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Sample records for heat production based

  1. Evaluating ventilation rates based on new heat and moisture production data for swine production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat and moisture production (HMP) rates of animals are used for calculation of ventilation rate (VR) in animal housing. New swine HMP data revealed considerable differences from previously reported data. This project determined new design VR and evaluated differences from previously recommended VRs...

  2. Production of Heat Resistant Composite based on Siloxane Elastomer and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessonov, I. V.; Karelina, N. V.; Kopitsyna, M. N.; Morozov, A. S.; Reznik, S. V.; Skidchenko, V. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Development of a new generation of composite with unique thermal properties is an important task in the fields of science and technology where material is operated at high temperatures and exposure to a short-wave radiation. Recent studies show that carbon nanomaterials (fullerenes and carbon nanotubes) could improve the thermal, radiation and thermal-oxidative stability of the polymer matrix. In this article the development of a new heat resistant composite based on elastomer and carbon nanotubes (CNT) was performed and physicochemical properties of final product were evaluated.

  3. PCR-SSCP-based reconstruction of the original fungal flora of heat-processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Dorn-In, Samart; Hölzel, Christina S; Janke, Tobias; Schwaiger, Karin; Balsliemke, Joachim; Bauer, Johann

    2013-03-01

    Food processing of spoiled meat is prohibited by law, since it is a deception and does not comply with food safety aspects. In general, spoilage of meat is mostly caused by bacteria. However, a high contamination level of fungi could be also found in some meat or meat products with certain preserving conditions. In case that unhygienic meat is used to produce heat processed products, the microorganisms will be deactivated by heat, so that they cannot be detected by a standard cultivation method. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and apply a molecular biological method--polymerase chain reaction and single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP)--to reconstruct the original fungal flora of heat processed meat. Twenty primer pairs were tested for their specificity for fungal DNA. Since none of them fully complied with all study criteria (such as high specificity and sensitivity for fungal DNA; suitability of the products for PCR-SSCP) in the matrix "meat", we designed a new reverse primer, ITS5.8R. The primer pair ITS1/ITS5.8R amplified DNA from all tested fungal species, but not DNA from meat-producing animals or from ingredients of plant origin (spices). For the final test, 32 DNA bands in acrylamide gel from 15 meat products and 1 soy sauce were sequenced-all originating from fungal species, which were, in other studies, reported to contaminate meat e.g. Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida rugosa, C. tropicalis, C. zeylanoides, Eurotium amstelodami and Pichia membranifaciens, and/or spices such as Botrytis aclada, Guignardia mangiferae, Itersonilia perplexans, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Lewia infectoria, Neofusicoccum parvum and Pleospora herbarum. This confirms the suitability of PCR-SSCP to specifically detect fungal DNA in heat processed meat products, and thus provides an overview of fungal species contaminating raw material such as meat and spices.

  4. Toward an Improved Understanding of the Tropical Energy Budget Using TRMM-based Atmospheric Radiative Heating Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Ecuyer, T.; McGarragh, G.; Ellis, T.; Stephens, G.; Olson, W.; Grecu, M.; Shie, C.; Jiang, X.; Waliser, D.; Li, J.; Tian, B.

    2008-05-01

    It is widely recognized that clouds and precipitation exert a profound influence on the propagation of radiation through the Earth's atmosphere. In fact, feedbacks between clouds, radiation, and precipitation represent one of the most important unresolved factors inhibiting our ability to predict the consequences of global climate change. Since its launch in late 1997, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has collected more than a decade of rainfall measurements that now form the gold standard of satellite-based precipitation estimates. Although not as widely advertised, the instruments aboard TRMM are also well-suited to the problem of characterizing the distribution of atmospheric heating in the tropics and a series of algorithms have recently been developed for estimating profiles of radiative and latent heating from these measurements. This presentation will describe a new multi-sensor tropical radiative heating product derived primarily from TRMM observations. Extensive evaluation of the products using a combination of ground and satellite-based observations is used to place the dataset in the context of existing techniques for quantifying atmospheric radiative heating. Highlights of several recent applications of the dataset will be presented that illustrate its utility for observation-based analysis of energy and water cycle variability on seasonal to inter-annual timescales and evaluating the representation of these processes in numerical models. Emphasis will be placed on the problem of understanding the impacts of clouds and precipitation on atmospheric heating on large spatial scales, one of the primary benefits of satellite observations like those provided by TRMM.

  5. Saturn base heating handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, C. R.; Bender, R. L.; Bevill, R. L.; Reardon, J.; Hartley, L.

    1972-01-01

    A handbook containing a summary of model and flight test base heating data from the S-1, S-1B, S-4, S-1C, and S-2 stages is presented. A review of the available prediction methods is included. Experimental data are provided to make the handbook a single source of Saturn base heating data which can be used for preliminary base heating design predictions of launch vehicles.

  6. Lunar base heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Tetreault, R.; Fischbach, D.; Walker, D.

    1994-01-01

    A heat pump is a device which elevates the temperature of a heat flow by a means of an energy input. By doing this, the heat pump can cause heat to transfer faster from a warm region to a cool region, or it can cause heat to flow from a cool region to a warmer region. The second case is the one which finds vast commercial applications such as air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration. Aerospace applications of heat pumps include both cases. The NASA Johnson Space Center is currently developing a Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF, previously SIRF) to provide system-level integration, operational test experience, and performance data that will enable NASA to develop flight-certified hardware for future planetary missions. A high lift heat pump is a significant part of the TCS hardware development associated with the LSSIF. The high lift heat pump program discussed here is being performed in three phases. In Phase 1, the objective is to develop heat pump concepts for a lunar base, a lunar lander, and for a ground development unit for the SIRF. In Phase 2, the design of the SIRF ground test unit is being performed, including identification and evaluation of safety and reliability issues. In Phase 3, the SIRF unit will be manufactured, tested, and delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  7. Supravital energy production in early post-mortem phase - estimate based on heat loss due to radiation and natural convection.

    PubMed

    Mall, Gita; Hubig, Michael; Beier, Gundolf; Büttner, Andreas; Eisenmenger, Wolfgang

    2002-06-01

    The temperature-based determination of the time since death in the early post-mortem (pm) period plays an important role in medico-legal practice. In contrast to the common opinion according to which convection and conduction are mainly responsible for post-mortem heat loss, a considerable part of energy is emitted by thermal radiation. The present paper concentrates on the heat loss due to radiation and natural convection. Since both heat transfer mechanisms depend on the temperature gradient between skin and environment, the skin temperature was measured in corpses of different constitution (lean, medium and obese) and its decrease fitted by a single-exponential model. Heat loss due to radiation was calculated according to the non-linearized form of the law of Stefan and Boltzmann, heat loss due to natural convection according to the semi-empirical thermodynamic laws; the shape of the body in supine position was approximated to a semi-cylinder of finite length. The power due to radiation ranged between 386kJ/h (lean) and 550kJ/h (obese), that due to natural convection between 307kJ/h (lean) and 429kJ/h (obese) initially. Cumulative energy loss amounted to 2167kJ (lean) and 4239kJ (obese) by radiation and 1485kJ (lean) and 2922kJ (obese) by natural convection up to 20h pm. The energy loss due to radiation plus natural convection initially exceeded the energy loss due the decrease of the energy content of the body (mass x heat capacity x temperature decrease). This surplus can be explained only by exothermal processes in the phase of intermediary life and directly provides lower bounds for supravital energy production. Cumulative supravital energy ranges between 1139kJ up to 5h pm in the lean and 2516kJ up to 10h pm in the obese corpses. The courses of supravital energies and powers are presented as functions of time. Under standard conditions like still air (no forced convection) and insulating ground (little conductive heat transfer), the lower bounds represent

  8. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  9. Universal constant for heat production in protists

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew D.; Völker, Jens; Moeller, Holly V.; Laws, Edward; Breslauer, Kenneth J.; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2009-01-01

    Using a high sensitivity differential scanning calorimeter in isothermal mode, we directly measured heat production in eukaryotic protists from 5 phyla spanning over 5 orders of magnitude in carbon biomass and 8 orders of magnitude in cell volume. Our results reveal that metabolic heat production normalized to cell mass is virtually constant in these organisms, with a median of 0.037 pW pg C−1 (95% confidence interval = 0.022–0.061 pW pg C−1) at 5 °C. Contrary to allometric models, the relationship between heat production and cell carbon content or surface area is isometric (scaling exponents, 1.056 and 1.057, respectively). That heat production per unit cell surface area is constant suggests that heat flux through the cell surface is effectively instantaneous, and hence that cells are isothermal with their environment. The results further suggest that allometric models of metabolism based on metazoans are not applicable to protists, and that the underlying metabolic processes in the latter polyphyletic group are highly constrained by evolutionary selection. We propose that the evolutionary constraint leading to a universally constant heat production in single-celled eukaryotes is related to cytoplasmic packaging of organelles and surface area to volume relationships controlling diffusion of resources to these organelles. PMID:19346469

  10. Metabolic heat production and evaporation of poultry.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Sheila T; Maia, Alex S C; Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Nascimento, Carolina C N

    2017-05-03

    Accurate measurements of gas exchange between an animal and its environment is critical in determining metabolic heat production and respiratory functions of broilers. Information on non-invasive methods to measure gas exchange of broiler chicks and chickens under uncontrolled environmental conditions is lacking in the literature. The aims of this study were: (1) to develop an indirect calorimetric system including a hood that allows gas exchange for chickens, (2) to measure gas exchange and respiratory functions (respiration rate, ventilation rate, and tidal volume) of broiler chickens weighing greater than 250 g, and (3) to calculate heat production and respiratory evaporation of the birds based on measured gas and vapor exchanges. We conducted two trials. The first trial involved 6 broiler chicks evaluated for 6 days in 6 different schedules (6 × 6 Latin square). The chicks were kept inside a heat exchanger with a continuous air flow of 150 mL min-1. The second trial involved 12 birds evaluated for 12 days in 12 different schedules (12 × 12 Latin square). Metabolic heat production and evaporation were influenced by live weight of chicks, varying between evaluation days (P < 0.05). The respiratory functions (tidal volume, ventilation rate, and respiratory rate) varied between days, and were strongly influenced by live weight of the broilers (P < 0.05). © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Development of rapid gas heating process for semifinished steel products

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, L.K. ); Chan, I.S. ); Nelson, J.G. )

    1994-09-01

    The metal heating industry associates quality and high efficiency with electrical induction heating. The ability of induction to rapidly heat product has been a key difference between electrical and combustion heating methods. Conventional gas-fired furnaces rely on radiation from refractory structures to transfer heat to the product. As the metal approaches its target temperature, the rate of heat transfer flows significantly because the temperature difference between the metal and refractory is small. The heating rates of conventional furnaces are typically below those achieved with induction. Despite this, conventional gas-fired furnaces remain the mainstay of the metals industry because of lower capital and operating costs, and greater operating flexibility and reliability than induction systems. Today, there exists a gas-based rapid heating process, Rapidfire, that is capable of achieving considerably higher heating rates than conventional furnaces. Oxygen natural gas fired rapid heating has been developed by Air Products and Chemicals with funding from the Gas Research Institute. This technology is able to provide the end user with heating capabilities similar to induction, but with the flexibility and operating costs typically associated with gas-fired systems. A novel oxygen-natural gas based, rapid heating technology, Rapidfire, has been developed capable of achieving five to six times higher heating rates (200 to 400 F/min for 3 to 4-in. diameter bars) than conventional combustion processes. Anticipated applications include forging, transfer bar edge heating, bar/slab preheating and direct rolling (eg, 2-in. thin cast slabs).

  12. Cerebral Metabolism during Cord Occlusion and Hypoxia in the Fetal Sheep: A Novel Method of Continuous Measurement Based on Heat Production

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Christian J; Blood, Arlin B; Power, Gordon G

    2003-01-01

    This study was undertaken to validate a new method of measuring cerebral metabolic rate in the fetal sheep based on heat production in a local region of the brain. Heat production was compared to oxygen use in 20 near-term fetuses during basal conditions, moderate hypoxia and cord occlusion. Thermocouples were placed to measure core and brain temperature and a composite probe placed in the parietal cortex to measure changes in cortical blood flow (CBF) using laser Doppler flowmetry and tissue PO2 using fluorescent decay. Catheters were inserted in a brachiocephalic artery and sagittal sinus for blood sampling. With moderate hypoxia, induced by administering 10−12 % oxygen to the ewes, fetal arterial PO2 declined from 23 ± 1 to 11 ± 1 Torr and brain tissue PO2 fell from 7.6± 0.7 to a nadir of 0.8 ± 0.4 Torr, while CBF increased to 139 ± 5 % of baseline. Cortical heat production, calculated as the product of CBF, the temperature gain from artery to brain tissue, and the specific heat of blood, decreased by 45 ± 11 % in parallel to similar declines in oxygen uptake. With severe asphyxia induced by complete cord occlusion for 10 min, fetal arterial PO2 declined from 23 ± 1 to 9 ± 2 Torr and brain tissue PO2 fell from 7.0 ± 0.7 to essentially 0 Torr while CBF decreased 40 ± 5 %. Cortical heat production decreased by 78 ± 6 % while oxygen use declined by 90 ± 3 %. Glucose uptake increased significantly relative to oxygen use and lactate concentration increased in sagittal sinus blood. We conclude that local measurements of heat production in the brain provide a useful index of overall metabolic rate, closely reflecting oxygen use in moderate hypoxia and indicating a significant contribution from anaerobic metabolism during severe asphyxia. PMID:12878759

  13. Heat production due to intracellular killing activity.

    PubMed

    Hayatsu, H; Masuda, S; Miyamae, T; Yamamura, M

    1990-09-01

    Using Saccharomyces ceravisiae, Candida albicans and Stapylococcus aureus, heat production during phagocytosis was measured in U937 cells which are capable of differentiating to monocytic phagocytes. No increase in heat production of non-differentiated U937 was observed since they were not phagocytic cells. However after differentiation to monocytic phagocytes by lymphokine, U937 cells produced a remarkable amount of heat during phagocytosis. Although Ehrlich ascites tumor cells sensitized with antibody were capable of engulfing S. aureus, no increase in heat nor in superoxide anion production during phagocytosis was detected. It was also found that no heat increase occurred in neutrophils from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). It can thus be concluded that the heat production during phagocytosis is due to the intercellular killing process of phagocytic cells.

