyzed data from 40,195 patients who had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and were enrolled in any of 12 clinical trials spanning the period from 1995 through 2014. Patients who had an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator at the time of trial enrollment were excluded. Weighted multivariable regression was used to examine trends in rates of sudden death over time. Adjusted hazard ratios for sudden death in each trial group were calculated with the use of Cox regression models. The cumulative incidence rates of sudden death were assessed at different time points after randomization and according to the length of time between the diagnosis of heart failure and randomization. Sudden death was reported in 3583 patients. Such patients were older and were more often male, with an ischemic cause of heart failure and worse cardiac function, than those in whom sudden death did not occur. There was a 44% decline in the rate of sudden death across the trials (P=0.03). The cumulative incidence of sudden death at 90 days after randomization was 2.4% in the earliest trial and 1.0% in the most recent trial. The rate of sudden death was not higher among patients with a recent diagnosis of heart failure than among those with a longer-standing diagnosis. Rates of sudden death declined substantially over time among ambulatory patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction who were enrolled in clinical trials, a finding that is consistent with a cumulative benefit of evidence-based medications on this cause of death. (Funded by the China Scholarship Council and the University of Glasgow.).
Trullàs, Joan Carles; Miró, Òscar; Formiga, Francesc; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Montero-Pérez-Barquero, Manuel; Jacob, Javier; Quirós-López, Raúl; Herrero Puente, Pablo; Manzano, Luís; Llorens, Pere
Registries are useful to address questions that are difficult to answer in clinical trials. The objective of this study was to describe and compare two heart failure (HF) cohorts from two Spanish HF registries. We compared the RICA and EAHFE registries, both of which are prospective multicentre cohort studies including patients with decompensated HF consecutively admitted to internal medicine wards (RICA) or attending the emergency department (EAHFE). From the latter registry we only included patients who were admitted to internal medicine wards. A total of 5137 patients admitted to internal medicine wards were analysed (RICA: 3287 patients; EAHFE: 1850 patients). Both registries included elderly patients (RICA: mean (SD) age 79 (9) years; EAHFE: mean (SD) age 81 (9) years), with a slight predominance of female gender (52% and 58%, respectively, in the RICA and EAHFE registries) and with a high proportion of patients with preserved ejection fraction (58% and 62%, respectively). Some differences in comorbidities were noted, with diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, chronic renal failure and atrial fibrillation being more frequent in the RICA registry while cognitive and functional impairment predominated in the EAHFE registry. The 30-day mortality after discharge was 3.4% in the RICA registry and 4.8% in the EAHFE registry (p<0.05) and the 30-day readmission rate was 7.5% in the RICA registry (readmission to hospital) and 24.0% in the EAHFE registry (readmission to emergency department) (p<0.001). We found differences in the clinical characteristics of patients admitted to Spanish internal medicine wards for decompensated HF depending on inclusion in either the RICA or EAHFE registry. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Cornelussen, Richard N; Splett, Vincent; Klepfer, Ruth Nicholson; Stegemann, Berthold; Kornet, Lilian; Prinzen, Frits W
In this review, we report on electrical modalities, which do not fit the definition of pacemaker, but increase cardiac performance either by direct application to the heart (e.g., post-extrasystolic potentiation or non-excitatory stimulation) or indirectly through activation of the nervous system (e.g., vagal or sympathetic activation). The physiological background of the possible mechanisms of these electrical modalities and their potential application to treat heart failure are discussed.
Meneguz-Moreno, Rafael Alexandre; Rodrigues da Costa Teixeira, Felipe; Rossi Neto, João Manoel; Finger, Marco Aurélio; Casadei, Carolina; Castillo, Maria Teresa; Sanchez de Almeida, Antonio Flávio
Left ventricular noncompaction is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by excessive left ventricular trabeculation, deep intertrabecular recesses and a thin compacted layer due to the arrest of compaction of myocardial fibers during embryonic development. We report the case of a young patient with isolated left ventricular noncompaction, leading to refractory heart failure that required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation followed by emergency heart transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
van de Wal, Ruud M A; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Plokker, H W Thijs; Smilde, Tom D J; Lok, Dirk; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; van Gilst, Wiek H; Voors, Adriaan A
Microalbuminuria is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the relation between microalbuminuria and chronic heart failure has not been well described yet. In this cross-sectional study, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria and the association with neurohormonal parameters in severe chronic heart failure patients. We studied 94 stable chronic heart failure patients (New York Heart Association class III/IV) receiving therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for over three months. In all patients, renal function and neurohormonal status were evaluated and correlated with urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. The studied population consisted of 70 men and 21 women (mean age 69 +/- 12 years). Ischemia was the underlying cause of heart failure in 61 patients. Overall, 100% of the patients were treated with an ACE inhibitor, 72% with a beta-blocker, and 47% with spironolactone. In 32% (95% confidence interval 22-42) of the patients, microalbuminuria was present, which is significantly higher than in the general population. However, we found no significant association between the presence of microalbuminuria and renal function. Plasma NT-proBNP, active renin protein, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, and aldosterone did not differ significantly between groups with and without microalbuminuria. In 32% of the patients, microalbuminuria was present. No association was found with either renal or neurohormonal parameters.
