Science.gov

Sample records for heat producing appliances

  1. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with a comfort heating system. (i) When a manufactured home is manufactured to contain a heating... oil burning comfort heating appliances shall have a flue loss of not more than 25 percent, and...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... with a comfort heating system. (i) When a manufactured home is manufactured to contain a heating... combination heating and cooling system shall be provided with at least one readily adjustable automatic... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufactured homes. (1) A manufactured home shall be provided with a comfort heating system. (i) When a.... (e) Each space heating, cooling or combination heating and cooling system shall be provided with at... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... with a comfort heating system. (i) When a manufactured home is manufactured to contain a heating... heating and cooling system shall be provided with at least one readily adjustable automatic control for... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel...

  5. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... with a comfort heating system. (i) When a manufactured home is manufactured to contain a heating... heating and cooling system shall be provided with at least one readily adjustable automatic control for... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel...

  6. Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.

    1983-11-21

    An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

  7. Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery and Utilization from Residential Appliances and Fixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, John J; Christian, Jeff; Gehl, Anthony C

    2012-09-01

    Executive Summary In every home irrespective of its size, location, age, or efficiency, heat in the form of drainwater or dryer exhaust is wasted. Although from a waste stream, this energy has the potential for being captured, possibly stored, and then reused for preheating hot water or air thereby saving operating costs to the homeowner. In applications such as a shower and possibly a dryer, waste heat is produced at the same time as energy is used, so that a heat exchanger to capture the waste energy and return it to the supply is all that is needed. In other applications such as capturing the energy in drainwater from a tub, dishwasher, or washing machine, the availability of waste heat might not coincide with an immediate use for energy, and consequently a heat exchanger system with heat storage capacity (i.e. a regenerator) would be necessary. This study describes a two-house experimental evaluation of a system designed to capture waste heat from the shower, dishwasher clothes washer and dryer, and to use this waste heat to offset some of the hot water energy needs of the house. Although each house was unoccupied, they were fitted with equipment that would completely simulate the heat loads and behavior of human occupants including operating the appliances and fixtures on a demand schedule identical to Building American protocol (Hendron, 2009). The heat recovery system combined (1) a gravity-film heat exchanger (GFX) installed in a vertical section of drainline, (2) a heat exchanger for capturing dryer exhaust heat, (3) a preheat tank for storing the captured heat, and (4) a small recirculation pump and controls, so that the system could be operated anytime that waste heat from the shower, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and in any combination was produced. The study found capturing energy from the dishwasher and clothes washer to be a challenge since those two appliances dump waste water over a short time interval. Controls based on the status of the

  8. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  9. Comparison of the effects produced by headgear and pendulum appliances followed by fixed orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Angelieri, Fernanda; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Janson, Guilherme; Castanha Henriques, José Fernando; Pinzan, Arnaldo

    2008-12-01

    This study compared the effects produced by two different molar distalizers, namely cervical headgear (CHG) and the intraoral pendulum appliance, associated with fixed orthodontic appliances. The headgear group comprised 30 patients (19 females, 11 males), with an initial age of 13.07 years [standard deviation (SD) = 1.3], treated with CHG and fixed orthodontic appliances for a mean period of 3.28 years, and the pendulum group 22 patients (15 females, 7 males), with initial age of 13.75 years (SD = 1.86), treated with the pendulum appliance followed by fixed orthodontic appliances for a mean period of 4.12 years. Lateral cephalograms were taken at the start (T1) and on completion (T2) of orthodontic treatment. The pendulum and CHG groups were similar as to initial age, severity of the Class II malocclusion, gender distribution, initial cephalometric characteristics, and initial and final treatment priority index (TPI). Only treatment time was not similar between the groups, with a need for annualization for data for the pendulum group. The data were compared with independent t-tests. There was significantly greater restriction of maxillary forward growth and improvement of the skeletal maxillomandibular relationship in the CHG group (P < 0.05). The maxillary molars were more mesially tipped and extruded and the mandibular molars more uprighted in the CHG group compared with the pendulum group (P < 0.05). There was more labial tipping of the mandibular incisors and greater overbite reduction in the pendulum group. The pendulum appliance produced only dentoalveolar effects, different from the CHG appliance, which restricted maxillary forward displacement, thus improving the skeletal maxillomandibular relationship.

  10. The Pacific Northwest residential consumer: Perceptions and preferences of home heating fuels, major appliances, and appliance fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Harkreader, S.A.; Hattrup, M.P.

    1988-09-01

    In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two follow up market research projects: Phase 2 in 1985, and Phase 3, in 1988. In this report the respondents' perceptions, preferences, and fuel switching possibilities of fuels for home heating and major appliances are examined. To aid in effective target marketing, the report identifies market segments according to consumers' demographics, life-cycle, attitudes, and opinions.

  11. 77 FR 25747 - Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... of San Jose, California). 71 FR 7995-96. The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the... COMMISSION Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same; Notice... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain incremental dental...

  12. Development and certification of the innovative pioneer oil burner for residential heating appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, B.

    1997-09-01

    The Pioneer burner represents another important milestone for the oil heat industry. It is the first practical burner design that is designated for use in small capacity heating appliances matching the needs of modern energy efficient home designs. Firing in the range of 0.3 GPH to 0.65 GPH (40,000-90,000 Btu/hr) it allows for new oil heating appliance designs to compete with the other major fuel choices in the small design load residential market. This market includes energy efficient single family houses, town-houses, condominiums, modular units, and mobile homes. The firing range also is wide enough to cover a large percentage of more conventional heating equipment and home designs as well. Having recently passed Underwriters Laboratory certification tests the burner in now being field tested in several homes and samples are being made available to interested boiler and furnace manufacturers for product development and application testing.

  13. Generic model for district heating: a geothermal appliance

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, A.

    1980-11-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is developing a model desgined to assess the engineering and economic requirements which must be addressed when the implementation of district heating is seriously considered. A brief overview of the structure of the BNL District Heating Model is presented, including a discussion of the function of each of its major program components. The model is composed of four submodels, each of which serves a distinct function in the analysis of district heating. These are the Heat Demand, Heat Source, District Heating, and Market analysis Submodels. (MHR)

  14. Waste-heat recovery system for commercial cooking appliances. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.J.

    1980-12-01

    Installation of the Hydrocoil Waste Heat Recovery System over a battery of gas-fired commercial cooking appliances in a restaurant in Pasadena, California, is discussed. Installation of the equipment resulted in gas usage reduction, a savings to the restaurant owner of $70/month at a gas cost of $0.26/ccf. The term load factor or the ratio of actual usage compared to the maximum potential burner consumption of gas for commercial cooking equipment is defined. (MCW)

  15. Historical Review of Electric Household Appliances using Induction-Heating and Future Challenging Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Izuo; Yamashita, Hidekazu; Omori, Hideki; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    This paper presents historical progress on technology evolution of the electric and electronic household appliances using the inverter, especially for Induction-Heating applications, which have been put in practical use as the desk-top cooker for the first time at home in 1974 until being applied to the rice cooker and the multi-burner cooking heater. It also describes the future innovative evolution of the power semiconductor switching devices and the inverter circuit topologies supporting its progressive developments. Looking back its progress, the future trends on consumer power electronics is discussed on the practical problem in the future.

  16. Induction-heated cooking appliance using new quasi-resonant ZVS-PWM with power factor correction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Nakaoka, Mutsuo; Izaki, Kiyoshi; Hirota, Izuo; Yamashita, Hidekazu; Omori, Hideki

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a new prototype of a voltage-fed quasi-load resonant inverter with a constant-frequency variable-power (CFVP) regulation scheme, which is developed for the next-generation high-frequency high-power induction-heated (IH) cooking appliances in household applications. This application-specific high-frequency single-ended push-pull inverter using new-generation specially designed insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT`s) can efficiently operate under a principle of zero-voltage switching pulsewidth modulation (ZVS-PWM) strategy. This low-cost soft-switching inverter using reverse-conducting and reverse-blocking IGBT`s is more suitable for multiple-burner-type induction-heating cooking appliances. The operating principle and unique features of a new resonant ZVS-PWM inverter circuit topology is originally described, together with its steady-state power regulation characteristics, which are illustrated on the basis of its computer-aided simulation and experimental results. The ZVS operation condition on power regulation, loss analysis of new IGBT`s incorporated into this inverter, and its active filtering performance are discussed herein for IH cooking appliances.

  17. Appliance Analysis : Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Quaid, Maureen; Kunkle, Rick; Lagerberg, Brian

    1991-08-01

    The appliance use of RCDP-2 homes was analyzed to determine whether significant differences existed in houses that had efficient appliances (domestic hot water (DHW) and refrigerators) compared to those with appliances not considered efficient. Specific analyses addressed: (1) DHW and refrigerator appliance end uses; (2) whole house and space heat energy use; and, (3) interaction effects between appliance use and space heating energy use.

  18. Appliance Analysis :Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Quaid, Maureen; Kunkle, Rick; Lagerberg, Brian

    1991-08-01

    The appliance use of RCDP-2 homes was analyzed to determine whether significant differences existed in houses that had efficient appliances (domestic hot water (DHW) and refrigerators) compared to those with appliances not considered efficient. Specific analyses addressed: (1) DHW and refrigerator appliance end uses; (2) whole house and space heat energy use; and, (3) interaction effects between appliance use and space heating energy use.

  19. Method for producing micro heat panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Peterson, George P. (Inventor); Rummler, Donald R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Flat or curved micro heat pipe panels are fabricated by arranging essentially parallel filaments in the shape of the desired panel. The configuration of the filaments corresponds to the desired configuration of the tubes that will constitute the heat pipes. A thermally conductive material is then deposited on and around the filaments to fill in the desired shape of the panel. The filaments are then removed, leaving tubular passageways of the desired configuration and surface texture in the material. The tubes are then filled with a working fluid and sealed. Composite micro heat pipe laminates are formed by layering individual micro heat pipe panels and bonding them to each other to form a single structure. The layering sequence of the micro heat pipe panels can be tailored to transport heat preferentially in specific directions as desired for a particular application.

  20. Atopic dermatitis and indoor use of energy sources in cooking and heating appliances

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) prevalence has considerably increased worldwide in recent years. Studying indoor environments is particularly relevant, especially in industrialised countries where many people spend 80% of their time at home, particularly children. This study is aimed to identify the potential association between AD and the energy source (biomass, gas and electricity) used for cooking and domestic heating in a Spanish schoolchildren population. Methods As part of the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) phase III study, a cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted with 21,355 6-to-7-year-old children from 8 Spanish ISAAC centres. AD prevalence, environmental risk factors and the use of domestic heating/cooking devices were assessed using the validated ISAAC questionnaire. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (cOR, aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained. A logistic regression analysis was performed (Chi-square test, p-value < 0.05). Results It was found that the use of biomass systems gave the highest cORs, but only electric cookers showed a significant cOR of 1.14 (95% CI: 1.01-1.27). When the geographical area and the mother’s educational level were included in the logistic model, the obtained aOR values differed moderately from the initial cORs. Electric heating was the only type which obtained a significant aOR (1.13; 95% CI: 1.00-1.27). Finally, the model with all selected confounding variables (sex, BMI, number of siblings, mother’s educational level, smoking habits of parents, truck traffic and geographical area), showed aOR values which were very similar to those obtained in the previous adjusted logistic analysis. None of the results was statistically significant, but the use of electric heating showed an aOR close to significance (1.14; 95% CI: 0.99-1.31). Conclusion In our study population, no statistically significant associations were found between the type of indoor energy

  1. Hair Styling Appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  2. Method for producing heat-resistant semi-inorganic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yajima, S.; Okamura, K.; Shishido, T.; Hasegawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The method for producing a heat resistant, semi-inorganic compound is discussed. Five examples in which various alcohols, phenols, and aromatic carbonic acids are used to test heat resistance and solubility are provided.

  3. Glycerol citrate polyesters produced through microwave heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of various heating methods without catalysis to prepare copolyesters from citric acid:glycerol blends were studied. In the presence of short term microwave treatments, i.e., 60 sec at 1200 W, blends of glycerol and citric acid invariably formed solid amorphous copolyesters. Fourier tra...

  4. Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid

    DOEpatents

    Lambirth, Gene Richard

    2011-01-11

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

  5. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Hunh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

    2013-05-28

    Methods for treating a subsurface formation and compositions produced therefrom are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  6. HEAT TRANSFER AND TRITIUM PRODUCING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, E.F.

    1962-06-01

    This invention related to a circulating lithium-containing blanket system in a neution source hav'ing a magnetic field associated therewith. The blanket serves simultaneously and efficiently as a heat transfer mediunm and as a source of tritium. The blanket is composed of a lithium-6-enriched fused salt selected from the group consisting of lithium nitrite, lithium nitrate, a mixture of said salts, a mixture of each of said salts with lithium oxide, and a mixture of said salts with each other and with lithium oxide. The moderator, which is contained within the blanket in a separate conduit, can be water. A stellarator is one of the neutron sources which can be used in this invention. (AEC)

  7. Electric toothbrushes induce electric current in fixed dental appliances by creating magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Ishii, Nozomu; Sano, Natsuki; Ogura, Hideo; Terada, Kazuto

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic fields can represent a health problem, especially low frequency electromagnetic fields sometimes induced by electric current in metallic objects worn or used in or on the body (as opposed to high frequency electromagnetic fields that produce heat). Electric toothbrushes are widely used because of their convenience, but the electric motors that power them may produce electromagnetic waves. In this study, we showed that electric toothbrushes generate low frequency (1-2000 Hz) magnetic fields and induce electric current in dental appliances (e. g. orthodontic and prosthetic appliances and dental implants). Current induced by electric toothbrushes might be dependent on the quantity and types of metals used, and the shape of the appliances. Furthermore, these induced currents in dental appliances could impact upon human oral health, producing pain and discomfort.

  8. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Henh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

    2009-10-20

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  9. Heat pump assisted drying of agricultural produce-an overview.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krishna Kumar; Kar, Abhijit

    2012-04-01

    This review paper included the recent progress made in heat pump assisted drying, its principle, mechanism and efficiency, type and its application for drying of agricultural produce. Heat pump assisted drying provides a controllable drying environment (temperature and humidity) for better products quality at low energy consumption. It has remarkable future prospects and revolutionaries ability. The heat pump system consists of an expansion valve, two heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser), and a compressor, which are connected by using copper tubes. In this paper we also provided a review discussion on different type of heat pump assisted drying system ready for remarkable and commercial use in different type of food industries. Here we also have given some major advantage and disadvantage of heat pump assisted drying.

  10. Measurement of Heat Propagation in a Laser Produced Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gregori, G; Glenzer, S H; Knight, J; Niemann, C; Price, D; Froula, D H; Edwards, J; Town, R P J; Brantov, A; Bychenkov, V Y; Rozmus, W

    2003-08-22

    We present the observation of a nonlocal heat wave by measuring spatially and temporally resolved electron temperature profiles in a laser produced nitrogen plasma. Absolutely calibrated measurements have been performed by resolving the ion-acoustic wave spectra across the plasma volume with Thomson scattering. We find that the experimental electron temperature profiles disagree with flux-limited models, but are consistent with transport models that account for the nonlocal effects in heat conduction by fast electrons.

  11. ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE SERVICEMAN, SUGGESTED GUIDE FOR A TRAINING COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOVE, L. CARL; RONEY, MAURICE W.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO AID IN PLANNING AND DEVELOPING A COURSE FOR TRAINING ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE SERVICEMEN. OUTLINES (ONE PAGE EACH) COVER -- (1) RELATED INSTRUCTION, (2) FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY, (3) BASIC CONTROLS AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS, (4) RESISTANCE HEATING APPLIANCES, (5) MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC APPLIANCES, (6) MOTOR DRIVEN…

  12. Radiative heat transport instability in a laser produced inhomogeneous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Rozmus, W.

    2015-08-15

    A laser produced high-Z plasma in which an energy balance is achieved due to radiation emission and radiative heat transfer supports ion acoustic instability. A linear dispersion relation is derived, and instability is compared to the radiation cooling instability [R. G. Evans, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 27, 751 (1985)]. Under conditions of indirect drive fusion experiments, the driving term for the instability is the radiative heat flux and, in particular, the density dependence of the radiative heat conductivity. A specific example of thermal Bremsstrahlung radiation source has been considered. This instability may lead to plasma jet formation and anisotropic x-ray generation, thus affecting inertial confinement fusion related experiments.

  13. Triggering piezoelectricity directly by heat to produce alternating electric voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yue-Yang; Li, Bo-Lin; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2016-09-01

    Piezoelectricity has proved itself a promising mechanism for energy conversion and signal sensing by taking advantage of its ability to convert mechanical energy into electricity. Here, we demonstrate that the piezoelectricity in free-standing non-centrosymmetric nanowires can also be triggered directly by heat to produce electricity. The feasibility of the idea is first analyzed by the dynamic theory of crystal lattices and then confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations. The most salient point is that the heat-induced voltage drop across the cross section of the free-standing nanowires alternates periodically with the vibration of the nanowire. Moreover, the electric potential induced by heat here (as large as 0.34 V) is proved to be comparable with the previously reported potentials induced by mechanical energy, and the maximum value can be tuned by controlling the size of the nanowire and the applied heat.

  14. Effects of heating appliances with different energy efficiencies on associations among work environments, physiological responses, and subjective evaluation of workload.

    PubMed

    Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Ayabe, Makoto; Haruyama, Yasuo; Seo, Akihiko; Katamoto, Shizuo; Ito, Akiyoshi; Muto, Takashi

    2008-08-01

    To clarify the association between heat stress, physiological responses and subjective workload evaluations in kitchens using an induction heating stove (IH stove) or gas stove. The study design was an experimental trial involving 12 young men. The trial measured ambient dry-bulb temperature, globe temperature, wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and relative humidity; the subjects' weight, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen uptake, amount of activity, body temperature, subjective awareness of heat and workload before and after mock cooking for 30 min. The IH stove insignificantly increased heat indicators in the work environment and workers showed lower oxygen uptake, skin temperature, subjective awareness of heat and workload after heat exposure. Both physiological load and subjective awareness of heat and workload were slight in kitchens using the IH stove, which provided a better work environment.

  15. Heat production in an Archean crustal profile and implications for heat flow and mobilization of heat-producing elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Morgan, P.; Kelley, S. A.; Percival, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Concentrations of heat producing elements (Th, U, and K) in 58 samples representative of the main lithologies in a 100-km transect of the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield have been obtained. The relatively large variation in heat production found among the silicic plutonic rocks is shown to correlate with modal abundances of accessory minerals, and these variations are interpreted as premetamorphic. The present data suggest fundamental differences in crustal radioactivity distributions between granitic and more mafic terrains, and indicate that a previously determined apparently linear heat flow-heat production relationship for the Kapuskasing area does not relate to the distribution of heat production with depth.

  16. Analysis of laser-produces jets from locally heated targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Holger; Robinson, Alex

    2015-11-01

    Recent simulations showed that it might be possible to produce a jet by locally heating a foil target with a high intensity laser, so as to produce a single blast wave which then drives jet formation. In contrast to many earlier experimental setups, the jets in this configuration are formed by a two stage process similar to that thought to be responsible for jets from young stellar objects. As the blast wave expands into the ambient medium it creates an inverse conical density structure. This inverse cone focuses the flow into a conically converging flow which then turns into a narrow jet. The realisation of this two step process in an experiment could make it possible to study the formation of stellar jets in the laboratory. We present new results investigating the criteria that lead to the creation of the inverse conical structure and the subsequent jet formation. The localised heating necessary for driving the jet is achieved by guiding the electrons in self generated magnetic fields at resistivity gradients. We present simulations demonstrating the geometries that lead to the localised heating suitable for jet formation. This work is funded by the European Research Council, grant STRUCMAGFAST (ERC-StG-2012).

  17. Fundamentals of Refrigeration; Air Conditioning and Heating Mechanics 1--Appliance Repair 2: 9013.01 and 9025.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Providing the student with an understanding of the basic refrigeration fundamentals, the course introduces the various types of tools and equipment used in this trade. The course consists of 90 clock hours and is organized into six instructional blocks. The student will gain an understanding of trade terminology, heat and temperature, transfer of…

  18. Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-07-20

    Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1. For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2. Past retail price predictions made by DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3. The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4. Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances.

  19. Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

  20. Micro heat pipe panels and method for producing same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Peterson, George P. (Inventor); Rummler, Donald R. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Flat or curved micro heat pipe panels are fabricated by arranging essentially parallel filaments in the shape of the desired panel. The configuration of the filaments corresponds to the desired configuration of the tubes that will constitute the heat pipes. A thermally conductive material is then deposited on and around the filaments to fill in the desired shape of the panel. The filaments are then removed, leaving tubular passageways of the desired configuration and surface texture in the material. The tubes are then filled with a working fluid and sealed. Composite micro heat pipe laminates are formed by layering individual micro heat pipe panels and bonding them to each other to form a single structure. The layering sequence of the micro heat pipe panels can be tailored to transport heat preferentially in specific directions as desired for a particular application.

  1. Residential-appliance load characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, J.

    1982-04-01

    The performance of residential photovoltaic systems in combination with energy efficient appliances is examined. The load characteristics are presented for several types of major residential appliances. Load characteristics consist of the average energy use of each appliance, the power demand while the appliance is operating, and a typical use schedule. Potential energy conserving features are investigated for each appliance and used to identify a best available model and maximum feasible energy efficient appliance. Load characteristics of these energy conserving designs are then compared with the load characteristics of a standard model. The feasibility of converting appliances to dc power for use with photovoltaic systems is also discussed.

  2. The process of producing tomato paste by ohmic heating method.

    PubMed

    Torkian Boldaji, Mehdi; Borghei, Ali Mohammd; Beheshti, Babak; Hosseini, Seyed Ebrahim

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the effect of ohmic heating technique on electrical conductivity, water evaporation rate, heating rate, colour parameters, pH and energy consumption of tomato samples was investigated. Ohmic heating was accomplished till the moisture content of the tomato samples reduced from initial moisture content of as 9.33 (dry basis) to a safer level of 2.2. The results of the nonlinear mathematical model including the effects of voltage gradient level and the temperature on the electrical conductivity changes had good agreement (R ≥ 0.955) with the experimental data. Also, it was observed that the electrical conductivity increased along with concentration of tomato samples. The range of electrical conductivity during ohmic heating was 3.19-8.95 (S/m). It was found that processing time decreased from 28.32 to 4.3 min over the voltage gradient range studied (6 to 14 V/cm), which resulted in decreased specific energy consumption from 4.63 to 3.05 (MJ/kg water). Due to increasing of heating rate and water evaporation rate at high voltage gradient, the change of the pH was limited. Samples processed in high voltage gradient had higher L*, b* and hue angle (h), lower a* and Chroma (C) values as compared to low voltage gradient. The optimum value of processing time, pH, colour, specific energy consumption was obtained at 14 V/cm voltage gradient level.

  3. 15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.3..., clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters, comfort heating equipment, and...

  4. Electricity-producing heating apparatus utilizing a turbine generator in a semi-closed brayton cycle

    DOEpatents

    Labinov, Solomon D.; Christian, Jeffrey E.

    2003-10-07

    The present invention provides apparatus and methods for producing both heat and electrical energy by burning fuels in a stove or boiler using a novel arrangement of a surface heat exchanger and microturbine-powered generator and novel surface heat exchanger. The equipment is particularly suited for use in rural and relatively undeveloped areas, especially in cold regions and highlands.

  5. Splinted mandibular protraction appliance

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Satinder Pal

    2015-01-01

    Advancement of mandible rather than tooth movement is an ideal treatment for the correction of Class II malocclusion resulting from mandibular retrusion. In growing patients, forward repositioning of mandible by mandibular repositioning appliances is considered as a treatment of choice. Correction of mandibular retrusion by the conventional mandibular protraction appliances (MPAs) is mainly due to dento-alveolar changes and by altering the design of original MPAs, these limitations were minimized. The modified design enhanced the mandibular growth and contributed for the better skeletal correction of Class II malocclusion as compared to the conventional MPAs. This article highlights the design and fabrication of a splinted MPA for the correction of Class II malocclusion due to mandibular retrusion and also describes a patient managed by this appliance. PMID:25821367

  6. Method of producing a plug-type heat flux gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H. (Inventor); Koch, John, Jr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method of making a plug-type heat flux gauge in a material specimen in which a thermoplug is integrally formed in the specimen is disclosed. The thermoplug and concentric annulus are formed in the material specimen by electrical discharge machining and trepanning procedures. The thermoplug is surrounded by a concentric annulus through which thermocouple wires are routed. The end of each thermocouple wire is welded to the thermoplug, with each thermocouple wire welded at a different location along the length of the thermoplug.

  7. [Oral appliances in the treatment of snoring].

    PubMed

    Piorunek, Tomasz; Lewandowski, Leszek; Młynarczyk, Witold; Banaszewski, Jacek; Nowicka, Agata; Kanikowski, Marek

    2004-01-01

    There are many methods of snoring treatment from conservative and prosthetic to surgical. The snoring sound is produced by vibration of the soft tissues of the pharynx, soft palate and also uvula. Snoring occurs in 50% of the adult male population and it can be isolated or sign of the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Oral appliances modify the position of the mandibule, the tongue and other structures in oral cavity. Oral appliances are recommended for the treatment of snoring and mild obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. That is why we constructed the study to assess wheather oral appliances correct snoring. 12 mails (aged 43-57) with intensive snoring for at least 50% of the sleep time were qualified to the treatment with oral appliances. The decision about the type of the device were made by ENT surgeon and maxillo-facial surgeon. The various oral appliances were used; some of which were modyfied by us. During the treatment snoring was tested with Poly-Mesam device. The best results were obtained with the use of devices that correct the position of soft palate and uvula. All the devices decreased snoring significantly. They were tolerated by the majority of patients.

  8. Crew appliance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Viable crew appliance concepts were identified by means of a thorough literature search. Studies were made of the food management, personal hygiene, housekeeping, and off-duty habitability functions to determine which concepts best satisfy the Space Shuttle Orbiter and Modular Space Station mission requirements. Models of selected appliance concepts not currently included in the generalized environmental-thermal control and life support systems computer program were developed and validated. Development plans of selected concepts were generated for future reference. A shuttle freezer conceptual design was developed and a test support activity was provided for regenerative environmental control life support subsystems.

  9. Appliance Servicing Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide presents the standard appliance servicing technician curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard…

  10. Research & Development Roadmap for Next-Generation Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Sutherland, Timothy; Foley, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    Appliances present an attractive opportunity for near-term energy savings in existing building, because they are less expensive and replaced more regularly than heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems or building envelope components. This roadmap targets high-priority research and development (R&D), demonstration and commercialization activities that could significantly reduce residential appliance energy consumption. The main objective of the roadmap is to seek activities that accelerate the commercialization of high-efficiency appliance technologies while maintaining the competitiveness of American industry. The roadmap identified and evaluated potential technical innovations, defined research needs, created preliminary research and development roadmaps, and obtained stakeholder feedback on the proposed initiatives.

  11. Simulations of nonequilibrium warm dense gold produced by ultrafast heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, B.; Recoules, V.; Torrent, M.; Chen, Z.; Sametoglu, V.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Kirkwood, S. E.; Reid, M.; Mazevet, S.; Ng, A.

    2013-03-01

    The interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with metals produces nonequilibrium states consisting of hot electrons and cold ions. These can last for many picoseconds before relaxing to a thermodynamic equilibrium. Recent experiments using a chirped pulse probe technique provided AC conductivity data of gold at a sufficient time resolution to observe this relaxation process. We developed an ab-initio model that characterizes thermodynamic properties of warm dense matter states in nonequilibrium. Our theoretical scheme combines a standard two temperature model with temperature dependent material parameters and an energy transfer rate that are obtained by means of ab-initio simulations. This enables us to give a prediction for the temperature evolution during the relaxation process. Additionally, we derive the AC conductivity of the nonequilibrium states from our simulations using the Kubo-Greenwood formula. It is used to test our model against measurements. We observe agreement with experiment using an energy relaxation rate, that is smaller than predicted, giving us reason to revisit its determination. We can furthermore provide thermodynamical and structural data of nonequilibrium warm dense gold which are not accessible in experiment.

  12. Process for producing an activated carbon adsorbent with integral heat transfer apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A process for producing an integral adsorbent-heat exchanger apparatus useful in ammonia refrigerant heat pump systems. In one embodiment, the process wets an activated carbon particles-solvent mixture with a binder-solvent mixture, presses the binder wetted activated carbon mixture on a metal tube surface and thereafter pyrolyzes the mixture to form a bonded activated carbon matrix adjoined to the tube surface. The integral apparatus can be easily and inexpensively produced by the process in large quantities.

  13. Self ligating lingual appliance.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Pankaj; Chopra, S S; Jayan, B K

    2015-12-01

    Adult demand for orthodontics has grown considerably over the past 10 years propelling increased demand for Esthetic Orthodontics. Lingual appliances are a viable option toward providing Esthetic Orthodontics. The lingual surface of the teeth has a unique morphology that makes it difficult to place brackets in ideal positions. Indirect bonding has become the established methods of overcoming these discrepancies, along with the latest designs of self ligating brackets which offer more efficient mechanics and shorter treatment time. PMID:26843757

  14. Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil

    SciTech Connect

    Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

  15. A Single Versatile Appliance for Habit Interception and Crossbite Correction

    PubMed Central

    Zameer, Mohammed; Basheer, Syed Nahid; Reddy, Arun; Kovvuru, Suresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Digit sucking is a common childhood behavior, which has an adaptive value for children up to the fourth year of life. It is usually associated with oral pleasure and self-comforting behavior. But chronic practice may produce deleterious effect in the form of dental and skeletal deformities. Adjunctive therapy using bluegrass appliance as a permanent reminder and quadhelix appliance as a reminder as well as a slow palatal expander has proven successful in intercepting digit-sucking habit and expanding the arch for crossbite correction. In the present case, a versatile modified quadhelix appliance incorporating a roller was designed to clinically correct the habit and its resulting dentofacial deformities. PMID:26640722

  16. Maximum forces and deflections from orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J

    1983-08-01

    The maximum bending moment of an orthodontic wire is an important parameter in the design and use of an orthodontic appliance. It is the wire property that determines how much force an appliance can deliver. A bending test which allows direct measurement of the maximum bending moment was developed. Data produced from this test are independent of wire length and configuration. The maximum bending moment, percent recovery, and maximum springback were determined for round and rectangular cross sections of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium wires. The data suggest the need for more specifically defining maximum moment and maximum springback. Three maximum bending moments are described: Me, My, and Mult. My and Mult are clinically the most significant. Appliances that are required to have no permanent deformation must operate below My. Appliances that exhibit marked permanent deformation may be used in some applications and, if so, higher bending moments can be produced. In order of magnitude, the maximum bending moment at yield is largest in stainless steel, beta-titanium, and nickel-titanium for a given cross section. Nickel-titanium and beta-titanium have significantly larger springback than stainless steel determined at the moment at yield. Nickel-titanium did not follow the theoretical ratio between ultimate bending moment and the bending moment at yield, exhibiting a very large ratio. The study supports the hypothesis that most orthodontic appliances are activated in a range where both plastic and elastic behavior occurs; therefore, the use of yield strengths for calculation of force magnitude can lead to a significant error in predicting the forces delivered. PMID:6576645

  17. Emission factors from small scale appliances burning wood and pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgen, Senem; Caserini, Stefano; Galante, Silvia; Giugliano, Michele; Angelino, Elisabetta; Marongiu, Alessandro; Hugony, Francesca; Migliavacca, Gabriele; Morreale, Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Four manually fed (6-11 kW) firewood burning and two automatic wood pellets (8.8-25 kW) residential heating appliances were tested under real-world operating conditions in order to determine emission factors (EFs) of macropollutants, i.e., carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), particulate matter (PM) and trace pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins. The results were examined for the influence of different factors (i.e., type of wood, appliance and combustion cycle). The experimental EFs were also compared with the values proposed by the European emission inventory guidebook used in the local inventory in order to evaluate their representativeness of real world emissions. The composite macropollutant EFs for manually fed appliances were: for CO 5858 g GJ-1, for NOx 122 g GJ-1, NMHC 542 g GJ-1, PM 254 g GJ-1, whereas emissions were much lower for automatic pellets appliances: CO 219 g GJ-1, for NOx 66 g GJ-1, NMHC 5 g GJ-1, PM 85 g GJ-1. The highest emissions were generally observed for the open fireplace, however traditional and advanced stoves have the highest overall CO EFs. Especially for the advanced stove real-world emissions are far worse than those measured under cycles used for type testing of residential solid fuel appliances. No great difference is observed for different firewood types in batch working appliances, diversely the quality of the pellets is observed to influence directly the emission performance of the automatic appliances. Benzo(b)fluoranthene is the PAH with the highest contribution (110 mg GJ-1 for manual appliances and 2 mg GJ-1 for automatic devices) followed by benzo(a)pyrene (77 mg GJ-1 for manual appliances and 0.8 mg GJ-1 for automatic devices).

  18. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    DOEpatents

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Mo, Weijian; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie; Mandema, Remco Hugo; Nair, Vijay

    2009-09-01

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  19. Heat resistant proteases produced in milk by psychrotrophic bacteria of dairy origin.

    PubMed

    Adams, D M; Barach, J T; Speck, M L

    1975-06-01

    Production of heat resistant proteases by psychrotrophs growing in milk, resistance of such proteases to ultrahigh temperature treatments and action of these enzymes on milk were studied. All of the psychrotrophs obtained from raw milk produced proteases that survived 149 C for 10s. Seventy to ninety percent of the raw milk samples contained psychrotrophs capable of producing heat resistant proteases. The protease chosen as a model was resistant to heat treatments at 110 to 150 C, and the inactivation parameters suggested that thermal destruction of heat resistant proteases would damage the milk severely. The casein content and pH of normal milk were suitable for protease action, and the protease was quite active at normal and elevated room temperatures. The protease rapidly spoiled sterile milk with the development of bitter flavor, clearing, or coagulation; and the susceptibility of sterile milk to protease increased during storage of the milk.

  20. Heating and compression of a laser produced plasma in a pulsed magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creel, J. R.; Donnelly, T.; Lunney, J. G.

    2016-08-01

    A pulsed 0.3 T magnetic field was used to heat and compress a low-temperature laser produced copper plasma. The magnetic field was generated using a planar 3-turn coil positioned 10 mm above the ablation spot. The plasma flowing through a central aperture in the coil was strongly focused. Inductive heating of the plasma caused a large enhancement of the overall visible light emission and the appearance of Cu II line emission. The plasma focusing is also evident in the constriction of the spatial distribution of deposited copper. The plasma heating and focusing can be explained in the framework of resistive magnetohydrodynamics.

  1. Heating apparatus and method and device for producing the heating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, L.; Polteg, A.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a heating apparatus of the tiled stove-type having a return chamber section, a stove section providing a hearth, and a foot section. The stove section is formed by placing individual building blocks in alternate horizontal courses arranged such that the vertical joints between blocks in one course are staggered with relation to the vertical joints between blocks in adjoining courses. The improvement described here comprises: blocks for erecting the sections of the heating apparatus including: blocks for the stove section having cut-out portions to provide a central up flue gas passage extending from the hearth, two vertical down flue gas passages situated outside the central passage and two further vertical up flow gas passages also situated outside the central passage. The two down flue gas passages and the two further up flue gas passages are interconnected at their lower ends in a hearth plane, a return block for the return chamber section having cutout portions providing a return chamber interconnecting the upper ends of the central up flue gas passage and the two down flue gas passages for returning flue gasses to the stove section, the blocks for the stove section including a plurality of rear blocks for forming the upper part of the stove section. The rear blocks are successively horizontally thickened to provide a portion of the central flue gas passage inclined forwardly course to course in an upward direction for deflecting the central flue gas path towards the front part of the stove section and into the return chamber, and blocks for the return chamber section having cut-out portions to interconnect the two up flue gas passages in the return chamber section for leading the flue gasses out to a chimney stack.

  2. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  3. Remote repair appliance

    DOEpatents

    Heumann, Frederick K.; Wilkinson, Jay C.; Wooding, David R.

    1997-01-01

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a worksite on a substantially circular bore of a workpiece and for providing video signals of the worksite to a remote monitor comprising: a baseplate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the baseplate and positioned to roll against the bore of the workpiece when the baseplate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the baseplate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the baseplate; a camera for providing video signals of the worksite to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the baseplate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris.

  4. Remote repair appliance

    DOEpatents

    Heumann, F.K.; Wilkinson, J.C.; Wooding, D.R.

    1997-12-16

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a work site on a substantially circular bore of a work piece and for providing video signals of the work site to a remote monitor comprises: a base plate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the base plate and positioned to roll against the bore of the work piece when the base plate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the base plate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the base plate; a camera for providing video signals of the work site to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the base plate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris. 5 figs.

  5. Comparison of Roth appliance and standard edgewise appliance treatment results.

    PubMed

    Kattner, P F; Schneider, B J

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective comparison of Roth appliance and standard edgewise appliance treatment results was made using two indices. The first, the ideal tooth relationship index (ITRI), scored dental casts for the presence of ideal tooth contacts. The second judged posttreatment dental casts on the basis of criteria established by Andrews in his "Six Keys to Normal Occlusion." The sample consisted of 120 orthodontically treated cases completed by two practitioners who have used both the Roth and standard edgewise appliances. Thirty cases of each appliance type were collected from each practitioner. The overall posttreatment ITRI percentage scores showed no significant differences between the appliances. Practitioner differences existed for the anterior intraarch, anterior interarch, and posterior buccal interarch relationships. These differences were related to both treatment time and finishing arch wire size. The results of the Six Keys Analysis showed that the angulation and inclination of the maxillary posterior teeth were better with the Roth appliance. However, success in achieving some components of the six keys did not translate into an increased percentage of ideal tooth contacts as measured by the ITRI. Despite using the Roth appliance, experienced clinicians still found it difficult to achieve all six keys to normal occlusion.

  6. Limits Imposed on Heat Produced during Core Formation by Radiative Transfer Processes and Thermodynamic Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criss, R. E.; Hofmeister, A.

    2010-12-01

    . Irreversibility does not permit heat retention; instead, more local order is produced while more entropy and energy are transferred to the surroundings. We also consider a dynamic model, wherein the core forms via settling in boundary layers inside the convecting planet. For this case, the work performed is small, as is the amount of heat evolved. Small rises in T are dissipated in accord with the 2nd law. Furthermore, the maximum amount of heat that could have been produced was limited by inhomogeneity during accretion, and by the size and temperature of the proto-Earth when its core formed. Core heating is unimportant under all circumstances. Instead, core formation hastens planetary cooling, due to segregation of radioactive elements towards the surface.