  14. Constraints on Crustal Heat Production from Heat Flow Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, C.; Mareschal, J.-C.

    2003-12-01

    The continental crust is an important repository of highly incompatible elements such as uranium and thorium. Exactly how much it contains is a key issue for the thermal regime of continents and for understanding how the Earth's mantle has evolved through geological time due to crust extraction. Recent estimates of the average uranium, thorium, and potassium concentrations in the continental crust vary by almost a factor of 2 (Wedepohl, 1995;Rudnick and Fountain, 1995; Taylor and McLennan, 1995; see also Chapter 3.01). These estimates are based on different assumptions regarding crustal structure and rely on different types of crustal samples, ranging from xenoliths to shales. They require an extrapolation in scale from tiny specimens to the whole crust of a geological province. Uranium and thorium tend to be located in accessory minerals and on grain boundaries, which are not related simply to bulk chemical composition. Thus, their concentrations vary on the scale of a petrological thin section, a hand sample, an outcrop, and a whole massif. In a geological province, abundant rocks such as gneisses and metasedimentary rocks are usually under-studied because of their complex origin and metamorphic history. A final difficulty is to evaluate the composition of intermediate and lower crustal levels, which are as heterogeneous as the shallow ones (e.g., Fountain and Salisbury, 1981; Clowes et al., 1992).Independent estimates of the amount of uranium and thorium in the continental crust can be obtained from heat flow data. The energy produced by the decay of these radioactive elements accounts for a large fraction of the heat flow at the surface of continents (Birch, 1954; Wasserburg et al., 1964; Clark and Ringwood, 1964; Sclater et al., 1980; Taylor and McLennan, 1995). This may be the only case where geophysical data bear directly on geochemical budgets. Since the mid-1970s, there has been much progress in our understanding of continental heat flow. The relationship

  15. Fractal behavior in continental crustal heat production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedanti, N.; Srivastava, R. P.; Pandey, O. P.; Dimri, V. P.

    2011-02-01

    The distribution of crustal heat production, which is the most important component in the elucidation of continental thermal structure, still remains a theoretical assumption. In general the heat production values must decrease with depth, but the form of decrease of heat production in the crust is not well understood. The commonly used heat production models are: "block model", in which heat production is constant from the surface to a given depth and the "exponential model", in which heat production diminishes as an exponential function of depth. The exponential model is more widely used wherein sources of the errors are heterogeneity of rock and long wavelength changes due to changes in lithology and tectonic elements, and as such exponential distribution does not work satisfactorily for the entire crust. In the present study, we analyze for the first time, deep crustal heat production data of six global areas namely Dharwar craton (India), Kaapvaal craton (South Africa), Baltic shield (Kola, Russia), Hidaka metamorphic belt (Japan), Nissho pluton (Japan) and Continental Deep Drilling site (KTB, Germany). The power spectrum of all the studied data sets exhibits power law behaviour. This would mean slower decay of heat production with depth, which conforms to the known geologic composition of the crust. Minimum value of the scaling exponent has been found for the KTB borehole, which is apparently related to higher heat production of gneisses, however for other study areas, scaling exponent is almost similar. We also found that the lower values of scaling exponents are related to higher heat production in the crust as is the case in KTB. Present finding has a direct relevance in computation of temperature-depth profiles in continental regions.

  16. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

    1986-10-14

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

  17. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, William R.; Cassano, Anthony A.; Dunbobbin, Brian R.; Rao, Pradip; Erickson, Donald C.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange.

  18. Heating production fluids in a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Orrego, Yamila; Jankowski, Todd A.

    2016-07-12

    A method for heating a production fluid in a wellbore. The method can include heating, using a packer fluid, a working fluid flowing through a first medium disposed in a first section of the wellbore, where the first medium transfers heat from the packer fluid to the working fluid. The method can also include circulating the working fluid into a second section of the wellbore through a second medium, where the second medium transfers heat from the working fluid to the production fluid. The method can further include returning the working fluid to the first section of the wellbore through the first medium.

  19. Heat and moisture production of modern swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The heat and moisture production (HP and MP) values that are currently published in the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standards are from data collected in either the 1970’s (nursery piglets) or the 1950’s (growing-finishing pigs). This series of ...

  20. Impact of Heat Stress on Poultry Production.

    PubMed

    Lara, Lucas J; Rostagno, Marcos H

    2013-04-24

    Understanding and controlling environmental conditions is crucial to successful poultry production and welfare. Heat stress is one of the most important environmental stressors challenging poultry production worldwide. The detrimental effects of heat stress on broilers and laying hens range from reduced growth and egg production to decreased poultry and egg quality and safety. Moreover, the negative impact of heat stress on poultry welfare has recently attracted increasing public awareness and concern. Much information has been published on the effects of heat stress on productivity and immune response in poultry. However, our knowledge of basic mechanisms associated to the reported effects, as well as related to poultry behavior and welfare under heat stress conditions is in fact scarce. Intervention strategies to deal with heat stress conditions have been the focus of many published studies. Nevertheless, effectiveness of most of the interventions has been variable or inconsistent. This review focuses on the scientific evidence available on the importance and impact of heat stress in poultry production, with emphasis on broilers and laying hens.

  1. Radiogenic heat production in the continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, Claude; Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Iarotsky, Lidia

    2016-10-01

    The thermal structure and evolution of continents depend strongly on the amount and distribution of radioactive heat sources in the crust. Determining the contribution of crustal rocks beneath a superficial layer is a major challenge because heat production depends weakly on major element composition and physical properties such as seismic wavespeed and density. Enriched granitic intrusives that lie at the current erosion level have a large impact on the surface heat flux but little influence on temperatures in the deep crust. Many lower crustal rocks that are poor in heat producing elements are restites from ancient orogenic events, implying that enrichment of the upper crust was achieved at the expense of deeper crustal levels. For the same total heat production, concentrating heat sources in an upper layer acts to reduce temperatures in the lower crust, thereby allowing stabilization of the crust. The present-day structure of the crust is a consequence of orogeny and should not be adopted for thermal models of the orogenic event itself. This review summarizes information extracted from large data sets on heat flow and heat production and provides estimates of crustal stratification and heat production in several geological provinces. Analysis of global and regional data sets reveals the absence of a positive correlation between surface heat flow and crustal thickness, showing that the average crustal heat production is not constant. Differences of heat flow between geological provinces are due in large part to changes of crustal structure and bulk composition. Collating values of the bulk crustal heat production in a few age intervals reveals a clear trend of decrease with increasing age. This trend can be accounted for by radioactive decay, indicating that thermal conditions at the time of crustal stabilization have not changed significantly. For the average crustal thickness of 40 km, Moho temperatures are near solidus values at the time of stabilization

  2. A Global compilation of Heat Production in Granitic Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsen, Kiki; Sørensen, Nanna K.; Nielsen, Louise S. K.; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina M.

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of the heat production in the crust is important for understanding the energy balance in Earth. It is assumed that the crust produces a substantial part of the heat in Earth, but its proportion in comparison to the mantle and the contribution from core solidification is not well known. Knowledge of the crustal heat production is required for assessing the mantle heat flow at the crust-mantle interface. Granites probably are the main heat producing rock types in the crust, and therefore their heat production is of crucial importance for understanding Earth heat balance. As part of a B.Sc. thesis study we have compiled a new database based on published values of heat production in various types of granites. The database has about 500 entries for concentrations of U, Th, and K and the total heat generation in different continental regions. The database also includes information on crustal age and the emplacement age of granites, where available. Some of the main conclusions that may be drawn from analyses of this new database are: • Distribution of heat production values is narrow in Archean-early Proterozoic granites but very broad in middle-late Proterozoic granites. • We observe no correlation between granite type and heat production. • Some correlation may be inferred between age and heat production - heat production is relatively low in Archaean-early Proterozoic granites. • Proterozoic granites are dominated by A-type which have high heat production; the I-type Archean granitic rocks seem to have the highest Th/U ratio. • The Th/U ratio is supposed to be 3.7-4.0 based on relative time constants. This is in general correct with a global average value of 3.7. However, it is ca. 3.8 for Phanerozoic and Archaean-early Proterozoic granites and 3.3 for middle-late Proterozoic granites. We speculate if this variation may be caused by major plate reorganization or perhaps by change in global plate tectonic style?

  3. New industrial heat pump applications to phosphate fertilizer production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    In this study Process Integration techniques based on Pinch Technology have been applied to Chevron's fertilizer complex in Rock Springs, Wyoming. The objectives of the study were to: identify heat pump opportunities and to determine the cost effectiveness of heat pumping compared to other process improvements. Significance of this Work Chevron's fertilizer complex is an example of an exothermic process. The sulfuric acid plant produces more heat than is needed for the rest of the site. The complex has, therefore, no need for a heating utility. The heat created in the sulfuric acid plant is used to produce high pressure steam, which is let down through a turbo generator satisfying most of the site's electrical needs. This type of process would normally not be considered for heat pumping because there is no heating utility load to reduce. However, reducing the requirements for extraction steam will liberate more steam for power generation. Heat recovery and heat pumping, therefore, have the unusual effect of an increase in electricity production, resulting in a reduction in electricity import, rather than a reduction in fuel consumption. Heat recovery opportunities show promise at both the sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid plants. No economically attractive opportunities were found for heat pumps in the process units when they were considered individually; however, the study identified that significant energy savings can be achieved by heat integration between the sulfuric acid plant and the phosphoric acid plant. 16 figs.

  4. Arkoma exploration heats production builds

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.

    1991-01-21

    This paper reports that exploratory drilling continues with fervor to Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle targets, especially in Arkansas. Pennsylvanian zones continue to yield significant gas discoveries. Gas production from Arkoma basin counties in both states has been rising and stands to climb even further with startup of several new pipelines, assuming gas prices and takes hold up.

  5. Future crop production threatened by extreme heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Stefan; Ewert, Frank

    2014-04-01

    Heat is considered to be a major stress limiting crop growth and yields. While important findings on the impact of heat on crop yield have been made based on experiments in controlled environments, little is known about the effects under field conditions at larger scales. The study of Deryng et al (2014 Global crop yield response to extreme heat stress under multiple climate change futures Environ. Res. Lett. 9 034011), analysing the impact of heat stress on maize, spring wheat and soya bean under climate change, represents an important contribution to this emerging research field. Uncertainties in the occurrence of heat stress under field conditions, plant responses to heat and appropriate adaptation measures still need further investigation.

  6. Radiogenic heat production, thermal regime and evolution of continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Jaupart, Claude

    2013-12-01

    Heat flow and heat production data complement seismic information and provide strong constraints on crustal composition, thickness and evolution. They have helped understand the nature of the Mohorovicic discontinuity and the variations in seismic velocities below the Moho. Notably, heat flow studies have delineated the vertical distribution of heat producing elements throughout the crust and in the upper most mantle lithosphere. Analysis of global data sets on heat flow and crustal thickness demonstrate that there is no correlation between these two variables. This is due to the large spatial variations in crustal composition and heat production that exist within a single geological province. For a given crustal thickness, the Moho temperature varies within a wide range (≈ 300 K) depending on surface heat flux and crustal heat production. Thus one cannot use generic models based on a “type” crustal column to calculate crustal geotherms. In stable regions, lower crustal temperatures depend on the amount and vertical distribution of heat producing elements in the crust. These temperatures determine the conditions of crustal stability and impose a limit on the maximum thickness of a stabilized crust.

  7. Long Term Thermal Stability In Air Of Ionic Liquid Based Alternative Heat Transfer Fluids For Clean Energy Production

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Elise B; Kendrick, Sarah E.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term aging on the thermal stability and chemical structure of seven different ILs so as to explore their suitability for use as a heat transfer fluid. This was accomplished by heating the ILs for 15 weeks at 200°C in an oxidizing environment and performing subsequent analyses on the aged chemicals.

