Science.gov

Sample records for heat producing appliances

  1. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Fuel-burning heat-producing appliances and refrigeration appliances, except ranges and ovens, shall be... appliance manufacturer's instructions. (d) Performance efficiency. (1) All automatic electric storage water... of Household Automatic Electric Storage Type Water Heaters, ANSI C72.1-1972. (2) All gas and...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Fuel-burning heat-producing appliances and refrigeration appliances, except ranges and ovens, shall be... appliance manufacturer's instructions. (d) Performance efficiency. (1) All automatic electric storage water... of Household Automatic Electric Storage Type Water Heaters, ANSI C72.1-1972. (2) All gas and...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Fuel-burning heat-producing appliances and refrigeration appliances, except ranges and ovens, shall be... appliance manufacturer's instructions. (d) Performance efficiency. (1) All automatic electric storage water... of Household Automatic Electric Storage Type Water Heaters, ANSI C72.1-1972. (2) All gas and...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... refrigeration appliances, except ranges and ovens, shall be of the vented type and vented to the outside. (c... efficiency. (1) All automatic electric storage water heaters installed in manufactured homes shall have a... standby loss shall be as described in section 4.3.1 of Household Automatic Electric Storage Type...

  5. Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.

    1983-11-21

    An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

  6. Stirling heat pump external heat systems: An appliance perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilakis, A. D.; Thomas, J. F.

    1992-08-01

    A major issue facing the Stirling Engine Heat Pump is system cost, and, in particular, the cost of the External Heat System (EHS). The need for high temperature at the heater head (600 C to 700 C) results in low combustion system efficiencies unless efficient heat recovery is employed. The balance between energy efficiency and use of costly high temperature materials is critical to design and cost optimization. Blower power consumption and NO(x) emissions are also important. A new approach to the design and cost optimization of the EHS system was taken by viewing the system from a natural gas-fired appliance perspective. To develop a design acceptable to gas industry requirements, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) code considerations were incorporated into the design process and material selections. A parametric engineering design and cost model was developed to perform the analysis, including the impact of design on NO(x) emissions. Analysis results and recommended EHS design and material choices are given.

  7. Stirling heat pump external heat systems - An appliance perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilakis, Andrew D.; Thomas, John F.

    A major issue facing the Stirling Engine Heat Pump is system cost, and, in particular, the cost of the External Heat System (EHS). The need for high temperature at the heater head (600 C to 700 C) results in low combustion system efficiencies unless efficient heat recovery is employed. The balance between energy efficiency and use of costly high temperature materials is critical to design and cost optimization. Blower power consumption and NO(x) emissions are also important. A new approach to the design and cost optimization of the EHS was taken by viewing the system from a natural gas-fired appliance perspective. To develop a design acceptable to gas industry requirements, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) code considerations were incorporated into the design process and material selections. A parametric engineering design and cost model was developed to perform the analysis, including the impact of design on NO(x) emissions. Analysis results and recommended EHS design and material choices are given.

  8. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  9. Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery and Utilization from Residential Appliances and Fixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, John J; Christian, Jeff; Gehl, Anthony C

    2012-09-01

    Executive Summary In every home irrespective of its size, location, age, or efficiency, heat in the form of drainwater or dryer exhaust is wasted. Although from a waste stream, this energy has the potential for being captured, possibly stored, and then reused for preheating hot water or air thereby saving operating costs to the homeowner. In applications such as a shower and possibly a dryer, waste heat is produced at the same time as energy is used, so that a heat exchanger to capture the waste energy and return it to the supply is all that is needed. In other applications such as capturing the energy in drainwater from a tub, dishwasher, or washing machine, the availability of waste heat might not coincide with an immediate use for energy, and consequently a heat exchanger system with heat storage capacity (i.e. a regenerator) would be necessary. This study describes a two-house experimental evaluation of a system designed to capture waste heat from the shower, dishwasher clothes washer and dryer, and to use this waste heat to offset some of the hot water energy needs of the house. Although each house was unoccupied, they were fitted with equipment that would completely simulate the heat loads and behavior of human occupants including operating the appliances and fixtures on a demand schedule identical to Building American protocol (Hendron, 2009). The heat recovery system combined (1) a gravity-film heat exchanger (GFX) installed in a vertical section of drainline, (2) a heat exchanger for capturing dryer exhaust heat, (3) a preheat tank for storing the captured heat, and (4) a small recirculation pump and controls, so that the system could be operated anytime that waste heat from the shower, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and in any combination was produced. The study found capturing energy from the dishwasher and clothes washer to be a challenge since those two appliances dump waste water over a short time interval. Controls based on the status of the

  10. Skeletal and dental modifications produced by the Bionator III appliance.

    PubMed

    Garattini, G; Levrini, L; Crozzoli, P; Levrini, A

    1998-07-01

    The therapeutic results of a functional orthopedic treatment with a Balters' Bionator III appliance were evaluated. The sample group included 39 white growing subjects with a dentoskeletal Class III malocclusion. A 2-year study compared results with a control group. The results showed that the Bionator III is effective, especially when the malocclusion is mainly the result of a midfacial deficiency and when there is a hypodivergent growth pattern.

  11. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  12. In-field measurements of PCDD/F emissions from domestic heating appliances for solid fuels.

    PubMed

    Hübner, C; Boos, R; Prey, T

    2005-01-01

    Within this project the emissions into the atmosphere of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F) of 30 domestic heating appliances in Austrian households were tested. The appliances were single stoves (kitchen stove, continuous burning stove and tiled stove) and central heating boilers for solid fuels up to a nominal heat input of 50 kW. A main objective of this survey was to determine the PCDD/F emissions of domestic heating units under routine conditions. Therefore, the habitual combustion conditions used by the operators were not influenced. The original fuels and lightning supports were used and the operation of the units was carried out by the householders according to their usual practice. The data obtained were used to calculate in-field PCDD/F-emission factors. Most of the appliances have shown PCDD/F emissions within a concentration range of 0.01-0.3 ng TEQ/MJ. Modern fan-assisted wood heating boilers with afterburning and units for continuously burning of wood chips and wood pellets had the lowest emissions. High emissions were caused by unsuitable heating habits such as combustion of wastes and inappropriate operation of the appliances. There were only small differences between single stoves and central heating boilers or between wood and coal-fired appliances. The emission factors calculated are higher than those cited in literature, which are mainly derived from trials on test stands under laboratory conditions.

  13. The Pacific Northwest residential consumer: Perceptions and preferences of home heating fuels, major appliances, and appliance fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Harkreader, S.A.; Hattrup, M.P.

    1988-09-01

    In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two follow up market research projects: Phase 2 in 1985, and Phase 3, in 1988. In this report the respondents' perceptions, preferences, and fuel switching possibilities of fuels for home heating and major appliances are examined. To aid in effective target marketing, the report identifies market segments according to consumers' demographics, life-cycle, attitudes, and opinions.

  14. Comparison of the effects produced by headgear and pendulum appliances followed by fixed orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Angelieri, Fernanda; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Janson, Guilherme; Castanha Henriques, José Fernando; Pinzan, Arnaldo

    2008-12-01

    This study compared the effects produced by two different molar distalizers, namely cervical headgear (CHG) and the intraoral pendulum appliance, associated with fixed orthodontic appliances. The headgear group comprised 30 patients (19 females, 11 males), with an initial age of 13.07 years [standard deviation (SD) = 1.3], treated with CHG and fixed orthodontic appliances for a mean period of 3.28 years, and the pendulum group 22 patients (15 females, 7 males), with initial age of 13.75 years (SD = 1.86), treated with the pendulum appliance followed by fixed orthodontic appliances for a mean period of 4.12 years. Lateral cephalograms were taken at the start (T1) and on completion (T2) of orthodontic treatment. The pendulum and CHG groups were similar as to initial age, severity of the Class II malocclusion, gender distribution, initial cephalometric characteristics, and initial and final treatment priority index (TPI). Only treatment time was not similar between the groups, with a need for annualization for data for the pendulum group. The data were compared with independent t-tests. There was significantly greater restriction of maxillary forward growth and improvement of the skeletal maxillomandibular relationship in the CHG group (P < 0.05). The maxillary molars were more mesially tipped and extruded and the mandibular molars more uprighted in the CHG group compared with the pendulum group (P < 0.05). There was more labial tipping of the mandibular incisors and greater overbite reduction in the pendulum group. The pendulum appliance produced only dentoalveolar effects, different from the CHG appliance, which restricted maxillary forward displacement, thus improving the skeletal maxillomandibular relationship.

  15. Effect of excess air on the optimization of heating appliances for biomass combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Menghini, D.; Marra, F.S.; Allouis, C.; Beretta, F.

    2008-07-15

    The performance of a domestic appliance for wood logs combustion is a function of several variables, such as the geometric design of the appliance and its operating parameters. Among them, air feeding conditions are really decisive if the objective function is the maximization of the heat recovered from flue gases. Therefore, even if pollutant emissions have to be ever considered, the amount of excess air can be seen as a fundamental parameter in the definition of thermal efficiency of the appliance. In this paper the role of this parameter is analysed. The analysis is conducted by linking the results obtained from experimental data, detailed CFD simulations and a simplified mathematical model based on a network of CSTR. The derivation of an idealized schematization of the appliance was essential to realize the role of excess air variations, with more generality than with respect to a specific appliance configuration. Conversely, while the experimental data and CFD results were necessary to derive the simplified model, the indications given by this simplified model were useful to analyze results coming from both experiments and detailed numerical simulations. It has been evidenced the need to distinguish between the role of excess air in the chemical combustion and in the heat recovery in the appliance as well as to quantify the feedback between these two processes. (author)

  16. Development and certification of the innovative pioneer oil burner for residential heating appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, B.

    1997-09-01

    The Pioneer burner represents another important milestone for the oil heat industry. It is the first practical burner design that is designated for use in small capacity heating appliances matching the needs of modern energy efficient home designs. Firing in the range of 0.3 GPH to 0.65 GPH (40,000-90,000 Btu/hr) it allows for new oil heating appliance designs to compete with the other major fuel choices in the small design load residential market. This market includes energy efficient single family houses, town-houses, condominiums, modular units, and mobile homes. The firing range also is wide enough to cover a large percentage of more conventional heating equipment and home designs as well. Having recently passed Underwriters Laboratory certification tests the burner in now being field tested in several homes and samples are being made available to interested boiler and furnace manufacturers for product development and application testing.

  17. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... thermal efficiency of not less than that specified in nationally recognized standards (See § 3280.703). (b... heaters installed in manufactured homes shall have a standby loss not exceeding 43 watts/meter2 (4 watts... of Household Automatic Electric Storage Type Water Heaters, ANSI C72.1-1972. (2) All gas and...

  18. Effect of fuels and domestic heating appliance types on emission factors of selected organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Šyc, Michal; Horák, Jiří; Hopan, František; Krpec, Kamil; Tomšej, Tomáš; Ocelka, Tomáš; Pekárek, Vladimír

    2011-11-01

    This study reports on the first complex data set of emission factors (EFs) of selected pollutants from combustion of five fuel types (lignite, bituminous coal, spruce, beech, and maize) in six different domestic heating appliances of various combustion designs. The effect of fuel as well as the effect of boiler type was studied. In total, 46 combustion runs were performed, during which numerous EFs were measured, including the EFs of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), etc. The highest EFs of nonchlorinated pollutants were measured for old-type boilers with over-fire and under-fire designs and with manual stoking and natural draft. Emissions of the above-mentioned pollutants from modern-type boilers (automatic, downdraft) were 10 times lower or more. The decisive factor for emission rate of nonchlorinated pollutants was the type of appliance; the type of fuel plays only a minor role. Emissions of chlorinated pollutants were proportional mainly to the chlorine content in fuel, but the type of appliance also influenced the rate of emissions significantly. Surprisingly, higher EFs of PCDD/F from combustion of chlorinated bituminous coal were observed for modern-type boilers (downdraft, automatic) than for old-type ones. On the other hand, when bituminous coal was burned, higher emissions of HxCBz were found for old-type boilers than for modern-type ones.

  19. Historical Review of Electric Household Appliances using Induction-Heating and Future Challenging Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Izuo; Yamashita, Hidekazu; Omori, Hideki; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    This paper presents historical progress on technology evolution of the electric and electronic household appliances using the inverter, especially for Induction-Heating applications, which have been put in practical use as the desk-top cooker for the first time at home in 1974 until being applied to the rice cooker and the multi-burner cooking heater. It also describes the future innovative evolution of the power semiconductor switching devices and the inverter circuit topologies supporting its progressive developments. Looking back its progress, the future trends on consumer power electronics is discussed on the practical problem in the future.

  20. Rapid bonding and easy debonding of orthodontic appliances with 4-META/MMA-TBB resin using thermal heating.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    4-Methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride/methyl methacrylate-tri-n-butylborane (4-META/MMA-TBB) resin is widely used as a direct bonding adhesive for orthodontic appliances because of its strong bonding ability. However, its clinical disadvantages include long setting times and difficult debonding with subsequent residual adhesive left on the enamel surface. To resolve these problems, thermal heating was applied to orthodontic appliances. The setting time was dramatically reduced by thermal heating (160°C for 5 s), with the shear bond strength remaining the same as that stated in the manufacturer's instructions. Debonding of appliances following thermal heating (160°C for 20 s) could be easily performed, decreasing the amount of adhesive left on enamel. These conditions were not accompanied by an increase in the heat pain threshold of pulpal dentin. These results suggest that the use of thermal heating in the bonding/debonding of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin may resolve its clinical weaknesses, making its ease of use similar to light-cured resin.

  1. Induction-heated cooking appliance using new quasi-resonant ZVS-PWM with power factor correction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Nakaoka, Mutsuo; Izaki, Kiyoshi; Hirota, Izuo; Yamashita, Hidekazu; Omori, Hideki

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a new prototype of a voltage-fed quasi-load resonant inverter with a constant-frequency variable-power (CFVP) regulation scheme, which is developed for the next-generation high-frequency high-power induction-heated (IH) cooking appliances in household applications. This application-specific high-frequency single-ended push-pull inverter using new-generation specially designed insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT`s) can efficiently operate under a principle of zero-voltage switching pulsewidth modulation (ZVS-PWM) strategy. This low-cost soft-switching inverter using reverse-conducting and reverse-blocking IGBT`s is more suitable for multiple-burner-type induction-heating cooking appliances. The operating principle and unique features of a new resonant ZVS-PWM inverter circuit topology is originally described, together with its steady-state power regulation characteristics, which are illustrated on the basis of its computer-aided simulation and experimental results. The ZVS operation condition on power regulation, loss analysis of new IGBT`s incorporated into this inverter, and its active filtering performance are discussed herein for IH cooking appliances.

  2. REACH. Major Appliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Charles; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

  3. Heat shock protein produced by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Yokota, K; Hirai, Y; Haque, M; Hayashi, S; Isogai, H; Sugiyama, T; Nagamachi, E; Tsukada, Y; Fujii, N; Oguma, K

    1994-01-01

    The cells of Helicobacter pylori were suspended in the medium containing 35S-methionine. After a heat shock of the cells at 42 C for 5, 10, and 30 min, the production of proteins was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Out of many proteins produced by the cells, only 66 kDa protein production was dramatically increased by heat treatment. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of 66 kDa protein was quite similar to that of 62 kDa and 54 kDa proteins previously suggested as heat shock protein (HSP) of H. pylori based on the reaction with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against HSP 60 family proteins produced by other bacteria. Therefore, it was concluded that H. pylori produces the 66 kDa protein as its major heat shock protein which belongs to HSP 60 family.

  4. Appliance Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, James

    1984-01-01

    Ordinary household appliances can be used in the classroom to inspire unusual research, artwork, and problem solving. Suggestions on how to organize and collect materials to develop an appliance science unit are offered. (DF)

  5. Global residential appliance standards

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; McMahon, J.E. ); Lebot, B. )

    1993-03-01

    In most countries, residential electricity consumption typically ranges from 20% to 40% of total electricity consumption. This energy is used for heating, cooling, refrigeration and other end-uses. Significant energy savings are possible if new appliance purchases are for models with higher efficiency than that of existing models. There are several ways to ensure or encourage such an outcome, for example, appliance rebates, innovative procurement, and minimum efficiency standards. This paper focuses on the latter approach. At the present time, the US is the only country with comprehensive appliance energy efficiency standards. However, many other countries, such as Australia, Canada, the European Community (EC), Japan and Korea, are considering enacting standards. The greatest potential impact of minimum efficiency standards for appliances is in the developing countries (e.g., China and India), where saturations of household appliances are relatively low but growing rapidly. This paper discusses the potential savings that could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also discusses the impediments to establishing common standards for certain appliance types, such as differing test procedures, characteristics, and fuel prices. A methodology for establishing global efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers is described.

  6. Hair Styling Appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  7. Method for producing heat-resistant semi-inorganic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yajima, S.; Okamura, K.; Shishido, T.; Hasegawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The method for producing a heat resistant, semi-inorganic compound is discussed. Five examples in which various alcohols, phenols, and aromatic carbonic acids are used to test heat resistance and solubility are provided.

  8. Glycerol citrate polyesters produced through microwave heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of various heating methods without catalysis to prepare copolyesters from citric acid:glycerol blends were studied. In the presence of short term microwave treatments, i.e., 60 sec at 1200 W, blends of glycerol and citric acid invariably formed solid amorphous copolyesters. Fourier tra...

  9. Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid

    DOEpatents

    Lambirth, Gene Richard [Houston, TX

    2011-01-11

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

  10. Electric toothbrushes induce electric current in fixed dental appliances by creating magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Ishii, Nozomu; Sano, Natsuki; Ogura, Hideo; Terada, Kazuto

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic fields can represent a health problem, especially low frequency electromagnetic fields sometimes induced by electric current in metallic objects worn or used in or on the body (as opposed to high frequency electromagnetic fields that produce heat). Electric toothbrushes are widely used because of their convenience, but the electric motors that power them may produce electromagnetic waves. In this study, we showed that electric toothbrushes generate low frequency (1-2000 Hz) magnetic fields and induce electric current in dental appliances (e. g. orthodontic and prosthetic appliances and dental implants). Current induced by electric toothbrushes might be dependent on the quantity and types of metals used, and the shape of the appliances. Furthermore, these induced currents in dental appliances could impact upon human oral health, producing pain and discomfort.

  11. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Hunh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

    2013-05-28

    Methods for treating a subsurface formation and compositions produced therefrom are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  12. HEAT TRANSFER AND TRITIUM PRODUCING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, E.F.

    1962-06-01

    This invention related to a circulating lithium-containing blanket system in a neution source hav'ing a magnetic field associated therewith. The blanket serves simultaneously and efficiently as a heat transfer mediunm and as a source of tritium. The blanket is composed of a lithium-6-enriched fused salt selected from the group consisting of lithium nitrite, lithium nitrate, a mixture of said salts, a mixture of each of said salts with lithium oxide, and a mixture of said salts with each other and with lithium oxide. The moderator, which is contained within the blanket in a separate conduit, can be water. A stellarator is one of the neutron sources which can be used in this invention. (AEC)

  13. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Henh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

    2009-10-20

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  14. Heat pump assisted drying of agricultural produce-an overview.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krishna Kumar; Kar, Abhijit

    2012-04-01

    This review paper included the recent progress made in heat pump assisted drying, its principle, mechanism and efficiency, type and its application for drying of agricultural produce. Heat pump assisted drying provides a controllable drying environment (temperature and humidity) for better products quality at low energy consumption. It has remarkable future prospects and revolutionaries ability. The heat pump system consists of an expansion valve, two heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser), and a compressor, which are connected by using copper tubes. In this paper we also provided a review discussion on different type of heat pump assisted drying system ready for remarkable and commercial use in different type of food industries. Here we also have given some major advantage and disadvantage of heat pump assisted drying.

  15. Radiative heat transport instability in a laser produced inhomogeneous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Rozmus, W.

    2015-08-15

    A laser produced high-Z plasma in which an energy balance is achieved due to radiation emission and radiative heat transfer supports ion acoustic instability. A linear dispersion relation is derived, and instability is compared to the radiation cooling instability [R. G. Evans, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 27, 751 (1985)]. Under conditions of indirect drive fusion experiments, the driving term for the instability is the radiative heat flux and, in particular, the density dependence of the radiative heat conductivity. A specific example of thermal Bremsstrahlung radiation source has been considered. This instability may lead to plasma jet formation and anisotropic x-ray generation, thus affecting inertial confinement fusion related experiments.

  16. Speech Appliances in the Treatment of Phonological Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscello, Dennis M.

    1995-01-01

    This article addresses the rationale for and issues related to the use of speech appliances, especially a removable speech appliance that positions the tongue to produce the correct /r/ phoneme. Research results suggest that this appliance was successful with a large group of clients. (Author/DB)

  17. Heat production in an Archean crustal profile and implications for heat flow and mobilization of heat-producing elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Morgan, P.; Kelley, S. A.; Percival, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Concentrations of heat producing elements (Th, U, and K) in 58 samples representative of the main lithologies in a 100-km transect of the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield have been obtained. The relatively large variation in heat production found among the silicic plutonic rocks is shown to correlate with modal abundances of accessory minerals, and these variations are interpreted as premetamorphic. The present data suggest fundamental differences in crustal radioactivity distributions between granitic and more mafic terrains, and indicate that a previously determined apparently linear heat flow-heat production relationship for the Kapuskasing area does not relate to the distribution of heat production with depth.

  18. Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor source.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yushi; Kubo, Takashi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kiyokatsu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2008-02-01

    Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators, so that outgas is minimized. The evaporator is installed around the mirror end plate outside of the ECR plasma with its hole grazing the ECR zone. Helium or argon gas is usually chosen for supporting gas. The multicharged Fe ions up to Fe(13+) are extracted from the opposite side of mirror and against the evaporator, and then multicharged Fe ion beam is formed. We compare production of multicharged iron ions by using this new source with our previous methods.

  19. Fundamentals of Refrigeration; Air Conditioning and Heating Mechanics 1--Appliance Repair 2: 9013.01 and 9025.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Providing the student with an understanding of the basic refrigeration fundamentals, the course introduces the various types of tools and equipment used in this trade. The course consists of 90 clock hours and is organized into six instructional blocks. The student will gain an understanding of trade terminology, heat and temperature, transfer of…

  20. Self-reported electrical appliance use and risk of adult brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Kleinerman, Ruth A; Linet, Martha S; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Tarone, Robert E; Black, Peter M; Selker, Robert G; Shapiro, William R; Fine, Howard A; Inskip, Peter D

    2005-01-15

    Electrical appliances produce the highest intensity exposures to residential extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. The authors investigated whether appliances may be associated with adult brain tumors in a hospital-based case-control study at three centers in the United States from 1994 to 1998. A total of 410 glioma, 178 meningioma, and 90 acoustic neuroma cases and 686 controls responded to a self-administered questionnaire about 14 electrical appliances. There was little evidence of association between brain tumors and curling iron, heating pad, vibrating massager, electric blanket, heated water bed, sound system, computer, television, humidifier, microwave oven, and electric stove. Ever use of hair dryers was associated with glioma (odds ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.5), but there was no evidence of increasing risk with increasing amount of use. In men, meningioma was associated with electric shaver use (odds ratio = 10.9, 95% confidence interval: 2.3, 50), and odds ratios increased with cumulative minutes of use, although they were based on only two nonexposed cases. Recall bias for appliances used regularly near the head or chance may provide an alternative explanation for the observed associations. Overall, results indicate that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields from commonly used household appliances are unlikely to increase the risk of brain tumors.

  1. Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-07-20

    Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1. For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2. Past retail price predictions made by DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3. The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4. Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances.

  2. Major appliance management report

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.; O`Donnell, K.F.

    1990-07-15

    Major appliances (also called `white goods`) have long been managed as part of the traditional municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, with the most common management method being landfill disposal. Over the past several years, it has become increasingly apparent that major appliances are not easily or best managed along with MSW. Indiscriminate disposal of major appliances can cause environmental problems and unnecessary use of scarce landfill space as well as wasting valuable recyclable materials. In recognition of these factors, the 1989 Minnesota Legislature took a number of steps to shift the management of major appliances towards separate handling and recycling.

  3. Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

    1994-03-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

  4. Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

  5. Magnetic fields from domestic appliances in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, A. W.; Kaune, W.; Grainger, P.; Preece, S.; Golding, J.

    1997-01-01

    In a survey of 50 UK homes the 50 Hz fundamental and harmonic magnetic fields generated by 806 domestic appliances found in the homes, and used regularly by mothers, were measured. Measurements were made in the direction of most likely access, and from the surface of the appliances. Mothers completed a questionnaire on the use of appliances and were monitored for 24 h so that acquired exposure could be compared with the measured ambient fields in the home. Appliances were measured at standard distances and an algorithm was used to calculate fields at 100 and 50 cm to remove room background contributions. A few appliances generated fields in excess of at 1 m: microwave cookers ; washing machines ; dishwashers ; some electric showers and can openers . Of continuously operating devices, only central heating pumps (), central heating boilers () and fish-tank air pumps () produced significant fields at 0.5 m. There were no obvious ways to group different types of appliances as high- or low-strength sources. Mothers spent on average about 4.5 h per day in the kitchen, where the strongest sources of magnetic field were located.

  6. Controller Design of Power Quality-Improving Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Zhou, Ning; Lu, Ning

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents an innovative solution to power quality problems using power quality-improving (PQI) appliances. PQI appliances conduct currents that supplement and correct the sum of the other load currents within a premise. From the utility side, the premise housing a PQI appliance thus becomes an improved, if not ideal, utility customer. The PQI appliance improves both harmonic power quality and power factor while performing its normal function, such as heating water. In this paper, the water heater PQI appliance is used as an example to demonstrate the control circuit design and function. Both computer simulation results and laboratory experiment results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. The estimated costs of the PQI controller and of harmonic compensating filters are compared to show that the PQI appliance may be an economic way to provide power quality improvement at the building level.

  7. Use of solar energy to produce process heat for industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, K.

    1980-04-01

    The role of solar energy in supplying heat and hot water to residential and commerical buildings is familiar. On the other hand, the role that solar energy may play in displacing imported energy supplies in the industrial and utility sectors often goes unrecognized. The versatility of solar technology lends itself well to applications in industry; particulary to the supplemental supply for process heat. The status of solar thermal technology for industrial process heat applications, including a description of current costs and operating histories is surveyed. The most important objectives to be met in improving system performance, reducing cost, and identifying markets for solar industrial process heat are outlined.

  8. Splinted mandibular protraction appliance

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Satinder Pal

    2015-01-01

    Advancement of mandible rather than tooth movement is an ideal treatment for the correction of Class II malocclusion resulting from mandibular retrusion. In growing patients, forward repositioning of mandible by mandibular repositioning appliances is considered as a treatment of choice. Correction of mandibular retrusion by the conventional mandibular protraction appliances (MPAs) is mainly due to dento-alveolar changes and by altering the design of original MPAs, these limitations were minimized. The modified design enhanced the mandibular growth and contributed for the better skeletal correction of Class II malocclusion as compared to the conventional MPAs. This article highlights the design and fabrication of a splinted MPA for the correction of Class II malocclusion due to mandibular retrusion and also describes a patient managed by this appliance. PMID:25821367

  9. Electricity-producing heating apparatus utilizing a turbine generator in a semi-closed brayton cycle

    DOEpatents

    Labinov, Solomon D.; Christian, Jeffrey E.

    2003-10-07

    The present invention provides apparatus and methods for producing both heat and electrical energy by burning fuels in a stove or boiler using a novel arrangement of a surface heat exchanger and microturbine-powered generator and novel surface heat exchanger. The equipment is particularly suited for use in rural and relatively undeveloped areas, especially in cold regions and highlands.

  10. Crew appliance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Viable crew appliance concepts were identified by means of a thorough literature search. Studies were made of the food management, personal hygiene, housekeeping, and off-duty habitability functions to determine which concepts best satisfy the Space Shuttle Orbiter and Modular Space Station mission requirements. Models of selected appliance concepts not currently included in the generalized environmental-thermal control and life support systems computer program were developed and validated. Development plans of selected concepts were generated for future reference. A shuttle freezer conceptual design was developed and a test support activity was provided for regenerative environmental control life support subsystems.

  11. Control of complex heat transfer on producing extremal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenkin, G. V.; Chebotarev, A. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    A time-dependent model of complex heat transfer including the P 1 approximation for the equation of radiative transfer is considered. The problem of finding the coefficient in the boundary condition from a given interval, providing the minimum (maximum) temperature and radiation intensity in the entire domain is formulated. The solvability of the control problem is proven, conditions for optimality are obtained, and an iterative algorithm for finding the optimal control is found.

  12. Method of producing a plug-type heat flux gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H. (Inventor); Koch, John, Jr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method of making a plug-type heat flux gauge in a material specimen in which a thermoplug is integrally formed in the specimen is disclosed. The thermoplug and concentric annulus are formed in the material specimen by electrical discharge machining and trepanning procedures. The thermoplug is surrounded by a concentric annulus through which thermocouple wires are routed. The end of each thermocouple wire is welded to the thermoplug, with each thermocouple wire welded at a different location along the length of the thermoplug.

  13. Research & Development Roadmap for Next-Generation Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Sutherland, Timothy; Foley, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    Appliances present an attractive opportunity for near-term energy savings in existing building, because they are less expensive and replaced more regularly than heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems or building envelope components. This roadmap targets high-priority research and development (R&D), demonstration and commercialization activities that could significantly reduce residential appliance energy consumption. The main objective of the roadmap is to seek activities that accelerate the commercialization of high-efficiency appliance technologies while maintaining the competitiveness of American industry. The roadmap identified and evaluated potential technical innovations, defined research needs, created preliminary research and development roadmaps, and obtained stakeholder feedback on the proposed initiatives.

  14. Appliance Standard Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Kathleen; Tiemann, Gregg

    2016-08-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Appliance Standards and Equipment Program tests, sets and helps enforce efficiency standards on more than 60 U.S. products. A majority of that testing is performed at the Intertek laboratory in Cortland, NY.