  7. Appliances: Designs and Standards for Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, James E.

    2008-09-01

    Buildings consume 40% of US energy and produce 39% of US carbon dioxide. These numbers can be dramatically reduced with improved appliance efficiency. For example, energy use by the average new refrigerator dropped about 70% from 1974-2002, thanks to improved materials, technologies and designs. In this chapter, I review progress in gas furnaces, air conditioning and lighting, as well as the trends in refrigerators and freezers. The goal of zero net-energy buildings appears possible. In the future, buildings might consume perhaps 70% less energy than today due to efficient building components, appliances, equipment and lighting; systems integration; better controls; and behavioral changes. The remaining 30% energy needs could be supplied by low-or no-carbon energy sources.

  8. Assessment of Domestic Appliance Noise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Jeanette Rosamond

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The aims of this study were: (i) to identify the factors involved in eliciting a subjective reaction to domestic appliance noise, (ii) to identify the noise index (or indices) that correlate highly with a subjective reaction to the noise, and (iii) to investigate the contribution of domestic appliance noise to an individual's daily noise dose. Two series of experimental studies were carried out using several examples of each of five types of domestic appliances. One determined the index values of domestic appliance noise--namely L_{WA} (using ISO 3741), L_{pA} , L_{pD}, L _{p}, PNL, L_{Aeq, 30 sec}, L_{Amax} and L_{AX}; the other determined subjective reactions to domestic appliance noise (judgements of noisiness, annoyance, the acceptability of the appliance noise and appraisals of usefulness). The success or failure of the research hypotheses was assessed statistically by analysis of variance, regression analysis, log linear analysis, Hotelling test, bootstrapping, t-test and post-hoc comparisons. Ratings of annoyance, noisiness and the acceptability of the noise of the appliance were found to be interrelated and interdependent, and not influenced by appraisals of usefulness of the appliances. Noisiness ratings were the most consistent of the subjective ratings investigated, and were influenced by the duration of the exposure, and the actual appliance type under investigation. Significant correlations were obtained between noisiness ratings and all the noise indices under investigation. However, statistical analysis demonstrated that L_ {WA} correlated less successfully with noisiness ratings than all other indices. L_ {Amax},L_{Aeq,30 sec }, and L_{AX} indices were the most successful. It is therefore suggested that the labelling of domestic appliance noise consist of L_{WA} and L _{Aeq} as measured in a standardised test environment. The percentage contribution of domestic appliance noise to the total

  9. Appliance energy labeling takes effect

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Consumers buying household appliances will be helped by energy-efficiency labels and minimum efficiency standards required for refrigerators and refrigerator/freezers, freezers, dishwashers, water heaters, clothes washers, room air conditioners, and furnaces. The ENERGYGUIDE labels must be displayed in the store and in catalogs. Two voluntary efficiency programs were combined in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) requiring labels by 1980. Shoppers may compare the efficiencies of appliances and compute the actual cost differential over the lifetime of the equipment. Manufacturers have responded with more-efficient models, but the impact of efficient appliances on energy consumption will be small. A sample label with the required information is illustrated. (DCK)

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of the radiant field produced by a multiple-lamp quartz heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    1991-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by a reflected bank of tungsten-filament tubular-quartz radiant heaters. The method is correlated with experimental results from two cases, one consisting of a single lamp and a flat reflector and the other consisting of a single lamp and a parabolic reflector. The simulation methodology, computer implementation, and experimental procedures are discussed. Analytical refinements necessary for comparison with experiment are discussed and applied to a multilamp, common reflector heating system.

  11. Direct evidence of strongly inhomogeneous energy deposition in target heating with laser-produced ion beams.

    PubMed

    Brambrink, E; Schlegel, T; Malka, G; Amthor, K U; Aléonard, M M; Claverie, G; Gerbaux, M; Gobet, F; Hannachi, F; Méot, V; Morel, P; Nicolai, P; Scheurer, J N; Tarisien, M; Tikhonchuk, V; Audebert, P

    2007-06-01

    We report on strong nonuniformities in target heating with intense, laser-produced proton beams. The observed inhomogeneity in energy deposition can strongly perturb equation of state (EOS) measurements with laser-accelerated ions which are planned in several laboratories. Interferometric measurements of the target expansion show different expansion velocities on the front and rear surfaces, indicating a strong difference in local temperature. The nonuniformity indicates at an additional heating mechanism, which seems to originate from electrons in the keV range. PMID:17677318

  12. Heat-producing elements and the thermal and baric patterns of metamorphic belts.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, C P; Sonder, L J

    1990-11-01

    The character of sedimentary basins, before they are deformed and metamorphosed, may strongly influence the thermal and baric patterns of metamorphic belts. Crustal thickening of anoxic sedimentary basins and subsequent thermal reequilibration may produce large areas of high-grade metamorphic rocks and granites because the concentrations of the heat-producing elements are high in such basins. In New England there is a spatial association among granites and high-grade metasedimentary rocks rich in U and Th that now form the Central Maine terrane. The high content of heat-producing elements in these rocks is attributed to fixing of U and Th in highly reduced sediments that were deposited in an anoxic basin that formed in the Silurian. When the basin was thickened during the Devonian Acadian orogeny, the thermal energy generated by the U- and Th-rich sediments produced the observed broad zone of high-grade rocks and anatectic granites. This hypothesis was tested with thermal calculations that reproduce most of the first-order thermal and baric patterns of the Acadian Appalachians, if pretectonic lateral variations in heat production are assumed.

  13. Energy Corner: Heat Reclamation Rescues Wasted Heat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    Heat reclamation systems added to pre-existing central heating systems provide maximum savings at minimum cost. The benefits of a particular appliance marketed under the brand name "Energizer" are discussed. (Author/MLF)

  14. Oral appliances in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea and snoring.

    PubMed

    Ayas, N T; Epstein, L J

    1998-11-01

    Treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea with oral appliances is a promising alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Although there is wide variability in appliance design, these devices produce enlargement of the upper airway by advancing the mandible, tongue, or both. Oral appliances effectively reduce snoring in a significant proportion of individuals. In general they are less effective than CPAP in eliminating obstructive sleep apnea, with approximately 50% of individuals experiencing resolution of their obstructive sleep apnea with these devices. Patients with milder disease have greater success with oral appliance therapy than those with more severe disease. A small proportion of patients will experience worsening of their sleep apnea with an oral appliance, and close follow-up after device prescription is mandatory. Patient satisfaction with oral appliances may be better than that with CPAP.

  15. Performance of domestic wood-fired appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, A.C.S.; Braaten, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The test procedure for measuring wood stove performance is described, and the effects of design on performance, in terms of efficiency and emissions, are examined. The five types of wood-burning appliances tested were: freestanding conical fireplace, an airtight updraft (box) stove type, an airtight horizontal baffle type, an airtight downdraft type, and a sidedraft type. It is concluded that freestanding fireplaces are very inefficient. At the same time, they have high emission rates when expressed as a function of heat output. For airtight wood stoves, efficiency appears to be maximized within a relatively small range of firing rate for any particular stove model. For most stoves, emissions tend to decrease with increasing firing rate. Well-designed sidedraft stoves are likely to be more efficient than other stove types. Emissions levels of incomplete combustion products show a strong relationship to stove type, particularly when related to heat output of the appliance. Emission No. GE-1 well was drilled away from any potential petroleum-bearing feature, but near several tracts that were included in the sale area.

  16. Domestic refrigeration appliances in Poland: Potential for improving energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Lebot, B.

    1993-08-01

    This report is based on information collected from the main Polish manufacturer of refrigeration appliances. We describe their production facilities, and show that the energy consumption of their models for domestic sale is substantially higher than the average for similar models made in W. Europe. Lack of data and uncertainty about future production costs in Poland limits our evaluation of the cost-effective potential to increase energy efficiency, but it appears likely that considerable improvement would be economic from a societal perspective. Many design options are likely to have a simple payback of less than five years. We found that the production facilities are in need of substantial modernization in order to produce higher quality and more efficient appliances. We discuss policy options that could help to build a market for more efficient appliances in Poland and thereby encourage investment to produce such equipment.

  17. Effect of heat stress on polyamine metabolism in proline-over-producing tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Cvikrová, Milena; Gemperlová, Lenka; Dobrá, Jana; Martincová, Olga; Prásil, Ilja T; Gubis, Jozef; Vanková, Radomira

    2012-01-01

    The effect of heat stress on the accumulation of proline and on the level of polyamines (PAs) in tobacco plants was investigated. Responses to heat stress were compared in the upper and lower leaves and roots of tobacco plants that constitutively over-express a modified gene for the proline biosynthetic enzyme Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CSF129A) and in the corresponding wild-type. In the initial phases of heat stress (after 2h at 40°C), the accumulation of proline increased in the wild type but slightly decreased in the transformants. The response to heat stress in proline-over-producing tobacco plants involved a transient increase in the levels of free and conjugated putrescine (Put) and in the levels of free spermidine (Spd), norspermidine (N-Spd) and spermine (Spm) after a 2-h lag phase, which correlated with stimulation of the activity of the corresponding biosynthetic enzymes. Diamine oxidase (DAO) activity increased in both plant genotypes, most significantly in the leaves of WT plants. Polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity increased in the roots of WT plants and decreased in the leaves and roots of the transformants. After 6h of heat stress, proline accumulation was observed in the transformants, especially in the lower leaves; much more modest increase was observed in the WT plants. A decrease in the levels of free and conjugated Put coincided with down-regulation of the activity of ornithine decarboxylase and marked stimulation of DAO activity in the leaves and roots of the transformants. PAO activity increased in the roots of the transformants but decreased in the leaves. Conversely, in WT tobacco subjected to 6h of heat stress, slight increases in free and conjugated PA levels were observed and the activity of DAO only increased in the roots; PAO activity did not change from the value observed during the initial phase of heat stress. 6 Hours' heat stress had no effect on the level of malondialdehyde (MDA; a product of lipid peroxidation), in

  18. Heat shock decreases the embryonic quality of frozen-thawed bovine blastocysts produced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mori, Miyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi; Isozaki, Yoshihiro; Takenouchi, Naoki; Sakatani, Miki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of heat shock on frozen-thawed blastocysts was evaluated using in vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos. In experiment 1, the effects of 6 h of heat shock at 41.0 C on fresh blastocysts were evaluated. HSPA1A expression as a reflection of stress was increased by heat shock (P < 0.05), but the expressions of the quality markers IFNT and POU5F1 were not affected. In experiment 2, frozen-thawed blastocysts were incubated at 38.5 C for 6 h (cryo-con) or exposed to heat shock at 41.0 C for 6 h (cryo-HS). Then, blastocysts were cultured at 38.5 C until 48 h after thawing (both conditions). Cryo-HS blastocysts exhibited a decreased recovery rate: HSPA1A expression was dramatically increased compared with that in fresh or cryo-con blastocysts at 6 h, and IFNT expression was decreased compared with that in cryo-con blastocysts at 6 h (both P < 0.05). Cryo-con blastocysts at 6 h also exhibited higher HSPA1A expression than fresh blastocysts (P < 0.05). At 48 h after thawing, the number of hatched blastocysts and blastocyst diameter were lower in cryo-HS blastocysts (P < 0.05). Cryo-con blastocysts showed lower POU5F1 levels at 48 h than fresh, cryo-con or cryo-HS blastocysts at 6 h (P < 0.05), but their POU5F1 levels were not different from those of cryo-HS blastocysts at 48 h. These results indicated that application of heat shock to frozen-thawed blastocysts was highly damaging. The increase in damage by the interaction of freezing-thawing and heat shock might be one reason for the low conception rate in frozen-thawed embryo transfer in summer.

  19. Heat resistance of histamine-producing bacteria in irradiated tuna loins.

    PubMed

    Enache, Elena; Kataoka, Ai; Black, D Glenn; Weddig, Lisa; Hayman, Melinda; Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin

    2013-09-01

    Consumption of foods high in biogenic amines leads to an illness known as histamine, or scombrotoxin, poisoning. The illness is commonly associated with consumption of fish with high levels of histamine ( $ 500 ppm). The objective of this study was to determine and compare the heat resistance of five histamine-producing bacteria in irradiated albacore tuna loins. Heat-resistance parameters (D- and z-values) were determined for Morganella morganii, Raoultella planticola, Hafnia alvei, and Enterobacter aerogenes. D- or z-values were not determined for Photobacterium damselae, which was the most heat-sensitive organism in this study. P. damselae declined > 5.9 log CFU/g after a heat treatment of 50°C for 10 min, 54°C for 3 min, and 56°C for 0.5 min. M. morganii was the most heat-resistant histamine-producing bacteria in albacore tuna loins, followed by E. aerogenes, H. alvei, and R. planticola. M. morganii and E. aerogenes had the highest D(50°C), 49.7 ± 17.57 and 51.8 ± 17.38 min, respectively. In addition, M. morganii had the highest D-values for all other temperatures (54, 56, and 58°C) tested. D- and zvalues were also determined for M. morganii in skipjack tuna. While no significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed between D(54°C) and D(56°C) of M. morganii in either albacore or skipjack tuna, the D(58°C) (0.4 ± 0.17 min) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in skipjack than in albacore (0.9 ± 0.24 min). The z-values for all organisms tested were in the range of 3.2 to 3.8°C. This study suggests that heat treatment designed to control M. morganii in tuna loins is sufficient for controlling histamine-producing bacteria in canned-tuna processing environments.

  20. Heat resistance of histamine-producing bacteria in irradiated tuna loins.

    PubMed

    Enache, Elena; Kataoka, Ai; Black, D Glenn; Weddig, Lisa; Hayman, Melinda; Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin

    2013-09-01

    Consumption of foods high in biogenic amines leads to an illness known as histamine, or scombrotoxin, poisoning. The illness is commonly associated with consumption of fish with high levels of histamine ( $ 500 ppm). The objective of this study was to determine and compare the heat resistance of five histamine-producing bacteria in irradiated albacore tuna loins. Heat-resistance parameters (D- and z-values) were determined for Morganella morganii, Raoultella planticola, Hafnia alvei, and Enterobacter aerogenes. D- or z-values were not determined for Photobacterium damselae, which was the most heat-sensitive organism in this study. P. damselae declined > 5.9 log CFU/g after a heat treatment of 50°C for 10 min, 54°C for 3 min, and 56°C for 0.5 min. M. morganii was the most heat-resistant histamine-producing bacteria in albacore tuna loins, followed by E. aerogenes, H. alvei, and R. planticola. M. morganii and E. aerogenes had the highest D(50°C), 49.7 ± 17.57 and 51.8 ± 17.38 min, respectively. In addition, M. morganii had the highest D-values for all other temperatures (54, 56, and 58°C) tested. D- and zvalues were also determined for M. morganii in skipjack tuna. While no significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed between D(54°C) and D(56°C) of M. morganii in either albacore or skipjack tuna, the D(58°C) (0.4 ± 0.17 min) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in skipjack than in albacore (0.9 ± 0.24 min). The z-values for all organisms tested were in the range of 3.2 to 3.8°C. This study suggests that heat treatment designed to control M. morganii in tuna loins is sufficient for controlling histamine-producing bacteria in canned-tuna processing environments. PMID:23992506

  1. Net Shape Fins for Compact Heat Exchanger Produced by Cold Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Yannick; Dupuis, Philippe; Jodoin, Bertrand; Corbeil, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    This work explores the manufacturability of pyramidal fin arrays produced using the cold spray process. Near-net shaped pyramidal fin arrays of various sizes and fin densities were manufactured using masks made of commercially available steel wire mesh. The feedstock powders used to produce the fins are characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Obstruction of the masks was investigated. The standoff distances between the substrate, mesh, and nozzle were empirically determined. Fin array characterization was performed using digital microscopy. The fin arrays' heat transfer performance was assessed experimentally for a range of Reynolds number relevant to the application sought. The fins produced using the cold spray process outperform traditional straight (rectangular) fins at the same fin density and it is hypothesized that this is due to increased fluid mixing and turbulence.

  2. Life Cycle Analysis of High Quality Recycled Aggregate Produced byHeating and Rubbing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Hirokazu; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Yoshida, Yoshikuni; Tateyashiki, Hisashi

    Most of demolished concrete is recycled as road subbase, but its generation is expected to increase rapidly and exceed the demand of road subbase in a near future. To promote the recycling of concrete, the technology to produce high quality recycled aggregate by the heating and rubbing method has been developed. In this method, demolished concrete is heated up to about 300°C in a heater to make cement paste brittle with its dehydration. The heated concrete is then rubbed in two mills to recover the recycled aggregate, while the paste is removed from the surface of aggregate and collected as cement fine powder. In this method, much energy is consumed to heat and rub concrete; however, the cement fine powder is utilized for a soil stabilizer and cement raw materials, so that the environmental load is reduced in cement manufacturing. The life cycle analysis of the recycled aggregate is carried out to evaluate this technology. As a result, the life cycle CO2 is a negative value because the deduction of CO2 emission in cement manufacturing by the powder is much large. This technology is proved to be very effective to reduce CO2.

  3. Novel Stacked Wire Mesh Compact Heat Exchangers Produced Using Cold Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaad, Jamil; Corbeil, Antoine; Richer, Patrick F.; Jodoin, Bertrand

    2011-12-01

    This study examines the feasibility of using the pulsed gas dynamic spraying (PGDS) process to deposit metal powder on the outer surfaces of metal wire mesh wafers for use as high-performance compact heat exchangers. Plain-square weave woven mesh produced from stainless steel wires were stacked and sintered to form wire mesh bricks, which were then cut into wafers. The outer surfaces of the wafers were sealed using the PGDS deposition technique as opposed to the more traditional brazing sheet solution. This approach provides more intimate contact between the mesh wire tips and sealed surface, thereby promoting conduction through the outer walls and improving the heat exchanger efficiency. In addition, PGDS is an attractive alternative to brazing sheets for this application because of its potential for reduced manufacturing costs. Burst and tensile tests of the PGDS coated wafers were carried out.

  4. Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1987-01-01

    A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate.

  5. Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1987-09-22

    A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate. 2 figs.

  6. Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1985-04-03

    A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate.

  7. Beam heated linear theta-pinch device for producing hot plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Bohachevsky, Ihor O.

    1981-01-01

    A device for producing hot plasmas comprising a single turn theta-pinch coil, a fast discharge capacitor bank connected to the coil, a fuel element disposed along the center axis of the coil, a predetermined gas disposed within the theta-pinch coil, and a high power photon, electron or ion beam generator concentrically aligned to the theta-pinch coil. Discharge of the capacitor bank generates a cylindrical plasma sheath within the theta-pinch coil which heats the outer layer of the fuel element to form a fuel element plasma layer. The beam deposits energy in either the cylindrical plasma sheath or the fuel element plasma layer to assist the implosion of the fuel element to produce a hot plasma.

  8. Heat treatment effects on mechanical behavior of copper-nickel-tin produced via powder metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caris, Joshua Benjamin

    Certain spring applications require a material with a combination of high strength, stiffness, and electrical conductivity. An alloy, Cu-15wt%Ni-8wt%Sn, formed via a powder metallurgy process, is one of several copper-based alloys which can be heat treated/processed to form a metallic nano-structured alloy with good combinations of yield strength and electrical conductivity. For certain heat treatment conditions, this alloy decomposes spinodally from a face centered cubic disordered phase to form tin-rich and tin-lean composition fluctuations that are 10-100nm thick. Additional time at temperature produces ordering of the tin-rich regions. Uniaxial tensile tests have been used to identify the aging conditions with the highest yield strength. The uniaxial tensile and fully-reversed, flexural fatigue properties of the various heat-treated conditions were compared with observed fracture surfaces to characterize the failure mechanisms of the various time and temperature evolved microstructures. The mechanical properties have been correlated with structural information obtained from a variety of different techniques. Optical metallography, transmission electron microscopy, resistivity.

  9. Dentulous appliance for upper anterior edentulous span.

    PubMed

    Chalakkal, Paul; Devi, Ramisetty Sabitha; Srinivas, G Vijay; Venkataramana, Pammi

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses about a fixed dentulous appliance that was constructed to replace the primary upper anterior edentulous span in a four year old girl. It constituted a design, whereby the maxillary primary second molars were used to support the appliance through bands and a wire that contained an acrylic flange bearing trimmed acrylic teeth, anteriorly. The appliance was functionally and aesthetically compliant.

  10. Kinetic effects and nonlinear heating in intense x-ray-laser-produced carbon plasmas.

    PubMed

    Sentoku, Y; Paraschiv, I; Royle, R; Mancini, R C; Johzaki, T

    2014-11-01

    The x-ray laser-matter interaction for a low-Z material, carbon, is studied with a particle-in-cell code that solves the photoionization and x-ray transport self-consistently. Photoionization is the dominant absorption mechanism and nonthermal photoelectrons are produced with energy near the x-ray photon energy. The photoelectrons ionize the target rapidly via collisional impact ionization and field ionization, producing a hot plasma column behind the laser pulse. The radial size of the heated region becomes larger than the laser spot size due to the kinetic nature of the photoelectrons. The plasma can have a temperature of more than 10 000 K (>1eV), an energy density greater than 10^{4} J/cm^{3}, an ion-ion Coulomb coupling parameter Γ≥1, and electron degeneracy Θ≥1, i.e., strongly coupled warm dense matter. By increasing the laser intensity, the plasma temperature rises nonlinearly from tens of eV to hundreds of eV, bringing it into the high energy density matter regime. The heating depth and temperature are also controllable by changing the photon energy of the incident laser light.

  11. [Environmental and health impacts of wood combustion to produce heat and power].

    PubMed

    Valerio, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Toxic chemicals such as benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and ultra fine particles were found in the smoke produced by wood combustion. Emission factors confirm that, to produce the same energy amount, many more pollutants are emitted by wood than by natural gas. Biomass burning produces a relevant deterioration of air quality inside and outside houses, notably due to emissions of fine and ultra fine dust (PM10, PM2.5) according to reviewed studies. Important improvements in emission quality are obtained with the use of more efficient household heating systems, both in developed and in developing countries. Numerous studies have assessed the possible health effects produced by wood smoke, providing sufficient evidence that the indoor exposure to wood smoke, even in developed countries, can have adverse effects on human health. In 2010 IARC classified wood smoke as a possible human carcinogen. In Europe, electricity generation from biomass combustion is increasing (12% each year) thanks to incentives provided to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and use of fossil fuels.Today adequate studies to assess the environmental and health effects of emissions from power plants fuelled by solid biomasses are still needed. PMID:22418798

  12. Integration of Thermoelectric Generators and Wood Stove to Produce Heat, Hot Water, and Electrical Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, A. M.; Mazandarani, P.; Panahi, R.; Behsaz, H.; Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, L. A.

    2013-07-01

    Traditional fire stoves are characterized by low efficiency. In this experimental study, the combustion chamber of the stove is augmented by two devices. An electric fan can increase the air-to-fuel ratio in order to increase the system's efficiency and decrease air pollution by providing complete combustion of wood. In addition, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) produce power that can be used to satisfy all basic needs. In this study, a water-based cooling system is designed to increase the efficiency of the TEGs and also produce hot water for residential use. Through a range of tests, an average of 7.9 W was achieved by a commercial TEG with substrate area of 56 mm × 56 mm, which can produce 14.7 W output power at the maximum matched load. The total power generated by the stove is 166 W. Also, in this study a reasonable ratio of fuel to time is described for residential use. The presented prototype is designed to fulfill the basic needs of domestic electricity, hot water, and essential heat for warming the room and cooking.

  13. Mean flow field and surface heating produced by unequal shock interactions at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birch, S. F.; Rudy, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Mean velocity profiles were measured in a free shear layer produced by the interaction of two unequal strength shock waves at hypersonic free-stream Mach numbers. Measurements were made over a unit Reynolds number range of 3,770,000 per meter to 17,400,000 per meter based on the flow on the high velocity side of the shear layer. The variation in measured spreading parameters with Mach number for the fully developed flows is consistent with the trend of the available zero velocity ratio data when the Mach numbers for the data given in this study are taken to be characteristic Mach numbers based on the velocity difference across the mixing layer. Surface measurements in the shear-layer attachment region of the blunt-body model indicate peak local heating and static pressure consistent with other published data. Transition Reynolds numbers were found to be significantly lower than those found in previous data.

  14. Stereospecificity in hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of four ginsenosides produced by heat processing.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Hyun Young; Yamabe, Noriko; Yokozawa, Takako

    2006-10-01

    The activity-guided fractionation of sun ginseng (SG, heat processed Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer at 120 degrees C) was carried out to identify its main active hydroxyl radical (*OH) scavenging components. As a result, the n-BuOH fraction mainly consisting of ginsenosides showed the strongest activity. Of several ginsenosides of SG, the *OH scavenging activities of relatively high contents of 20(S)-Rg(3), 20(R)-Rg(3), Rk(1), and Rg(5) were compared. Rg(5) and 20(S)-Rg(3) showed strong *OH scavenging IC(50) values of 0.15 and 0.44 mM, respectively, and these activities were prominently higher than each of their respective isomers. Therefore, stereospecificity exists in the *OH scavenging activities of ginsenosides produced by heat processing. Especially, the double bond at carbon-20(22) or the OH group at carbon-20 geometrically close to OH at carbon-12 is thought to increase the *OH scavenging activity of ginsenosides.

  15. Combustion Safety for Appliances Using Indoor Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  16. ELM simulation experiments using transient heat and particle load produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoda, K.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2011-10-01

    It is considered that thermal transient events such as type I edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will limit the lifetime of plasma-facing components (PFCs) in ITER. It is predicted that the heat load onto the PFCs during type I ELMs in ITER is 0.2-2MJ/m2 with pulse length of ~0.1-1ms. We have investigated interaction between transient heat and particle load and the PFCs by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) at University of Hyogo. In the experiment, a pulsed plasma with duration of ~0.5ms, incident ion energy of ~30eV, and surface absorbed energy density of ~0.3-0.7MJ/m2 was produced by the MCPG. However, no melting occurred on a tungsten surface exposed to a single plasma pulse of ~0.7MJ/m2, while cracks clearly appeared at the edge part of the W surface. Thus, we have recently started to improve the performance of the MCPG in order to investigate melt layer dynamics of a tungsten surface such as vapor cloud formation. In the modified MCPG, the capacitor bank energy for the plasma discharge is increased from 24.5 kJ to 144 kJ. In the preliminary experiments, the plasmoid with duration of ~0.6 ms, incident ion energy of ~ 40 eV, and the surface absorbed energy density of ~2 MJ/m2 was successfully produced at the gun voltage of 6 kV.

  17. Process for utilizing the waste heat content of condensate and/or vapor produced in the manufacture of sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.; Schiweck, H.

    1981-09-22

    A process is provided for utilizing the waste heat content of condensate and/or vapor produced in the manufacture of sugar in which thin juice is cooled, subjected to one or more stages of flash evaporation to concentrate and further cool the juice, after which it is heated with condensate and/or vapor produced elsewhere in the sugar manufacturing process and with incoming thin juice thereby heating the outgoing juice to substantially its original temperature and providing the cooling of the incoming thin juice. In another embodiment completely purified thin juice is concentrated in a multiple effect evaporating plant wherein the vapor produced in the final evaporator is compressed and is returned selectively to one of the preceding evaporators of the evaporating plant for use in heating the juice.

  18. A viable process for producing hydrogen synfuel using nuclear fusion heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, T. R.; Brown, L. C.

    Analytical and costing analyses of a thermochemical water splitting plant powered by a tandem mirror fusion reactor are presented. Design criteria indicated directing high quality steam to the chemical plant, where no liquid metal coolants would be used. Minimal pumping distances for high pressure He, multiple barriers between the neutron-activated blanket and the hydrogen product, and modular construction where possible are necessary. A He-Brayton topping cycle, coupled to a steam-Rankine bottoming cycle are selected. Slightly over 1111 MWt and about 720 MWe could be produced by the plant if all low grade waste heat is directed to the Rankine cycle. SO3 is used with water for the splitting process, then recombined. H2 is siphoned off as a fuel and O2 is delivered to a coal reforming plant. A 30 yr plant life is projected, operating at a 70% thermal efficiency for the splitting process and producing H2 at $10-12/GJ. The plant is expected to become economically viable in the year 2030 if debt financing is available at 12.25% per year.

  19. Spotlight on the microbes that produce heat shock protein 90-targeting antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Peter W.; Millson, Stefan H.

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a promising cancer drug target as a molecular chaperone critical for stabilization and activation of several of the oncoproteins that drive cancer progression. Its actions depend upon its essential ATPase, an activity fortuitously inhibited with a very high degree of selectivity by natural antibiotics: notably the actinomycete-derived benzoquinone ansamycins (e.g. geldanamycin) and certain fungal-derived resorcyclic acid lactones (e.g. radicicol). The molecular interactions made by these antibiotics when bound within the ADP/ATP-binding site of Hsp90 have served as templates for the development of several synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor drugs. Much attention now focuses on the clinical trials of these drugs. However, because microbes have evolved antibiotics to target Hsp90, it is probable that they often exploit Hsp90 inhibition when interacting with each other and with plants. Fungi known to produce Hsp90 inhibitors include mycoparasitic, as well as plant-pathogenic, endophytic and mycorrhizal species. The Hsp90 chaperone may, therefore, be a prominent target in establishing a number of mycoparasitic (interfungal), fungal pathogen–plant and symbiotic fungus–plant relationships. Furthermore the Hsp90 family proteins of the microbes that produce Hsp90 inhibitor antibiotics are able to reveal how drug resistance can arise by amino acid changes in the highly conserved ADP/ATP-binding site of Hsp90. PMID:23271830

  20. Leaking electricity in domestic appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Rosen, Karen

    1999-05-01

    Many types of home electronic equipment draw electric power when switched off or not performing their principal functions. Standby power use (or ''leaking electricity'') for most appliances ranges from 1 - 20 watts. Even though standby use of each device is small, the combined standby power use of all appliances in a home can easily exceed 50 watts. Leaking electricity is already responsible for 5 to 10 percent of residential electricity use in the United States and over 10 percent in Japan. An increasing number of white goods also have standby power requirements. There is a growing international effort to limit standby power to around one watt per device. New and existing technologies are available to meet this target at little or no extra cost.

  1. Handling difficult materials: Household appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.

    1994-05-01

    At last count in 1990, the US EPA reported that 2.8 million tons of household appliances (often called ''white goods'') were discarded -- about 2% of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream. These figures may not seem particularly epic, but, considering the potentially harmful coolants, lubricants, and insulating materials left behind in these machines, the amount may be cause for concern. Management of these items is, of course, not impossible, just difficult. As more and more landfills turn white goods away, recycling is becoming the hot'' option. According to a study by the Steel Recycling Institute, about 4 million of the 8 million units discarded in the US were recycled in 1992. Recycling figures like these are impressive for any secondary material, demonstrating the strides appliance recycling has made in recent years. Implemented in May 1993, EPA's final rule on household appliance handling mandates that 80%--90% of all CFC or HCFC coolants must be recovered with certified equipment by a certified technician, who must record how the refrigerant is removed and where it is sent for recovery.

  2. A New Orthodontic Appliance with a Mini Screw for Upper Molar Distalization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a new upper molar distalization appliance called Cise distalizer designed as intraoral device supported with orthodontic mini screw for upper permanent molar distalization. The new appliance consists of eight main components. In order to understand the optimum force level, the appliance under static loading is tested by using strain gage measurement techniques. Results show that one of the open coils produces approximately 300 gr distalization force. Cise distalizer can provide totally 600 gr distalization force. This range of force level is enough for distalization of upper first and second molar teeth. PMID:27528796

  3. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of orthodontic metallic appliances.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Oda, Hirotake; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Biocorrosion (microbiologically influenced corrosion; MIC) occur in aquatic habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, stress and pH. The oral environment of organisms, including humans, should be one of the most hospitable for MIC. Corrosion of metallic appliances in the oral region is one cause of metal allergy in patients. In this study, an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer revealed elution of Fe, Cr and Ni from stainless steel (SUS) appliances incubated with oral bacteria. Three-dimensional laser confocal microscopy also revealed that oral bacterial culture promoted increased surface roughness and corrosion pits in SUS appliances. The pH of the supernatant was lowered after co-culture of appliances and oral bacteria in any combinations, but not reached at the level of depassivation pH of their metallic materials. This study showed that Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis which easily created biofilm on the surfaces of teeth and appliances, did corrode orthodontic SUS appliances.

  4. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 5, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Housekeeping, off-duty, and medical data concerning the appliances considered for the space station are presented. Appliance functions analyzed include: cleanup, collection, processing and storage of refuse; crew entertainment and physical exercise, and the autoclaves and ergometers.

  5. Dentulous Appliance for Upper Anterior Edentulous Span

    PubMed Central

    Chalakkal, Paul; Devi, Ramisetty Sabitha; Srinivas, G. Vijay; Venkataramana, Pammi

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses about a fixed dentulous appliance that was constructed to replace the primary upper anterior edentulous span in a four year old girl. It constituted a design, whereby the maxillary primary second molars were used to support the appliance through bands and a wire that contained an acrylic flange bearing trimmed acrylic teeth, anteriorly. The appliance was functionally and aesthetically compliant. PMID:24551736

  6. Overview on PIV Application to Appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasini, Enrico Primo; Paone, Nicola; Rossi, Massimiliano; Castellini, Paolo

    The term appliances describes a wide range of products that are used to perform a wide variety of tasks. In the home environment, household appliances like refrigerators, ovens, washing machines, dishwashers, vacuum cleaners, hair driers are sold in million pieces per year; they also have commercial and industrial application. Typical products of the appliance industry have a relatively low industrial cost and the appliance market shows a strong competition, in which appliance technical performance plays a role together with aesthetics and costs. Therefore, efforts in applied research for product technical improvement can be done only if the ratio cost to benefits is advantageous. Many such appliances have complex fluid-dynamic problems; it is important that any experimental technique bears inherent characteristics of simplicity, provides a rapid means to collect experimental data, provides information that engineers can readily exploit for product enhancement, and mostly for computational fluid-dynamic (CFD) code validation. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) satisfies most of the above-mentioned requirements and therefore appears as a good candidate experimental technique to be proposed in the field of appliances. Nevertheless, PIV applications are rare. The PIVNet2 workshop on "PIV application to appliances" that took place in Ancona on June 2003 intended to illustrate the great potential for application of the PIV technique in this sector. This chapter presents an overview of PIV application to appliances according to the outcome from this workshop.

  7. Crew appliance computer program manual, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Trade studies of numerous appliance concepts for advanced spacecraft galley, personal hygiene, housekeeping, and other areas were made to determine which best satisfy the space shuttle orbiter and modular space station mission requirements. Analytical models of selected appliance concepts not currently included in the G-189A Generalized Environmental/Thermal Control and Life Support Systems (ETCLSS) Computer Program subroutine library were developed. The new appliance subroutines are given along with complete analytical model descriptions, solution methods, user's input instructions, and validation run results. The appliance components modeled were integrated with G-189A ETCLSS models for shuttle orbiter and modular space station, and results from computer runs of these systems are presented.

  8. 49 CFR 238.429 - Safety appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety appliances. 238.429 Section 238.429..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.429 Safety appliances. (a) Couplers. (1) The leading and the trailing ends of a...

  9. Appliance Repair. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, James F.; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary appliance repair education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for development of entry level skills in appliance repair in the areas of knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability, related supportive skills, and occupational survival skills. The first…

  10. 24 CFR 3285.503 - Optional appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... appliances. (a) Comfort cooling systems. When not provided and installed by the home manufacturer, any comfort cooling systems that are installed must be installed according to the appliance manufacturer's... comfort cooling certificate. (B) The BTU/hr. rated capacity of the site-installed air...

  11. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in appliances

    DOEpatents

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J.; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2016-02-02

    An appliance that includes a cabinet having an exterior surface; a refrigeration compartment located within the cabinet; and a hydrophilic structure disposed on the exterior surface. The hydrophilic structure is configured to spread condensation. The appliance further includes a wicking structure located in proximity to the hydrophilic structure, and the wicking structure is configured to receive the condensation.

  12. Estimating concentrations of heat producing elements in the crust near the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phaneuf, Catherine; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    2014-05-01

    Because the concentrations of uranium and thorium in the crust must be determined precisely for the future geoneutrino observations planned at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, we investigate whether airborne radiometric surveys can be used to constrain crustal radioactivity. The regional airborne surveys cover a wide area with high spatial resolution (< 250 m), but are only sensitive to a very thin (25 cm) surficial layer. We calculate crustal heat production in the Sudbury region from airborne radiometric surveys and compare with measurements on outcrop and core samples, and with heat flow data. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, and potassium from radiometric surveys are correlated with geology, but heat production estimates are lower than values from rock samples. The radiometric surveys give a mean heat production of 0.8 ± 0.6 (σ) μW m- 3 for more than 176,000 values. The outcrop samples collected along a transect in the Superior Province yield an average heat production of 2.9 ± 2.4 (σ) μW m- 3 and core samples from drill holes yield an average of 2.5 ± 0.8 (σ) μW m- 3. The high heat production in the rock samples is consistent with surface heat flux measurements near Sudbury with a mean value that is 12 mW m- 2 higher than the average Canadian Shield. The study shows that airborne aeromagnetic surveys give useful information on lateral variations in surface heat production but are unlikely to provide the reliable values of heat production needed to calculate the crustal geoneutrino flux. Crustal heat production will be best calculated from heat flux data complemented by heat production measurements on rock samples. The high mean heat production in Sudbury Igneous Complex samples (≈ 1.5 μW m- 3) suggests that the main source of the melt sheet was the very radioactive upper crust of the Superior Province or that the melt sheet was extremely enriched relative to a lower crustal source.

  13. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P; Tandon, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior cross bite and retrognathic maxilla at the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross bite was corrected in 3 months and the positive overjet of 4 mm after continued use of the appliance for 1 year. There was a significant improvement in profile of the patient. The use of this appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of malocclusion in a few months and encouraging favorable skeletal growth in the future. PMID:24403800

  14. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2009-12-09

    An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

  15. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  16. Simulations of ionospheric turbulence produced by HF heating near the upper hybrid layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najmi, A.; Eliasson, B.; Shao, X.; Milikh, G. M.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2016-06-01

    Heating of the ionosphere by high-frequency (HF), ordinary (O) mode electromagnetic waves can excite magnetic field-aligned density striations, associated with upper and lower hybrid turbulence and electron heating. We have used Vlasov simulations in one spatial and two velocity dimensions to study the induced turbulence in the presence of striations when the O-mode pump is mode converted to large-amplitude upper hybrid oscillations trapped in a striation. Parametric processes give rise to upper and lower hybrid turbulence, as well as to large amplitude, short wavelength electron Bernstein waves. The latter excite stochastic electron heating when their amplitudes exceed a threshold for stochasticity, leading to a rapid increase of the electron temperature by several thousands of kelvin. The results have relevance for high-latitude heating experiments.