  8. Production of recombinant proteins in E. coli by the heat inducible expression system based on the phage lambda pL and/or pR promoters

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The temperature inducible expression system, based on the pL and/or pR phage lambda promoters regulated by the thermolabile cI857 repressor has been widely use to produce recombinant proteins in prokariotic cells. In this expression system, induction of heterologous protein is achieved by increasing the culture temperature, generally above 37°C. Concomitant to the overexpression of heterologous protein, the increase in temperature also causes a variety of complex stress responses. Many studies have reported the use of such temperature inducible expression system, however only few discuss the simultaneous stress effects caused by recombinant protein production and the up-shift in temperature. Understanding the integral effect of such responses should be useful to develop improved strategies for high yield protein production and recovery. Here, we describe the current status of the heat inducible expression system based on the pL and/or pR λ phage promoters, focusing on recent developments on expression vehicles, the stress responses at the molecular and physiological level that occur after heat induction, and bioprocessing factors that affect protein overexpression, including culture operation variables and induction strategies. PMID:20298615

  9. Biomass recycling heat technology and energy products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabakaev, R. B.; Gergelizhiu, P. S.; Kazakov, A. V.; Zavorin, A. S.

    2014-10-01

    Relevance is determined by necessity of utilizing of local low-grade fuels by energy equpment. Most widespread Tomsk oblast (Russian Federation region) low-grade fuels are described and listed. Capability of utilizing is analysed. Mass balances of heat-technology conversion materials and derived products are described. As a result, recycling capability of low-grade fuels in briquette fuel is appraised.

  10. Heat production of nursery and growing piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat and moisture production (HMP) values are used to size ventilation fans in animal housing. The HMP values that are currently published in the ASABE standards were from data published in 1975. This study is one of a series of studies being conducted to update the HMP values for the ASABE and ASHR...

  11. Technologies for Production of Heat and Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-04-01

    Biomass is a desirable source of energy because it is renewable, sustainable, widely available throughout the world, and amenable to conversion. Biomass is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin components. Cellulose is generally the dominant fraction, representing about 40 to 50% of the material by weight, with hemicellulose representing 20 to 50% of the material, and lignin making up the remaining portion [4,5,6]. Although the outward appearance of the various forms of cellulosic biomass, such as wood, grass, municipal solid waste (MSW), or agricultural residues, is different, all of these materials have a similar cellulosic composition. Elementally, however, biomass varies considerably, thereby presenting technical challenges at virtually every phase of its conversion to useful energy forms and products. Despite the variances among cellulosic sources, there are a variety of technologies for converting biomass into energy. These technologies are generally divided into two groups: biochemical (biological-based) and thermochemical (heat-based) conversion processes. This chapter reviews the specific technologies that can be used to convert biomass to energy. Each technology review includes the description of the process, and the positive and negative aspects.

  12. Heat stress causes substantial labour productivity loss in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, Kerstin K.; Botzen, Wouter J. W.; Oppermann, Elspeth; Kjellstrom, Tord; Garnett, Stephen T.

    2015-07-01

    Heat stress at the workplace is an occupational health hazard that reduces labour productivity. Assessment of productivity loss resulting from climate change has so far been based on physiological models of heat exposure. These models suggest productivity may decrease by 11-27% by 2080 in hot regions such as Asia and the Caribbean, and globally by up to 20% in hot months by 2050. Using an approach derived from health economics, we describe self-reported estimates of work absenteeism and reductions in work performance caused by heat in Australia during 2013/2014. We found that the annual costs were US$655 per person across a representative sample of 1,726 employed Australians. This represents an annual economic burden of around US$6.2 billion (95% CI: 5.2-7.3 billion) for the Australian workforce. This amounts to 0.33 to 0.47% of Australia’s GDP. Although this was a period when many Australians experienced what is at present considered exceptional heat, our results suggest that adaptation measures to reduce heat effects should be adopted widely if severe economic impacts from labour productivity loss are to be avoided if heat waves become as frequent as predicted.

  13. Determinants of heat production in newborn lambs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eales, F. A.; Small, J.

    1980-06-01

    Measurement of summit metabolism (the maximum rate of heat production) in lambs aged 1 or 4h revealed considerable between animal variation. Summit metabolism per unit body weight decreased as body weight increased whereas summit metabolism per unit body surface area was independent of body weight. Severe pre-partum hypoxia was apparently associated with a low summit metabolism at 1 or 4h of age which made such lambs very susceptible to hypothermia. This deficiency in heat production capacity did not appear to be a permanent featuresince most lambs so affected recovered full thermoregulatory ability by 12h of age. Feeding of colostrum conferred an immediate 18% increase in summit metabolism. The significance of these findings to the prevention of hypothermia in the newborn lamb is discussed.

  14. Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in accurately modeling costs for fuel cell-based combined heat, hydrogen, and power systems. Work was performed by NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  15. Non-Heat Treatable Alloy Sheet Products

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, H.W.; Barthold, G.W.; Das, S.K.

    1999-08-01

    ALCAR is an innovative approach for conducting multi-company, pre-competitive research and development programs. ALCAR has been formed to crate a partnership of aluminum producers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Center for Research and Technology Development (ASME/CRTD), the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), three USDOE National Laboratories, and a Technical Advisory Committee for conducting cooperative, pre-competitive research on the development of flower-cost, non-heat treated (NHT) aluminum alloys for automotive sheet applications with strength, formability and surface appearance similar to current heat treated (HT) aluminum alloys under consideration. The effort has been supported by the USDOE, Office of Transportation Technology (OTT) through a three-year program with 50/50 cost share at a total program cost of $3 million. The program has led to the development of new and modified 5000 series aluminum ally compositions. Pilot production-size ingots have bee n melted, cast, hot rolled and cold rolled. Stamping trials on samples of rolled product for demonstrating production of typical automotive components have been successful.

  16. Antioxidants in heat-processed koji and the production mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Okutsu, Kayu; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Ikeda, Natsumi; Kusano, Tatsuro; Hashimoto, Fumio; Takamine, Kazunori

    2015-11-15

    We previously developed antioxidative heat-processed (HP)-koji via two-step heating (55 °C/2days → 75 °C/3 days) of white-koji. In this study, we isolated antioxidants in HP-koji and investigated their formation mechanisms. The antioxidants were identified to be 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) and 5-(α-D-glucopyranosyloxymethyl)-2-furfural (GMF) based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis. HMF and GMF were not present in intact koji, but were formed by heating at 75 °C. As production of these antioxidants was more effective by two-step heating than by constant heating at 55 °C or 75 °C, we presumed that the antioxidant precursors are derived enzymatically at 55°C and that the antioxidants are formed subsequently by thermal reaction at 75 °C. The heating assay of saccharide solutions revealed glucose and isomaltose as HMF and GMF precursors, respectively, and thus the novel finding of GMF formation from isomaltose. Finally, HMF and GMF were effectively formed by two-step heating from glucose and isomaltose present in koji. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. NLS base heating CFD analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ascoli, Edward P.; Heiba, Adel H.; Hsu, Yann-Fu; Lagnado, Ronald R.; Lynch, Edward D.

    1993-01-01

    Concerns raised over possible base heating effects on the National Launch System (NLS) 1.5 stage reference vehicle resulted in the use of CFD as a predictive analysis tool. The objective established was to obtain good engineering solutions to describe the base region flowfields at 10,000 ft and 50,000 ft altitudes. The Rockwell USA CFD code was employed with a zero-equation turbulence model and a four species, 1 step chemical kinetics package. Three solutions were generated for the specified altitudes on coarse and fine grids. CFD results show the base region flowfields to be highly three dimensional in character. At the 10,000 ft altitude, plumes contract soon after exiting the nozzles and do not interact with each other. No mechanism was identified for driving hot gas back into the base region and no significant amounts of hydrogen or water were found in the base region. Consequently, surface temperatures were all near the ambient level. At 50,000 ft, the nozzle exhaust plumes begin to interact, particularly those of the two inboard engines which are closer together. A small amount of hot gas is recirculated between the inboard nozzles near the nozzle exit plane. As a result, base region surface temperatures are slightly elevated, but still remain well within the design guideline of 1000 R.

  18. NLS base heating CFD analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascoli, Edward P.; Heiba, Adel H.; Hsu, Yann-Fu; Lagnado, Ronald R.; Lynch, Edward D.

    1993-07-01

    Concerns raised over possible base heating effects on the National Launch System (NLS) 1.5 stage reference vehicle resulted in the use of CFD as a predictive analysis tool. The objective established was to obtain good engineering solutions to describe the base region flowfields at 10,000 ft and 50,000 ft altitudes. The Rockwell USA CFD code was employed with a zero-equation turbulence model and a four species, 1 step chemical kinetics package. Three solutions were generated for the specified altitudes on coarse and fine grids. CFD results show the base region flowfields to be highly three dimensional in character. At the 10,000 ft altitude, plumes contract soon after exiting the nozzles and do not interact with each other. No mechanism was identified for driving hot gas back into the base region and no significant amounts of hydrogen or water were found in the base region. Consequently, surface temperatures were all near the ambient level. At 50,000 ft, the nozzle exhaust plumes begin to interact, particularly those of the two inboard engines which are closer together. A small amount of hot gas is recirculated between the inboard nozzles near the nozzle exit plane. As a result, base region surface temperatures are slightly elevated, but still remain well within the design guideline of 1000 R.

  19. Intraventricular administration of isoproterenol inhibits both heat production and heat loss mechanisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, M T; Chandra, A; Fan, Y C; Sun, R

    1980-07-15

    At an ambient temperature (Ta) of 8 degrees C, intraventricular administration of isoproterenol inhibited metabolic heat production and led to hypothermia in rats. In contrast, at a Ta of 22 degrees C and of 30 degrees C, isoproterenol decreased cutaneous circulation and led to hyperthermia. The data indicate that isoproterenol inhibits both heat production and heat loss mechanisms in rats.

  20. Heat production in an Archean crustal profile and implications for heat flow and mobilization of heat-producing elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Morgan, P.; Kelley, S. A.; Percival, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Concentrations of heat producing elements (Th, U, and K) in 58 samples representative of the main lithologies in a 100-km transect of the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield have been obtained. The relatively large variation in heat production found among the silicic plutonic rocks is shown to correlate with modal abundances of accessory minerals, and these variations are interpreted as premetamorphic. The present data suggest fundamental differences in crustal radioactivity distributions between granitic and more mafic terrains, and indicate that a previously determined apparently linear heat flow-heat production relationship for the Kapuskasing area does not relate to the distribution of heat production with depth.

  1. Heat production in an Archean crustal profile and implications for heat flow and mobilization of heat-producing elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Morgan, P.; Kelley, S. A.; Percival, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Concentrations of heat producing elements (Th, U, and K) in 58 samples representative of the main lithologies in a 100-km transect of the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield have been obtained. The relatively large variation in heat production found among the silicic plutonic rocks is shown to correlate with modal abundances of accessory minerals, and these variations are interpreted as premetamorphic. The present data suggest fundamental differences in crustal radioactivity distributions between granitic and more mafic terrains, and indicate that a previously determined apparently linear heat flow-heat production relationship for the Kapuskasing area does not relate to the distribution of heat production with depth.

  2. Quality assessment of palm products upon prolonged heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai

    2008-01-01

    Extending the frying-life of oils is of commercial and economic importance. Due to this fact, assessment on the thermal stability of frying oils could provide considerable savings to the food processors. In this study, the physico-chemical properties of five palm products mainly palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein, double-fractionated palm olein, red palm olein and palm-based shortening during 80 hours of heating at 180 degrees C were investigated. Heating properties of these products were then compared with that of high oleic sunflower oil, which was used as reference oil. The indices applied in evaluating the quality changes of oils were free fatty acid, smoke point, p-anisidine value, tocols, polar and polymer compounds. Three palm products i.e. palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein and double-fractionated palm olein were identified to be the most stable in terms of lower formation of free fatty acid, polar and polymer compounds as well as preserving higher smoke point and tocols content compared to the other three oils. The low intensity of hydrolytic and oxidative changes due to prolonged heating, suggests that these palm products are inherently suitable for frying purposes.

  3. The global joule heat production rate and the AE index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, S.; Ahn, B.-H.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1985-01-01

    The degree of accuracy with which the AE index may be used as a measure of the joule heat production rate is evaluated for a typical substorm event on March 18, 1978, by estimating the global joule heat production rate as a function of time on the basis of data obtained from the IMS's six meridian chains. It is found that, although the AE index is statistically linearly related to the global joule heat production rate, caution is required when one assumes that details of AE index time variations during individual events are representative of those of the joule heat production rate.

  4. Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2011-03-01

    Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these

  5. Birch's Crustal Heat Production-Heat Flow Law: Key to Quantifying Mantle Heat Flow as a function of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, D. D.; Thakur, M.