Patel, Akash R; Shaddy, Robert E
Heart failure is becoming an increasingly common and significant problem in the field of pediatric cardiology. The numerous types of cardiomyopathies, and more recently, long-term survival of patients with congenital heart disease, have added to a growing patient population. Over the last several decades, our knowledge base regarding mechanisms of disease and therapeutic intervention in adult patients with heart failure has drastically changed. The most recent and important breakthrough in the pharmacologic treatment of heart failure has been the particular role of β-blocker therapy. This medication has led to significant improvements in survival and symptoms in adults, with less convincing findings in limited studies in pediatrics. The ability to study the benefits of this therapy in patients has been challenging owing to the heterogeneity of the patient population and lack of large sample sizes. However, as we investigate the mechanisms behind the disease process, the differences that exist between disease conditions and ages, and the significant alterations that may exist at the molecular and genetic level, our understanding of β-blocker therapy in pediatric heart failure will improve, and ultimately may lead to patient-specific therapy.
Maeder, Micha T; Rickli, Hans
Heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; HFpEF) is a common type of heart failure in the elderly, and it typically represents advanced hypertensive heart disease. The left ventricle in patients with HFpEF is characterized by concentric remodeling, normal LVEF, but reduced left longitudinal shortening, and importantly diastolic dysfunction. Dyspnoe and fatigue in patients with HFpEF are due to impaired left ventricular filling with a rapid increase in filling pressures and the lack of an increase in stroke volume during exercise. The diagnosis of HFpEF requires the careful exclusion of non-cardiac causes of dyspnoe as well as cardiac causes of dyspnoe associated with preserved LVEF other than HFpEF, primarily coronary artery disease and valve disease. Then, the following findings are required to make a diagnosis of HFpEF: a non-dilated left ventricle with an LVEF >50% and the presence of a significant diastolic impairment, which can be assessed using invasive haemodynamics, echocardiography, natriuretic peptides, or a combination of these tools. In contrast to patients with heart failure and reduced LVEF there is still no established treatment for patients with HFpEF, which prolongs survival or reduces the rate of hospitalizations for heart failure. There is currently however intense research going on in this field, and results from large trials evaluating the effects of various interventions on clinical endpoints are expected within the next years.
Butler, Craig R; Jugdutt, Bodh I
End-stage systolic heart failure is an increasingly common problem in elderly patients and is associated with high cost, poor quality of life, and poor outcomes. Mechanical circulatory support is a promising therapy as both a bridge to transplantation and destination therapy. Elderly patients are frequently ineligible for heart transplantation because of their age and comorbidities, and the application of mechanical circulatory support for destination therapy in this population is not well defined. A review of the literature was undertaken to better characterize our experience to date with mechanical circulatory support in older heart failure populations. Mechanical circulatory support is being employed increasingly for destination therapy indications in older patients. The newer continuous flow devices appear to have disproportionate advantage in elderly patients, which has translated into marked improvement in 1- and 2-year survival. The rational implementation of MCS devices in elderly heart failure patients needs to focus on (1) continuous flow devices that appear to have particular benefit in this population, (2) extensive pre-MCS assessment including variables relating to frailty, and (3) intervening before these patients develop cardiogenic shock. More data are needed on the cost-benefit analysis of routine use of CF devices as destination therapy in elderly patients with heart failure.
Kapiloff, Michael S.; Emter, Craig A.
The prevalence of heart failure is expected to increase almost 50% in the next 15 years because of aging of the general population, an increased frequency of comorbidities, and an improved survival following cardiac events. Conventional treatments for heart failure have remained largely static over the past 20 years, illustrating the pressing need for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents for this patient population. Given the heterogeneous nature of heart failure, it is important to specifically define the cellular mechanisms in the heart that drive the patient’s symptoms, particularly when considering new treatment strategies. This report highlights the latest research efforts, as well as the possible pitfalls, in cardiac disease translational research and discusses future questions and considerations needed to advance the development of new heart failure therapies. In particular, we discuss cardiac remodeling and the translation of animal work to humans and how advancements in our understanding of these concepts relative to disease are central to new discoveries that can improve cardiovascular health. PMID:26918161
Krishnamani, N C
Patients with severe systolic Heart Failure continue to have poor quality of life and increased mortality in spite of optimal medical management. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy [CRT] is promising modality in patients with systolic heart failure and electrocardiographic [ECG] evidence of left bundle branch block [LBBB]. Cost issues continue to elude many deserving cases of this therapy in our society. Relatively cost effective Dual chamber pacing [DDD] with right atrial and isolated left ventricular pacing [RA-LV] can be a good alternative. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wong, Christopher C Y; Ng, Austin C C; Kritharides, Leonard; Sindone, Andrew P
Iron is an essential micronutrient in many cellular processes. Iron deficiency, with or without anaemia, is common in patients with chronic heart failure. Observational studies have shown iron deficiency to be associated with worse clinical outcomes and mortality. The treatment of iron deficiency in chronic heart failure patients using intravenous iron alone has shown promise in several clinical trials, although further studies which include larger populations and longer follow-up times are needed. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shen, Mark J; Zipes, Douglas P
"Heart failure is an increasingly prevalent disease with high mortality and public health burden. It is associated with autonomic imbalance characterized by sympathetic hyperactivity and parasympathetic hypoactivity. Evolving novel interventional and device-based therapies have sought to restore autonomic balance by neuromodulation. Results of preclinical animal studies and early clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of these therapies in heart failure. This article discusses specific neuromodulatory treatment modalities individually-spinal cord stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, baroreceptor activation therapy, and renal sympathetic nerve denervation."
de Boer, Rudolf A; Daniels, Lori B; Maisel, Alan S; Januzzi, James L
Since natriuretic peptides were successfully integrated into the clinical practice of heart failure (HF), the possibility of using new biomarkers to advance the management of affected patients has been explored. While a huge number of candidate HF biomarkers have been described recently, very few have made the difficult translation from initial promise to clinical application. These markers mirror the complex pathophysiology of heart failure at various levels: cell loss (troponin), fibrosis (ST2 and galectin-3), infection (procalcitonin), and renal disease (several renal markers). In this review, we examine the best emerging candidates for clinical assessment and management of patients with HF.