  17. Clusterin produced by Sertoli cells inhibits heat stress-induced apoptosis in the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, K; Miyake, H; Chiba, K; Fujisawa, M

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether the inhibition of clusterin expression in rat Sertoli cells enhances heat stress-induced apoptosis. The scrotums of rats were immersed in a water bath of 43 °C for 15 min. Testicular weight and germ cell number markedly decreased after the heat treatment in a time-dependent manner. In contrast, clusterin mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly up-regulated and peaked on day 21. The apoptotic index was markedly increased 1 day after the heat treatment. We then purified Sertoli cells from the rat testes, and an expression vector containing siRNA targeting the clusterin gene was transiently transfected into Sertoli cells. Following exposure to heat stress at 41 °C for 12 h, clusterin mRNA was markedly up-regulated after transfection with the control vector; however, the transfection of siRNA targeting the clusterin resulted in >70% reduction in the expression of clusterin mRNA. Furthermore, the apoptotic index in these Sertoli cells was significantly higher after the treatment with siRNA targeting the clusterin than control, and the most prominent difference was observed within 24 h after the heat treatment. These results suggest that an increase in the secretion of clusterin by Sertoli cells protects the testes from heat stress-induced injury.

  18. GRI's Gas Appliance Technology Center annual report, January 1989-January 1990 (Activity at A. G. A. laboratories)

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, C.A.

    1990-09-01

    The report describes specific codes and standards support work involved in developing test procedures for (1) flame rollout safety switches, (2) combination space/water heating appliances, (3) gas logs, (4) appliance connectors, and (5) griddles. Technology development activities included (1) gas grill and gas logs compatible with the SMART House, (2) water purification, (3) eliminating or reducing gas appliance venting requirements. Product development activities included (1) flame coloring technology for gas fireplaces and logs and (2) combination broiler/griddle. Assessment studies evaluated (1) emission requirements for gas-fired cooling equipment and (2) commercial kitchen ventilation.

  19. Reports published by the Gas Research Institute in the area of gas appliances: Bibliography and abstracts update through mid-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.J.; Locklin, D.W.; Johnson, O.D.; Brown, V.J.

    1990-11-08

    The updated bibliography contains citations of reports published by the Gas Research Institute pertaining to residential and commercial gas appliances and space conditioning equipment. It does not include heat pumps or cogeneration. The reports are listed in order of GRI number and are indexed by subject, author, and GRI report number. Report citations include abstracts taken from the NTIS database. The updated bibliography was compiled and indexed from the Gas Appliance Technology Center (GATC) InfoBase, an electronic database of evaluated references in the area of gas appliance technology.

  20. DIARRHEA OUTBREAK IN PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, ASSOCIATED WITH A HEAT-STABLE CYTOTOXIC ENTEROTOXIN PRODUCED BY Aeromonas caviae.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Carolina Amaral; Martins, Luciano Moura; Gatti, Maria Silvia Viccari; Falavina Dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura; Hofer, Ernesto; Yano, Tomomasa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study enterotoxic and cytotoxic activities of twenty Aeromonas caviae strains were examined. They originated from fecal specimens of patients with acute diarrhea during an outbreak in Brazil in 2004. Culture supernatants of fourteen strains (70%) caused fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal intestinal loops and in suckling mice assays, and also showed a cytotoxic activity in Vero and Caco-2 cells. The enterotoxic and cytotoxic factors were heat-stable after culture supernatants treatment at 100 ºC. The results revealed that A. caviae strains produce a putative diarrheagenic virulence factor, a heat-stable cytotoxic enterotoxin that could be linked to the diarrhea outbreak that took place in Brazil.

  1. Multi-kanban mechanism for appliance disassembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomsawat, Gun; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The use of household appliances continues to rise every year. A significant number of End-Of-Life (EOL) appliances are generated because of the introduction of newer models that are more attractive, efficient and affordable. Others are, of course, generated when they become non-functional. Many regulations encourage recycling of EOL appliances to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills. In addition, EOL appliances offer the appliance manufacturing and remanufacturing industries a source of less expensive raw materials and components. For this reason product recovery has become a subject of interest during the past decade. In this paper, we study the disassembly line for appliance disassembly. We discuss and incorporate some of the complications that are inherent in disassembly line including product arrival, demand arrival, inventory fluctuation and production control mechanisms. We show how to overcome such complications by implementing a multi-kanban system in the appliance disassembly line setting. The multi-kanban system (MKS) relies on dynamic routing of kanbans according to the state of the system. We investigate the multi-kanban mechanism using simulation and explore the effect of product mix on performance of the traditional push system (TPS) and MKS in terms of controlling the system's inventory while attempting to achieve a decent customer service level.

  2. Heat generates oxidized linoleic acid metabolites that activate TRPV1 and produce pain in rodents.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Amol M; Akopian, Armen N; Ruparel, Nikita B; Diogenes, Anibal; Weintraub, Susan T; Uhlson, Charis; Murphy, Robert C; Hargreaves, Kenneth M

    2010-05-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is the principal detector of noxious heat in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 is expressed in many nociceptors and is involved in heat-induced hyperalgesia and thermoregulation. The precise mechanism or mechanisms mediating the thermal sensitivity of TRPV1 are unknown. Here, we have shown that the oxidized linoleic acid metabolites 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9- and 13-HODE) are formed in mouse and rat skin biopsies by exposure to noxious heat. 9- and 13-HODE and their metabolites, 9- and 13-oxoODE, activated TRPV1 and therefore constitute a family of endogenous TRPV1 agonists. Moreover, blocking these substances substantially decreased the heat sensitivity of TRPV1 in rats and mice and reduced nociception. Collectively, our results indicate that HODEs contribute to the heat sensitivity of TRPV1 in rodents. Because oxidized linoleic acid metabolites are released during cell injury, these findings suggest a mechanism for integrating the hyperalgesic and proinflammatory roles of TRPV1 and linoleic acid metabolites and may provide the foundation for investigating new classes of analgesic drugs.

  3. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life-saving appliances. 173.219 Section 173.219... Life-saving appliances. (a) A life-saving appliance, self-inflating or non-self-inflating, containing small quantities of hazardous materials that are required as part of the life-saving appliance...

  4. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life-saving appliances. 173.219 Section 173.219... Life-saving appliances. (a) A life-saving appliance, self-inflating or non-self-inflating, containing small quantities of hazardous materials that are required as part of the life-saving appliance...

  5. Heat transfer enhancement due to a longitudinal vortex produced by a single winglet in a pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Oyakawa, Kenyu; Senaha, Izuru; Ishikawa, Shuji; Hokama, Mashashige

    1999-07-01

    Longitudinal vortices were artificially generated by a single winglet vortex generator in a pipe. The purpose of this study is to analyze the motion of longitudinal vortices and their effects on heat transfer enhancement. The flow pattern was visualized by means of both fluorescein and rhodamine B as traces in a water flow. The main vortex was moved spirally along the circumference and the behavior of the other vortices was observed. Streamwise and circumferential heat transfer coefficients on the wall, wall static pressure, and velocity distribution in an overall cross section were also measured for the air flow in a range of Reynolds numbers from 18,800 to 62,400. The distributions of the streamwise heat transfer coefficient had a periodic pattern, and the peaks in the distribution were circumferentially moved due to the spiral motion of the main vortex. Lastly, the relationships between the iso-velocity distribution, wall static pressure, and heat transfer characteristics was shown. In the process of forming the vortex behind the winglet vortex generator, behaviors of both the main vortex and the corner vortex were observed as streak lines. The vortex being raised along the end of the winglet, and the vortex ring being rolled up to the main vortex were newly observed. Both patterns of the streamwise velocity on a cross-section and the static pressure on the wall show good correspondences to phenomena of the main vortex spirally flowing downstream. The increased ratio of the heat transfer is similar to that of the friction factor based on the shear stress on the wall surface of the pipe. The quantitative analogy between the heat transfer and the shear stress is confirmed except for some regions, where the effects of the down-wash or blow-away of the secondary flows is caused due to the main vortex.

  6. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-lee

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  7. Cyclic process for producing methane in a tubular reactor with effective heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-Lee

    1986-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  8. Fabrication of a resin appliance with alloy components using digital technology without an analog impression.

    PubMed

    Al Mortadi, Noor; Jones, Quentin; Eggbeer, Dominic; Lewis, Jeffrey; Williams, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to fabricate a resin appliance incorporating "wire" components without the use of an analog impression and dental casts using an intraoral scanner and computer technology to build the appliance. This unique alignment of technology offers an enormous reduction in the number of fabrication steps when compared with more traditional methods of manufacture. The prototype incorporated 2 Adams clasps and a fitted labial bow. The alloy components were built from cobalt-chromium in an initial powdered form using established digital technology methods and then inserted into a build of a resin base plate. This article reports the first known use of computer-aided design and additive manufacture to fabricate a resin and alloy appliance, and constitutes proof of the concept for such manufacturing. The original workflow described could be seen as an example for many other similar appliances, perhaps with active components. The scan data were imported into an appropriate specialized computer-aided design software, which was used in conjunction with a force feedback (haptic) interface. The appliance designs were then exported as stereolithography files and transferred to an additive manufacturing machine for fabrication. The results showed that the applied techniques may provide new manufacturing and design opportunities in orthodontics and highlights the need for intraoral-specific additive manufacture materials to be produced and tested for biocompatibility compliance. In a trial, the retainer was fitted orally and judged acceptable by the clinician according to the typical criteria when placing such appliances in situ. PMID:26522047

  9. Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Birdi, Tannaz J; Brijesh, S; Daswani, Poonam G

    2014-05-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [(3)H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25035535

  10. Increasing heat stress relief produced by coupled coat wetting and forced ventilation.

    PubMed

    Berman, A

    2008-12-01

    Coupling repeated wetting of the coat and forced ventilation is most efficient in removing heat stress in more humid climates. The procedure was initiated approximately 24 yr ago and is widely used, but the impact of air velocity on the efficiency of heat stress relief has not been examined. This study examined the feasibility of using surface temperature for real-time estimation of heat stress relief. It was carried out in midsummer in Israel on 6 mature lactating Holsteins. A 15 x 15 cm area on the right side of the body was thoroughly wetted. Hair surface and skin temperature on the wetted area and adjacent dry area were measured at 1-min intervals for 15 min while air movement was less than 0.1 m/s, and the sequence was repeated with air velocities of 0.5 to 3 m/s perpendicular to the body surface. Because the cooled surface was small, the response to cooling was local. In 3 animals, the whole left side of the body also was wetted and exposed to forced ventilation (1.5 m/s) to combine local cooling with larger body surface cooling. The air temperature was 29.5 +/- 0.05 degrees C, and the relative humidity was 56.7 +/- 0.2%. Rectal temperature and respiratory frequency indicated minor heat stress. Mean wet hair surface temperature (Thw) and wet skin temperature were 2.1 and 1.5 degrees C lower than the respective dry hair surface temperature (Thd) and dry skin temperature. At an air velocity of 0.5 m/s, Thw was practically identical to that in still air and to Thd. At greater air velocities, Thw decreased immediately after wetting, and minimal values were reached within 1 min, were maintained for 6 to 7 min after wetting, and reached 95% of the mean Thd value by 8 and 11 min after wetting at 1 and 2 m/s, respectively. Wetting the coat had the potential to reduce Thd temperature by 10 to 11 degrees C. The relatively small difference between Thd and Thw probably is due to heat flow from the body. The latter was estimated by comparing enthalpies at Thd, at Thw, and

  11. Increasing heat stress relief produced by coupled coat wetting and forced ventilation.

    PubMed

    Berman, A

    2008-12-01

    Coupling repeated wetting of the coat and forced ventilation is most efficient in removing heat stress in more humid climates. The procedure was initiated approximately 24 yr ago and is widely used, but the impact of air velocity on the efficiency of heat stress relief has not been examined. This study examined the feasibility of using surface temperature for real-time estimation of heat stress relief. It was carried out in midsummer in Israel on 6 mature lactating Holsteins. A 15 x 15 cm area on the right side of the body was thoroughly wetted. Hair surface and skin temperature on the wetted area and adjacent dry area were measured at 1-min intervals for 15 min while air movement was less than 0.1 m/s, and the sequence was repeated with air velocities of 0.5 to 3 m/s perpendicular to the body surface. Because the cooled surface was small, the response to cooling was local. In 3 animals, the whole left side of the body also was wetted and exposed to forced ventilation (1.5 m/s) to combine local cooling with larger body surface cooling. The air temperature was 29.5 +/- 0.05 degrees C, and the relative humidity was 56.7 +/- 0.2%. Rectal temperature and respiratory frequency indicated minor heat stress. Mean wet hair surface temperature (Thw) and wet skin temperature were 2.1 and 1.5 degrees C lower than the respective dry hair surface temperature (Thd) and dry skin temperature. At an air velocity of 0.5 m/s, Thw was practically identical to that in still air and to Thd. At greater air velocities, Thw decreased immediately after wetting, and minimal values were reached within 1 min, were maintained for 6 to 7 min after wetting, and reached 95% of the mean Thd value by 8 and 11 min after wetting at 1 and 2 m/s, respectively. Wetting the coat had the potential to reduce Thd temperature by 10 to 11 degrees C. The relatively small difference between Thd and Thw probably is due to heat flow from the body. The latter was estimated by comparing enthalpies at Thd, at Thw, and

  12. Method for producing H.sub.2 using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source

    DOEpatents

    Paulson, Leland E.

    1990-01-01

    A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300.degree. to 1400.degree. F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices.

  13. Measurement of the radial temperature distribution of the heated spot produced by a focused laser beam using an optical pyrometer.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, L J; Zobrist, S P

    1981-05-15

    A method is described for the evaluation of the Gaussian curve parameters needed for the description of the temperature distribution of the heated spot produced on a target substrate by a well-focused laser beam, using an optical pyrometer to read the weighted average temperatures from two distinct distances. The parameter so found gave a calculated distribution curve in excellent agreement with experimental determinations of that distribution. PMID:20332849

  14. A segmented appliance for space closure followed by Invisalign and fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Flavio; Cutrera, Alice; Nanda, Ravinda

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the use of a segmented appliance for space closure prior to using Invisalign. The maxillary right canine was retracted into the extracted first premolar space with a sectional wire from the first molar to the canine with no visible brackets in the incisor region. The advantage of this technique is the ability to achieve better root and rotational control during space closure with a fixed appliance that also has limited visibility. A maxillary fixed appliance was used to refine the esthetics in the maxillary arch due to the limitations of the Invisalign appliance in achieving rotational and vertical movements.

  15. Method for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seals by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Blake, Rodger D.; Meek, Thomas T.

    1986-01-01

    Method for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy, and a sealing mixture which comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

  16. Sodium nitrate containing mixture for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Blake, R.D.; Meek, T.T.

    1984-10-10

    A mixture for, and method of using such a mixture, for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy are disclosed, wherein the mixture comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

  17. 77 FR 15298 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ...); 76 FR 1038 (Jan. 6, 2011) (television labels). \\41\\ The six hour duty cycle estimate is consistent... Rule, see http://www.ftc.gov/appliances . \\3\\ 44 FR 66466 (Nov. 19, 1979). \\4\\ See 52 FR 46888 (Dec. 10, 1987) (central air conditioners and heat pumps); 54 FR 28031 (Jul. 5, 1989) (fluorescent lamp...

  18. Characterization of heat transport dynamics in laser-produced plasmas using collective Thomson scattering: Simulation and proposed experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, S.M.; Camacho, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    The authors propose an experiment in which the collective Thomson scattering lineshape obtained from ion acoustic waves is used to infer the spatial structure of local heat transport parameters and collisionality in a laser-produced plasma. The peak-height asymmetry in the ion acoustic wave spectrum will be used in conjunction with a recently developed model describing the effects of collisional and Landau damping contributions on the low-frequency electron density fluctuation spectrum to extract the relative electron drift velocity. This drift arises from temperature gradients in the plasma. The local heat flux, which is proportional to the drift, can then be estimated, and the electron thermal conductivity will be inferred from the relationship between the calculated heat flux and the experimentally determined temperature gradient. Damping of the entropy wave component at zero mode frequency is shown to be an estimate of the ion thermal conductivity, and its visibility is a direct measure of the ion-ion mean free path. The authors also propose to measure thermal transport parameters under dynamic conditions in which the plasma is heated impulsively by a laser beam on a fast ({approximately}50 ps) time scale. This technique will enable the authors to study heat transport in the presence of the large temperature gradients that are generated by this local heating mechanism. Deviations of the inferred local thermal conductivity from its Spitzer-Haerm value can be used to study the transition to the nonlocal heat transport regime. The authors have constructed a simple numerical model of this proposed experiment and present the results of a simulation. 41 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hart, George W.; Kern, Jr., Edward C.; Schweppe, Fred C.

    1989-08-15

    A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each.

  20. Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1989-08-15

    A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each. 9 figs.

  1. Guiding occlusal development with functional appliances.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, I L

    1996-10-01

    Functional appliances have been used in orthodontics since their introduction by Pierre Robin almost one hundred years ago, however, our understanding of how they bring about orthodontic correction is still limited. This article is a brief overview of their history, mode of action, advantages and disadvantages, and includes the results of a study of attempts to control and minimise their side-effects using a recent development in functional appliances: the 'Teuscher Appliance'. This appliance combines a high-pull headgear with the activator, and is designed to reduce the often reported side-effects of functional appliances. The skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of treatment with the Teuscher Appliance on 40 consecutively-treated patients are reported and illustrated with four individual case reports. The results showed that the skeletal effect on the maxilla was a retardation of the normal forward and downward growth in 80 per cent of the cases, and that mandibular growth in 70 per cent of cases was forward. In patients whose mandibular growth was primarily in a vertical direction, such growth could be ascribed mainly to posterior rotation of the maxilla and/or the fact that the acrylic covering the lower posterior teeth to correct a deep bite was removed, promoting the eruption of these teeth and increasing the anterior vertical development. The dentoalveolar changes were characterised by retroclination of the maxillary incisors in 90 per cent of the patients, and were due to insufficient torque control by the built-in torque springs, which need further development. The mandibular incisors were well controlled by capping. The statistical analysis showed an inverse correlation between the initial incisor inclination and the change during treatment. This suggests that proclination of the lower incisors, as previously reported, is not a contra-indication to functional appliance treatment, provided the appliance is correctly designed. Overall, this study showed

  2. Supersonic Heat Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Underdense Plasma for Efficient X-Ray Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, M; Nishimura, H; Fujioka, S; Nagai, K; Iwamae, A; Ohnishi, N; Fournier, K B; Girard, F; Primout, M; Villette, B; Tobin, M; Mima, K

    2008-06-12

    We have observed supersonic heat wave propagation in a low-density aerogel target ({rho} {approx} 3.2 mg/cc) irradiated at the intensity of 4 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. The heat wave propagation was measured with a time-resolved x-ray imaging diagnostics, and the results were compared with simulations made with the two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic code, RAICHO. Propagation velocity of the ionization front gradually decreased as the wave propagates into the target. The reason of decrease is due to increase of laser absorption region as the front propagates and interplay of hydrodynamic motion and reflection of laser propagation. These features are well reported with the simulation.

  3. Single Chain Variable Fragments Produced in Escherichia coli against Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Toxins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Fernanda B.; Nepomuceno, Roberto; Silva, Anderson; Munhoz, Danielle D.; Yamamoto, Bruno B.; Luz, Daniela; Abreu, Patrícia A. E.; Horton, Denise S. P. Q.; Elias, Waldir P.; Ramos, Oscar H. P.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is a prevalent pathological condition frequently associated to the colonization of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains, known to be endemic in developing countries. These strains can produce two enterotoxins associated with the manifestation of clinical symptoms that can be used to detect these pathogens. Although several detection tests have been developed, minimally equipped laboratories are still in need of simple and cost-effective methods. With the aim to contribute to the development of such diagnostic approaches, we describe here two mouse hybridoma-derived single chain fragment variable (scFv) that were produced in E. coli against enterotoxins of ETEC strains. Methods and Findings Recombinant scFv were developed against ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin (ST), from previously isolated hybridoma clones. This work reports their design, construction, molecular and functional characterization against LT and ST toxins. Both antibody fragments were able to recognize the cell-interacting toxins by immunofluorescence, the purified toxins by ELISA and also LT-, ST- and LT/ST-producing ETEC strains. Conclusion The developed recombinant scFvs against LT and ST constitute promising starting point for simple and cost-effective ETEC diagnosis. PMID:26154103

  4. Microstructured silver surfaces produced by freeze casting for enhanced phase change heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouws, G. J.; Shortt, N.

    2015-12-01

    Microporous silver surface layers were formed on copper substrates by means of a modified freeze casting method. The structure of such layers is the result of the templating action of the ice crystals and layers were found to contain a hierarchical porous structure. Three different pore morphologies were present in the microstructure with pore sizes ranging from approximately 0.5 to 200 μm. The application of these surface structures was found to considerably enhance the heat flux during the nucleate phase of pool boiling, with heat fluxes up to five times higher from a microporous surface compared to a bare copper substrate. Bubble formation and departure was found to be significantly different on the two types of surfaces, with smaller bubbles formed with a high density on the microporous surface. The enhancement in heat flux by these structures is most likely due to the combined effect of an increased surface area with high thermal conductivity, an increase in nucleation sites for bubble formation as well as effective wicking from micropores to sustain bubble growth and departure.

  5. Magnet-retained Prophylactic Appliance for Post-excisional Pressure Therapy and Custom-made Acrylic Therapeutic Pressure Appliance for Auricular Keloid: A Clinical Report

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Manu; Kundu, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Keloid is cutaneous lesion characterized by fibrous growth produced as a result of aberration in the healing process. Pressure therapy, in combination with other forms of therapy, is used for the management of keloids. Clips or stents are generally used for the therapy and prophylaxis. This report presents use of presurgical compression and prophylactic passive pressure therapy with acrylic appliances for auricular keloids in a patient. Spring and magnets were used in the design of custom-made appliances for compression and retention. PMID:25013550

  6. Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Thomas M.; Erlach, Celeste

    2014-12-30

    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

  7. Heat-induced transfer of protons from chitosan to glycerol phosphate produces chitosan precipitation and gelation.

    PubMed

    Lavertu, Marc; Filion, Dominic; Buschmann, Michael D

    2008-02-01

    Recently, chitosan dissolved in solutions containing glycerol phosphate (GP) were found to undergo a sol-gel transition when heated and the proposed gelling mechanism was based on increasing hydrophobic interactions with temperature. Subsequently, an investigation of ionization and precipitation behavior of chitosan, including dependencies on temperature, added salt, and fraction of deacetylated monomers (fD) was performed. This latter study revealed important differences in the temperature dependence of pKa of chitosan versus GP and led us to propose an alternative hypothesis for the mechanism of gelation in chitosan-GP systems whereby heat induces transfer of protons from chitosan to glycerol phosphate thereby neutralizing chitosan and allowing attractive interchain forces to form a physical gel. To investigate this specific molecular thermogelling mechanism, temperature ramp experiments on dilute chitosan-GP solutions were performed. Chitosans with fD of 0.72 and 0.98 were used to prepare solutions with a range of molar ratios of GP to chitosan glucosamine monomer of 1.25 to 10 and with 0 or 150 mM added monovalent salt. Light transmittance measurements were performed simultaneously to indicate precipitation in these dilute systems as a surrogate for gelation in concentrated systems. Measured temperatures of precipitation ranged from 15 to 85 degrees C, where solutions with less GP (used in a disodium salt form) had lower precipitation temperatures. A theoretical model using acid-base equilibria with temperature dependent pKa's, including the electrostatic contribution from the polyelectrolyte nature of chitosan, was used to calculate the degree ionization of chitosan (alpha, the fraction of protonated glucosamine monomer) as a function of temperature and showed a significant decrease in alpha with increased temperature due to proton transfer from chitosan to GP. This heat-induced proton transfer from chitosan to GP was experimentally confirmed by 31P NMR

  8. Measurement of soil bacterial colony temperatures and isolation of a high heat-producing bacterium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cellular temperatures of microorganisms are considered to be the same as those of their surroundings because the cellular volume is too small to maintain a cellular temperature that is different from the ambient temperature. However, by forming a colony or a biofilm, microorganisms may be able to maintain a cellular temperature that is different from the ambient temperature. In this study, we measured the temperatures of bacterial colonies isolated from soils using an infrared imager and investigated the thermogenesis by a bacterium that increases its colony temperature. Results The temperatures of some colonies were higher or lower than that of the surrounding medium. A bacterial isolate with the highest colony temperature was identified as Pseudomonas putida. This bacterial isolate had an increased colony temperature when it grew at a temperature suboptimal for its growth. Measurements of heat production using a microcalorimeter showed that the temperature of this extraordinary, microcalorimetrically determined thermogenesis corresponded with the thermographically observed increase in bacterial colony temperature. When investigating the effects of the energy source on this thermal behavior, we found that heat production by this bacterium increased without additional biomass production at a temperature suboptimal for its growth. Conclusions We found that heat production by bacteria affected the bacterial colony temperature and that a bacterium identified as Pseudomonas putida could maintain a cellular temperature different from the ambient temperature, particularly at a sub-optimal growth temperature. The bacterial isolate P. putida KT1401 increased its colony temperature by an energy-spilling reaction when the incubation temperature limited its growth. PMID:23497132

  9. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mayara Paim; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. Methods The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1), post-distalization (T2) and final phases of treatment (T3). For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. Results Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. Conclusions Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height. PMID:25162565

  10. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Appliance Repair. Course: Motor-Operated Appliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziller, T.

    One of two individualized courses included in an appliance repair curriculum, this course is designed to prepare students to operate, diagnose malfunctions, repair, and service motor operated appliances. The course is comprised of seven units: (1) Mixers and Blenders, (2) Vacuum Cleaners and Floor Polishers, (3) Washing Machines, (4) Garbage…

  11. GE Appliance Park Louisville, KY Plant Wide Assessment Final Report October 25th, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Chandon Rao; Richard Urschel

    2007-10-25

    Used a team of experts to analyze and model major systems at a large industrial appliance manufacturer. During the data gathering stage, the team specifically looked for baselining the efficiency of the systems as well as developing short term and longer term efficiency projects. Electrical distribution, Compressed air generation and thermal heat recovery for the production facility and front office heating and cooling optimization were all baselined during the study.

  12. DIARRHEA OUTBREAK IN PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, ASSOCIATED WITH A HEAT-STABLE CYTOTOXIC ENTEROTOXIN PRODUCED BY Aeromonas caviae

    PubMed Central

    LOPES, Ana Carolina Amaral; MARTINS, Luciano Moura; GATTI, Maria Silvia Viccari; FALAVINA DOS REIS, Cristhiane Moura; HOFER, Ernesto; YANO, Tomomasa

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In the present study enterotoxic and cytotoxic activities of twenty Aeromonas caviaestrains were examined. They originated from fecal specimens of patients with acute diarrhea during an outbreak in Brazil in 2004. Culture supernatants of fourteen strains (70%) caused fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal intestinal loops and in suckling mice assays, and also showed a cytotoxic activity in Vero and Caco-2 cells. The enterotoxic and cytotoxic factors were heat-stable after culture supernatants treatment at 100 ºC. The results revealed that A. caviaestrains produce a putative diarrheagenic virulence factor, a heat-stable cytotoxic enterotoxin that could be linked to the diarrhea outbreak that took place in Brazil. PMID:26422161

  13. Mutualistic fungal endophytes produce phytohormones and organic acids that promote japonica rice plant growth under prolonged heat stress*

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the potential role in heat-stress mitigation of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Paecilomyces formosus LWL1 in japonica rice cultivar Dongjin. The japonica rice was grown in controlled chamber conditions with and without P. formosus LWL1 under no stress (NS) and prolonged heat stress (HS) conditions. Endophytic association under NS and HS conditions significantly improved plant growth attributes, such as plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, P. formosus LWL1 protected the rice plants from HS compared with controls, indicated by the lower endogenous level of stress-signaling compounds such as abscisic acid (25.71%) and jasmonic acid (34.57%) and the increase in total protein content (18.76%–33.22%). Such fungal endophytes may be helpful for sustainable crop production under high environmental temperatures. PMID:26642184

  14. Mutualistic fungal endophytes produce phytohormones and organic acids that promote japonica rice plant growth under prolonged heat stress.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-12-01

    This study identifies the potential role in heat-stress mitigation of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Paecilomyces formosus LWL1 in japonica rice cultivar Dongjin. The japonica rice was grown in controlled chamber conditions with and without P. formosus LWL1 under no stress (NS) and prolonged heat stress (HS) conditions. Endophytic association under NS and HS conditions significantly improved plant growth attributes, such as plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, P. formosus LWL1 protected the rice plants from HS compared with controls, indicated by the lower endogenous level of stress-signaling compounds such as abscisic acid (25.71%) and jasmonic acid (34.57%) and the increase in total protein content (18.76%-33.22%). Such fungal endophytes may be helpful for sustainable crop production under high environmental temperatures.

  15. Mutualistic fungal endophytes produce phytohormones and organic acids that promote japonica rice plant growth under prolonged heat stress.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-12-01

    This study identifies the potential role in heat-stress mitigation of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Paecilomyces formosus LWL1 in japonica rice cultivar Dongjin. The japonica rice was grown in controlled chamber conditions with and without P. formosus LWL1 under no stress (NS) and prolonged heat stress (HS) conditions. Endophytic association under NS and HS conditions significantly improved plant growth attributes, such as plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, P. formosus LWL1 protected the rice plants from HS compared with controls, indicated by the lower endogenous level of stress-signaling compounds such as abscisic acid (25.71%) and jasmonic acid (34.57%) and the increase in total protein content (18.76%-33.22%). Such fungal endophytes may be helpful for sustainable crop production under high environmental temperatures. PMID:26642184

  16. Effect of Filling Type and Heating Method on Prevalence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes in Dumplings Produced in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Barbara; Dąbrowski, Waldemar

    2015-05-01

    The count of Listeria monocytogenes was determined, before and after heat treatment, in 200 samples of dumplings of 9 brands and with different types of stuffing. Analyses were conducted according to ISO 11290-1 standard and with real-time PCR method. The highest count of L. monocytogenes was found in meat dumplings (10(2) to 10(4) CFU/g), whereas products with white cheese-potato stuffing and vegetable-mushroom stuffing contained significantly less Listeria, 20 to 80 and 5 to 32 CFU/g, respectively. In cooled meat dumplings the extent of contamination depended significantly on the producer. In addition, a significant (P < 0.05) correlation was determined between contamination level and meat content in the stuffing (rho = 0.418), especially in stuffing containing pork meat (0.464), contrary to beef-containing stuffing (0.284). Heating dumplings in boiling water for 2 min completely eliminated L. monocytogenes in meat dumplings. In contrast, the microwave heating applied for 2 min at 600 W only reduced the count of L. monocytogenes by 1 to 2 logs. Hence, the microwave heating failed to reduce the risk of infection with this pathogen below the level permissible in the EU regulation, especially in the most contaminated samples. In this case, the efficacy of microwave heating was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the initial count of L. monocytogenes (rho = 0.626), then by meat content in the stuffing (0.476), and to the lowest extent--by the type of meat (0.415 to 0.425). However, no Listeria sp. and L. monocytogenes were isolated from cooked dumplings with fruits (strawberries or blueberries).

  17. Issues in federal preemption of state appliance energy efficiency regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Balistocky, S.; Schaefler, A.M.

    1982-12-01

    The findings and conclusions of the analysis of the various issues involved in the federal preemption of state regulations for the DOE no standard rule on covered appliances are summarized. The covered products are: refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters (excluding heat pump water heaters), room air conditioners, central air conditioners (excluding heat pumps), and furnaces. A detailed discussion of the rationale for the positions of groups offering comment for the record is presneted. The pertinent categories of state and local regulations and programs are explained, then detailed analysis is conducted on the covered products and regulations. Issues relating to the timing of preemption of state regulations are discussed, as well as issues relating to burden of proof, contents of petitions for exemptions from preemption, criteria for evaluating petitions, and procedural and other issues. (LEW)

  18. Transient liquid-crystal technique used to produce high-resolution convective heat-transfer-coefficient maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, Steven A.; Poinsatte, Philip E.

    1993-01-01

    In this transient technique the preheated isothermal model wall simulates the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction problem. By knowing the temperature of the air flowing through the model, the initial temperature of the model wall, and the surface cooling rate measured at any location with time (using the fast-response liquid-crystal patterns recorded on video tape), the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated for the color isothermal pattern produced. Although the test was run transiently, the heat transfer coefficients are for the steady-state case. The upstream thermal boundary condition was considered to be isothermal. This transient liquid-crystal heat-transfer technique was used in a transient air tunnel in which a square-inlet, 3-to-1 exit transition duct was placed. The duct was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. The resulting isothermal contours on the duct surfaces were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. The duct surfaces were uniformly heated using two heating systems: the first was an automatic temperature-controlled heater blanket completely surrounding the test duct like an oven, and the second was an internal hot-air loop through the inside of the test duct. The hot-air loop path was confined inside the test duct by insulated heat dams located at the inlet and exit ends of the test duct. A recirculating fan moved hot air into the duct inlet, through the duct, out of the duct exit, through the oven, and back to the duct inlet. The temperature nonuniformity of the test duct model wall was held very small. Test results are reported for two inlet Reynolds numbers of 200,000 and 1,150,000 (based on the square-inlet hydraulic diameter) and two free-stream turbulence

  19. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  20. Ubiquitous monitoring of electrical household appliances.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

  1. Feasibility of meltcasing strontium fluoride to produce high-density heat sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Montgomery, D.R.

    1985-02-01

    A modest proof-of-principle effort has been conducted to investigate melt casting as a process for compacting SrF/sub 2/ to near theoretical density. A nonradioactive SrF/sub 2/ mixture, similar in chemical composition and method of prepartion to SrF/sub 2/ encapsulated at the Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) was used for the test evaluations. Hard, dimensionally stable, monolithic ingots that are >98% of theoretical density have been produced. Significant chemical purification from Al, Fe, Cr, Ni, Na and Zr has been demonstrated.

  2. Hydrated silica exterior produced by biomimetic silicification confers viral vaccine heat-resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangchuan; Wang, Hong-Jiang; Zhou, Hangyu; Nian, Qing-Gong; Song, Zhiyong; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Li, Xiao-Feng; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Tang, Ruikang

    2015-01-27

    Heat-lability is a key roadblock that strangles the widespread applications of many biological products. In nature, archaeal and extremophilic organisms utilize amorphous silica as a protective biomineral and exhibit considerable thermal tolerance. Here we present a bioinspired approach to generate thermostable virus by introducing an artificial hydrated silica exterior on individual virion. Similar to thermophiles, silicified viruses can survive longer at high temperature than their wild-type relatives. Virus inactivation assays showed that silica hydration exterior of the modified virus effectively prolonged infectivity of viruses by ∼ 10-fold at room temperature, achieving a similar result as that obtained by storing native ones at 4 °C. Mechanistic studies indicate that amorphous silica nanoclusters stabilize the inner virion structure by forming a layer that restricts molecular mobility, acting as physiochemical nanoanchors. Notably, we further evaluate the potential application of this biomimetic strategy in stabilizing clinically approved vaccine, and the silicified polio vaccine that can retain 90% potency after the storage at room temperature for 35 days was generated by this biosilicification approach and validated with in vivo experiments. This approach not only biomimetically connects inorganic material and living virus but also provides an innovative resolution to improve the thermal stability of biological agents using nanomaterials.

  3. Progress in producing megawatt gyrotrons for ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) heating

    SciTech Connect

    Felch, K.; Hess, C.; Huey, H.; Jongewaard, E.; Jory, H.; Neilson, J.; Pendleton, R.; Tsirulnikov, M. )

    1990-10-01

    Varian is carrying out the development of high-power, CW gyrotrons at frequencies ranging from 100--500 GHz for use in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating of magnetically-confined plasma. Initial test vehicles at 140 GHz have utilized TE{sub 15,2,1} interaction cavities, and have been designed to generate short-pulse (up to 20 ms) power levels of 1 MW and up to 400 kW CW. Recently, short-pulse power levels of 940 kW at 35% efficiency have been obtained and average powers of 200 kW have been achieved at peak powers of 400 kW. Long-pulse testing is currently underway. Initial test have resulted in output levels of 400 kW for pulse durations of 380 ms. Design work on 110 GHz, 500 kW CW gyrotron oscillators has recently been completed and a prototype tube has been assembled and is currently being tested. The design of a 110 GHz, 1 MW CW gyrotron, using a novel output coupling approach, is nearly complete. Fabrication of the first 1 MW CW experimental tube is in progress.

  4. Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii by heat labile bacteriocins produced by probiotic LAB isolated from healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Awaisheh, Saddam S; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Osaili, Tareq M; Ibrahim, Salam; Holley, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause bacteremia, meningitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis, most often in neonates with case-fatality rates that may reach 80%. The antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria against a wide range of foodborne pathogens is well-established in different types of food products. The objective of the current study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei isolated from feces of healthy infants against different strains of C. sakazakii in agar and a rehydrated infant milk formula (RIMF) model. The inhibition zones of C. sakazakii around L. acidophilus or L. casei ranged from 22 to 32 mm on eMan Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar under aerobic conditions, while a slight reduction in antibacterial activity was noted on modified MRS (0.2% glucose) under anaerobic conditions. It was observed that pH-neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) of L. acidophilus or L. casei was inhibitory against tested C. sakazakii strains. The inhibition zones of neutralized CFS were lower than the antibacterial activities of live cultures. The antibacterial activity of CFS was abolished when CFS from L. acidophilus or L. casei was heated at 60 or 80 °C for either 10 min or 2 h, or treated with trypsin or pepsin. This was considered strong evidence that the inhibition was due to the production of bacteriocins by L. casei and L. acidophilus. Both the CFS and active growing cells of L. casei and L. acidophilus were able to reduce the viability of C. sakazakii in the RIMF model. The results may extend the use of natural antimicrobials instead of conventional preservation methods to improve the safety of RIMF.

  5. Non-Spitzer heat flow in a steadily ablating laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, A.R.

    1985-06-01

    Electron energy transport in a laser-produced ablating plasma is modeled by the Vlasov--Fokker--Planck equation for electrons and the fluid equations for cold ions. These equations are solved using approximations which maintain good accuracy but allow faster computational solution than was previously possible. It is found that the spatial profiles for temperature and density in planar geometry differ very little from those calculated from the Spitzer conductivity. At high laser intensities, the plasma flow diverges as it flows away from the solid target and the effects of nonplanar flow are important. This is modeled by the adoption of spherical geometry, and it is found that the Spitzer conductivity breaks down and the temperature and density profiles differ significantly from those calculated using the Spitzer conductivity.

  6. Method for producing a secondary lithium cell comprising a heat-sensitive protective mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Ullrich, Matthias; Bechtold, Dieter; Rabenstein, Heinrich; Brohm, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    A method for producing a secondary lithium cell which has at least one lithium-cycling negative electrode, at least one lithium-intercalating positive electrode, at least one separator disposed between the positive and the negative electrode, and a nonaqueous lithium ion-conducting electrolyte. The method is carried out by the electrodes and/or the separator being coated, by means of electrostatic powder coating, with wax particles which are insoluble in the electrolyte and have a melting temperature of from about 50 to about 150 .degree. C. and a mean particle size of from about 6 to about 20 .mu.m, the amount of wax being between about 0.5 and about 2.5 mg/cm.sup.2 of electrode area.