    2007-12-01

    Birch (1968) first showed the linear correlation of surface heat flow and radioactive heat production (Qs = Qo + bAs ) in granites in New England, USA and discussed implications to the vertical scale of radioactive heat generation in the crust. Subsequently similar relationships have been found worldwide and numerous papers written describing more details and expanding the implications of Birch's Law. The results are a powerful contribution from heat flow research to the understanding of the lithosphere and its evolution. Models are both well constrained experimentally and simple in implications. However, there still exist thermal models of the crust and lithosphere that do not have the same firm foundation and involve unnecessary ad hoc assumptions. A main point of confusion has been that the several of the original relationships were so low in error as to be considered by some to be "fortuitous". Interestingly a "similar" relationship has been proposed based on regional scale averaging of Qs -As data. A second point of confusion is that one admissible crustal radioactivity distribution model (the constant heat generation to depth b) has been criticized as unrealistic for a number of reasons, including the effect of erosion. However, it is appropriate to refer to the Qs -As relationship as a law because in fact the relationship holds as long as the vertical distribution is "geologically realistic." as will be demonstrated in this paper. All geologic and geophysical models of the continental crust imply decreasing heat production as a function of depth (i.e. the seismic layering for example) except in very special cases. This general decrease with depth is the only condition required for the existence of a "linear" Qs -As relationship. A comparison of all the Qs -As relationships proposed for terrains not affected by thermal events over the last 150 to 200 Ma shows a remarkably uniformity in slope (10 ± 3 km) and intercept value (30 ± 5 mWm-2 ). Therefore these

  6. A new heat flux model for the Antarctic Peninsula incorporating spatially variable upper crustal radiogenic heat production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton-Johnson, A.; Halpin, J. A.; Whittaker, J. M.; Graham, F. S.; Watson, S. J.