Palmiero, P; Macello, M; De Pascalis, S
Heart failure is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in general population, annual mortality rate is 20%, in spite of pharmacological treatments or other therapies. Cardio-vascular events and diabetes tight correlation is well known, while it is less evaluated diabetes and heart failure correlation is less studied, heart failure as left ventricular systolic function impairment. Cardiovascular disease rate is decreasing, systolic heart failure rate is raising. Our study goal is to evaluate which role diabetes plays in determining systolic heart failure, diagnosed by echocardiographical examination. Four hundred and fifty consecutive patients, systolic heart failure prone, diagnosed by left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40%, were included. Exclusion criteria were rheumatic or congenital valve diseases. Mean age was 78.3 years (53-93 years), 286 were women and 164 men. Statistical analysis were performed by parametric t-Student test and not parametric chi2 test. High significant difference was assessed for P<0.05. Seventy six (16.9%) patients were diabetes prone (D), 374 (83.1%) were diabetes free, so not diabetic (ND). Forty three men were D (56.5%), 131 ND (35%). Diabetic mean age was 74.7 years (52-88), not diabetic was 79.3 (53-93). Six D (7.8%) and 21 ND patients (5.6%) were hypercholesterolemia prone. Eight D (10.5%) and 18 ND (10.1%) patients were smokers. Twenty eight D (36.8%) and 107 ND patients (28.6%) were hypertensive. Thirty three D (43.4%) and 88 ND (26.4%) patients were coronary artery disease prone, 3 of 33 (3.9%) D and 28 of 88 (7.4%) ND ischemic patients were myocardial infarction prone. Twenty one D (27.6%) and 106 ND (28.3%) patients were atrial fibrillation prone. There were not statistical significant difference among D and ND patients for following variables: sex, smoke, total cholesterolemia, hypertension and atrial fibrillation. We found an high significant difference for mean age (P<0.005) and coronary artery disease prone
Davies, R H; Sheridan, D J
1. Despite demonstrable benefits in terms of symptomatic relief and improvement in prognosis, even the best treatments of heart failure currently available fall short of being ideal. We review the basis for newer approaches to the treatment of heart failure and discuss some of the agents which capitalize on current understanding of the underlying patho-physiology. 2. Several drugs, old and new, are presently being investigated by major clinical trials. We also consider some of the difficulties related to the design and conduct of such trials and suggest how drugs might be better assessed in the future. PMID:8329279
Felker, G Michael; Petersen, John W; Mark, Daniel B
The natriuretic peptides are a family of related hormones that play a crucial role in cardiovascular homeostasis. They have recently emerged as potentially important clinical markers in heart failure. Recent data have suggested an important role for these markers in establishing the diagnosis of heart failure in patients with unexplained dyspnea in both acute care and ambulatory settings. Other clinical uses of the natriuretic peptides, such as screening for asymptomatic ventricular dysfunction, establishing prognosis or guiding titration of drug therapy, are under investigation but have not yet sufficiently been validated for widespread clinical use.
Wachter, Rolf; Edelmann, Frank
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) constitutes a growing health care burden worldwide. Although definitions vary somewhat among guidelines, in general the presence of typical heart failure symptoms and signs in combination with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (≥50%) and functional and/or structural left ventricular changes makes the diagnosis likely. This review focuses on the current understanding of diagnostic criteria, as presented in current guidelines and consensus recommendations, and on new insights from recent papers. The role of comorbidities that often contribute to symptoms and hamper the HFpEF diagnostics is also reviewed.
Carnicer, Ricardo; Crabtree, Mark J.; Sivakumaran, Vidhya
Abstract Significance: The regulation of myocardial function by constitutive nitric oxide synthases (NOS) is important for the maintenance of myocardial Ca2+ homeostasis, relaxation and distensibility, and protection from arrhythmia and abnormal stress stimuli. However, sustained insults such as diabetes, hypertension, hemodynamic overload, and atrial fibrillation lead to dysfunctional NOS activity with superoxide produced instead of NO and worse pathophysiology. Recent Advances: Major strides in understanding the role of normal and abnormal constitutive NOS in the heart have revealed molecular targets by which NO modulates myocyte function and morphology, the role and nature of post-translational modifications of NOS, and factors controlling nitroso-redox balance. Localized and differential signaling from NOS1 (neuronal) versus NOS3 (endothelial) isoforms are being identified, as are methods to restore NOS function in heart disease. Critical Issues: Abnormal NOS signaling plays a key role in many cardiac disorders, while targeted modulation may potentially reverse this pathogenic source of oxidative stress. Future Directions: Improvements in the clinical translation of potent modulators of NOS function/dysfunction may ultimately provide a powerful new treatment for many hearts diseases that are fueled by nitroso-redox imbalance. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1078–1099. PMID:22871241
Heineke, Joerg; Auger-Messier, Mannix; Xu, Jian; Sargent, Michelle; York, Allen; Welle, Stephen; Molkentin, Jeffery D.