  7. Target heating due to the shock produced hot electrons in the shock ignition scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Somayeh; Farahbod, Amir Hossein; Jafari, Mohammad Jafar; Sobhanian, Samad

    2016-09-01

    Hot electrons are produced as a result of ignitor-corona interaction of the shock ignition scheme. In the present paper, penetration depth and energy deposition of such energetic electrons have been qualitatively discussed applying Monte Carlo simulations. Target real conditions for propagating hot electrons were taken from 1-D hydrodynamic simulations. It has been found that compressing target up to 10.4 ns helps to stop hot electrons at a proper distance thus, preventing fuel preheating. In addition, embedding hot electron energy source into the hydrodynamic code, changes of parameters p, ρ and ρR are calculated. Monoenergetic electron beams have been launched at different times of target compression. The simulation results indicate the creation of high ablation pressure as well as maximum shell areal density by a 50 keV monoenergetic electron beam with intensity 1 PW/cm2 irradiated on the compressed target at a proper time which indeed improves the implosion processes.

  8. Extra-oral Appliances in Orthodontic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Almuzian, Mohammed; Alharbi, Fahad; McIntyre, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Extra-oral appliances are used in orthodontics to apply forces to the jaws, dentition or both and the popularity of these appliances is cyclical. Although the use of retraction headgear for the management of Class II malocclusion has declined over the last 20 years with the refinement of non-compliance approaches, including temporary anchorage devices, headgear still has a useful role in orthodontics. The use of protraction headgear has increased as more evidence of its effectiveness for the treatment of Class lIl malocclusion has become available. This paper describes the mechanics and contemporary uses of headgear in orthodontics for primary care dentists and specialist orthodontists. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Extra-oral appliances have specific uses in orthodontic biomechanics. Clinicians using retraction headgear and protraction headgear should be familiar with their clinical indications, the potential problems and how these can be avoided.

  9. Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930° C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380° C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

  10. Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P.

    2011-01-17

    This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930 deg. C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380 deg. C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

  11. Sprites produced by quasi-electrostatic heating and ionization in the lower ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Pasko, V.P.; Inan, U.S.; Bell, T.F.; Taranenko, Y.N.

    1997-03-01

    Quasi-electrostatic (QE) fields that temporarily exist at high altitudes following the sudden removal (e.g., by a lightning discharge) of thundercloud charge at low altitudes lead to ambient electron heating (up to {approximately}5eV average energy), ionization of neutrals, and excitation of optical emissions in the mesosphere/lower ionosphere. Model calculations predict the possibility of significant (several orders of magnitude) modification of the lower ionospheric conductivity in the form of depletions of electron density due to dissociative attachment to O{sub 2} molecules and/or in the form of enhancements of electron density due to breakdown ionization. Results indicate that the optical emission intensities of the 1st positive band of N{sub 2} corresponding to fast ({approximately}1ms) removal of 100{endash}300 C of thundercloud charge from 10 km altitude are in good agreement with observations of the upper part ({open_quotes}head{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}hair{close_quotes} [{ital Sentman} {ital et al.}, 1995]) of the sprites. The typical region of brightest optical emission has horizontal and vertical dimensions {approximately}10km, centered at altitudes 70 km and is interpreted as the head of the sprite. The model also shows the formation of low intensity glow ({open_quotes}hair{close_quotes}) above this region due to the excitation of optical emissions at altitudes {approximately}85km during {approximately}500{mu}s at the initial stage of the lightning discharge. Comparison of the optical emission intensities of the 1st and 2nd positive bands of N{sub 2}, Meinel and 1st negative bands of N{sub 2}{sup +}, and 1st negative band of O{sub 2}{sup +} demonstrates that the 1st positive band of N{sub 2} is the dominating optical emission in the altitude range around {approximately}70km, which accounts for the observed red color of sprites, in excellent agreement with recent spectroscopic observations of sprites. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. Facilitating Children's Adjustment to Orthotic and Prosthetic Appliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrick, Jeff; Fletcher, Donna

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines are offered to help teachers understand the nature and use of orthotic and prosthetic appliances for disabled students. Classroom behavior observations are noted so that teachers can help monitor the child's adjustment to the appliance. (CL)

  13. 46 CFR 133.170 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 133.170 Section 133.170... SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.170 Line-throwing appliance. (a) General. Each OSV must have a line-throwing appliance that is approved under approval series 160.031 or 160.040. (b) Stowage....

  14. 46 CFR 108.597 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 108.597 Section 108.597... AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.597 Line-throwing appliance. (a) General. Each unit in international service must have a line-throwing appliance that is approved under approval series 160.040....

  15. 46 CFR 199.170 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 199.170 Section 199.170... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.170 Line-throwing appliance. (a) General. Each vessel must have a line-throwing appliance approved under approval series...

  16. 46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.17-5 Section 78.17-5..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-5 Valves and closing appliances. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that all valves, including cross connecting valves where fitted, and other appliances such...

  17. 46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.17-5 Section 78.17-5..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-5 Valves and closing appliances. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that all valves, including cross connecting valves where fitted, and other appliances such...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.807 - Fixtures and appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fixtures and appliances. 3280.807... Fixtures and appliances. (a) Electrical materials, devices, appliances, fittings, and other equipment... pendant-type fixtures or pendant cords shall be permitted in manufactured homes. (c) If a lighting...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.807 - Fixtures and appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fixtures and appliances. 3280.807... Fixtures and appliances. (a) Electrical materials, devices, appliances, fittings, and other equipment... pendant-type fixtures or pendant cords shall be permitted in manufactured homes. (c) If a lighting...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.807 - Fixtures and appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fixtures and appliances. 3280.807... Fixtures and appliances. (a) Electrical materials, devices, appliances, fittings, and other equipment... pendant-type fixtures or pendant cords shall be permitted in manufactured homes. (c) If a lighting...

  1. 24 CFR 3280.807 - Fixtures and appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fixtures and appliances. 3280.807... Fixtures and appliances. (a) Electrical materials, devices, appliances, fittings, and other equipment... pendant-type fixtures or pendant cords shall be permitted in manufactured homes. (c) If a lighting...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... § 25.1309(b) is provided by the circuit protective device required by § 25.1357(a), electric motors...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... § 25.1309(b) is provided by the circuit protective device required by § 25.1357(a), electric motors...

  4. 42 CFR 409.14 - Supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplies, appliances, and equipment. 409.14 Section... Hospital Services § 409.14 Supplies, appliances, and equipment. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, Medicare pays for supplies, appliances, and equipment as inpatient hospital or...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must...

  8. Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiencyof Household Appliances in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang

    2006-07-10

    China is already the second's largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. From 2001 to 2005, the growth rate of energy consumption in China has exceeded the growth rate of its economy (NBS, 2006), raising serious concerns about the consequences of such energy use on local environment and global climate. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through improving energy efficiency and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating. China is already the largest consumer market in the world for household appliances, and increasingly the global production base for consumer appliances. Sales of household refrigerators, room air-conditioners, and water heaters are growing rapidly due to rising incomes and booming housing market. At the same time, the energy use of Chinese appliances is relatively inefficient compared to similar products in the developed economies. Therefore, the potential for energy savings through improving appliance efficiency is substantial. This study focuses particularly on the impact of more stringent energy efficiency standards for household appliances, given that such policies are found to be very effective in improving the efficiency of household appliances, and are well established both in China and around world (CLASP, 2006).

  9. Characterization of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powders produced by water atomization and powder heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Tongsri, Ruangdaj; Yotkaew, Thanyaporn; Krataitong, Rungtip; Wila, Pongsak; Sir-on, Autcharaporn; Muthitamongkol, Pennapa; Tosangthum, Nattaya

    2013-12-15

    Since the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic shows its importance in industrial applications, the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic-containing powders, produced by a powder processing route with a high production rate, were characterized. The route consisted of water atomization of an alloy melt (Cu–61 wt.% Sn) and subsequent heat treatment of the water-atomized powders. Characterization of the water-atomized powders and their heated forms was conducted by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Fine water-atomized powder microstructures consisted of primary hexagonal η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites coexisting with interdendritic η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + β-Sn eutectic. Solidification of fine melt droplets was governed by surface nucleation and growth of the primary hexagonal η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites followed by η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + β-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid. In coarse melt droplets, nucleation and growth of primary ε-Cu{sub 3}Sn dendrites were followed by peritectic reaction (ε-Cu{sub 3}Sn + liquid → η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5}) or direct crystallization of η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} phase from the undercooled melt. Finally, the η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + β-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid occurred. Heating of the water-atomized powders at different temperatures resulted in microstructural homogenization. The water-atomized powders with mixed phases were transformed to powders with single monoclinic ή-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phase. - Highlights: • The Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powder production route was proposed. • Single phase Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} powders could be by water atomization and heating. • Water-atomized Cu–Sn powders contained mixed Cu–Sn phases. • Solidification and heat treatment of water-atomized Cu–Sn powders are explained.

  10. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 3, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Technical data collected for housekeeping, off-duty activities, and medical appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented. Equipment cleaning, refuse management, garment/linen maintenance, entertainment, physical conditioning, sterilization, and physical monitoring were analyzed.

  11. Modeling of GE Appliances: Final Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-01-31

    This report is the final in a series of three reports funded by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) in collaboration with GE Appliances’ through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to describe the potential of GE Appliances’ DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid.

  12. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  13. 75 FR 67615 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Appliance Labeling Rule (16 CFR Part 305) which appeared in the Federal Register on October 23, 2008 (73 FR... (comparability ranges for instantaneous gas water heaters) on August 29, 2007 (72 FR 49948). The correct capacity... Labeling Rule (16 CFR Part 305). This document republishes the text of Sec. 305.20(f) concerning...

  14. Appliance Services. Basic Course. Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killough, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 25 terminal objectives for a basic appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (2 hours daily) designed to enable the student to be well-grounded in the fundamentals of electricity as well as applied electricity.…

  15. Appliance Services. Intermediate Course. Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killough, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 16 terminal objectives for an intermediate appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (3 hours daily) covering the areas of refrigeration, maintenance, repair, and troubleshooting of refrigerators and air…

  16. 75 FR 81943 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... for its new light bulb labeling requirements (published on July 19, 2010, 75 FR 41696) to January 1... (75 FR 41696), the Commission published amendments to the Appliance Labeling Rule (Rule) creating new... new labeling requirements. \\5\\ 59 FR 25176 (May 13, 1994). \\6\\ Pursuant to the revised rule, after...

  17. Clinical evolution of the Invisalign appliance.

    PubMed

    Vlaskalic, Vicki; Boyd, Robert L

    2002-10-01

    The Invisalign System of tooth movement has been available to orthodontists since 1999 and has now become available to the entire dental profession. This paper explores the role of this system within the dental armamentarium and describes the clinical evolution of the appliance, based on a feasibility study initiated at the University of the Pacific in 1997.

  18. Multifunctional resistive-heating and color-changing monofilaments produced by a single-step coaxial melt-spinning process.

    PubMed

    Laforgue, Alexis; Rouget, Geoffroy; Dubost, Sylvain; Champagne, Michel F; Robitaille, Lucie

    2012-06-27

    Multifunctional coaxial monofilaments were successfully produced by melt-spinning several polymer composites in a single-step. The external layer of the monofilaments was a thermochromic composite having a color-transition at 40 °C (above the ambient temperature) in order to avoid control interferences by the external temperature. The core layer of the monofilaments was a conductive polymer nanocomposite whose resistive heating properties were used to control the monofilament's temperature and therefore its color using electrical current. The careful selection of the materials and adequate formulation allowed to obtain a trilayer structure with enhanced compatibility between the layers. The mechanical properties of the monofilaments were improved by a solid-state stretching step while also decreasing their diameter. A 64 cm(2) prototype fabric was woven to characterize the resistive-heating and color-changing properties of the monofilaments. Exceptional thermal output levels were reached, with a temperature rising up to over 100 °C at voltages above 110 V. The reversible color change properties were also successfully demonstrated.

  19. Oral Appliances for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this review was to determine the clinical effectiveness of oral appliances compared to ‘no treatment’, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), or surgery for the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population OSA is characterized by repeated occurrences of upper airway collapse and obstruction during sleep. The condition leads to excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished quality of life, and increased risks of accidents, cardiovascular disease and death. In the general population, the prevalence of OSA is estimated to be 4% in men and 2% in women. Risk factors for OSA include obesity, male gender, increasing age, alcohol use, sedative use, and a family history of OSA. Description of Oral Appliances Oral appliances for OSA fall into two broad categories: mandibular advancement splints (MAS), also known as mandibular repositioning devices, and tongue repositioning or retaining devices. The aim of MAS devices is to advance the mandible forward slightly to enlarge the upper airway and prevent it from collapsing. Similarly, tongue repositioning devices suction the tongue forward to prevent it from falling back and obstructing the airway during sleep. The alternatives to oral appliances include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices, surgery, drug therapy, positional devices, and lifestyle modification. CPAP is the gold standard of treatment, but despite its effectiveness, compliance rates for CPAP have declined because required systems are noisy and because wearing the mask can be uncomfortable, causing claustrophobia in some users. Evidence-Based Analysis Methods Research Questions Are oral appliances effective in improving sleep-disordered breathing in patients with OSA compared to alternative treatments? Are there safety concerns with oral appliances? What is the evidence regarding patient preference, quality of life, and compliance for oral appliances? If

  20. Non-extraction treatment of severe crowding with pendulum appliance

    PubMed Central

    Gandikota, Chandrasekhar; Venkata, Yudhister Palla; Challa, Padmalatha; Juvvadi, Shubhaker Rao

    2013-01-01

    An extraction case was planned for non-extraction treatment using pendulum appliance and the effect of appliance was evaluated in a 14-year-old girl with a severe maxillary and mandibular crowding followed by non-extraction fixed appliance preadjusted edgewise appliance mechanotherapy. Total treatment time was for 22 months. The obtuse nasolabial angle was maintained intact. Correction of crowding, co-ordinated arch forms was achieved with molar distalization. The impetus on soft-tissue paradigm is stressed in this case report and pendulum appliance can indeed boost our clinical acumen and swing our priorities toward non-extraction treatment. PMID:23956605

  1. Principles of design of active and removable appliances.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, A W; Wright, G Z

    1978-10-01

    Removable orthodontic appliances, perhaps more than any other form of mechanical therapy for the movement of teeth, are applicable to general practice. Far too frequently, however, the clinician limits his appliance design to a selective number of appliances with which he is conversant and attempts to modify any one of them to fit a specific situation. This article suggests a different approach. A specific appliance has not been recommended for a specific situation. Instead, the principles of removable appliance design have been elaborated upon according to an established plan. Adherence to the principles should enhance the clinician's ability to provide a more effective and efficient service for his young patients.

  2. Application of New Materials in the Household Appliances Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Ren, Y.

    The widespread use of new materials in household appliances industry, not only help those products to get rid of the appearance shackles caused by original materials, but also gave the designers the freedom to open up the world of product design. This paper aims to analyze the impact of new materials for home appliances design through relevant research, to explore the application of new material in household appliances functional design, shape design, color design and emotional design, etc., so as to reveal the impact and promoting effects of new material in household appliances world, as well as the prospects of new material in future household appliances design.

  3. Non-extraction treatment of severe crowding with pendulum appliance.

    PubMed

    Gandikota, Chandrasekhar; Venkata, Yudhister Palla; Challa, Padmalatha; Juvvadi, Shubhaker Rao

    2013-07-01

    An extraction case was planned for non-extraction treatment using pendulum appliance and the effect of appliance was evaluated in a 14-year-old girl with a severe maxillary and mandibular crowding followed by non-extraction fixed appliance preadjusted edgewise appliance mechanotherapy. Total treatment time was for 22 months. The obtuse nasolabial angle was maintained intact. Correction of crowding, co-ordinated arch forms was achieved with molar distalization. The impetus on soft-tissue paradigm is stressed in this case report and pendulum appliance can indeed boost our clinical acumen and swing our priorities toward non-extraction treatment.

  4. Mobile based Appliances switching using Bluetooth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sureshchandra J., Dr; Desai, Kalp; Gaikawad, Deepak; Pawar, Vijay N.; Gangal, Devendranath R.

    2008-04-01

    How many times do you have to get up from your desk to switch on your Air conditioner or fan when you are completely into your table work? How many times do you feel lazy to get off your comfort to switch on/off your home appliances in different rooms? How much energy do you lose in a day for operating your appliances? The solution is either a large amount of manual work—or the idea that is presented over here: APP-CON (APP-CON stands for appliances control). Here the ordinary cell phone with bluetooth capability acts as remote designed in such a manner that it acts as a helping hand to human by reducing its manual work and therefore saving human energy. The cell phone control of APP-CON units lets you access many of your home appliances situated in different rooms by using just a single remote from distance. Electronics hobbyists would love to make such a remote control themselves. But they find it difficult due to complex circuitry rather than the high cost because of using a number of frequency counting techniques and decade counters. The APP-CON system given here overcomes the aforesaid problems by using a single microcontroller and moreover a simple program or software for bluetooth enabled cell phone and employing simple coding and decoding of remote signals. Here the mobile based remote control is used to operate a number of home appliances basically consists of Bluetooth technology. The unit consists of a transmitter and a receiver consisting of a microcontroller. The importance of bluetooth technology is that the signal to be transmitted from transmitter to the receiver is done without requiring line of sight.

  5. Heat treatment of welded joints of steel 0.3С-1Cr-1Si produced by high-power fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuryntsev, S. V.; Gilmutdinov, A. Kh.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the welded joints of steel grade 0.3С-1Cr-1Si produced by 30 kW power fiber lasers was investigated in the paper. The speed of the welding process was 20 mm/s. Heat treatment was carried out on two levels, quenching with subsequent middle tempering and high tempering. The samples were examined before and after heat treatment, macro- and microstructure were studied using SEM, UTS, three points bent test, microhardness. The effect of heat treatment was significant: it allowed reduction of the weld hardness of considerably and enhancement of its ductility.

  6. The FTB (Flores Twin Block): a new fixed functional appliance.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Flores, José Maria

    2010-01-01

    Functional Orthopaedics, Functionalism and their appliances have as their objective to correct the skeletal dysplasia that underlies many malocclusions, taking advantage of the potential of the stomatognathic system's strength. The range of functional appliances is very extensive and there is a great variety thereof. Basically, functional appliances can be: removable functional appliances and fixed functional appliances. In this article, we are going to present a new design for fixed functional appliances for the treatment of Class II, basing ourselves on the biomechanical principles of the Twin Block. We believe this new design, compared with other fixed functional appliances currently in use, improves patient comfort, providing a more effective response and helps us to treat our Class II cases with total success.

  7. Characterization of a heat stable anti-listerial bacteriocin produced by vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecium isolated from idli batter.

    PubMed

    Vijayendra, S V N; Rajashree, K; Halami, Prakash M

    2010-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce various types of bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized polypeptides, which have antibacterial spectrum against many food borne pathogens. Listeria monocytogenes, a pathogenic bacterium, is of particular concern to the food industry because of its ability to grow even at refrigeration temperatures and its tolerance to preservative agents. Some of the bacteriocins of LAB are known to have anti-listerial property. In the present study, the bacteriocin produced by vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecium El and J4 isolated from idli batter samples was characterized. The isolates were found to tolerate high temperatures of 60°C for 15 and 30 min and 70°C for 15 min. The bacteriocin was found to be heat stable and had anti-listerial activity. The bacteriocin did not lost anti-listerial activity when treated at 100°C for 30 min or at 121°C for 15 min. The bacteriocin lost its antimicrobial activity after treating with trypsin, protinase-K, protease and peptidase.

  8. Influence of Alumina Addition to Aluminum Fins for Compact Heat Exchangers Produced by Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farjam, Aslan; Cormier, Yannick; Dupuis, Philippe; Jodoin, Bertrand; Corbeil, Antoine

    2015-10-01

    In this work, aluminum and aluminum-alumina powder mixtures were used to produce pyramidal fin arrays on aluminum substrates using cold spray as an additive manufacturing process. Using aluminum-alumina mixtures instead of pure aluminum powder could be seen as a cost-effective measure, preventing nozzle clogging or the need to use expensive polymer nozzles that wear out rapidly during cold spray. The fin geometries that were produced were observed using a 3D digital microscope to determine the flow passages width and fins' geometric details. Heat transfer and pressure drop tests were carried out using different ranges of appropriate Reynolds numbers for the sought commercial application to compare each fin array and determine the effect of alumina content. It was found that the presence of alumina reduces the fins' performance when compared to pure aluminum fins but that they were still outperforming traditional fins. Numerical simulations were performed to model the fin arrays and were used to predict the pressure loss in the fin array and compare these results with experimental values. The numerical model opens up new avenues in predicting different applicable operating conditions and other possible fin shapes using the same fin composition, instead of performing costly and time-consuming experiments.

  9. Characterization of a heat stable anti-listerial bacteriocin produced by vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecium isolated from idli batter.

    PubMed

    Vijayendra, S V N; Rajashree, K; Halami, Prakash M

    2010-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce various types of bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized polypeptides, which have antibacterial spectrum against many food borne pathogens. Listeria monocytogenes, a pathogenic bacterium, is of particular concern to the food industry because of its ability to grow even at refrigeration temperatures and its tolerance to preservative agents. Some of the bacteriocins of LAB are known to have anti-listerial property. In the present study, the bacteriocin produced by vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecium El and J4 isolated from idli batter samples was characterized. The isolates were found to tolerate high temperatures of 60°C for 15 and 30 min and 70°C for 15 min. The bacteriocin was found to be heat stable and had anti-listerial activity. The bacteriocin did not lost anti-listerial activity when treated at 100°C for 30 min or at 121°C for 15 min. The bacteriocin lost its antimicrobial activity after treating with trypsin, protinase-K, protease and peptidase. PMID:23100837

  10. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Using Indoor Air

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  11. Mandibular advancement oral appliance therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea: effect on awake calibre of the velopharynx

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, C; Love, L; Peat, D; Fleetham, J; Lowe, A

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The mechanisms of action of oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnoea are poorly understood. Videoendoscopy of the upper airway was used during wakefulness to examine whether the changes in pharyngeal dimensions produced by a mandibular advancement oral appliance are related to the improvement in the severity of obstructive sleep apnoea.
METHODS—Fifteen patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea (median (range) apnoea index (AI) 4(0-38)/h, apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) 28(9-45)/h) underwent overnight polysomnography and imaging of the upper airway before and after insertion of the oral appliance. Images were obtained in the hypopharynx, oropharynx, and velopharynx at end tidal expiration during quiet nasal breathing in the supine position. The cross sectional area and diameters of the upper airway were measured using image processing software with an intraluminal catheter as a linear calibration.
RESULTS—AI decreased to a median (range) value of 0 (0-6)/h (p<0.01) and AHI to 8 (1-28)/h (p<0.001) following insertion of the oral appliance. The median (95% confidence interval) cross sectional area of the upper airway increased by 18% (3 to 35) (p<0.02) in the hypopharynx and by 25% (11 to 69) (p<0.005) in the velopharynx, but not significantly in the oropharynx. Although in general the shape of the pharynx did not change following insertion of the oral appliance, the lateral diameter of the velopharynx increased to a greater extent than the anteroposterior diameter. Following insertion of the oral appliance the reduction in AHI was related to the increase in cross sectional area of the velopharynx (p= 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS—A mandibular advancement oral appliance increases the cross sectional area of the upper airway during wakefulness, particularly in the velopharynx. Assuming this effect on upper airway calibre is not eliminated by sleep, mandibular advancement oral appliances may reduce the severity of obstructive sleep

  12. Powder electrostatic enamelling of household appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragina, L.; Shalygina, O.; Kuryakin, N.; Annenkov, V.; Guzenko, N.; Kupriyanenko, K.; Hudyakov, V.; Landik, A.

    2011-12-01

    Principles and practices of contemporary resource and energy saving technology of powder electrostatic application (POESTA)of vitreous enamel coatings are described. Its technological, economic and ecological advantages over slip enamelling in household appliances manufacture are discussed. We develop the principles of synthesis of special glass frits with high electric resistivity for POESTA and discuss the results of studies aimed at the development and industrial implementation of ground, direct-on and coloured cover enamels for household appliances and direct-on thermally resistant chemically durable coatings with antibacterial effect for protection of inner tanks of water heaters. Finally, we describe the development of compositions for easy-to-clean, catalytic and pyrolytic coatings.

  13. Comparison of emissions from selected commercial kitchen appliances and food products

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, T.H.; Gerstler, W.D.; Pui, D.Y.H.; Ramsey, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    Effluents have been measured from various grease-producing cooking processes in an attempt to quantify the emissions that enter typical commercial kitchen exhaust hoods. The appliances tested include gas and electric versions of single-sided griddles, open-vat deep fat fryers, under-fired broilers, full size convection ovens, and six burner ranges. Food products include hamburger, chicken breast, fries, sausage pizza, and a spaghetti meal. Emission data were obtained for particles, grease vapor, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and hydrocarbons. Velocity and temperature fields were measured in the plume above each appliance. Results show that a large fraction of the grease emission is typically in vapor form. The broilers emit significantly more particles less than 2.5 {micro}m in size (PM 2.5) than the other appliances tested. Combustion by-products were measured for all gas appliances. Both the gas and electric broilers emitted significant amounts of CO when hamburgers were cooked. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were below detectable limits in all tests.

  14. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, J.; Bohac, D.

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  15. Extraoral appliances: A twenty-first century update.

    PubMed

    Braun, Stanley

    2004-05-01

    With the locations of the centers of resistance of the dentomaxillary complex having recently been defined, and with the newly acquired knowledge of the critical interplay between part-time extraoral and full-time intraoral force systems, the basic designs of all types of extraoral appliances are discussed in depth. Armed with this information, the clinician can improve the efficiency of all extraoral appliances to obtain better dentomaxillary-complex growth control and negate or enhance appliance-induced intraoral force systems.

  16. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances

    DOEpatents

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2014-10-21

    A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

  17. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and... device includes the preformed orthodontic band, orthodontic band material, orthodontic elastic...

  18. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and... device includes the preformed orthodontic band, orthodontic band material, orthodontic elastic...

  19. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and... device includes the preformed orthodontic band, orthodontic band material, orthodontic elastic...

  20. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and... device includes the preformed orthodontic band, orthodontic band material, orthodontic elastic...

  1. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and... device includes the preformed orthodontic band, orthodontic band material, orthodontic elastic...

  2. Rapid tooling method for soft customized removable oral appliances.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient's dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance.

  3. Rapid Tooling Method for Soft Customized Removable Oral Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient’s dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance. PMID:22615719

  4. The application of masonry chimney venting tables for oil-fired appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the results of work in developing a set of rational guidelines for the venting of modern oil-fired appliances. The activities included the continued development and completion of the Oil-Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP), Version 1.0 and the interpretation of nearly 2,000 runs in preparing recommendations for presentation in table form. These results are presented in the form of venting tables for the installation of chimney vent systems for mid- and high-efficiency oil-fired heating appliances using masonry chimneys. A brief description of OHVAP is given as well as a discussion of what the program does. Recommendations based on the results of OHVAP are presented in the form of five tables spanning oil-fired appliance Steady state Efficiencies (Eff{sub ss}) of 80% to 88%. The assumptions used in the calculations and examples of the computed results are presented as well as a discussion of the rationale for masonry chimney system treatment. Working examples are given with suggested diagnostic approaches for application of the table recommendations.

  5. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  6. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  7. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  8. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  9. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  10. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Lactobacillus Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Y. Z.; Cheng, J. L.; Ren, M.; Yin, L.; Piao, X. S.

    2015-01-01

    Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164) at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i) 0 mg/kg, ii) 25 mg/kg, iii) 50 mg/kg, and iv) 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (p<0.05) by the increasing supplementation of the dietary GABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the hens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009) and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to improve laying

  11. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Lactobacillus Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y Z; Cheng, J L; Ren, M; Yin, L; Piao, X S

    2015-07-01

    Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164) at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i) 0 mg/kg, ii) 25 mg/kg, iii) 50 mg/kg, and iv) 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (p<0.05) by the increasing supplementation of the dietary GABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the hens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009) and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to improve laying

  12. Comparison of K-loop Molar Distalization with that of Pendulum Appliance - A Prospective Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shashidhar, Nagam Reddy; Reddy, S.Rama Koteswara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Molar distalization is the non extraction method of managing Class II malocclusions. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of maxillary molar distalization with K-loop appliance, and to compare these effects with that of pendulum group. Materials and Methods Class I and dental Class II malocclusions were divided into two groups of 15 each: In Group 1 (nine females and six males; mean age, 16.0±2.6 years) patients were treated with K-Loop molar distalization supported palatally by Nance button, while in Group 2 (seven females and eight males; mean age, 15.4±4.7 years), the patients were treated with conventional pendulum appliance. Standardized lateral cephalograms were taken at the beginning of treatment (T0) and at the end of molar distalization (T1) and the changes were statistically analyzed with paired t-test. Results The results showed no statistically significant difference in the amount of molar distalization in either of the appliance groups: the mean amount of molar distal movement of 5.1±0.8 mm and 4.93±1.68 mm was observed in the Group 1 and 2 respectively. The incisors moved mesially by 1.3±0.63 mm in Group 1 and 1.57±0.58 mm in Group 2. Conclusion K-Loop molar distalizing appliance has similar skeletal and dentoalveolar effects as that of pendulum appliance, with the advantages of simple yet efficient to control the moment-force ratio to produce all types of tooth movements and also requires minimal patient co-operation. PMID:27504403

  13. Greens, suits, and bureaucrats: A sociological study of dynamic organizational relationships in energy efficient appliance policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwom-Evelich, Rachael Leah

    In this dissertation I develop an approach to understanding dynamic organizational relations and the processes of environmental degradation and reform. To do this, I draw on environmental and organizational sociology to inform an empirical study of interorganizational relationships in defining and promoting energy efficient appliances in the United States (US). The dissertation follows a three paper approach which involves (a) an overall introduction to the substantive issue of appliance energy efficiency in the US; (b) producing three separate and stand alone articles of publishable quality to be submitted to professional journals; and (c) an overall conclusion. The three articles are as follows: (1) a synthetic literature review identifying five lessons that organizational sociology and environmental sociology can learn from each other to advance our sociological understanding of organizations, energy issues, and climate change (2) a qualitative case study of the changing relationships between business, government and environmental and energy advocacy organizations around mandatory appliance efficiency standards supporting the development of a context-dependent theory of ecological modernization and treadmill of production theories in environmental sociology and (3) a network analysis of public government, business and energy efficiency advocate's interorganizational relationships and its influence on subsequent organizational behaviors in the appliance energy efficiency field. The second and third articles are based on extensive archival research on organizational negotiations of public record over defining energy efficient appliances in both regulatory and voluntary settings. Finally I will provide an overall conclusion that brings together the most significant findings of each individual article in anticipation of a synthetic approach to the study of organizations in environmental reform.

  14. Therapeutic effects of functional orthodontic appliances on cervical spine posture: a retrospective cephalometric study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Interactions between the cervical spine and the stomatognathic system have been discussed in literature. The present study was conducted to investigate whether, and to what extent, orthodontically induced mandibular advancement produces changes in cervical spine posture. Furthermore, possible appliance-specific effects should be distinguished. Material and methods The cephalograms of 64 patients with skeletal class II were analysed before and after mandibular advancement. Linear and angular cephalometric parameters were identified to define the position of the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints. The total example was divided into two subgroups (comprising 32 individuals each) according to the employed appliance: activator versus bite-jump appliance (BJA). Student's t-test and analysis of covariance were used for statistical analysis. Results Overall, a significant straightening of the cervical spine was observed during the treatment. This conclusion is based on changes of Chamberlain (p = 0.0055), CVT (p = 0.0003), OPT (p < 0.0001), Redlund-Johnell/Petersson (p < 0.0001), McGregor-mC2 (p = 0.0333) and AT-FH (p = 0.0445). Improvements in occipitoatlantal dislocation were also observed in the total sample. Appliance-specific changes were found in the activator subgroup for a number of linear parameters (Chamberlain, McGregor, CVT, OPT, Redlund-Johnell/Petersson). In contrast, only two linear parameters (OPT and Powers ratio) revealed statistically significant changes in the BJA subgroup. Conclusions During skeletal class II treatment the position of upper cervical spine changes. In the activator subgroup the observed effects were more pronounced than those in the BJA subgroup. Further studies including a control group comprised with non-treated class II patients are needed to assess whether these effects may be caused directly by the appliances irrespective of growth. PMID:24661951

  15. Carbon monoxide safety systems for gas appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, M.K.; Anderson, T.G.; Palmer, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in the development of a self-powered carbon monoxide safety control system for application to gas appliances is reported. A comparison of the various possible technologies is made, and the relative strengths and weaknesses of each are discussed. Results of an experimental study of a chemioptical sensor, describing its CO sensitivity, dose response time, reusibility, and dependence on temperature and humidity are presented. The effects of four interfering gasses, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, acrolein, and formic acid, are also included. Details are shown for a safety control system now undergoing field tests in gas room heaters.

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea treatment with dental appliance.

    PubMed

    Reimão, R; De Gouveia, M M; Pestana, M C; Lopes, S R; Papaiz, E G; Papaiz, L F

    1994-12-01

    The case of a 40-year-old male patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is reported, with emphasis on treatment with a dental appliance. This therapeutic approach, which has been focused on recent research, has as its objective, the posturing of the mandibule and, consequently, the tongue more anteriorly, thus in turn leading to an increase in the posterior oropharyngeal airway space (PAS). Cephalometry contributed determining in this case whereby enlargement limits were observed in the PAS with mandibular displacement. Clinical and polysomnographic controls showed subjective reduction of the excessive daytime sleepiness and objective decrease in apneas intensity to normal limits. Eight months follow-up evidenced the steady improvement.

  17. [Fixed appliances current state of the art].

    PubMed

    Droschl, H; Eskici, A; Bantleon, H P; Muchitsch, A P

    1989-11-01

    Recent advances in fixed appliances are reviewed and discussed. These include cosmetically more appealing brackets (ceramic, lingual); new wires (nickel-titanium and titanium-molybdenum alloys); new biomechanical approaches (accurate computation of forces and torques according to Burstone resulting in the use of new mechanical concepts); experiences in the treatment of transplanted teeth made in the past 15 years; new approaches to the orthodontic finish (implementation of Andrews' "six keys to normal occlusion" with straight wires, accurate positioning of brackets, and gnathological positioners). Cases will be demonstrated.

  18. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with the ARI Standard 210/240-89 Unitary Air Conditioning and Air Source Unitary Heat Pump... Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment, shall show energy efficiency (EER) values not less than 7.2. (ii) Heat... Conditioning and Air Source Unitary Heat Pump Equipment. Electric motor-driven vapor compression heat...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) A space is designed specifically for a clothes washer or dryer; (ii) Dimensions surrounding the... appliance and its return-air system shall be designed and installed so that negative pressure created by the air-circulating fan cannot affect its or another appliance's combustion air supply or act to...

  20. 49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or supports considered part of the car body. Safety appliance brackets or supports will be considered part of the car body and will not be required to be mechanically fastened to the piece of passenger... appliance brackets and supports on passenger equipment shall not be welded to the car body unless the...

  1. 46 CFR 78.47-38 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.47-38 Section 78.47-38 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-38 Valves and closing appliances. (a) All valves and...

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-38 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.47-38 Section 78.47-38 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-38 Valves and closing appliances. (a) All valves and...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.807 - Fixtures and appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fixtures and appliances. 3280.807... Fixtures and appliances. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 73991, Dec. 9, 2013. (a) Electrical... home is in transit. (See § 3280.809.) (b) Specifically listed pendant-type fixtures or pendant...

  4. Class II correction with the Incognito lingual appliance.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Robert B

    2013-09-01

    The Incognito fully customized lingual appliance provides excellent torque control. This offers the potential for class II correction using inter-maxillary traction without the usual iatrogenic effects associated with their use. A case is presented showing the potential of these appliances in controlling torque and achieving full class II correction on a non-extraction basis.

  5. 46 CFR 109.209 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 109.209 Section 109.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.209 Appliances for watertight integrity. (a) Before...

  6. 46 CFR 109.209 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 109.209 Section 109.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.209 Appliances for watertight integrity. (a) Before...

  7. 46 CFR 109.209 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 109.209 Section 109.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.209 Appliances for watertight integrity. (a) Before...

  8. 46 CFR 109.209 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 109.209 Section 109.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.209 Appliances for watertight integrity. (a) Before...

  9. 46 CFR 109.209 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 109.209 Section 109.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.209 Appliances for watertight integrity. (a) Before...

  10. 46 CFR 108.665 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 108.665 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.665 Appliances for watertight integrity. Each watertight door, scuttle, and hatch required for watertight integrity, which may be opened...

  11. 46 CFR 133.70 - Personal lifesaving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Personal lifesaving appliances. 133.70 Section 133.70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.70 Personal lifesaving appliances. (a) Lifebuoys. Each OSV must carry lifebuoys approved under approval...

  12. 46 CFR 78.47-38 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.47-38 Section 78.47-38... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-38 Valves and closing appliances. (a) All valves and closing... direction of operation. In all cases indication shall be provided to show whether the control is open...

  13. 46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.17-5 Section 78.17-5..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-5 Valves and closing appliances. (a) It shall be the duty of the master... port lights, closing mechanism of scuppers, ash chutes, and rubbish chutes, the closing of which...

  14. 46 CFR 78.47-38 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.47-38 Section 78.47-38... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-38 Valves and closing appliances. (a) All valves and closing... direction of operation. In all cases indication shall be provided to show whether the control is open...

  15. 46 CFR 78.47-38 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.47-38 Section 78.47-38... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-38 Valves and closing appliances. (a) All valves and closing... direction of operation. In all cases indication shall be provided to show whether the control is open...

  16. 46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.17-5 Section 78.17-5..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-5 Valves and closing appliances. (a) It shall be the duty of the master... port lights, closing mechanism of scuppers, ash chutes, and rubbish chutes, the closing of which...

  17. 46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.17-5 Section 78.17-5..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-5 Valves and closing appliances. (a) It shall be the duty of the master... port lights, closing mechanism of scuppers, ash chutes, and rubbish chutes, the closing of which...

  18. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  19. Volumetric wear of various orthotic appliance materials.