  15. Appliance Servicing Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide presents the standard appliance servicing technician curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard…

  16. Appliance Standard Testing

    ScienceCinema

    Hogan, Kathleen; Tiemann, Gregg

    2016-08-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Appliance Standards and Equipment Program tests, sets and helps enforce efficiency standards on more than 60 U.S. products. A majority of that testing is performed at the Intertek laboratory in Cortland, NY.

  17. Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

    2011-06-30

    This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

  18. New Insights Into the Heat Sources of Mantle Plumes, or: Where Does all the Heat Come From, Heat Producing Elements, Advective or Conductive Heat Flow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushmer, T.; Beier, C.; Turner, S.

    2007-12-01

    Melting anomalies in the Earth's upper mantle have often been attributed to the presence of mantle plumes that may originate in the lower mantle, possibly from the core-mantle boundary. Globally, mantle plumes exhibit a large range in buoyancy flux that which is proportional to their temperature and volume. Plumes with higher buoyancy fluxes should have higher temperatures and experience higher degrees of partial melting. Excess heat in mantle plumes could reflect either a) an enrichment of the heat producing elements (HPE: U, Th, K) in their mantle source leading to an increase of heat production by radioactive decay or b) advective or conductive heat transport across the core-mantle boundary. The advective transport of heat may result in a physical contribution of material from the core to the lower mantle. If core material is incorporated into the lower mantle, mantle plumes with a higher buoyancy flux should have higher core tracers, e.g. increased 186Os and Fe concentrations. Geophysical and dynamic modelling indicate that at least Afar, Easter, Hawaii, Louisville and Samoa may all originate at the core-mantle boundary. These plumes encompass the whole range of known buoyancy fluxes from 1.2 Mgs -1(Afar) to 6.5 Mgs -1 (Hawaii) providing evidence that the buoyancy flux is largely independent of other geophysical parameters. In an effort to explore whether the heat producing elements are the cause of excess heat we looked for correlations between fractionation corrected concentrations of the HPE and buoyancy flux. Our results suggest that there is no correlation between HPE concentrations and buoyancy flux (with and without an additional correction for variable degrees of partial melting). As anticipated, K, Th and U are positively correlated with each other (e.g. Hawaii, Iceland and Galapagos have significantly lower concentrations than e.g. Tristan da Cunha, the Canary Islands and the Azores). We also find no correlation between currently available Fe

  19. 46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances. 111.77-3 Section 111.77-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances and Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including,...

  20. 46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appliances. 111.77-3 Section 111.77-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances and Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including,...

  1. 46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appliances. 111.77-3 Section 111.77-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances and Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including,...

  2. 46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appliances. 111.77-3 Section 111.77-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances and Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including,...

  3. 46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appliances. 111.77-3 Section 111.77-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances and Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including,...

  4. Process for producing an activated carbon adsorbent with integral heat transfer apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A process for producing an integral adsorbent-heat exchanger apparatus useful in ammonia refrigerant heat pump systems. In one embodiment, the process wets an activated carbon particles-solvent mixture with a binder-solvent mixture, presses the binder wetted activated carbon mixture on a metal tube surface and thereafter pyrolyzes the mixture to form a bonded activated carbon matrix adjoined to the tube surface. The integral apparatus can be easily and inexpensively produced by the process in large quantities.

  5. Emission factors from small scale appliances burning wood and pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgen, Senem; Caserini, Stefano; Galante, Silvia; Giugliano, Michele; Angelino, Elisabetta; Marongiu, Alessandro; Hugony, Francesca; Migliavacca, Gabriele; Morreale, Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Four manually fed (6-11 kW) firewood burning and two automatic wood pellets (8.8-25 kW) residential heating appliances were tested under real-world operating conditions in order to determine emission factors (EFs) of macropollutants, i.e., carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), particulate matter (PM) and trace pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins. The results were examined for the influence of different factors (i.e., type of wood, appliance and combustion cycle). The experimental EFs were also compared with the values proposed by the European emission inventory guidebook used in the local inventory in order to evaluate their representativeness of real world emissions. The composite macropollutant EFs for manually fed appliances were: for CO 5858 g GJ-1, for NOx 122 g GJ-1, NMHC 542 g GJ-1, PM 254 g GJ-1, whereas emissions were much lower for automatic pellets appliances: CO 219 g GJ-1, for NOx 66 g GJ-1, NMHC 5 g GJ-1, PM 85 g GJ-1. The highest emissions were generally observed for the open fireplace, however traditional and advanced stoves have the highest overall CO EFs. Especially for the advanced stove real-world emissions are far worse than those measured under cycles used for type testing of residential solid fuel appliances. No great difference is observed for different firewood types in batch working appliances, diversely the quality of the pellets is observed to influence directly the emission performance of the automatic appliances. Benzo(b)fluoranthene is the PAH with the highest contribution (110 mg GJ-1 for manual appliances and 2 mg GJ-1 for automatic devices) followed by benzo(a)pyrene (77 mg GJ-1 for manual appliances and 0.8 mg GJ-1 for automatic devices).

  6. Rigid-fixation palatal appliances.

    PubMed

    Staggers, J

    1996-09-01

    Palatal appliances can offer an alternative to the traditional treatment approach of cleft lip and palate. The goal of these appliances is to position the maxillary segments more ideally and then maintain their position while allowing growth to occur. Use of palatal appliances can minimize the iatrogenic growth restriction usually associated with cleft palate repair. This article presents the findings of clinical treatment at the Medical College of Georgia.

  7. [Dependence of microwave produced heating of cell suspensions on their concentration].

    PubMed

    Dergacheva, I P; Morozov, I I; Petin, B G

    1998-01-01

    The kinetics of microwave (7 GHz) heating of yeast and bacterial cell suspensions of different concentrations was investigated in the conditions of various thermoisolation of irradiated samples. It was established that independently of type of microorganisms, microwaves produced a more intensive heating of cell suspension in comparison with suspension fluid. The degree of heating was shown to increase with cell concentration. This effect was more expressed under conditions of thermoisolation. At the same irradiation doses and cell concentrations the yeast suspension was heated more vigorously than bacterial one. These differences disappeared when the rise in sample temperature was related to the total cell volume.

  8. Primary afferent depolarization and flexion reflexes produced by radiant heat stimulation of the skin.

    PubMed

    Burke, R E; Rudomin, P; Vyklický, L; Zajac, F E

    1971-02-01

    1. The reflex effects of pulses of intense radiant heat applied to the skin of the central plantar pad have been studied in unanaesthetized (decerebrate) spinal cats.2. Pad heat pulses produced flexion of the ipsilateral hind limb and increased ipsilateral flexor monosynaptic reflexes, due to post-synaptic excitation of flexor alpha motoneurones. These effects were accompanied by reduction of extensor monosynaptic reflexes and post-synaptic inhibition of extensor motoneurones.3. Ipsilateral (and contralateral) pad heat pulses consistently evoked negative dorsal root potentials (DRPs) as well as increased excitability of both cutaneous and group Ib muscle afferent terminals. The excitability of group Ia afferents was sometimes also increased during pad heat pulses, but to a lesser extent.4. Pad heat pulses produced negative DRPs in preparations in which positive DRP components could be demonstrated following electrical stimulation of both skin and muscle nerves.5. The motor and primary afferent effects of heat pulses always accompanied one another, beginning after the pad surface temperature had reached rather high levels (usually 48-55 degrees C).6. Negative DRPs increased excitability of cutaneous and group Ib afferents, and motoneurone activation produced by pad heat pulses was essentially unmodified when conduction in large myelinated afferents from the central plantar pad was blocked by cooling the posterior tibial nerve trunk.7. It is concluded that adequate noxious activation of cutaneous afferents of small diameter produces primary afferent depolarization in a variety of large diameter afferent fibres, as well as post-synaptic effects in alpha motoneurones.

  9. Primary afferent depolarization and flexion reflexes produced by radiant heat stimulation of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Burke, R. E.; Rudomin, P.; Vyklický, L.; Zajac, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    1. The reflex effects of pulses of intense radiant heat applied to the skin of the central plantar pad have been studied in unanaesthetized (decerebrate) spinal cats. 2. Pad heat pulses produced flexion of the ipsilateral hind limb and increased ipsilateral flexor monosynaptic reflexes, due to post-synaptic excitation of flexor alpha motoneurones. These effects were accompanied by reduction of extensor monosynaptic reflexes and post-synaptic inhibition of extensor motoneurones. 3. Ipsilateral (and contralateral) pad heat pulses consistently evoked negative dorsal root potentials (DRPs) as well as increased excitability of both cutaneous and group Ib muscle afferent terminals. The excitability of group Ia afferents was sometimes also increased during pad heat pulses, but to a lesser extent. 4. Pad heat pulses produced negative DRPs in preparations in which positive DRP components could be demonstrated following electrical stimulation of both skin and muscle nerves. 5. The motor and primary afferent effects of heat pulses always accompanied one another, beginning after the pad surface temperature had reached rather high levels (usually 48-55° C). 6. Negative DRPs increased excitability of cutaneous and group Ib afferents, and motoneurone activation produced by pad heat pulses was essentially unmodified when conduction in large myelinated afferents from the central plantar pad was blocked by cooling the posterior tibial nerve trunk. 7. It is concluded that adequate noxious activation of cutaneous afferents of small diameter produces primary afferent depolarization in a variety of large diameter afferent fibres, as well as post-synaptic effects in alpha motoneurones. PMID:5575337

  10. Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil

    SciTech Connect

    Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

  11. Heat Treatment Devices and Method of Operation Thereof to Produce Dual Microstructure Superalloys Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John (Inventor); Gabb, Timothy P. (Inventor); Kantzos, Peter T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A heat treatment assembly and heat treatment methods are disclosed for producing different microstructures in the bore and rim portions of nickel-based superalloy disks, particu- larly suited for gas turbine applications. The heat treatment assembly is capable of being removed from the furnace and disassembled to allow rapid fan or oil quenching of the disk. For solutioning heat treatments of the disk, temperatures higher than that of this solvus temperature of the disk are used to produce coarse grains in the rim of each disk so as to give maximum creep and dwell crack resistance at the rim service temperature. At the same time, solution temperature lower than the solvus temperature of the disk are provided to produce fine grain in the bore of the disk so as to give maximum strength and low cycle fatigue resistance.

  12. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  13. 3 CFR - Appliance Efficiency Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appliance Efficiency Standards Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of February 5, 2009 Appliance Efficiency Standards Memorandum for the Secretary of Energy Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), the Department of Energy (DOE) is required to...

  14. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    DOEpatents

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Mo, Weijian; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie; Mandema, Remco Hugo; Nair, Vijay

    2009-09-01

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  15. Remote repair appliance

    DOEpatents

    Heumann, Frederick K.; Wilkinson, Jay C.; Wooding, David R.

    1997-01-01

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a worksite on a substantially circular bore of a workpiece and for providing video signals of the worksite to a remote monitor comprising: a baseplate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the baseplate and positioned to roll against the bore of the workpiece when the baseplate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the baseplate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the baseplate; a camera for providing video signals of the worksite to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the baseplate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris.

  16. Remote repair appliance

    DOEpatents

    Heumann, F.K.; Wilkinson, J.C.; Wooding, D.R.

    1997-12-16

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a work site on a substantially circular bore of a work piece and for providing video signals of the work site to a remote monitor comprises: a base plate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the base plate and positioned to roll against the bore of the work piece when the base plate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the base plate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the base plate; a camera for providing video signals of the work site to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the base plate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris. 5 figs.

  17. Remote repair appliance

    SciTech Connect

    Heumann, F.K.; Wilkinson, J.C.; Wooding, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    A remote appliance is described for supporting a tool for performing work at a worksite on a substantially circular bore of a workpiece and for providing video signals of the worksite to a remote monitor comprising: a baseplate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the baseplate and positioned to roll against the bore of the workpiece when the baseplate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the baseplate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the baseplate; a camera for providing video signals of the worksite to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the baseplate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris.

  18. Direct evidence of strongly inhomogeneous energy deposition in target heating with laser-produced ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Brambrink, E.; Audebert, P.; Schlegel, T.; Malka, G.; Aleonard, M. M.; Claverie, G.; Gerbaux, M.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Scheurer, J. N.; Tarisien, M.; Amthor, K. U.; Meot, V.; Morel, P.

    2007-06-15

    We report on strong nonuniformities in target heating with intense, laser-produced proton beams. The observed inhomogeneity in energy deposition can strongly perturb equation of state (EOS) measurements with laser-accelerated ions which are planned in several laboratories. Interferometric measurements of the target expansion show different expansion velocities on the front and rear surfaces, indicating a strong difference in local temperature. The nonuniformity indicates at an additional heating mechanism, which seems to originate from electrons in the keV range.

  19. Direct evidence of strongly inhomogeneous energy deposition in target heating with laser-produced ion beams.

    PubMed

    Brambrink, E; Schlegel, T; Malka, G; Amthor, K U; Aléonard, M M; Claverie, G; Gerbaux, M; Gobet, F; Hannachi, F; Méot, V; Morel, P; Nicolai, P; Scheurer, J N; Tarisien, M; Tikhonchuk, V; Audebert, P

    2007-06-01

    We report on strong nonuniformities in target heating with intense, laser-produced proton beams. The observed inhomogeneity in energy deposition can strongly perturb equation of state (EOS) measurements with laser-accelerated ions which are planned in several laboratories. Interferometric measurements of the target expansion show different expansion velocities on the front and rear surfaces, indicating a strong difference in local temperature. The nonuniformity indicates at an additional heating mechanism, which seems to originate from electrons in the keV range.

  20. Comparison of Roth appliance and standard edgewise appliance treatment results.

    PubMed

    Kattner, P F; Schneider, B J

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective comparison of Roth appliance and standard edgewise appliance treatment results was made using two indices. The first, the ideal tooth relationship index (ITRI), scored dental casts for the presence of ideal tooth contacts. The second judged posttreatment dental casts on the basis of criteria established by Andrews in his "Six Keys to Normal Occlusion." The sample consisted of 120 orthodontically treated cases completed by two practitioners who have used both the Roth and standard edgewise appliances. Thirty cases of each appliance type were collected from each practitioner. The overall posttreatment ITRI percentage scores showed no significant differences between the appliances. Practitioner differences existed for the anterior intraarch, anterior interarch, and posterior buccal interarch relationships. These differences were related to both treatment time and finishing arch wire size. The results of the Six Keys Analysis showed that the angulation and inclination of the maxillary posterior teeth were better with the Roth appliance. However, success in achieving some components of the six keys did not translate into an increased percentage of ideal tooth contacts as measured by the ITRI. Despite using the Roth appliance, experienced clinicians still found it difficult to achieve all six keys to normal occlusion.

  1. Appliances: Designs and Standards for Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, James E.

    2008-09-01

    Buildings consume 40% of US energy and produce 39% of US carbon dioxide. These numbers can be dramatically reduced with improved appliance efficiency. For example, energy use by the average new refrigerator dropped about 70% from 1974-2002, thanks to improved materials, technologies and designs. In this chapter, I review progress in gas furnaces, air conditioning and lighting, as well as the trends in refrigerators and freezers. The goal of zero net-energy buildings appears possible. In the future, buildings might consume perhaps 70% less energy than today due to efficient building components, appliances, equipment and lighting; systems integration; better controls; and behavioral changes. The remaining 30% energy needs could be supplied by low-or no-carbon energy sources.

  2. Portable appliance security apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, J. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus for securing a small computer, or other portable appliance, against theft is described. It is comprised of a case having an open back through which the computer is installed or removed. Guide members in the form of slots are formed in a rear portion of opposite walls of the case for receiving a back plate to cover the opening and thereby secure the computer within the case. An opening formed in the top wall of the case exposes the keyboard and display of the computer. The back plate is locked in the closed position by a key-operated plug type lock. The lock is attached to one end of a hold down cable, the opposite end thereof being secured to a desk top or other stationary object. Thus, the lock simultaneously secures the back plate to the case and retains the case to the stationary object.

  3. Assessment of Domestic Appliance Noise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Jeanette Rosamond

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The aims of this study were: (i) to identify the factors involved in eliciting a subjective reaction to domestic appliance noise, (ii) to identify the noise index (or indices) that correlate highly with a subjective reaction to the noise, and (iii) to investigate the contribution of domestic appliance noise to an individual's daily noise dose. Two series of experimental studies were carried out using several examples of each of five types of domestic appliances. One determined the index values of domestic appliance noise--namely L_{WA} (using ISO 3741), L_{pA} , L_{pD}, L _{p}, PNL, L_{Aeq, 30 sec}, L_{Amax} and L_{AX}; the other determined subjective reactions to domestic appliance noise (judgements of noisiness, annoyance, the acceptability of the appliance noise and appraisals of usefulness). The success or failure of the research hypotheses was assessed statistically by analysis of variance, regression analysis, log linear analysis, Hotelling test, bootstrapping, t-test and post-hoc comparisons. Ratings of annoyance, noisiness and the acceptability of the noise of the appliance were found to be interrelated and interdependent, and not influenced by appraisals of usefulness of the appliances. Noisiness ratings were the most consistent of the subjective ratings investigated, and were influenced by the duration of the exposure, and the actual appliance type under investigation. Significant correlations were obtained between noisiness ratings and all the noise indices under investigation. However, statistical analysis demonstrated that L_ {WA} correlated less successfully with noisiness ratings than all other indices. L_ {Amax},L_{Aeq,30 sec }, and L_{AX} indices were the most successful. It is therefore suggested that the labelling of domestic appliance noise consist of L_{WA} and L _{Aeq} as measured in a standardised test environment. The percentage contribution of domestic appliance noise to the total

  4. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Installation of appliances. 3280.709 Section 3280.709 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling...

  5. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and... air-circulating fan cannot affect its or another appliance's combustion air supply or act to mix products of combustion with circulating air. (1) The air circulating fan of a furnace installed in...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and... air-circulating fan cannot affect its or another appliance's combustion air supply or act to mix products of combustion with circulating air. (1) The air circulating fan of a furnace installed in...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and... air-circulating fan cannot affect its or another appliance's combustion air supply or act to mix products of combustion with circulating air. (1) The air circulating fan of a furnace installed in...

  8. Energy Corner: Heat Reclamation Rescues Wasted Heat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    Heat reclamation systems added to pre-existing central heating systems provide maximum savings at minimum cost. The benefits of a particular appliance marketed under the brand name "Energizer" are discussed. (Author/MLF)

  9. Lipolytic Changes in Fermented Sausages Produced with Turkey Meat: Effects of Starter Culture and Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Karsloğlu, Betül; Çiçek, Ümran Ensoy; Kolsarici, Nuray; Candoğan, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of two different commercial starter culture mixes and processing methodologies (traditional and heat process) on the lipolytic changes of fermented sausages manufactured with turkey meat were evaluated during processing stages and storage. Free fatty acid (FFA) value increased with fermentation and during storage over 120 d in all fermented sausage groups produced with both processing methodologies (p<0.05). After drying stage, free fatty acid values of traditional style and heat processed fermented sausages were between 10.54-13.01% and 6.56-8.49%, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of traditionally processed fermented sausages were between 0.220-0.450 mg·kg(-1), and TBA values of heat processed fermented sausages were in a range of 0.405-0.795 mg·kg(-1). Oleic and linoleic acids were predominant fatty acids in all fermented sausages. It was seen that fermented sausage groups produced with starter culture had lower TBA and FFA values in comparison with the control groups, and heat application inhibited the lipase enzyme activity and had an improving effect on lipid oxidation. As a result of these effects, heat processed fermented sausages had lower FFA and higher TBA values than the traditionally processed groups.

  10. Heating dynamics and extreme ultraviolet radiation emission of laser-produced Sn plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yuspeh, S.; Sequoia, K. L.; Tao, Y.; Tillack, M. S.; Burdt, R. A.; Najmabadi, F.

    2010-06-28

    The impact of 1.064 mum laser absorption depth on the heating and in-band (2% bandwidth) 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet emissions in Sn plasmas is investigated experimentally and numerically. In-band emission lasting longer than the laser pulse and separation between the laser absorption and in-band emission region are observed. Maximum efficiency is achieved by additional heating of the core of the plasma to allow the optimal temperature to expand to a lower and more optically thin density. This leads to higher temperature plasma that emits less in-band light as compared to CO{sub 2} produced plasma sources for the same application.

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of the radiant field produced by a multiple-lamp quartz heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    1991-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by a reflected bank of tungsten-filament tubular-quartz radiant heaters. The method is correlated with experimental results from two cases, one consisting of a single lamp and a flat reflector and the other consisting of a single lamp and a parabolic reflector. The simulation methodology, computer implementation, and experimental procedures are discussed. Analytical refinements necessary for comparison with experiment are discussed and applied to a multilamp, common reflector heating system.

  12. Heat-producing elements and the thermal and baric patterns of metamorphic belts.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, C P; Sonder, L J

    1990-11-09

    The character of sedimentary basins, before they are deformed and metamorphosed, may strongly influence the thermal and baric patterns of metamorphic belts. Crustal thickening of anoxic sedimentary basins and subsequent thermal reequilibration may produce large areas of high-grade metamorphic rocks and granites because the concentrations of the heat-producing elements are high in such basins. In New England there is a spatial association among granites and high-grade metasedimentary rocks rich in U and Th that now form the Central Maine terrane. The high content of heat-producing elements in these rocks is attributed to fixing of U and Th in highly reduced sediments that were deposited in an anoxic basin that formed in the Silurian. When the basin was thickened during the Devonian Acadian orogeny, the thermal energy generated by the U- and Th-rich sediments produced the observed broad zone of high-grade rocks and anatectic granites. This hypothesis was tested with thermal calculations that reproduce most of the first-order thermal and baric patterns of the Acadian Appalachians, if pretectonic lateral variations in heat production are assumed.

  13. Domestic refrigeration appliances in Poland: Potential for improving energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Lebot, B.

    1993-08-01

    This report is based on information collected from the main Polish manufacturer of refrigeration appliances. We describe their production facilities, and show that the energy consumption of their models for domestic sale is substantially higher than the average for similar models made in W. Europe. Lack of data and uncertainty about future production costs in Poland limits our evaluation of the cost-effective potential to increase energy efficiency, but it appears likely that considerable improvement would be economic from a societal perspective. Many design options are likely to have a simple payback of less than five years. We found that the production facilities are in need of substantial modernization in order to produce higher quality and more efficient appliances. We discuss policy options that could help to build a market for more efficient appliances in Poland and thereby encourage investment to produce such equipment.

  14. Characteristics of laser supersonic heating method for producing micro metallic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shih-Lung; Lin, Jehnming

    2005-10-01

    In this article, the authors analyzed the process characteristics of laser supersonic heating method for producing metallic particles and predicted the in-flight tracks and shapes of micro-particles. A pulse Nd-YAG laser was used to heat the carbon steel target placed within an air nozzle. The high-pressure air with supersonic velocity was used to carry out carbon steel particles in the nozzle. The shock wave structures at the nozzle exit were visualized by the shadowgraph method. The carbon steel particles produced by laser supersonic heating method were grabbed and the spraying angles of the particle tracks were visualized. The velocity of the in-flight particles was measured by a photodiode sensor and compared with the numerical result. The solidification of carbon steel particles with diameters of 1-50 μm in compressible flow fields were investigated. The result shows that there is no significant difference in the dimension of solid carbon steel particles produced at shock wave fields under various entrance pressures (3-7 bar) with a constant laser energy radiation.

  15. Appliance Standards and Advanced Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-11-01

    Energy efficiency has long been considered one of the most effective and least costly means of reducing national energy demand. The U.S. Department of Energy runs the appliances and commercial equipment standards program, which sets federal mandatory minimum efficiency levels for many residential appliances, commercial equipment, and lighting products. The Department uses an engineering-economic analysis approach to determine appropriate standard levels that are technologically feasible and economically justified (i.e., a net positive economic benefit to consumers and the nation as a whole). The program has been very successful and has significantly reduced national energy consumption. Efficiency is also a renewable resource, with many new, even more efficient technologies continuously replacing older ones. There are many promising advanced technologies on the horizon today that could dramatically reduce appliance and commercial equipment energy use even further.

  16. Heat shock decreases the embryonic quality of frozen-thawed bovine blastocysts produced in vitro

    PubMed Central

    MORI, Miyuki; HAYASHI, Takeshi; ISOZAKI, Yoshihiro; TAKENOUCHI, Naoki; SAKATANI, Miki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of heat shock on frozen-thawed blastocysts was evaluated using in vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos. In experiment 1, the effects of 6 h of heat shock at 41.0 C on fresh blastocysts were evaluated. HSPA1A expression as a reflection of stress was increased by heat shock (P < 0.05), but the expressions of the quality markers IFNT and POU5F1 were not affected. In experiment 2, frozen-thawed blastocysts were incubated at 38.5 C for 6 h (cryo-con) or exposed to heat shock at 41.0 C for 6 h (cryo-HS). Then, blastocysts were cultured at 38.5 C until 48 h after thawing (both conditions). Cryo-HS blastocysts exhibited a decreased recovery rate: HSPA1A expression was dramatically increased compared with that in fresh or cryo-con blastocysts at 6 h, and IFNT expression was decreased compared with that in cryo-con blastocysts at 6 h (both P < 0.05). Cryo-con blastocysts at 6 h also exhibited higher HSPA1A expression than fresh blastocysts (P < 0.05). At 48 h after thawing, the number of hatched blastocysts and blastocyst diameter were lower in cryo-HS blastocysts (P < 0.05). Cryo-con blastocysts showed lower POU5F1 levels at 48 h than fresh, cryo-con or cryo-HS blastocysts at 6 h (P < 0.05), but their POU5F1 levels were not different from those of cryo-HS blastocysts at 48 h. These results indicated that application of heat shock to frozen-thawed blastocysts was highly damaging. The increase in damage by the interaction of freezing-thawing and heat shock might be one reason for the low conception rate in frozen-thawed embryo transfer in summer. PMID:26096768

  17. Heat shock decreases the embryonic quality of frozen-thawed bovine blastocysts produced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mori, Miyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi; Isozaki, Yoshihiro; Takenouchi, Naoki; Sakatani, Miki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of heat shock on frozen-thawed blastocysts was evaluated using in vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos. In experiment 1, the effects of 6 h of heat shock at 41.0 C on fresh blastocysts were evaluated. HSPA1A expression as a reflection of stress was increased by heat shock (P < 0.05), but the expressions of the quality markers IFNT and POU5F1 were not affected. In experiment 2, frozen-thawed blastocysts were incubated at 38.5 C for 6 h (cryo-con) or exposed to heat shock at 41.0 C for 6 h (cryo-HS). Then, blastocysts were cultured at 38.5 C until 48 h after thawing (both conditions). Cryo-HS blastocysts exhibited a decreased recovery rate: HSPA1A expression was dramatically increased compared with that in fresh or cryo-con blastocysts at 6 h, and IFNT expression was decreased compared with that in cryo-con blastocysts at 6 h (both P < 0.05). Cryo-con blastocysts at 6 h also exhibited higher HSPA1A expression than fresh blastocysts (P < 0.05). At 48 h after thawing, the number of hatched blastocysts and blastocyst diameter were lower in cryo-HS blastocysts (P < 0.05). Cryo-con blastocysts showed lower POU5F1 levels at 48 h than fresh, cryo-con or cryo-HS blastocysts at 6 h (P < 0.05), but their POU5F1 levels were not different from those of cryo-HS blastocysts at 48 h. These results indicated that application of heat shock to frozen-thawed blastocysts was highly damaging. The increase in damage by the interaction of freezing-thawing and heat shock might be one reason for the low conception rate in frozen-thawed embryo transfer in summer.

  18. Heat resistance of histamine-producing bacteria in irradiated tuna loins.

    PubMed

    Enache, Elena; Kataoka, Ai; Black, D Glenn; Weddig, Lisa; Hayman, Melinda; Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin

    2013-09-01

    Consumption of foods high in biogenic amines leads to an illness known as histamine, or scombrotoxin, poisoning. The illness is commonly associated with consumption of fish with high levels of histamine ( $ 500 ppm). The objective of this study was to determine and compare the heat resistance of five histamine-producing bacteria in irradiated albacore tuna loins. Heat-resistance parameters (D- and z-values) were determined for Morganella morganii, Raoultella planticola, Hafnia alvei, and Enterobacter aerogenes. D- or z-values were not determined for Photobacterium damselae, which was the most heat-sensitive organism in this study. P. damselae declined > 5.9 log CFU/g after a heat treatment of 50°C for 10 min, 54°C for 3 min, and 56°C for 0.5 min. M. morganii was the most heat-resistant histamine-producing bacteria in albacore tuna loins, followed by E. aerogenes, H. alvei, and R. planticola. M. morganii and E. aerogenes had the highest D(50°C), 49.7 ± 17.57 and 51.8 ± 17.38 min, respectively. In addition, M. morganii had the highest D-values for all other temperatures (54, 56, and 58°C) tested. D- and zvalues were also determined for M. morganii in skipjack tuna. While no significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed between D(54°C) and D(56°C) of M. morganii in either albacore or skipjack tuna, the D(58°C) (0.4 ± 0.17 min) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in skipjack than in albacore (0.9 ± 0.24 min). The z-values for all organisms tested were in the range of 3.2 to 3.8°C. This study suggests that heat treatment designed to control M. morganii in tuna loins is sufficient for controlling histamine-producing bacteria in canned-tuna processing environments.

  19. Searching with the Google Search Appliance (GSA)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Guidance and search help resource listing examples of common queries that can be used in the Google Search Appliance search request, including examples of special characters, or query term seperators that Google Search Appliance recognizes.

  20. Equation of state studies of warm dense matter samples heated by laser produced proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoarty, D. J.; Guymer, T.; James, S. F.; Gumbrell, E.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M.; Morton, J.; Doyle, H.

    2012-03-01

    Heating of matter by proton beams produced by short pulse, laser-solid target interaction has been demonstrated over the last ten years by a number of workers. In the work described in this paper heating by a pulse of laser produced protons has been combined with high-resolution soft x-ray radiography to record the expansion of thin wire targets. Analysis of the radiographs yields material properties in the warm dense matter regime. These measurements imply initial temperatures in the experimental samples over a range from 14 eV up to 40 eV; the sample densities varied from solid to a tenth solid density. Assuming an adiabatic expansion after the initial proton heating phase isentropes of the aluminium sample material were inferred and compared to tabulated data from the SESAME equation of state library. The proton spectrum was also measured using calibrated magnetic spectrometers and radiochromic film. The accuracy of the technique used to infer material data is discussed along with possible future development.