Background Cardiac cachexia is characterized by an exaggerated loss of skeletal muscle, weakness, and exercise intolerance, although the etiology of these effects remains unknown. Here we hypothesized that the heart functions as an endocrine organ in promoting systemic cachexia by secreting peptide factors such as myostatin. Myostatin is a cytokine of the transforming growth factor β(TGFβ) superfamily that is known to control muscle wasting. Methods and Results We used a Cre/loxP system to ablate myostatin (Mstn gene) expression in a celltype-specific manner. As expected, elimination of Mstn selectively in skeletal muscle with a myosin light chain 1f (MLC1f)-cre allele induced robust hypertrophy in all skeletal muscle. However, heart-specific deletion of Mstn with a Nkx2.5-cre allele did not alter baseline heart size or secondarily affect skeletal muscle size, but the characteristic wasting and atrophy of skeletal muscle that typifies heart failure was not observed in these heart-specific null mice, indicating that myocardial myostatin expression controls muscle atrophy in heart failure. Indeed, myostatin levels in the plasma were significantly increased in wildtype mice subjected to pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy, but not in Mstn heart-specific deleted mice. Moreover, cardiac-specific overexpression of myostatin, which increased circulating levels of myostatin by 3–4-fold, caused a reduction in weight of the quadriceps, gastrocnemius, soleus, and even the heart itself. Lastly, to investigate myostatin as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of muscle wasting in heart failure, we infused a myostatin blocking antibody (JA-16), which promoted greater maintenance of muscle mass in heart failure. Conclusions Myostatin released from cardiomyocytes induces skeletal muscle wasting in heart failure. Targeted inhibition of myostatin in cardiac cachexia might be a therapeutic option in the future. PMID:20065166
Heineke, Joerg; Auger-Messier, Mannix; Xu, Jian; Sargent, Michelle; York, Allen; Welle, Stephen; Molkentin, Jeffery D
Cardiac cachexia is characterized by an exaggerated loss of skeletal muscle, weakness, and exercise intolerance, although the cause of these effects remains unknown. Here, we hypothesized that the heart functions as an endocrine organ in promoting systemic cachexia by secreting peptide factors such as myostatin. Myostatin is a cytokine of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily that is known to control muscle wasting. We used a Cre/loxP system to ablate myostatin (Mstn gene) expression in a cell type-specific manner. As expected, elimination of Mstn selectively in skeletal muscle with a myosin light chain 1f (MLC1f)-cre allele induced robust hypertrophy in all skeletal muscle. However, heart-specific deletion of Mstn with an Nkx2.5-cre allele did not alter baseline heart size or secondarily affect skeletal muscle size, but the characteristic wasting and atrophy of skeletal muscle that typify heart failure were not observed in these heart-specific null mice, indicating that myocardial myostatin expression controls muscle atrophy in heart failure. Indeed, myostatin levels in the plasma were significantly increased in wild-type mice subjected to pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy but not in Mstn heart-specific deleted mice. Moreover, cardiac-specific overexpression of myostatin, which increased circulating levels of myostatin by 3- to 4-fold, caused a reduction in weight of the quadriceps, gastrocnemius, soleus, and even the heart itself. Finally, to investigate myostatin as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of muscle wasting in heart failure, we infused a myostatin blocking antibody (JA-16), which promoted greater maintenance of muscle mass in heart failure. Myostatin released from cardiomyocytes induces skeletal muscle wasting in heart failure. Targeted inhibition of myostatin in cardiac cachexia might be a therapeutic option in the future.
Lee, Hae-Young; Baek, Sang Hong
Beta-blockers are the cornerstone treatment for congestive heart failure (HF). Current HF guidelines commonly recommend β-blockers for the treatment of HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The effect of β-blockers, however, is less clear for HF patients with preserved LVEF, unstable severe acute HF, or right ventricular failure. This review summarizes the effect of β-blockers in various clinical situations and suggests a strategy for optimal use. (Circ J 2016; 80: 565-571).
Segovia, Victoria; Manterola, Carlos; González, Marcelo; Rodríguez-Núñez, Iván
Cardiovascular diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the general population. In this sense the autonomic imbalance is the cornerstone of the physiopathology underlying the development of these diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of exercise training on heart rate variability (HRV) in adult patients with chronic heart failure.
Bona, Renata L; Bonezi, Artur; Silva, Paula Figueiredo da; Biancardi, Carlo M; Castro, Flávio Antônio de Souza; Clausel, Nadine Oliveira
Background Patients with chronic heart failure frequently report intolerance to exercise and present with changes in walk pattern, but information about heart transplant patients is lacking. Alterations of the gait pattern are related to interaction changes between the metabolism, neurological system and the mechanical demands of the locomotor task. The aim of this study was to investigate the electromyographic cost, coactivation and cost of transport of walking of chronic heart failure and heart transplant patients. Design This research was of an exploratory, cross-sectional design. Methods Twelve chronic heart failure patients, twelve healthy controls and five heart transplant patients participated in the study. Electromyographic data and oxygen uptake were collected simultaneously at five walking speeds. Results In the experimental groups, the electromyographic cost, percentage of coactivation in the leg and cost of transport were higher than in controls. The electromyographic cost was in line with the cost of transport. The minimum electromyographic cost matched with the self-selected walking speed in controls, while in chronic heart failure and heart transplant patients, it was reached at speeds higher than the self-selected walking speed. Conclusion The largest postural isometric activation and antagonist activation resulted in the highest metabolic demand. These findings are of great clinical relevance because they support the concept that interventions in order to improve the muscle performance in these patients can increase the self-selected walking speed and therefore the metabolic economy of walking.