    PubMed

    Issar-Grill, Noana; Roberts, Howard W; Wright, Edward F; Dixon, Sara A; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the resistance to wear of six commonly used orthotic appliance materials. These materials were: SR Ivocap (Ivoclar Vivadent, Inc., Amherst, NY), Eclipse (Dentsply International, York, PA), ProBase (Ivoclar Vivadent), Valplast (Valplast International Corp., Oceanside, NY), Impak (CMP Industries LLC, Albany, NY), and Clearsplint (Astron Dental Corp., Lake Zurich, IL). Twelve cylindrical specimens of each material were fabricated per manufacturer instructions. Occlusal wear was simulated in a custom-made wear simulator with each specimen receiving four wear scars in a two-body wear simulation using a 1.5 mm tungsten-carbide tipped stylus at 40 newtons for 2500 cycles at 1 Hz, while immersed in 37 degrees C distilled water (n = 48). The specimens were evaluated before and after wear testing using a three-dimensional (3D) noncontact profilometer (Proscan 2000, Scantron Corp., Eagan, MN). A mean change in volume was determined for each orthotic material. Results found that Clearsplint material displayed the greatest amount of volume loss/wear, while SR Ivocap, Eclipse, and ProBase materials had the least amount of wear. Valplast and Impak performed more moderately. Based upon this wear knowledge, practitioners are able to more reliably choose the appliance material necessary for their various patients. PMID:24308100

  20. Mechanism of Formation and Stabilization of Nanoparticles Produced by Heating Electrostatic Complexes of WPI-Dextran Conjugate and Chondroitin Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qingyuan; Zhu, Xiuling; Yu, Jingyang; Karangwa, Eric; Xia, Shuqin; Zhang, Xiaoming; Jia, Chengsheng

    2016-07-13

    Protein conformational changes were demonstrated in biopolymer nanoparticles, and molecular forces were studied to elucidate the formation and stabilization mechanism of biopolymer nanoparticles. The biopolymer nanoparticles were prepared by heating electrostatic complexes of whey protein isolate (WPI)-dextran conjugate (WD) and chondroitin sulfate (ChS) above the denaturation temperature and near the isoelectric point of WPI. The internal characteristics of biopolymer nanoparticles were analyzed by several spectroscopic techniques. Results showed that grafted dextran significantly (p < 0.05) prevented the formation of large aggregates of WD dispersion during heat treatment. However, heat treatment slightly induced the hydrophobicity changes of the microenvironment around fluorophores of WD. ChS electrostatic interaction with WD changed the fluorescence intensity of WD regardless of heat treatment. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopies confirmed that glycosylation and ionic polysaccharide did not significantly cause protein conformational changes in WD and ChS (WDC) during heat treatment. In addition, hydrophobic bonds were the major molecular force for the formation and stabilization of biopolymer nanoparticles. However, hydrogen bonds slightly influenced their formation and stabilization. Ionic bonds only promoted the formation of biopolymer nanoparticles, while disulfide bonds partly contributed to their stability. This work will be beneficial to understand protein conformational changes and molecular forces in biopolymer nanoparticles, and to prepare the stable biopolymer nanoparticles from heating electrostatic complexes of native or glycosylated protein and polysaccharide. PMID:27329490

  1. Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances

    DOEpatents

    Cliff, P.L. Jr.

    1996-07-09

    A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The device comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a hinged cover plate attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate, the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position. 15 figs.

  2. Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances

    DOEpatents

    Cliff, Jr., Paul L.

    1996-01-01

    A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The devise comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a cover plate hingedly attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate and the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position.

  3. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel 316L Coatings Produced by Cold Spray for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Mangour, Bandar; Vo, Phuong; Mongrain, Rosaire; Irissou, Eric; Yue, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cold sprayed stainless steel 316L coatings using N2 and He as propellant gases were investigated. Powder and coating characterizations, including coating microhardness, coating porosity, and XRD phase analysis were performed. It was found that heat treatment reduced porosity, improved inter-particle bonding, and increased ductility. XRD results confirmed that no phase transformation occurred during deposition. Significant increase in UTS and ductility was observed for the annealed specimens obtained with nitrogen propellant, whereas little changes were observed for the helium propellant produced specimen.

  4. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 2, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.

  5. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 4, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Data collected for the appliances considered for the space station are presented along with plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. The food management, and personal hygiene data are applicable to a six-man mission of 180-days.

  6. A fast and conformal heating scheme for producing large thermal lesions using a 2D ultrasound phased array.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Li; Lin, Win-Li; Chen, Yung-Yaw

    2007-02-01

    The treatment conformability and the total treatment time of large tumors are both important issues in ultrasound thermal therapy. Previous heating strategies all show their restrictions in achieving these two issues to satisfactory levels simultaneously. This work theoretically presents a new heating strategy which is capable of both increasing the treatment conformability and shortening the treatment time, when using a 2D ultrasound phased array transducer. To perform this, a set of the multiple-foci patterns (considered the basic heating units) were temporally switched to steer the beam at different focal planes with the lesion length being well-controlled. Then, to conformally cover an irregular target volume, the 2D phased array was laterally shifted by a positioning system to deposit a suitable heating unit to cover a subvolume part. Results demonstrated that the totally treatment time can be largely reduced. The heating rate can be increased up to 0.96 cm3/min compared to the previously reported 0.26 cm3/min. Also, the proposed scheme showed that the tumor regions can be completely treated with the normal tissue damage at satisfactory level. The feasibility of the proposed strategy for irregular tumor treatment was also demonstrated. This study offers useful information in large tumor treatment in ultrasound thermal therapy.

  7. Technology Solutions Case Study: Combustion Safety for Appliances Using Indoor Air

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-01

    This case study describes how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  8. New analysis techniques for estimating impacts of federal appliance efficiency standards

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.

    2003-06-24

    Impacts of U.S. appliance and equipment standards have been described previously. Since 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has updated standards for clothes washers, water heaters, and residential central air conditioners and heat pumps. A revised estimate of the aggregate impacts of all the residential appliance standards in the United States shows that existing standards will reduce residential primary energy consumption and associated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by 89 percent in 2020 compared to the levels expected without any standards. Studies of possible new standards are underway for residential furnaces and boilers, as well as a number of products in the commercial (tertiary) sector, such as distribution transformers and unitary air conditioners. The analysis of standards has evolved in response to critiques and in an attempt to develop more precise estimates of costs and benefits of these regulations. The newer analysis elements include: (1) valuing energy savings by using marginal (rather than average) energy prices specific to an end-use; (2) simulating the impacts of energy efficiency increases over a sample population of consumers to quantify the proportion of households having net benefits or net costs over the life of the appliance; and (3) calculating marginal markups in distribution channels to derive the incremental change in retail prices associated with increased manufacturing costs for improving energy efficiency.

  9. The mathematical description of the gasification process of woody biomass in installations with a plasma heat source for producing synthesis gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrtdinov, A. R.; Safin, R. G.; Gerasimov, M. K.; Petrov, V. I.; Gilfanov, K. K.

    2016-04-01

    The article presents the scheme of processing of plant biomass in the gasification installation with a plasma heat source to produce synthesis gas suitable for chemical industry. The analyzed physical picture of raw materials' recycling process underlies a mathematical description of the process set out in the form of the basic differential equations with boundary conditions. The received mathematical description allows calculating of the main parameters of equipment for biomass recycling and to determine the optimal modes of its operation.

  10. Application of probabilistic event attribution in the summer heat extremes in the western US to emissions traced to major industrial carbon producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mera, R. J.; Allen, M. R.; Mote, P.; Ekwurzel, B.; Frumhoff, P. C.; Rupp, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Heat waves in the western US have become progressively more severe due to increasing relative humidity and nighttime temperatures, increasing the health risks of vulnerable portions of the population, including Latino farmworkers in California's Central Valley and other socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. Recent research has shown greenhouse gas emissions doubled the risk of the hottest summer days during the 2000's in the Central Valley, increasing public health risks and costs, and raising the question of which parties are responsible for paying these costs. It has been argued that these costs should not be taken up solely by the general public through taxation, but that additional parties can be considered, including multinational corporations who have extracted and marketed a large proportion of carbon-based fuels. Here, we apply probabilistic event attribution (PEA) to assess the contribution of emissions traced to the world's 90 largest major industrial carbon producers to the severity and frequency of these extreme heat events. Our research uses very large ensembles of regional climate model simulations to calculate fractional attribution of policy-relevant extreme heat variables. We compare a full forcings world with observed greenhouse gases, sea surface temperatures and sea ice extent to a counter-factual world devoid of carbon pollution from major industrial carbon producers. The results show a discernable fraction of record-setting summer temperatures in the western US during the 2000's can be attributed to emissions sourced from major carbon producers.

  11. 46 CFR 108.114 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity... Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity. (a) Appliances to ensure watertight integrity include... watertight decks and bulkheads. (b) Appliances to ensure weathertight integrity include weathertight...

  12. Follow-up problems with fixed appliances in pediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Ari, Timucin

    2015-03-01

    Fixed appliances are commonly used in managing early orthodontic problems. Despite their widespread use, they have the potential to impinge on the soft tissues, interfere with the eruption of adjacent teeth and become dislodged or broken. These two case reports present the poor outcomes of fixed appliance treatments if the patient fails to attend follow-up appointments. A successful outcome of treatment with fixed appliances depends upon proper patient selection and the communication skills of the dentist to help patients/parents understand the importance of regular checkups. PMID:25928968

  13. Study of a hydrocarbon-utilizing and emulsifier-producing Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain isolated from heating oil.

    PubMed

    Marín, M M; Pedregosa, A M; Ortiz, M L; Laborda, F

    1995-12-01

    Twenty bacterial strains were isolated from a sample of contaminated heating oil and screened for their ability to use petroleum and several common fuels as the sole source of carbon and energy. One of the isolates, named MM5, was able to grow on petroleum derivatives and brought about an emulsification of those compounds. Gas chromatography studies showed that strain MM5 was able to degrade hydrocarbons of heating oil. MM5 has been tentatively identified as a strain of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. The fine structure of MM5 was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Incubation in the presence of hydrocarbon substrates resulted in the development of intracellular electron-transparent inclusions. These structures were absent in the non-hydrocarbon cultures studied.

  14. The prospects for incineration of municipal solid waste in Russia in order to produce heat and electric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskakov, A. P.

    2014-04-01

    The article presents the results of the low-temperature pyrolysis of the main components of municipal solid waste (MSW): wood, products of wood processing (paper, cardboard, fabrics, etc.), various plastics, rubber, as well as of a representative sample of MSW. A waste-to-energy plant is described, at which municipal solid waste is subjected to the pyrolysis, and then pyrolysis products are incinerated in a slagging-bottom furnace. The paper presents an analysis of the operation of a modern waste-to-energy plant equipped with a wet scrubber, with a high-degree recovery of the heat of exhaust gases by means of a heat pump, and with evaporation cooling of glowing slag in a tank filled with water. Chemical treatment of water circulating in the system makes it possible to convert heavy metals and other hazardous substances into the insoluble form and then to remove them.

  15. Long- but not short-term heat acclimation produces an apoptosis-resistant cardiac phenotype: a lesson from heat stress and ischemic/reperfusion insults.

    PubMed

    Assayag, Miri; Gerstenblith, Gary; Stern, Michael D; Horowitz, Michal

    2010-09-01

    Long-term heat acclimation (AC, 30d/34 degrees C) is a phenotypic adaptation leading to increased thermotolerance during heat stress (HS, 2 h 41 degrees C). AC also renders protection against ischemic/reperfusion (I/R, 30' global ischemia/40' reperfusion) insult via cross-tolerance mechanisms. In contrast to the protected AC phenotype, the onset of acclimation (34 degrees C, AC2d) is characterized by cellular perturbations, suggesting increased susceptibility to HS and I/R insults. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that apoptosis resistance is part of the AC repertoire and that, at the initial phase of acclimation (AC2d), cytoprotection is impaired. TUNEL staining and caspase 3 levels in HS and I/R insulted hearts affirmed this hypothesis. To examine the role of the mitochondria in life/death decision in AC2d and 30d AC settings vs. control hearts, we studied the Bcl-2 apoptotic cascade and found increased levels of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-X(L) and decreased levels of the pro-apoptotic death promoter Bad in hearts from AC2d and AC animals. In these groups, cytochrome c (cyt c) was elevated in the mitochondria and remained unchanged in the cytosol. This adaptation was insufficient to negate apoptosis in AC2d rats. At this early acclimation phase (and in controls), increased caspase 8 activity confirmed activation of the extrinsic (Fas ligand) apoptosis pathway. In conclusion, the elevated Bcl-X(L)/Bad ratio and decreased cyt c leakage to the cytosol are insufficient to protect the heart and interactions with additional cytoprotective pathways involved in acclimation (elevated HSP70, ROS, and sarcolemmal adaptations to abolish extrinsic apoptosis pathways) are required to induce the apoptosis-resistant AC phenotype. PMID:20221856

  16. Effect of Energetic Trapped Particles Produced by ICRF Wave Heating on Sawtooth Instability in the DIII-D Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M.; Chan, V. S.; Chu, M. S.; Jeon, Y. M.; Lao, L. L.; Li, G.; Pinsker, R. I.; Ren, Q.; Turnbull, A. D.

    2007-09-01

    We evaluate the accuracy of the Porcelli sawtooth model using more realistic numerical models from the ORBIT-RF and GATO codes in DIII-D fast wave heating experiments. Simulation results confirm that the fast wave-induced energetic trapped particles may stabilize the sawtooth instability. The crucial kinetic stabilizing contribution strongly depends on both the experimentally reconstructed magnetic shear at the q = 1 surface and the calculated poloidal beta of energetic trapped particles inside the q = 1 surface.

  17. 24 CFR 3285.503 - Optional appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... efficiency. (A) Site-installed central air conditioning equipment must be sized to meet the home's heat gain..., see § 3285.4). Information necessary to calculate the home's heat gain can be found on the home's... directed beyond the perimeter of the home by means specified by the equipment manufacturer. (2) Heat...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Conditioning and Air Source Unitary Heat Pump Equipment and certified by ARI or other nationally recognized... Standard 210/240-89 Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment, shall show energy efficiency (EER) values not less than 7.2. (ii) Heat pumps shall be certified to comply with all...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Conditioning and Air Source Unitary Heat Pump Equipment and certified by ARI or other nationally recognized... Standard 210/240-89 Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment, shall show energy efficiency (EER) values not less than 7.2. (ii) Heat pumps shall be certified to comply with all...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Conditioning and Air Source Unitary Heat Pump Equipment and certified by ARI or other nationally recognized... Standard 210/240-89 Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment, shall show energy efficiency (EER) values not less than 7.2. (ii) Heat pumps shall be certified to comply with all...

  1. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Conditioning and Air Source Unitary Heat Pump Equipment and certified by ARI or other nationally recognized... Standard 210/240-89 Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment, shall show energy efficiency (EER) values not less than 7.2. (ii) Heat pumps shall be certified to comply with all...

  2. Initial Evaluation of a Titration Appliance for Temporary Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Levendowski, Daniel J.; Morgan, Todd; Westbrook, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background Custom oral appliances that adjustably advance the mandible provide superior outcomes when treating patients with moderate or severe sleep apnea. Custom appliances, however, are expensive, must be fitted by a dentist, and the likelihood of successful outcomes are difficult to predict. An inexpensive trial appliance, if proven efficacious, might be used to predict custom appliance outcomes or to provide temporary therapeutic benefit. Objective The aim of this initial study was to assess the treatment efficacy of a novel titration oral appliance with that of an optimized custom appliance. Methods Seventeen patients, treated with a custom oral appliance for at least one year, successfully completed a three-night home sleep test. The baseline obstructive sleep apnea severity was established on Night 1 with seven patients exhibiting severe, six moderate and four mild apnea/hypopnea indexes. Patients were randomly assigned to wear their custom appliance or the titration appliance on Nights 2 and 3. Results Significant reductions in the mean overall and supine apnea indexes (p < 0.05), and the overall (p < 0.01) and supine (p < 0.05) apnea/hypopnea indexes were observed for both the titration and custom appliances. The proportion of patients who exhibited at least a 50% reduction in the overall apnea index and supine apnea/hypopnea were similar for the titration and custom appliance (~60%). The custom appliance reduced the overall apnea/hypopnea index by 50% in a greater proportion of the patients compared to the titration appliance (77% vs. 53%). The titration appliance significantly reduced the degree of hypoxic exposure across sleep disordered breathing events overall (p < 0.05) and supine (p < 0.01). Patients found their custom appliance was more comfortable than the titration appliance, but preferred the titration appliance to no therapy. Conclusion The titration appliance may be useful in assessing oral appliance treatment efficacy. When set to 70% of

  3. Remotely operable sample-taking appliance, especially for ascertaining radioactivity profiles in contaminated material surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hanulik, J.

    1983-09-20

    A sample-taking appliance comprises several sensors arranged on a turntable like sensor carrier in such a manner that the application areas of the small sensor sponges decrease stepwise from the first to the last sensor. By simple rotation of the turntable the sensors can be brought successively into a working position. The sensor carrier is preferably accommodated in a housing which is open at the bottom and which is raisable and lowerable in the frame of the appliance by, for example, a threaded spindle. The threaded spindle is driven by an electric motor. For each sampling the sensor carrier is lowered until the cell voltage corresponds to a predetermined desired value. This produces sufficiently precise and reproductible measured values of the electrolytic current for ascertaining the removed layer thickness. The appliance makes it possible to take material samples even from locations of high radiation loading. The material layers removed as samples lie concentrically above each other so that the graduation of the application areas comes into full effect and the material samples taken by the small sponges and the radioactivity contained therein are not falsified.

  4. Two novel heat shock genes encoding proteins produced in response to heterologous protein expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Allen, S P; Polazzi, J O; Gierse, J K; Easton, A M

    1992-11-01

    In Escherichia coli high-level production of some heterologous proteins (specifically, human prorenin, renin, and bovine insulin-like growth factor 2) resulted in the induction of two new E. coli heat shock proteins, both of which have molecular masses of 16 kDa and are tightly associated with inclusion bodies formed during heterologous protein production. We named these inclusion body-associated proteins IbpA and IbpB. The coding sequences for IbpA and IbpB were identified and isolated from the Kohara E. coli gene bank. The genes for these proteins (ibpA and ibpB) are located at 82.5 min on the chromosome. Nucleotide sequencing of the two genes revealed that they are transcribed in the same direction and are separated by 110 bp. Putative Shine-Dalgarno sequences are located upstream from the initiation codons of both genes. A putative heat shock promoter is located upstream from ibpA, and a putative transcription terminator is located downstream from ibpB. A temperature upshift experiment in which we used a wild-type E. coli strain and an isogenic rpoH mutant strain indicated that a sigma 32-containing RNA polymerase is involved in the regulation of expression of these genes. There is 57.5% identity between the genes at the nucleotide level and 52.2% identity at the amino acid level. A search of the protein data bases showed that both of these 16-kDa proteins exhibit low levels of homology to low-molecular-weight heat shock proteins from eukaryotic species.

  5. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (life-saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be packed in accordance with § 173.185 and Special...

  6. [Neon-colored plastics for orthodontic appliances. Biocompatibility studies].

    PubMed

    Schendel, K U; Erdinger, L; Komposch, G; Sonntag, H G

    1995-01-01

    Public concern and issues of liability have made product safety a major concern throughout the medical field including orthodontics. The purpose of this study was to test the biocompatibility of the new neon colored plastic materials to be used for removable orthodontic appliances before they reach the market and are used in patient treatment. In addition, eight modifications of this synthetic material, which has been used in appliances for many years, were examined without neon color. The procedures established tested for: 1. mutagenicity, 2. toxicity, and 3. irritation of the mucous membrane. As alternatives to using animals the Ames Test, the Agar Overlay Assay, and the HET-CAM Test were employed to test for these properties. The tests revealed that, when the manufacturer's instructions are followed, neither the polymerized materials as used in patient appliances nor the shavings resulting from the orthodontist or the technician grinding the appliance exhibit mutagenic, toxic, or irritating properties.

  7. Estimating Price Elasticity using Market-Level Appliance Data

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2015-08-04

    This report provides and update to and expansion upon our 2008 LBNL report “An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Appliances,” in which we estimated an average relative price elasticity of -0.34 for major household appliances (Dale and Fujita 2008). Consumer responsiveness to price change is a key component of energy efficiency policy analysis; these policies influence consumer purchases through price both explicitly and implicitly. However, few studies address appliance demand elasticity in the U.S. market and public data sources are generally insufficient for rigorous estimation. Therefore, analysts have relied on a small set of outdated papers focused on limited appliance types, assuming long-term elasticities estimated for other durables (e.g., vehicles) decades ago are applicable to current and future appliance purchasing behavior. We aim to partially rectify this problem in the context of appliance efficiency standards by revisiting our previous analysis, utilizing data released over the last ten years and identifying additional estimates of durable goods price elasticities in the literature. Reviewing the literature, we find the following ranges of market-level price elasticities: -0.14 to -0.42 for appliances; -0.30 to -1.28 for automobiles; -0.47 to -2.55 for other durable goods. Brand price elasticities are substantially higher for these product groups, with most estimates -2.0 or more elastic. Using market-level shipments, sales value, and efficiency level data for 1989-2009, we run various iterations of a log-log regression model, arriving at a recommended range of short run appliance price elasticity between -0.4 and -0.5, with a default value of -0.45.

  8. Orthodontic/orthopaedic adjunct of fixed orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Loh, K W

    1986-07-01

    In the treatment of malocclusion more emphasis is now placed on obtaining an excellent facial result as well as a set of teeth which is well aligned and in good function. The use of dento facial orthopaedic appliances have made these objectives possible. Not only can cases be finished better, they can also be completed in a shorter period of time. This paper reviews some of such appliances and case reports will also be presented.

  9. An extraorally activated expansion appliance for cleft palate infants.

    PubMed

    Latham, R A; Kusy, R P; Georgiade, N G

    1976-07-01

    A new lever-action expansion appliance is described which is designed specifically for use in infants with cleft lip and palate. An extraoral control knob allows for easy activation, while the important anterior cleft areas are left clear for premaxillary repositioning and clinical assessment. Activation is registered by a positive clicking sound. Rapid expansion is made possible by the design of the appliance which is retained by stainless steel pins. PMID:780004

  10. Material Characterization of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by a Sustainable Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena, Anil; El Mansori, Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Selecting a suitable manufacturing process is one way of achieving sustainability of a product by diminishing energy consumption during its production cycle and improving material efficiency. The article attempts to explore the new processing technology for direct manufacturing of lightweight austempered ductile iron (ADI) casting in a permanent mold. The new processing technology is based on the innovative integrated approach toward casting and heat-treatment process. In this technology, the ductile iron samples obtained using the permanent mold are first austenized immediately after solidification process followed by austempering heat treatment in the fluidized bed and then air cooled at room temperature to obtain ADI material. The influence of austempering time on the microstructural characteristics, mechanical properties, and strain-hardening behavior of ADI was studied. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed to correlate the mechanical properties with microstructural characteristics. It was observed that the mechanical properties of resulting ADI samples were influenced by the microstructural transformations and varied retained austenite volume fractions obtained due to different austempering time. The results indicate that the strain-hardening behavior of the ADI material is influenced by the carbon content of retained austenite.

  11. Modeling diffusion of electrical appliances in the residential sector

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2009-11-22

    This paper presents a methodology for modeling residential appliance uptake as a function of root macroeconomic drivers. The analysis concentrates on four major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, washing machines, televisions and air conditioners. The model employs linear regression analysis to parameterize appliance ownership in terms of household income, urbanization and electrification rates according to a standard binary choice (logistic) function. The underlying household appliance ownership data are gathered from a variety of sources including energy consumption and more general standard of living surveys. These data span a wide range of countries, including many developing countries for which appliance ownership is currently low, but likely to grow significantly over the next decades as a result of economic development. The result is a 'global' parameterization of appliance ownership rates as a function of widely available macroeconomic variables for the four appliances studied, which provides a reliable basis for interpolation where data are not available, and forecasting of ownership rates on a global scale. The main value of this method is to form the foundation of bottom-up energy demand forecasts, project energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, and allow for the construction of detailed emissions mitigation scenarios.

  12. [Balters' appliance and its action on the neuromuscular system].

    PubMed

    Travesi Gomez, J

    1992-01-01

    Bionator created by BALTERS comes directly from activator but is smaller allowing its use during day and night to achieve mainly: lip closure, tongue in contact with soft palate, make oral area bigger improving its functionality, get a better maxillary relationship making mandible longer and improve tongue position. The principle that a new neuromuscular pattern conducted by appliance drives to development of a new morphologic pattern. Its activity on neuromusculature is neither well documented nor studied. Actually it is admitted that craniomandibular muscles contraction depends on neural pattern of this muscles during movement. This pattern is modified by continuous sensorial feed-back coming from dentition, T.M.J., and muscular and tendinal length and strength receptors. Clinical studies on mandibular advancement, show that occlusion alteration in sagittal mandibular reposition drives to spontaneous activity changes in muscles and to changes in electromyographic rest of certain muscles like the temporal. In some cases it is founded an increase in molar bite due to anterior mandibular reposition force. Clinical studies on mandibular advancement show changes on mandibular muscles spontaneous activity and possibility of modifications of E.M.G. rest level of temporalis. In some cases an increasing of bite force on first molars is founded. Electromyographic changes appear in children early, and produce a new functional position that changes morphology. Feed-back information comes from periodontal and muscular receptors. Patients treated show lip closure without strength, better tongue positioning and swallowing, and lower tension on suprahyoid muscles.

  13. Formation and catalytic activity of high molecular weight soluble polymers produced by heating amino acids in a modified sea medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okihana, Hiroyuki

    1982-06-01

    Eighteen protein amino acids with milk casein composition were heated in a modified sea medium. Marigranules were formed in the precipitates and soluble polymers were formed in the supernatant. Time course of the reaction (ultraviolet spectra, the concentration of metal ions, and the concentration of amino acids in the supernatant) were measured. The time course of the formation of the soluble polymers was also studied by Bio-Gel P-2 column. High molecular weight soluble polymers (HMWSP) were separated from low molecular weight ones by dialysis. It was shown that these polymers catalyzed the dehydrogenation of NADH. These polymers also catalyzed the coupled reaction between dehydrogenation of NADH and reduction of resazurin. This coupled reaction was accelerated by the light.

  14. Using thermal energy produced by irradiation of Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MZF-NPs) for heat-inducible gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiu-sha; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Cong, Xiao-ming; Wan, Mei-ling; Jin, Li-qiang

    2008-06-01

    One of the main advantages of gene therapy over traditional therapy is the potential to target the expression of therapeutic genes in desired cells or tissues. To achieve targeted gene expression, we developed a novel heat-inducible gene expression system in which thermal energy generated by Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MZF-NPs) under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) was used to activate gene expression. MZF-NPs, obtained by co-precipitation method, were firstly surface modified with cation poly(ethylenimine) (PEI). Then thermodynamic test of various doses of MZF-NPs was preformed in vivo and in vitro. PEI-MZF-NPs showed good DNA binding ability and high transfection efficiency. In AMF, they could rise to a steady temperature. To analyze the heat-induced gene expression under an AMF, we combined P1730OR vector transfection with hyperthermia produced by irradiation of MZF-NPs. By using LacZ gene as a reporter gene and Hsp70 as a promoter, it was demonstrated that expression of a heterogeneous gene could be elevated to 10 to 500-fold over background by moderate hyperthermia (added 12.24 or 25.81 mg MZF-NPs to growth medium) in tissue cultured cells. When injected with 2.6 or 4.6 mg MZF-NPs, the temperature of tumor-bearing nude mice could rise to 39.5 or 42.8 degrees C, respectively, and the beta-gal concentration could increase up to 3.8 or 8.1 mU/mg proteins accordingly 1 day after hyperthermia treatment. Our results therefore supported hyperthermia produced by irradiation of MZF-NPs under an AMF as a feasible approach for targeted heat-induced gene expression. This novel system made use of the relative low Curie point of MZF-NPs to control the in vivo hyperthermia temperature and therefore acquired safe and effective heat-inducible transgene expression.

  15. Posibilities Of Appliance Of Therapeutic Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machnikowski, I.; Spiechowicz, E.

    1987-10-01

    The appliance of a therapeutic laser also known as soft laser has gained wider scope in the latest years. The main characteristics of the laser radiation, namely its monochromatic and coherent nature render the photochemic activity selecive especially on the intracelluar level, stimulating the dynamics of the oxido-reductive changes in a cell. The action of the laser beam upon living tissue depends on the power of the used laser as well as upon the physical properties of the object itself i.e. its optical, mechanical, chemical properties. The use of a high powered laser causes a big rise in the temperature and prescure inside tissue which leads to denaturation of protein and than to evaporation and destruction of the cell. It is possible to gain quite diffrent effects using a soft /or therapeutic/ laser which in the course of stimulating the biological changes in a cell causes its regeneration and not its degradation. There exist three main phenomena on the level of the radiation emition. These are absorption, reflection and penetration. The most important from the medical point of view are penetration and absorption, for the direct biological changes depend upon these very parameters. The action of the laser beam upon tissue in fig. 1.

  16. Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Namitha; Palukunnu, Biswas; Ravindran, Nidhi; Nair, Preeti P

    2014-01-01

    Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation. PMID:24577171

  17. Appliance Displays: Accessibility Challenges and Proposed Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Giovanni; Tekin, Ender; Giudice, Nicholas A.; Coughlan, James M.

    2016-01-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties using a growing array of everyday appliances because they are equipped with inaccessible electronic displays. We report developments on our “Display Reader” smartphone app, which uses computer vision to help a user acquire a usable image of a display and have the contents read aloud, to address this problem. Drawing on feedback from past and new studies with visually impaired volunteer participants, as well as from blind accessibility experts, we have improved and simplified our user interface and have also added the ability to read seven-segment digit displays. Our system works fully automatically and in real time, and we compare it with general-purpose assistive apps such as Be My Eyes, which recruit remote sighted assistants (RSAs) to answer questions about video captured by the user. Our discussions and preliminary experiment highlight the advantages and disadvantages of fully automatic approaches compared with RSAs, and suggest possible hybrid approaches to investigate in the future. PMID:26824081

  18. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2013-04-02

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  19. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2012-04-10

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  20. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  1. Effect of drought and combined drought and heat stress on polyamine metabolism in proline-over-producing tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Cvikrová, Milena; Gemperlová, Lenka; Martincová, Olga; Vanková, Radomira

    2013-12-01

    The roles of proline and polyamines (PAs) in the drought stress responses of tobacco plants were investigated by comparing the responses to drought alone and drought in combination with heat in the upper and lower leaves and roots of wild-type tobacco plants and transformants that constitutively over-express a modified gene for the proline biosynthetic enzyme Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CSF129A; EC 2.7.2.11/1.2.1.41). In both genotypes, drought stress coincided with a decrease in relative water content (RWC) that was much less severe in the upper leaves than elsewhere in the plant. The drought also increased proline levels in both genotypes. A brief period of heat stress (2 h at 40 °C) at the end of the drought period did not significantly influence the proline levels in the upper leaves and roots but caused a further increase in the lower leaves of both genotypes. The rate at which these elevated proline levels returned to normal during the post-stress recovery period was slower in the transformants and plants that had been subjected to the combined stress. In both genotypes, drought stress significantly reduced the levels of spermidine (Spd) and putrescine (Put) in the leaves and roots relative to those for controls, and increased the levels of spermine (Spm) and diaminopropane (Dap, formed by the oxidative deamination of Spd and Spm). Spd levels may have declined due to its consumption in Spm biosynthesis and/or oxidation by polyamine oxidase (PAO; EC 1.5.3.11) to form Dap, which became more abundant during drought stress. During the rewatering period, the plants' Put and Spd levels recovered quickly and the activity of the PA biosynthesis enzymes in their leaves and roots increased substantially; this increase was more pronounced in transformants than WT plants. The high levels of Spm observed in drought stressed plants persisted even after the 24 h recovery and rewatering phase. The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the lower leaves of WTs

  2. Heat gain testing to energy balance protocol. Final report, August 1995-February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Knappmiller, K.; Schrock, D.

    1997-02-01

    Under sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute, heat gain tests were conducted on gas and electric commercial cooking appliances, applying the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Method for the Performance of Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Systems, F1704-96. The commercial cooking appliances tested in this program were gas and electric: griddles, ranges, convection ovens, charbroilers, and fryers. These appliances were all tested under a wall canopy hood operating at a single exhaust rate appropriate for the particular cooking appliance.

  3. Causes and consequences of backdrafting of vented gas appliances.

    PubMed

    Nagda, N L; Koontz, M D; Billick, I H; Leslie, N P; Behrens, D W

    1996-09-01

    House depressurization occurs when household equipment such as a kitchen or bathroom fan or a fireplace exhausts air from the house and lowers the pressure indoors with respect to the outside. The operation of air handlers for forced-air heating or cooling systems also can have a depressurization effect. This depressurization can hinder the natural draft from vented combustion appliances and lead to backdrafting, which in turn can result in combustion gases spilling into the indoor airspace. Extensive spillage can cause elevated indoor levels of combustion products such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor, as well as contaminants such as carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The focus of this paper is to review studies on depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage from gas-fired, drafthood equipped furnaces and domestic hot water heaters. Qualitative and quantitative techniques that were used in depressurization and backdrafting studies conducted in Canada, Europe, and the United States are analyzed. These studies have shown that exhaust fans operated simultaneously with fireplaces depressurize houses by 3 to 8 Pa on average. The CO indoor concentrations due to spillage, as reported in these studies, generally have been lower than 5 ppm. However, such low CO concentrations do not necessarily imply that a potential problem associated with backdrafting does not exist. Other combustion products, such as NO2, rarely have been measured in prior backdrafting studies. It can be concluded from the literature review that causes of house depressurization are well understood. However, more comprehensive research is needed to better understand the frequency, duration, and severity of depressurization-induced spillage in a broad cross section of houses. Efforts in this direction have begun recently in the United States through a workshop to define research issues, pilot studies to develop comprehensive measurement protocols, and consensus standard

  4. Two-Stage Soft-Switching High-Frequency Inverter with Simple PFC Function for Consumer IH Cooking Appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Yuki; Hiraki, Eiji; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Sadakata, Hideki; Fujita, Atsushi; Omori, Hideki; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    In recent years, consumer induction-heating (IH) cooking appliances have grown increasingly popular because of their easy cleaning, high efficiency, safety, and controllability. IH food cooking system for consumer home use are indispensable to heat various metallic pans, such as aluminum, copper, stainless steel, and iron cast for further diffusing. Furthermore, these appliances have to satisfy the utility AC grid harmonics regulations of IEC61000-3-2. To meet these requirements, this paper proposes a two-stage soft-switching high-frequency inverter with simple PFC function that is suitable for consumer IH cooking appliances. The proposed system comprises a soft-switching chopper based boost PFC converter with passive snubber and phase-shifted PWM controlled ZVZCS high-frequency inverter. In order to satisfy the utility AC grid current harmonic regulations, a simple PFC control technique with discontinuous current mode is introduced. This technique as well as the fundamental operating performances of the proposed IH system is tested. The effectiveness of proposed IH system is substantially proved from a practical point of view on the basis of the experimental results.

  5. A Novel Innate Response of Human Corneal Epithelium to Heat-killed Candida albicans by Producing Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xia; Yuan, Xiaoyong; Li, Zhijie; Coursey, Terry G.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Li, De-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections of the cornea can be sight-threatening and have a worse prognosis than other types of microbial corneal infections. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGLYRP), which are expressed on the ocular surface, play an important role in the immune response against bacterial corneal infections by activating toll-like receptors (TLRs) or increasing phagocytosis. However, the role of PGLYRPs in innate immune response to fungal pathogens has not been investigated. In this study, we observed a significant induction of three PGLYRPs 2–4 in primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) exposed to live or heat-killed Candida albicans (HKCA). The C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 plays a critical role in controlling Candida albicans infections by promoting phagocytic activity and cytokine production in macrophages and dendritic cells. Here, we demonstrate that dectin-1 is expressed by normal human corneal tissue and primary HCECs. HKCA exposure increased expression of dectin-1 on HCECs at mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, dectin-1 neutralizing antibody, IκB-α inhibitor BAY11-7082, and NF-κB activation inhibitor quinazoline blocked NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, as well as the induction of the PGLYRPs by HKCA in HCECs. Furthermore, rhPGLYRP-2 was found to suppress colony-forming units of Candida albicans in vitro. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that dectin-1 is expressed by human corneal epithelial cells, and dectin-1/NF-κB signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating Candida albicans/HKCA-induced PGLYRP secretion by HCECs. PMID:26039076

  6. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  7. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  8. A heat shock operon in Coxiella burnetti produces a major antigen homologous to a protein in both mycobacteria and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Vodkin, M H; Williams, J C

    1988-01-01

    A gene library from the DNA of Coxiella burnetii has been constructed in the cosmid vector pHC79. A particular clone, pJB196, reacted strongly with Coxiella-specific antibodies elicited in a number of different species of animals. This clone produced two abundant C. burnetii-specific polypeptides, a 14-kilodalton nonimmunoreactive protein and a 62-kilodalton immunoreactive protein. Sequencing identified two open reading frames, encoding polypeptides of 10.5 and 58.3 kilodaltons. The only transcriptional control element observed on the 5' side of the initiation codon resembled a heat shock promoter. This heat shock promoter was functionally regulated in Escherichia coli, since both proteins were produced by growth conditions at 37 degrees C and neither protein was detected at 23 degrees C. There were four sequences from the literature that were highly homologous (greater than 50%) to the 62-kilodalton protein from C. burnetii. Three were from Mycobacterium species and represent the immunodominant antigen of this genus. The other was from E. coli, detected as a gene that complements or suppresses a temperature-sensitive RNase activity. Since the recombinant protein was immunogenic, it may serve as an efficacious vaccine against C. burnetii and other pathogenic microorganisms that express the conserved antigen. Images PMID:3343219

  9. Enabling Graph Appliance for Genome Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Rina; Graves, Jeffrey A; Lee, Sangkeun; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Shankar, Mallikarjun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge growth in the amount of genomic data available as reads generated from various genome sequencers. The number of reads generated can be huge, ranging from hundreds to billions of nucleotide, each varying in size. Assembling such large amounts of data is one of the challenging computational problems for both biomedical and data scientists. Most of the genome assemblers developed have used de Bruijn graph techniques. A de Bruijn graph represents a collection of read sequences by billions of vertices and edges, which require large amounts of memory and computational power to store and process. This is the major drawback to de Bruijn graph assembly. Massively parallel, multi-threaded, shared memory systems can be leveraged to overcome some of these issues. The objective of our research is to investigate the feasibility and scalability issues of de Bruijn graph assembly on Cray s Urika-GD system; Urika-GD is a high performance graph appliance with a large shared memory and massively multithreaded custom processor designed for executing SPARQL queries over large-scale RDF data sets. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no research on representing a de Bruijn graph as an RDF graph or finding Eulerian paths in RDF graphs using SPARQL for potential genome discovery. In this paper, we address the issues involved in representing a de Bruin graphs as RDF graphs and propose an iterative querying approach for finding Eulerian paths in large RDF graphs. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on real world ebola genome datasets and illustrate how genome assembly can be accomplished with Urika-GD using iterative SPARQL queries.

  10. Gene expression, oocyte nuclear maturation and developmental competence of bovine oocytes and embryos produced after in vivo and in vitro heat shock.