  1. Transcriptome profiling of heat-resistant strain Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC3962 producing Maotai flavor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun; Xu, Yan

    2012-02-29

    Although Maotai flavor liquor is exclusive due to its soy sauce flavor, knowledge of its key compound and production mechanism is still scarce until now. To gain insight into the production mechanism of soy sauce flavor, a soy sauce flavor producing strain with high efficiency and heat-resistant capability was obtained, and the metabolic mechanism of the strain was investigated with the technique of microarray profiling. Because high temperature was a key factor for soy sauce flavor production, the global gene expression of this heat-resistant strain fermented at 55 °C was analyzed. Except for the responsive increase of heat shock proteins, which maintained cell survival during heat stress, biosynthesis of cysteine was also up-regulated. In addition, some metabolites were significantly increased when cysteine was added to the fermentation medium, such as 2,3-butanediol, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, and tetramethylpyrazine, which were important flavor compounds in soy sauce flavor liquor and might be related with soy sauce flavor. The results indicated that cysteine might play an important role in the formation of soy sauce flavor compound, and it might act as an indirect precursor or stimulator of soy sauce flavor formation. This was the first use of the microarray profiling tool to investigate the fermentative strains for Chinese traditional liquor, which would allow a deeper insight into the mechanism of the formation of soy sauce flavor compound.

  2. Novel Stacked Wire Mesh Compact Heat Exchangers Produced Using Cold Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaad, Jamil; Corbeil, Antoine; Richer, Patrick F.; Jodoin, Bertrand

    2011-12-01

    This study examines the feasibility of using the pulsed gas dynamic spraying (PGDS) process to deposit metal powder on the outer surfaces of metal wire mesh wafers for use as high-performance compact heat exchangers. Plain-square weave woven mesh produced from stainless steel wires were stacked and sintered to form wire mesh bricks, which were then cut into wafers. The outer surfaces of the wafers were sealed using the PGDS deposition technique as opposed to the more traditional brazing sheet solution. This approach provides more intimate contact between the mesh wire tips and sealed surface, thereby promoting conduction through the outer walls and improving the heat exchanger efficiency. In addition, PGDS is an attractive alternative to brazing sheets for this application because of its potential for reduced manufacturing costs. Burst and tensile tests of the PGDS coated wafers were carried out.

  3. Air side thermal performance of wavy fin heat exchangers produced by selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehndel, J.; Kerler, B.; Karcher, C.

    2016-09-01

    Wavy fins are widely used for off-road vehicle coolers, due to their dust resistance. In this study, heat exchanger elements with wavy fins were examined in an experimental study. Due to independence of tooling and degrees of freedom in design, rapid prototyping technique selective laser melting was used to produce heat exchanger elements with high dimensional accuracy. Tests were conducted for air side Reynolds number Re of 1400-7400 varying wavy amplitude and wave length at a constant water flow rate of 9.0m3/h inside the tubes. The effects of wavy amplitude and wave length on the air side thermal performance were studied. Experimental correlation equations for Nu and ­ were derived by regression analysis.

  4. Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1987-01-01

    A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate.

  5. Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1985-04-03

    A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate.

  6. Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1987-09-22

    A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate. 2 figs.

  7. Beam heated linear theta-pinch device for producing hot plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Bohachevsky, Ihor O.

    1981-01-01

    A device for producing hot plasmas comprising a single turn theta-pinch coil, a fast discharge capacitor bank connected to the coil, a fuel element disposed along the center axis of the coil, a predetermined gas disposed within the theta-pinch coil, and a high power photon, electron or ion beam generator concentrically aligned to the theta-pinch coil. Discharge of the capacitor bank generates a cylindrical plasma sheath within the theta-pinch coil which heats the outer layer of the fuel element to form a fuel element plasma layer. The beam deposits energy in either the cylindrical plasma sheath or the fuel element plasma layer to assist the implosion of the fuel element to produce a hot plasma.

  8. [Environmental and health impacts of wood combustion to produce heat and power].

    PubMed

    Valerio, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Toxic chemicals such as benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and ultra fine particles were found in the smoke produced by wood combustion. Emission factors confirm that, to produce the same energy amount, many more pollutants are emitted by wood than by natural gas. Biomass burning produces a relevant deterioration of air quality inside and outside houses, notably due to emissions of fine and ultra fine dust (PM10, PM2.5) according to reviewed studies. Important improvements in emission quality are obtained with the use of more efficient household heating systems, both in developed and in developing countries. Numerous studies have assessed the possible health effects produced by wood smoke, providing sufficient evidence that the indoor exposure to wood smoke, even in developed countries, can have adverse effects on human health. In 2010 IARC classified wood smoke as a possible human carcinogen. In Europe, electricity generation from biomass combustion is increasing (12% each year) thanks to incentives provided to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and use of fossil fuels.Today adequate studies to assess the environmental and health effects of emissions from power plants fuelled by solid biomasses are still needed.

  9. Microbial contamination of removable prosthodontic appliances from laboratories and impact of clinical storage.

    PubMed

    Williams, D W; Chamary, N; Lewis, M A O; Milward, P J; McAndrew, R

    2011-08-26

    Decontamination of dental instruments has recently been the subject of considerable debate. However, little information is available on the potential bacterial colonisation of dental appliances returning from dental laboratories and their need for decontamination. This study investigated the extent and nature of microbial contamination of removable prosthodontic appliances produced at different dental laboratories and stored in two clinical teaching units (CTU 1 and CTU 2) of a dental hospital and school. Forty consecutive dental prosthodontic appliances that were being stored under varying conditions in the two clinical teaching units were selected for study; the appliances having been produced 'in-house' (hospital laboratory) or 'out-of-house' (external commercial laboratory). Two appliances, that were known to have undergone decontamination before storage, were used as controls. Swabs were taken according to a standard protocol and transferred to the microbiological laboratory with bacterial growth expressed as colony forming units (cfu) per cm(2). Microbial sampling yielded growth from 23 (58%) of the 40 appliances studied (CTU 1, n = 22; CTU 2, n = 18), with 38% of these having a high level of contamination (>42,000 cfu/cm(2)). The predominant bacteria isolated were Bacillus spp. (57%), pseudomonads (22%) and staphylococci (13%). Fungi of the genus Candida were detected in 38% of the samples. There was no significant difference in contamination of the appliances in relation to either their place of production or the CTU (p >0.05). However, the level of contamination was significantly higher (p = 0.035) for those appliances stored in plastic bag with fluid (n = 16) compared to those stored on models (n = 19). No growth was recovered from the two appliances that had undergone decontamination before storage. The research showed that appliances received from laboratories are often contaminated and therefore there is a need for routine disinfection of such items

  10. Combustion Safety for Appliances Using Indoor Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  11. Status of European appliance standards

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; Lebot, B.

    1992-05-01

    The European Community (EC) recently commissioned a study of the impact of potential appliance standards on electricity consumption in the twelve EC nations. This study looks at refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The impact of minimum efficiency standards on electricity use over the time period from 1995--2010 is estimated. The results of this study were presented to the EC in September of 1991. Revisions were made to the draft report and final copies sent to all interested parties. The member nations of the EC will soon consider whether they wish to implement uniform energy efficiency standards that would take effect in 1995. The results of the study described above will be presented and the political considerations will be discussed. In addition, data describing the appliance market in Europe will be presented.

  12. Mean flow field and surface heating produced by unequal shock interactions at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birch, S. F.; Rudy, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Mean velocity profiles were measured in a free shear layer produced by the interaction of two unequal strength shock waves at hypersonic free-stream Mach numbers. Measurements were made over a unit Reynolds number range of 3,770,000 per meter to 17,400,000 per meter based on the flow on the high velocity side of the shear layer. The variation in measured spreading parameters with Mach number for the fully developed flows is consistent with the trend of the available zero velocity ratio data when the Mach numbers for the data given in this study are taken to be characteristic Mach numbers based on the velocity difference across the mixing layer. Surface measurements in the shear-layer attachment region of the blunt-body model indicate peak local heating and static pressure consistent with other published data. Transition Reynolds numbers were found to be significantly lower than those found in previous data.

  13. Molecular homogeneity of heat-stable enterotoxins produced by bovine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, A M; Magnuson, N S; Sriranganathan, N; Burger, D; Cosand, W

    1984-01-01

    Heat-stable enterotoxins (STs) from four strains of bovine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli representing four serogroups were purified to homogeneity by utilizing previously published purification schemata. Biochemical characterization of the purified STs showed that they met the basic criteria for the heat-stable enterotoxins of E. coli. Amino acid analysis of the purified STs revealed that they were peptides of identical amino acid composition. This composition consisted of 18 residues of 10 different amino acids, 6 of which were cysteine. The amino acid composition of the four ST peptides was identical to that reported for the STs of human and porcine E. coli. In addition, complete sequence analysis of two of the ST peptides and partial sequencing of several others revealed strong homology to the sequences of STs from human and porcine E. coli and to the sequence predicted from the last 18 codons of the transposon Tn1681. There was also substantial homology to the sequence predicted from the ST-coding genetic element of human E. coli, which may indicate the existence of identical bioactive configuration among ST peptides of E. coli strains of various host origins. These data support the hypothesis that STs produced by human, bovine, and porcine E. coli are coded by a closely related genetic element which may have originated from a single, widely disseminated transposon. Images PMID:6376355

  14. ELM simulation experiments using transient heat and particle load produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoda, K.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2011-10-01

    It is considered that thermal transient events such as type I edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will limit the lifetime of plasma-facing components (PFCs) in ITER. It is predicted that the heat load onto the PFCs during type I ELMs in ITER is 0.2-2MJ/m2 with pulse length of ~0.1-1ms. We have investigated interaction between transient heat and particle load and the PFCs by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) at University of Hyogo. In the experiment, a pulsed plasma with duration of ~0.5ms, incident ion energy of ~30eV, and surface absorbed energy density of ~0.3-0.7MJ/m2 was produced by the MCPG. However, no melting occurred on a tungsten surface exposed to a single plasma pulse of ~0.7MJ/m2, while cracks clearly appeared at the edge part of the W surface. Thus, we have recently started to improve the performance of the MCPG in order to investigate melt layer dynamics of a tungsten surface such as vapor cloud formation. In the modified MCPG, the capacitor bank energy for the plasma discharge is increased from 24.5 kJ to 144 kJ. In the preliminary experiments, the plasmoid with duration of ~0.6 ms, incident ion energy of ~ 40 eV, and the surface absorbed energy density of ~2 MJ/m2 was successfully produced at the gun voltage of 6 kV.

  15. Process for utilizing the waste heat content of condensate and/or vapor produced in the manufacture of sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.; Schiweck, H.

    1981-09-22

    A process is provided for utilizing the waste heat content of condensate and/or vapor produced in the manufacture of sugar in which thin juice is cooled, subjected to one or more stages of flash evaporation to concentrate and further cool the juice, after which it is heated with condensate and/or vapor produced elsewhere in the sugar manufacturing process and with incoming thin juice thereby heating the outgoing juice to substantially its original temperature and providing the cooling of the incoming thin juice. In another embodiment completely purified thin juice is concentrated in a multiple effect evaporating plant wherein the vapor produced in the final evaporator is compressed and is returned selectively to one of the preceding evaporators of the evaporating plant for use in heating the juice.

  16. A New Orthodontic Appliance with a Mini Screw for Upper Molar Distalization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a new upper molar distalization appliance called Cise distalizer designed as intraoral device supported with orthodontic mini screw for upper permanent molar distalization. The new appliance consists of eight main components. In order to understand the optimum force level, the appliance under static loading is tested by using strain gage measurement techniques. Results show that one of the open coils produces approximately 300 gr distalization force. Cise distalizer can provide totally 600 gr distalization force. This range of force level is enough for distalization of upper first and second molar teeth. PMID:27528796

  17. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 5, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Housekeeping, off-duty, and medical data concerning the appliances considered for the space station are presented. Appliance functions analyzed include: cleanup, collection, processing and storage of refuse; crew entertainment and physical exercise, and the autoclaves and ergometers.

  18. A viable process for producing hydrogen synfuel using nuclear fusion heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, T. R.; Brown, L. C.

    Analytical and costing analyses of a thermochemical water splitting plant powered by a tandem mirror fusion reactor are presented. Design criteria indicated directing high quality steam to the chemical plant, where no liquid metal coolants would be used. Minimal pumping distances for high pressure He, multiple barriers between the neutron-activated blanket and the hydrogen product, and modular construction where possible are necessary. A He-Brayton topping cycle, coupled to a steam-Rankine bottoming cycle are selected. Slightly over 1111 MWt and about 720 MWe could be produced by the plant if all low grade waste heat is directed to the Rankine cycle. SO3 is used with water for the splitting process, then recombined. H2 is siphoned off as a fuel and O2 is delivered to a coal reforming plant. A 30 yr plant life is projected, operating at a 70% thermal efficiency for the splitting process and producing H2 at $10-12/GJ. The plant is expected to become economically viable in the year 2030 if debt financing is available at 12.25% per year.

  19. Spotlight on the microbes that produce heat shock protein 90-targeting antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Peter W.; Millson, Stefan H.

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a promising cancer drug target as a molecular chaperone critical for stabilization and activation of several of the oncoproteins that drive cancer progression. Its actions depend upon its essential ATPase, an activity fortuitously inhibited with a very high degree of selectivity by natural antibiotics: notably the actinomycete-derived benzoquinone ansamycins (e.g. geldanamycin) and certain fungal-derived resorcyclic acid lactones (e.g. radicicol). The molecular interactions made by these antibiotics when bound within the ADP/ATP-binding site of Hsp90 have served as templates for the development of several synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor drugs. Much attention now focuses on the clinical trials of these drugs. However, because microbes have evolved antibiotics to target Hsp90, it is probable that they often exploit Hsp90 inhibition when interacting with each other and with plants. Fungi known to produce Hsp90 inhibitors include mycoparasitic, as well as plant-pathogenic, endophytic and mycorrhizal species. The Hsp90 chaperone may, therefore, be a prominent target in establishing a number of mycoparasitic (interfungal), fungal pathogen–plant and symbiotic fungus–plant relationships. Furthermore the Hsp90 family proteins of the microbes that produce Hsp90 inhibitor antibiotics are able to reveal how drug resistance can arise by amino acid changes in the highly conserved ADP/ATP-binding site of Hsp90. PMID:23271830

  20. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2012 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2011 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  1. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2014 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2014 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  2. Crew appliance computer program manual, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Trade studies of numerous appliance concepts for advanced spacecraft galley, personal hygiene, housekeeping, and other areas were made to determine which best satisfy the space shuttle orbiter and modular space station mission requirements. Analytical models of selected appliance concepts not currently included in the G-189A Generalized Environmental/Thermal Control and Life Support Systems (ETCLSS) Computer Program subroutine library were developed. The new appliance subroutines are given along with complete analytical model descriptions, solution methods, user's input instructions, and validation run results. The appliance components modeled were integrated with G-189A ETCLSS models for shuttle orbiter and modular space station, and results from computer runs of these systems are presented.

  3. Overview on PIV Application to Appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasini, Enrico Primo; Paone, Nicola; Rossi, Massimiliano; Castellini, Paolo

    The term appliances describes a wide range of products that are used to perform a wide variety of tasks. In the home environment, household appliances like refrigerators, ovens, washing machines, dishwashers, vacuum cleaners, hair driers are sold in million pieces per year; they also have commercial and industrial application. Typical products of the appliance industry have a relatively low industrial cost and the appliance market shows a strong competition, in which appliance technical performance plays a role together with aesthetics and costs. Therefore, efforts in applied research for product technical improvement can be done only if the ratio cost to benefits is advantageous. Many such appliances have complex fluid-dynamic problems; it is important that any experimental technique bears inherent characteristics of simplicity, provides a rapid means to collect experimental data, provides information that engineers can readily exploit for product enhancement, and mostly for computational fluid-dynamic (CFD) code validation. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) satisfies most of the above-mentioned requirements and therefore appears as a good candidate experimental technique to be proposed in the field of appliances. Nevertheless, PIV applications are rare. The PIVNet2 workshop on "PIV application to appliances" that took place in Ancona on June 2003 intended to illustrate the great potential for application of the PIV technique in this sector. This chapter presents an overview of PIV application to appliances according to the outcome from this workshop.

  4. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2010 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2010 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  5. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2008 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2008 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  6. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2007 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2007 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  7. In vitro cytotoxic effects of orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Locci, P; Lilli, C; Marinucci, L; Calvitti, M; Belcastro, S; Bellocchio, S; Staffolani, N; Guerra, M; Becchetti, E

    2000-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an orthodontic appliance and of its components (brackets, bands, and arch wires) on some cell functions. Fibroblasts were cultured either in the presence of one unwashed orthodontic appliance, or one orthodontic appliance immersed in MEM for 28 days before use (washed appliance), or in the presence of MEM in which the appliances had been immersed. At the end of in vitro maintenance, morphological studies were carried out with SEM and TEM. Cell proliferation and GAG synthesis and secretion by radio-labeled precursors were assessed. The data indicated that unwashed appliances were more cytotoxic than washed ones. Moreover, the arch wire was the most biocompatible component of the orthodontic appliance, and the bracket was the least biocompatible. A comparative study into the effects on cell proliferation of the most common metal ions released by the appliances was also carried out. At the concentration released by one orthodontic appliance immersed for 28 days, the highest reduction in DNA synthesis was observed in the presence of Cu(++).

  8. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2013 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2013 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  9. Method for producing a heat exchanger having a flat tube and header pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Koisuka, M.; Aoki, H.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes a method for producing a heat exchanger comprising a flat metal tube of an aluminum alloy for conveying fluid, and two header pipes joined respectively onto opposite ends of the flat tube, which comprises the steps of preparing the flat tube and the header pipes of an aluminum alloy other than a brazing filler metal, and preparing two brazing filler members of an aluminum alloy brazing filler metal. Each of the header pipes has an axial slot in a side wall for receiving an end of the flat tube. Each brazing filler member comprises an elongated plate portion arcuately curved transversely with a lengthwise elongated opening and with a flat sleeve portion projecting from an outer surface of the elongated plate portion overlying the elongated opening in registration. The sleeve portion has an inner surface congruent with the perimeter of the elongated opening, the sleeve portion inner surface and the elongated opening having an inner contour slightly larger than the outer contour of the flat tube; inserting each of opposite ends of the flat tube through both the sleeve portion and the elongated opening of a respective brazing filler member. It inserts each of the flat tube ends into a respective one of the header pipes through the axial slot while bringing the arcuately curved plate portions in contact with the outer surface of the corresponding header pipe. Brazing filler members are heated together with the header pipes and end portions of the flat tube to melt the brazing filler members. Header pipes are joined and brazed to the corresponding ends of the flat tube.

  10. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that do not exceed those appropriate for the actual appliance when in use. (b) Life saving appliances...) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries...

  11. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that do not exceed those appropriate for the actual appliance when in use. (b) Life saving appliances...) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries...

  12. Pico calorimeter for detection of heat produced in an individual brown fat cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Naoki; Toda, Masaya; Sato, Masaaki; Ishijima, Akihiko; Ono, Takahito

    2012-04-01

    A pico calorimeter with a highly sensitive sensor for detecting heat from a biological cell is developed and evaluated, and also the heat detection of a single brown fat cell has been demonstrated. The measurement principle relies on resonant frequency tracking of a resonator in temperature variation due to the heat from the sample; the resonator is placed in vacuum, and heat is conducted from the sample in the microfluidic channel via a heat guide. This configuration can prevent heat loss from the resonator to the surroundings and damping in water. The heat resolution of the fabricated sensor is 5.2 pJ. Heat emissions from single cells are detected as pulsed or continuous in the absence and presence of stimulation, respectively.

  13. Heat-treatment method for producing fatty acid-bound alpha-lactalbumin that induces tumor cell death.

    PubMed

    Kamijima, Tatsuro; Ohmura, Ayaka; Sato, Toshiya; Akimoto, Kaoru; Itabashi, Miki; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Kamiya, Masakatsu; Kikukawa, Takashi; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Takahashi, Masayuki; Kawano, Keiichi; Demura, Makoto

    2008-11-07

    HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells), which was identified in human breast milk as an alpha-lactalbumin (LA)-oleic acid complex, kills tumor cells, selectively. Although it may have potential as a therapeutic agent against various tumor cells, only low-volume methods for its production exist. In this study, heat treatment was used to produce complexes from LAs and oleic acid using a simple method. In the case of human LA and oleic acid, heat-treated samples apparently showed much stronger activities than those treated at room temperature, with cytotoxicities equal to that of HAMLET. Furthermore, circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that heat-treated samples lost their tertiary structure, suggesting a molten globule as oleic acid-bound LA. BLA samples also showed strong activities by heat treatment. Batch production with heat treatment can efficiently convert LAs into tumoricidal complexes.

  14. The characteristics of ionospheric heating-produced ELF/VLF waves over 32 hours

    SciTech Connect

    Rietveld, M.T.; Mauelshagen, H.P.; Stubbe, P.; Kopka, H.; Nielsen, E. )

    1987-08-01

    In October 1981, ELF/VLF waves were produced in the ionosphere in an altering sequence of approximately 1, 2, 3, and 5 kHz by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere near Tromsoe, Norway, during a 32-hour period of high geomagnetic disturbance. The apparent source heights, which are derived from the wave phases, show a diurnal variation from about 55 km during the day to about 74 km at night. Other wave parameters such as amplitude, direction, and ellipticity of the ELF polarization ellipse also show a diurnal variation as well as amplitude, direction, and ellipticity of the ELF polarization ellipse also show a diurnal variation as well as modulation by Pc 5 hydromagnetic waves. They compare the variation of the ELF wave parameters with electric fields measured by the Scandinavian Twin Auroral Radar Experiment (STARE) and with riometer and magnetometer data in an attempt to understand the factors controlling the ELF wave generation process. They are able to successfully model many of the measured wave characteristics. High electron densities at low altitudes were found necessary to explain the daytime measurements.

  15. 49 CFR 238.429 - Safety appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety appliances. 238.429 Section 238.429..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.429 Safety appliances. (a) Couplers. (1) The leading and the trailing ends of a...

  16. Appliance Ownership and Household Work Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovingood, Rebecca P.; McCullough, Jane L.

    1986-01-01

    Data from 2,100 two-parent, two-child households were analyzed to determine the relationships of demographic variables, ownership of 11 appliances, and time spent in four categories of household tasks. Little evidence was found that appliance ownership is related to less time being spent in household tasks. (Author/CT)

  17. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in appliances

    DOEpatents

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J.; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2016-02-02

    An appliance that includes a cabinet having an exterior surface; a refrigeration compartment located within the cabinet; and a hydrophilic structure disposed on the exterior surface. The hydrophilic structure is configured to spread condensation. The appliance further includes a wicking structure located in proximity to the hydrophilic structure, and the wicking structure is configured to receive the condensation.

  18. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2009-12-09

    An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

  19. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P; Tandon, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior cross bite and retrognathic maxilla at the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross bite was corrected in 3 months and the positive overjet of 4 mm after continued use of the appliance for 1 year. There was a significant improvement in profile of the patient. The use of this appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of malocclusion in a few months and encouraging favorable skeletal growth in the future. PMID:24403800

  20. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P; Tandon, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior cross bite and retrognathic maxilla at the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross bite was corrected in 3 months and the positive overjet of 4 mm after continued use of the appliance for 1 year. There was a significant improvement in profile of the patient. The use of this appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of malocclusion in a few months and encouraging favorable skeletal growth in the future.

  1. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  2. Facilitation of a nociceptive flexion reflex in man by nonnoxious radiant heat produced by a laser.

    PubMed

    Plaghki, L; Bragard, D; Le Bars, D; Willer, J C; Godfraind, J M

    1998-05-01

    Electromyographic recordings were made in healthy volunteers from the knee-flexor biceps femoris muscle of the nociceptive RIII reflex elicited by electrical stimulation of the cutaneous sural nerve. The stimulus intensity was adjusted to produce a moderate pricking-pain sensation. The test responses were conditioned by a nonnoxious thermal (heat with a beam diameter of 20 mm. Its power was 22.7 +/- 4.2 W (7.2 mJ/mm2), and it produced a sensation of warmth. The maximum surface temperature reached at the end of the period of stimulation was calculated to be 7 degrees C above the actual reference temperature of the skin (32 degrees C). The interval between the laser (conditioning) and electrical (test) stimuli was varied from 50 to 3, 000 ms in steps of 50 ms. It was found that the nociceptive flexion reflex was facilitated by the thermal stimulus; this modulation occurred with particular conditioning-test intervals, which peaked at 500 and 1,100 ms with an additional late, long-lasting phase between 1,600 and 2,300 ms. It was calculated that the conduction velocities of the cutaneous afferent fibers responsible for facilitating the RIII reflex, fell into three ranges: one corresponding to A delta fibers (3.2 m/s) and two in the C fiber range (1.3 and 0.7 m/s). It is concluded that information emanating from warm receptors and nociceptors converges. In this respect, the present data show, for the first time, that in man, conditioning nonnociceptive warm thermoreceptive A delta and C fibers results in an interaction at the spinal level with a nociceptive reflex. This interaction may constitute a useful means whereby signals add together to trigger flexion reflexes in defensive reactions and other basic motor behaviors. It also may contribute to hyperalgesia in inflammatory processes. The methodology used

  3. Rapid latex particle agglutination test for Escherichia coli strains of porcine origin producing heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, R A; Yang, Z S; Moseley, S L; Moon, H W

    1983-01-01

    A latex particle agglutination test previously shown to be suitable for the rapid identification of Escherichia coli strains of human origin producing heat-labile enterotoxin (R. A. Finkelstein and Z. Yang, J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:23-28) is equally applicable to strains of porcine origin. PMID:6361056

  4. Estimating concentrations of heat producing elements in the crust near the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phaneuf, Catherine; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    2014-05-01

    Because the concentrations of uranium and thorium in the crust must be determined precisely for the future geoneutrino observations planned at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, we investigate whether airborne radiometric surveys can be used to constrain crustal radioactivity. The regional airborne surveys cover a wide area with high spatial resolution (< 250 m), but are only sensitive to a very thin (25 cm) surficial layer. We calculate crustal heat production in the Sudbury region from airborne radiometric surveys and compare with measurements on outcrop and core samples, and with heat flow data. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, and potassium from radiometric surveys are correlated with geology, but heat production estimates are lower than values from rock samples. The radiometric surveys give a mean heat production of 0.8 ± 0.6 (σ) μW m- 3 for more than 176,000 values. The outcrop samples collected along a transect in the Superior Province yield an average heat production of 2.9 ± 2.4 (σ) μW m- 3 and core samples from drill holes yield an average of 2.5 ± 0.8 (σ) μW m- 3. The high heat production in the rock samples is consistent with surface heat flux measurements near Sudbury with a mean value that is 12 mW m- 2 higher than the average Canadian Shield. The study shows that airborne aeromagnetic surveys give useful information on lateral variations in surface heat production but are unlikely to provide the reliable values of heat production needed to calculate the crustal geoneutrino flux. Crustal heat production will be best calculated from heat flux data complemented by heat production measurements on rock samples. The high mean heat production in Sudbury Igneous Complex samples (≈ 1.5 μW m- 3) suggests that the main source of the melt sheet was the very radioactive upper crust of the Superior Province or that the melt sheet was extremely enriched relative to a lower crustal source.

  5. Multi-kanban mechanism for appliance disassembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomsawat, Gun; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The use of household appliances continues to rise every year. A significant number of End-Of-Life (EOL) appliances are generated because of the introduction of newer models that are more attractive, efficient and affordable. Others are, of course, generated when they become non-functional. Many regulations encourage recycling of EOL appliances to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills. In addition, EOL appliances offer the appliance manufacturing and remanufacturing industries a source of less expensive raw materials and components. For this reason product recovery has become a subject of interest during the past decade. In this paper, we study the disassembly line for appliance disassembly. We discuss and incorporate some of the complications that are inherent in disassembly line including product arrival, demand arrival, inventory fluctuation and production control mechanisms. We show how to overcome such complications by implementing a multi-kanban system in the appliance disassembly line setting. The multi-kanban system (MKS) relies on dynamic routing of kanbans according to the state of the system. We investigate the multi-kanban mechanism using simulation and explore the effect of product mix on performance of the traditional push system (TPS) and MKS in terms of controlling the system's inventory while attempting to achieve a decent customer service level.

  6. Heat produces uteroplacental circulatory disturbance in pregnant rats through action of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Nagase, H; Ogino, K; Hatta, K; Matsuzaki, I

    2000-01-01

    There is some evidence showing an existence of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and opioid peptides, including beta-endorphin (betaEP), in human placenta, whereas physiological roles of the placental peptides in response to stress remain to be elucidated. To clarify the involvement of CRH and opioid system in the uteroplacental circulation in the pregnant rats exposed to heat, we examined the effects of heat and intravenous administration of CRH receptor antagonist alpha-helical CRH (9-41) on the uteroplacental blood flow, as well as blood CRH, and blood and placental betaEP in pregnant rats. Heat did not change uterine blood flow in virgin rats, but reduced uteroplacental blood flow in pregnant rats. The reduced uteroplacental blood flow induced by heat in pregnant rats was reversed by the administration of alpha-helical CRH. Independent of the status of pregnancy, heat increased blood CRH, which was not reversed by alpha-helical CRH. Although heat did not change placental betaEP, alpha-helical CRH reduced blood and placenta betaEP in pregnant rats. These results suggest that the uteroplacental circulatory disturbance caused by heat is mediated by CRH, possibly through the involvement of CRH receptor in rat placenta. The placental opioid system seems unlikely to be involved in the mediation of uteroplacental circulation.

  7. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life-saving appliances. 173.219 Section 173.219... Life-saving appliances. (a) A life-saving appliance, self-inflating or non-self-inflating, containing small quantities of hazardous materials that are required as part of the life-saving appliance...