Balmain, Bryce N; Sabapathy, Surendran; Jay, Ollie; Adsett, Julie; Stewart, Glenn M; Jayasinghe, Rohan; Morris, Norman R
Upon heat exposure, the thermoregulatory system evokes reflex increases in sweating and skin blood flow responses to facilitate heat dissipation and maintain heat balance to prevent the continuing rise in core temperature. These heat dissipating responses are mediated primarily by autonomic and cardiovascular adjustments; which if attenuated, may compromise thermoregulatory control. In patients with heart failure (HF), the neurohumoral and cardiovascular dysfunction that underpins this condition may potentially impair thermoregulatory responses and, consequently, place these patients at a greater risk of heat-related illness. The aim of this review is to describe thermoregulatory mechanisms and the factors that may increase the risk of heat-related illness in patients with HF. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for impaired thermoregulatory control in HF patients is of particular importance, given the current and projected increase in frequency and intensity of heat waves, as well as the promotion of regular exercise as a therapeutic modality. Furthermore, novel therapeutic strategies that may improve thermoregulatory control in HF, and the clinical relevance of this work in this population will be discussed.
DOS REMEDIOS, C.G.; LIEW, C.C.; ALLEN, P.D.; WINSLOW, R.L.; VAN EYK, J.E.; DUNN, M.J.
Unraveling the molecular complexities of human heart failure, particularly end-stage failure, can be achieved by combining multiple investigative approaches. There are several parts to the problem. Each patient is the product of a complex set of genetic variations, different degrees of influence of diets and lifestyles, and usually heart transplantation patients are treated with multiple drugs. The genomic status of the myocardium of any one transplant patient can be analysed using gene arrays (cDNA- or oligonucleotide-based) each with its own strengths and weaknesses. The proteins expressed by these failing hearts (myocardial proteomics) were first investigated over a decade ago using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DGE) which promised to resolve several thousand proteins in a single sample of failing heart. However, while 2DGE is very successful for the abundant and moderately expressed proteins, it struggles to identify proteins expressed at low levels. Highly focused first dimension separations combined with recent advances in mass spectrometry now provide new hope for solving this difficulty. Protein arrays are a more recent form of proteomics that hold great promise but, like the above methods, they have their own drawbacks. Our approach to solving the problems inherent in the genomics and proteomics of heart failure is to provide experts in each analytical method with a sample from the same human failing heart. This requires a sufficiently large number of samples from a sufficiently large pool of heart transplant patients as well as a large pool of non-diseased, non-failing human hearts. We have collected more than 200 hearts from patients undergoing heart transplantations and a further 50 non-failing hearts. By combining our expertise we expect to reduce and possibly eliminate the inherent difficulties of each analytical approach. Finally, we recognise the need for bioinformatics to make sense of the large quantities of data that will
Ravanshadi, Samin; Jahed, Mehran
Conventional models of cardiovascular system frequently lack required detail and focus primarily on the overall relationship between pressure, flow and volume. This study proposes a localized and regional model of the cardiovascular system. It utilizes noninvasive blood flow and pressure seed data and temporal cardiac muscle regional activity to predict the operation of the heart under normal and congestive heart failure conditions. The analysis considers specific regions of the heart, namely, base, mid and apex of left ventricle. The proposed method of parameter estimation for hydraulic electric analogy model is recursive least squares algorithm. Based on simulation results and comparison to clinical data, effect of congestive heart failure in the heart is quantified. Accumulated results for simulated ejection fraction percentage of the apex, mid and base regions of the left ventricle in congestive heart failure condition were 39 ± 6, 36 ± 9 and 38 ± 8, respectively. These results are shown to satisfactorily match those found through clinical measurements. The proposed analytical method can in effect be utilized as a preclinical and predictive tool for high-risk heart patients and candidates for heart transplant, assistive device and total artificial heart.
Pitt, Bertram; Pfeffer, Marc A; Assmann, Susan F; Boineau, Robin; Anand, Inder S; Claggett, Brian; Clausell, Nadine; Desai, Akshay S; Diaz, Rafael; Fleg, Jerome L; Gordeev, Ivan; Harty, Brian; Heitner, John F; Kenwood, Christopher T; Lewis, Eldrin F; O'Meara, Eileen; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Shaburishvili, Tamaz; Shah, Sanjiv J; Solomon, Scott D; Sweitzer, Nancy K; Yang, Song; McKinlay, Sonja M
Mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists improve the prognosis for patients with heart failure and a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. We evaluated the effects of spironolactone in patients with heart failure and a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. In this randomized, double-blind trial, we assigned 3445 patients with symptomatic heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 45% or more to receive either spironolactone (15 to 45 mg daily) or placebo. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, aborted cardiac arrest, or hospitalization for the management of heart failure. With a mean follow-up of 3.3 years, the primary outcome occurred in 320 of 1722 patients in the spironolactone group (18.6%) and 351 of 1723 patients in the placebo group (20.4%) (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.04; P=0.14). Of the components of the primary outcome, only hospitalization for heart failure had a significantly lower incidence in the spironolactone group than in the placebo group (206 patients [12.0%] vs. 245 patients [14.2%]; hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.99, P=0.04). Neither total deaths nor hospitalizations for any reason were significantly reduced by spironolactone. Treatment with spironolactone was associated with increased serum creatinine levels and a doubling of the rate of hyperkalemia (18.7%, vs. 9.1% in the placebo group) but reduced hypokalemia. With frequent monitoring, there were no significant differences in the incidence of serious adverse events, a serum creatinine level of 3.0 mg per deciliter (265 μmol per liter) or higher, or dialysis. In patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction, treatment with spironolactone did not significantly reduce the incidence of the primary composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, aborted cardiac arrest, or hospitalization for the management of heart failure. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood
Hausdorff, J. M.; Forman, D. E.; Ladin, Z.; Goldberger, A. L.; Rigney, D. R.; Wei, J. Y.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of congestive heart failure on a person's ability to walk at a steady pace while ambulating at a self-determined rate. SETTING: Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, a primary and tertiary teaching hospital, and a social activity center for elderly adults living in the community. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven elderly subjects (aged 70-93 years) with well compensated congestive heart failure (NY Heart Association class I or II), seven elderly subjects (aged 70-79 years) without congestive heart failure, and 10 healthy young adult subjects (aged 20-30 years). MEASUREMENTS: Subjects walked for 8 minutes on level ground at their own selected walking rate. Footswitches were used to measure the time between steps. Step rate (steps/minute) and step rate variability were calculated for the entire walking period, for 30 seconds during the first minute of the walk, for 30 seconds during the last minute of the walk, and for the 30-second period when each subject's step rate variability was minimal. Group means and 5% and 95% confidence intervals were computed. MAIN RESULTS: All measures of walking variability were significantly increased in the elderly subjects with congestive heart failure, intermediate in the elderly controls, and lowest in the young subjects. There was no overlap between the three groups using the minimal 30-second variability (elderly CHF vs elderly controls: P < 0.001, elderly controls vs young: P < 0.001), and no overlap between elderly subjects with and without congestive heart failure when using the overall variability. For all four measures, there was no overlap in any of the confidence intervals, and all group means were significantly different (P < 0.05).