    2017-06-01

    A new method for modeling heat flux shows that the upper crust contributes up to 70% of the Antarctic Peninsula's subglacial heat flux and that heat flux values are more variable at smaller spatial resolutions than geophysical methods can resolve. Results indicate a higher heat flux on the east and south of the Peninsula (mean 81 mW m-2) where silicic rocks predominate, than on the west and north (mean 67 mW m-2) where volcanic arc and quartzose sediments are dominant. While the data supports the contribution of heat-producing element-enriched granitic rocks to high heat flux values, sedimentary rocks can be of comparative importance dependent on their provenance and petrography. Models of subglacial heat flux must utilize a heterogeneous upper crust with variable radioactive heat production if they are to accurately predict basal conditions of the ice sheet. Our new methodology and data set facilitate improved numerical model simulations of ice sheet dynamics.Plain Language SummaryAs the climate changes, the Antarctic ice sheet represents the single largest potential source of sea level rise. However, one key parameter controlling how the ice sheet flows remains poorly constrained: the effect of <span class="hlt">heat</span> derived from the Earth's geology on the <span class="hlt">base</span> of the ice sheet (known as subglacial <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux). Although this may not seem like a lot of <span class="hlt">heat</span>, under slow-flowing ice, this "<span class="hlt">heat</span> flux" can control how well the ice sheet can flow over the rocks and even lead to melting of the ice at its <span class="hlt">base</span>. Current models for Antarctica's <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux use geophysics to determine how thin the crust is and consequently how easily <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the Earth's mantle can warm the surface. We show here that <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced by radioactive decay within the Earth's crust can have an even greater and much more variable contribution to the subglacial <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux than estimated by these previous models. We present a new methodology allowing this crustal <span class="hlt">heat</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3814203H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3814203H"><span>Martian surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and crustal <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow from Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hahn, B. C.; McLennan, S. M.; Klein, E. C.</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Martian thermal state and evolution depend principally on the radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span>-producing element (HPE) distributions in the planet's crust and mantle. The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft has mapped the surface abundances of HPEs across Mars. From these data, we produce the first models of global and regional surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and crustal <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow. As previous studies have suggested that the crust is a repository for approximately 50% of the radiogenic elements on Mars, these models provide important, directly measurable constraints on Martian <span class="hlt">heat</span> generation. Our calculations show considerable geographic and temporal variations in crustal <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow, and demonstrate the existence of anomalous <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow provinces. We calculate a present day average surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of 4.9 ± 0.3 × 10-11 W · kg-1. We also calculate the average crustal component of <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow of 6.4 ± 0.4 mW · m-2. The crustal component of radiogenically produced <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow ranges from <1 mW · m-2 in the Hellas Basin and Utopia Planitia regions to ˜13 mW · m-2 in the Sirenum Fossae region. These <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and crustal <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow values from geochemical measurements support previous <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow estimates produced by different methodologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17388048','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17388048"><span>Pathogen kinetics and <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer-<span class="hlt">based</span> predictive model for Listeria innocua in irregular-shaped poultry <span class="hlt">products</span> during thermal processing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pradhan, Abani K; Li, Yanbin; Marcy, John A; Johnson, Michael G; Tamplin, Mark L</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>The increasing demand of ready-to-eat poultry <span class="hlt">products</span> has led to serious concerns over <span class="hlt">product</span> safety, and more emphasis has been placed on thorough cooking of <span class="hlt">products</span>. In this study, processing conditions and thermal inactivation of Listeria innocua in chicken breast meats were evaluated during convection cooking in a pilot-plant scale air-steam impingement oven. A predictive model was developed by integrating <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer models with a pathogen kinetics model to predict temperature, water content, <span class="hlt">product</span> yield, and bacterial inactivation during air-steam impingement cooking. Skinless boneless chicken breasts were cooked at oven air temperatures of 177 and 200 degrees C for 2 to 10 min at a humidity of 70 to 75% (moisture by volume) and an air velocity of 1 m/s at the exit of the nozzles. The reduction in Listeria in chicken breasts after 2 to 5 min of cooking was from 0.3 to 1.4 log CFU/g and from 0.8 to 1.8 log CFU/g at 177 and 200 degrees C, respectively. After cooking for 10 min at both temperatures, no survivors were detected in any of the cooked chicken breasts from an initial bacterial concentration of 10(6) CFU/g. The standard errors of prediction for the endpoint center temperatures after 2 to 10 min of cooking were 2.8 and 3.0 degrees C for air temperatures of 177 and 200 degrees C, respectively. At 177 and 200 degrees C, the median relative errors of prediction for water content were 2.5 and 3.7% and those for <span class="hlt">product</span> yield were 5.4 and 8.4%, respectively. The developed model can be used as a tool to assist in evaluating thermal processing schedules for poultry <span class="hlt">products</span> cooked in an air-steam impingement oven.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770050487&hterms=nuclear+energy+cost&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dnuclear%2Benergy%2Bcost','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770050487&hterms=nuclear+energy+cost&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dnuclear%2Benergy%2Bcost"><span>Hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> from coal using a nuclear <span class="hlt">heat</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Quade, R. N.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>A strong candidate for hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> in the intermediate time frame of 1985 to 1995 is a coal-<span class="hlt">based</span> process using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as a <span class="hlt">heat</span> source. Expected process efficiencies in the range of 60 to 70% are considerably higher than all other hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> processes except steam reforming of a natural gas. The process involves the preparation of a coal liquid, hydrogasification of that liquid, and steam reforming of the resulting gaseous or light liquid <span class="hlt">product</span>. A study showing process efficiency and cost of hydrogen vs nuclear reactor core outlet temperature has been completed, and shows diminishing returns at process temperatures above about 1500 F. A possible scenario combining the relatively abundant and low-cost Western coal deposits with the Gulf Coast hydrogen users is presented which provides high-energy density transportation utilizing coal liquids and uranium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20002170','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20002170"><span>RTO <span class="hlt">heat</span> recovery system decreases <span class="hlt">production</span> costs and provides payback</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lundquist, P.R.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>Application of a <span class="hlt">heat</span> recovery system to an existing regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO) was considered, tested, and selected for decreasing <span class="hlt">production</span> costs at a pressure sensitive tape manufacturing facility. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> recovery systems on RTO's are less common than those on other thermal oxidizers (e.g., recuperative) because RTO's, by the nature of the technology, usually provide high thermal efficiencies (without the application of external <span class="hlt">heat</span> recovery systems). In this case, the <span class="hlt">production</span> processes were integrated with the emission controls by applying an external <span class="hlt">heat</span> recovery system and by optimizing the design and operation of the existing drying and cure ovens, RTO system, and ductwork collection system. Integration of these systems provides an estimated annual <span class="hlt">production</span> cost savings of over $400,000 and a simplified capital investment payback of less than 2 years, excluding possible savings from improved dryer operations. These additional process benefits include more consistent and simplified control of seasonal dryer performance and possibly <span class="hlt">production</span> throughput increases. The <span class="hlt">production</span> costs savings are realized by substituting excess RTO <span class="hlt">heat</span> for a portion of the infrared (IR) electrical <span class="hlt">heat</span> input to the dryers/ovens. This will be accomplished by preheating the supply air to the oven zones with the excess RTO <span class="hlt">heat</span> (i.e., <span class="hlt">heat</span> at the RTO exceeding auto-thermal conditions). Several technologies, including direct air-to-air, indirect air-to-air, hot oil-to-air, waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> boiler (steam-to-air) were evaluated for transferring the excess RTO <span class="hlt">heat</span> (hot gas) to the ovens. A waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> boiler was selected to transfer the excess RTO <span class="hlt">heat</span> to the ovens because this technology provided the most economical, reliable, and feasible operation. Full-scale <span class="hlt">production</span> test trials on the coating lines were performed and confirmed the IR electrical costs could be reduced up to 70%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998HMT....34..101D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998HMT....34..101D"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer during <span class="hlt">heat</span> sterilization and cooling processes of canned <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dincer, I.</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, an analysis of transient <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer during <span class="hlt">heat</span> sterilization and cooling processes of a cylindrical canned <span class="hlt">product</span> is presented. In the analysis, most practical case including the boundary condition of third kind (i.e., convection boundary condition, leading to 0.1 <= Bi <= 100) was employed. A simple analytical model for determining effective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients for such <span class="hlt">products</span> is developed. For the <span class="hlt">heat</span> sterilization process, <span class="hlt">heating</span> coefficient is incorporated into <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient model. An experimental study was performed to measure the thermal center temperatures of the short-cylindrical canned <span class="hlt">products</span> (i.e., Tuna fish) during <span class="hlt">heat</span> sterilization at the retort medium temperatures of 115∘C and 121∘C, and during cooling process at 16∘C. The effective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient model used the experimental temperature data. Using these effective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients the center temperature distributions were calculated and compared with the experimental temperature distributions. Agreement was found considerably high. The results of the present study indicate that the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer analysis technique and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer coefficient model are reliable, and can provide accurate results for such problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3283245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3283245"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> as a quantitative parameter of phagocytosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hayatsu, H; Miyamae, T; Yamamura, M</p> <p>1988-05-09</p> <p>Microcalorimetry was applied to measure phagocytosis by human peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was 9.1 +/- 2.6 microW by 1 X 10(6) unstimulated neutrophils and increased to 28.4 +/- 3.2 microW in association with phagocytosis. The increase in <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was directly proportional to the number of Saccharomyces cerevisiae particles phagocytosed as well as to the concentration of opsonizing serum. No <span class="hlt">heat</span> increase was observed in the absence of phagocytosis. An increase in <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by monocytes was also observed in association with phagocytosis, but it was much less obvious than that by neutrophils. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> can thus be used as a quantitative measure of phagocytosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021152','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021152"><span>Radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in sedimentary rocks of the Gulf of Mexico Basin, south Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McKenna, T.E.; Sharp, J.M.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> within the sedimentary section of the Gulf of Mexico basin is a significant source of <span class="hlt">heat</span>. Radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> should be included in thermal models of this basin (and perhaps other sedimentary basins). We calculate that radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> may contribute up to 26% of the overall surface <span class="hlt">heat</span>-flow density for an area in south Texas. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on measurements of the radioactive decay rate of ??-particles, potassium concentration, and bulk density, we calculate radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> for Stuart City (Lower Cretaceous) limestones, Wilcox (Eocene) sandstones and mudrocks, and Frio (Oligocene) sandstones and mudrocks from south Texas. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rates range from a low of 0.07 ?? 0.01 ??W/m3 in clean Stuart City limestones to 2.21 ?? 0.24??W/m3 in Frio mudrocks. Mean <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rates for Wilcox sandstones, Frio sandstones, Wilcox mudrocks, and Frio mudrocks are 0.88, 1.19, 1.50, and 1.72 ??W/m3, respectively. In general, the mudrocks produce about 30-40% more <span class="hlt">heat</span> than stratigraphically equivalent sandstones. Frio rocks produce about 15% more <span class="hlt">heat</span> than Wilcox rocks per unit volume of clastic rock (sandstone/mudrock). A one-dimensional <span class="hlt">heat</span>-conduction model indicates that this radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> source has a significant effect on subsurface temperatures. If a thermal model were calibrated to observed temperatures by optimizing basal <span class="hlt">heat</span>-flow density and ignoring sediment <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, the extrapolated present-day temperature of a deeply buried source rock would be overestimated.Radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> within the sedimentary section of the Gulf of Mexico basin is a significant source of <span class="hlt">heat</span>. Radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> should be included in thermal models of this basin (and perhaps other sedimentary basins). We calculate that radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> may contribute up to 26% of the overall surface <span class="hlt">heat</span>-flow density for an area in south Texas. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on measurements of the radioactive decay rate of ??-particles, potassium concentration, and bulk density, we</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107m4103W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107m4103W"><span>A <span class="hlt">heat-switch-based</span> electrocaloric cooler</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Y. D.; Smullin, S. J.; Sheridan, M. J.; Wang, Q.; Eldershaw, C.; Schwartz, D. E.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">heat-switch-based</span> electrocaloric cooler is reported in this letter. The device consists of two silicon <span class="hlt">heat</span> switches and an electrocaloric module <span class="hlt">based</span> on BaTO3 multilayer capacitors (MLCs). To operate the cooler, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> switches are actuated synchronously with the application of electric fields across the MLCs. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> flux versus temperature lift is fully characterized. With an electric field strength of 277 kV/cm, the system achieves a maximum <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux of 36 mW and maximum temperature lift of greater than 0.3 °C, close to the expected MLC adiabatic temperature change of 0.5 °C. The cooler is shown to work reliably over thousands of actuation cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12719767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12719767"><span>Metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss and the circadian rhythm of body temperature in the rat.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Refinetti, Roberto</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>Metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (calculated from oxygen consumption), dry <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss (measured in a calorimeter) and body temperature (measured by telemetry) were recorded simultaneously at 6 min intervals over five consecutive days in rats maintained in constant darkness. Robust circadian rhythmicity (confirmed by chi square periodogram analysis) was observed in all three variables. The rhythm of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was phase-advanced by about half an hour in relation to the body temperature rhythm, whereas the rhythm of <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss was phase-delayed by about half an hour. The balance of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss exhibited a daily oscillation 180 deg out of phase with the oscillation in body temperature. Computations indicated that the amount of <span class="hlt">heat</span> associated with the generation of the body temperature rhythm (1.6 kJ) corresponds to less than 1 % of the total daily energy budget (172 kJ) in this species. Because of the small magnitude of the fraction of <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance associated with the body temperature rhythm, it is likely that the daily oscillation in <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance has a very slow effect on body temperature, thus accounting for the 180 deg phase difference between the rhythms of <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance and body temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm..tmp..170S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm..tmp..170S"><span>Metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by human and animal populations in cities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stewart, Iain D.; Kennedy, Chris A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. <span class="hlt">Heating</span> from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban <span class="hlt">heat</span> budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic <span class="hlt">heating</span> in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span>, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). <span class="hlt">Heat</span> release from animal populations amounts to <1% of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> in all cities. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai—the world's most densely populated megacity—at 6.5 W m-2, surpassing <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m-2) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m-2). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, <span class="hlt">heat</span> emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJBm...61.1159S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJBm...61.1159S"><span>Metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by human and animal populations in cities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stewart, Iain D.; Kennedy, Chris A.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. <span class="hlt">Heating</span> from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban <span class="hlt">heat</span> budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic <span class="hlt">heating</span> in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span>, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). <span class="hlt">Heat</span> release from animal populations amounts to <1% of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> in all cities. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai—the world's most densely populated megacity—at 6.5 W m-2, surpassing <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m-2) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m-2). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, <span class="hlt">heat</span> emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22496205','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22496205"><span>RF <span class="hlt">heating</span> for fusion <span class="hlt">product</span> studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hellsten, T. Johnson, T.; Sharapov, S. E.; Kiptily, V.; Rimini, F.; Eriksson, J.; Mantsinen, M.; Schneider, M.; Tsalas, M.