  8. 46 CFR 188.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 188.27-1 Section... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 188.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements shall be in accordance with the requirements...

  9. 46 CFR 188.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 188.27-1 Section... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 188.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements shall be in accordance with the requirements...

  10. 46 CFR 70.28-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 70.28-1 Section... PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 70.28-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements on passenger vessels must be in accordance with subchapter...

  11. 46 CFR 188.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 188.27-1 Section... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 188.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements shall be in accordance with the requirements...

  12. 46 CFR 199.170 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 199.170 Section 199.170 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS... appliance. (a) General. Each vessel must have a line-throwing appliance approved under approval series...

  13. 46 CFR 70.28-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 70.28-1 Section... PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 70.28-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements on passenger vessels must be in accordance with subchapter...

  14. 46 CFR 199.170 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 199.170 Section 199.170 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS... appliance. (a) General. Each vessel must have a line-throwing appliance approved under approval series...

  15. 46 CFR 90.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 90.27-1 Section... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 90.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements must be in accordance with subchapter W...

  16. 46 CFR 199.170 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 199.170 Section 199.170 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS... appliance. (a) General. Each vessel must have a line-throwing appliance approved under approval series...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.807 - Fixtures and appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fixtures and appliances. 3280.807... Fixtures and appliances. (a) Electrical materials, devices, appliances, fittings, and other equipment... fasten appliances when the manufactured home is in transit. (See § 3280.809.) (b) Specifically...

  18. 46 CFR 70.28-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 70.28-1 Section... PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 70.28-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements on passenger vessels must be in accordance with subchapter...

  19. 46 CFR 195.06-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 195.06-1 Section... VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 195.06-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements shall...

  20. 46 CFR 90.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 90.27-1 Section... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 90.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements must be in accordance with subchapter W...

  1. 24 CFR 3280.807 - Fixtures and appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fixtures and appliances. 3280.807... Fixtures and appliances. (a) Electrical materials, devices, appliances, fittings, and other equipment... fasten appliances when the manufactured home is in transit. (See § 3280.809.) (b) Specifically...

  2. 46 CFR 195.06-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 195.06-1 Section... VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 195.06-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements shall...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.807 - Fixtures and appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fixtures and appliances. 3280.807... Fixtures and appliances. (a) Electrical materials, devices, appliances, fittings, and other equipment... fasten appliances when the manufactured home is in transit. (See § 3280.809.) (b) Specifically...

  4. 46 CFR 70.28-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 70.28-1 Section... PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 70.28-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements on passenger vessels must be in accordance with subchapter...

  5. 46 CFR 90.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 90.27-1 Section... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 90.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements must be in accordance with subchapter W...

  6. 46 CFR 195.06-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 195.06-1 Section... VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 195.06-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements shall...

  7. 46 CFR 70.28-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 70.28-1 Section... PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 70.28-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements on passenger vessels must be in accordance with subchapter...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.807 - Fixtures and appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fixtures and appliances. 3280.807... Fixtures and appliances. (a) Electrical materials, devices, appliances, fittings, and other equipment... fasten appliances when the manufactured home is in transit. (See § 3280.809.) (b) Specifically...

  9. 46 CFR 195.06-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 195.06-1 Section... VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 195.06-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements shall...

  10. 46 CFR 90.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 90.27-1 Section... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 90.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements must be in accordance with subchapter W...

  11. 46 CFR 90.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 90.27-1 Section... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 90.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements must be in accordance with subchapter W...

  12. 46 CFR 199.170 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 199.170 Section 199.170 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS... appliance. (a) General. Each vessel must have a line-throwing appliance approved under approval series...

  13. 46 CFR 199.170 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 199.170 Section 199.170 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS... appliance. (a) General. Each vessel must have a line-throwing appliance approved under approval series...

  14. 46 CFR 195.06-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 195.06-1 Section... VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 195.06-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements shall...

  15. Simulations of ionospheric turbulence produced by HF heating near the upper hybrid layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najmi, A.; Eliasson, B.; Shao, X.; Milikh, G. M.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2016-06-01

    Heating of the ionosphere by high-frequency (HF), ordinary (O) mode electromagnetic waves can excite magnetic field-aligned density striations, associated with upper and lower hybrid turbulence and electron heating. We have used Vlasov simulations in one spatial and two velocity dimensions to study the induced turbulence in the presence of striations when the O-mode pump is mode converted to large-amplitude upper hybrid oscillations trapped in a striation. Parametric processes give rise to upper and lower hybrid turbulence, as well as to large amplitude, short wavelength electron Bernstein waves. The latter excite stochastic electron heating when their amplitudes exceed a threshold for stochasticity, leading to a rapid increase of the electron temperature by several thousands of kelvin. The results have relevance for high-latitude heating experiments.

  16. Effects of heating conditions on the glass transition parameters of amorphous sucrose produced by melt-quenching.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Won; Thomas, Leonard C; Schmidt, Shelly J

    2011-04-13

    This research investigates the effects of heating conditions used to produce amorphous sucrose on its glass transition (T(g)) parameters, because the loss of crystalline structure in sucrose is caused by the kinetic process of thermal decomposition. Amorphous sucrose samples were prepared by heating at three different scan rates (1, 10, and 25 °C/min) using a standard differential scanning calorimetry (SDSC) method and by holding at three different isothermal temperatures (120, 132, and 138 °C) using a quasi-isothermal modulated DSC (MDSC) method. In general, the quasi-isothermal MDSC method (lower temperatures for longer times) exhibited lower T(g) values, larger ΔC(p) values, and broader glass transition ranges (i.e., T(g end) minus T(g onset)) than the SDSC method (higher temperatures for shorter times), except at a heating rate of 1 °C/min, which exhibited the lowest T(g) values, the highest ΔC(p), and the broadest glass transition range. This research showed that, depending on the heating conditions employed, a different amount and variety of sucrose thermal decomposition components may be formed, giving rise to wide variation in the amorphous sucrose T(g) values. Thus, the variation observed in the literature T(g) values for amorphous sucrose produced by thermal methods is, in part, due to differences in the heating conditions employed.

  17. Technical and economic assessment of producing hydrogen by reforming syngas from the Battelle indirectly heated biomass gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.K.

    1995-08-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass by means of indirectly heated gasification and steam reforming was studied. A detailed process model was developed in ASPEN Plus{trademark} to perform material and energy balances. The results of this simulation were used to size and cost major pieces of equipment from which the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen was made. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the process to study hydrogen price as a function of biomass feedstock cost and hydrogen production efficiency. The gasification system used for this study was the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) indirectly heated gasifier. The heat necessary for the endothermic gasification reactions is supplied by circulating sand from a char combustor to the gasification vessel. Hydrogen production was accomplished by steam reforming the product synthesis gas (syngas) in a process based on that used for natural gas reforming. Three process configurations were studied. Scheme 1 is the full reforming process, with a primary reformer similar to a process furnace, followed by a high temperature shift reactor and a low temperature shift reactor. Scheme 2 uses only the primary reformer, and Scheme 3 uses the primary reformer and the high temperature shift reactor. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system is used in all three schemes to produce a hydrogen product pure enough to be used in fuel cells. Steam is produced through detailed heat integration and is intended to be sold as a by-product.

  18. Fabrication of a resin appliance with alloy components using digital technology without an analog impression.

    PubMed

    Al Mortadi, Noor; Jones, Quentin; Eggbeer, Dominic; Lewis, Jeffrey; Williams, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to fabricate a resin appliance incorporating "wire" components without the use of an analog impression and dental casts using an intraoral scanner and computer technology to build the appliance. This unique alignment of technology offers an enormous reduction in the number of fabrication steps when compared with more traditional methods of manufacture. The prototype incorporated 2 Adams clasps and a fitted labial bow. The alloy components were built from cobalt-chromium in an initial powdered form using established digital technology methods and then inserted into a build of a resin base plate. This article reports the first known use of computer-aided design and additive manufacture to fabricate a resin and alloy appliance, and constitutes proof of the concept for such manufacturing. The original workflow described could be seen as an example for many other similar appliances, perhaps with active components. The scan data were imported into an appropriate specialized computer-aided design software, which was used in conjunction with a force feedback (haptic) interface. The appliance designs were then exported as stereolithography files and transferred to an additive manufacturing machine for fabrication. The results showed that the applied techniques may provide new manufacturing and design opportunities in orthodontics and highlights the need for intraoral-specific additive manufacture materials to be produced and tested for biocompatibility compliance. In a trial, the retainer was fitted orally and judged acceptable by the clinician according to the typical criteria when placing such appliances in situ.

  19. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a... and the other extending to the overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used...

  20. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a... and the other extending to the overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used...

  1. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a... and the other extending to the overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used...

  2. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a... and the other extending to the overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used...

  3. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a... and the other extending to the overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used...

  4. A segmented appliance for space closure followed by Invisalign and fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Flavio; Cutrera, Alice; Nanda, Ravinda

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the use of a segmented appliance for space closure prior to using Invisalign. The maxillary right canine was retracted into the extracted first premolar space with a sectional wire from the first molar to the canine with no visible brackets in the incisor region. The advantage of this technique is the ability to achieve better root and rotational control during space closure with a fixed appliance that also has limited visibility. A maxillary fixed appliance was used to refine the esthetics in the maxillary arch due to the limitations of the Invisalign appliance in achieving rotational and vertical movements.

  5. Functional orthopedic magnetic appliance (FOMA) III--modus operandi.

    PubMed

    Vardimon, A D; Graber, T M; Voss, L R; Muller, T P

    1990-02-01

    An intraoral intermaxillary appliance has been developed for the treatment of Class III malocclusions that exhibit midface sagittal deficiency with or without mandibular excess. The functional orthopedic magnetic appliance (FOMA) III consists of upper and lower acrylic plates with a permanent magnet incorporated into each plate. The upper magnet is linked to a retraction screw. The upper magnet is retracted periodically (e.g., monthly) to stimulate maxillary advancement and mandibular retardation. The attractive mode neodymium magnets used in this study produced a horizontal force of 98 gm and a vertical force of 371 gm. Six female Macaca fascicularis monkeys were treated with FOMA IIIs. An additional three animals were treated with sham appliances. After 4 months of treatment, the following results were found: the growth pattern of the cranial base (saddle angle) was not altered; midfacial protraction did occur along a recumbent hyperbolic curve with a horizontal maxillary displacement and an anterosuperior premaxillary rotation; the cumulative protraction of the maxillary complex was initiated at the pterygomaxillary fissure with an additional contribution provided by other circummaxillary sutures (zygomaticomaxillary s., transverse s., premaxillary s.); and inhibition of mandibular length was minimal, but a tendency toward a vertical condylar growth pattern was observed. The interaction between sutural and condylar growth sites appeared biphasic, characterized by an immediate and rapid excitation of the circummaxillary sutures followed by a delayed and slow suppression of the condylar cartilage. Long-term animal and clinical FOMA III studies are recommended.

  6. Early treatment with the ALF functional appliance.

    PubMed

    Bronson, James M; Bronson, James Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report five cases of children treated with an interceptive technique utilizing ALF (Advanced Light Force) functional orthodontic appliances in anterior and/or posterior cross bites in primary and early mixed dentition.

  7. Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hart, George W.; Kern, Jr., Edward C.; Schweppe, Fred C.

    1989-08-15

    A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each.

  8. Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1989-08-15

    A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each. 9 figs.

  9. Cyclic process for producing methane in a tubular reactor with effective heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-Lee

    1986-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  10. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-lee

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  11. Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Birdi, Tannaz J.; Brijesh, S.; Daswani, Poonam G.

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [3H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25035535

  12. Increasing heat stress relief produced by coupled coat wetting and forced ventilation.

    PubMed

    Berman, A

    2008-12-01

    Coupling repeated wetting of the coat and forced ventilation is most efficient in removing heat stress in more humid climates. The procedure was initiated approximately 24 yr ago and is widely used, but the impact of air velocity on the efficiency of heat stress relief has not been examined. This study examined the feasibility of using surface temperature for real-time estimation of heat stress relief. It was carried out in midsummer in Israel on 6 mature lactating Holsteins. A 15 x 15 cm area on the right side of the body was thoroughly wetted. Hair surface and skin temperature on the wetted area and adjacent dry area were measured at 1-min intervals for 15 min while air movement was less than 0.1 m/s, and the sequence was repeated with air velocities of 0.5 to 3 m/s perpendicular to the body surface. Because the cooled surface was small, the response to cooling was local. In 3 animals, the whole left side of the body also was wetted and exposed to forced ventilation (1.5 m/s) to combine local cooling with larger body surface cooling. The air temperature was 29.5 +/- 0.05 degrees C, and the relative humidity was 56.7 +/- 0.2%. Rectal temperature and respiratory frequency indicated minor heat stress. Mean wet hair surface temperature (Thw) and wet skin temperature were 2.1 and 1.5 degrees C lower than the respective dry hair surface temperature (Thd) and dry skin temperature. At an air velocity of 0.5 m/s, Thw was practically identical to that in still air and to Thd. At greater air velocities, Thw decreased immediately after wetting, and minimal values were reached within 1 min, were maintained for 6 to 7 min after wetting, and reached 95% of the mean Thd value by 8 and 11 min after wetting at 1 and 2 m/s, respectively. Wetting the coat had the potential to reduce Thd temperature by 10 to 11 degrees C. The relatively small difference between Thd and Thw probably is due to heat flow from the body. The latter was estimated by comparing enthalpies at Thd, at Thw, and

  13. Thomson scattering measurements of heat flux from ion-acoustic waves in laser-produced aluminum plasmas.

    PubMed

    Yu, Q Z; Zhang, J; Li, Y T; Lu, X; Hawreliak, J; Wark, J; Chambers, D M; Wang, Z B; Yu, C X; Jiang, X H; Li, W H; Liu, S Y; Zheng, Z J

    2005-04-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) measurements are performed at different locations in a laser-produced aluminum plasma. Variations of the separation, wavelength shift, and asymmetric distribution of the two ion-acoustic waves are investigated from their spectral-time-resolved TS images. Detailed information on the space-time evolution of the plasma parameters is obtained. Electron distribution and variation of the heat flux in the plasma are also obtained for a steep temperature gradient.

  14. Method for producing H.sub.2 using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source

    DOEpatents

    Paulson, Leland E.

    1990-01-01

    A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300.degree. to 1400.degree. F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices.

  15. The Biodiversity of the Microbiota Producing Heat-Resistant Enzymes Responsible for Spoilage in Processed Bovine Milk and Dairy Products.

    PubMed

    Machado, Solimar G; Baglinière, François; Marchand, Sophie; Van Coillie, Els; Vanetti, Maria C D; De Block, Jan; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Raw bovine milk is highly nutritious as well as pH-neutral, providing the ideal conditions for microbial growth. The microbiota of raw milk is diverse and originates from several sources of contamination including the external udder surface, milking equipment, air, water, feed, grass, feces, and soil. Many bacterial and fungal species can be found in raw milk. The autochthonous microbiota of raw milk immediately after milking generally comprises lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Leuconostoc species, which are technologically important for the dairy industry, although they do occasionally cause spoilage of dairy products. Differences in milking practices and storage conditions on each continent, country and region result in variable microbial population structures in raw milk. Raw milk is usually stored at cold temperatures, e.g., about 4°C before processing to reduce the growth of most bacteria. However, psychrotrophic bacteria can proliferate and contribute to spoilage of ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated and sterilized milk and other dairy products with a long shelf life due to their ability to produce extracellular heat resistant enzymes such as peptidases and lipases. Worldwide, species of Pseudomonas, with the ability to produce these spoilage enzymes, are the most common contaminants isolated from cold raw milk although other genera such as Serratia are also reported as important milk spoilers, while for others more research is needed on the heat resistance of the spoilage enzymes produced. The residual activity of extracellular enzymes after high heat treatment may lead to technological problems (off flavors, physico-chemical instability) during the shelf life of milk and dairy products. This review covers the contamination patterns of cold raw milk in several parts of the world, the growth potential of psychrotrophic bacteria, their ability to produce extracellular heat-resistant enzymes and the consequences for

  16. The Biodiversity of the Microbiota Producing Heat-Resistant Enzymes Responsible for Spoilage in Processed Bovine Milk and Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Solimar G.; Baglinière, François; Marchand, Sophie; Van Coillie, Els; Vanetti, Maria C. D.; De Block, Jan; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Raw bovine milk is highly nutritious as well as pH-neutral, providing the ideal conditions for microbial growth. The microbiota of raw milk is diverse and originates from several sources of contamination including the external udder surface, milking equipment, air, water, feed, grass, feces, and soil. Many bacterial and fungal species can be found in raw milk. The autochthonous microbiota of raw milk immediately after milking generally comprises lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Leuconostoc species, which are technologically important for the dairy industry, although they do occasionally cause spoilage of dairy products. Differences in milking practices and storage conditions on each continent, country and region result in variable microbial population structures in raw milk. Raw milk is usually stored at cold temperatures, e.g., about 4°C before processing to reduce the growth of most bacteria. However, psychrotrophic bacteria can proliferate and contribute to spoilage of ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated and sterilized milk and other dairy products with a long shelf life due to their ability to produce extracellular heat resistant enzymes such as peptidases and lipases. Worldwide, species of Pseudomonas, with the ability to produce these spoilage enzymes, are the most common contaminants isolated from cold raw milk although other genera such as Serratia are also reported as important milk spoilers, while for others more research is needed on the heat resistance of the spoilage enzymes produced. The residual activity of extracellular enzymes after high heat treatment may lead to technological problems (off flavors, physico-chemical instability) during the shelf life of milk and dairy products. This review covers the contamination patterns of cold raw milk in several parts of the world, the growth potential of psychrotrophic bacteria, their ability to produce extracellular heat-resistant enzymes and the consequences for

  17. Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok

    2013-12-01

    Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3'-O-β-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, "Yongcheon" showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas "Somok" had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the "Cheongil" mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods.

  18. Sodium nitrate containing mixture for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Blake, R.D.; Meek, T.T.

    1984-10-10

    A mixture for, and method of using such a mixture, for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy are disclosed, wherein the mixture comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

  19. Single Chain Variable Fragments Produced in Escherichia coli against Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Toxins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Fernanda B.; Nepomuceno, Roberto; Silva, Anderson; Munhoz, Danielle D.; Yamamoto, Bruno B.; Luz, Daniela; Abreu, Patrícia A. E.; Horton, Denise S. P. Q.; Elias, Waldir P.; Ramos, Oscar H. P.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is a prevalent pathological condition frequently associated to the colonization of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains, known to be endemic in developing countries. These strains can produce two enterotoxins associated with the manifestation of clinical symptoms that can be used to detect these pathogens. Although several detection tests have been developed, minimally equipped laboratories are still in need of simple and cost-effective methods. With the aim to contribute to the development of such diagnostic approaches, we describe here two mouse hybridoma-derived single chain fragment variable (scFv) that were produced in E. coli against enterotoxins of ETEC strains. Methods and Findings Recombinant scFv were developed against ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin (ST), from previously isolated hybridoma clones. This work reports their design, construction, molecular and functional characterization against LT and ST toxins. Both antibody fragments were able to recognize the cell-interacting toxins by immunofluorescence, the purified toxins by ELISA and also LT-, ST- and LT/ST-producing ETEC strains. Conclusion The developed recombinant scFvs against LT and ST constitute promising starting point for simple and cost-effective ETEC diagnosis. PMID:26154103

  20. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Appliance Repair. Course: Motor-Operated Appliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziller, T.

    One of two individualized courses included in an appliance repair curriculum, this course is designed to prepare students to operate, diagnose malfunctions, repair, and service motor operated appliances. The course is comprised of seven units: (1) Mixers and Blenders, (2) Vacuum Cleaners and Floor Polishers, (3) Washing Machines, (4) Garbage…

  1. Supersonic Heat Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Underdense Plasma for Efficient X-Ray Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, M; Nishimura, H; Fujioka, S; Nagai, K; Iwamae, A; Ohnishi, N; Fournier, K B; Girard, F; Primout, M; Villette, B; Tobin, M; Mima, K

    2008-06-12

    We have observed supersonic heat wave propagation in a low-density aerogel target ({rho} {approx} 3.2 mg/cc) irradiated at the intensity of 4 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. The heat wave propagation was measured with a time-resolved x-ray imaging diagnostics, and the results were compared with simulations made with the two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic code, RAICHO. Propagation velocity of the ionization front gradually decreased as the wave propagates into the target. The reason of decrease is due to increase of laser absorption region as the front propagates and interplay of hydrodynamic motion and reflection of laser propagation. These features are well reported with the simulation.

  2. GE Appliance Park Louisville, KY Plant Wide Assessment Final Report October 25th, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Chandon Rao; Richard Urschel

    2007-10-25

    Used a team of experts to analyze and model major systems at a large industrial appliance manufacturer. During the data gathering stage, the team specifically looked for baselining the efficiency of the systems as well as developing short term and longer term efficiency projects. Electrical distribution, Compressed air generation and thermal heat recovery for the production facility and front office heating and cooling optimization were all baselined during the study.

  3. Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Thomas M.; Erlach, Celeste

    2014-12-30

    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

  4. Ubiquitous monitoring of electrical household appliances.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-11-07

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

  5. Influence of orthodontic appliances on myofunctional therapy.

    PubMed

    Klocke, A; Korbmacher, H; Kahl-Nieke, B

    2000-01-01

    Various removable and fixed orthodontic appliances were rated by interview and questionnaire by 42 myofunctional therapists in the Hamburg area with respect to their influence during myofunctional therapy. The Nance holding arch was given the most negative rating of all appliances covering the palate area. For the active plate, marking the rest position of the tongue by roughening the acrylic surface or by reproducing the palatal relief was considered beneficial. The quadhelix expansion device and Hyrax palatal expander were rated as unfavorable because of their positioning in the palatal area. Among the functional appliances, Fränkel's function regulator was given the best rating. Regular fixed appliances (brackets, bands) were not considered a disturbance. Habit reminders (plates and spurs) were given a very negative rating by ca. 80% of the therapists because they disturbed the myofunctional exercises and led to adaptive dysfunctions. Since many patients with dysfunction of the orofacial musculature undergo simultaneous myofunctional and orthodontic therapy, treatment planning and choice of orthodontic appliances should be carefully coordinated.

  6. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  7. Mutualistic fungal endophytes produce phytohormones and organic acids that promote japonica rice plant growth under prolonged heat stress*

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the potential role in heat-stress mitigation of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Paecilomyces formosus LWL1 in japonica rice cultivar Dongjin. The japonica rice was grown in controlled chamber conditions with and without P. formosus LWL1 under no stress (NS) and prolonged heat stress (HS) conditions. Endophytic association under NS and HS conditions significantly improved plant growth attributes, such as plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, P. formosus LWL1 protected the rice plants from HS compared with controls, indicated by the lower endogenous level of stress-signaling compounds such as abscisic acid (25.71%) and jasmonic acid (34.57%) and the increase in total protein content (18.76%–33.22%). Such fungal endophytes may be helpful for sustainable crop production under high environmental temperatures. PMID:26642184

  8. Effect of Filling Type and Heating Method on Prevalence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes in Dumplings Produced in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Barbara; Dąbrowski, Waldemar

    2015-05-01

    The count of Listeria monocytogenes was determined, before and after heat treatment, in 200 samples of dumplings of 9 brands and with different types of stuffing. Analyses were conducted according to ISO 11290-1 standard and with real-time PCR method. The highest count of L. monocytogenes was found in meat dumplings (10(2) to 10(4) CFU/g), whereas products with white cheese-potato stuffing and vegetable-mushroom stuffing contained significantly less Listeria, 20 to 80 and 5 to 32 CFU/g, respectively. In cooled meat dumplings the extent of contamination depended significantly on the producer. In addition, a significant (P < 0.05) correlation was determined between contamination level and meat content in the stuffing (rho = 0.418), especially in stuffing containing pork meat (0.464), contrary to beef-containing stuffing (0.284). Heating dumplings in boiling water for 2 min completely eliminated L. monocytogenes in meat dumplings. In contrast, the microwave heating applied for 2 min at 600 W only reduced the count of L. monocytogenes by 1 to 2 logs. Hence, the microwave heating failed to reduce the risk of infection with this pathogen below the level permissible in the EU regulation, especially in the most contaminated samples. In this case, the efficacy of microwave heating was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the initial count of L. monocytogenes (rho = 0.626), then by meat content in the stuffing (0.476), and to the lowest extent--by the type of meat (0.415 to 0.425). However, no Listeria sp. and L. monocytogenes were isolated from cooked dumplings with fruits (strawberries or blueberries).

  9. [Invisible and almost invisible orthodontic appliances].

    PubMed

    Baron, Pascal

    2014-03-01

    Patient demand for invisible esthetic orthodontic appliances is steadily increasing. Two types of orthodontic appliances have a high rate of patient acceptance. The lingual technique has continually evolved by offering both prefabricated brackets or custom-made brackets. The various techniques have been improved over time, and the results are better than ever. Thermoplastic aligners are an alternative to lingual devices and their use is rapidly growing. Their specific properties make it easier to assess their indications and limitations. A review of the literature, the development of these systems and a presentation of some clinical examples of treated cases will help us to provide some of the basics for understanding each of these two types of appliances and to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of each system.

  10. Comparison of nanocrystalline material produced using mechanical milling and a RF-plasma heating source

    SciTech Connect

    Breitbach, K.L.; Chumbley, L.S. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports on nanocrystals which are polycrystalline materials with a grain size on the order of one to ten nanometers and appear to be a new class of materials with interesting properties and characteristics. Since the grain size of these materials is so small, a large percentage of their atoms are located in the interfaces; thus, the material can be thought of as a composite consisting of a crystalline component and a boundary component. The properties of these materials are, therefore, expected to be dependent upon the relative amounts of these two components. A study has been initiated to produce nanocrystalline Cr{sub 3}Si and Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} material. It has been shown that by reducing the grain size to the nanometer scale, the ductility of brittle compounds increases, due presumably to the increase in the percentage of the boundary component. Thus, these materials were examined as models of how hard, brittle, high temperature intermetallic compounds may behave in the nanocrystalline state. The silicide compounds also are being studied since they have excellent properties such as low densities, high melting temperatures, good corrosion resistance at low temperatures and fairly good oxidation resistance at high temperatures. It is hoped that with this combination of characteristics, plus increased ductility due to the small grain size, these materials will find practical industrial applications. The nanocrystalline material studied was produced using mechanical milling techniques and an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system. Mechanical milling was chosen since it has been demonstrated to be a convenient way to produce large quantities of nanocrystalline material. However, ball milling may produce a significant amount of contamination from the containment vessel and milling medium, the actual amount being dependent upon the specific method, length of milling time, container and medium used.

  11. Arch development with trans-force lingual appliances.

    PubMed

    Clark, William J

    2005-01-01

    Trans-Force lingual appliances are designed to correct arch form in patients with contracted dental arches. Interceptive treatment with this new series of pre-activated lingual appliances offers new possibilities for arch development, in combination with fixed appliances. Palatal and lingual appliances insert in horizontal lingual sheaths in molar bands. No activation is required after the appliance is fitted, and this principle is extended to a series of appliances for sagittal and transverse arch development. Both sagittal and transverse appliances have additional components to achieve 3-way expansion where this is indicated. The invisible lingual appliances may be used in correction of all classes of malocclusion at any stage of development, from mixed dentition through permanent dentition, and this approach has wide indications in adult treatment.

  12. Careers for the 70's In Appliance Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Howard, Ed

    1974-01-01

    A typical day for an appliance repairman is described to serve as an example and to provide occupational information for a career in appliance repairing. Also, the type of skills needed for this job are described. (DS)

  13. Facilitating Children's Adjustment to Orthotic and Prosthetic Appliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrick, Jeff; Fletcher, Donna

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines are offered to help teachers understand the nature and use of orthotic and prosthetic appliances for disabled students. Classroom behavior observations are noted so that teachers can help monitor the child's adjustment to the appliance. (CL)

  14. A 3rd Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel (AHSS) Produced by Dual Stabilization Heat Treatment (DSHT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Hao; Michal, Gary M.; Heuer, Arthur H.

    2013-10-01

    A 3rd generation advanced high-strength steel containing, in wt pct, 0.3 C, 4.0 Mn, 1.5 Al, 2.1 Si, and 0.5 Cr has been produced using a dual stabilization heat treatment—a five stage thermal processing schedule compatible with continuous galvanized steel production. In excess of 30 vol pct retained austenite containing at least 0.80 wt pct C was achieved with this alloy, which had tensile strengths up to 1650 MPa and tensile elongations around 20 pct.

  15. Transient liquid-crystal technique used to produce high-resolution convective heat-transfer-coefficient maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippensteele, Steven A.; Poinsatte, Philip E.

    1993-08-01

    In this transient technique the preheated isothermal model wall simulates the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction problem. By knowing the temperature of the air flowing through the model, the initial temperature of the model wall, and the surface cooling rate measured at any location with time (using the fast-response liquid-crystal patterns recorded on video tape), the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated for the color isothermal pattern produced. Although the test was run transiently, the heat transfer coefficients are for the steady-state case. The upstream thermal boundary condition was considered to be isothermal. This transient liquid-crystal heat-transfer technique was used in a transient air tunnel in which a square-inlet, 3-to-1 exit transition duct was placed. The duct was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. The resulting isothermal contours on the duct surfaces were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. The duct surfaces were uniformly heated using two heating systems: the first was an automatic temperature-controlled heater blanket completely surrounding the test duct like an oven, and the second was an internal hot-air loop through the inside of the test duct. The hot-air loop path was confined inside the test duct by insulated heat dams located at the inlet and exit ends of the test duct. A recirculating fan moved hot air into the duct inlet, through the duct, out of the duct exit, through the oven, and back to the duct inlet. The temperature nonuniformity of the test duct model wall was held very small. Test results are reported for two inlet Reynolds numbers of 200,000 and 1,150,000 (based on the square-inlet hydraulic diameter) and two free-stream turbulence

  16. Transient liquid-crystal technique used to produce high-resolution convective heat-transfer-coefficient maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, Steven A.; Poinsatte, Philip E.