Zouein, Fouad A; de Castro Brás, Lisandra E; da Costa, Danielle V; Lindsey, Merry L; Kurdi, Mazen; Booz, George W
Approximately half of heart failure patients have a normal ejection fraction, a condition designated as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). This heart failure subtype disproportionately affects women and the elderly and is commonly associated with other cardiovascular comorbidities, such as hypertension and diabetes. HFpEF is increasing at a steady rate and is predicted to become the leading cause of heart failure within a decade. HFpEF is characterized by impaired diastolic function, thought to be due to concentric remodeling of the heart along with increased stiffness of both the extracellular matrix and myofilaments. In addition, oxidative stress and inflammation are thought to have a role in HFpEF progression, along with endothelial dysfunction and impaired nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate-protein kinase G signaling. Surprisingly a number of clinical studies have failed to demonstrate any benefit of drugs effective in heart failure with systolic dysfunction in HFpEF patients. Thus, HFpEF is one of the largest unmet needs in cardiovascular medicine, and there is a substantial need for new therapeutic approaches and strategies that target mechanisms specific for HFpEF. This conclusion is underscored by the recently reported disappointing results of the RELAX trial, which assessed the use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil for treating HFpEF. In animal models, endothelial nitric oxide synthase activators and If current inhibitors have shown benefit in improving diastolic function, and there is a rationale for assessing matrix metalloproteinase 9 inhibitors and nitroxyl donors. LCZ696, a combination drug of angiotensin II receptor blocker and neprilysin inhibitor, and the aldosterone receptor antagonist spironolactone are currently in clinical trial for treating HFpEF. Here we present an overview of the etiology and diagnosis of HFpEF that segues into a discussion of new therapeutic approaches emerging from basic research and
Mortazavi, Bobak J; Downing, Nicholas S; Bucholz, Emily M; Dharmarajan, Kumar; Manhapra, Ajay; Li, Shu-Xia; Negahban, Sahand N; Krumholz, Harlan M
The current ability to predict readmissions in patients with heart failure is modest at best. It is unclear whether machine learning techniques that address higher dimensional, nonlinear relationships among variables would enhance prediction. We sought to compare the effectiveness of several machine learning algorithms for predicting readmissions. Using data from the Telemonitoring to Improve Heart Failure Outcomes trial, we compared the effectiveness of random forests, boosting, random forests combined hierarchically with support vector machines or logistic regression (LR), and Poisson regression against traditional LR to predict 30- and 180-day all-cause readmissions and readmissions because of heart failure. We randomly selected 50% of patients for a derivation set, and a validation set comprised the remaining patients, validated using 100 bootstrapped iterations. We compared C statistics for discrimination and distributions of observed outcomes in risk deciles for predictive range. In 30-day all-cause readmission prediction, the best performing machine learning model, random forests, provided a 17.8% improvement over LR (mean C statistics, 0.628 and 0.533, respectively). For readmissions because of heart failure, boosting improved the C statistic by 24.9% over LR (mean C statistic 0.678 and 0.543, respectively). For 30-day all-cause readmission, the observed readmission rates in the lowest and highest deciles of predicted risk with random forests (7.8% and 26.2%, respectively) showed a much wider separation than LR (14.2% and 16.4%, respectively). Machine learning methods improved the prediction of readmission after hospitalization for heart failure compared with LR and provided the greatest predictive range in observed readmission rates. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Hausdorff, J. M.; Forman, D. E.; Ladin, Z.; Goldberger, A. L.; Rigney, D. R.; Wei, J. Y.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of congestive heart failure on a person's ability to walk at a steady pace while ambulating at a self-determined rate. SETTING: Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, a primary and tertiary teaching hospital, and a social activity center for elderly adults living in the community. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven elderly subjects (aged 70-93 years) with well compensated congestive heart failure (NY Heart Association class I or II), seven elderly subjects (aged 70-79 years) without congestive heart failure, and 10 healthy young adult subjects (aged 20-30 years). MEASUREMENTS: Subjects walked for 8 minutes on level ground at their own selected walking rate. Footswitches were used to measure the time between steps. Step rate (steps/minute) and step rate variability were calculated for the entire walking period, for 30 seconds during the first minute of the walk, for 30 seconds during the last minute of the walk, and for the 30-second period when each subject's step rate variability was minimal. Group means and 5% and 95% confidence intervals were computed. MAIN RESULTS: All measures of walking variability were significantly increased in the elderly subjects with congestive heart failure, intermediate in the elderly controls, and lowest in the young subjects. There was no overlap between the three groups using the minimal 30-second variability (elderly CHF vs elderly controls: P < 0.001, elderly controls vs young: P < 0.001), and no overlap between elderly subjects with and without congestive heart failure when using the overall variability. For all four measures, there was no overlap in any of the confidence intervals, and all group means were significantly different (P < 0.05).