</p> <p>2015-12-10</p> <p>Third harmonic cyclotron <span class="hlt">heating</span> is an effective tool for accelerating deuterium (D) beams to the MeV energy range, suitable for studying ITER relevant fast particle physics in plasmas without significant tritium content. Such experiments were recently conducted in JET with an ITER like wall in D plasmas with {sup 3}He concentrations up to 30% in order to boost the fusion reactivity by D-{sup 3}He reactions. The harmonic cyclotron <span class="hlt">heating</span> produces high-energy tails in the MeV range of D ions by on-axis <span class="hlt">heating</span> and of {sup 3}He ions by tangential off-axis <span class="hlt">heating</span>. The discharges are characterized by long sawtooth free periods and a rich spectrum of MHD modes excited by the fast D and {sup 3}He ions. The partitions of the power, which depend on the distribution function of D, vary strongly over several slowing down times. Self-consistent modelling of the distribution function with the SELFO-light code are presented and compared with experimental data from fast particle diagnostics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1689f0007H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1689f0007H"><span>RF <span class="hlt">heating</span> for fusion <span class="hlt">product</span> studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T.; Sharapov, S. E.; Kiptily, V.; Eriksson, J.; Mantsinen, M.; Schneider, M.; Rimini, F.; Tsalas, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Third harmonic cyclotron <span class="hlt">heating</span> is an effective tool for accelerating deuterium (D) beams to the MeV energy range, suitable for studying ITER relevant fast particle physics in plasmas without significant tritium content. Such experiments were recently conducted in JET with an ITER like wall in D plasmas with 3He concentrations up to 30% in order to boost the fusion reactivity by D-3He reactions. The harmonic cyclotron <span class="hlt">heating</span> produces high-energy tails in the MeV range of D ions by on-axis <span class="hlt">heating</span> and of 3He ions by tangential off-axis <span class="hlt">heating</span>. The discharges are characterized by long sawtooth free periods and a rich spectrum of MHD modes excited by the fast D and 3He ions. The partitions of the power, which depend on the distribution function of D, vary strongly over several slowing down times. Self-consistent modelling of the distribution function with the SELFO-light code are presented and compared with experimental data from fast particle diagnostics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=236296','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=236296"><span>Rubisco activase and wheat <span class="hlt">productivity</span> under <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Rubisco activase (RCA) constrains the photosynthetic potential of plants at high temperature (<span class="hlt">heat</span> stress). We hypothesized that endogenous levels of RCA could serve as an important determinant of plant <span class="hlt">productivity</span> under <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the possible relation...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013717','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013717"><span>NGNP Process <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Applications: Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Production</span> Accomplishments for FY2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Charles V Park</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This report summarizes FY10 accomplishments of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Engineering Process <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Applications group in support of hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> technology development. This organization is responsible for systems needed to transfer high temperature <span class="hlt">heat</span> from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) reactor (being developed by the INL NGNP Project) to electric power generation and to potential industrial applications including the <span class="hlt">production</span> of hydrogen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=415274','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=415274"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span>-stable Escherichia coli enterotoxin <span class="hlt">production</span> in vivo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Whipp, S C; Moon, H W; Lyon, N C</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Hysterectomy-derived, colostrum-deprived piglets were infected with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli on day 4 of life. Samples of feces and intestinal contents were collected and tested in infant mice for enterotoxic activity. Positive enterotoxic responses were observed in mice given filtrates of feces and intestinal contents from piglets infected withe enterotoxigenic E. coli known to produce <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable enterotoxin but not <span class="hlt">heat</span>-liabile enterotoxin in vitro. It is concluded that <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable enterotoxigenic E. coli induce diarrhea by <span class="hlt">production</span> of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable enterotoxin in vivo. PMID:1097335</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5880..231T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5880..231T"><span>Optical investigation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> release and NOx <span class="hlt">production</span> in combustion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Timmerman, B. H.; Patel, S.; Dunkley, P.; Bryanston-Cross, P. J.</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Two passive optical techniques are described to investigate combustion. Optical Emission Tomography (OET) is used for non-intrusive study of <span class="hlt">heat</span> release through the detection of chemiluminescence by the hydroxyl radical that is generated in the burning process. The OET technique described here is <span class="hlt">based</span> on a passive fibre-optic detection system, which allows spatially resolved high-frequency detection of the flame front in a combustion flame, where all fibres detect the emission signals simultaneously. The system withstands the high pressures and temperatures typically encountered in the harsh environments of gas turbine combustors and IC engines. The sensor-array is non-intrusive, low-cost, compact, simple to configure and can be quickly set up around a combustion field. The maximum acquisition rate is 2 kHz. This allows spatially resolved study of the fast phenomena in combustion. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">production</span> of NOx is investigated through the emission of green light as a result of adding tri-methyl-borate to a flame. In combustion, the tri-methyl-borate produces green luminescence in locations where NOx would be produced. Combining the green luminescence visualisation with OET detection of the hydroxyl radical allows monitoring of <span class="hlt">heat</span> release and of NOx <span class="hlt">production</span> areas, thus giving a means of studying both the burning process and the resulting NOx pollution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994fmai.reptQ....G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994fmai.reptQ....G"><span>Lunar <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump, phase 1 draft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Harvey, A.; Lovell, T.; Walker, David H.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>This report describes the Phase 1 process and analysis used to select a refrigerant and thermodynamic cycle as the basis of a vapor compression <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump requiring a high temperature lift, then to perform a preliminary design to implement the selected concept, including major component selection. Use of a vapor compression <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump versus other types was <span class="hlt">based</span> on prior work performed for the Electric Power Research Institute. A high lift <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump is needed to enable a thermal control system to remove <span class="hlt">heat</span> down to 275K from a habitable volume when the external thermal environment is severe. For example, a long-term lunar <span class="hlt">base</span> habitat will reject <span class="hlt">heat</span> from a space radiator to a 325K environment. The first step in the selection process was to perform an optimization trade study, quantifying the effect of radiator operating temperature and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump efficiency on total system mass; then, select the radiator operating temperature corresponding to the lowest system mass. Total system mass included radiators, all <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump components and the power supply system. The study showed that lunar night operation, with no temperature lift, dictated the radiator size. To operate otherwise would require a high mass penalty to store power. With the defined radiation surface, and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump performances assumed to be from 40 percent to 60 percent of the Carnot ideal, the optimum <span class="hlt">heat</span> rejection temperature ranged from 387K to 377K, as a function of <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump performance. Refrigerant and thermodynamic cycles were then selected to best meet the previously determined design conditions. The system was then adapted as a ground-<span class="hlt">based</span> prototype lifting temperature to 360K (versus 385K for flight unit) and using readily available commercial-grade components. Over 40 refrigerants, separated into wet and dry compression behavioral types, were considered in the selection process. Refrigerants were initially screened for acceptable critical temperature. The acceptable refrigerants were analyzed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994fmai.reptS....G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994fmai.reptS....G"><span>Lunar <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump, phase 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Harvey, A.; Lovell, T.; Walker, David H.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>This report describes the Phase 1 process and analysis used to select a refrigerant and thermodynamic cycle as the basis of a vapor compression <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump requiring a high temperature lift, then to perform a preliminary design to implement the selected concept, including major component selection. Use of a vapor compression <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump versus other types was <span class="hlt">based</span> on prior work performed for the Electric Power Research Institute. A high lift <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump is needed to enable a thermal control system to remove <span class="hlt">heat</span> down to 275 K from a habitable volume when the external thermal environment is severe. For example, a long-term lunar <span class="hlt">base</span> habitat will reject <span class="hlt">heat</span> from a space radiator to a 325 K environment. The first step in the selection process was to perform an optimization trade study, quantifying the effect of radiator operating temperature and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump efficiency on total system mass; then, select the radiator operating temperature corresponding to the lowest system mass. Total system mass included radiators, all <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump components, and the power supply system. The study showed that lunar night operation, with no temperature lift, dictated the radiator size. To operate otherwise would require a high mass penalty to store power. With the defined radiation surface, and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump performances assumed to be from 40 percent to 60 percent of the Carnot ideal, the optimum <span class="hlt">heat</span> rejection temperature ranged from 387 K to 377 K, as a function of <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump performance. Refrigerant and thermodynamic cycles were then selected to best meet the previously determined design conditions. The system was then adapted as a ground-<span class="hlt">based</span> prototype lifting temperature to 360 K (versus 385 K for flight unit) and using readily available commercial-grade components. Over 40 refrigerants, separated into wet and dry compression behavioral types, were considered in the selection process. Refrigerants were initially screened for acceptable critical temperature. The acceptable refrigerants were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950011696','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950011696"><span>Lunar <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump, phase 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Harvey, A.; Lovell, T.; Walker, David H.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This report describes the Phase 1 process and analysis used to select a refrigerant and thermodynamic cycle as the basis of a vapor compression <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump requiring a high temperature lift, then to perform a preliminary design to implement the selected concept, including major component selection. Use of a vapor compression <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump versus other types was <span class="hlt">based</span> on prior work performed for the Electric Power Research Institute. A high lift <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump is needed to enable a thermal control system to remove <span class="hlt">heat</span> down to 275 K from a habitable volume when the external thermal environment is severe. For example, a long-term lunar <span class="hlt">base</span> habitat will reject <span class="hlt">heat</span> from a space radiator to a 325 K environment. The first step in the selection process was to perform an optimization trade study, quantifying the effect of radiator operating temperature and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump efficiency on total system mass; then, select the radiator operating temperature corresponding to the lowest system mass. Total system mass included radiators, all <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump components, and the power supply system. The study showed that lunar night operation, with no temperature lift, dictated the radiator size. To operate otherwise would require a high mass penalty to store power. With the defined radiation surface, and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump performances assumed to be from 40 percent to 60 percent of the Carnot ideal, the optimum <span class="hlt">heat</span> rejection temperature ranged from 387 K to 377 K, as a function of <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump performance. Refrigerant and thermodynamic cycles were then selected to best meet the previously determined design conditions. The system was then adapted as a ground-<span class="hlt">based</span> prototype lifting temperature to 360 K (versus 385 K for flight unit) and using readily available commercial-grade components. Over 40 refrigerants, separated into wet and dry compression behavioral types, were considered in the selection process. Refrigerants were initially screened for acceptable critical temperature. The acceptable refrigerants were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0747830','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0747830"><span>Enthalphyand <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Capacity of Several Candy <span class="hlt">Products</span>,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>They are three types of chocolate : ’Extra with Milk,’ ’Sport,’ and ’Soy Bean’ without ground nuts and sugar. For a caloric investigation of the candy <span class="hlt">products</span> an adiabatic calorimeter was used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140008312','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140008312"><span>Characterization of <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Melt Compactor (HMC) <span class="hlt">Product</span> Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Harris, Linden; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Alba, Richard Gilbert; Pace, Gregory S.; Fisher, John W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Melt Compactor (HMC) is designed to sterilize and process wastes produced during space missions. Benefits of the HMC include reduction of biohazards to the crew, reduction in volume of wastes that would otherwise require storage, <span class="hlt">production</span> of radiation shielding tiles, and recovery of water and other resources. Water reuse is critical onboard spacecrafts; it reduces the need for resupply missions and saves valuable storage space. The main sources of water in HMC batches are food, beverages, shampoo, disinfecting wipes, toothpaste, and diapers. Water reclaimed by the HMC was analyzed for concentrations of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-­-, NO2-­-, Br-­-, NO3-­-, PO43-­-, SO42-­-, total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC), % total solids, and pH. The data are discussed in relation to the current water input characteristics established for the International Space Station Water Processor Assembly system. Batches with higher than average amounts of food produced HMC <span class="hlt">product</span> water with higher sulfate content, and batches with higher proportions of disinfectant wipes and food yielded HMC <span class="hlt">product</span> water with higher ammonium concentration. We also compared theoretical chemical composition of HMC <span class="hlt">product</span> water <span class="hlt">based</span> on food labels and literature values to experimental results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7167632','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7167632"><span><span class="hlt">Heating</span> of thermoplastic-<span class="hlt">based</span> unidirectional composite prepregs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, X.; Weber, M.E.; Charrier, J.M. )</p> <p>1989-04-01</p> <p>Thermoplastic-<span class="hlt">based</span> prepregs offer a potential for faster manufacture of composite <span class="hlt">products</span> than with thermoset-<span class="hlt">based</span> prepregs. The winding or controlled placement of thermoplastic-<span class="hlt">based</span> prepreg tapes requires the rapid <span class="hlt">heating</span> of the moving tape, just prior to its contact with the substrate on the mandrel. In the case of complex shapes, geometrical constraints and significant variations in tape speeds in the course of manufacture, make it particularly desirable to be able to model the <span class="hlt">heating</span> process. A mathematical model and its experimental verification for convection/conduction <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer to and through either a homogeneous thermoplastic material, or thermoplastic-<span class="hlt">based</span> unidirectional composites featuring glass, aramid and carbon fibers, is discussed. 12 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1866e0006M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1866e0006M"><span>Electricity and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by biomass cogeneration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marčič, Simon; Marčič, Milan</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>In Slovenia, approximately 2 % of electricity is generated using cogeneration systems. Industrial and district <span class="hlt">heating</span> networks ensure the growth of such technology. Today, many existing systems are outdated, providing myriad opportunities for reconstruction. One concept for the development of households and industry envisages the construction of several small biomass units and the application of natural gas as a fuel with a relatively extensive distribution network. This concept has good development potential in Slovenia. Forests cover 56 % of the surface area in Slovenia, which has, as a result, a lot of waste wood to be turned into biomass. Biomass is an important fuel in Slovenia. Biomass is gasified in a gasifier, and the wood gas obtained is used to power the gas engine. This paper describes a biomass cogeneration system as the first of this type in Slovenia, located in Ruše.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28025697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28025697"><span>Metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by human and animal populations in cities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stewart, Iain D; Kennedy, Chris A</p> <p>2016-12-26</p> <p>Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. <span class="hlt">Heating</span> from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban <span class="hlt">heat</span> budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic <span class="hlt">heating</span> in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span>, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). <span class="hlt">Heat</span> release from animal populations amounts to <1% of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> in all cities. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai-the world's most densely populated megacity-at 6.5 W m(-2), surpassing <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m(-2)) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m(-2)). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, <span class="hlt">heat</span> emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19671572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19671572"><span>Rubisco activase and wheat <span class="hlt">productivity</span> under <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stress conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ristic, Zoran; Momcilovic, Ivana; Bukovnik, Urska; Prasad, P V Vara; Fu, Jianming; Deridder, Benjamin P; Elthon, Thomas E; Mladenov, Novica</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Rubisco activase (RCA) constrains the photosynthetic potential of plants at high temperatures (<span class="hlt">heat</span> stress). Endogenous levels of RCA could serve as an important determinant of plant <span class="hlt">productivity</span> under <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stress conditions. Thus, in this study, the possible relationship between expression levels of RCA and plant yield in 11 European cultivars of winter wheat following prolonged exposure to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress was investigated. In addition, the effect of a short-term <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress on RCA expression in four genotypes of wheat, five genotypes of maize, and one genotype of Arabidopsis thaliana was examined. Immunoblots prepared from leaf protein extracts from control plants showed three RCA cross-reacting bands in wheat and two RCA cross-reacting bands in maize and Arabidopsis. The molecular mass of the observed bands was in the range between 40 kDa and 46 kDa. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> stress affected RCA expression in a few genotypes of wheat and maize but not in Arabidopsis. In wheat, <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress slightly modulated the relative amounts of RCA in some cultivars. In maize, <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress did not seem to affect the existing RCA isoforms (40 kDa and 43 kDa) but induced the accumulation of a new putative RCA of 45-46 kDa. The new putative 45-46 kDa RCA was not seen in a genotype of maize (ZPL 389) that has been shown to display an exceptional sensitivity to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. A significant, positive, linear correlation was found between the expression of wheat 45-46 kDa RCA and plant <span class="hlt">productivity</span> under <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stress conditions. Results support the hypothesis that endogenous levels of RCA could play an important role in plant <span class="hlt">productivity</span> under supraoptimal temperature conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5026515','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5026515"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during contraction in skeletal muscle of hypothyroid mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Leijendekker, W.J.; van Hardeveld, C.; Elzinga, G. )</p> <p>1987-08-01</p> <p>The effect of hypothyroidism on tension-independent and -dependent <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced during a twitch and a tetanic contraction of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscle of mice was examined. The amount of <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced during a twitch and the rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> development during a tetanus of EDL and soleus were measured at and above optimal length. The effect of hypothyroidism on force <span class="hlt">production</span> was <30%. Straight lines were used to fit the relation between <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and force. Hypothyroidism significantly decreases tension-independent <span class="hlt">heat</span> during contraction of EDL and soleus muscle. Because the tension-independent <span class="hlt">heat</span> is considered to be related to the Ca{sup 2+} cycling, these findings suggest that ATP splitting due to the Ca{sup 2+} cycling is reduced in hypothyroid mice. This conclusion was strengthened by the observation that the oxalate-supported {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}-uptake activity and {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}-loading capacity of muscle homogenates from hypothyroid mice were reduced, respectively, to 51 and to 65% in soleus and to 63 and 73% in EDL muscle as compared with euthyroid mice. The tension-dependent rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> development during a tetanus was also decreased in soleus muscle of hypothyroid mice. This suggests a lower rate of ATP hydrolysis related to cross-bridge cycling in this muscle due to the hypothyroid state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/926354','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/926354"><span>Theoretical Design of a Thermosyphon for Efficient Process <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Removal from Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) for <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Hydrogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Piyush Sabharwall; Fred Gunnerson; Akira Tokuhiro; Vivek Utgiker; Kevan Weaver; Steven Sherman</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase Thermosyphon <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer performance with various alkali metals. Thermosyphon is a device for transporting <span class="hlt">heat</span> from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> transport occurs via evaporation and condensation, and the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transport fluid is re-circulated by gravitational force. With this mode of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport <span class="hlt">heat</span> at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. For process <span class="hlt">heat</span>, intermediate <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers (IHX) are required to transfer <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant in the most efficient way possible. The <span class="hlt">production</span> of power at higher efficiency using Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> requires both <span class="hlt">heat</span> at higher temperatures (up to 1000oC) and high effectiveness compact <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers to transfer <span class="hlt">heat</span> to either the power or process cycle. The purpose for selecting a compact <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger is to maximize the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer surface area per volume of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger size and <span class="hlt">heat</span> losses. The IHX design requirements are governed by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet of the NGNP (900oC, <span class="hlt">based</span> on the current capabilities of NGNP), and the temperatures in the hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> plant. Spiral <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Exchangers (SHE’s) have superior <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer characteristics, and are less susceptible to fouling. Further, <span class="hlt">heat</span> losses to surroundings are minimized because of its compact configuration. SHEs have never been examined for phase-change <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer applications. The research presented provides useful information for thermosyphon design and Spiral <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Exchanger.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21103893','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21103893"><span>Ohmic <span class="hlt">heated</span> sheet for the Ca ion beam <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Efremov, A.; Bogomolov, S.; Kazarinov, N.; Kochagov, O.; Loginov, V.</p> <p>2008-02-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">production</span> of intense accelerated {sup 48}Ca ion beams is the key problem in the experiments on the synthesis of new superheavy nuclei. For this purpose in the FLNR (JINR), an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used at the U-400 cyclotron. The combination of a micro oven with a hot tantalum sheet inside the discharge chamber allowed the <span class="hlt">production</span> of the intense {sup 48}Ca{sup 5+} ion beam at the {sup 48}Ca consumption of about 0.5 mg/h. In this case, the tantalum sheet is <span class="hlt">heated</span> by microwaves and plasma electrons. The microwave power of up to 500 W is required to <span class="hlt">heat</span> the sheet to the temperature of about 500 deg. C. To decrease the required microwave power, a new sheet with a direct Ohmic <span class="hlt">heating</span> was designed. The present paper describes the method, technique, and preliminary experimental results on the <span class="hlt">production</span> of the Ca ion beam.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175972','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175972"><span>Radiation detector system having <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe <span class="hlt">based</span> cooling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Saveliev, Valeri D.; Barkan, Shaul</p> <p>2006-10-31</p> <p>A radiation detector system having a <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe <span class="hlt">based</span> cooling. The radiation detector system includes a radiation detector thermally coupled to a thermo electric cooler (TEC). The TEC cools down the radiation detector, whereby <span class="hlt">heat</span> is generated by the TEC. A <span class="hlt">heat</span> removal device dissipates the <span class="hlt">heat</span> generated by the TEC to surrounding environment. A <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe has a first end thermally coupled to the TEC to receive the <span class="hlt">heat</span> generated by the TEC, and a second end thermally coupled to the <span class="hlt">heat</span> removal device. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe transfers the <span class="hlt">heat</span> generated by the TEC from the first end to the second end to be removed by the <span class="hlt">heat</span> removal device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3198536','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3198536"><span>Metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of neonatal calves during hypothermia and recovery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Robinson, J B; Young, B A</p> <p>1988-10-01</p> <p>Metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and rectal temperature were measured in 19 newborn calves (41.8 +/- 3.7 kg) during hypothermia and recovery when four different means of assistance were provided. Hypothermia of 30 degrees C rectal temperature was induced by immersion in 18 degrees C water. Calves were rewarmed in a 20 to 25 degree C air environment where thermal assistance was provided by added thermal insulation or by supplemental <span class="hlt">heat</span> from infrared lamps. Other calves were rewarmed by immersion in warm water (38 degrees C), with or without a 40-ml drench of 20% ethanol in water. Resting (prehypothermia) and cold-induced summit metabolism of the calves was 2.5 +/- .1 and 8.2 +/- .22 W/kg and occurred at rectal temperatures of 39.5 +/- .06 and 36.2 +/- .26 degrees C, respectively. During cooling, metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> declined at the rate of .65 W/kg per degrees C decline in rectal temperature. The time required to regain euthermia from a rectal temperature of 30 degrees C was longer for calves with added insulation and those exposed to <span class="hlt">heat</span> lamps than for the calves in the warm water and warm water plus ethanol treatments (90 and 92 vs 59 and 63 +/- 6.4 min, respectively). During recovery, the calves rewarmed with the added insulation and <span class="hlt">heat</span> lamps produced more <span class="hlt">heat</span> metabolically than the calves rewarmed in warm water. Total <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during recovery was 34.1, 31.1, 18.3, 16.9 +/- 1.07 kJ/kg for the calves with added insulation, exposed to the <span class="hlt">heat</span> lamps, in warm water and in warm water plus an oral drench of ethanol, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10769161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10769161"><span>Contrasting Metamorphic Record of <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> Anomalies in the Penokean Orogen of Northern Michigan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Attoh</p> <p>2000-05-01</p> <p>It is proposed that the contrasting metamorphic mineral assemblages of the isolated amphibolite facies metamorphic highs in the Penokean orogen of northern Michigan may be caused by different <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rates in the Archean basement. This hypothesis is <span class="hlt">based</span> on concentrations of K, U, and Th in the Archean basement gneisses and Paleoproterozoic metasediments that indicate significant contribution of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> during Penokean metamorphism. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was anomalously high ( approximately 10.6 µWm-3) where andalusite-bearing mineral assemblages indicate that high temperatures were attained at shallow crustal levels ( approximately 550 degrees -600 degrees C at approximately 3 kbar). In contrast, where exposed metamorphic rocks indicate peak temperatures of 600 degrees -650 degrees C at 6-7 kbar, <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in the Archean basement was lower ( approximately 3.7 µWm-3). The effect of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rates on the metamorphic pressure-temperature paths was tested with numerical thermal models. The calculations show (1) that if the <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rate, where andalusite-bearing assemblages formed, was significantly <6.0 µWm-3, the estimated pressure at peak temperatures (PTmax) would be much higher and lie in the sillimanite or kyanite stability fields; and (2) differences between PTmax estimates for the metamorphic highs <span class="hlt">based</span> on thermobarometry can be reproduced if thermal history involved significant crustal thickening as well as moderate unroofing rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26133477','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26133477"><span>Biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> process from microalgae oil by waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> recovery and process integration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Song, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanyi; Ji, Na; Liu, Qingling; Kansha, Yasuki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In this work, the optimization of microalgae oil (MO) <span class="hlt">based</span> biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> process is carried out by waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> recovery and process integration. The exergy analysis of each <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger presented an efficient <span class="hlt">heat</span> coupling between hot and cold streams, thus minimizing the total exergy destruction. Simulation results showed that the unit <span class="hlt">production</span> cost of optimized process is 0.592$/L biodiesel, and approximately 0.172$/L biodiesel can be avoided by <span class="hlt">heat</span> integration. Although the capital cost of the optimized biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> process increased 32.5% and 23.5% compared to the reference cases, the operational cost can be reduced by approximately 22.5% and 41.6%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27884080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27884080"><span>Decomposition <span class="hlt">products</span> of glycidyl esters of fatty acids by <span class="hlt">heating</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kimura, Wataru; Endo, Yasushi</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>In this study, decomposition <span class="hlt">products</span> of glycidyl palmitate (GP) of fatty acids <span class="hlt">heated</span> at high temperature such as deep frying were investigated. When GP and tripalmitin (TP) were <span class="hlt">heated</span> at 180 and 200 °C, they were decreased with <span class="hlt">heating</span> time. The weight of GP was less than that of TP, although both GP and TP were converted to polar compounds after <span class="hlt">heating</span>. The decomposition rate of GP was higher than TP. Both GP and TP produced considerable amounts of hydrocarbons and aldehydes during <span class="hlt">heating</span>. Aldehydes produced from GP and TP included saturated aldehydes with carbon chain length of 3-10, while hydrocarbons consisted of carbon chain length of 8-15. It was observed that major hydrocarbons produced from GP during <span class="hlt">heating</span> were pentadecane. Moreover, the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) released from GP was higher than that of TP. It was suggested that fatty acids in GE might be susceptible to decarboxylation. From these results, GP might be quickly decomposed to hydrocarbons, aldehydes and CO2 besides polar compounds by <span class="hlt">heating</span>, in comparison with TP.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22597023','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22597023"><span>Magnonics: Selective <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in nanocomposites with different magnetic nanoparticles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gu, Yu; Kornev, Konstantin G.</p> <p>2016-03-07</p> <p>We theoretically study Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) in nanocomposites focusing on the analysis of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. It is demonstrated that at the FMR frequency, the temperature of nanoparticles can be raised at the rate of a few degrees per second at the electromagnetic (EM) irradiation power equivalent to the sunlight power. Thus, using FMR, one can initiate either surface or bulk reaction in the vicinity of a particular magnetic inclusion by purposely delivering <span class="hlt">heat</span> to the nanoscale at a sufficiently fast rate. We examined the FMR features in (a) the film with a mixture of nanoparticles made of different materials; (b) the laminated films where each layer is filled with a particular type of magnetic nanoparticles. It is shown that different nanoparticles can be selectively <span class="hlt">heated</span> at the different bands of EM spectrum. This effect opens up new exciting opportunities to control the microwave assisted chemical reactions depending on the <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24833618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24833618"><span>Using forecast and observed weather data to assess performance of forecast <span class="hlt">products</span> in identifying <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves and estimating <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave effects on mortality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Kai; Chen, Yeh-Hsin; Schwartz, Joel D; Rood, Richard B; O'Neill, Marie S</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> wave and health warning systems are activated <span class="hlt">based</span> on forecasts of health-threatening hot weather. We estimated <span class="hlt">heat</span>-mortality associations <span class="hlt">based</span> on forecast and observed weather data in Detroit, Michigan, and compared the accuracy of forecast <span class="hlt">products</span> for predicting <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves. We derived and compared apparent temperature (AT) and <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave days (with <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves defined as ≥ 2 days of daily mean AT ≥ 95th percentile of warm-season average) from weather observations and six different forecast <span class="hlt">products</span>. We used Poisson regression with and without adjustment for ozone and/or PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm) to estimate and compare associations of daily all-cause mortality with observed and predicted AT and <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave days. The 1-day-ahead forecast of a local operational <span class="hlt">product</span>, Revised Digital Forecast, had about half the number of false positives compared with all other forecasts. On average, controlling for <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves, days with observed AT = 25.3°C were associated with 3.5% higher mortality (95% CI: -1.6, 8.8%) than days with AT = 8.5°C. Observed <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave days were associated with 6.2% higher mortality (95% CI: -0.4, 13.2%) than non-<span class="hlt">heat</span> wave days. The accuracy of predictions varied, but associations between mortality and forecast <span class="hlt">heat</span> generally tended to overestimate <span class="hlt">heat</span> effects, whereas associations with forecast <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves tended to underestimate <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave effects, relative to associations <span class="hlt">based</span> on observed weather metrics. Our findings suggest that incorporating knowledge of local conditions may improve the accuracy of predictions used to activate <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave and health warning systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........47B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........47B"><span>Effects of gas bubble <span class="hlt">production</span> on <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer from a volumetrically <span class="hlt">heated</span> liquid pool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bull, Geoffrey R.</p> <p></p> <p>Aqueous solutions of uranium salts may provide a new supply chain to fill potential shortfalls in the availability of the most common radiopharmaceuticals currently in use worldwide, including Tc99m which is a decay <span class="hlt">product</span> of Mo99. The fissioning of the uranium in these solutions creates Mo99 but also generates large amounts of hydrogen and oxygen from the radiolysis of the water. When the dissolved gases reach a critical concentration, bubbles will form in the solution. Bubbles in the solution affect both the fission power and the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer out of the solution. As a result, for safety and <span class="hlt">production</span> calculations, the effects of the bubbles on <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer must be understood. A high aspect ratio tank was constructed to simulate a section of an annulus with <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers on the inner and outer steel walls to provide cooling. Temperature measurements via thermocouples inside the tank and along the outside of the steel walls allowed the calculation of overall and local <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients. Different air injection manifolds allowed the exploration of various bubble characteristics and patterns on <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer from the pool. The manifold type did not appear to have significant impact on the bubble size distributions in water. However, air injected into solutions of magnesium sulfate resulted in smaller bubble sizes and larger void fractions than those in water at the same injection rates. One dimensional calculations provide <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient values as functions of the superficial gas velocity in the pool.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=341278','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=341278"><span>Determining the effects of early gestation in utero <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress on postnatal fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and circulating biomarkers associated with metabolism in growing pigs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The study objective was to determine the effects of in utero <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress (IUHS) on postnatal fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (FHP) in growing pigs. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on our previous observation of increased postnatal core body temperature ‘set-point’ in IUHS pigs, we hypothesized that FHP would be greater during postna...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1026084','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1026084"><span>Cost Estimates Of Concentrated Photovoltaic <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Sink <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>generation. As the CPV market has matured, <span class="hlt">production</span> costs have come down to near flat-panel photovoltaic (PV) <span class="hlt">production</span> costs. CPV units...sink designs to increase efficiency. Modern <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink design can achieve greater overall efficiencies of electricity generation. As the CPV market ...capital costs and intermittency (DASN, 2012). While the price per kWh of solar is falling as the solar market continues to mature, solar installation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820057183&hterms=heat+recovery&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dheat%2Brecovery','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820057183&hterms=heat+recovery&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dheat%2Brecovery"><span>Alterations in <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> mechanisms in rat exposed to hypergravic fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Horowitz, J. M.; Horwitz, B. A.; Oyama, J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A review of studies investigating the thermal response of rats exposed to hypergravic fields well below maximum tolerance levels is presented. It is concluded that several lines of evidence indicate that the neural switching network for temperature regulation and cardiovascular channeling of blood flow is transiently affected during the first hour a rat is exposed to hypergravity. Moreover, even after one hour of exposure, when the core temperature has fallen several degrees, shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis are not fully activated. Only after prolonged exposure to hypergravic fields do <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> mechanisms recover sufficiently to bring the core temperature back to a normal level. Thus, the data indicate a more rapid recovery of effector mechanisms for <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss than for <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990100644','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990100644"><span>Short Duration <span class="hlt">Base</span> <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Test Improvements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bender, Robert L.; Dagostino, Mark G.; Engel, Bradley A.; Engel, Carl D.