    1993-01-01

    In this transient technique the preheated isothermal model wall simulates the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction problem. By knowing the temperature of the air flowing through the model, the initial temperature of the model wall, and the surface cooling rate measured at any location with time (using the fast-response liquid-crystal patterns recorded on video tape), the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated for the color isothermal pattern produced. Although the test was run transiently, the heat transfer coefficients are for the steady-state case. The upstream thermal boundary condition was considered to be isothermal. This transient liquid-crystal heat-transfer technique was used in a transient air tunnel in which a square-inlet, 3-to-1 exit transition duct was placed. The duct was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. The resulting isothermal contours on the duct surfaces were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. The duct surfaces were uniformly heated using two heating systems: the first was an automatic temperature-controlled heater blanket completely surrounding the test duct like an oven, and the second was an internal hot-air loop through the inside of the test duct. The hot-air loop path was confined inside the test duct by insulated heat dams located at the inlet and exit ends of the test duct. A recirculating fan moved hot air into the duct inlet, through the duct, out of the duct exit, through the oven, and back to the duct inlet. The temperature nonuniformity of the test duct model wall was held very small. Test results are reported for two inlet Reynolds numbers of 200,000 and 1,150,000 (based on the square-inlet hydraulic diameter) and two free-stream turbulence

  17. Model of Optical Emissions and Artificial Ionization Produced by Ionospheric HF-Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milikh, G. M.; Elliason, B.; Shao, X.; Sharma, S.; Chang, C.; Mishin, E. V.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2011-12-01

    Using the upgraded HAARP transmitter capabilities Pedersen et al., [2010] demonstrated for the first time the formation and control of artificial ionospheric layers by resonant F-region heating. The paper presents a model of the underlying physics based on preheating the electrons at the upper hybrid resonance followed by acceleration at the plasma resonant layer by the ensuing Langmuir turbulence. A number of component models are integrated in a novel numerical scheme to address the issue. A multi-grid approach based on propagation and the generalized Zakharov equations is used to study the formation of the Langmuir turbulence at the F-region peak. Super-thermal formation of electron tails is modeled by using a test particle approach as well as the solution of the diffusion equation in velocity space. A transport model including elastic and inelastic processes is used to study ionization and optical emissions. The model addresses several issues related to Artificial Plasma Layers, including thresholds for artificial ionization structure and the speed of the descending ionization front. The model results are compared with available observations. The work was supported by DARPA via a subcontract with BAE Systems, and by the ONR MURI Grant. Pedersen T., et al. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, doi:10.1029/2009GL040047, 2009.

  18. Progress in producing megawatt gyrotrons for ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) heating

    SciTech Connect

    Felch, K.; Hess, C.; Huey, H.; Jongewaard, E.; Jory, H.; Neilson, J.; Pendleton, R.; Tsirulnikov, M. )

    1990-10-01

    Varian is carrying out the development of high-power, CW gyrotrons at frequencies ranging from 100--500 GHz for use in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating of magnetically-confined plasma. Initial test vehicles at 140 GHz have utilized TE{sub 15,2,1} interaction cavities, and have been designed to generate short-pulse (up to 20 ms) power levels of 1 MW and up to 400 kW CW. Recently, short-pulse power levels of 940 kW at 35% efficiency have been obtained and average powers of 200 kW have been achieved at peak powers of 400 kW. Long-pulse testing is currently underway. Initial test have resulted in output levels of 400 kW for pulse durations of 380 ms. Design work on 110 GHz, 500 kW CW gyrotron oscillators has recently been completed and a prototype tube has been assembled and is currently being tested. The design of a 110 GHz, 1 MW CW gyrotron, using a novel output coupling approach, is nearly complete. Fabrication of the first 1 MW CW experimental tube is in progress.

  19. Prosequence switching: an effective strategy to produce biologically active E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin STh.

    PubMed

    Weiglmeier, Philipp R; Berkner, Hanna; Seebahn, Angela; Vogel, Nico; Schreiber, Rainer; Wöhrl, Birgitta M; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Rösch, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections account for the majority of cases of acute secretory diarrhea. The causative agents are enterotoxins secreted by ETEC, among them is the heat-stable enterotoxin, STh. STh is a 19-amino acid peptide containing three disulfide bonds that stimulates fluid secretion in the bowel by binding to the receptor domain of intestinal guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C). Since GC-C agonists have pharmacologic potential for diagnosis and treatment of disorders such as constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C), chronic constipation, and colorectal carcinoma, it is crucial to develop methods for the large-scale production of STh and related peptides. Here, we present a strategy for recombinant expression of STh that relies on the use of the prosequence of human uroguanylin to support proper folding and disulfide bond formation. The chimeric protein CysCys-STh consisting of the propeptide of uroguanylin as N-terminus and the STh peptide as C-terminus was expressed in E. coli, and an efficient purification protocol was developed. Trypsin digestion of this protein released the enterotoxin which could be obtained in high purity. NMR and mass spectrometry confirmed the identity and homogeneity of the toxin, and its biological activity was confirmed by a cell-based in vivo assay. The expression scheme introduced here represents a cost-efficient and scalable way of STh production.

  20. Hydrated silica exterior produced by biomimetic silicification confers viral vaccine heat-resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangchuan; Wang, Hong-Jiang; Zhou, Hangyu; Nian, Qing-Gong; Song, Zhiyong; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Li, Xiao-Feng; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Tang, Ruikang

    2015-01-27

    Heat-lability is a key roadblock that strangles the widespread applications of many biological products. In nature, archaeal and extremophilic organisms utilize amorphous silica as a protective biomineral and exhibit considerable thermal tolerance. Here we present a bioinspired approach to generate thermostable virus by introducing an artificial hydrated silica exterior on individual virion. Similar to thermophiles, silicified viruses can survive longer at high temperature than their wild-type relatives. Virus inactivation assays showed that silica hydration exterior of the modified virus effectively prolonged infectivity of viruses by ∼ 10-fold at room temperature, achieving a similar result as that obtained by storing native ones at 4 °C. Mechanistic studies indicate that amorphous silica nanoclusters stabilize the inner virion structure by forming a layer that restricts molecular mobility, acting as physiochemical nanoanchors. Notably, we further evaluate the potential application of this biomimetic strategy in stabilizing clinically approved vaccine, and the silicified polio vaccine that can retain 90% potency after the storage at room temperature for 35 days was generated by this biosilicification approach and validated with in vivo experiments. This approach not only biomimetically connects inorganic material and living virus but also provides an innovative resolution to improve the thermal stability of biological agents using nanomaterials.

  1. Producibility of fibrous refractory composite insulation, FRCI 40-20. [for reusable heat shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, E. L.; Johnson, C. W.; Graese, R. W.; Campbell, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Fibrous Refractory Composite Insulation (FRCI) is a NASA-developed, second generation, reusable heat-shield material that comprises a mixture of aluminoborosilicate fibers, silica fibers, and silicon carbide. Under NASA contract, a program was conducted to demonstrate the capability for manufacturing FRCI 40-20 billets. A detailed fabrication procedure was written and validated by testing specimens from the first two billets. The material conformed to NASA requirements for density, tensile strength, modulus of rupture, thermal expansion, cristobalite content, and uniformity. Twenty-four billets were prepared to provide 20 deliverable articles. Production billets were checked for density, modulus of rupture, cristobalite content, and uniformity. Billet density ranged from 309.48 to 332.22 kg/cu m (19.32 to 20.74 lb/cu ft) and modulus of rupture from 4690 to 10,140 kPa (680 to 1470 psi). Cristobalite content was less than 1 percent. A Weibull analysis of modulus-of-rupture data indicated a 1.5 percent probability for failure below the specified strength of 4480 kPa (650 psi).

  2. Feasibility of meltcasing strontium fluoride to produce high-density heat sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Montgomery, D.R.

    1985-02-01

    A modest proof-of-principle effort has been conducted to investigate melt casting as a process for compacting SrF/sub 2/ to near theoretical density. A nonradioactive SrF/sub 2/ mixture, similar in chemical composition and method of prepartion to SrF/sub 2/ encapsulated at the Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) was used for the test evaluations. Hard, dimensionally stable, monolithic ingots that are >98% of theoretical density have been produced. Significant chemical purification from Al, Fe, Cr, Ni, Na and Zr has been demonstrated.

  3. Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiencyof Household Appliances in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang

    2006-07-10

    China is already the second's largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. From 2001 to 2005, the growth rate of energy consumption in China has exceeded the growth rate of its economy (NBS, 2006), raising serious concerns about the consequences of such energy use on local environment and global climate. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through improving energy efficiency and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating. China is already the largest consumer market in the world for household appliances, and increasingly the global production base for consumer appliances. Sales of household refrigerators, room air-conditioners, and water heaters are growing rapidly due to rising incomes and booming housing market. At the same time, the energy use of Chinese appliances is relatively inefficient compared to similar products in the developed economies. Therefore, the potential for energy savings through improving appliance efficiency is substantial. This study focuses particularly on the impact of more stringent energy efficiency standards for household appliances, given that such policies are found to be very effective in improving the efficiency of household appliances, and are well established both in China and around world (CLASP, 2006).

  4. 46 CFR 188.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 188.27-1 Section 188.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 188.27-1 Lifesaving appliances...

  5. 46 CFR 188.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 188.27-1 Section 188.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 188.27-1 Lifesaving appliances...

  6. 46 CFR 133.170 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 133.170 Section 133.170... SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.170 Line-throwing appliance. (a) General. Each OSV must have a line-throwing appliance that is approved under approval series 160.031 or 160.040. (b) Stowage....

  7. 46 CFR 108.597 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 108.597 Section 108.597... AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.597 Line-throwing appliance. (a) General. Each unit in international service must have a line-throwing appliance that is approved under approval series 160.040....

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-38 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.47-38 Section 78.47-38... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-38 Valves and closing appliances. (a) All valves and closing appliances, or other mechanisms which may be required to be operated for damage control purposes in case...

  9. 46 CFR 133.170 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 133.170 Section 133.170... SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.170 Line-throwing appliance. (a) General. Each OSV must have a line-throwing appliance that is approved under approval series 160.031 or 160.040. (b) Stowage....

  10. 46 CFR 199.70 - Personal lifesaving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Personal lifesaving appliances. 199.70 Section 199.70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS... appliances. (a) Lifebuoys. Each vessel must carry lifebuoys approved under approval series 160.150 as...

  11. 46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.17-5 Section 78.17-5..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-5 Valves and closing appliances. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that all valves, including cross connecting valves where fitted, and other appliances such...

  12. 46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.17-5 Section 78.17-5..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-5 Valves and closing appliances. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that all valves, including cross connecting valves where fitted, and other appliances such...

  13. 46 CFR 199.176 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Markings on lifesaving appliances. 199.176 Section 199.176 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND... on lifesaving appliances. (a) Lifeboats and rescue boats. Each lifeboat and rescue boat must...

  14. 46 CFR 133.170 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 133.170 Section 133.170... SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.170 Line-throwing appliance. (a) General. Each OSV must have a line-throwing appliance that is approved under approval series 160.031 or 160.040. (b) Stowage....

  15. 46 CFR 108.597 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 108.597 Section 108.597... AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.597 Line-throwing appliance. (a) General. Each unit in international service must have a line-throwing appliance that is approved under approval series 160.040....

  16. 42 CFR 409.14 - Supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplies, appliances, and equipment. 409.14 Section... Hospital Services § 409.14 Supplies, appliances, and equipment. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, Medicare pays for supplies, appliances, and equipment as inpatient hospital or...

  17. 46 CFR 78.47-38 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.47-38 Section 78.47-38... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-38 Valves and closing appliances. (a) All valves and closing appliances, or other mechanisms which may be required to be operated for damage control purposes in case...

  18. 46 CFR 199.176 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Markings on lifesaving appliances. 199.176 Section 199.176 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND... on lifesaving appliances. (a) Lifeboats and rescue boats. Each lifeboat and rescue boat must...

  19. 46 CFR 133.170 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 133.170 Section 133.170... SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.170 Line-throwing appliance. (a) General. Each OSV must have a line-throwing appliance that is approved under approval series 160.031 or 160.040. (b) Stowage....

  20. 46 CFR 133.170 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 133.170 Section 133.170... SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.170 Line-throwing appliance. (a) General. Each OSV must have a line-throwing appliance that is approved under approval series 160.031 or 160.040. (b) Stowage....

  1. 46 CFR 78.47-38 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.47-38 Section 78.47-38... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-38 Valves and closing appliances. (a) All valves and closing appliances, or other mechanisms which may be required to be operated for damage control purposes in case...

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-38 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.47-38 Section 78.47-38... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-38 Valves and closing appliances. (a) All valves and closing appliances, or other mechanisms which may be required to be operated for damage control purposes in case...

  3. 46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.17-5 Section 78.17-5..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-5 Valves and closing appliances. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that all valves, including cross connecting valves where fitted, and other appliances such...

  4. 46 CFR 108.597 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 108.597 Section 108.597... AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.597 Line-throwing appliance. (a) General. Each unit in international service must have a line-throwing appliance that is approved under approval series 160.040....

  5. 46 CFR 199.176 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings on lifesaving appliances. 199.176 Section 199.176 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND... on lifesaving appliances. (a) Lifeboats and rescue boats. Each lifeboat and rescue boat must...

  6. 46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.17-5 Section 78.17-5..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-5 Valves and closing appliances. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that all valves, including cross connecting valves where fitted, and other appliances such...

  7. 46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.17-5 Section 78.17-5..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-5 Valves and closing appliances. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that all valves, including cross connecting valves where fitted, and other appliances such...

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-38 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.47-38 Section 78.47-38... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-38 Valves and closing appliances. (a) All valves and closing appliances, or other mechanisms which may be required to be operated for damage control purposes in case...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.807 - Fixtures and appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fixtures and appliances. 3280.807... Fixtures and appliances. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 73991, Dec. 9, 2013. (a) Electrical materials, devices, appliances, fittings, and other equipment installed, intended for use in, or attached...

  10. 46 CFR 199.176 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Markings on lifesaving appliances. 199.176 Section 199.176 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND... on lifesaving appliances. (a) Lifeboats and rescue boats. Each lifeboat and rescue boat must...

  11. 46 CFR 199.176 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Markings on lifesaving appliances. 199.176 Section 199.176 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND... on lifesaving appliances. (a) Lifeboats and rescue boats. Each lifeboat and rescue boat must...

  12. 42 CFR 409.14 - Supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplies, appliances, and equipment. 409.14 Section... Hospital Services § 409.14 Supplies, appliances, and equipment. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, Medicare pays for supplies, appliances, and equipment as inpatient hospital or...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... § 25.1309(b) is provided by the circuit protective device required by § 25.1357(a), electric motors...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... § 25.1309(b) is provided by the circuit protective device required by § 25.1357(a), electric motors...

  15. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... that do not exceed those appropriate for the actual appliance when in use. (b) Life saving appliances... and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (life-saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be packed in accordance with § 173.185 and Special...

  16. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that do not exceed those appropriate for the actual appliance when in use. (b) Life saving appliances... and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be transported in accordance with § 173.185, and...

  17. Immunization of swine with heat-stable Escherichia coli enterotoxin coupled to a carrier protein does not protect suckling pigs against an Escherichia coli strain that produces heat-stable enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Moon, H W; Baetz, A L; Giannella, R A

    1983-01-01

    Pregnant swine were immunized parenterally with purified heat-stable Escherichia coli enterotoxin that was made antigenic by coupling it to bovine immunoglobulin G. Immunized swine had high titers of antitoxin in serum and colostrum as measured by radioimmunoassay. However, the heat-stable enterotoxin neutralizing titers of the serum and colostrum from immunized swine were comparatively low. Newborn pigs suckling their immunized dams were not protected against challenge with porcine enterotoxigenic E. coli that produce heat-stable toxin but do not produce heat-labile toxin. PMID:6339398

  18. Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii by heat labile bacteriocins produced by probiotic LAB isolated from healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Awaisheh, Saddam S; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Osaili, Tareq M; Ibrahim, Salam; Holley, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause bacteremia, meningitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis, most often in neonates with case-fatality rates that may reach 80%. The antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria against a wide range of foodborne pathogens is well-established in different types of food products. The objective of the current study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei isolated from feces of healthy infants against different strains of C. sakazakii in agar and a rehydrated infant milk formula (RIMF) model. The inhibition zones of C. sakazakii around L. acidophilus or L. casei ranged from 22 to 32 mm on eMan Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar under aerobic conditions, while a slight reduction in antibacterial activity was noted on modified MRS (0.2% glucose) under anaerobic conditions. It was observed that pH-neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) of L. acidophilus or L. casei was inhibitory against tested C. sakazakii strains. The inhibition zones of neutralized CFS were lower than the antibacterial activities of live cultures. The antibacterial activity of CFS was abolished when CFS from L. acidophilus or L. casei was heated at 60 or 80 °C for either 10 min or 2 h, or treated with trypsin or pepsin. This was considered strong evidence that the inhibition was due to the production of bacteriocins by L. casei and L. acidophilus. Both the CFS and active growing cells of L. casei and L. acidophilus were able to reduce the viability of C. sakazakii in the RIMF model. The results may extend the use of natural antimicrobials instead of conventional preservation methods to improve the safety of RIMF.

  19. Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P.

    2011-01-17

    This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930 deg. C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380 deg. C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

  20. Method for producing a secondary lithium cell comprising a heat-sensitive protective mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Ullrich, Matthias; Bechtold, Dieter; Rabenstein, Heinrich; Brohm, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    A method for producing a secondary lithium cell which has at least one lithium-cycling negative electrode, at least one lithium-intercalating positive electrode, at least one separator disposed between the positive and the negative electrode, and a nonaqueous lithium ion-conducting electrolyte. The method is carried out by the electrodes and/or the separator being coated, by means of electrostatic powder coating, with wax particles which are insoluble in the electrolyte and have a melting temperature of from about 50 to about 150 .degree. C. and a mean particle size of from about 6 to about 20 .mu.m, the amount of wax being between about 0.5 and about 2.5 mg/cm.sup.2 of electrode area.

  1. A heat treatment procedure to produce fine-grained lamellar microstructures in a P/M titanium aluminide alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Peter

    A process for fabricating advanced aerospace titanium aluminide alloys starting from metal powders (the hot isostatically consolidated P/M process) is presented in this thesis. This process does not suffer the difficulties of chemical inhomogeneities and coarse grain structure of castings. In addition heat treatments which take advantage of the refined structure of HIP processed materials are developed to achieve microstructure control and subsequent mechanical property control. It is shown that a better "property balance" is possible after the heat treatment of HIP consolidated materials than it is with alternative processing. It is well understood that the standard microstructures (near-gamma, duplex, nearly lamellar, and fully lamellar) do not have the balanced mechanical properties (tensile, yield, creep and fatigue strength, ductility and fracture toughness) necessary for optimal performance in aero engine and automotive applications. In this work a fine-grained fully lamellar (FGFL) microstructure is developed for property control and in particular for achieving a much improved property balance. A heat treatment procedure for this purpose which consists of cyclic processing in the alpha transus temperature region to achieve an FGFL structure with grain sizes in the range of 50 mum to 150 mum is presented. Compared with conventional duplex structured materials, the minimum creep rate is an order of magnitude lower with only a 10% loss in tensile yield strength. Moreover, a three-fold increase in tensile elongation is possible by converting to an FGFL structure with only a 30% loss in minimum creep rate. These are attractive trade-offs when considering the use of these alloys for aerospace purposes. A thorough literature review of the mechanisms of formation of standard microstructures and their deformation under mechanical loading is contained in the thesis. In addition, conventional techniques to produce FGFL microstructures in wrought and cast materials are

  2. Development of a vaccine of cross-linked heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxins that protects against Escherichia coli producing either enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Klipstein, F A; Engert, R F; Clements, J D

    1982-01-01

    A vaccine of cross-linked heat-stable (ST) and heat-labile (LT) toxins that protects against heterologous serotypes of strains of Escherichia coli which produce either the LT or ST enterotoxin was developed by conjugating ST to LT by the carbodiimide reaction. Three interrelated factors were found to affect the composition and properties of the final conjugate: (i) the amount of carbodiimide added to the toxins, (ii) the initial ratio of ST to LT, and (iii) the duration of the conjugation reaction. Optimal conjugation conditions were identified as a carbodiimide-to-toxin ratio of 10:1 by weight, an initial molar ratio of ST to LT of 100:1, and a conjugation reaction time of 96 h. This approach yielded a conjugate that contained 96% by moles and 36% by weight pure ST, determined with radioiodinated pure ST, and 34% by weight semi-pure ST, determined by the Lowry protein method. The retained antigenicities of the conjugated toxins, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, was greater than or equal to 82%, and their toxicities, as determined by the Y1 adrenal cell assay for LT and by the suckling mouse assay for ST, were reduced to less than or equal to 0.15%. Immunization of rats with this cross-linked ST-LT vaccine provided strong protection against challenge with either the LT or the ST toxin or with viable heterologous strains which produce these toxins, either singly or together. These observations indicate that conjugation of ST to LT results in a unique new immunogen in that ST acquires immunogenicity as a function of the reaction, LT retains most of its antigenicity, and the toxic properties of each individual toxin are greatly reduced. PMID:6749682

  3. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 3, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Technical data collected for housekeeping, off-duty activities, and medical appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented. Equipment cleaning, refuse management, garment/linen maintenance, entertainment, physical conditioning, sterilization, and physical monitoring were analyzed.

  4. Sprites produced by quasi-electrostatic heating and ionization in the lower ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Pasko, V.P.; Inan, U.S.; Bell, T.F.; Taranenko, Y.N.

    1997-03-01

    Quasi-electrostatic (QE) fields that temporarily exist at high altitudes following the sudden removal (e.g., by a lightning discharge) of thundercloud charge at low altitudes lead to ambient electron heating (up to {approximately}5eV average energy), ionization of neutrals, and excitation of optical emissions in the mesosphere/lower ionosphere. Model calculations predict the possibility of significant (several orders of magnitude) modification of the lower ionospheric conductivity in the form of depletions of electron density due to dissociative attachment to O{sub 2} molecules and/or in the form of enhancements of electron density due to breakdown ionization. Results indicate that the optical emission intensities of the 1st positive band of N{sub 2} corresponding to fast ({approximately}1ms) removal of 100{endash}300 C of thundercloud charge from 10 km altitude are in good agreement with observations of the upper part ({open_quotes}head{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}hair{close_quotes} [{ital Sentman} {ital et al.}, 1995]) of the sprites. The typical region of brightest optical emission has horizontal and vertical dimensions {approximately}10km, centered at altitudes 70 km and is interpreted as the head of the sprite. The model also shows the formation of low intensity glow ({open_quotes}hair{close_quotes}) above this region due to the excitation of optical emissions at altitudes {approximately}85km during {approximately}500{mu}s at the initial stage of the lightning discharge. Comparison of the optical emission intensities of the 1st and 2nd positive bands of N{sub 2}, Meinel and 1st negative bands of N{sub 2}{sup +}, and 1st negative band of O{sub 2}{sup +} demonstrates that the 1st positive band of N{sub 2} is the dominating optical emission in the altitude range around {approximately}70km, which accounts for the observed red color of sprites, in excellent agreement with recent spectroscopic observations of sprites. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  6. Results of the Grid Friendly Appliance Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2010-04-14

    As part of the Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and others, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) collaborated with Whirlpool Corporation, Invensys Controls, the Bonneville Power Administration, PacifiCorp, Portland General Electric and several smaller utilities to install 150 new Sears Kenmore clothes dryers and to retrofit 50 existing electric water heaters in homes in Washington and Oregon. Each dryer and water heater was configured to respond to the Grid Friendly™ appliance controller, a small electronic circuit that sensed underfrequency grid conditions and requested that electric load be shed by the appliances. These controllers and appliances were observed for over a year in residences spread over a wide geographic area. The controllers were found to respond predictably and reliably despite their geographic separation. Over 350 minor underfrequency events were observed during the experiment. This paper presents the distributions of these events by season and by time of day. Based on measured load profiles for the dryers and water heaters, the average electrical load that can be shed by each of the two appliance types was estimated by time of day and by season. Battelle Memorial Institute and PNNL have been assembling a suite of grid-responsive functions and benefits that can be achieved through the control of relatively small, distributed loads and resources on a power grid. These controllers should eventually receive acceptance for the opportunities they offer for circuit protection, regulation services, facilitation of demand responsiveness, and even power quality.

  7. Appliance Services. Intermediate Course. Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killough, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 16 terminal objectives for an intermediate appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (3 hours daily) covering the areas of refrigeration, maintenance, repair, and troubleshooting of refrigerators and air…

  8. Modeling of GE Appliances: Final Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-01-31

    This report is the final in a series of three reports funded by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) in collaboration with GE Appliances’ through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to describe the potential of GE Appliances’ DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid.

  9. Appliance Services. Basic Course. Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killough, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 25 terminal objectives for a basic appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (2 hours daily) designed to enable the student to be well-grounded in the fundamentals of electricity as well as applied electricity.…

  10. 75 FR 49818 - APPLIANCE LABELING RULE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 APPLIANCE LABELING RULE AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction... Notice contains a technical correction to Sample Label 13 in Appendix L in 16 CFR Part 305 published...

  11. Sprites produced by quasi-electrostatic heating and ionization in the lower ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, V. P.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.; Taranenko, Y. N.

    1997-03-01

    Quasi-electrostatic (QE) fields that temporarily exist at high altitudes following the sudden removal (e.g., by a lightning discharge) of thundercloud charge at low altitudes lead to ambient electron heating (up to ~5eV average energy), ionization of neutrals, and excitation of optical emissions in the mesosphere/lower ionosphere. Model calculations predict the possibility of significant (several orders of magnitude) modification of the lower ionospheric conductivity in the form of depletions of electron density due to dissociative attachment to O2 molecules and/or in the form of enhancements of electron density due to breakdown ionization. Results indicate that the optical emission intensities of the 1st positive band of N2 corresponding to fast (~1ms) removal of 100-300 C of thundercloud charge from 10 km altitude are in good agreement with observations of the upper part (``head'' and ``hair'' [Sentman et al., 1995]) of the sprites. The typical region of brightest optical emission has horizontal and vertical dimensions ~10km, centered at altitudes 70 km and is interpreted as the head of the sprite. The model also shows the formation of low intensity glow (``hair'') above this region due to the excitation of optical emissions at altitudes ~85km during ~500μs at the initial stage of the lightning discharge. Comparison of the optical emission intensities of the 1st and 2nd positive bands of N2, Meinel and 1st negative bands of N2+, and 1st negative band of O2+ demonstrates that the 1st positive band of N2 is the dominating optical emission in the altitude range around ~70km, which accounts for the observed red color of sprites, in excellent agreement with recent spectroscopic observations of sprites. Results indicate that the optical emission levels are predominantly defined by the lightning discharge duration and the conductivity properties of the atmosphere/lower ionosphere (i.e., relaxation time of electric field in the conducting medium). The model demonstrates

  12. Application of New Materials in the Household Appliances Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Ren, Y.

    The widespread use of new materials in household appliances industry, not only help those products to get rid of the appearance shackles caused by original materials, but also gave the designers the freedom to open up the world of product design. This paper aims to analyze the impact of new materials for home appliances design through relevant research, to explore the application of new material in household appliances functional design, shape design, color design and emotional design, etc., so as to reveal the impact and promoting effects of new material in household appliances world, as well as the prospects of new material in future household appliances design.

  13. Non-extraction treatment of severe crowding with pendulum appliance.

    PubMed

    Gandikota, Chandrasekhar; Venkata, Yudhister Palla; Challa, Padmalatha; Juvvadi, Shubhaker Rao

    2013-07-01

    An extraction case was planned for non-extraction treatment using pendulum appliance and the effect of appliance was evaluated in a 14-year-old girl with a severe maxillary and mandibular crowding followed by non-extraction fixed appliance preadjusted edgewise appliance mechanotherapy. Total treatment time was for 22 months. The obtuse nasolabial angle was maintained intact. Correction of crowding, co-ordinated arch forms was achieved with molar distalization. The impetus on soft-tissue paradigm is stressed in this case report and pendulum appliance can indeed boost our clinical acumen and swing our priorities toward non-extraction treatment.

  14. Mobile based Appliances switching using Bluetooth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sureshchandra J., Dr; Desai, Kalp; Gaikawad, Deepak; Pawar, Vijay N.; Gangal, Devendranath R.

    2008-04-01

    How many times do you have to get up from your desk to switch on your Air conditioner or fan when you are completely into your table work? How many times do you feel lazy to get off your comfort to switch on/off your home appliances in different rooms? How much energy do you lose in a day for operating your appliances? The solution is either a large amount of manual work—or the idea that is presented over here: APP-CON (APP-CON stands for appliances control). Here the ordinary cell phone with bluetooth capability acts as remote designed in such a manner that it acts as a helping hand to human by reducing its manual work and therefore saving human energy. The cell phone control of APP-CON units lets you access many of your home appliances situated in different rooms by using just a single remote from distance. Electronics hobbyists would love to make such a remote control themselves. But they find it difficult due to complex circuitry rather than the high cost because of using a number of frequency counting techniques and decade counters. The APP-CON system given here overcomes the aforesaid problems by using a single microcontroller and moreover a simple program or software for bluetooth enabled cell phone and employing simple coding and decoding of remote signals. Here the mobile based remote control is used to operate a number of home appliances basically consists of Bluetooth technology. The unit consists of a transmitter and a receiver consisting of a microcontroller. The importance of bluetooth technology is that the signal to be transmitted from transmitter to the receiver is done without requiring line of sight.