Greenberg, Barry H
The treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection (HFrEF) is changing rapidly. Advances over the past several decades have focused on blocking the adverse effects of neurohormonal activation. This approach has resulted in marked improvement in outcomes in the HFrEF population. Despite these advances, however, mortality and morbidity remain high and HFrEF patients have poor quality of life. New approaches to therapy now offer additional benefits. Combined neprilysin inhibition and angiotensin receptor blockade using sacubitril-valsartan (LCZ696) has been shown to be superior to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in HFrEF patients. Compared with enalapril, treatment with LCZ696 was associated with significant reductions in the composite of cardiovascular mortality and heart failure hospitalization, both components of this composite endpoint and all-cause mortality. Another approach that has been shown to be effective is the use of ivabradine, an agent that blocks If channels in the sinus node to reduce heart rate. When added to standard therapy (that included a β-blocker in 89% of patients) in symptomatic HFrEF patients who were in sinus rhythm, ivabradine significantly reduced combined cardiovascular mortality and heart failure hospitalizations. Death from heart failure, all-cause hospitalization, and heart failure hospitalization were also significantly reduced when ivabradine was added to the medical regimen. Thus, both LCZ696 and ivabradine represent significant advances in the therapy of HFrEF. Utilization of these drugs in the growing HFrEF population will benefit millions of patients around the world.
Horan, M; Barrett, F; Mulqueen, M; Maurer, B; Quigley, P; McDonald, K M
Advances have been made in the medical management of congestive heart failure. However, there is concern that these changes may not be transmitted to the heart failure population in the community. Other impediments to improved prognosis, such as failure to apply non-pharmacological strategies and poor patient comprehension may also be prevalent in the community. The purpose of this study was to assess physician practice and patient knowledge in a heart failure population admitted to a University Hospital in Ireland. Patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of heart failure were studied. Estimation of ejection fraction was used to subdivide the population into heart failure with impaired and normal systolic function. Patients' course in hospital was noted with reference to management by cardiology or internal medicine, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition therapy and digoxin and application of dietary and rehabilitative services. Patient knowledge was assessed by questionnaire. Eighty patients were included in this study. Two-thirds of the population had impaired systolic function. The majority of patients were managed by internal medicine physicians, and this population was older and more likely to have normal systolic function. Prescription of converting enzyme inhibitor therapy was more frequently used in cardiology-managed patients (96 vs. 70%, P<0.05). Neither group applied dietary or rehabilitative advice to a significant level. Patient comprehension was poor, especially with regard to understanding of medicine and the value of weight measurement. The above data demonstrate a lack of use of rehabilitative and dietary services and poor patient knowledge. These deficiencies may play a role in determining outlook and may impede the expected improvement in prognosis that has been witnessed in large randomised studies.
Katz, Arnold M; Rolett, Ellis L
Cardiac performance is normally determined by architectural, cellular, and molecular structures that determine the heart's form, and by physiological and biochemical mechanisms that regulate the function of these structures. Impaired adaptation of form to function in failing hearts contributes to two syndromes initially called systolic heart failure (SHF) and diastolic heart failure (DHF). In SHF, characterized by high end-diastolic volume (EDV), the left ventricle (LV) cannot eject a normal stroke volume (SV); in DHF, with normal or low EDV, the LV cannot accept a normal venous return. These syndromes are now generally defined in terms of ejection fraction (EF): SHF became 'heart failure with reduced ejection fraction' (HFrEF) while DHF became 'heart failure with normal or preserved ejection fraction' (HFnEF or HFpEF). However, EF is a chimeric index because it is the ratio between SV--which measures function, and EDV--which measures form. In SHF the LV dilates when sarcomere addition in series increases cardiac myocyte length, whereas sarcomere addition in parallel can cause concentric hypertrophy in DHF by increasing myocyte thickness. Although dilatation in SHF allows the LV to accept a greater venous return, it increases the energy cost of ejection and initiates a vicious cycle that contributes to progressive dilatation. In contrast, concentric hypertrophy in DHF facilitates ejection but impairs filling and can cause heart muscle to deteriorate. Differences in the molecular signals that initiate dilatation and concentric hypertrophy can explain why many drugs that improve prognosis in SHF have little if any benefit in DHF.