    PubMed

    Pavani, Krishna C; Baron, Erica; Correia, Pedro; Lourenço, Joana; Bettencourt, Bruno Filipe; Sousa, Madalena; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2016-10-01

    Three assays were performed. In assay 1, oocytes harvested during the winter months were subjected to kinetic heat shock by stressing the oocytes at 39.5°C (HS1) or at 40.5°C (HS2) for either 6, 12, 18 or 24 h and then matured at control temperature (38.5°C). The nuclear maturation rates (NMR) of all oocytes were recorded after 24 h. In assay 2, oocytes collected year-round maturated, were implanted via in vitro fertilization (IVF) and developed for 9 days. Gene expression analysis was performed on target genes (Cx43, CDH1, DNMT1, HSPA14) with reference to the two housekeeping genes (GAPDH and SDHA) in embryos. Similarly, in assay 3, genetic analysis was performed on the embryos produced from heat-stressed oocytes (from HS1 and HS2). In assay 1, the duration of heat stress resulted in a significant decline in NMR (P < 0.05) with HS1 for maturated oocytes at 86.4 ± 4.3; 65.5 ± 0.7; 51.3 ± 0.9; 38.1 ± 1.9 and 36.3 ± 0.9, for control, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h and 24 h, respectively. For assays 2 and 3, results demonstrated that DNMT1, Cx43 and HSPA14 were down-regulated in the embryos produced in the warm with respect to the cold months (P < 0.05). A constant up- and down-regulation of DNMT1 and HSPA14 genes were observed in both HS-treated samples. Also, an inconsistent pattern of gene expression was observed in Cx43 and CDH1 genes (P < 0.05). Targeted gene expression was aberrant in embryo development, which can provide evidence on early embryo arrest and slowed embryo development.

  11. Electric commercial cooking appliance development needs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.R.; Shukla, K.C.

    1993-08-01

    A study was conducted to identify electric commercial cooking appliance development needs, to investigate technologies that can be used to increase the market penetration of electric cooking equipment, and to present conceptual designs of some advanced electric cooking appliances. Results of the study will assist the electric utility industry in formulating development programs for advanced electric cooking equipment. Data on shipments, inventory, and energy consumption for six major gas and electric appliance categories--ranges, ovens, broilers, fryers, griddles, and steam equipment--were obtained to determine trends in the appliance market. A survey of end users and equipment manufacturers was performed to identify factors that affect the energy choice for commercial cooking equipment and to determine the market needs of advanced electric equipment. Development goals for three focus appliances--rangetops, ovens, and broilers--were established based on the survey and upon examination of factors affecting the purchase decision of buyers. In general, the recommended enhancements include higher efficiency, faster response, higher cooking speed, higher production rate, improved uniformity, improved reliability and durability, and reduced equipment and operating costs. Evaluation of various electrotechnologies to meet these goals and some examples of conceptual designs are presented.

  12. Nonwearable Gaze Tracking System for Controlling Home Appliance

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dongwook

    2014-01-01

    A novel gaze tracking system for controlling home appliances in 3D space is proposed in this study. Our research is novel in the following four ways. First, we propose a nonwearable gaze tracking system containing frontal viewing and eye tracking cameras. Second, our system includes three modes: navigation (for moving the wheelchair depending on the direction of gaze movement), selection (for selecting a specific appliance by gaze estimation), and manipulation (for controlling the selected appliance by gazing at the control panel). The modes can be changed by closing eyes during a specific time period or gazing. Third, in the navigation mode, the signal for moving the wheelchair can be triggered according to the direction of gaze movement. Fourth, after a specific home appliance is selected by gazing at it for more than predetermined time period, a control panel with 3 × 2 menu is displayed on laptop computer below the gaze tracking system for manipulation. The user gazes at one of the menu options for a specific time period, which can be manually adjusted according to the user, and the signal for controlling the home appliance can be triggered. The proposed method is shown to have high detection accuracy through a series of experiments. PMID:25298966

  13. Lifetime of household appliances: empirical evidence of users behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ester; Adenso-Díaz, Belarmino; Lozano, Sebastián; González-Torre, Pilar

    2011-06-01

    The household appliance industry is one of the most important sectors from both the economic and environmental point of view. A greater understanding of the way in which consumers of these items behave would help to better plan the recycling needs as a function of previous purchase figures. This paper presents the findings of a field survey of Spanish consumer habits with respect to different common household appliances as regards replacement time and the reasons for replacing these appliances. The methodology used is based on survival analysis; specifically, a competing risks model. A Cox proportional hazards model is also used for the sake of comparison. Our results show that as the number of people and/or persons under 18 years in the household increases, the lifetimes of some types of appliance decrease significantly. Competing risk model shows that the probability of replacing the refrigerator due to malfunction and technological obsolescence increases with the increase of family members with a higher education. We also provide the cumulative incidence function for different appliances, which can be used to forecast future demands and electrical and electronic waste generation. PMID:20630942

  14. Lifetime of household appliances: empirical evidence of users behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ester; Adenso-Díaz, Belarmino; Lozano, Sebastián; González-Torre, Pilar

    2011-06-01

    The household appliance industry is one of the most important sectors from both the economic and environmental point of view. A greater understanding of the way in which consumers of these items behave would help to better plan the recycling needs as a function of previous purchase figures. This paper presents the findings of a field survey of Spanish consumer habits with respect to different common household appliances as regards replacement time and the reasons for replacing these appliances. The methodology used is based on survival analysis; specifically, a competing risks model. A Cox proportional hazards model is also used for the sake of comparison. Our results show that as the number of people and/or persons under 18 years in the household increases, the lifetimes of some types of appliance decrease significantly. Competing risk model shows that the probability of replacing the refrigerator due to malfunction and technological obsolescence increases with the increase of family members with a higher education. We also provide the cumulative incidence function for different appliances, which can be used to forecast future demands and electrical and electronic waste generation.

  15. Non-intrusive submetering of residential gas appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Shin; Nakamura, Hajime; Meier, A.

    1996-08-01

    A new technique was developed to non-intrusively monitor the use of individual gas appliances in homes. It relied on a very sensitive master gas meter equipped with a pulse meter, data logger, and software. The procedure involves two steps: decomposition and identification of the end uses. The technique is about 95% accurate but the algorithms can still be confused by some relatively common situations. Further improvements in the software are expected to improve accuracy. The procedure was applied to over 600 homes in Tokyo, Japan. The aggregate data allow more accurate estimates of energy consumption by the major residential gas appliances in addition to their hourly load profiles. Key factors affecting energy demand by each gas appliance were obtained by combining the energy and demographic data. These data are essential for more accurate forecasting of gas consumption, system sizing, and other marketing activities. The system will not necessarily be as successful in America due to the presence of pilot lights, more appliances per household, and variable-rate gas appliances. Nevertheless, the approach appears promising because it is economical and accurate.

  16. Nonwearable gaze tracking system for controlling home appliance.

    PubMed

    Heo, Hwan; Lee, Jong Man; Jung, Dongwook; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2014-01-01

    A novel gaze tracking system for controlling home appliances in 3D space is proposed in this study. Our research is novel in the following four ways. First, we propose a nonwearable gaze tracking system containing frontal viewing and eye tracking cameras. Second, our system includes three modes: navigation (for moving the wheelchair depending on the direction of gaze movement), selection (for selecting a specific appliance by gaze estimation), and manipulation (for controlling the selected appliance by gazing at the control panel). The modes can be changed by closing eyes during a specific time period or gazing. Third, in the navigation mode, the signal for moving the wheelchair can be triggered according to the direction of gaze movement. Fourth, after a specific home appliance is selected by gazing at it for more than predetermined time period, a control panel with 3 × 2 menu is displayed on laptop computer below the gaze tracking system for manipulation. The user gazes at one of the menu options for a specific time period, which can be manually adjusted according to the user, and the signal for controlling the home appliance can be triggered. The proposed method is shown to have high detection accuracy through a series of experiments. PMID:25298966

  17. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  18. Heat Shock Transcriptional Responses in an MC-Producing Cyanobacterium (Planktothrix agardhii) and Its MC-Deficient Mutant under High Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thi Du Chi; Bernard, Cecile; Ammar, Myriam; Chaouch, Soraya; Comte, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are the most commonly-reported hepatotoxins produced by various cyanobacterial taxa in fresh waters to constitute a potential threat to human and animal health. The biological role of MCs in the producer organisms is not known, and it would be very useful to understand the driving force behind the toxin production. Recent studies have suggested that MCs may have a protective function in cells facing environmental stress. Following this starting premise, we speculate that under adverse conditions the expression of stress-related genes coding for Heat Shock Proteins (Hsp) might be different in an MC-producing strain and its MC-deficient mutant. We therefore used RT-qPCR to compare the expression of 13 hsp genes of an MC-producing strain of Planktothrix agardhii (CYA126/8) and its MC-deficient ΔmcyD mutant over different periods of exposure to high light stress (HL). Three reference genes (RGs) were selected from six candidates to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Of these three RGs (rsh, rpoD, and gltA), gltA is used here for the first time as an RG in prokaryotes. Under HL stress, five genes were found to be strongly up-regulated in both strains (htpG, dnaK, hspA, groES, and groEL). Unexpectedly, we found that the MC-producing wild type strain accumulated higher levels of htpG and dnaK transcripts in response to HL stress than the MC-deficient mutant. In addition, a significant increase in the mcyE transcript was detected in the mutant, suggesting that MCs are required under HL conditions. We discuss several possible roles of MCs in the response to HL stress through their possible involvement in the protective mechanisms of the cells. PMID:24023831

  19. Paracetamol overdose in a teenager following placement of a fixed appliance.

    PubMed

    Matusiak, Rose; Harley, Kathryn E

    2009-01-01

    Pain or discomfort is common following placement or adjustment of orthodontic appliances. This case report describes an accidental paracetamol overdose in a 13-year-old girl following the initial placement of fixed appliances.

  20. 38 CFR 17.153 - Training in the use of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.153 Training in the use of appliances. Beneficiaries supplied prosthetic and similar appliances will be additionally entitled to fitting and...

  1. 38 CFR 17.153 - Training in the use of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.153 Training in the use of appliances. Beneficiaries supplied prosthetic and similar appliances will be additionally entitled to fitting and...

  2. 46 CFR 174.100 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Offshore Drilling Units § 174.100 Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity. (a) Appliances to... through 174.085; and (2) A wind heeling moment calculated in accordance with § 174.055 using a...

  3. International comparison of product certification and verification methods for appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Romankiewicz, John; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  4. International Comparison of Product Certification and Verification Methods for Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Romankiewicz, John; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  5. Bilateral buccolingual forces produced by extraoral traction.

    PubMed

    Baldini, G; Haack, D C; Weinstein, S

    1981-10-01

    Extraoral appliances have been typically employed to deliver force systems to move teeth in directions parallel to the sagittal plane of the face. Their potential for concurrently producing transverse (buccal or lingual) movement has still not been fully explored. This study considers theoretical and experimental aspects of the magnitude and direction of such forces and related moments.

  6. 7 CFR 3300.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... heating appliance. Equipment manufacturer means an organization which producers or assembles the complete... (iv). Thermal appliance means the refrigerating, mechanical refrigerating, or heating appliance which... United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa,...

  7. 7 CFR 3300.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... heating appliance. Equipment manufacturer means an organization which producers or assembles the complete... (iv). Thermal appliance means the refrigerating, mechanical refrigerating, or heating appliance which... United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa,...

  8. 7 CFR 3300.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... heating appliance. Equipment manufacturer means an organization which producers or assembles the complete... (iv). Thermal appliance means the refrigerating, mechanical refrigerating, or heating appliance which... United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa,...

  9. 7 CFR 3300.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... heating appliance. Equipment manufacturer means an organization which producers or assembles the complete... (iv). Thermal appliance means the refrigerating, mechanical refrigerating, or heating appliance which... United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa,...

  10. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina

    2011-07-20

    It is well established that energy efficiency is most often the lowest cost approach to reducing national energy use and minimizing carbon emissions. National investments in energy efficiency to date have been highly cost-effective. The cumulative impacts (out to 2050) of residential energy efficiency standards are expected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.71:1. This project examined energy end-uses in the residential, commercial, and in some cases the industrial sectors. The scope is limited to appliances and equipment, and does not include building materials, building envelopes, and system designs. This scope is consistent with the scope of DOE's appliance standards program, although many products considered here are not currently subject to energy efficiency standards. How much energy could the United States save if the most efficient design options currently feasible were adopted universally? What design features could produce those savings? How would the savings from various technologies compare? With an eye toward identifying promising candidates and strategies for potential energy efficiency standards, the Max Tech and Beyond project aims to answer these questions. The analysis attempts to consolidate, in one document, the energy savings potential and design characteristics of best-on-market products, best-engineered products (i.e., hypothetical products produced using best-on-market components and technologies), and emerging technologies in research & development. As defined here, emerging technologies are fundamentally new and are as yet unproven in the market, although laboratory studies and/or emerging niche applications offer persuasive evidence of major energy-savings potential. The term 'max tech' is used to describe both best-engineered and emerging technologies (whichever appears to offer larger savings). Few best-on-market products currently qualify as max tech, since few apply all available best practices and components. The three primary

  11. A solution for parallel network architectures applied to network defense appliances and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naber, Eric C.; Velez, Paul G.; Johal, Amanpreet S.

    2012-06-01

    Network defense has more technologies available for purchase today than ever before. As the number of threats increase, organizations are deploying multiple defense technologies to defend their networks. For instance, an enterprise network boundary often implements multiple network defense appliances, some with overlapping capabilities (e.g., firewalls, IDS/IPS, DNS Defense). These appliances are applied in a serial fashion to create a chain of network processing specifically designed to drop bad traffic from the network. In these architectures, once a packet is dropped by an appliance subsequent appliances do not process it. This introduces significant limitations; (1) Stateful appliances will maintain an internal state which differs from network reality; (2) The network manager cannot determine, or unit test, how each appliance would have treated each packet; (3) The appliance "votes" cannot be combined to achieve higherlevel functionality. To address these limitations, we have developed a novel, backwards-compatible Parallel Architecture for Network Defense Appliances (PANDA). Our approach allows every appliance to process all network traffic and cast a vote to drop or allow each packet. This "crowd-sourcing" approach allows the network designer to take full advantage of each appliance, understand how each appliance is behaving, and achieve new collaborative appliance behavior.

  12. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For separate testing of a mechanical refrigerating...

  13. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For separate testing of a mechanical refrigerating...

  14. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For separate testing of a mechanical refrigerating...

  15. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For separate testing of a mechanical refrigerating...

  16. Consumer`s guide to buying and using energy-efficient appliances

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This booklet explains how to obtain the benefits of energy efficiency when buying and using any of six types of major electrical household appliances: Refrigerators, freezers, ranges, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. Some information is also included on gas appliances and small electrical appliances such as microwave ovens.

  17. 49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... any person, as defined at 49 CFR 209.3, who violates any provision of the approved standard or causes... industry safety appliance standards. 231.33 Section 231.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.33 Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance...

  18. 49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... any person, as defined at 49 CFR 209.3, who violates any provision of the approved standard or causes... industry safety appliance standards. 231.33 Section 231.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.33 Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance...

  19. 49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... any person, as defined at 49 CFR 209.3, who violates any provision of the approved standard or causes... industry safety appliance standards. 231.33 Section 231.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.33 Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance...

  20. 49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... any person, as defined at 49 CFR 209.3, who violates any provision of the approved standard or causes... industry safety appliance standards. 231.33 Section 231.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.33 Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance...

  1. Mechanical Strength and Failure Characteristics of Cast Mg-9 pctAl-1 pctZn Alloys Produced by a Heated-Mold Continuous Casting Process: Tensile Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayasu, Mitsuhiro; Takeuchi, Shuhei; Ohfuji, Hiroaki

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical properties and failure characteristics of a cast Mg alloy (AZ91: Mg-Al8.9-Zn0.6-Mn0.2) produced by a heated-mold continuous casting process (HMC) are investigated. In a modification of the original HMC process, the cooling of the liquid alloy by direct water spray is carried out in an atmosphere of high-purity argon gas. The HMC-AZ91 alloy exhibits excellent mechanical properties (high strength and high ductility) that are about twice as high as those for the same alloy produced by conventional gravity casting. The increased material strength and ductility of the HMC sample are attributed to nanoscale and microscale microstructural characteristics. The fine grains and tiny spherical eutectic structures ( e.g., Mg17Al12 and Al6Mn) distributed randomly in the matrix of the HMC alloy result in resistance to dislocation movement, leading to high tensile strength. Basal slip on (0001) planes in the relatively organized crystal orientation of the HMC alloy, as well as grain boundary sliding through tiny spherical eutectic structures, results in high ductility. Details of the failure mechanism under static loading in the HMC alloy are also discussed using failure models.

  2. Technology Case Studies: Retrofit Integrated Space and Water Heating - Field Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-01

    Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  3. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition and Student Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Gene; Calvert, King

    This second edition contains teacher and student guides for 14 units of instruction in major appliance repair. Each unit in the teacher edition includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested activities, answers to assignment sheets, answers to the written test, written test, a unit evaluation form, teacher…

  4. Refrigeration Controls: Electrical & Mechanical; Appliance Repair 3: 9027.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This booklet outlines a course designed to equip major appliance service students with the fundamental knowledge and understanding of procedures, basic electrical circuitry, and nomenclatures of components necessary in successfully tracing a circuit and repairing or replacing a malfunctioning component. Course content includes goals, specific…

  5. Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to test a series of hypotheses regarding the influences of household characteristics (such as education, age, sex, race, income, and size of household), building characteristics (such as age, ownership, and type), and electricity prices on the use of ENERGY STAR appliances.

  6. 49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated standard from the... that the standard provides for the same complement of handholds, sill steps, ladders, hand or parking brakes, running boards, and other safety appliances as are required for a piece of equipment of...

  7. 42 CFR 409.14 - Supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplies, appliances, and equipment. 409.14 Section 409.14 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... continue to use after he or she leaves the hospital or CAH, for example, heart valves or a heart...

  8. 42 CFR 409.14 - Supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Supplies, appliances, and equipment. 409.14 Section 409.14 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... continue to use after he or she leaves the hospital or CAH, for example, heart valves or a heart...

  9. 42 CFR 409.14 - Supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplies, appliances, and equipment. 409.14 Section 409.14 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... continue to use after he or she leaves the hospital or CAH, for example, heart valves or a heart...

  10. 42 CFR 409.14 - Supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supplies, appliances, and equipment. 409.14 Section 409.14 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... continue to use after he or she leaves the hospital or CAH, for example, heart valves or a heart...

  11. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... means a crack or fracture of any visibly discernible length or width. When appropriate, civil penalties... been caused by crash damage, the railroad shall conduct a failure and engineering analysis of any weld... defect in a weld due to crash damage (i.e., impact of the safety appliance by an outside force...

  12. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... means a crack or fracture of any visibly discernible length or width. When appropriate, civil penalties... been caused by crash damage, the railroad shall conduct a failure and engineering analysis of any weld... defect in a weld due to crash damage (i.e., impact of the safety appliance by an outside force...

  13. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... means a crack or fracture of any visibly discernible length or width. When appropriate, civil penalties... been caused by crash damage, the railroad shall conduct a failure and engineering analysis of any weld... defect in a weld due to crash damage (i.e., impact of the safety appliance by an outside force...

  14. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250 Section 878.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices §...

  15. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250 Section 878.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices §...

  16. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250 Section 878.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices §...

  17. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250 Section 878.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices §...

  18. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250 Section 878.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices §...

  19. Unusual indelible enamel staining following fixed appliance treatment.

    PubMed

    Hodges, S J; Spencer, R J; Watkins, S J

    2000-12-01

    Two cases are described of indelible enamel staining following fixed appliance therapy. The acquired pigmentation occurred in patients with an identifiable enamel defect prior to treatment. The interaction of factors to cause the staining is discussed and it's prevention in future cases highlighted. Subsequent restoration of the affected teeth is shown. PMID:11099567

  20. Electricity savings from residential appliance standards in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; Lebot, B.

    1993-04-01

    This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained in Sweden by instituting specific standards for five appliances: Refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. At the present time, Sweden has no minimum energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained by instituting specific standards for five product types (refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and dryers) starting in 1995. A methodology similar to that used in analyses for the European Community was employed in this study. In the Swedish study, we used appliance test data developed by the Swedish consumer agency, Konsument Verket, to estimate new unit energy consumption for each product type. Shipments, saturations, energy use, and demographic data were input to a spreadsheet model that sums energy consumption for each product type over the period 1990--2010. Both a base case and a standards case scenario are simulated for each of the five appliance types. It was found that electricity use for these five products can be reduced by 12% over the time period from 1990--2010. Most of the energy savings come from instituting efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. For each product class type, the impact on manufacturer offerings is discussed. For example, for simple refrigerators, eleven 1990 models meet the 1995 standard and six models meet the 2000 standard out of a total of 63 models.

  1. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: IMPLEMENTING RULES Exemptions § 81.20 Lights and sound...

  2. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: IMPLEMENTING RULES Exemptions § 81.20 Lights and sound...

  3. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: IMPLEMENTING RULES Exemptions § 81.20 Lights and sound...

  4. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: IMPLEMENTING RULES Exemptions § 81.20 Lights and sound...

  5. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: IMPLEMENTING RULES Exemptions § 81.20 Lights and sound...

  6. An investigation into the vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields from appliances in UK homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.; Conein, Emma; Henshaw, Denis L.

    2005-07-01

    Elliptically polarized magnetic fields induce higher currents in the body compared with their plane polarized counterparts. This investigation examines the degree of vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) in the home, with regard to the adverse health effects reportedly associated with ELF-MFs, for instance childhood leukaemia. Tri-axial measurements of the magnitude and phase of the 0-3000 Hz magnetic fields, produced by 226 domestic mains-fed appliances of 32 different types, were carried out in 16 homes in Worcestershire in the summer of 2004. Magnetic field strengths were low, with average (RMS) values of 0.03 ± 0.02 µT across all residences. In contrast, background field ellipticities were high, on average 47 ± 11%. Microwave and electric ovens produced the highest ellipticities: mean respective values of 21 ± 21% and 21 ± 17% were observed 20 cm away from these appliances. There was a negative correlation between field strength and field polarization, which we attribute to the higher relative field contribution close to each individual (single-phase) appliance. The measurements demonstrate that domestic magnetic fields are extremely complex and cannot simply be characterized by traditional measurements such as time-weighted average or peak exposure levels. We conclude that ellipticity should become a relevant metric for future epidemiological studies of health and ELF-MF exposure. This work is supported by the charity CHILDREN with LEUKAEMIA, registered charity number 298405.

  7. A prospective optical surface scanning and cephalometric assessment of the effect of functional appliances on the soft tissues.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, S; Moss, J P; Goodwin, P; Lee, R T

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different functional appliances on the soft tissues as assessed by cephalometry and optical surface scanning. Forty-two patients were randomly allocated to Bass, Twin Block (TB), and Twin Block + Headgear (TB + Hg) groups. Lateral cephalograms and optical surface scans were recorded before and after the 10-month study period. ANOVA was used to test the cephalometric variables for differences at the 5 per cent level. The optical surface scanning and cephalometric results were consistent in the sagittal dimension. In the vertical dimension, however, the optical surface scans consistently recorded a greater increase compared with cephalometric values. No differences were detected with regard to cephalometric values at the 5 per cent level. However, the Bass appliance produced greater forward positioning of soft tissue pogonion as assessed by optical surface scanning.

  8. Household appliance usage data. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, A.D.; Kelly, R.V.; Lewis, A.C.; Lovett, C.D.; Wang, T.J.

    1980-03-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) requires the development of test procedures for the measurement of the energy efficiencies and the computation of Estimated Annual Operating Costs (EAOC's) of consumer products covered by the EPCA. These products are refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, dishwashers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, television sets, kitchen ranges and ovens, clothes washers, humidifiers, dehumidifiers, central air conditioners and furnaces. The purpose of the report is to provide perspective in selecting usage factors for future study and refinement. The items found to be most in need of refinement were factors bearing on temperature and humidity control and on water heating, both on national and regional bases.

  9. 16 CFR 305.14 - Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy information disclosures for heating... (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Required Disclosures § 305.14 Energy information disclosures for heating... for cooling and the heating seasonal performance factor for heating, the statement should read:...

  10. 16 CFR 305.14 - Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy information disclosures for heating... (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Required Disclosures § 305.14 Energy information disclosures for heating... for cooling and the heating seasonal performance factor for heating, the statement should read:...

  11. Enhanced activation of T lymphocytes by urease-deficient recombinant bacillus Calmette-Guérin producing heat shock protein 70-major membrane protein-II fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Tetsu; Maeda, Yumi; Tamura, Toshiki; Matsuoka, Masanori; Tsukamoto, Yumiko; Makino, Masahiko

    2010-11-15

    To activate naive T cells convincingly using Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), recombinant BCG (BCG-D70M) that was deficient in urease, expressed with gene encoding the fusion of BCG-derived heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and Mycobacterium leprae-derived major membrane protein (MMP)-II, one of the immunodominant Ags of M. leprae, was newly constructed. BCG-D70M was more potent in activation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets of naive T cells than recombinant BCGs including urease-deficient BCG and BCG-70M secreting HSP70-MMP-II fusion protein. BCG-D70M efficiently activated dendritic cells (DCs) to induce cytokine production and phenotypic changes and activated CD4(+) T cells even when macrophages were used as APCs. The activation of both subsets of T cells was MHC and CD86 dependent. Pretreatment of DCs with chloroquine inhibited both surface expression of MMP-II on DCs and the activation of T cells by BCG-D70M-infected APCs. The naive CD8(+) T cell activation was inhibited by treatment of DCs with brefeldin A and lactacystin so that the T cell was activated by TAP- and proteosome-dependent cytosolic cross-priming pathway. From naive CD8(+) T cells, effector T cells producing perforin and memory T cells having migration markers were produced by BCG-D70M stimulation. BCG-D70M primary infection in C57BL/6 mice produced T cells responsive to in vitro secondary stimulation with MMP-II and HSP70 and more efficiently inhibited the multiplication of subsequently challenged M. leprae than vector control BCG. These results indicate that the triple combination of HSP70, MMP-II, and urease depletion may provide a useful tool for inducing better activation of naive T cells.

  12. [Enhanced activation of T lymphocytes by urease-deficient recombinant bacillus Calmette-Guérin producing heat shock protein 70-major membrane protein-II fusion protein].

    PubMed

    Makino, Masahiko; Mukai, Tetsu

    2012-09-01

    To activate naïve T cells convincingly using Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG), rBCG (BCG-D70M) that was deficient in urease, expressed with gene encoding the fusion of BCG-derived heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and Mycobacterium leprae-derived major membrane protein (MMP)-II, one of the immunodominant Ags of M. leprae, was newly constructed. BCG-D70M was more potent in activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets of naïve T cells than rBCGs including urease-deficient BCG and BCG-70M secreting HSP70-MMP-II fusion protein. BCG-D70M efficiently activated dendritic cells (DC) to induce cytokine production and phenotypic changes, and activated CD4+ T cells even when macrophages were used as APCs. The activation of both subsets of T cells was MHC and CD86 dependent. Pre-treatment of DC with chloroquine inhibited both surface expression of MMP-II on DC and the activation of T cells by BCG-D70M-infected APCs. The naïve CD8+ T cell activation was inhibited by treatment of DC with brefeldin A and lactacystin so that the T cells was activated by TAP- and proteosome-dependent cytosolic cross-priming pathway. From naïve CD8+ T cells, effector T cells producing perforin and memory T cells having migration markers, were produced by BCG-D70M stimulation. BCG-D70M primary infection in C57BL/6 mice produced T cells responsive to in vitro secondary stimulation with MMP-II and HSP70, and more efficiently inhibited the multiplication of subsequently challenged M. leprae than vector control BCG. These results indicate that the triple combination of HSP70, MMP-II and urease depletion may provide useful tool for inducing better activation of naïve T cells.

  13. Economic implications of mandated efficiency standards for household appliances: an extension

    SciTech Connect

    Einhorn, M.

    1982-01-01

    Increased energy prices will direct appliance purchasers away from the appliance that would be used to consume more energy, be it more or less efficient. The long-run decline in energy usage will necessarily exceed the short-run decline that results when the appliance stock is held fixed. That less efficient appliances could become more popular is not troubling to a conservation strategist who accepts the idea that a reduction in energy usage, not a reduction in the ownership of less efficient appliances, is the proper objective of a conservation program. 2 references, 2 figures.

  14. An original orthodontic appliance for experimental mesial movements in rats.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Rodriguez, L; Steimetz, T; Ubios, A M; Cabrini, R L

    1996-01-01

    The design of an original appliance to achieve mesial movement of the first upper molar on one side in rat is presented. The appliance is constructed in 0.4 mm stainless steel wire forming a parallelepiped 3 mm in width in its anterior sector, 4 mm in width in its posterior sector and 12 mm in length in its lateral branches. In addition a central longitudinal bar is welded to the structure. The lateral branches of the appliance slide freely through the tubes welded to the palatal aspect of the molar bands, cemented in turn to both first molars. A wire 2 mm in length is welded in the anchorage area to the mesial side of the molar tube at 3 mm from the anterior end of the appliance, which acts as a butt. A pre-formed nickel-titanium open coil spring 0.23 mm thick, lumen 0.60 mm and 5.00 mm in length is placed distal to the molar tube. The spring is compressed by 1 mm of its original length, the final force being approximately 50 g. The movement achieved was measured on plaster casts obtained from pre and postoperative impressions, and afforded values of 0.250 mm +/- 0.790 mm on the active side and 0.012 +/- 0.011 mm on the passive side. The histologic studies showed an extensive erosive area on the pressure side of the alveolar wall. The appliance presented will be useful to achieve models of experimental movements of only one molar towards mesial with a force of known magnitude. PMID:11885249

  15. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  16. Emergencies in Orthodontics. Part 2: Management of Removable Appliances, Functional Appliances and other Adjuncts to Orthodontic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dowsing, Paul; Murray, Alison; Sandler, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    In the second of two papers, management of orthodontic emergencies involving appliances other than Fixed appliances will be detailed. Problems relating to removable appliances, as well as other orthodontic adjuncts, will be discussed. Unfortunately, orthodontic appliance breakage does occur, despite the clinicians giving clear and concise instructions to the patients and their parents at fitting. If general dental practitioners have a practical knowledge of how to diagnose problems and to provide appropriate advice or timely 'emergency' treatment, this will significantly reduce the inconvenience for all parties concerned. It should also ensure that treatment progresses in the most efficient and comfortable manner for their patients. In specific situations the early, accurate identification of the problem and instigation of its appropriate management can avoid more serious consequences. Clinical Relevance: Appropriate handling of an orthodontic 'emergency' by the dentist can, on many occasions, provide immediate relief to the patient. This will, in turn, allow treatment to continue in the right direction, thus allowing more efficient and effective use of valuable resources.

  17. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach.

    PubMed

    Basavaraddi, Shrinivas; Gandedkar, Narayan H; Belludi, Anup; Patil, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a "noncompliant corrector" and use of Class II elastics can be avoided.

  18. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraddi, Shrinivas; Gandedkar, Narayan H.; Belludi, Anup; Patil, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a “noncompliant corrector” and use of Class II elastics can be avoided. PMID:27041908

  19. Characterization of commercial building appliances. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.F.; Teagan, P.W.; Dieckmann, J.T.

    1993-08-01

    This study focuses on ``other`` end-uses category. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of energy end-use functions other than HVAC and lighting for commercial buildings, and to identify general avenues and approaches for energy use reduction. Specific energy consuming technologies addressed include non-HVAC and lighting technologies in commercial buildings with significant energy use to warrant detailed analyses. The end-uses include office equipment, refrigeration, water heating, cooking, vending machines, water coolers, laundry equipment and electronics other than office equipment. The building types include offices, retail, restaurants, schools, hospitals, hotels/motels, grocery stores, and warehouses.

  20. Social perceptions of adults wearing orthodontic appliances: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jeremiah, H G; Bister, D; Newton, J T

    2011-10-01

    This study ascertained the influence of orthodontic appliances on subjective ratings for social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA), and attractiveness in young adult orthodontic patients. A cross-sectional analytical questionnaire study was conducted with 130 undergraduates from the UK. Each participant was asked to look at a single, randomly assigned colour photograph of a young adult female and then asked to make judgements concerning her personal characteristics. Five modified photographs of the same young adult female were used: (1) no appliance, (2) stainless steel fixed orthodontic appliance, (3) ceramic fixed orthodontic appliance, (4) gold fixed orthodontic appliance, and (5) clear colourless aligner. Likert scales with higher scores indicating more positive ratings were used. The results were analysed using chi-square test, one-way univariate analysis of variance, and post hoc Tukey-B and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that greater perceived IA was associated with the appearance of no appliance (mean values: 7.56) rather than steel (6.67) or ceramic appliances (6.65) but similar to the gold (7.35) and aligner (7.08) appliances. No significant differences between the different orthodontic appliance appearances were found for SC and PA. A trend existed where the no appliance image (resembling a lingual appliance) or clear aligner was considered more attractive than the visible buccal fixed appliances. In the absence of other information, the judgements an individual young adult makes concerning the personal characteristics of a young adult are influenced by dental appearance and orthodontic appliance design. This may influence orthodontic appliance choice.

  1. Heights integrated model as instrument for simulation of hydrodynamic, radiation transport, and heat conduction phenomena of laser-produced plasma in EUV applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Sizyuk, V.; Hassanein, A.; Morozov, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2007-01-16

    The HEIGHTS integrated model has been developed as an instrument for simulation and optimization of laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources relevant to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The model combines three general parts: hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and heat conduction. The first part employs a total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation (TVD-LF); the second part, a Monte Carlo model; and the third part, implicit schemes with sparse matrix technology. All model parts consider physical processes in three-dimensional geometry. The influence of a generated magnetic field on laser plasma behavior was estimated, and it was found that this effect could be neglected for laser intensities relevant to EUV (up to {approx}10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}). All applied schemes were tested on analytical problems separately. Benchmark modeling of the full EUV source problem with a planar tin target showed good correspondence with experimental and theoretical data. Preliminary results are presented for tin droplet- and planar-target LPP devices. The influence of three-dimensional effects on EUV properties of source is discussed.

  2. Secretory IgA-mediated protection against V. cholerae and heat-labile enterotoxin-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by rice-based vaccine.

    PubMed

    Tokuhara, Daisuke; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Nochi, Tomonori; Kodama, Toshio; Mejima, Mio; Kurokawa, Shiho; Takahashi, Yuko; Nanno, Masanobu; Nakanishi, Ushio; Takaiwa, Fumio; Honda, Takeshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2010-05-11

    Cholera and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are among the most common causes of acute infantile gastroenteritis globally. We previously developed a rice-based vaccine that expressed cholera toxin B subunit (MucoRice-CTB) and had the advantages of being cold chain-free and providing protection against cholera toxin (CT)-induced diarrhea. To advance the development of MucoRice-CTB for human clinical application, we investigated whether the CTB-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) induced by MucoRice-CTB gives longstanding protection against diarrhea induced by Vibrio cholerae and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT)-producing ETEC (LT-ETEC) in mice. Oral immunization with MucoRice-CTB stored at room temperature for more than 3 y provided effective SIgA-mediated protection against CT- or LT-induced diarrhea, but the protection was impaired in polymeric Ig receptor-deficient mice lacking SIgA. The vaccine gave longstanding protection against CT- or LT-induced diarrhea (for > or = 6 months after primary immunization), and a single booster immunization extended the duration of protective immunity by at least 4 months. Furthermore, MucoRice-CTB vaccination prevented diarrhea in the event of V. cholerae and LT-ETEC challenges. Thus, MucoRice-CTB is an effective long-term cold chain-free oral vaccine that induces CTB-specific SIgA-mediated longstanding protection against V. cholerae- or LT-ETEC-induced diarrhea.

  3. High potential of adhesion to biotic and abiotic surfaces by opportunistic Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Merghni, Abderrahmen; Ben Nejma, Mouna; Dallel, Ines; Tobji, Samir; Ben Amor, Adel; Janel, Sébastien; Lafont, Frank; Aouni, Mahjoub; Mastouri, Maha

    2016-02-01

    Orthodontic and other oral appliances act as reservoir of opportunistic pathogens that can easily become resistant to antibiotics and cause systemic infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from healthy patients with orthodontic appliances, to adhere to biotic (HeLa cells) and abiotic surfaces (polystyrene and dental alloy). Adhesive ability to polystyrene was tested by crystal violet staining and quantitative biofilm production on dental alloy surfaces was evaluated by MTT reduction assay. In addition, the presence of icaA and icaD genes was achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Qualitative biofilm production revealed that 70.6% of strains were slime producers. The metabolic activity of S. aureus biofilms on dental alloy surfaces was high and did not differ between tested strains. Moreover, all the isolates were adhesive to HeLa cells and 94% of them harbor icaA and icaD genes. Considerable adhesion and internalization capacity to the epithelial HeLa cells and strong biofilm production abilities together, with a high genotypic expression of icaA/icaD genes are an important equipment of S. aureus to colonize orthodontic appliances and eventually to disseminate towards other body areas.

  4. A cephalometric comparative study of class II correction with Sabbagh Universal Spring (SUS2) and Forsus FRD appliances

    PubMed Central

    Oztoprak, Mehmet Oguz; Nalbantgil, Didem; Uyanlar, Ayhan; Arun, Tulin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this clinical prospective study was to compare the dentofacial changes produced by the Sabbagh Universal Spring (SUS2) and Forsus FRD appliances in late adolescent patients with Class II malocclusion, and quantify them in comparison with an untreated group. Method: The study was carried out on 59 patients with skeletal and dental Class II malocclusion due to retrognatic mandible. Among these, 20 were treated with SUS2, 20 were treated with FRD, and no treatment was done to 19 subjects as the control group. 36 cephalometric landmarks were identified on each lateral cephalometric radiograph. Results: The effects of both appliances were dentoalveolar and no significant vertical and sagittal skeletal effect on maxilla and mandible was achieved. The retrusion and extrusion of the maxillary incisors as well as the protrusion and intrusion of mandibular incisors were found to be statistically significant in both treatment groups. Soft tissue profile improvement was limited in both treatment groups. Conclusions: Both appliances corrected Class II discrepancies through dentoalveolar changes; however lower incisor proclination was more prominent with the Forsus FRD. PMID:22904659

  5. High potential of adhesion to biotic and abiotic surfaces by opportunistic Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Merghni, Abderrahmen; Ben Nejma, Mouna; Dallel, Ines; Tobji, Samir; Ben Amor, Adel; Janel, Sébastien; Lafont, Frank; Aouni, Mahjoub; Mastouri, Maha

    2016-02-01

    Orthodontic and other oral appliances act as reservoir of opportunistic pathogens that can easily become resistant to antibiotics and cause systemic infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from healthy patients with orthodontic appliances, to adhere to biotic (HeLa cells) and abiotic surfaces (polystyrene and dental alloy). Adhesive ability to polystyrene was tested by crystal violet staining and quantitative biofilm production on dental alloy surfaces was evaluated by MTT reduction assay. In addition, the presence of icaA and icaD genes was achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Qualitative biofilm production revealed that 70.6% of strains were slime producers. The metabolic activity of S. aureus biofilms on dental alloy surfaces was high and did not differ between tested strains. Moreover, all the isolates were adhesive to HeLa cells and 94% of them harbor icaA and icaD genes. Considerable adhesion and internalization capacity to the epithelial HeLa cells and strong biofilm production abilities together, with a high genotypic expression of icaA/icaD genes are an important equipment of S. aureus to colonize orthodontic appliances and eventually to disseminate towards other body areas. PMID:26620082

  6. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-06-07

    China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.