  15. Characterization of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powders produced by water atomization and powder heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Tongsri, Ruangdaj; Yotkaew, Thanyaporn; Krataitong, Rungtip; Wila, Pongsak; Sir-on, Autcharaporn; Muthitamongkol, Pennapa; Tosangthum, Nattaya

    2013-12-15

    Since the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic shows its importance in industrial applications, the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic-containing powders, produced by a powder processing route with a high production rate, were characterized. The route consisted of water atomization of an alloy melt (Cu–61 wt.% Sn) and subsequent heat treatment of the water-atomized powders. Characterization of the water-atomized powders and their heated forms was conducted by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Fine water-atomized powder microstructures consisted of primary hexagonal η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites coexisting with interdendritic η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + β-Sn eutectic. Solidification of fine melt droplets was governed by surface nucleation and growth of the primary hexagonal η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites followed by η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + β-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid. In coarse melt droplets, nucleation and growth of primary ε-Cu{sub 3}Sn dendrites were followed by peritectic reaction (ε-Cu{sub 3}Sn + liquid → η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5}) or direct crystallization of η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} phase from the undercooled melt. Finally, the η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + β-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid occurred. Heating of the water-atomized powders at different temperatures resulted in microstructural homogenization. The water-atomized powders with mixed phases were transformed to powders with single monoclinic ή-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phase. - Highlights: • The Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powder production route was proposed. • Single phase Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} powders could be by water atomization and heating. • Water-atomized Cu–Sn powders contained mixed Cu–Sn phases. • Solidification and heat treatment of water-atomized Cu–Sn powders are explained.

  16. The FTB (Flores Twin Block): a new fixed functional appliance.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Flores, José Maria

    2010-01-01

    Functional Orthopaedics, Functionalism and their appliances have as their objective to correct the skeletal dysplasia that underlies many malocclusions, taking advantage of the potential of the stomatognathic system's strength. The range of functional appliances is very extensive and there is a great variety thereof. Basically, functional appliances can be: removable functional appliances and fixed functional appliances. In this article, we are going to present a new design for fixed functional appliances for the treatment of Class II, basing ourselves on the biomechanical principles of the Twin Block. We believe this new design, compared with other fixed functional appliances currently in use, improves patient comfort, providing a more effective response and helps us to treat our Class II cases with total success.

  17. Orthodontics in 3 millennia. Chapter 9: functional appliances to midcentury.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Norman

    2006-06-01

    The history of the functional appliance can be traced back to 1879, when Norman Kingsley introduced the "bite-jumping" appliance. In the early 1900s, parallel development began in the United States and Europe in fixed and functional techniques, respectively, but the Atlantic Ocean was a geographic barrier that restricted the sharing of knowledge and experience in these philosophies. The only exception to this was the fixed functional appliance designed by Herbst. The monobloc, developed by Robin in 1902, is generally considered the forerunner of removable functional appliances, but the activator developed in Norway by Andresen in the 1920s was the first functional appliance to be widely accepted, becoming the basis of the "Norwegian system" of treatment. Both the appliance system and its theoretical underpinnings were improved and extended elsewhere in Europe, particularly by the German school led by Häupl, Bimler, and Balters. It would be after midcentury before functional appliances were reintroduced into American orthodontics.

  18. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Using Indoor Air

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  19. Equipment for the emplacement of heat-producing waste in long horizontal boreholes. [Horizontal vs vertical emplacement

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.D.; Scully, L.W.; Fisk, A.; deBakker, P.; Friant, J.; Anderson, A.

    1983-01-01

    Emplacement of heat-producing waste in long horizontal holes may offer several technical and economic advantages over shallow vertical hole emplacement. Less of the host rock suffers damage as a result of drift construction; the heat from the waste can be isolated from the access drifts for long periods of time; and the amount of rock which must be excavated is much less than in traditional disposal scenarios. One of the major reasons that has been used to reject the long hole concept in the past and adhere to the shallow vertical hole concept is the equipment required to drill the holes and to emplace and retrieve the waste. Such equipment does not currently exist. It clearly is more difficult to drill a 600 to 1000 foot horizontal hole, possibly 3 to 4 feet in diameter, and place a canister of waste at the end of it than to drill a 30 foot vertical hole and lower the waste to the bottom. A liner, for emplacement hole stabilization, appears to be feasible by adapting existing technology for concrete slip forming or jacking in a steel liner. The conceptual design of the equipment to drill long horizontal holes, emplace waste and retrieve waste will be discussed. Various options in concept will be presented as well as their advantages and disadvantages. The operating scenario of the selected concept will be described as well as solutions to potential problems encountered.

  20. Heat treatment of welded joints of steel 0.3С-1Cr-1Si produced by high-power fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuryntsev, S. V.; Gilmutdinov, A. Kh.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the welded joints of steel grade 0.3С-1Cr-1Si produced by 30 kW power fiber lasers was investigated in the paper. The speed of the welding process was 20 mm/s. Heat treatment was carried out on two levels, quenching with subsequent middle tempering and high tempering. The samples were examined before and after heat treatment, macro- and microstructure were studied using SEM, UTS, three points bent test, microhardness. The effect of heat treatment was significant: it allowed reduction of the weld hardness of considerably and enhancement of its ductility.

  1. Powder electrostatic enamelling of household appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragina, L.; Shalygina, O.; Kuryakin, N.; Annenkov, V.; Guzenko, N.; Kupriyanenko, K.; Hudyakov, V.; Landik, A.

    2011-12-01

    Principles and practices of contemporary resource and energy saving technology of powder electrostatic application (POESTA)of vitreous enamel coatings are described. Its technological, economic and ecological advantages over slip enamelling in household appliances manufacture are discussed. We develop the principles of synthesis of special glass frits with high electric resistivity for POESTA and discuss the results of studies aimed at the development and industrial implementation of ground, direct-on and coloured cover enamels for household appliances and direct-on thermally resistant chemically durable coatings with antibacterial effect for protection of inner tanks of water heaters. Finally, we describe the development of compositions for easy-to-clean, catalytic and pyrolytic coatings.

  2. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, J.; Bohac, D.

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  3. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances

    DOEpatents

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2014-10-21

    A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

  4. Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program: 2009 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2009 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  5. Rapid tooling method for soft customized removable oral appliances.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient's dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance.

  6. Rapid Tooling Method for Soft Customized Removable Oral Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient’s dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance. PMID:22615719

  7. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and... device includes the preformed orthodontic band, orthodontic band material, orthodontic elastic...

  8. Fabrication of lingual orthodontic appliances: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Ian; Lee, Jang Yeol

    2013-09-01

    Lingual orthodontics is increasing in popularity, with more adults receiving orthodontic treatment and opting for truly invisible appliances that do not have any limitations on the type of tooth movement they can achieve. In addition, there are a growing number of children receiving lingual appliances as they have been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of decalcification. Combining this growth in popularity with advances in computer technology, it is possible to treatment plan, design the appliance and have it custom made all with the click of a button. This article highlights the different methods that have been utilized in the fabrication of lingual appliances.

  9. Study of Damages on Home Electric Appliances due to Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Sigeru; Yokota, Tsutomu

    Lightning damages of home electric appliances occurred in 154houses of 6,024monitors, were gathered in summer and winter seasons of 1987-1991 and 1996-1997. Types of damaged home appliances are summarized and extent of the damages are investigated. Furthermore the magnitude of invading lightning currents and the path of the invasion were estimated by means of inspections of the inner circuits of damaged home appliances and the experimental verifications. These investigations can lead to the development of lightning protection methods for home electric appliances of this highly computerized society.

  10. The application of masonry chimney venting tables for oil-fired appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the results of work in developing a set of rational guidelines for the venting of modern oil-fired appliances. The activities included the continued development and completion of the Oil-Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP), Version 1.0 and the interpretation of nearly 2,000 runs in preparing recommendations for presentation in table form. These results are presented in the form of venting tables for the installation of chimney vent systems for mid- and high-efficiency oil-fired heating appliances using masonry chimneys. A brief description of OHVAP is given as well as a discussion of what the program does. Recommendations based on the results of OHVAP are presented in the form of five tables spanning oil-fired appliance Steady state Efficiencies (Eff{sub ss}) of 80% to 88%. The assumptions used in the calculations and examples of the computed results are presented as well as a discussion of the rationale for masonry chimney system treatment. Working examples are given with suggested diagnostic approaches for application of the table recommendations.

  11. Universal model of slow pyrolysis technology producing biochar and heat from standard biomass needed for the techno-economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Klinar, Dušan

    2016-04-01

    Biochar as a soil amendment and carbon sink becomes in last period one of the vast, interesting product of slow pyrolysis. Simplest and most used industrial process arrangement is a production of biochar and heat at the same time. Proposed mass and heat balance model consist of heat consumers (heat demand side) and heat generation-supply side. Direct burning of all generated uncondensed volatiles from biomass provides heat. Calculation of the mass and heat balance of both sides reveals the internal distribution of masses and energy inside process streams and units. Thermodynamic calculations verified not only the concept but also numerical range of the results. The comparisons with recent published scientific and vendors data prove its general applicability and reliability. The model opens the possibility for process efficiency innovations. Finally, the model was adapted to give more investors favorable results and support techno-economic assessments entirely.

  12. 78 FR 3854 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Chapter II Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC) AGENCY: Office of Energy... document announces the first meeting of the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee... standards and test procedures for residential appliances and commercial equipment, certification...

  13. Processing of ash and slag waste of heating plants by arc plasma to produce construction materials and nanomodifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyantuev, S. L.; Urkhanova, L. A.; Kondratenko, A. S.; Shishulkin, S. Yu; Lkhasaranov, S. A.; Khmelev, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    The resultsare presented of plasma processing slag and ash waste from coal combustion in heating plants. Melting mechanism of ashand slagraw material is considered by an electromagnetic technological reactor. The analysis was conducted of temperature and phase transformations of raw material when it is heated up to the melting point, and also determination of specific energy consumption by using a generalized model of the thermodynamic analysis of TERRA. The study of materials melting temperature conditions and plum of melt was carried with high-temperature thermal imaging method, followed by mapping and 3D-modeling of the temperature fields. The investigations to establish the principal possibilities of using slag waste of local coal as raw material for the production of mineral (ash and slag) fibers found that by chemical composition there are oxides in the following ranges: 45-65% SiO2; 10-25% Al2O3; 10-45% CaO; 5-10% MgO; other minerals (less than 5%). Thus, these technological wastes are principally suitable for melts to produce mineral wool by the plasma method. An analysis of the results shows the melting point of ash and slag waste - 1800-2000 °C. In this case the specific energy consumption of these processes keeps within the limits of 1.1-1.3 kW*h/kg. For comparison it should be noted that the unit cost of electricity in the known high-melting industrial installations 5-6 kW*h/kg. Upon melting ash and slag waste, which contains up to 2-5% of unburned carbon, carbon nanomaterials were discovered.in the form of ultrafine soot accumulating as a plaque on the water-cooled surfaces in the gas cleaning chamber. The process of formation of soot consists in sublimation-desublimation of part of carbon which is in ash and slag, and graphite electrode. Thus, upon melting of ash and slag in the electromagnetic reactor it is possible to obtain melt, and in the subsequent mineral high quality fiber, which satisfies the requirements of normative documents, and

  14. Greens, suits, and bureaucrats: A sociological study of dynamic organizational relationships in energy efficient appliance policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwom-Evelich, Rachael Leah

    In this dissertation I develop an approach to understanding dynamic organizational relations and the processes of environmental degradation and reform. To do this, I draw on environmental and organizational sociology to inform an empirical study of interorganizational relationships in defining and promoting energy efficient appliances in the United States (US). The dissertation follows a three paper approach which involves (a) an overall introduction to the substantive issue of appliance energy efficiency in the US; (b) producing three separate and stand alone articles of publishable quality to be submitted to professional journals; and (c) an overall conclusion. The three articles are as follows: (1) a synthetic literature review identifying five lessons that organizational sociology and environmental sociology can learn from each other to advance our sociological understanding of organizations, energy issues, and climate change (2) a qualitative case study of the changing relationships between business, government and environmental and energy advocacy organizations around mandatory appliance efficiency standards supporting the development of a context-dependent theory of ecological modernization and treadmill of production theories in environmental sociology and (3) a network analysis of public government, business and energy efficiency advocate's interorganizational relationships and its influence on subsequent organizational behaviors in the appliance energy efficiency field. The second and third articles are based on extensive archival research on organizational negotiations of public record over defining energy efficient appliances in both regulatory and voluntary settings. Finally I will provide an overall conclusion that brings together the most significant findings of each individual article in anticipation of a synthetic approach to the study of organizations in environmental reform.

  15. Comparison of K-loop Molar Distalization with that of Pendulum Appliance - A Prospective Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shashidhar, Nagam Reddy; Reddy, S.Rama Koteswara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Molar distalization is the non extraction method of managing Class II malocclusions. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of maxillary molar distalization with K-loop appliance, and to compare these effects with that of pendulum group. Materials and Methods Class I and dental Class II malocclusions were divided into two groups of 15 each: In Group 1 (nine females and six males; mean age, 16.0±2.6 years) patients were treated with K-Loop molar distalization supported palatally by Nance button, while in Group 2 (seven females and eight males; mean age, 15.4±4.7 years), the patients were treated with conventional pendulum appliance. Standardized lateral cephalograms were taken at the beginning of treatment (T0) and at the end of molar distalization (T1) and the changes were statistically analyzed with paired t-test. Results The results showed no statistically significant difference in the amount of molar distalization in either of the appliance groups: the mean amount of molar distal movement of 5.1±0.8 mm and 4.93±1.68 mm was observed in the Group 1 and 2 respectively. The incisors moved mesially by 1.3±0.63 mm in Group 1 and 1.57±0.58 mm in Group 2. Conclusion K-Loop molar distalizing appliance has similar skeletal and dentoalveolar effects as that of pendulum appliance, with the advantages of simple yet efficient to control the moment-force ratio to produce all types of tooth movements and also requires minimal patient co-operation. PMID:27504403

  16. [Fixed appliances current state of the art].

    PubMed

    Droschl, H; Eskici, A; Bantleon, H P; Muchitsch, A P

    1989-11-01

    Recent advances in fixed appliances are reviewed and discussed. These include cosmetically more appealing brackets (ceramic, lingual); new wires (nickel-titanium and titanium-molybdenum alloys); new biomechanical approaches (accurate computation of forces and torques according to Burstone resulting in the use of new mechanical concepts); experiences in the treatment of transplanted teeth made in the past 15 years; new approaches to the orthodontic finish (implementation of Andrews' "six keys to normal occlusion" with straight wires, accurate positioning of brackets, and gnathological positioners). Cases will be demonstrated.

  17. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... transformers, including those installed in domestic systems, must have a suitable thermal protection device...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... transformers, including those installed in domestic systems, must have a suitable thermal protection device...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... transformers, including those installed in domestic systems, must have a suitable thermal protection device...

  20. 46 CFR 133.70 - Personal lifesaving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal lifesaving appliances. 133.70 Section 133.70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.70 Personal lifesaving appliances. (a) Lifebuoys. Each OSV must carry lifebuoys approved under approval...

  1. 46 CFR 108.645 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Markings on lifesaving appliances. 108.645 Section 108.645 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.645 Markings on lifesaving appliances....

  2. 46 CFR 108.665 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 108.665 Section 108.665 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.665 Appliances for watertight...

  3. 46 CFR 108.665 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 108.665 Section 108.665 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.665 Appliances for watertight...

  4. 46 CFR 108.645 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Markings on lifesaving appliances. 108.645 Section 108.645 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.645 Markings on lifesaving appliances....

  5. 46 CFR 108.645 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Markings on lifesaving appliances. 108.645 Section 108.645 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.645 Markings on lifesaving appliances....

  6. 46 CFR 108.665 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 108.665 Section 108.665 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.665 Appliances for watertight...

  7. 46 CFR 108.645 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Markings on lifesaving appliances. 108.645 Section 108.645 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.645 Markings on lifesaving appliances....

  8. 46 CFR 108.665 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 108.665 Section 108.665 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.665 Appliances for watertight...

  9. 46 CFR 108.665 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 108.665 Section 108.665 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.665 Appliances for watertight...

  10. 46 CFR 108.645 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings on lifesaving appliances. 108.645 Section 108.645 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.645 Markings on lifesaving appliances....

  11. The Herbst appliance--its biologic effects and clinical use.

    PubMed

    Pancherz, H

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to survey the Herbst bite-jumping method. An outline of appliance design and appliance construction is given. The effects of the treatment method on the dentofacial complex and on the masticatory system have been analyzed with the aid of dental casts, cephalometric roentgenograms, and electromyographic registrations from the masticatory muscles. The use and effectiveness of the Herbst appliance in the treatment of Class II malocclusions are exemplified by clinical cases, some of which were followed for 5 years after treatment. The Herbst appliance is most effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, provided it is used as indicated. Thus, the appliance must be limited to growing persons only. The treatment method should not be looked upon as a last resort to be used only when other treatment approaches have failed. Treatment prognosis is best in subjects with a brachyfacial growth pattern. Unfavorable growth, unstable occlusal conditions, and persisting oral habits after treatment are potential risk factors for occlusal relapses. As treatment with the Herbst appliance is performed during a relatively short period, the hard and soft tissues (teeth, bone, and musculature) would need some time for adaptation to the new mandibular position after the appliance is removed. Posttreatment retention as a routine with a removable functional appliance is therefore recommended.

  12. 46 CFR 109.209 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 109.209 Section 109.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.209 Appliances for watertight integrity. (a) Before...

  13. 46 CFR 109.209 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 109.209 Section 109.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.209 Appliances for watertight integrity. (a) Before...

  14. 46 CFR 109.209 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 109.209 Section 109.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.209 Appliances for watertight integrity. (a) Before...

  15. 46 CFR 109.209 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 109.209 Section 109.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.209 Appliances for watertight integrity. (a) Before...

  16. 46 CFR 109.209 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 109.209 Section 109.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.209 Appliances for watertight integrity. (a) Before...

  17. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250 Section 878.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification. An external facial fracture...

  18. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250 Section 878.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification. An external facial fracture...

  19. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250 Section 878.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification. An external facial fracture...

  20. 46 CFR 108.597 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 108.597 Section 108.597 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.597 Line-throwing appliance. (a) General. Each unit...

  1. 46 CFR 108.597 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 108.597 Section 108.597 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.597 Line-throwing appliance. (a) General. Each unit...

  2. Advances in Household Appliances- A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2011-01-01

    An overview of options and potential barriers and risks for reducing the energy consumption, peak demand, and emissions for seven key energy consuming residential products (refrigerator-freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, electric ovens, gas ovens and microwave ovens) is presented. The paper primarily concentrates on the potential energy savings from the use of advanced technologies in appliances for the U.S. market. The significance and usefulness of each technology was evaluated in order to prioritize the R&D needs to improve energy efficiency of appliances in view of energy savings, cost, and complexity. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Although significant energy savings may be achieved, one of the major barriers in most cases is high first cost. One way of addressing this issue and promoting the introduction of new technologies is to level the playing field for all manufacturers by establishing Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) which are not cost prohibitive and promoting energy efficient products through incentives to both manufacturers and consumers.

  3. The occlusal appliance effect on myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Villalón, Pablo; Arzola, Juan Francisco; Valdivia, José; Fresno, María Javiera; Santander, Hugo; Gutiérrez, Mario Felipe; Miralles, Rodolfo

    2013-04-01

    There are limited studies about the effects of occlusal appliance (OA) after three months of use. This study aimed to compare myofascial pain (MP) according to RDC/TMD, craniocervical relationships (CR) and masseter and temporalis bilateral electromyographic (EMG) activity, before and after three months of occlusal appliance use. Nineteen patients participated in this study. Cephalometric and RDC/TMD diagnostics were performed previously (baseline) and at the end of the study period (three months). EMG recordings at clinical mandibular rest position (MRP), during swallowing of saliva (SW) and during maximum voluntary clenching (MVC) were performed as follows: after one hour of use of an OA; after three months of using the OA for a minimum of 16 hours each day; and immediately after removal from the mouth. MP was relieved in all patients at the end of the study period. CR did not change significantly between baseline and after removal of the OA at the end of the study period. EMG activity during MRP, SW, and MVC decreased in both muscles after one hour using the OA and maintained the same level for the three-month period. When comparing baseline versus final EMG activity without OA, a significant decrease was only observed in the masseter muscle. The results observed in the present study are relevant to clinicians because they imply that the therapeutic effect of OA does not significantly affect the homeostasis of the craniocervical system.

  4. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  5. Load Component Database of Household Appliances and Small Office Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu; Puyleart, Francis; Yang, Steve

    2008-07-24

    This paper discusses the development of a load component database for household appliances and office equipment. To develop more accurate load models at both transmission and distribution level, a better understanding on the individual behaviors of home appliances and office equipment under power system voltage and frequency variations becomes more and more critical. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has begun a series of voltage and frequency tests against home appliances and office equipments since 2005. Since 2006, Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has collaborated with BPA personnel and developed a load component database based on these appliance testing results to facilitate the load model validation work for the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). In this paper, the testing procedure and testing results are first presented. The load model parameters are then derived and grouped. Recommendations are given for aggregating the individual appliance models to feeder level, the models of which are used for distribution and transmission level studies.

  6. Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances

    DOEpatents

    Cliff, P.L. Jr.

    1996-07-09

    A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The device comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a hinged cover plate attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate, the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position. 15 figs.

  7. Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances

    DOEpatents

    Cliff, Jr., Paul L.

    1996-01-01

    A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The devise comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a cover plate hingedly attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate and the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position.

  8. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 4, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Data collected for the appliances considered for the space station are presented along with plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. The food management, and personal hygiene data are applicable to a six-man mission of 180-days.

  9. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 2, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.

  10. Technology Solutions Case Study: Combustion Safety for Appliances Using Indoor Air

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-01

    This case study describes how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  11. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... heating and safety performance by a nationally recognized testing agency. (5) Cooling or heat pump indoor... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning... accordance with the ARI Standard 210/240-89 Unitary Air Conditioning and Air Source Unitary Heat...

  12. Unilateral maxillary molar distalization with zygoma-gear appliance.

    PubMed

    Kilkis, Dogan; Bayram, Mehmet; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Nur, Metin

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to present the orthodontic treatment of a 15-year-old boy with a unilateral maxillary molar distalization system, called the zygoma-gear appliance. It consisted of a zygomatic anchorage miniplate, an inner bow, and a Sentalloy closed coil spring (GAC International, Bohemia, NY). A distalizing force of 350 g was used during the distalization period. The unilateral Class II malocclusion was corrected in 5 months with the zygoma-gear appliance. The maxillary left first molar showed distalization of 4 mm with an inclination of 3°. The maxillary premolars moved distally with the help of the transseptal fibers. In addition, there were slight decreases in overjet (-0.5 mm) and maxillary incisor inclination (-1°), indicating no anchorage loss from the zygoma-gear appliance. Preadjusted fixed appliances (0.022 × 0.028-in, MBT system; 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) were placed in both arches to achieve leveling and alignment. After 14 months of unilateral distalization with the zygoma-gear appliance and fixed appliances, Class I molar and canine relationships were established with satisfactory interdigitation of the posterior teeth. Acceptable overjet and overbite were also achieved. This article shows that this new system, the zygoma-gear appliance, can be used for unilateral maxillary molar distalization without anchorage loss.

  13. Mapping of user interfaces on electronic appliances.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Franw; Tsai, Wang-Chin

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate mapping of user interfaces on consumer electronic appliances. A digital clock with five different interface modes was chosen for the experiment. Forty elderly subjects (above 65 years) and 40 middle-aged subjects (45-64 years) participated in the study. Every subject had to complete three different tasks, namely time setting, alarm time setting and date setting. The researchers investigated what problems were encountered when performing these tasks and collected data such as operational time, the number of total inputs, subjective estimation and interview information. The findings of this study indicated that the interface modes had significant effects on operational time, the number of total inputs and subjective estimation. Finally, the study confirms that when the spatial relationship between buttons and display contents are clearly indicated, the operation is easier to complete.

  14. Oral health with fixed appliances orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Frank, Wilhelm; Pfaller, Karin; Konta, Brigitte

    2008-03-11

    Orthodontic treatment represents an important fraction in dental interventions. According to other medical methods the question for scientific evidence for the effectiveness of these treatments arises. The question of the effectiveness is connected with the question what is understood as an effect. In principle, the effect of the intervention is understood on the basis of the occlusion or dental health, what disregards further functions of oral health. The generalization to oral health is therefore a necessary consideration in science now. If one appreciates this further development, then there is no one single randomised study available which examines the long-term effect of the orthodontic intervention or for the effects on the oral health.The question, whether the application of a fixed appliance in an orthodontic treatment causes a long-term improvement in oral health, cannot be answered at the present time. The scientific status is the definition of oral health at present. Also the question, whether in the long run the dental health can be improved by fixed appliances cannot be answered with a quality usually achieved by evidence-based medicine. Whether correction of a dental malposition is an effective prerequisite for the preservation of the natural teeth, cannot be answered. There is no generalizing study with sufficient scientific background for Europe or Germany to this topic. The risk for caries cannot be quantified. Caries is identified as a central topic in general but due to numerous factors influencing the risk it is not quantified. The question of the indications is completely open from the scientific literature. For the question of the therapy need or therapy priority some indexes were developed, which lead to a quantification. These indices however are fundamentally criticised by recent research in their meaning and the empirical relevance.There is an impression that there exists a big gap between the practical application and the scientific

  15. 15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appliances and equipment included in... VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.3 Appliances and equipment included in program. The appliances and equipment included in this program are...

  16. 15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appliances and equipment included in... VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.3 Appliances and equipment included in program. The appliances and equipment included in this program are...

  17. 46 CFR 108.114 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity... Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity. (a) Appliances to ensure watertight integrity include... watertight decks and bulkheads. (b) Appliances to ensure weathertight integrity include weathertight...

  18. 46 CFR 31.36-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL. 31.36-1... CERTIFICATION Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 31.36-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements—TB/ALL. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements on tank vessels must be in accordance with subchapter...

  19. 46 CFR 108.114 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity... Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity. (a) Appliances to ensure watertight integrity include... watertight decks and bulkheads. (b) Appliances to ensure weathertight integrity include weathertight...

  20. 46 CFR 31.36-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL. 31.36-1... CERTIFICATION Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 31.36-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements—TB/ALL. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements on tank vessels must be in accordance with subchapter...

  1. 46 CFR 31.36-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL. 31.36-1... CERTIFICATION Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 31.36-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements—TB/ALL. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements on tank vessels must be in accordance with subchapter...

  2. 46 CFR 174.100 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity... Offshore Drilling Units § 174.100 Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity. (a) Appliances to... watertight closures for openings in watertight decks and bulkheads. (b) Appliances to insure...

  3. 15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appliances and equipment included in... VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.3 Appliances and equipment included in program. The appliances and equipment included in this program are...

  4. 46 CFR 31.36-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL. 31.36-1... CERTIFICATION Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 31.36-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements—TB/ALL. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements on tank vessels must be in accordance with subchapter...

  5. 15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appliances and equipment included in... VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.3 Appliances and equipment included in program. The appliances and equipment included in this program are...

  6. 15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appliances and equipment included in... VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.3 Appliances and equipment included in program. The appliances and equipment included in this program are...

  7. 46 CFR 31.36-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL. 31.36-1... CERTIFICATION Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 31.36-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements—TB/ALL. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements on tank vessels must be in accordance with subchapter...

  8. Appliance electricity consumption in the residential sector: An economic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, B.S.

    1995-03-01

    In this article a theoretical framework within which the demand for electricity in the residential sector is studied. The cross-sectional household survey data is analyzed to estimate the consumption of electricity for different end uses by relating the household electricity consumption with the stock of electrical appliances. Using these estimates, appliances elasticities are obtained. It is shown how these elasticities can be used to relate future electricity usage to changes in the stock of appliances for Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka state in southern India.

  9. Biodegradation of Orthodontic Appliances and Their Effects on the Blood Level of Nickel and Chromium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    toxicology of metal compounds: I. Induction of lambda prophage in E . Coli WP2s(lambda). Environ. Mutagen. 6:59-69, 1984. 70. Newman, S.M.: The...requirements for the Master of Science degree in Orthodontics in the Graduate College of The University of Iowa May 1990 Thesis supervisor: Professor Samir E ...also been demonstrated with orthodontic bands and brackets (40 pg/day for a full mouth appliance)1 7 , heat - treated orthodontic archwires (0.26 ILg/cm2

  10. Quenching of the nonlocal electron heat transport by large external magnetic fields in a laser produced plasma measured with imaging Thomson scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D H; Davis, P; Pollock, B B; Divol, L; Ross, J S; Edwards, J; Town, R; Price, D; Glenzer, S H; Offenberger, A A; Tynan, G R; James, A N

    2006-04-14

    We present a direct measurement of the quenching of nonlocal heat transport in a laser produced plasma by high external magnetic fields. Temporally resolved measurements of the electron temperature profile transverse to a high power laser beam were obtained using imaging Thomson scattering. The results are simulated with the 2D hydrodynamic code LASNEX with a recently included magnetic field model that self-consistently evolves the fields in the plasma.

  11. 24 CFR 3285.503 - Optional appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... directed beyond the perimeter of the home by means specified by the equipment manufacturer. (2) Heat pumps. Heat pumps must be listed or certified by a nationally recognized testing agency for the application... efficiency. (A) Site-installed central air conditioning equipment must be sized to meet the home's heat...

  12. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning... Conditioning and Air Source Unitary Heat Pump Equipment and certified by ARI or other nationally recognized... Standard 210/240-89 Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment, shall show...

  13. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning... Conditioning and Air Source Unitary Heat Pump Equipment and certified by ARI or other nationally recognized... Standard 210/240-89 Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment, shall show...

  14. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning... Conditioning and Air Source Unitary Heat Pump Equipment and certified by ARI or other nationally recognized... Standard 210/240-89 Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment, shall show...

  15. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning... Conditioning and Air Source Unitary Heat Pump Equipment and certified by ARI or other nationally recognized... Standard 210/240-89 Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment, shall show...

  16. 24 CFR 3285.503 - Optional appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... directed beyond the perimeter of the home by means specified by the equipment manufacturer. (2) Heat pumps. Heat pumps must be listed or certified by a nationally recognized testing agency for the application... efficiency. (A) Site-installed central air conditioning equipment must be sized to meet the home's heat...

  17. 24 CFR 3285.503 - Optional appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... directed beyond the perimeter of the home by means specified by the equipment manufacturer. (2) Heat pumps. Heat pumps must be listed or certified by a nationally recognized testing agency for the application... efficiency. (A) Site-installed central air conditioning equipment must be sized to meet the home's heat...