Gaui, Eduardo Nagib; de Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes; Klein, Carlos Henrique
Background Circulatory system diseases are the first cause of death in Brazil. Objective To analyze the evolution of mortality caused by heart failure, by ischemic heart diseases and by ill-defined causes, as well as their possible relations, in Brazil and in the geoeconomic regions of the country (North, Northeast, Center-West, South and Southeast), from 1996 to 2011. Methods Data were obtained from DATASUS and death declaration records with codes I20 and I24 for acute ischemic diseases, I25 for chronic ischemic diseases, and I50 for heart failure, and codes in chapter XIII for ill-defined causes, according to geoeconomic regions of Brazil, from 1996 to 2011. Results Mortality rates due to heart failure declined in Brazil and its regions, except for the North and the Northeast. Mortality rates due to acute ischemic heart diseases increased in the North and Northeast regions, especially from 2005 on; they remained stable in the Center-West region; and decreased in the South and in the Southeast. Mortality due to chronic ischemic heart diseases decreased in Brazil and in the Center-West, South and Southeast regions, and had little variation in the North and in the Northeast. The highest mortality rates due to ill-defined causes occurred in the Northeast until 2005. Conclusions Mortality due to heart failure is decreasing in Brazil and in all of its geoeconomic regions. The temporal evolution of mortality caused by ischemic heart diseases was similar to that of heart failure. The decreasing number of deaths due to ill-defined causes may represent the improvement in the quality of information about mortality in Brazil. The evolution of acute ischemic heart diseases ranged according to regions, being possibly confused with the differential evolution of ill-defined causes. PMID:25004417
Gaui, Eduardo Nagib; Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes de; Klein, Carlos Henrique
Circulatory system diseases are the first cause of death in Brazil. To analyze the evolution of mortality caused by heart failure, by ischemic heart diseases and by ill-defined causes, as well as their possible relations, in Brazil and in the geoeconomic regions of the country (North, Northeast, Center-West, South and Southeast), from 1996 to 2011. Data were obtained from DATASUS and death declaration records with codes I20 and I24 for acute ischemic diseases, I25 for chronic ischemic diseases, and I50 for heart failure, and codes in chapter XIII for ill-defined causes, according to geoeconomic regions of Brazil, from 1996 to 2011. Mortality rates due to heart failure declined in Brazil and its regions, except for the North and the Northeast. Mortality rates due to acute ischemic heart diseases increased in the North and Northeast regions, especially from 2005 on; they remained stable in the Center-West region; and decreased in the South and in the Southeast. Mortality due to chronic ischemic heart diseases decreased in Brazil and in the Center-West, South and Southeast regions, and had little variation in the North and in the Northeast. The highest mortality rates due to ill-defined causes occurred in the Northeast until 2005. Mortality due to heart failure is decreasing in Brazil and in all of its geoeconomic regions. The temporal evolution of mortality caused by ischemic heart diseases was similar to that of heart failure. The decreasing number of deaths due to ill-defined causes may represent the improvement in the quality of information about mortality in Brazil. The evolution of acute ischemic heart diseases ranged according to regions, being possibly confused with the differential evolution of ill-defined causes.
Dangers, Laurence; Bréchot, Nicholas; Schmidt, Matthieu; Lebreton, Guillaume; Hékimian, Guillaume; Nieszkowska, Ania; Besset, Sébastien; Trouillet, Jean-Louis; Chastre, Jean; Leprince, Pascal; Combes, Alain; Luyt, Charles-Edouard
Long-term outcomes of patients treated with venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute decompensated heart failure (i.e., cardiogenic shock complicating chronic cardiomyopathy) have not yet been reported. This study was undertaken to describe their outcomes and determine mortality-associated factors. Retrospective analysis of data prospectively collected. Twenty-six-bed tertiary hospital ICU. One hundred five patients implanted with venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute decompensated heart failure. None. From March 2007 to January 2015, 105 patients were implanted with venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute decompensated heart failure in our ICU (67% of them had an intraaortic balloon pump to unload the left ventricle). Their 1-year survival rate was 42%; most of the survivors were transplanted either directly or after switching to central bilateral centrifugal pump, ventricular-assist device, or total artificial heart. Most deaths occurred early after multiple organ failure. Multivariable analyses retained (odds ratio [95% CI]) pre-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score of more than 11 (3.3 [1.3-8.3]), idiopathic cardiomyopathy (0.4 [0.2-1]), cardiac disease duration greater than 2 years pre-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (2.8 [1.2-6.9]), and pre-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation blood lactate greater than 4 mmol/L (2.6 [1.03-6.4]) as independent predictors of 1-year mortality. Only 17% of patients with pre-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores of 14 or more survived, whereas 52% of those with scores less than 7 and 60% of those with scores 7 or more and less than 11 were alive 1 year later. Among this selected cohort of 105 patients implanted with venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute decompensated heart failure, 1-year survival was 42%, but better for patients with pre-extracorporeal membrane
Alpert, N R; Mulieri, L A
Thin muscle strips were obtained from non-failing (NF) and failing (dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)) hearts, using a new harvesting and dissection technique. The strips were used to carry out a myothermal and mechanical analysis so that contractile and excitation coupling phenomena in the NF and failing (DCM-F) preparations can be compared. Peak isometric force and rate of relaxation in DCM-F were reduced 46% (p < 0.02) while time to peak tension was increased 14% (p < 0.03). Initial, tension dependent, tension independent and the rate of tension independent heat liberation were reduced 62-70% in DCM-F (p < 0.03). The crossbridge force-time integral (FTIXBr) was calculated from these measurements and was shown to increase 40% while the amount and rate of calcium cycled per beat was reduced 70%. As a result of these changes in the contractile and excitation-contraction coupling systems in DCM-F, the force-frequency relationship was significantly blunted while the power output was markedly reduced. These fundamental alterations account for the substantial ventricular dysfunction found in the dilated cardiomyopathic failing heart.
Mylotte, Darren; Martucci, Giuseppe; Piazza, Nicolo; McElhinney, Doff
In the context of congenital heart disease (CHD), the complex biochemical and physiologic response to the pressure- or volume-loaded ventricle can be induced by stenotic and shunt/regurgitant lesions, respectively. A range of transcatheter therapies have recently emerged to expand the therapeutic potential of the more traditional surgical and medical interventions for heart failure in patients with CHD. Together, these complementary interventions aim to treat the growing patient population with adult CHD (ACHD). In this article, the most commonly used transcatheter interventions for heart failure in patients with ACHD are reviewed.