  7. Application of SMA technology to auxiliary functions in appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Bart; Brei, Diann E.; Patera, John

    2002-07-01

    Traditionally smart material actuation has been reserved for high technology industries such as space and aerospace; however, as the field matures more and more instances are found in low-cost, high production areas. This paper describes one such instance - the application of shape memory alloys to auxiliary functions in appliances. This investigation focused on lid locks for washing machines because it is representative of several other applications found in appliances including valves, dispensers, locks, brakes, etc. Several competing concepts for SMA actuated lid locks are discussed including simple analytical design models and experimental characterization of proof-of-concept prototypes. A comparison of these designs based on performance (force, response times), energy (power requirements) and economic metrics is given. From this study, a final concept was developed based upon the best attributes of the different concepts. The resulting proof-of-concept prototype demonstrated improved performance over the current state with a potential for cost reduction.

  8. Stoma appliances and accessories: getting it right for the patient.

    PubMed

    Burch, Jennie

    This article will examine some of the appliances and accessories that can be used to care for a stoma. There are three types of stoma that can be surgically formed and each will be discussed. Furthermore, there will be brief explanations of why stomas might be formed and what the output from each stoma type will be. Complications are associated with stomas, such as sore skin, which is commonly seen within the first few months after the stoma is formed. This important topic is examined and some of the accessories that can be used to treat these issues will be explored. To aid the reader to undertake their own research on the topic, the websites from some of the stoma manufacturers are included. These websites contain more details about appliances, accessories and information for people with a stoma that can be of benefit to nurses too. PMID:25251316

  9. Cheek Plumper: An Innovative Anti-cheek Biting Appliance

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Kaushik, Noopur; Panthri, Prerna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT One of the most challenging tasks for a pediatric dentist is the management of deleterious oral habits which adversely affect the dentofacial complex. However, if these habits can be intercepted and diagnosed well in time, they can save the patient from the psychological impact of undergoing long treatment therapies. One such rare deleterious oral habit is cheek biting that affects the buccal mucosa. Presented here is a case report which describes the interception of this deleterious habit in a 15-year-old female child who was a bilateral cheek biter with the help of an innovative intraoral appliance: The cheek plumper. How to cite this article: Rana V, Srivastava N, Kaushik N, Panthri P. Cheek Plumper: An Innovative Anti-cheek Biting Appliance. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):146-148. PMID:27365937

  10. "False" migration of rigid fixation appliances in pediatric craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Papay, F A; Hardy, S; Morales, L; Walker, M; Enlow, D

    1995-07-01

    Osseous fixation techniques have been widely used to provide rigid stabilization in the craniofacial skeleton. Reported sequelae of its usage has been limited to palpation of the screw-plate system and radiological imaging artifacts. Over the past 3 years we have identified miniplates, microplates, and wire sutures on the inner cranial table of the growing child. The observation of "false" migration of these appliances has provided the impetus to review these patients in more detail. Twenty patients underwent secondary cranial remodeling within a two-year period; 7 of these patients were seen to have "false" migration. There were no untoward sequelae in removal of these appliances, and no adverse neurological symptoms were seen.

  11. Long-term sterility of orthodontic-surgical appliances.

    PubMed

    Brusca, María I; Nastri, Natalia; Mosca, Christian O; Nastri, María L; Rosa, Alcira C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term sterility of new dental appliances according to the non rigid wrapping employed and assess the effectiveness of sterilization in a steam autoclave at 134 degrees for 20 minutes using physical, chemical, and biological indicators. All the experimental (E) samples and the control samples (C) were assigned to one of three groups according to the type of packaging: paper bag (E1), paper/plastic pouch (E2), nylon tubing bag (E3). Each bag contained standardized orthodontic wires and brackets and sterility indicators. The samples were evaluated at the following experimental times: immediately, and 6, 12, 24 and 30 months post-sterilization. The samples were analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in keeping with the protocol currently in use at the Department of Microbiology, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires. The group of control, non-sterilized samples (C1, C2, C3) were analyzed prior to the onset of the study, and were found to be contaminated. None of the sterilized samples in any of the three experimental groups evidenced contamination at any of the experimental times. The results showed that, under the present conditions, the packages and orthodontic appliances remained sterile for 30 months. These results show the importance of controlling sterility and the storage conditions over time for all the orthodontic/surgical appliances used in invasive treatments. PMID:15584258

  12. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses. The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  13. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  14. HEAT GENERATION

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1963-12-01

    Heat is generated by the utilization of high energy neutrons produced as by nuclear reactions between hydrogen isotopes in a blanket zone containing lithium, a neutron moderator, and uranium and/or thorium effective to achieve multtplicatton of the high energy neutron. The rnultiplied and moderated neutrons produced react further with lithium-6 to produce tritium in the blanket. Thermal neutron fissionable materials are also produced and consumed in situ in the blanket zone. The heat produced by the aggregate of the various nuclear reactions is then withdrawn from the blanket zone to be used or otherwise disposed externally. (AEC)

  15. Reflection of a probe pulse and thermal emission of electrons produced by an aluminum film heated by a femtosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Bezhanov, S. G.; Ionin, A. A.; Kanavin, A. P.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Makarov, S. V.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2015-06-15

    It is shown that an experimental decrease in the reflection of a probe femtosecond pulse from an aluminum film heated by a higher-power femtosecond pulse can be quantitatively described taking into account the inhomogeneous distribution of the laser pulse field in the film and the evolution of the electron and lattice temperature during absorption of the heating inhomogeneous field. Analysis of the electron temperature evolution on the heated film surface combined with modern concepts about the influence of a surface volume charge on thermal emission gave the relation between the amount of emitted electrons and experimental data on the heating of the aluminum film by the femtosecond pulse.

  16. An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Kimberly; Dale, Larry; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-01-25

    This report summarizes our study of the price elasticity of demand for home appliances, including refrigerators, clothes washers, and dishwashers. In the context of increasingly stringent appliance standards, we are interested in what kind of impact the increased manufacturing costs caused by higher efficiency requirements will have on appliance sales. We begin with a review of existing economics literature describing the impact of economic variables on the sale of durable goods.We then describe the market for home appliances and changes in this market over the past 20 years, performing regression analysis on the shipments of home appliances and relevant economic variables including changes to operating cost and household income. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the demand for home appliances is price inelastic.

  17. Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part II. Grid Friendly™ Appliance Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Brous, Jerry; Chassin, David P.; Horst, Gale R.; Kajfasz, Robert; Michie, Preston; Oliver, Terry V.; Carlon, Teresa A.; Eustis, Conrad; Jarvegren, Olof M.; Marek, W.; Munson, Ryan L.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    Fifty residential electric water heaters and 150 new residential clothes dryers were modified to respond to signals received from underfrequency, load-shedding appliance controllers. Each controller monitored the power-grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances were installed and monitored for more than a year at residential sites at three locations in Washington and Oregon. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow underfrequency event—an average of one event per day—and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Appliance owners reported that the appliance responses were unnoticed and caused little or no inconvenience for the homes’ occupants.

  18. Comparative efficiency of Class II malocclusion treatment with the pendulum appliance or two maxillary premolar extractions and edgewise appliances [corrected].

    PubMed

    Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maio; Janson, Guilherme; Pinzan, Arnaldo; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare, on study models and initial cephalograms, the efficiency of Class II malocclusion treatment with the pendulum appliance, and with two maxillary premolar extraction protocol. The sample consisted of 48 treated Class II malocclusion patients: group 1 comprised 22 patients (7 males, 15 females) treated with the pendulum appliance, with an initial mean age of 14.44 years and group 2, 26 patients (14 males, 12 females) treated with two maxillary premolar extractions at an initial mean age of 13.66 years. To compare the efficiency of each treatment protocol, the occlusal outcomes were evaluated on dental casts using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) Index and the treatment time (TT) of each group was calculated on clinical charts. The degree of treatment efficiency was calculated as the ratio between the percentage of occlusal improvement, evaluated through the PAR index, and TT. Statistical analysis was undertaken by means of t-tests. The findings demonstrated that the two maxillary premolar extraction protocol provided the occlusal outcomes in a shorter time (group 1: 45.7 months, group 2: 23.01 months) and, therefore, demonstrated greater treatment efficiency than the pendulum appliance.

  19. Estimating sales and sales market share from sales rank data for consumer appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touzani, Samir; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Our motivation in this work is to find an adequate probability distribution to fit sales volumes of different appliances. This distribution allows for the translation of sales rank into sales volume. This paper shows that the log-normal distribution and specifically the truncated version are well suited for this purpose. We demonstrate that using sales proxies derived from a calibrated truncated log-normal distribution function can be used to produce realistic estimates of market average product prices, and product attributes. We show that the market averages calculated with the sales proxies derived from the calibrated, truncated log-normal distribution provide better market average estimates than sales proxies estimated with simpler distribution functions.

  20. Computer-Aided Designing and Manufacturing of Lingual Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Using 2D/3D Registration Software and Rapid Prototyping

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim (Sunny), Seong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D model images with lateral and posterior-anterior cephalograms. By exporting design information to 3D CAD software, we have produced a stereolithographic prototype and converted it into a cobalt-chrome alloy appliance as a way of combining traditional prosthetic investment and cast techniques. While the bonding procedure of the appliance could be reinforced, CAD technology simplified the fabrication process by eliminating the soldering phase. This report describes CAD/CAM fabrication of the complex anteroposterior lingual bonded retraction appliance for intrusive retraction of the maxillary anterior dentition. Furthermore, the CAD/CAM method eliminates the extra step of determining the lever arm on the lateral cephalograms and subsequent design modifications on the study model. PMID:24899895

  1. Computer-Aided Designing and Manufacturing of Lingual Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Using 2D/3D Registration Software and Rapid Prototyping.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Yong; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim Sunny, Seong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D model images with lateral and posterior-anterior cephalograms. By exporting design information to 3D CAD software, we have produced a stereolithographic prototype and converted it into a cobalt-chrome alloy appliance as a way of combining traditional prosthetic investment and cast techniques. While the bonding procedure of the appliance could be reinforced, CAD technology simplified the fabrication process by eliminating the soldering phase. This report describes CAD/CAM fabrication of the complex anteroposterior lingual bonded retraction appliance for intrusive retraction of the maxillary anterior dentition. Furthermore, the CAD/CAM method eliminates the extra step of determining the lever arm on the lateral cephalograms and subsequent design modifications on the study model.

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Heat-Resistant Mutant Strains (A52 and B41) of the Photosynthetic Hydrogen-Producing Bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Gokce, Abdulmecit; Cakar, Zeynep Petek; Yucel, Meral; Ozcan, Orhan; Sencan, Sevde; Sertdemir, Ibrahim; Erguner, Bekir; Yuceturk, Betul; Sarac, Aydan; Yuksel, Bayram; Ozturk, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two heat-resistant mutant strains, A52 and B41, derived from Rhodobacter capsulatus DSM 1710, and with different hydrogen production levels, are reported here. These sequences may help understand the molecular basis of heat resistance and hydrogen production in R. capsulatus.

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Heat-Resistant Mutant Strains (A52 and B41) of the Photosynthetic Hydrogen-Producing Bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Abdulmecit; Cakar, Zeynep Petek; Yucel, Meral; Ozcan, Orhan; Sencan, Sevde; Sertdemir, Ibrahim; Erguner, Bekir; Yuceturk, Betul; Sarac, Aydan; Yuksel, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two heat-resistant mutant strains, A52 and B41, derived from Rhodobacter capsulatus DSM 1710, and with different hydrogen production levels, are reported here. These sequences may help understand the molecular basis of heat resistance and hydrogen production in R. capsulatus. PMID:27284151

  4. Frog Appliance- An Innovative Treatment Option for the Replacement of Missing Teeth in An Epileptic Child

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Anita; Reddy, Hanumanth; Sajjnar, Arun B; Jain, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease which may result in various oro-facial injuries among which fracture of crown and avulsion of tooth are commonly reported. Challenges come in growing epileptic children where fixed prosthesis could not be delivered and it demands a fixed semi-permanent prosthesis that needs strength along with esthetics. The present paper reports an innovative appliance which has fulfilled fore mentioned criteria; with the appliance named-frog appliance. PMID:26155578

  5. Ultrafine particles from electric appliances and cooking pans: experiments suggesting desorption/nucleation of sorbed organics as the primary source.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L A; Ott, W R; Weschler, C J

    2015-10-01

    Ultrafine particles are observed when metal surfaces, such as heating elements in electric appliances, or even empty cooking pans, are heated. The source of the particles has not been identified. We present evidence that particles >10 nm are not emitted directly from the heating elements or the metal surfaces. Using repeated heating of an electric burner, several types of cooking pans, and a steam iron, the increase in the number of particles (>10 nm) can be reduced to 0. After the devices are exposed to indoor air for several hours or days, subsequent heating results in renewed particle production, suggesting that organic matter has sorbed on their surfaces. Also, after a pan has been heated to the point that no increase in particles is observed, washing with detergent results in copious production of particles the next time the pan is heated. These observations suggest that detergent residue and organics sorbed from indoor air are the sources of the particles. We hypothesize that organic compounds are thermally desorbed from the hot surface as gaseous molecules; as they diffuse from the hot air near the pan into cooler air, selected compounds exceed their saturation concentration and nucleation occurs.

  6. The wet-heat resistance of Bacillus weihenstephanensis KBAB4 spores produced in a two-step sporulation process depends on sporulation temperature but not on previous cell history.

    PubMed

    Baril, E; Coroller, L; Postollec, F; Leguerinel, I; Boulais, C; Carlin, F; Mafart, P

    2011-03-15

    While bacterial spores are mostly produced in a continuous process, this study reports a two-step sporulation methodology. Even though spore heat resistance of numerous spore-forming bacteria is known to be dependent on sporulation conditions, this approach enables the distinction between the vegetative cell growth phase in nutrient broth and the sporulation phase in specific buffer. This study aims at investigating whether the conditions of growth of the vegetative cells, prior to sporulation, could affect spore heat resistance. For that purpose, wet-heat resistance of Bacillus weihenstephanensis KBAB4 spores, produced via a two-step sporulation process, was determined from vegetative cells harvested at four different stages of the growth kinetics, i.e. early exponential phase, late exponential phase, transition phase or early stationary phase. To assess the impact of the temperature on spore heat resistance, sporulation was performed at 10 °C, 20 °C and 30 °C from cells grown during a continuous or a discontinuous temperature process, differentiating or not the growth and sporulation temperatures. Induction of sporulation seems possible for a large range of growth stages. Final spore concentration was not significantly affected by the vegetative cell growth stage while it was by the temperature during growing and sporulation steps. The sporulation temperature influences the heat resistance of B. weihenstephanensis KBAB4 spores much more than growth temperature prior to sporulation. Spores produced at 10 °C were up to 3 times less heat resistant than spores produced at 30 °C.

  7. Residential gas appliance market needs assessment. Final Topical report, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, G.T.; Gutman, P.V.

    1994-04-01

    The Gas research Institute (GRI) commissioned SRI International (SRI) to assess the R D needs of the residential gas appliance industry. The objectives in the project were to: Identify and rank the residential gas appliance industry's R D needs as perceived by industry groups (appliance manufacturers, major components and materials suppliers, and distributors/dealers/retailers); Select those needs that an industry-wide R D program (as opposed to individual company efforts) can best meet; and, Assemble a database characterizing the residential gas appliance market and the factors driving demand.

  8. Localized sequential use of resilient lining to generate orthodontic force in thermoformed active removable appliances.

    PubMed

    Ng, E W H

    2005-12-01

    A new modality of orthodontic treatment based on the thermoformed appliance was developed and trialled clinically. A light-cured resilient lining material commonly used for denture relining was placed locally and sequentially in thermoformed appliances to generate orthodontic forces. The new method appeared to be effective. All the presented cases showed substantial improvement in dental alignment. A number of orthodontic movements were demonstrated. Localized use of resilient lining in thermoformed orthodontic appliances appeared to be a promising alternative to other thermoformed active removable appliance (TARA) treatments. Further studies are required to optimize the procedures and explore its full potential.

  9. Modeling operation mode of pellet boilers for residential heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrocelli, D.; Lezzi, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years the consumption of wood pellets as energy source for residential heating lias increased, not only as fuel for stoves, but also for small-scale residential boilers that, produce hot water used for both space heating and domestic hot water. Reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions (CO, dust., HC) is an obvious target of wood pellet boiler manufacturers, however they are also quite interested in producing low- maintenance appliances. The need of frequent maintenance turns in higher operating costs and inconvenience for the user, and in lower boiler efficiency and higher emissions also. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical model able to simulate the dynamic behavior of a pellet boiler. The model takes into account many features of real pellet boilers. Furthermore, with this model, it is possible to pay more attention to the influence of the boiler control strategy. Control strategy evaluation is based not only on pellet consumption and on total emissions, but also on critical operating conditions such as start-up and stop or prolonged operation at substantially reduced power level. Results are obtained for a residential heating system based on a wood pellet boiler coupled with a thermal energy storage. Results obtained so far show a weak dependence of performance in terms of fuel consumption and total emissions on control strategy, however some control strategies present some critical issues regarding maintenance frequency.

  10. Magnetic field exposure from electric appliances and childhood cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.; John, E.M.; Kleckner, R.C. )

    1990-05-01

    The effect on childhood cancer of prolonged exposure to 60-H magnetic fields from electric appliances was examined using interview data from a recently completed case-control study. Exposures of children aged 0-14 years whose incident cancers were diagnosed between 1976 and 1983 and who resided in the Denver, Colorado, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were compared with those of controls selected by random digit dialing, matched on age, sex, and telephone exchange area. Parents of 252 cases and 222 controls were interviewed at home about the use of electric appliances by the mother during pregnancy (prenatal exposure) and by the child (postnatal exposure). After adjustment for income, prenatal electric blanket exposure was associated with a small increase in the incidence of childhood cancers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.2) that was more pronounced for leukemia (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.6) and brain cancer (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.5). Postnatal exposure to electric blankets was also weakly associated with childhood cancer (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.6-3.4), with a larger but imprecise association with acute lymphocytic leukemia (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 0.6-6.5). Water beds and bedside electric clocks were unrelated to childhood cancer incidence. Results are limited by nonresponse and imprecision resulting from the rarity of appliance use, especially for subgroups of cases. Nonetheless, electric blankets, one of the principal sources of prolonged magnetic field exposure, were weakly associated with childhood cancer and warrant a more thorough evaluation.

  11. Patients' adherence to hard acrylic interocclusal appliance treatment in general dental practice in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Erik; Helkimo, Martti; Magnusson, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate patient adherence to treatment with hard acrylic interocclusal appliance in general dentistry in Sweden and to see if some general factors could predict patient adherence or non-adherence. During the period January - May 2009 a postal questionnaire was sent to all adult patients (> or = 20 years of age) that had received a hard acrylic interocclusal appliance from the public dental health service in the County of Uppsala during 2007 (n=388). The same questionnaire was also sent to all adult patients that had received a hard acrylic interocclusal appliance at a specialist clinic during the same year (n=69). The response rate in general dental practice was 71% and at the specialist clinic the response rate was 91%. In general dental practice, 97% of the hard acrylic interocclusal appliances were stabilisation appliances. At the specialist clinic other types of interocclusal appliances was used to a greater extent. A vast majority of patients in both general dental practice and at the specialist clinic experienced that the interocclusal appliance had a positive treatment effect. In general dental practice, 73% of the patients still used their interocclusal appliances 1 1/2-2 years after they had received them. The corresponding figure at the specialist clinic was 54%. The main reasons for not using the interocclusal appliance, besides disappearance/reduction of TMD symptoms, were different kinds of comfort problems. From the results of this study it is concluded that the patient adherence to hard acrylic stabilisation appliances made in general dental practice in Sweden is good. It can also be concluded that a perceived good treatment effect, as well as treatment of more long-term conditions, predicted a better patient adherence to hard acrylic stabilisation appliances. More studies concerning factors affecting patient adherence in TMD therapy are warranted.

  12. Modified Occlusal Settling Appliance in Twin Block Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harpreet; Kapoor, Pranav; Sharma, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Early treatment with the Twin-block appliance is effective in reducing overjet and severity of malocclusion in Class II division 1 malocclusions with functional mandibular retrusion. Appearance of bilateral severe posterior open bite in some cases subsequent to completion of active phase of Twin block therapy poses a challenge to an orthodontist. Closure of posterior open bites of large magnitude is difficult to achieve with conventional upper anterior inclined plane used during support phase of Twin-block therapy. A simple yet effective modification of upper anterior inclined plane is proposed, which is an effective and invaluable adjunctive aid in correction of posterior open bite. PMID:27790600

  13. Modified distal shoe appliance--fabrication and clinical performance.

    PubMed

    Gujjar, Kumar Raghav; Indushekar, K R; Amith, H V; Sharma, Shefali Li

    2012-01-01

    When the primary second molar is prematurely lost, mesial movement and migration of the permanent first molar often occurs. This is one of the most difficult problems of the developing dentition confronted by pediatric dentists. Use of a space maintainer that will guide the permanent first molar into its normal position is indicated. In cases with bilateral premature loss of primary molars, the conventional design of distal shoe poses a variety of problems and, therefore, necessitates a customized design for the eruption guidance of permanent first molars. The purpose of this case report is to discuss an innovative design of a distal shoe appliance, which was used with good clinical results.

  14. The effects of orthopedic forces on the craniofacial complex utilizing cervical and headgear appliances.

    PubMed

    Chaconas, S J; Caputo, A A; Davis, J C

    1976-05-01

    1. A three-dimensional anatomic model of a human skull was produced with birefringent materials for photoelastic analysis. By means of photoelastic techniques during application of high-pull and cervical extraoral traction, stresses were visualized within the model. 2. Extraoral anchorage affected the position of the maxillary molar and its resulting alveolar development. Cervical headgear had a much greater tipping effect on the maxillary molar than did the high-pull headgear. Both appliances examined could produce stresses which may be transmitted to distant eraniofacial sutures. As opposed to high-pull traction, cervical pull in general stressed more areas and to a much greater degree. 4. The pterygoid plates of the sphenoid bone, the zygomatic arches, the junction of the maxilla with the lacrimal bone and the ethmoid, and the maxillary teeth were affected by both types of headgear. 5. Only cervical traction produced stresses at the frontal process of the maxilla and the Zygomaticofrontal suture. 6. There were two findings which had not been previously reported: First, cervical traction tended to open the palate in the posterior region. Second, high-pull traction produced compressive stresses at the junction of the right and left maxillae inferior to the anterior nasal spine.

  15. Heating of BDE-209 and BDE-47 in plant oil in presence of o,p'-DDT or iron(III) chloride can produce monochloro-polybromo diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Bendig, Paul; Blumenstein, Marina; Vetter, Walter

    2012-05-01

    Heating processes of food can alter the concentrations and composition of organohalogen compounds. In this study the fate of two polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) was analyzed when heated in plant oil with and without additional compounds. When the PBDEs were heated in pure plant oil, no transformation was observed. Heating of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) together with ortho,para'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p'-DDT) or iron(III) chloride in plant oil resulted in the formation of monochloro-nonabromodiphenyl ethers (Br(9)Cl-DEs). Almost 10% of the initial amount of BDE-209 was transferred into Br(9)Cl-DEs. Heating BDE-47 in the presence of iron(III) chloride produced two monochlorinated transformation products which were tentatively identified as 2,2',4-tribromo-4'-chlorodiphenyl ether (4'-Cl-BDE-17) and 2,4,4'-tribromo-2'-chlorodiphenyl ether (2'-Cl-BDE-28). However, the reactivity was smaller and no Br→Cl exchange was observed with o,p'-DDT. The conditions used in our experiments (200 °C; heating 30 min-3 h) indicate that such reactivity may also occur during cooking of fish, meat and other food samples.

  16. The Lynn Maxilla Rotator Combination Appliance and Lynn Archial Face Bow.

    PubMed

    Lynn, J M

    1989-01-01

    This combination orthopedic traction appliance offers a new dimension in treating long faced, mouth breathing patients, who generally exhibit pre-maxillary gingival excess and lip incompetency or a short upper lip. The dynamics of excessive clockwise growth can be reversed if the physical pressures placed on the craniofacial skeletal tissues are reversed. In many instances extraction therapy or orthognatic surgery may be unnecessary to achieve acceptable occlusion and facial esthetics. Dr. Ullrich Teuscher, M.D., D.M.D., of Zurich, Switzerland published an article in the American Journal of Orthodontics in 1978, which addressed a growth related traction treatment of Class II facial patterns. This appliance expands on this concept with important modifications. There are many causes of a "long face". One of the primary causes, however, is upper airway compromise. This may be a result of enlargement of the tonsils, adenoids, nasal tubinates, nasal polyps, hemangiomas, allergies, nasal septal deviations, nasal floor narrowing, etc. In our Westernized society of "non-chewing" youths (most fast or processed food we eat today is practically pre-chewed or per-digested), the orofacial musculature is lacking in functional use. This condition further enhances the lack of full facial development because the necessary forces transmitted from the masticatory musculature to the facial skeleton are lacking. Therefore, if a person has tendencies toward a narrow-face, nasal vault, etc., there is no chance that nature's inherent counterbalancing forces will have any positive effect in resolving the airway compromise by producing wide or broad dental arches, because these forces do not exist anymore as a result of no necessity to chew food. The purpose of this paper is not to study the etiology of upper respiratory compromise, but rather to suggest a possible treatment alternative which sequentially counteracts the undesirable forces placed on the craniofacial skeleton by the

  17. Comparative evaluation of molar distalization therapy using pendulum and distal screw appliances

    PubMed Central

    Cafagna, Alessandra; Fontana, Mattia; Cozzani, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare dentoalveolar and skeletal changes produced by the pendulum appliance (PA) and the distal screw appliance (DS) in Class II patients. Methods Forty-three patients (19 men, 24 women) with Class II malocclusion were retrospectively selected for the study. Twenty-four patients (mean age, 12.2 ± 1.5 years) were treated with the PA, and 19 patients (mean age, 11.3 ± 1.9 years) were treated with the DS. The mean distalization time was 7 months for the PA group and 9 months for the DS group. Lateral cephalograms were obtained at T1, before treatment, and at T2, the end of distalization. A Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical comparisons of the two groups between T1 and T2. Results PA and DS were equally effective in distalizing maxillary molars (4.7 mm and 4.2 mm, respectively) between T1 and T2; however, the maxillary first molars showed less distal tipping in the DS group than in the PA group (3.2° vs. 9.0°, respectively). Moreover, significant premolar anchorage loss (2.7 mm) and incisor proclination (5.0°) were noted in the PA group, whereas premolar distal movement (1.9 mm) and no significant changes at the incisor (0.1°) were observed in the DS group. No significant sagittal or vertical skeletal changes were detected between the two groups during the distalization phase. Conclusions PA and DS seem to be equally effective in distalizing maxillary molars; however, greater distal molar tipping and premolar anchorage loss can be expected using PA. PMID:26258063

  18. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-01-14

    This patent relates to a method of producing neutrons in which there is produced a heated plasma containing heavy hydrogen isotope ions wherein heated ions are injected and confined in an elongated axially symmetric magnetic field having at least one magnetic field gradient region. In accordance with the method herein, the amplitude of the field and gradients are varied at an oscillatory periodic frequency to effect confinement by providing proper ratios of rotational to axial velocity components in the motion of said particles. The energetic neutrons may then be used as in a blanket zone containing a moderator and a source fissionable material to produce heat and thermal neutron fissionable materials. (AEC)

  19. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of...

  20. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of...

  1. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of...

  2. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of...

  3. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of...

  4. 78 FR 1779 - Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... proposes to include a new range for instantaneous electric water heaters (Appendix D6). \\7\\ 77 FR 29940... CFR Part 305 Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other Products Required Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (``Appliance Labeling...

  5. 76 FR 72872 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... CFR Part 305 Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other Products Required Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (``Appliance Labeling... Rule, issued pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA),\\1\\ requires energy labeling...

  6. Preschool Children's Conceptions about the Electric Current and the Functioning of Electric Appliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomonidou, Christina; Kakana, Domna-Mika

    2000-01-01

    Examined 5- and 6-year-olds' ideas about the functioning of common electrical appliances and properties of electric current. Found that children represented current in a static way, thinking it was included in the appliance, and confounded electric current and water flow, believing external electricity was different from internal. They were…

  7. 78 FR 63166 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of... conducting an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks (kitchen racks) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of review (POR)...

  8. 77 FR 61396 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ...: Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China, 74 FR 46973 (September... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of...'') is conducting an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain kitchen...

  9. 77 FR 61385 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... Notice of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 ] FR 46971 (September 14, 2009), remains dispositive. PRC-Wide... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of... duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic of China...

  10. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c)...

  11. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c)...

  12. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c)...

  13. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c)...

  14. A high pull torquing auxiliary for use with the Begg appliance.

    PubMed

    Hale, L R

    1987-07-01

    Treatment of the severe Class II division 2 malocclusion is difficult whatever appliance system is used. A small auxiliary, for use with the Begg appliance, is described. This enables torque and intrusive forces to be delivered to the upper central incisors, using High Pull Headgear. A case treated using this device is shown, and the changes brought about are demonstrated.

  15. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c) One... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type...

  16. 46 CFR 174.100 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity. 174.100 Section 174.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.100 Appliances...

  17. Functionally Graded High-Alloy CrMnNi TRIP Steel Produced by Local Heat Treatment Using High-Energy Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, D.; Buchwalder, A.; Jung, A.; Weidner, A.; Segel, C.; Müller, A.; Zenker, R.; Biermann, H.

    2016-01-01

    Cold-rolled, high-alloy CrMnNi TRIP steel was heat treated by electron beam (EB) treatment. After cold rolling to a deformation degree of 70 pct, the microstructure was mainly martensitic with residual austenite. The aim of the subsequent EB treatment was to improve mechanical properties regarding strength and ductility by grain refinement. The process is influenced by EB-specific parameters, resulting in different temperature-time regimes due to different heating and cooling rates. Grain size gradients over the cross section could not be completely suppressed, but minimized. Investigations included optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, hardness measurements, quasi static tensile tests, digital image correlation, and thermography for functionally graded tensile specimens. The local heat treatment was used to set specific tailored properties.

  18. Treatment of adolescent patients with class II division 1 malocclusion using Eruption guidance appliance: A comparative study with Twin-block and Activator-Headgear appliances.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Jenny Jiayan Luo; Shu, Xiaochen; Magnusson, Britt Hedenberg; Burt, Idil Alatli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the compliance and short-term effects of eruption guidance appliance (EGA) in adolescents with class II division 1 malocclusion in comparison with twin-block appliance (TBA) and activator-headgear appliance (A-HG). Dental records of 1886 patients were viewed in this retrospective study 129 patients treated with one of these three functional appliances were identified. 123 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and data were extracted from the dental records. Gender, age, compliance, overjet change at every visit, number of appliance breakages and number of emergency visits apart from appliance breakage were studied. The data were analyzed with Chi-square test, General Linear Model and Fisher scoring test. Results showed that 47 patients were treated with EGA, 38 patients with TBA and 38 patients with A-HG. Mean ages starting the treatment were slightly lower with EGA (11.5 years) than with TBA (12.3 years) and A-HG (11.8 years). Non-compliance was higher in the EGA group (31.9%) than TBA group (26.3%) and A-HG group (23.7%). Mean overjet reduction per month was 0.6 mm for EGA which was lower than TBA group (0.7 mm) and A-HG groups (0.7 mm).The number of emergency visits and appliance breakage were lower in EGA group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the 3 groups regarding ages,compliance, mean overjet reduction, emergency visits and appliance breakage aspects. In conclusion, this study indicates that EGA is an alternative choice in the treatment of adolescent patients with class II division 1 malocclusion. However, long-term follow-up and cephalometric prospective study should be performed to continue our understanding more about the mechanisms of EGA and more definite conclusions can be made.

  19. Treatment of adolescent patients with class II division 1 malocclusion using Eruption guidance appliance: A comparative study with Twin-block and Activator-Headgear appliances.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Jenny Jiayan Luo; Shu, Xiaochen; Magnusson, Britt Hedenberg; Burt, Idil Alatli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the compliance and short-term effects of eruption guidance appliance (EGA) in adolescents with class II division 1 malocclusion in comparison with twin-block appliance (TBA) and activator-headgear appliance (A-HG). Dental records of 1886 patients were viewed in this retrospective study 129 patients treated with one of these three functional appliances were identified. 123 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and data were extracted from the dental records. Gender, age, compliance, overjet change at every visit, number of appliance breakages and number of emergency visits apart from appliance breakage were studied. The data were analyzed with Chi-square test, General Linear Model and Fisher scoring test. Results showed that 47 patients were treated with EGA, 38 patients with TBA and 38 patients with A-HG. Mean ages starting the treatment were slightly lower with EGA (11.5 years) than with TBA (12.3 years) and A-HG (11.8 years). Non-compliance was higher in the EGA group (31.9%) than TBA group (26.3%) and A-HG group (23.7%). Mean overjet reduction per month was 0.6 mm for EGA which was lower than TBA group (0.7 mm) and A-HG groups (0.7 mm).The number of emergency visits and appliance breakage were lower in EGA group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the 3 groups regarding ages,compliance, mean overjet reduction, emergency visits and appliance breakage aspects. In conclusion, this study indicates that EGA is an alternative choice in the treatment of adolescent patients with class II division 1 malocclusion. However, long-term follow-up and cephalometric prospective study should be performed to continue our understanding more about the mechanisms of EGA and more definite conclusions can be made. PMID:27464384

  20. CernVM - a virtual software appliance for LHC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buncic, P.; Aguado Sanchez, C.; Blomer, J.; Franco, L.; Harutyunian, A.; Mato, P.; Yao, Y.

    2010-04-01

    CernVM is a Virtual Software Appliance capable of running physics applications from the LHC experiments at CERN. It aims to provide a complete and portable environment for developing and running LHC data analysis on any end-user computer (laptop, desktop) as well as on the Grid, independently of Operating System platforms (Linux, Windows, MacOS). The experiment application software and its specific dependencies are built independently from CernVM and delivered to the appliance just in time by means of a CernVM File System (CVMFS) specifically designed for efficient software distribution. The procedures for building, installing and validating software releases remains under the control and responsibility of each user community. We provide a mechanism to publish pre-built and configured experiment software releases to a central distribution point from where it finds its way to the running CernVM instances via the hierarchy of proxy servers or content delivery networks. In this paper, we present current state of CernVM project and compare performance of CVMFS to performance of traditional network file system like AFS and discuss possible scenarios that could further improve its performance and scalability.

  1. Multimedia architectures: from desktop systems to portable appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, Vasudev; Konstantinides, Konstantinos; Natarajan, Balas R.

    1997-01-01

    Future desktop and portable computing systems will have as their core an integrated multimedia system. Such a system will seamlessly combine digital video, digital audio, computer animation, text, and graphics. Furthermore, such a system will allow for mixed-media creation, dissemination, and interactive access in real time. Multimedia architectures that need to support these functions have traditionally required special display and processing units for the different media types. This approach tends to be expensive and is inefficient in its use of silicon. Furthermore, such media-specific processing units are unable to cope with the fluid nature of the multimedia market wherein the needs and standards are changing and system manufacturers may demand a single component media engine across a range of products. This constraint has led to a shift towards providing a single-component multimedia specific computing engine that can be integrated easily within desktop systems, tethered consumer appliances, or portable appliances. In this paper, we review some of the recent architectural efforts in developing integrated media systems. We primarily focus on two efforts, namely the evolution of multimedia-capable general purpose processors and a more recent effort in developing single component mixed media co-processors. Design considerations that could facilitate the migration of these technologies to a portable integrated media system also are presented.

  2. Periodontal effects with self ligating appliances and laser biostimulation

    PubMed Central

    Caccianiga, Gianluigi; Cordasco, Giancarlo; Leonida, Alessandro; Zorzella, Paolo; Squarzoni, Nadia; Carinci, Francesco; Crestale, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently, various biostimulation's effects of low energy laser irradiation have been reported. The present study was designed to examine the effects of low-energy laser irradiation on alveolar bone remodelling during orthodontic tooth movement and finally on formation of new keratinized gingiva. Materials and Methods: 22 patients and 27 teeth in vestibular mucosal without keratinized gingiva were selected. Every patient was treated with self ligating appliances. In every orthodontic session the patient was treated with Diode laser biostimulation. At the moment of debonding, 27 teeth involved in the research were evaluated in terms of quality and quantity of attached gingiva. BOP and CAL loss were investigated. Results: Every tooth considered at the end of orthodontic treatment showed an attached gingiva around the crown: The average of keratinized gingiva at the end of the study was 3.10 mm and the mean increasing at each month was 0,49 mm. Conclusions: The combination between self ligating appliances and laser's biostimulation could improve the differentiation of periodontal ligaments stem cells in fibroblasts, able to promote attached gingiva around the crown of the teeth erupted in oral vestibular mucosa. PMID:23814581

  3. Work-related electrocutions involving portable power tools and appliances.

    PubMed

    Suruda, A; Smith, L

    1992-09-01

    Portable power tools and appliances can be identified as the source of injury in approximately 9% of occupational electrocutions. A search of fatality records for 1984 through 1986 in National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) data bases identified 102 electrocutions involving portable appliances and tools that used 110-volt AC and 33 deaths involving welding equipment, which usually operates on 220-volt AC or higher. Of these 102 deaths, 51 occurred in the construction industry, 13 in services, 13 in manufacturing, and 25 in other industries. Plumbing contractors (Standard Industrial Classification [SIC] 1711) had the largest number of deaths (15) in construction. Powered hand-tools were involved in 58 deaths, with electric drills (23) and saws (13) the two largest classes. Proper provision of ground-fault circuit interrupter protection, particularly at temporary work sites, could have prevented most of the deaths from 110-volt AC. Engineering controls for preventing electrocution from portable arc-welding equipment should be evaluated.

  4. Study of heat and radiation response of a malignant, melanin-producing cell line derived from C3H 10T1/2 cells transformed in culture by radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Raaphorst, G.P.; Vadasz, J.; Azzam, E.I.

    1986-12-01

    The mouse C3H 10T1/2 cell line was transformed to the malignant state using ionizing radiation. One of the transformed lines (R25) that was isolated, displayed some properties similar to malignant melanoma cells. The cells became dark and pigmented after prolonged time in culture and this cell line produced tumors in C3H mice. The radiation survival curve of R25 had a large shoulder which was also observed for human melanoma cell lines. R25 was more resistant to heating at 45.0 degrees C than the normal cell line. Heating at 45.0 degrees C before irradiation resulted in a reduction of the survival curve shoulder. The heat and radiation sensitivity of R25 did not appear to be related to the melanin content of these cells.