  18. 24 CFR 3285.503 - Optional appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... directed beyond the perimeter of the home by means specified by the equipment manufacturer. (2) Heat pumps. Heat pumps must be listed or certified by a nationally recognized testing agency for the application... efficiency. (A) Site-installed central air conditioning equipment must be sized to meet the home's heat...

  19. 24 CFR 3285.503 - Optional appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... directed beyond the perimeter of the home by means specified by the equipment manufacturer. (2) Heat pumps. Heat pumps must be listed or certified by a nationally recognized testing agency for the application... efficiency. (A) Site-installed central air conditioning equipment must be sized to meet the home's heat...

  20. How to ... take a wax bite for a Twin Block appliance.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anwar Ali; Sandler, Jonathan

    2009-03-01

    The Twin Block appliance is the most commonly used functional appliance in the UK. It is very important to take a satisfactory wax bite, as it not only helps the technician to make an accurate appliance but it is essential for the successful use of this appliance. In this article, we suggest the appropriate clinical technique for taking an effective wax bite for the Twin Block appliance.

  1. Application of probabilistic event attribution in the summer heat extremes in the western US to emissions traced to major industrial carbon producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mera, R. J.; Allen, M. R.; Mote, P.; Ekwurzel, B.; Frumhoff, P. C.; Rupp, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Heat waves in the western US have become progressively more severe due to increasing relative humidity and nighttime temperatures, increasing the health risks of vulnerable portions of the population, including Latino farmworkers in California's Central Valley and other socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. Recent research has shown greenhouse gas emissions doubled the risk of the hottest summer days during the 2000's in the Central Valley, increasing public health risks and costs, and raising the question of which parties are responsible for paying these costs. It has been argued that these costs should not be taken up solely by the general public through taxation, but that additional parties can be considered, including multinational corporations who have extracted and marketed a large proportion of carbon-based fuels. Here, we apply probabilistic event attribution (PEA) to assess the contribution of emissions traced to the world's 90 largest major industrial carbon producers to the severity and frequency of these extreme heat events. Our research uses very large ensembles of regional climate model simulations to calculate fractional attribution of policy-relevant extreme heat variables. We compare a full forcings world with observed greenhouse gases, sea surface temperatures and sea ice extent to a counter-factual world devoid of carbon pollution from major industrial carbon producers. The results show a discernable fraction of record-setting summer temperatures in the western US during the 2000's can be attributed to emissions sourced from major carbon producers.

  2. Detailed Modeling and Response of Demand Response Enabled Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Vyakaranam, Bharat; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-04-14

    Proper modeling of end use loads is very important in order to predict their behavior, and how they interact with the power system, including voltage and temperature dependencies, power system and load control functions, and the complex interactions that occur between devices in such an interconnected system. This paper develops multi-state time variant residential appliance models with demand response enabled capabilities in the GridLAB-DTM simulation environment. These models represent not only the baseline instantaneous power demand and energy consumption, but the control systems developed by GE Appliances to enable response to demand response signals and the change in behavior of the appliance in response to the signal. These DR enabled appliances are simulated to estimate their capability to reduce peak demand and energy consumption.

  3. Waste Home Appliance Disposal and Low Temperature Crushing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masakatsu; Takamura, Yoshiyuki

    From the viewpoint of environmental preservation, considerable interest is being advanced by the recycling of industrial goods such as home appliances. In terms of waste home appliances, there is an urgent need for an improvement in recycling rates for waste, because four items (refrigerators, airconditioners, washing machines and televisions) were designated as primary specified goods under those laws that encourage the use of recycled materials. Under this situation, new merits are being discovered in low temperature crushing technology as an appropriate disposal technology for recycling activities. Here, crushing and separating technology for metal composites, and crushing and sorting technology for plastics will be introduced as examples of low temperature crushing technology developed for waste home appliances that achieves recycling rates of over 90% through recycle system for waste home appliances.

  4. Straight-wire appliances: standard versus individual prescription.

    PubMed

    Farronato, Giampietro; Periti, Giulia; Giannini, Lucia; Farronato, Davide; Maspero, Cinzia

    2009-01-01

    In this article the individual patient (IP) appliance is described. It consists of 250 options of bracket and band variations as the straight wire appliances. Increasing the bracket capabilities means using an increasing number of brackets, each with a specific design created for a treatment situation. The objective of IP appliance is to eliminate wire bending from orthodontic treatment and improve the treatment results. To manage this technique, a computer software is needed. Internet offers significant possibilities in managing each patient by patient basis. The clinician is required to make the diagnosis and treatment plan before ordering the appliance. Two clinical cases are described with the aim to present the advantages of this technique.

  5. Esthetic perception of orthodontic appliances by Brazilian children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlman, Deise Caldas; de Lima, Tatiana Araújo; Duplat, Candice Belchior; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this present study was to understand how children and adolescents perceive esthetic attractiveness of a variety of orthodontic appliances. It also analyzed preferences according to patients' age, sex and socioeconomic status. Methods: A photograph album consisting of eight photographs of different orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile was used. A sample of children or adolescents aged between 8 and 17 years old (n = 276) was asked to rate each image for its attractiveness on a visual analog scale. Comparisons between the appliances attractiveness were performed by means of nonparametric statistics with Friedman's test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Correlation between appliances and individuals' socioeconomic status, age, sex, and esthetic perception was assessed by means of Spearman's correlation analysis. Results: Attractiveness ratings of orthodontic appliances varied nonsignificantly for children in the following hierarchy: traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures > traditional metallic brackets with gray elastomeric ligatures > sapphire esthetic brackets; and for adolescents, as follows: sapphire esthetic brackets > clear aligner without attachments > traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. The correlation between individuals' socioeconomic status and esthetic perception of a given appliance was negative and statistically significant for appliances such as the golden orthodontic brackets and traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. Conclusion: Metal appliances were considered very attractive, whereas aligners were classified as less attractive by children and adolescents. The correlation between esthetic perception and socioeconomic status revealed that individuals with a higher socioeconomic level judged esthetics as the most attractive attribute. For those with higher

  6. Estimating Price Elasticity using Market-Level Appliance Data

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2015-08-04

    This report provides and update to and expansion upon our 2008 LBNL report “An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Appliances,” in which we estimated an average relative price elasticity of -0.34 for major household appliances (Dale and Fujita 2008). Consumer responsiveness to price change is a key component of energy efficiency policy analysis; these policies influence consumer purchases through price both explicitly and implicitly. However, few studies address appliance demand elasticity in the U.S. market and public data sources are generally insufficient for rigorous estimation. Therefore, analysts have relied on a small set of outdated papers focused on limited appliance types, assuming long-term elasticities estimated for other durables (e.g., vehicles) decades ago are applicable to current and future appliance purchasing behavior. We aim to partially rectify this problem in the context of appliance efficiency standards by revisiting our previous analysis, utilizing data released over the last ten years and identifying additional estimates of durable goods price elasticities in the literature. Reviewing the literature, we find the following ranges of market-level price elasticities: -0.14 to -0.42 for appliances; -0.30 to -1.28 for automobiles; -0.47 to -2.55 for other durable goods. Brand price elasticities are substantially higher for these product groups, with most estimates -2.0 or more elastic. Using market-level shipments, sales value, and efficiency level data for 1989-2009, we run various iterations of a log-log regression model, arriving at a recommended range of short run appliance price elasticity between -0.4 and -0.5, with a default value of -0.45.

  7. An extraorally activated expansion appliance for cleft palate infants.

    PubMed

    Latham, R A; Kusy, R P; Georgiade, N G

    1976-07-01

    A new lever-action expansion appliance is described which is designed specifically for use in infants with cleft lip and palate. An extraoral control knob allows for easy activation, while the important anterior cleft areas are left clear for premaxillary repositioning and clinical assessment. Activation is registered by a positive clicking sound. Rapid expansion is made possible by the design of the appliance which is retained by stainless steel pins.

  8. Study of a hydrocarbon-utilizing and emulsifier-producing Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain isolated from heating oil.

    PubMed

    Marín, M M; Pedregosa, A M; Ortiz, M L; Laborda, F

    1995-12-01

    Twenty bacterial strains were isolated from a sample of contaminated heating oil and screened for their ability to use petroleum and several common fuels as the sole source of carbon and energy. One of the isolates, named MM5, was able to grow on petroleum derivatives and brought about an emulsification of those compounds. Gas chromatography studies showed that strain MM5 was able to degrade hydrocarbons of heating oil. MM5 has been tentatively identified as a strain of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. The fine structure of MM5 was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Incubation in the presence of hydrocarbon substrates resulted in the development of intracellular electron-transparent inclusions. These structures were absent in the non-hydrocarbon cultures studied.

  9. Isochoric heating of hot dense matter by magnetization of fast electrons produced by ultra-intense short pulse irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentoku, Y.; Kemp, A.; Bakeman, M.; Presura, R.; Cowan, T. E.

    2006-06-01

    Ultra-intense short-pulse lasers are important tools for creating short-lived high energy plasmas, however to date, it has not been possible, with this method, to create several hundred eV solid density matter because of the rapid transport of the laser-generated hot electrons throughout the target volume. We propose a new way to isochorically heat matter at solid density to extreme temperatures by magnetic confinement of laser-generated hot electrons for several picoseconds by application of a multi-MG external field. In advance of an experiment at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF), using a 100 TW-class laser, which will be synchronized to a 1MA Z-pinch machine, we have performed theoretical studies using a collisional particle-in-cell codes PICLS, which is optimized for a study of isochoric heating of solid density plasmas.

  10. Stochastic heating of a single Brownian particle by charge fluctuations in a radio-frequency produced plasma sheath.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christian; Piel, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    The Brownian motion of a single particle in the plasma sheath is studied to separate the effect of stochastic heating by charge fluctuations from heating by collective effects. By measuring the particle velocities in the ballistic regime and by carefully determining the particle mass from the Epstein drag it is shown that for a pressure of 10 Pa, which is typical of many experiments, the proper kinetic temperature of the Brownian particle remains close to the gas temperature and rises only slightly with particle size. This weak effect is confirmed by a detailed model for charging and charge fluctuations in the sheath. A substantial temperature rise is found for decreasing pressure, which approximately shows the expected scaling with p(-2). The system under study is an example for non-equilibrium Brownian motion under the influence of white noise without corresponding dissipation.

  11. The prospects for incineration of municipal solid waste in Russia in order to produce heat and electric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskakov, A. P.

    2014-04-01

    The article presents the results of the low-temperature pyrolysis of the main components of municipal solid waste (MSW): wood, products of wood processing (paper, cardboard, fabrics, etc.), various plastics, rubber, as well as of a representative sample of MSW. A waste-to-energy plant is described, at which municipal solid waste is subjected to the pyrolysis, and then pyrolysis products are incinerated in a slagging-bottom furnace. The paper presents an analysis of the operation of a modern waste-to-energy plant equipped with a wet scrubber, with a high-degree recovery of the heat of exhaust gases by means of a heat pump, and with evaporation cooling of glowing slag in a tank filled with water. Chemical treatment of water circulating in the system makes it possible to convert heavy metals and other hazardous substances into the insoluble form and then to remove them.

  12. Effect of Energetic Trapped Particles Produced by ICRF Wave Heating on Sawtooth Instability in the DIII-D Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M.; Chan, V. S.; Chu, M. S.; Jeon, Y. M.; Lao, L. L.; Li, G.; Pinsker, R. I.; Ren, Q.; Turnbull, A. D.

    2007-09-01

    We evaluate the accuracy of the Porcelli sawtooth model using more realistic numerical models from the ORBIT-RF and GATO codes in DIII-D fast wave heating experiments. Simulation results confirm that the fast wave-induced energetic trapped particles may stabilize the sawtooth instability. The crucial kinetic stabilizing contribution strongly depends on both the experimentally reconstructed magnetic shear at the q = 1 surface and the calculated poloidal beta of energetic trapped particles inside the q = 1 surface.

  13. Modeling diffusion of electrical appliances in the residential sector

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2009-11-22

    This paper presents a methodology for modeling residential appliance uptake as a function of root macroeconomic drivers. The analysis concentrates on four major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, washing machines, televisions and air conditioners. The model employs linear regression analysis to parameterize appliance ownership in terms of household income, urbanization and electrification rates according to a standard binary choice (logistic) function. The underlying household appliance ownership data are gathered from a variety of sources including energy consumption and more general standard of living surveys. These data span a wide range of countries, including many developing countries for which appliance ownership is currently low, but likely to grow significantly over the next decades as a result of economic development. The result is a 'global' parameterization of appliance ownership rates as a function of widely available macroeconomic variables for the four appliances studied, which provides a reliable basis for interpolation where data are not available, and forecasting of ownership rates on a global scale. The main value of this method is to form the foundation of bottom-up energy demand forecasts, project energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, and allow for the construction of detailed emissions mitigation scenarios.

  14. [Interceptive treatment with the DAC appliance: structural analysis].

    PubMed

    Gebeile-Chauty, Sarah; Archer, Jean-Antoine; Lautrou, Alain; Aknin, Jean-Jacques

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective short and middle term study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects during early class II treatment. Thirty subjects were treated with DAC appliance, 32 children were not treated. Data were collected at the start of the study (t(1)), after the active treatment (t(1')) and 28 months after t(1) (t(2)). L.D.V. and Tweed cephalometric analyses were applied on the lateral roentgenograms of the three groups. Differences for all the variables from t(1) to t(1') and t(2) were calculated and compared by t-test. Results suggested that DAC appliance was able to achieve twice more mandibular growth in the treated group than in the non treated group. Anterior total skeletal and matricial rotations were similar to control group. Early DAC appliance achieved overjet correction thanks to major skeletal participation (89%) and little dental participation (11%). During following-up stage, overjet relapsed partially as shown in other articles with other appliances. As a conclusion, DAC appliance may be an orthopedic appliance indicated to achieve correction in class II skeletal pattern without maxillary prognathism and with mandibular retrognathism.

  15. Recycling rates of waste home appliances in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, E; Kuo, C-M

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a calculation of recycling rates of waste home appliances in Taiwan, for the EPA to amend these rates in order to increase the recycling efficiency. The recycling rate is calculated by a formula according to the statistical results obtained through: (1) an estimation of domestic use of home appliances using time series analysis with multiplicative seasonal ARIMA model, (2) a further estimation of generated waste home appliances based upon the estimated domestic use and the corresponding distribution of lifetime span, and (3) a cost analysis of recycling home appliances based on a sampling survey with stratified systematic sampling conducted among collectors and a survey on five recycling plants of waste home appliances. The suggested recycling rates in this study finally used by the EPA show that all of the recycling rates have increased compared with the rates in previous years. This study also implies that amending the recycling rates may only solve some recycling problems temporarily; however, the recycling system of waste home appliances in Taiwan has to be reformed to increase the recycling efficiency for the long term.

  16. Effect of Reservoir-Caprock Interface Dip and Circulation of Produced Fluid on CO2-Based Geothermal Heat Extraction from Saline Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garapati, N.; Randolph, J.; Saar, M. O.

    2014-12-01

    CO2-Plume Geothermal (CPG) energy utilization involves injection of CO2 as a working fluid to extract heat from naturally high permeability geologic units. The injected CO2 forms a large subsurface CO2 plume that absorbs heat from the geothermal reservoir and eventually buoyantly rises to the surface. The CO2 plume can be "tapped" for thermal and/or electric power production in a geothermal power system. In actual systems, the CO2 plume would likely be skewed opposite any likely dip direction of the reservoir-caprock interface. Here, we numerically analyze the characteristics of CO2 plume formation and geothermal heat extraction from geothermal reservoirs with dip. We find that the heat extraction rate and the total amount of heat extracted over time is the same for symmetric and skewed CO2 plume systems when the circular, horizontal production well is arranged according to the CO2 plume distribution around the injection well. We also conduct simulations of CO2 plume formation within a pre-existing groundwater flow field and find that groundwater flow is not capable of skewing the CO2 plume. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of reinjecting small amounts of brine that are produced with the CO2. Brine has a smaller mobility than supercritical CO2 at a given temperature and thus accumulates near the injection well. Such brine accumulation reduces the relative permeability for the CO2 phase, which in turn increases the pore-fluid pressure around the injection well. For this reason, and as injection of two fluid phases is problematic, we recommend removal of any brine from the produced fluid before the cooled CO2 is reinjected into the reservoir. Separated brine may be reinjected into the formation away from the CO2 plume, providing an additional means of controlling and directing the CO2 plume pressure field and flow direction and avoiding the need to treat and dispose of the CO2 near the land surface. In summary, we show that the geothermal heat extraction

  17. Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Namitha; Palukunnu, Biswas; Ravindran, Nidhi; Nair, Preeti P

    2014-01-01

    Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation. PMID:24577171

  18. Appliance Displays: Accessibility Challenges and Proposed Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Giovanni; Tekin, Ender; Giudice, Nicholas A.; Coughlan, James M.

    2016-01-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties using a growing array of everyday appliances because they are equipped with inaccessible electronic displays. We report developments on our “Display Reader” smartphone app, which uses computer vision to help a user acquire a usable image of a display and have the contents read aloud, to address this problem. Drawing on feedback from past and new studies with visually impaired volunteer participants, as well as from blind accessibility experts, we have improved and simplified our user interface and have also added the ability to read seven-segment digit displays. Our system works fully automatically and in real time, and we compare it with general-purpose assistive apps such as Be My Eyes, which recruit remote sighted assistants (RSAs) to answer questions about video captured by the user. Our discussions and preliminary experiment highlight the advantages and disadvantages of fully automatic approaches compared with RSAs, and suggest possible hybrid approaches to investigate in the future. PMID:26824081

  19. Appliance Displays: Accessibility Challenges and Proposed Solutions.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Giovanni; Tekin, Ender; Giudice, Nicholas A; Coughlan, James M

    2015-10-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties using a growing array of everyday appliances because they are equipped with inaccessible electronic displays. We report developments on our "Display Reader" smartphone app, which uses computer vision to help a user acquire a usable image of a display and have the contents read aloud, to address this problem. Drawing on feedback from past and new studies with visually impaired volunteer participants, as well as from blind accessibility experts, we have improved and simplified our user interface and have also added the ability to read seven-segment digit displays. Our system works fully automatically and in real time, and we compare it with general-purpose assistive apps such as Be My Eyes, which recruit remote sighted assistants (RSAs) to answer questions about video captured by the user. Our discussions and preliminary experiment highlight the advantages and disadvantages of fully automatic approaches compared with RSAs, and suggest possible hybrid approaches to investigate in the future.

  20. A two-year survey of the incidence of heat-labile enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and other enteric pathogens in travellers returning to the Sheffield area.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, P. A.; Mitchelmore, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    A case-controlled study of the incidence of heat-labile enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (LT+ETEC) and other enteric pathogens in travellers returning to the Sheffield area was conducted from May 1984 to April 1986. LT+ETEC were found in 35 (5.8%) of 600 travellers to developed countries (mainly popular Mediterranean holiday resorts), 36 (11.3%) of 320 travellers to less-developed countries, and 11 (0.9%) of 1282 control patients whose illness was not associated with recent travel abroad. A seasonal peak of LT+ETEC infection was observed only in travellers to developed countries, with infections being significantly commoner in August to October. There was no significant deviation from expected age/sex distribution of LT+ETEC infection. Strains of LT+ETEC from travellers produced more toxin than strains from control patients, strains from travellers to less-developed countries producing most of all. PMID:3053217

  1. Causes and consequences of backdrafting of vented gas appliances.

    PubMed

    Nagda, N L; Koontz, M D; Billick, I H; Leslie, N P; Behrens, D W

    1996-09-01

    House depressurization occurs when household equipment such as a kitchen or bathroom fan or a fireplace exhausts air from the house and lowers the pressure indoors with respect to the outside. The operation of air handlers for forced-air heating or cooling systems also can have a depressurization effect. This depressurization can hinder the natural draft from vented combustion appliances and lead to backdrafting, which in turn can result in combustion gases spilling into the indoor airspace. Extensive spillage can cause elevated indoor levels of combustion products such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor, as well as contaminants such as carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The focus of this paper is to review studies on depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage from gas-fired, drafthood equipped furnaces and domestic hot water heaters. Qualitative and quantitative techniques that were used in depressurization and backdrafting studies conducted in Canada, Europe, and the United States are analyzed. These studies have shown that exhaust fans operated simultaneously with fireplaces depressurize houses by 3 to 8 Pa on average. The CO indoor concentrations due to spillage, as reported in these studies, generally have been lower than 5 ppm. However, such low CO concentrations do not necessarily imply that a potential problem associated with backdrafting does not exist. Other combustion products, such as NO2, rarely have been measured in prior backdrafting studies. It can be concluded from the literature review that causes of house depressurization are well understood. However, more comprehensive research is needed to better understand the frequency, duration, and severity of depressurization-induced spillage in a broad cross section of houses. Efforts in this direction have begun recently in the United States through a workshop to define research issues, pilot studies to develop comprehensive measurement protocols, and consensus standard

  2. Heating and pain sensation produced in human skin by millimeter waves: comparison to a simple thermal model.

    PubMed

    Walters, T J; Blick, D W; Johnson, L R; Adair, E R; Foster, K R

    2000-03-01

    Cutaneous thresholds for thermal pain were measured in 10 human subjects during 3-s exposures at 94 GHz continuous wave microwave energy at intensities up to approximately 1.8 W cm(-2). During each exposure, the temperature increase at the skin's surface was measured by infrared thermography. The mean (+/- s.e.m.) baseline temperature of the skin was 34.0+/-0.2 degrees C. The threshold for pricking pain was 43.9+/-0.7 degrees C, which corresponded to an increase in surface temperature of approximately 9.9 degrees C (from 34.0 degrees C to 43.9 degrees C). The measured increases in surface temperature were in good agreement with a simple thermal model that accounted for heat conduction and for the penetration depth of the microwave energy into tissue. Taken together, these results support the use of the model for predicting thresholds of thermal pain at other millimeter wave (length) frequencies.

  3. Two-Stage Soft-Switching High-Frequency Inverter with Simple PFC Function for Consumer IH Cooking Appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Yuki; Hiraki, Eiji; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Sadakata, Hideki; Fujita, Atsushi; Omori, Hideki; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    In recent years, consumer induction-heating (IH) cooking appliances have grown increasingly popular because of their easy cleaning, high efficiency, safety, and controllability. IH food cooking system for consumer home use are indispensable to heat various metallic pans, such as aluminum, copper, stainless steel, and iron cast for further diffusing. Furthermore, these appliances have to satisfy the utility AC grid harmonics regulations of IEC61000-3-2. To meet these requirements, this paper proposes a two-stage soft-switching high-frequency inverter with simple PFC function that is suitable for consumer IH cooking appliances. The proposed system comprises a soft-switching chopper based boost PFC converter with passive snubber and phase-shifted PWM controlled ZVZCS high-frequency inverter. In order to satisfy the utility AC grid current harmonic regulations, a simple PFC control technique with discontinuous current mode is introduced. This technique as well as the fundamental operating performances of the proposed IH system is tested. The effectiveness of proposed IH system is substantially proved from a practical point of view on the basis of the experimental results.

  4. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  5. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  6. Enabling Graph Appliance for Genome Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Rina; Graves, Jeffrey A; Lee, Sangkeun; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Shankar, Mallikarjun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge growth in the amount of genomic data available as reads generated from various genome sequencers. The number of reads generated can be huge, ranging from hundreds to billions of nucleotide, each varying in size. Assembling such large amounts of data is one of the challenging computational problems for both biomedical and data scientists. Most of the genome assemblers developed have used de Bruijn graph techniques. A de Bruijn graph represents a collection of read sequences by billions of vertices and edges, which require large amounts of memory and computational power to store and process. This is the major drawback to de Bruijn graph assembly. Massively parallel, multi-threaded, shared memory systems can be leveraged to overcome some of these issues. The objective of our research is to investigate the feasibility and scalability issues of de Bruijn graph assembly on Cray s Urika-GD system; Urika-GD is a high performance graph appliance with a large shared memory and massively multithreaded custom processor designed for executing SPARQL queries over large-scale RDF data sets. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no research on representing a de Bruijn graph as an RDF graph or finding Eulerian paths in RDF graphs using SPARQL for potential genome discovery. In this paper, we address the issues involved in representing a de Bruin graphs as RDF graphs and propose an iterative querying approach for finding Eulerian paths in large RDF graphs. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on real world ebola genome datasets and illustrate how genome assembly can be accomplished with Urika-GD using iterative SPARQL queries.

  7. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2013-04-02

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  8. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D [Madison, WI; Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI

    2012-04-10

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  9. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D [Madison, WI; Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  10. Effect of drought and combined drought and heat stress on polyamine metabolism in proline-over-producing tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Cvikrová, Milena; Gemperlová, Lenka; Martincová, Olga; Vanková, Radomira

    2013-12-01

    The roles of proline and polyamines (PAs) in the drought stress responses of tobacco plants were investigated by comparing the responses to drought alone and drought in combination with heat in the upper and lower leaves and roots of wild-type tobacco plants and transformants that constitutively over-express a modified gene for the proline biosynthetic enzyme Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CSF129A; EC 2.7.2.11/1.2.1.41). In both genotypes, drought stress coincided with a decrease in relative water content (RWC) that was much less severe in the upper leaves than elsewhere in the plant. The drought also increased proline levels in both genotypes. A brief period of heat stress (2 h at 40 °C) at the end of the drought period did not significantly influence the proline levels in the upper leaves and roots but caused a further increase in the lower leaves of both genotypes. The rate at which these elevated proline levels returned to normal during the post-stress recovery period was slower in the transformants and plants that had been subjected to the combined stress. In both genotypes, drought stress significantly reduced the levels of spermidine (Spd) and putrescine (Put) in the leaves and roots relative to those for controls, and increased the levels of spermine (Spm) and diaminopropane (Dap, formed by the oxidative deamination of Spd and Spm). Spd levels may have declined due to its consumption in Spm biosynthesis and/or oxidation by polyamine oxidase (PAO; EC 1.5.3.11) to form Dap, which became more abundant during drought stress. During the rewatering period, the plants' Put and Spd levels recovered quickly and the activity of the PA biosynthesis enzymes in their leaves and roots increased substantially; this increase was more pronounced in transformants than WT plants. The high levels of Spm observed in drought stressed plants persisted even after the 24 h recovery and rewatering phase. The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the lower leaves of WTs

  11. Combined Space and Water Heating: Next Steps to Improved Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.

    2016-07-13

    A combined space- and water-heating (combi) system uses a high-efficiency direct-vent burner that eliminates safety issues associated with natural draft appliances. Past research with these systems shows that using condensing water heaters or boilers with hydronic air handling units can provide both space and water heating with efficiencies of 90% or higher. Improved controls have the potential to reduce complexity and improve upon the measured performance. This project demonstrates that controls can significantly benefit these first-generation systems. Laboratory tests and daily load/performance models showed that the set point temperature reset control produced a 2.1%-4.3% (20-40 therms/year) savings for storage and hybrid water heater combi systems operated in moderate-load homes.

  12. Lifetime of household appliances: empirical evidence of users behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ester; Adenso-Díaz, Belarmino; Lozano, Sebastián; González-Torre, Pilar

    2011-06-01

    The household appliance industry is one of the most important sectors from both the economic and environmental point of view. A greater understanding of the way in which consumers of these items behave would help to better plan the recycling needs as a function of previous purchase figures. This paper presents the findings of a field survey of Spanish consumer habits with respect to different common household appliances as regards replacement time and the reasons for replacing these appliances. The methodology used is based on survival analysis; specifically, a competing risks model. A Cox proportional hazards model is also used for the sake of comparison. Our results show that as the number of people and/or persons under 18 years in the household increases, the lifetimes of some types of appliance decrease significantly. Competing risk model shows that the probability of replacing the refrigerator due to malfunction and technological obsolescence increases with the increase of family members with a higher education. We also provide the cumulative incidence function for different appliances, which can be used to forecast future demands and electrical and electronic waste generation.

  13. Growth kinetics of tungsten microstructures produced via the hydrogen reduction of tungsten hexafluoride on laser-heated substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auvert, G.; Pauleau, Y.; Tonneau, D.

    1992-05-01

    Laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition of tungsten microstructures (dots, stripes, or films) has been accomplished via the H2 reduction of WF6 on polycrystalline silicon-coated quartz substrates irradiated with a focused cw argon-ion laser beam. Tungsten dots were grown on the substrates via a pyrolytic process occurring within the laser-heated zone of about 200 μm in diameter. The morphology and height of these dots were determined as functions of deposition parameters by profilometer measurements. The effects of WF6 and H2 partial pressures on the morphology and deposition rate of W dots were investigated at a laser-induced surface temperature ranging from 340 to 950 °C. The deposition rate of flat-topped dots was independent of the deposition temperature and proportional to the WF6 partial pressure. The deposition rate of W dots with a Gaussian profile was independent of the WF6 partial pressure. At low temperatures (340-670 °C) and high H2 partial pressures (50-700 Torr), the deposition rate of Gaussian W dots was proportional to the square root of the H2 partial pressure. At high temperatures (750-950 °C) and reduced H2 partial pressures (20-80 Torr), the deposition rate of these dots was proportional to the H2 partial pressure. This reaction order equal to 1 was interpreted on the basis of the Rideal model involving a direct reaction between H2 molecules and fluorinated adspecies on the W surface. The nature of the fluorinated adsorbed phase on the metal surface was discussed in terms of coordination number of W and F atoms. A new reaction mechanism for the H2 reduction of WF6 promoted by laser irradiation of the deposition zone or accomplished in a conventional furnace-type reactor is discussed and proposed.

  14. A Novel Innate Response of Human Corneal Epithelium to Heat-killed Candida albicans by Producing Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xia; Yuan, Xiaoyong; Li, Zhijie; Coursey, Terry G.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Li, De-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections of the cornea can be sight-threatening and have a worse prognosis than other types of microbial corneal infections. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGLYRP), which are expressed on the ocular surface, play an important role in the immune response against bacterial corneal infections by activating toll-like receptors (TLRs) or increasing phagocytosis. However, the role of PGLYRPs in innate immune response to fungal pathogens has not been investigated. In this study, we observed a significant induction of three PGLYRPs 2–4 in primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) exposed to live or heat-killed Candida albicans (HKCA). The C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 plays a critical role in controlling Candida albicans infections by promoting phagocytic activity and cytokine production in macrophages and dendritic cells. Here, we demonstrate that dectin-1 is expressed by normal human corneal tissue and primary HCECs. HKCA exposure increased expression of dectin-1 on HCECs at mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, dectin-1 neutralizing antibody, IκB-α inhibitor BAY11-7082, and NF-κB activation inhibitor quinazoline blocked NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, as well as the induction of the PGLYRPs by HKCA in HCECs. Furthermore, rhPGLYRP-2 was found to suppress colony-forming units of Candida albicans in vitro. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that dectin-1 is expressed by human corneal epithelial cells, and dectin-1/NF-κB signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating Candida albicans/HKCA-induced PGLYRP secretion by HCECs. PMID:26039076

  15. A heat shock operon in Coxiella burnetti produces a major antigen homologous to a protein in both mycobacteria and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Vodkin, M H; Williams, J C

    1988-01-01

    A gene library from the DNA of Coxiella burnetii has been constructed in the cosmid vector pHC79. A particular clone, pJB196, reacted strongly with Coxiella-specific antibodies elicited in a number of different species of animals. This clone produced two abundant C. burnetii-specific polypeptides, a 14-kilodalton nonimmunoreactive protein and a 62-kilodalton immunoreactive protein. Sequencing identified two open reading frames, encoding polypeptides of 10.5 and 58.3 kilodaltons. The only transcriptional control element observed on the 5' side of the initiation codon resembled a heat shock promoter. This heat shock promoter was functionally regulated in Escherichia coli, since both proteins were produced by growth conditions at 37 degrees C and neither protein was detected at 23 degrees C. There were four sequences from the literature that were highly homologous (greater than 50%) to the 62-kilodalton protein from C. burnetii. Three were from Mycobacterium species and represent the immunodominant antigen of this genus. The other was from E. coli, detected as a gene that complements or suppresses a temperature-sensitive RNase activity. Since the recombinant protein was immunogenic, it may serve as an efficacious vaccine against C. burnetii and other pathogenic microorganisms that express the conserved antigen. Images PMID:3343219

  16. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  17. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.; Stratton, Chris; Wray, Craig P.

    2012-06-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is constrained by concerns about related impacts on the safety of naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter housing units more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spillage. Several test methods purportedly assess the potential for depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage, but these tests are not robustly reliable and repeatable predictors of venting performance, in part because they do not fully capture weather effects on venting performance. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate combustion safety diagnostics in existing codes, standards, and guidelines related to combustion appliances. This review summarizes existing combustion safety test methods, evaluations of these test methods, and also discusses research related to wind effects and the simulation of vent system performance. Current codes and standards related to combustion appliance installation provide little information on assessing backdrafting or spillage potential. A substantial amount of research has been conducted to assess combustion appliance backdrafting and spillage test methods, but primarily focuses on comparing short-term (stress) induced tests and monitoring results. Monitoring, typically performed over one week, indicated that combinations of environmental and house operation characteristics most conducive to combustion spillage were rare. Research, to an extent, has assessed existing combustion safety diagnostics for house depressurization, but the objectives of the diagnostics, both stress and monitoring, are not clearly defined. More research is also needed to quantify the frequency of test “failure” occurrence throughout the building stock and assess the statistical effects of weather (especially wind) on house depressurization and in turn on combustion appliance venting

  18. 38 CFR 17.153 - Training in the use of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.153 Training in the use of appliances. Beneficiaries supplied prosthetic and similar appliances will be additionally entitled to fitting and...

  19. 38 CFR 17.153 - Training in the use of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.153 Training in the use of appliances. Beneficiaries supplied prosthetic and similar appliances will be additionally entitled to fitting and...

  20. 38 CFR 17.153 - Training in the use of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.153 Training in the use of appliances. Beneficiaries supplied prosthetic and similar appliances will be additionally entitled to fitting and...

  1. 38 CFR 17.153 - Training in the use of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.153 Training in the use of appliances. Beneficiaries supplied prosthetic and similar appliances will be additionally entitled to fitting and...

  2. 38 CFR 17.153 - Training in the use of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.153 Training in the use of appliances. Beneficiaries supplied prosthetic and similar appliances will be additionally entitled to fitting and...

  3. International comparison of product certification and verification methods for appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Romankiewicz, John; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  4. Orthodontic parotitis: a rare complication from an orthodontic appliance.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Eileen; Cobb, Alistair R M

    2012-12-01

    A case is presented of a 14-year-old female undergoing orthodontic fixed appliance treatment who presented with right facial swelling in the parotid region. An initial diagnosis of acute infective parotitis was made by her primary care clinician. However, after clinical examination and ultrasonographic imaging, a diagnosis of salivary stasis secondary to inflammatory occlusion of Stensen's ductal orifice was made. The ductal orifice had been traumatized by the adjacent orthodontic appliance. This has not been described before in the literature. The differential diagnosis of parotid enlargement in children is discussed.

  5. International Comparison of Product Certification and Verification Methods for Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Romankiewicz, John; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  6. Enamel stripping and the spring aligner appliance--an update.

    PubMed

    Lew, K K

    1993-12-01

    Irregularity of the mandibular incisors in an otherwise good occlusion is quite common in young adult patients. Through use of enamel stripping in the incisor region, it is possible to create sufficient space to align the teeth with a mandibular sectional removable appliance, commonly known as the spring aligner. This article reviews the methods of enamel stripping and describes the author's preferred technique of enamel stripping and the various modifications of the spring aligner appliances that can be prescribed by the general practitioner to correct mandibular anterior crowding.

  7. 7 CFR 3300.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... heating appliance. Equipment manufacturer means an organization which producers or assembles the complete... (iv). Thermal appliance means the refrigerating, mechanical refrigerating, or heating appliance which... United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa,...

  8. Drawing on international experience to reform the Belgian market for ostomy appliances.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven; Van den Steen, Dirk; Vanleene, Veerle; De Maré, Luc; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Debruyne, Hans; Ramaekers, Dirk

    2007-02-01

    This article aims to review the regulatory framework governing the Belgian ostomy appliance market in the light of the experience of Denmark, France, the Netherlands and Ontario (Canada) with regulation of ostomy appliances. Information about the regulatory framework was derived from the international literature, analysis of legal texts and a survey completed by national experts. The comparative analysis revealed that these countries have adopted varying approaches towards regulating their domestic ostomy appliance market. Strategies to keep down prices include public procurement in Denmark, maximum prices in France and exclusion of expensive appliances from reimbursement in the Netherlands. To contain public expenditure on ostomy appliances, consumption patterns are monitored in the Netherlands, the quantity of reimbursed appliances is limited in Belgium and public reimbursement is restricted in Ontario. Ostomy appliances are generally distributed by community pharmacies and medical equipment shops. In countries that emphasise home care delivery such as Denmark, domiciliary distributors dominate the market to the detriment of community pharmacies which do not seem to be able to offer this service at a competitive price. An avenue for reforming the Belgian ostomy appliance market is proposed which valorizes the role of ostomy care nurses in guiding the choice of ostomy appliances. Furthermore, it is recommended that a competitive tendering process determines the price of ostomy appliances, that reimbursement for service provision by distributors is separated from reimbursement of appliances, and that patients receive a fixed grant from the third-party payer to buy ostomy appliances.

  9. 14 CFR 21.617 - Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: import appliances. 21.617 Section 21.617 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Order Authorizations § 21.617 Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances. (a) A letter of TSO design approval may be issued for an appliance that is manufactured in a foreign country...

  10. 46 CFR 78.47-45 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to...-45 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance with subchapter...

  11. 46 CFR 167.15-28 - Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-28 Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. The inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements must be in accordance with...

  12. 46 CFR 97.37-42 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to..., Etc. § 97.37-42 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance...

  13. 46 CFR 78.47-45 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to...-45 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance with subchapter...

  14. 33 CFR 150.507 - How must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... inflatable lifesaving appliances? 150.507 Section 150.507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Specialty Equipment Inflatable Lifesaving Appliances § 150.507 How must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances? (a) The operator must service each inflatable liferaft according to 46 CFR subpart...

  15. 33 CFR 150.507 - How must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... inflatable lifesaving appliances? 150.507 Section 150.507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Specialty Equipment Inflatable Lifesaving Appliances § 150.507 How must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances? (a) The operator must service each inflatable liferaft according to 46 CFR subpart...

  16. 14 CFR 183.63 - Continuing requirements: Products, parts or appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... appliances. 183.63 Section 183.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Designation Authorization § 183.63 Continuing requirements: Products, parts or appliances. For any approval or certificate for a product, part or appliance issued under the authority of this subpart, or under...

  17. 46 CFR 167.15-28 - Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-28 Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. The inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements must be in accordance with...

  18. 33 CFR 150.507 - How must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... inflatable lifesaving appliances? 150.507 Section 150.507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Specialty Equipment Inflatable Lifesaving Appliances § 150.507 How must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances? (a) The operator must service each inflatable liferaft according to 46 CFR subpart...

  19. 46 CFR 167.15-28 - Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-28 Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. The inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements must be in accordance with...

  20. 46 CFR 196.37-37 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to..., etc. § 196.37-37 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance...

  1. 46 CFR 97.37-42 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to..., Etc. § 97.37-42 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance...

  2. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally...

  3. 42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and... Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment. (a) Drugs and biologicals. Except as specified... can obtain a continuing supply. (c) Supplies, appliances, and equipment. Except as specified...

  4. 14 CFR 183.63 - Continuing requirements: Products, parts or appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... appliances. 183.63 Section 183.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Designation Authorization § 183.63 Continuing requirements: Products, parts or appliances. For any approval or certificate for a product, part or appliance issued under the authority of this subpart, an ODA Holder...

  5. 46 CFR 97.37-42 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to..., Etc. § 97.37-42 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance...

  6. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally...

  7. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally...

  8. 42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and... Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment. (a) Drugs and biologicals. Except as specified... can obtain a continuing supply. (c) Supplies, appliances, and equipment. Except as specified...

  9. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally...

  10. 42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and... Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment. (a) Drugs and biologicals. Except as specified... can obtain a continuing supply. (c) Supplies, appliances, and equipment. Except as specified...

  11. 14 CFR 21.617 - Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: import appliances. 21.617 Section 21.617 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Order Authorizations § 21.617 Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances. (a) A letter of TSO design approval may be issued for an appliance that is manufactured in a foreign country...

  12. 46 CFR 78.47-45 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to...-45 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance with subchapter...

  13. 46 CFR 78.47-45 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to...-45 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance with subchapter...

  14. 14 CFR 183.63 - Continuing requirements: Products, parts or appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... appliances. 183.63 Section 183.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Designation Authorization § 183.63 Continuing requirements: Products, parts or appliances. For any approval or certificate for a product, part or appliance issued under the authority of this subpart, an ODA Holder...

  15. 46 CFR 196.37-37 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to..., etc. § 196.37-37 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance...

  16. 14 CFR 183.63 - Continuing requirements: Products, parts or appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... appliances. 183.63 Section 183.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Designation Authorization § 183.63 Continuing requirements: Products, parts or appliances. For any approval or certificate for a product, part or appliance issued under the authority of this subpart, or under...

  17. 14 CFR 183.63 - Continuing requirements: Products, parts or appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... appliances. 183.63 Section 183.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Designation Authorization § 183.63 Continuing requirements: Products, parts or appliances. For any approval or certificate for a product, part or appliance issued under the authority of this subpart, an ODA Holder...

  18. 46 CFR 167.15-28 - Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-28 Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. The inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements must be in accordance with...

  19. 33 CFR 150.507 - How must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... inflatable lifesaving appliances? 150.507 Section 150.507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Specialty Equipment Inflatable Lifesaving Appliances § 150.507 How must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances? (a) The operator must service each inflatable liferaft according to 46 CFR subpart...

  20. 42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and... Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment. (a) Drugs and biologicals. Except as specified... can obtain a continuing supply. (c) Supplies, appliances, and equipment. Except as specified...

  1. 46 CFR 78.47-45 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to...-45 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance with subchapter...

  2. 46 CFR 97.37-42 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to..., Etc. § 97.37-42 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance...

  3. 46 CFR 97.37-42 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to..., Etc. § 97.37-42 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance...

  4. 46 CFR 196.37-37 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to..., etc. § 196.37-37 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance...

  5. 46 CFR 167.15-28 - Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-28 Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. The inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements must be in accordance with...

  6. 46 CFR 196.37-37 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to..., etc. § 196.37-37 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance...

  7. 33 CFR 150.507 - How must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... inflatable lifesaving appliances? 150.507 Section 150.507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Specialty Equipment Inflatable Lifesaving Appliances § 150.507 How must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances? (a) The operator must service each inflatable liferaft according to 46 CFR subpart...

  8. 77 FR 72324 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of... rescission of administrative review concerning the countervailing duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic of China. See Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and...

  9. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For separate testing of a mechanical refrigerating...

  10. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For separate testing of a mechanical refrigerating...

  11. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For separate testing of a mechanical refrigerating...

  12. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For separate testing of a mechanical refrigerating...

  13. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For separate testing of a mechanical refrigerating...

  14. 46 CFR 174.100 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Offshore Drilling Units § 174.100 Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity. (a) Appliances to... station. (2) Each closing appliance must remain watertight under the design water pressure of the... through 174.085; and (2) A wind heeling moment calculated in accordance with § 174.055 using a...

  15. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina

    2011-07-20

    It is well established that energy efficiency is most often the lowest cost approach to reducing national energy use and minimizing carbon emissions. National investments in energy efficiency to date have been highly cost-effective. The cumulative impacts (out to 2050) of residential energy efficiency standards are expected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.71:1. This project examined energy end-uses in the residential, commercial, and in some cases the industrial sectors. The scope is limited to appliances and equipment, and does not include building materials, building envelopes, and system designs. This scope is consistent with the scope of DOE's appliance standards program, although many products considered here are not currently subject to energy efficiency standards. How much energy could the United States save if the most efficient design options currently feasible were adopted universally? What design features could produce those savings? How would the savings from various technologies compare? With an eye toward identifying promising candidates and strategies for potential energy efficiency standards, the Max Tech and Beyond project aims to answer these questions. The analysis attempts to consolidate, in one document, the energy savings potential and design characteristics of best-on-market products, best-engineered products (i.e., hypothetical products produced using best-on-market components and technologies), and emerging technologies in research & development. As defined here, emerging technologies are fundamentally new and are as yet unproven in the market, although laboratory studies and/or emerging niche applications offer persuasive evidence of major energy-savings potential. The term 'max tech' is used to describe both best-engineered and emerging technologies (whichever appears to offer larger savings). Few best-on-market products currently qualify as max tech, since few apply all available best practices and components. The three primary

  16. Heat shock transcriptional responses in an MC-Producing Cyanobacterium (Planktothrix agardhii) and its MC-deficient mutant under high light conditions.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thi Du Chi; Bernard, Cecile; Ammar, Myriam; Chaouch, Soraya; Comte, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are the most commonly-reported hepatotoxins produced by various cyanobacterial taxa in fresh waters to constitute a potential threat to human and animal health. The biological role of MCs in the producer organisms is not known, and it would be very useful to understand the driving force behind the toxin production. Recent studies have suggested that MCs may have a protective function in cells facing environmental stress. Following this starting premise, we speculate that under adverse conditions the expression of stress-related genes coding for Heat Shock Proteins (Hsp) might be different in an MC-producing strain and its MC-deficient mutant. We therefore used RT-qPCR to compare the expression of 13 hsp genes of an MC-producing strain of Planktothrix agardhii (CYA126/8) and its MC-deficient ΔmcyD mutant over different periods of exposure to high light stress (HL). Three reference genes (RGs) were selected from six candidates to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Of these three RGs (rsh, rpoD, and gltA), gltA is used here for the first time as an RG in prokaryotes. Under HL stress, five genes were found to be strongly up-regulated in both strains (htpG, dnaK, hspA, groES, and groEL). Unexpectedly, we found that the MC-producing wild type strain accumulated higher levels of htpG and dnaK transcripts in response to HL stress than the MC-deficient mutant. In addition, a significant increase in the mcyE transcript was detected in the mutant, suggesting that MCs are required under HL conditions. We discuss several possible roles of MCs in the response to HL stress through their possible involvement in the protective mechanisms of the cells.

  17. Technology Case Studies: Retrofit Integrated Space and Water Heating - Field Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-01

    Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  18. Rapid assessment of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease produced in the industrial manufacturing process of meat and bone meals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prions, infectious agents associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, are primarily composed of the misfolded and pathogenic form (PrPSc) of the host-encoded prion protein. Because PrPSc retains infectivity after undergoing routine sterilizing processes, the cause of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) outbreaks are suspected to be feeding cattle meat and bone meals (MBMs) contaminated with the prion. To assess the validity of prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease, which is produced in the industrial manufacturing process of MBMs, we pooled, homogenized, and heat treated the spinal cords of BSE-infected cows under various experimental conditions. Results Prion inactivation was analyzed quantitatively in terms of the infectivity and PrPSc of the treated samples. Following treatment at 140°C for 1 h, infectivity was reduced to 1/35 of that of the untreated samples. Treatment at 180°C for 3 h was required to reduce infectivity. However, PrPSc was detected in all heat-treated samples by using the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technique, which amplifies PrPScin vitro. Quantitative analysis of the inactivation efficiency of BSE PrPSc was possible with the introduction of the PMCA50, which is the dilution ratio of 10% homogenate needed to yield 50% positivity for PrPSc in amplified samples. Conclusions Log PMCA50 exhibited a strong linear correlation with the transmission rate in the bioassay; infectivity was no longer detected when the log PMCA50 of the inoculated sample was reduced to 1.75. The quantitative PMCA assay may be useful for safety evaluation for recycling and effective utilization of MBMs as an organic resource. PMID:23835086

  19. Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to test a series of hypotheses regarding the influences of household characteristics (such as education, age, sex, race, income, and size of household), building characteristics (such as age, ownership, and type), and electricity prices on the use of ENERGY STAR appliances.

  20. 38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prosthetic and similar appliances. 17.150 Section 17.150 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar...

  1. 38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prosthetic and similar appliances. 17.150 Section 17.150 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar...

  2. 38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prosthetic and similar appliances. 17.150 Section 17.150 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar...

  3. 38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prosthetic and similar appliances. 17.150 Section 17.150 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar...

  4. 38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prosthetic and similar appliances. 17.150 Section 17.150 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar...

  5. 77. The Bertoglio Storage and Appliance Company (804 South Utah) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. The Bertoglio Storage and Appliance Company (804 South Utah) dates from ca. 1915. window dimentions vary throughout the building, and many have been partially bricked in. A retaining wall shores up the rear of the building, and there have also been modifications to the interior. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  6. Effect of Oral Appliance for Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Madhu; Srivastava, Govind Narayan; Pratap, Chandra Bhanu; Sharma, Vipul Kumar; Chaturvedi, Thakur Prasad

    2015-01-01

    To analyze therapeutic and clinical efficacy of mandibular advancement device (MAD) on snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Thirty patients with OSA were recruited on the basis ofpolysomnography with an Apnea and Hypopnea Index (AHI) greater than 5 but less than 30. Repeat polysomnography was performed in follow up with the appliance in place. MAD used in the study is Medical Dental Sleep Appliance (MDSA). It is a titratable appliance. With the appliance in position, the mandible was advanced to an extent that did not exceed 70% of maximum protrusion capacity; Vertical opening did not exceed on an average 3-4 mm beyond freeway space. Comparison of pre AHI scores (diagnostic PSG) with post AHI scores (PSG with OA in-situ) showed a decrease from Mean +/- SD 26.2367 +/- 6.53 to 13.7111 +/- 627. A highly significant (p < 0.001) improvement in AHI was observed. Pre and post ESS score showed a mean decrease from 14.2333 +/- 5.00 to 6.1481 +/- 2.46 MDSA is effective in reducing apnea hypopnea index scores and improving oxygen saturation level.

  7. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; (ii) The weld on the safety appliance bracket or support does not contain any defect as defined in... accordance with § 238.17(e) if any part or portion of the weld contains a defect. Any repairs made to such... remedial actions identified in paragraph (j) of this section. A defect for the purposes of this...

  8. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; (ii) The weld on the safety appliance bracket or support does not contain any defect as defined in... accordance with § 238.17(e) if any part or portion of the weld contains a defect. Any repairs made to such... remedial actions identified in paragraph (j) of this section. A defect for the purposes of this...

  9. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; (ii) The weld on the safety appliance bracket or support does not contain any defect as defined in... accordance with § 238.17(e) if any part or portion of the weld contains a defect. Any repairs made to such... remedial actions identified in paragraph (j) of this section. A defect for the purposes of this...

  10. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250 Section 878.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices §...

  11. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250 Section 878.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices §...

  12. Refrigeration Controls: Electrical & Mechanical; Appliance Repair 3: 9027.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This booklet outlines a course designed to equip major appliance service students with the fundamental knowledge and understanding of procedures, basic electrical circuitry, and nomenclatures of components necessary in successfully tracing a circuit and repairing or replacing a malfunctioning component. Course content includes goals, specific…

  13. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition and Student Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Gene; Calvert, King

    This second edition contains teacher and student guides for 14 units of instruction in major appliance repair. Each unit in the teacher edition includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested activities, answers to assignment sheets, answers to the written test, written test, a unit evaluation form, teacher…

  14. 42 CFR 409.14 - Supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Supplies, appliances, and equipment. 409.14 Section 409.14 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... continue to use after he or she leaves the hospital or CAH, for example, heart valves or a heart...

  15. 42 CFR 409.14 - Supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplies, appliances, and equipment. 409.14 Section 409.14 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... continue to use after he or she leaves the hospital or CAH, for example, heart valves or a heart...

  16. 42 CFR 409.14 - Supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supplies, appliances, and equipment. 409.14 Section 409.14 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... continue to use after he or she leaves the hospital or CAH, for example, heart valves or a heart...

  17. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... means a crack or fracture of any visibly discernible length or width. When appropriate, civil penalties... fractures prior to the equipment being placed in-service; (iii) The welded safety appliance bracket or... crack or fracture. (4) The date, time, location, identification of the person making the repair, and...

  18. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... means a crack or fracture of any visibly discernible length or width. When appropriate, civil penalties... fractures prior to the equipment being placed in-service; (iii) The welded safety appliance bracket or... crack or fracture. (4) The date, time, location, identification of the person making the repair, and...

  19. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410 Section 872.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... orthodontic treatment. The device is affixed to a tooth so that pressure can be exerted on the teeth....

  20. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410 Section 872.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... orthodontic treatment. The device is affixed to a tooth so that pressure can be exerted on the teeth....

  1. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410 Section 872.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... orthodontic treatment. The device is affixed to a tooth so that pressure can be exerted on the teeth....

  2. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410 Section 872.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... orthodontic treatment. The device is affixed to a tooth so that pressure can be exerted on the teeth....

  3. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: IMPLEMENTING RULES Exemptions § 81.20 Lights and sound...

  4. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: IMPLEMENTING RULES Exemptions § 81.20 Lights and sound...

  5. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: IMPLEMENTING RULES Exemptions § 81.20 Lights and sound...

  6. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: IMPLEMENTING RULES Exemptions § 81.20 Lights and sound...

  7. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: IMPLEMENTING RULES Exemptions § 81.20 Lights and sound...

  8. Construction bite--cornerstone of an efficient functional appliance.

    PubMed

    Yezdani, Arif

    2012-01-01

    Construction bite is an intermaxillary wax record used to relate mandible to maxilla in the three dimensions of space. It is an indispensable record to correct functional malocclusions like functional retrusion and functional protrusion. This article highlights the basic required dimensions of construction bites used for the fabrication of various functional appliances.

  9. WEST FACADE OF THE BERTOGLIO STORAGE AND APPLIANCE CO. AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST FACADE OF THE BERTOGLIO STORAGE AND APPLIANCE CO. AN EXPOSURE SEAM AND DIFFERING LINES TO THE HIP ROOF INDICATE THAT THE SOUTHERN PORTION OF THE BUILDING IS A LATER ADDITION. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  10. 78. West facade of the Bertoglio Storage and Appliance Co. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. West facade of the Bertoglio Storage and Appliance Co. An exposure seam and differing lines to the hip roof indicate that the southern portion of the building is a later addition. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  11. 46 CFR 108.580 - Personal lifesaving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal lifesaving appliances. 108.580 Section 108.580 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN..., they must be of the same or similar design and have the same method of operation. (1) General....

  12. 46 CFR 108.580 - Personal lifesaving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Personal lifesaving appliances. 108.580 Section 108.580 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN..., they must be of the same or similar design and have the same method of operation. (1) General....

  13. Electricity savings from residential appliance standards in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; Lebot, B.

    1993-04-01

    This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained in Sweden by instituting specific standards for five appliances: Refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. At the present time, Sweden has no minimum energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained by instituting specific standards for five product types (refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and dryers) starting in 1995. A methodology similar to that used in analyses for the European Community was employed in this study. In the Swedish study, we used appliance test data developed by the Swedish consumer agency, Konsument Verket, to estimate new unit energy consumption for each product type. Shipments, saturations, energy use, and demographic data were input to a spreadsheet model that sums energy consumption for each product type over the period 1990--2010. Both a base case and a standards case scenario are simulated for each of the five appliance types. It was found that electricity use for these five products can be reduced by 12% over the time period from 1990--2010. Most of the energy savings come from instituting efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. For each product class type, the impact on manufacturer offerings is discussed. For example, for simple refrigerators, eleven 1990 models meet the 1995 standard and six models meet the 2000 standard out of a total of 63 models.

  14. Intermittent self-catheterization appliances for disabled patients.

    PubMed

    Robinson, John

    2006-12-01

    Occasionally, district nurses may be asked to teach a patient intermittent self-catheterization (ISC). However, if the patient has some form of physical disability that reduces their manual dexterity or limits their movement, should this stop the patient undertaking the procedure? This article outlines some of the appliances available to help disabled patients undertake ISC.

  15. Waterheaters and Dishwashers; Appliance Repair--Beginning: 9023.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course outline provides major appliance repair students with a fundamental knowledge of waterheaters and dishwashers, and is intended to guide their performance of duties as technicians. Covering the complete electrical and mechanical functions of heaters and dishwashers, the course outline includes goals, specific block objectives,…

  16. Central heating devices cause childhood injuries but rarely burns: a study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Petridou, Eleni; Alexe, Delia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2002-06-01

    Injuries related to central heating devices represent a non-negligible fraction of all indoor injuries among children with mechanical lesions, outnumbering burns. Prevention strategies refer mainly to modifications or safer use of the appliances and improvements in building design.

  17. A prospective optical surface scanning and cephalometric assessment of the effect of functional appliances on the soft tissues.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, S; Moss, J P; Goodwin, P; Lee, R T

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different functional appliances on the soft tissues as assessed by cephalometry and optical surface scanning. Forty-two patients were randomly allocated to Bass, Twin Block (TB), and Twin Block + Headgear (TB + Hg) groups. Lateral cephalograms and optical surface scans were recorded before and after the 10-month study period. ANOVA was used to test the cephalometric variables for differences at the 5 per cent level. The optical surface scanning and cephalometric results were consistent in the sagittal dimension. In the vertical dimension, however, the optical surface scans consistently recorded a greater increase compared with cephalometric values. No differences were detected with regard to cephalometric values at the 5 per cent level. However, the Bass appliance produced greater forward positioning of soft tissue pogonion as assessed by optical surface scanning.

  18. An investigation into the vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields from appliances in UK homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.; Conein, Emma; Henshaw, Denis L.

    2005-07-01

    Elliptically polarized magnetic fields induce higher currents in the body compared with their plane polarized counterparts. This investigation examines the degree of vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) in the home, with regard to the adverse health effects reportedly associated with ELF-MFs, for instance childhood leukaemia. Tri-axial measurements of the magnitude and phase of the 0-3000 Hz magnetic fields, produced by 226 domestic mains-fed appliances of 32 different types, were carried out in 16 homes in Worcestershire in the summer of 2004. Magnetic field strengths were low, with average (RMS) values of 0.03 ± 0.02 µT across all residences. In contrast, background field ellipticities were high, on average 47 ± 11%. Microwave and electric ovens produced the highest ellipticities: mean respective values of 21 ± 21% and 21 ± 17% were observed 20 cm away from these appliances. There was a negative correlation between field strength and field polarization, which we attribute to the higher relative field contribution close to each individual (single-phase) appliance. The measurements demonstrate that domestic magnetic fields are extremely complex and cannot simply be characterized by traditional measurements such as time-weighted average or peak exposure levels. We conclude that ellipticity should become a relevant metric for future epidemiological studies of health and ELF-MF exposure. This work is supported by the charity CHILDREN with LEUKAEMIA, registered charity number 298405.

  19. Emergencies in Orthodontics. Part 2: Management of Removable Appliances, Functional Appliances and other Adjuncts to Orthodontic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dowsing, Paul; Murray, Alison; Sandler, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    In the second of two papers, management of orthodontic emergencies involving appliances other than Fixed appliances will be detailed. Problems relating to removable appliances, as well as other orthodontic adjuncts, will be discussed. Unfortunately, orthodontic appliance breakage does occur, despite the clinicians giving clear and concise instructions to the patients and their parents at fitting. If general dental practitioners have a practical knowledge of how to diagnose problems and to provide appropriate advice or timely 'emergency' treatment, this will significantly reduce the inconvenience for all parties concerned. It should also ensure that treatment progresses in the most efficient and comfortable manner for their patients. In specific situations the early, accurate identification of the problem and instigation of its appropriate management can avoid more serious consequences. Clinical Relevance: Appropriate handling of an orthodontic 'emergency' by the dentist can, on many occasions, provide immediate relief to the patient. This will, in turn, allow treatment to continue in the right direction, thus allowing more efficient and effective use of valuable resources.

  20. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.