  5. 78 FR 2282 - Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... Commission has determined to review and reverse an initial determination (``ID'') (Order No. 57) of the...'s electronic docket (EDIS) at http://edis.usitc.gov . Hearing-impaired persons are advised that... of San Jose, California). 71 FR 7995-96. The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of...

  6. A Field Study of Lightning Surges Propagating through Low-voltage Electric Appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Tsunayoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshiki; Oguchi, Shuichi; Okabe, Shigemitsu

    In today's highly information-based society, lightning damage has a significant impact on an increasing number of electric appliances such as personal computers and facsimile machines. Lightning surge protection devices for electric appliances are on the market and concern for lightning protection has been increasing, but there are still many unknown aspects of lightning surges that propagate into residences. To provide effective lightning protection measures, clarification of surge propagation patterns is needed. The Tokyo Electric Power Company has observed the patterns of lightning surge propagation into houses using lightning surge waveform detectors installed at ordinary residences and obtained data on 30 lightning surge current waveforms between 2008 and 2009. This paper discusses various aspects of lightning surge currents propagating into low-voltage appliances, including home electric appliances, based on the lightning surge current waveform data obtained from lightning observations. The result revealed the patterns of lightning surge currents propagating into the ground and lines of low-voltage appliances.

  7. Effects of maxillary expansion and placebo effect of appliances on nocturnal enuresis – preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Oshagh, Morteza; Aminsharifi, Ali Reza; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Ghodrati, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nocturnal enuresis has been found a common symptom among children with breathing problems and sleep apnea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic and placebo effects of slow maxillary expansion on nocturnal enuresis. Material and methods Four children with enuresis aged 7–12 years were selected. Rigid acrylic expansion appliances were fabricated and delivered to them. Frequency of enuresis was recorded by the parents during three stages: 1) before appliance delivery; 2) after appliance insertion without expansion; and 3) during expansion and retention. Results The frequency of wetting decreased significantly during the period of appliance use without expansion. During the expansion and retention phase, two patients became completely dry, and two patients improved significantly. Conclusions Maxillary expansion can have a positive effect on the treatment of nocturnal enuresis. Also, the placebo effect of the expansion appliance has significant effects on enuresis. PMID:24982782

  8. The Demand Reduction Potential of Smart Appliances in U.S. Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Srivastava, Viraj; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-08-14

    The widespread deployment of demand respond (DR) enabled home appliances is expected to have significant reduction in the demand of electricity during peak hours. The work documented in this paper focuses on estimating the energy shift resulting from the installation of DR enabled smart appliances in the U.S. This estimation is based on analyzing the market for smart appliances and calculating the total energy demand that can potentially be shifted by DR control in appliances. Appliance operation is examined by considering their sub components individually to identify their energy consumptions and savings resulting from interrupting and shifting their load, e.g., by delaying the refrigerator defrost cycle. In addition to major residential appliances, residential pool pumps are also included in this study given their energy consumption profiles that make them favorable for DR applications. In the market analysis study documented in this paper, the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) databases are used to examine the expected life of an appliance, the number of appliances installed in homes constructed in 10 year intervals after 1940 and home owner income. Conclusions about the effectiveness of the smart appliances in reducing electrical demand have been drawn and a ranking of appliances in terms of their contribution to load shift is presented. E.g., it was concluded that DR enabled water heaters result in the maximum load shift; whereas, dishwashers have the highest user elasticity and hence the highest potential for load shifting through DR. This work is part of a larger effort to bring novel home energy management concepts and technologies to reduce energy consumption, reduce peak electricity demand, integrate renewables and storage technology, and change homeowner behavior to manage and consume less energy and potentially save consumer energy costs.

  9. Routines for interocclusal appliance therapy among general dental practitioners in a Swedish county.

    PubMed

    Gnauck, Maja; Helkimo, Martti; Magnusson, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate what kind of interocclusal appliances that were chosen among Swedish dentists when treating temporomandibular disorders (TMD), the clinical rationale for the treatment, the diagnoses that warranted the appliance treatment, the use of adjunct TMD treatments and prognostic considerations, and possible differences in these respects between children/adolescents and adults with TMD, and, finally, possible differences between private practitioners and general practitioners in the public dental service. During the 12-months-period April 2009-March 2010 all general dental practitioners in the county of Jönköping, Sweden, were asked to fill in a questionnaire when performing a TMD treatment with an interocclusal appliance. A total of 394 questionnaires were filled in and returned, 216 (55%) from dentists in public dental service and 178 (45%) from private practitioners. It was found that in 40% of the cases, no pre-treatment recording of the functional status in the masticatory system had been made. The commonest reasons for the treatment were bruxism, headache, and replacement of a previous appliance. Less than half of the appliances made were hard acrylic appliances. Some kind of adjunct therapy had been made in 22% of the cases treated in public dental service. The corresponding figure for those treated by private practitioners was 25%. Therapeutic jaw exercises was the commonest adjunct therapy followed by selective occlusal adjustment. In the vast majority of cases, the dentists judged the prognosis of the treatment to be good. It is concluded that a large number of appliances made to treat TMD were soft appliances, especially in public dental service. This reflects a possible overuse of soft appliances at the expense of hard acrylic appliances. Furthermore, in a large number of cases, the treatment was performed without any pre-treatment registrations, and adjunct therapies were rarely used. In all these respects,there is

  10. 33 CFR 150.504 - When must the operator service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? 150.504 Section 150.504 Navigation and... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? (a) The operator must service launching appliances for lifeboats and rescue boats at intervals recommended in the manufacturer's instructions...

  11. 33 CFR 150.504 - When must the operator service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? 150.504 Section 150.504 Navigation and... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? (a) The operator must service launching appliances for lifeboats and rescue boats at intervals recommended in the manufacturer's instructions...

  12. 33 CFR 150.504 - When must the operator service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? 150.504 Section 150.504 Navigation and... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? (a) The operator must service launching appliances for lifeboats and rescue boats at intervals recommended in the manufacturer's instructions...

  13. 33 CFR 150.504 - When must the operator service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? 150.504 Section 150.504 Navigation and... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? (a) The operator must service launching appliances for lifeboats and rescue boats at intervals recommended in the manufacturer's instructions...

  14. 33 CFR 150.504 - When must the operator service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? 150.504 Section 150.504 Navigation and... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? (a) The operator must service launching appliances for lifeboats and rescue boats at intervals recommended in the manufacturer's instructions...

  15. 38 CFR 17.122 - Payment or reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished without prior... Payment or reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished without prior authorization. The expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances, or similar...

  16. 38 CFR 17.122 - Payment or reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished without prior... Payment or reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished without prior authorization. The expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances, or similar...

  17. Crystal structure and nanotopographical features on the surface of heat-treated and anodized porous titanium biomaterials produced using selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin Yavari, S.; Wauthle, R.; Böttger, A. J.; Schrooten, J.; Weinans, H.; Zadpoor, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Porous titanium biomaterials manufactured using additive manufacturing techniques such as selective laser melting are considered promising materials for orthopedic applications where the biomaterial needs to mimic the properties of bone. Despite their appropriate mechanical properties and the ample pore space they provide for bone ingrowth and osseointegration, porous titanium structures have an intrinsically bioinert surface and need to be subjected to surface bio-functionalizing procedures to enhance their in vivo performance. In this study, we used a specific anodizing process to build a hierarchical oxide layer on the surface of porous titanium structures made by selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V ELI powder. The hierarchical structure included both nanotopographical features (nanotubes) and micro-features (micropits). After anodizing, the biomaterial was heat treated in Argon at different temperatures ranging between 400 and 600 °C for either 1 or 2 h to improve its bioactivity. The effects of applied heat treatment on the crystal structure of TiO2 nanotubes and the nanotopographical features of the surface were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the transition from the initial crystal structure, i.e. anatase, to rutile occurs between 500 and 600 °C and that after 2 h of heat treatment at 600 °C the crystal structure is predominantly rutile. The nanotopographical features of the surface were found to be largely unchanged for heat treatments carried out at 500 °C or below, whereas they were partially or largely disrupted after heat treatment at 600 °C. The possible implications of these findings for the bioactivity of porous titanium structures are discussed.

  18. Burns and fires from non-electric domestic appliances in low and middle income countries Part I. The scope of the problem.

    PubMed

    Peck, Michael D; Kruger, Gerebreg E; van der Merwe, Anna E; Godakumbura, Wijaya; Ahuja, Rajeev B

    2008-05-01

    Severe burn is a major public health issue in developing nations. Although burn and smoke inhalation in 2002 were documented as being responsible for over 322,000 deaths worldwide, this figure is most likely a gross underestimate. The burden of suffering from fire is exceedingly distributed among the poor. A large proportion of burns are related to the nature of domestic appliances that are used for cooking, heating, lighting or all three. We undertook a retrospective review of the literature as well as analyzing our institutional and regional experiences with injuries caused by non-electric domestic appliances. The incidence of injuries is largely associated with the use of stoves and lamps; and from kerosene or petroleum as well as butane, liquid petroleum gas and alcohol. Associated problems include appliance design and construction, fuel combustion and instability, and mechanical inefficiency. Ignorance of safe usage techniques is also contributory. Industry and government regulations and standards are either nonexistent or not adequately enforced. Solving this substantial problem will depend on improved surveillance by means of formal epidemiologic studies, and the contributions and collaboration of international governmental and nongovernmental organizations.

  19. Topology of megagauss magnetic fields and of heat-carrying electrons produced in a high-power laser-solid interaction.

    PubMed

    Lancia, L; Albertazzi, B; Boniface, C; Grisollet, A; Riquier, R; Chaland, F; Le Thanh, K-C; Mellor, Ph; Antici, P; Buffechoux, S; Chen, S N; Doria, D; Nakatsutsumi, M; Peth, C; Swantusch, M; Stardubtsev, M; Palumbo, L; Borghesi, M; Willi, O; Pépin, H; Fuchs, J

    2014-12-01

    The intricate spatial and energy distribution of magnetic fields, self-generated during high power laser irradiation (at Iλ^{2}∼10^{13}-10^{14}  W.cm^{-2}.μm^{2}) of a solid target, and of the heat-carrying electron currents, is studied in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) relevant conditions. This is done by comparing proton radiography measurements of the fields to an improved magnetohydrodynamic description that fully takes into account the nonlocality of the heat transport. We show that, in these conditions, magnetic fields are rapidly advected radially along the target surface and compressed over long time scales into the dense parts of the target. As a consequence, the electrons are weakly magnetized in most parts of the plasma flow, and we observe a reemergence of nonlocality which is a crucial effect for a correct description of the energetics of ICF experiments. PMID:25526131

  20. New recommended heat gains for commercial cooking equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1998-12-31

    Radiant heat gain from cooking equipment can significantly impact the air-conditioning load and/or human comfort in a commercial kitchen. This paper presents and discusses updated heat gain data for several types of commercial cooking equipment based on recent testing by gas and electric utility research organizations. The cooking equipment was tested under exhaust-only, wall-canopy hoods. The fundamentals of appliance heat gain are reviewed and the new data are compared with data published in the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, chapter 26, nonresidential cooling and heating load calculations. These updated data are now incorporated in the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, chapter 28, nonresidential cooling and heating load calculations. The paper also discusses appliance heat gain with respect to sizing air-conditioning systems for commercial kitchens and presents representative radiant factors that may be used to estimate heat gain from other sizes or types of gas and electric cooking equipment when appliance specific heat gain data are not avoidable.

  1. [Development of a prevention of body movement fixation appliance in leg digital subtraction angiography].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Mitsuyoshi; Kato, Kyouichi; Sakiyama, Koushi; Uchiyama, Yushi; Asanuma, Shinichi; Fujimura, Kazumasa; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Yasuo

    2010-01-20

    In the peripheral angiography to evaluate blood flow below the knee levels in patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans, a motion artifact occurs as a result of body movements of a patient in normal fixation. This sometimes makes a correct evaluation difficult. Therefore, we developed a fixed appliance which can restrain body movement without affecting image quality and blood flow in digital subtraction angiography of a leg. The appliance is filled with the styrofoam of 1 mm diameter in a sealed bag, after air is aspirated from inside the bag. The appliance is stiffened to fit the shape of the crus. We measured signal to noise ratio / contrast to noise ratio / a resolution limit by visual evaluation to examine the influence of the image before and after usage of this appliance. In addition, the blood velocity of the dorsalis artery in ultrasound was measured to examine the effect on the blood flow. As a result, the fixed appliance did not affect blood flow in peripheral angiography to evaluate the clinical significance, the usual 5-point evaluate scale was used. The scale was significantly improved (p <0.01) after usage of this appliance. The newly developed fixed appliance for digital subtraction angiography of a leg is useful to avoid motion artifacts in clinical settings. PMID:20145364

  2. Structural conformation and leaching from in vitro aged and retrieved Invisalign appliances.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Susan; Eliades, George; Zinelis, Spiros; Eliades, Theodore; Bradley, T Gerard

    2004-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the structure of Invisalign appliances (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif) after intraoral exposure, and to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the substances leached from the aligners after accelerated in vitro aging. Samples of Invisalign appliances were randomly selected from 10 patients before intraoral placement and after retrieval, and the prepared specimens were subjected to (1) bright-field optical reflection microscopy to study the surface morphology; (2) Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy to characterize the in vivo changes in molecular composition induced on appliance surfaces, (3) scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis to identify the elemental composition of integuments formed on the surface, and (4) Vickers hardness (HV 200) testing. Another set of reference and retrieved appliances was subjected to artificial aging for 2 weeks, and the extracts were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The retrieved appliances demonstrated substantial morphological variation relative to the as-received specimens involving abrasion at the cusp tips, adsorption of integuments, and localized calcification of the precipitated biofilm at stagnation sites. Buccal segments of retrieved appliances showed an increase in hardness, which might be attributed to mastication-induced cold work; however, the clinical implication of this effect on mechanotherapy is unknown. In vitro aged and retrieved appliances were found to leach no traceable amount of substances in an ethanol aging solution.

  3. Sensors Applications, Volume 5, Sensors in Household Appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschulena, Guido; Lahrmann, Andreas

    2003-11-01

    A competent and comprehensive survey of current and future sensors applied in electronic household devices. Engineers and scientists will find here reports of an increase in product safety, efficiency and consumer comfort, coupled with a decrease in power consumption and water/wastewater. The book also looks at the customer appeal of advanced "intelligent" appliances, showing the heightened need for comprehensive information on their potentials and limitations. Taken as a whole, this series covers all major fields of application for commercial sensors, as well as their manufacturing techniques and major types. As such the series does not treat bulk sensors, but rather places strong emphasis on microsensors, microsystems and integrated electronic sensor packages. Each of the individual volumes is tailored to the needs and queries of readers from the relevant branch of industry.

  4. Stochastic Optimal Scheduling of Residential Appliances with Renewable Energy Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hongyu; Pratt, Annabelle; Chakraborty, Sudipta

    2015-07-03

    This paper proposes a stochastic, multi-objective optimization model within a Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework, to determine the optimal operational schedules of residential appliances operating in the presence of renewable energy source (RES). The objective function minimizes the weighted sum of discomfort, energy cost, total and peak electricity consumption, and carbon footprint. A heuristic method is developed for combining different objective components. The proposed stochastic model utilizes Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for representing uncertainties in electricity price, outdoor temperature, RES generation, water usage, and non-controllable loads. The proposed model is solved using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver and numerical results show the validity of the model. Case studies show the benefit of using the proposed optimization model.

  5. Suffer the little children: fixed intraoral habit appliances for treating childhood thumbsucking habits: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicholas L

    2002-11-01

    A critical review of the literature is presented covering the treatment of childhood thumbsucking habits using fixed intraoral habit appliances (hayrake, palatal crib). The habit appliances are classified into type and function. Data is tabulated for key references revealing the fragmented and distorted nature of the literature and its lack of consistency. A chronological approach is presented to confirm the confused and idiosyncratic character of the literature. Information is provided on the early work of Massler and Graber and the paradox of Mack, Korner and Reider. Haryett's seminal studies at the University of Alberta regarding aspects of the treatment used are critically reviewed. Reflections are presented on why Larsson's study, casting doubt on the wisdom of using habit appliances, continues to be ignored. The emergence of the Bluegrass Appliance is discussed in terms of its being a more humane appliance and the seeming reluctance of practitioners to apply it as a kinder form of appliance therapy. Information is reported on the pain and serious injuries inflicted on children by habit appliances. A comparison of the use of appliances in the USA is made with the UK, where fixed habit appliances are not popular. Concludes that fixed intraoral habit appliances are cruel and inflict pain and suffering on children out of all proportion to their necessity. Questions why these appliances continue to be used, implying that it could be a combination of financial inducement, professional insularity and the absence of concerted opposition from behavioural therapists.

  6. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range...

  7. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220 Section 130.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided...

  8. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220 Section 130.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided...

  9. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220 Section 130.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided...

  10. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220 Section 130.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided...

  11. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220 Section 130.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided...

  12. 16 CFR 305.14 - Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy information disclosures for heating... (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Required Disclosures § 305.14 Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment. (a) Required information: Manufacturers and private labelers of central...

  13. 16 CFR 305.14 - Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy information disclosures for heating... (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Required Disclosures § 305.14 Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment. (a) Required information: Manufacturers and private labelers of central...

  14. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range...

  15. [Incisors crossbite correction with spring inclined plane appliance: principles and procedures].

    PubMed

    Suphanthavanich, K; Raungpaka, S

    1990-01-01

    The spring inclined plane is one of the removable appliances that can be used to correct incisors crossbite which is designed for the early treatment period. In order to prevent skeletal malocclusion and reestablish proper muscle balance. The appliance is very simple which composes of clasps on the first molar both sides and spring 0.9 millimetre diameter. This spring was bended as an inclined plane above the lower incisors. The force from this spring will push upper incisors anteriorly. The spring inclined plane is very effective in mixed dentition. Nevertheless this spring is appropriate to use in the patient who can not wear the removeable orthodontic appliance in the upper jaw.

  16. Simulation Analysis of Certain Hydraulic Lifting Appliance under Different Working Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huang; Genfu, Yuan; Xuehui, Chen

    Being typical of mechanical and electronic hydraulics appliance, hydraulic lifting appliance has many working conditions due to its particularities. Properties of hydraulic system decide high efficiency, security as well as stability under different working conditions. Beginning with simulation analysis on hydraulic system of hydraulic lifting appliance under different working conditions, the essay analyzes a certain hydraulic system through which design references can be offered for optimizing hydraulic system properties via hydraulic system force and changes of torque. And then properties of hydraulic system can be improved and a hydraulic system with stable performance can be obtained.

  17. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Zogg, Robert; Goetzler, William; Ahlfeldt, Christopher; Hiraiwa, Hirokazu; Sathe, Amul; Sutherland, Timothy

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  18. Differential expression of IGF family members in heat-stressed embryos produced in vitro from OPU-derived oocytes of Nelore (Bos indicus) and Holstein (Bos taurus) cows.

    PubMed

    Satrapa, R A; Razza, E M; Castilho, A C S; Simões, R A L; Silva, C F; Nabhan, T; Pegorer, M F; Barros, C M

    2013-12-01

    The IGF system is related to embryo quality. We aim to determine the effect of the heat stress on the mRNA expression of IGF1 and IGF2, IGFR1 and IGFR2, IGFBP2 and IGFBP4, and PAPPA in in vitro production (IVP) blastocysts from Nelore and Holstein after ovum pick up (OPU) to better understand the differences between these breeds. Oocytes from four Nelore and seven Holstein were collected in six OPU sessions. Following in vitro maturation and fertilization using six Nelore or Holstein sires, embryos were divided into control (cultured at 39°C) and heat stress (HS; exposed to 41°C for 9 h). Blastocysts were submitted to RNA extraction. The IGF1 expression was higher in blastocysts under HS in both breeds, and the expression of IGFBP2 and IGFBP4 was higher in Holstein blastocysts under HS. The high PAPPA expression and the low expression of IGFBP2 and IGFBP4 are associated with a more efficient degradation of IGFBPs, which results in greater IGF bioavailability in Nelore blastocysts and may contribute to the superior HS tolerance in Nelore, when compared to Holstein.

  19. Surface modification produced by a nitrogen operated plasma focus device: the role of the ion beam in the heating of a substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepone, A.; Kelly, H.; Lamas, D.; Márquez, A.

    1999-04-01

    The role of the nitrogen ion beam generated with a small energy plasma focus (PF) device in the thermal processing of an austenitic stainless steel substrate is discussed. A numerical solution of the heat equation which takes into account the temperature variations of the thermal coefficients of the material is presented. By using several characteristics of the beam determined in previous works, it is found that the energy content of the beam is not enough to promote a strong heating of the outer layers of the substrate, which is required to explain the introduction of foreign particles to depths well beyond the ion range in the material, and also the martensitic transformation of steel up to a depth of ≈0.6 μm found in this work. The surface treatment is thus attributed to a plasma bubble generated by the disruption of the plasma column, and some evidence of its presence is obtained by employing a Faraday cup (FC). When the numerical model is used with an input energy density corresponding to the experimental value, and with a delivery time equal to the temporal width of the bubble, the evolution of the temperature profiles along the substrate depth shows a melting front reaching the proper depth to explain the penetration of Ti and N atoms found in a previous work, and the martensitic transformation depth presented in this work.

  20. Bactericidal activity of juvenile chinook salmon macrophages against Aeromonas salmonicida after exposure to live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum or to soluble proteins produced by R. salmoninarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, D.C.; Congleton, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Macrophages isolated from the anterior kidney of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in 96-well microtiter plates were exposed for 72 h to 0, 105, or 106 live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum cells per well or to 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ??g/mL of R. salmoninarum soluble proteins. After treatment, the bactericidal activity of the macrophages against Aerornonas salmonicida was determined by a colorimetric assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium dye MTT to formazan by viable bacteria. The MTT assay was modified to allow estimation of the percentage of bacteria killed by reference to a standard curve relating the number of bacteria added to microtiter wells to absorbance by formazan at 600 nm. The live and heat-killed R. salmoninarum treatments significantly (P < 0.001) increased killing of A. salmonicida by chinook salmon macrophages. In each of the five trials, significantly (P < 0.05) greater increases in killing occurred after exposure to 105 R. salmoninarum cells than to 106 R. salmoninarum cells per well. In contrast, treatment of macrophages with 10 ??g/mL R. salmoninarum soluble proteins significantly (P < 0.001) decreased killing of A. salmonicida, but treatment with lower doses did not. These results show that the bactericidal activity of chinook salmon macrophages is stimulated by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells at lower dose levels but inhibited by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells or soluble proteins at higher dose levels.

  1. Enhanced energy localization and heating in high contrast ultra-intense laser produced plasmas via novel conical micro-target design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassuchine, J.; d'Humières, E.; Baton, S.; Fuchs, J.; Guillou, P.; Koenig, M.; Kodama, R.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Norimatsu, T.; Batani, D.; Morace, A.; Redaelli, R.; Gremillet, L.; Rousseaux, C.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Santos, J. J.; Adams, J.; Korgan, G.; Malekos, S.; Sentoku, Y.; Cowan, T. E.

    2008-05-01

    We report new experiments showing enhanced laser-target coupling and energy localization using nano-fabricated micro-conical Cu targets performed at the 100 TW CPA laser at LULI. A comparison was made between 1ω (λ = 1.057 μm, I = 1019 W/cm2) and 2ω (λ = 0.53 μm, I = 4-8 × 1018 W/cm2) irradiation to determine the effect of ASE induced preformed plasma filling the cone, using as principal diagnostics 2D Cu Kα imaging (transverse and rear-side), and high-resolution conical crystal spectroscopy of the Cu Kα bands. The 2ω irradiation exhibits laser absorption up to 50 μm deeper into the cone tip (versus at 1 ω), with a commensurately smaller Kα emission zone. Spectroscopy indicates a higher average charge state for the Cu emission at 2ω, with some shots exhibiting up to at least O-like emission. We deduce that micro-cone targets have similar performance in terms of material heating as a 50 μm diameter reduced mass target, despite a 900-fold larger mass. The observed enhancement in energy localization and heating in the cone geometry is supported by 2D collisional PIC simulations which indicate the presence of self-generated resistive magnetic field structures (>= 10 MG) which confine the energetic electrons to the tip region

  2. Correction of class III malocclusion using modified tandem appliance-two case reports.

    PubMed

    Jeevarathan, J; Koora, Kiran; Sudhakar, V; Muthu, M S; Prabhu, Rathna V

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal discrepancies in growing children can have great physical and psychological impact on their appearance. These deformities require orthopedic correction at an appropriate age to avoid future extensive management. Managing a midfacial deficiency or true mandibular prognathism is perhaps the most challenging situation for the clinician. Many orthopedic appliances like chin cup, facemask, and so on have been advocated to correct class III malocclusion. The major problems with these appliances are physical appearance, skin irritation from the anchorage pads and hence, less patient compliance. We present management of class III malocclusion in two children with modified tandem appliance (MTA), which is an intraoral appliance, with no extraoral anchorage, and has better patient compliance and cooperation.

  3. 77 FR 234 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16... (``Appliance Labeling Rule'') AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Extension of comment period. SUMMARY: In a November 28, 2011 Federal Register Notice, the Federal Trade Commission...

  4. 77 FR 72324 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Administrative Review; 2010, 77 FR 61396... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of... rescission of administrative review concerning the countervailing duty order on certain kitchen...

  5. 77 FR 14008 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), and the Buildings Technologies Program Manager... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy....

  6. Anterior crossbite correction in primary and mixed dentition with removable inclined plane (Bruckl appliance).

    PubMed

    Jirgensone, Irena; Liepa, Andra; Abeltins, Andris

    2008-01-01

    Anterior crossbite correction in early mixed dentition is highly recommended as this kind of malocclusion do not diminish with age. Uncorrected anterior crossbite may lead to abnormal wear of the lower incisors, dental compensation of mandibular incisors leading to thinning of labial alveolar plate and/or gingival recession. There are several methods for solving this problem. In this article we would like to describe removable inclined plane. This is a removable simple functional appliance on the lower arch (jaw), which works as inclined plane. One of the advantage of the Bruckl appliance is that it can also be used as retention appliance after active treatment as well as it is possible to add acrylic teeth if necessary. Therefore it can be used as a removable partial denture in lower jaw in case where there is a premature loss of the primary teeth. The use of this appliance is illustrated with three cases.

  7. POSSIBLE ROLE OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN BACK-DRAFTING RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION APPLIANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of a computational sensitivity analysis conducted to identify conditions under which residential active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction might contribute to or create back-drafting of natural draft combustion appliances. Par...

  8. Fixed Appliance with Expansion Screw for the Treatment of Primary Anterior Crossbite.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sanchit; Rao, Ashwin; Chalakkal, Paul; Mony, Saranya

    2016-05-01

    Anterior crossbite occurring during the primary dentition stage needs immediate correction so that functional, aesthetic and skeletal complications may be avoided in the future. This article describes a fixed appliance with an expansion screw that was successfully used for the treatment of primary anterior crossbite. Crossbite correction was achieved in about six weeks. A detailed description with regard to fabrication of the appliance has also been discussed.

  9. Fixed Appliance with Expansion Screw for the Treatment of Primary Anterior Crossbite

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sanchit; Rao, Ashwin; Mony, Saranya

    2016-01-01

    Anterior crossbite occurring during the primary dentition stage needs immediate correction so that functional, aesthetic and skeletal complications may be avoided in the future. This article describes a fixed appliance with an expansion screw that was successfully used for the treatment of primary anterior crossbite. Crossbite correction was achieved in about six weeks. A detailed description with regard to fabrication of the appliance has also been discussed. PMID:27437372

  10. Occlus-o-Guide® versus Andresen activator appliance: neuromuscular evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to assess the muscular variations at the electromyography (EMG) level for the anterior temporalis muscles and masseter muscles during treatment with Occlus-o-Guide® and Andresen activator appliances. Methods Eighty-two patients (35 males and 47 females) aged between 8 and 12 years (mean age, 10.5 ± 0.8 years) participated in the study. Fifty patients underwent treatment with an Occlus-o-Guide® and 32 patients with an Andresen activator. All patients underwent EMG examination using a Freely EMG (De Gotzen, Legnano, Italy) and surface bipolar electrodes when the appliances were worn for the first time (T0), and after 6 months (T1) and after 12 months (T2) of appliance use. Results Statistical analysis showed that both at T0 and T2, the percent overlapping coefficient (POC) of the anterior temporalis muscles was not statistically different between the appliance groups. At T0, the POC of the masseter muscles was significantly lower for the Andresen appliance as compared to the Occlus-o-Guide® (p = 0.02), while at T2 this significance was lost. Conclusions At insertion of an appliance, all patients show neuromuscular balance that does not correspond to orthognathic occlusion. Both appliances work by creating muscular imbalance. With the appliances in situ, EMG responses were generally analogous for the Occlus-o-Guide® and the Andresen activator; however, the imbalance was greater and the recovery of the orthological muscular balance was slower in patients under treatment with the Andresen activator as compared to those with the Occlus-o-Guide®. PMID:24325935

  11. [Clinical examination of the effect of the "Corega Junior" cleaning tablets for removable orthodontic appliances].

    PubMed

    Kaán, M; Fejérdy, P; Kaán, M; Barna, Z; Dénes, Z

    1997-09-01

    According to the authors' macroscopic and microbiological examinations Corega Junior prevents plaque formation on the orthodontic appliances and the establishment and multiplication of microorganisms and therefore has a favourable effect to the oral flora and last but not least to the general state of health of the patients. The usage of the Corega Junior cleaning tablets incites young people for the regular use of orthodontic appliances and indirectly for mouth care.

  12. Fixed Appliance with Expansion Screw for the Treatment of Primary Anterior Crossbite.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sanchit; Rao, Ashwin; Chalakkal, Paul; Mony, Saranya

    2016-05-01

    Anterior crossbite occurring during the primary dentition stage needs immediate correction so that functional, aesthetic and skeletal complications may be avoided in the future. This article describes a fixed appliance with an expansion screw that was successfully used for the treatment of primary anterior crossbite. Crossbite correction was achieved in about six weeks. A detailed description with regard to fabrication of the appliance has also been discussed. PMID:27437372

  13. The Sagnac-configured fiber optic calorimeter: An investigation of an improved non-destructive methodology for determining the thermal power output of heat-producing nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, Stephen Carlton

    An essential component in an ever-expanding global nuclear economy is the nondestructive assay (NDA) of nuclear materials. Accurate accounting of these materials helps to insure the safe handling and disposal of them and the accurate monitoring of these materials can help prevent their diversion. A particularly useful and important NDA technique has proven to be isothermal calorimetry. With state-of-the-art calorimeters, heat rates as low as a few milliwatts can be measured, which correspond to approximately one gram of plutonium or one milligram of tritium; two materials of particular interest. In addition, calorimetry is relatively insensitive to the matrix of the sample. This work reports on the development of a calorimeter technique based on fiber optics, which can greatly increase the sensitivity of the calorimeter compared with present day devices. Specifically, this device uses an optical fiber configuration based on the Sagnac interferometer. Fundamentally, the optical fiber is replacing the resistive wire used in conventional calorimeters. The optical fiber is wrapped around two "thermels;" a reference and a sample thermel; the thermal sample to be measured is placed in the sample thermel. The light within the optical fiber of the sample arm experiences a change in phase due to the change in the index of refraction caused by the thermal load. When this light mixes with the light from the reference arm, a change in the light intensity results. An electro-optic receiver converts the time-varying light intensity to a time-varying voltage output. It is this voltage output that is stored and analyzed. A prototype fiber calorimeter has been built and proved capable of measuring heat loads in the microwatt regime. This sensitivity represents a factor of a one thousand-fold improvement over conventional calorimeters. This would allow plutonium samples as small as one milligram to be measured and microgram quantities of tritium. In addition, gram quantities of 93

  14. Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak Load Shifting & Spinning Reserves: Cost Benefit Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.

    2010-12-01

    Abstract In this paper, we present the results of an analytical cost-benefit study of residential smart appliances in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the EPA and DOE to provide a 5% credit to meet ENERGY STAR eligibility criteria for products that meet the definition of a smart appliance. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the challenges associated with increased electricity demand, and increased penetration of renewable sources of power. Our analytical model utilizes current annual appliance electricity consumption data, and estimates what the wholesale grid operating cost savings would be if some percentage of appliance loads were shifted away from peak hours to run during off-peak hours, and appliance loads serve power system balancing needs such as spinning reserves that would otherwise have to be provided by generators. Historical wholesale market clearing prices (location marginal and spinning reserve) from major wholesale power markets in the United States are used to estimate savings. The savings are then compared with the five percent credit, to determine if the savings in grid operating costs (benefits) are at least as high as the credit (cost) if not higher.

  15. Torque control during lingual anterior retraction without posterior appliances

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Sung-Seo; Sung, Sang-Jin; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Chun, Yun-Sic; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Nelson, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the factors that affect torque control during anterior retraction when utilizing the C-retractor with a palatal miniplate as an exclusive source of anchorage without posterior appliances. Methods The C-retractor was modeled using a 3-dimensional beam element (0.9-mm-diameter stainless-steel wire) attached to mesh bonding pads. Various vertical heights and 2 attachment positions for the lingual anterior retraction hooks (LARHs) were evaluated. A force of 200 g was applied from each side hook of the miniplate to the splinted segment of 6 or 8 anterior teeth. Results During anterior retraction, an increase in the LARH vertical height increased the amount of lingual root torque and intrusion of the incisors. In particular, with increasing vertical height, the tooth displacement pattern changed from controlled tipping to bodily displacement and then to lingual root displacement. The effects were enhanced when the LARH was located between the central and lateral incisors, as compared to when the LARH was located between the lateral incisors and canines. Conclusions Three-dimensional lingual anterior retraction of the 6 or 8 anterior teeth can be accomplished using the palatal miniplate as the only anchorage source. Using LARHs at different heights or positions affects the quality of torque and intrusion. PMID:23502971

  16. The Effectiveness and Clinical Usability of a Handheld Information Appliance

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical environments are complex, stressful, and safety critical—heightening the demand for technological solutions that will help clinicians manage health information efficiently and safely. The industry has responded by creating numerous, increasingly compact and powerful health IT devices that fit in a pocket, hook to a belt, attach to eyeglasses, or wheel around on a cart. Untethering a provider from a physical “place” with compact, mobile technology while delivering the right information at the right time and at the right location are generally welcomed in clinical environments. These developments however, must be looked at ecumenically. The cognitive load of clinicians who are occupied with managing or operating several different devices during the process of a patient encounter is increased, and we know from decades of research that cognitive overload frequently leads to error. “Technology crowding,” enhanced by the plethora of mobile health IT, can actually become an additional millstone for busy clinicians. This study was designed to gain a deeper understanding of clinicians' interactions with a mobile clinical computing appliance (Motion Computing C5) designed to consolidate numerous technological functions into an all-in-one device. Features of usability and comparisons to current methods of documentation and task performance were undertaken and results are described. PMID:22548159

  17. Analysis and design of multiple-beam appliances.

    PubMed

    Koenig, H A; Burstone, C J; Conant, R J; Haberstock, D

    1984-11-01

    A new approach for the analysis of multiple-beam structures, such as headgear bows, is developed for beams which contain arbitrary curvatures, twists, and material properties. The generalized transfer matrix of a single-beam analysis is converted to a stiffness matrix and inserted into a global matrix which describes the entire system. The effect of inner bow wire size (0.044 inch and 0.051 inch) on the force system is demonstrated. The inner bow with the larger cross section shows only a slight (not clinically significant) reduction in rotational moment and buccal force applied because of its greater ability to resist deformation during the loading process. Small amounts of tooth and/or tube rotations ("play") result in a significant reduction of the crown rotational moment. With increasing rotation of the tube to the inner bow, the high lateral forces and large moments found about the long axis of the teeth are found to reduce. Symmetrical headgears are chosen to illustrate the analysis and to indicate the manner in which this approach may be used to study and design similar orthodontic appliances.

  18. Dental enamel around fixed orthodontic appliances after fluoride varnish application.

    PubMed

    Gontijo, Leonardo; Cruz, Roberval de Almeida; Brandão, Paulo Roberto Gomes

    2007-01-01

    Poor oral hygiene has been considered one of the main problems routinely faced in the orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic appliance creates an environment that provides mineral loss from the dental enamel. Such condition is clinically seen as white spot lesions and cavitations in the most severe cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a fluoride varnish application as a caries prevention method for clinical orthodontics. The experiment analyzed dental enamel adjacent to orthodontics accessories after treatment. In addition, it was observed the calcium, phosphorus and fluoride contents on enamel treated with a fluoride varnish. The results showed that fluoride varnish application is a simple and fast technique that could be useful in preventing enamel demineralization associated to orthodontic treatment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed significant amount of calcium fluoride-like material deposited on enamel and energy dispersive x-ray analysis demonstrated a large incorporation of calcium and fluoride to the enamel of the treated specimens. It was concluded that fluoride varnish could indeed be considered an efficient preventive method to enhance enamel resistance against the cariogenic challenges during orthodontic therapy.

  19. Sleep apnea and occupational accidents: Are oral appliances the solution?

    PubMed Central

    Rabelo Guimarães, Maria De Lourdes; Hermont, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental practitioners have a key role in the quality of life and prevention of occupational accidents of workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Aim: The aim of this study was to review the impact of OSAS, the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy, and the evidence regarding the use of oral appliances (OA) on the health and safety of workers. Materials and Methods: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed), Lilacs and Sci ELO. Articles published from January 1980 to June 2014 were included. Results: The research retrieved 2188 articles and 99 met the inclusion criteria. An increase in occupational accidents due to reduced vigilance and attention in snorers and patients with OSAS was observed. Such involvements were related to excessive daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive function impairments. The use of OA are less effective when compared with CPAP, but the results related to excessive sleepiness and cognitive performance showed improvements similar to CPAP. Treatments with OA showed greater patient compliance than the CPAP therapy. Conclusion: OSAS is a prevalent disorder among workers, leads to increased risk of occupational accidents, and has a significant impact on the economy. The CPAP therapy reduces the risk of occupational accidents. The OA can improve the work performance; but there is no scientific evidence associating its use with occupational accidents reduction. Future research should focus on determining the cost-effectiveness of OA as well as its influence and efficacy in preventing occupational accidents. PMID:25568596

  20. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 1, appendix A: Bibliography. [manned space shuttle orbiter environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A review of crew appliance related literature was made to provide background engineering information for development of conceptual appliance systems for the shuttle orbiter and the modular space station. From this review, a file containing abstracts of 299 appliance-related documents coded according to subject was developed along with a computerized bibliography of 682 references. Trade studies were conducted using information from these references to determine the optimum concepts to satisfy the shuttle and space station mission requirements. An appliance system was devised for each vehicle which has minimum impact to the respective environmental control system with the smallest possible weight, volume, and electrical penalty. Engineering parameters for each appliance concept considered are presented along with the total thermal and electrical loads and weight and volume penalties for each of the optimized appliance systems.