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Significant improvements have been made to a short duration space launch vehicle <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> test technique. This technique was first developed during the 1960's to investigate launch vehicle plume induced convective environments. Recent improvements include the use of coiled nitrogen buffer gas lines upstream of the hydrogen / oxygen propellant charge tubes, fast acting solenoid valves, stand alone gas delivery and data acquisition systems, and an integrated model design code. Technique improvements were successfully demonstrated during a 2.25% scale X-33 <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> test conducted in the NASA/MSFC Nozzle Test Facility in early 1999. Cost savings of approximately an order of magnitude over previous tests were realized due in large part to these improvements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..210a2023U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..210a2023U"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> Pre-Treatment of Beverages Wastewater on Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uyub, S. Z.; Mohd, N. S.; Ibrahim, S.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>At present, a large variety of alternative fuels have been investigated and hydrogen gas is considered as the possible solution for the future due to its unique characteristics. Through dark fermentation process, several factors were found to have significant impact on the hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> either through process enhancement or inhibition and degradation rates or influencing parameters. This work was initiated to investigate the optimum conditions for <span class="hlt">heat</span> pre-treatment and initial pH for the dark fermentative process under mesophilic condition using a central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM). Different <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment conditions and pH were performed on the seed sludge collected from the anaerobic digester of beverage wastewater treatment plant. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> treatment of inoculum was optimized at different exposure times (30, 90, 120 min), temperatures (80, 90 and 100°C) and pH (4.5, 5.5, 6.5) in order to maximize the biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> and methanogens activity inhibition. It was found that the optimum <span class="hlt">heat</span> pre-treatment condition and pH occurred at 100°C for 50 min and the pH of 6.00. At this optimum condition the hydrogen yield was 63.0476 ml H2/mol glucose (H2 Yield) and the COD removal efficiency was 90.87%. In conclusion, it can be hypothesized that different <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment conditions led to differences in the initial microbial communities (hydrogen producing bacteria) which resulted in the different hydrogen yields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22606862','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22606862"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss responses to cold water immersion after 35 days horizontal bed rest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mekjavic, Igor B; Kounalakis, Stylianos N; Keramidas, Michail E; Biolo, Gianni; Narici, Marco; Eiken, Ola</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Bed rest is a terrestrial experimental analogue of unloading experienced during exposure to microgravity. Such unloading causes atrophy predominantly of the postural muscles, especially those of the lower limbs. We tested the hypothesis that 35 d horizontal bed rest alters thermoregulatory responses of subjects (N = 10) immersed in 15 degrees C water, particularly the <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced by the shivering tremor of the skeletal muscles. Before and after bed rest we measured the thickness of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM), vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA), and biceps brachii (BB) muscles by ultrasonography. During the immersions, we monitored rectal and skin temperatures, <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux, heart rate, and oxygen uptake. After bed rest, muscle thickness decreased significantly by 12.2 +/- 8.8% and 8.0 +/- 9.1% in the GM and VL, respectively. No changes were observed in the TA and BB muscles. The 35-d bed rest caused a significant reduction in aerobic power, as reflected in maximal oxygen uptake. There were no significant differences in any of the observed thermoregulatory responses between the pre- and post-bed rest immersions. Cardiovascular and muscular deconditioning had no effect on the <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss responses. Due to the significant reduction in the mass of the muscles in the lower limbs, concomitant with no change in <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, we conclude that leg muscles do not play a significant role in shivering thermogenesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9424625','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9424625"><span>[Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria sp in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-processed <span class="hlt">products</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tobía, M B; Mengoni, G B; Pellón, H S</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Presence of Listeria monocytogenes in thermoprocessed food which is vacuum packaged, refrigerated stored and eaten uncooked or minimally <span class="hlt">heated</span> was investigated. Thirty samples including sausage, large sausage with ham, spring large sausage, liverwurst and bologna were examined. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated and identified according to USDA-FSIS method for meat <span class="hlt">products</span>, simultaneously with McBride agar. Seven out of 30 samples were found to contain listeriae. Five isolates were identified as Listeria monocytogenes through Gram coloration, culture appearance, biochemical test and serotyping. This <span class="hlt">product</span> results potentially risky for the susceptible population. The presence of this microorganism in this kind of <span class="hlt">product</span> suggests environmental post-process contamination or insufficient thermal process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JThSc..15..159H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JThSc..15..159H"><span>Local entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> in turbulent shear flows: A tool for evaluating <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herwig, H.; Kock, F.</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>Performance evaluation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer devices can be <span class="hlt">based</span> on the overall entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> in these devices. In our study we therefore provide equations for the systematic and detailed determination of local entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> due to dissipation of mechanical energy and due to <span class="hlt">heat</span> conduction, both in turbulent flows. After turbulence modeling has been incorporated for the fluctuating parts the overall entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> can be determined by integration with respect to the whole flow domain. Since, however, entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> rates show very steep gradients close to the wall, numerical solutions are far more effective with wall functions for the entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> terms. These wall functions are mandatory when high Reynolds number turbulence models are used. For turbulent flow in a pipe with an inserted twisted tape as <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer promoter it is shown that <span class="hlt">based</span> on the overall entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> rate a clear statement from a thermodynamic point of view is possible. For a certain range of twist strength there is a decrease in overall entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> compared to the case without insert. Also, the optimum twist strength can be determined. This information is unavailable when only pressure drop and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer data are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......209L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......209L"><span>Transient fluid flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in petroleum <span class="hlt">production</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Dongqing</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer is an important phenomenon in both wellbore and reservoir. The pertinent temperature distribution can provide a valuable perspective in analyzing and optimizing the oil <span class="hlt">production</span>. In this work, two kinds of co-<span class="hlt">production</span>, <span class="hlt">production</span> fluid through the annulus and tubing, and through two independent tubings, have been modeled using steady state analysis. The fluid temperatures in the <span class="hlt">production</span> string and annulus have been solved analytically in both cases. Furthermore, we extended the theory of steady state energy transport to remedy asphaltene deposition problem by circulating the cooling fluid in the annulus. Due to the complex nature of two-phase flow in the oil/gas <span class="hlt">production</span>, more reliable mechanistic modeling approaches have been developed since early 1980's. Rooted in Hasan-Kabir model, we have developed a wellbore/reservoir coupling simulator for the transient non-Darcy two-phase flow in the flow-after-flow well test. The entire historical flow behavior has been modeled using superposition method and validated with field data. Our second simulation is for the investigation of a blowout well, which is a great concern in the oil field. When the pressure in the wellbore is sufficiently high, the fluids will attain sonic velocity at the wellhead. We presented a computational algorithm to estimate the blowout rate in a given wellbore/reservoir system and examined four major parameters, such as formation permeability, Gas-Oil-Ratio (GOR), reservoir pressure and tubing diameter. The transient nature of this approach also illustrates the evolution process of a blowout. We have also developed a transient simulator to determine the location and severity of a blockage in a gas pipeline <span class="hlt">based</span> on the theory of two-phase flow and pressure transient analysis. The presence of a sizeable blockage will affect the outlet gas pressure response by decreasing the available pipe volume and increasing the friction loss of the fluid flow. The simulator solves for the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040200970','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040200970"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> During Countermeasure Exercises Planned for the International Space Station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rapley, Michael G.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Guilliams, Mark E.; Greenisen, Michael C.; Schneider, Suzanne M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This investigation's purpose was to determine the amount of <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced when performing aerobic and resistance exercises planned as part of the exercise countermeasures prescription for the ISS. These data will be used to determine thermal control requirements of the Node 1 and other modules where exercise hardware might reside. To determine <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during resistive exercise, 6 subjects using the iRED performed 5 resistance exercises which form the core exercises of the current ISS resistive exercise countermeasures. Each exerciser performed a warm-up set at 50% effort, then 3 sets of increasing resistance. We measured oxygen consumption and work during each exercise. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss was calculated as the difference between the gross energy expenditure (minus resting metabolism) and the work performed. To determine <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during aerobic exercise, 14 subjects performed an interval, cycle exercise protocol and 7 subjects performed a continuous, treadmill protocol. Each 30-min. exercise is similar to exercises planned for ISS. Oxygen consumption monitored continuously during the exercises was used to calculate the gross energy expenditure. For cycle exercise, work performed was calculated <span class="hlt">based</span> on the ergometer's resistance setting and pedaling frequency. For treadmill, total work was estimated by assuming 25% work efficiency and subtracting the calculated <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and resting metabolic rate from the gross energy expenditure. This <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> needs to be considered when determining the location of exercise hardware on ISS and designing environmental control systems. These values reflect only the human subject s produced <span class="hlt">heat</span>; <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced by the exercise hardware also will contribute to the <span class="hlt">heat</span> load.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17368395','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17368395"><span>Influence of <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock on glycerol <span class="hlt">production</span> in alcohol fermentation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Berovic, Marin; Pivec, Aleksandra; Kosmerl, Tatjana; Wondra, Mojmir; Celan, Stefan</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>The influence of single and double <span class="hlt">heat</span> shocks induced during the exponential growth phase of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of cultivar Sauvignon Blanc grape must was examined. Rapid temperature changes from 18 degrees C to 34 degrees C have been applied. The effect of the duration of exposure to a high temperature has been analyzed. By the applications of a single <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock and a double <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock, up to 8.2 g l(-1) and 11.0 g l(-1) glycerol have been produced, respectively. To prevent the evaporation of fine wine bouquet compounds during the temperature changes, reflux coolers on the top of bioreactors have been employed. By using this method, glycerol <span class="hlt">production</span> was increased by up to 65%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/415177','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/415177"><span>Subtask 12D1: Impact properties of <span class="hlt">production</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> of V-4Cr-4Ti</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.; Smith, D.L.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>Following previous reports of excellent properties of a laboratory <span class="hlt">heat</span> of V-4Cr-4Ti, the alloy identified as the primary vanadium-<span class="hlt">based</span> candidate for application as fusion reactor structural components, a large <span class="hlt">production</span>-scale (500-kg) <span class="hlt">heat</span> of the alloy was fabricated successfully. Since impact toughness has been known to be most sensitive to alloy composition and microstructure, impact testing of the <span class="hlt">production</span>-scale <span class="hlt">heat</span> was conducted in this work between -200{degrees}C and +200{degrees}C. A 500-kg <span class="hlt">heat</span> of V-4Cr-4Ti, an alloy identified previously as the primary vanadium-<span class="hlt">based</span> candidate alloy for application as fusion reactor structural components, has been produced successfully. Impact tests were conducted at -196{degrees}C to 150{degrees}C on 1/3-size Charpy specimens of the scale-up <span class="hlt">heat</span> in as-rolled condition and after annealing for 1 h at 950, 1000, and 1050{degrees}C in high-quality vacuum. The annealed material remained ductile at all test temperatures; the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was lower than -200{degrees}C. The upper-shelf energy of the <span class="hlt">production</span>-scale <span class="hlt">heat</span> was similar to that of the laboratory-scale ({approx}30-kg) <span class="hlt">heat</span> of V-4Cr-4Ti investigated previously. Effect of annealing temperature was not significant; however, annealing at 1000{degrees}C for 1 h not only produces best impact properties but also ensures a sufficient tolerance to effect of temperature inhomogeneity expected when annealing large components. Effect of notch geometry was also investigated on the <span class="hlt">production</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span>. When annealed properly (e.g., at 1000{degrees}C for 1 h), impact properties were not sensitive to notch geometry (45{degrees}-notch, root radius 0.25 mm; and 300-notch, root radius 0.08 mm). 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17432870','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17432870"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> expanded starch-<span class="hlt">based</span> compositions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Glenn, Gregory M; Klamczynski, Artur K; Holtman, Kevin M; Shey, Justin; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Berrios, Jose; Wood, Delilah; Orts, William J; Imam, Syed H</p> <p>2007-05-16</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">heat</span> expansion process similar to that used for expanded bead polystyrene was used to expand starch-<span class="hlt">based</span> compositions. Foam beads made by solvent extraction had the appearance of polystyrene beads but did not expand when <span class="hlt">heated</span> due to an open-cell structure. Nonporous beads, pellets, or particles were made by extrusion or by drying and milling cooked starch slurries. The samples expanded into a low-density foam by <span class="hlt">heating</span> 190-210 degrees C for more than 20 s at ambient pressures. Formulations containing starch (50-85%), sorbitol (5-15%), glycerol (4-12%), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL, 5-15%), and water (10-20%) were studied. The bulk density was negatively correlated to sorbitol, glycerol, and water content. Increasing the EVAL content increased the bulk density, especially at concentrations higher than 15%. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) increased the bulk density more than EVAL. The bulk density was lowest in samples made of wheat and potato starch as compared to corn starch. The expansion temperature for the starch pellets decreased more than 20 degrees C as the moisture content was increased from 10 to 25%. The addition of EVAL in the formulations decreased the equilibrium moisture content of the foam and reduced the water absorption during a 1 h soaking period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7158993','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7158993"><span>Method of preparing a high <span class="hlt">heating</span> value fuel <span class="hlt">product</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Somerville, R.; Fan, L.T.</p> <p>1989-10-24</p> <p>This patent describes a method of preparing a high <span class="hlt">heating</span> value fuel <span class="hlt">product</span>. The method comprising the steps of: blending a high <span class="hlt">heating</span> value waste material with a cellulosic material; mixing an organic reagent to the blended mixture of the waste material and the cellulosic material, the organic reagent being a mixture having a 4-15 weight percent of a chemical selected from the group consisting of: triethylene, glycol, diethylene glycol, and glycerin propylene glycol; introducing a pozzolanic agent to the blended mixture for controlling the rate of solidification; and forming the blended mixture into a form suitable for handling. Also described is the same method with the mixture of the organic reagent further comprising: a 20-32 weight percent calcium chloride solution. Another method of preparing a fuel <span class="hlt">product</span> is also described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21064317','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21064317"><span>A New Model for <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Flow in Extensional Basins: Estimating Radiogenic <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Waples, Douglas W.</p> <p>2002-06-15</p> <p>Radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (RHP) represents a significant fraction of surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow, both on cratons and in sedimentary basins. RHP within continental crust-especially the upper crust-is high. RHP at any depth within the crust can be estimated as a function of crustal age. Mantle RHP, in contrast, is always low, contributing at most 1 to 2 mW/m{sup 2} to total <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow. Radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> from any noncrystalline basement that may be present also contributes to total <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow. RHP from metamorphic rocks is similar to or slightly lower than that from their precursor sedimentary rocks. When extension of the lithosphere occurs-as for example during rifting-the radiogenic contribution of each layer of the lithosphere and noncrystalline basement diminishes in direct proportion to the degree of extension of that layer. Lithospheric RHP today is somewhat less than in the distant past, as a result of radioactive decay. In modeling, RHP can be varied through time by considering the half lives of uranium, thorium, and potassium, and the proportional contribution of each of those elements to total RHP from basement. RHP from sedimentary rocks ranges from low for most evaporites to high for some shales, especially those rich in organic matter. The contribution to total <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> from sediments depends strongly on total sediment thickness, and thus differs through time as subsidence and basin filling occur. RHP can be high for thick clastic sections. RHP in sediments can be calculated using ordinary or spectral gamma-ray logs, or it can be estimated from the lithology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1225790','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1225790"><span>Geothermal Energy <span class="hlt">Production</span> With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Recovery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Swenson, Allen; Darlow, Rick; Sanchez, Angel; Pierce, Michael; Sellers, Blake</p> <p>2014-12-19</p> <p>The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface <span class="hlt">heat</span> recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power <span class="hlt">production</span>, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9333C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9333C"><span>Climate change projections of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress in Europe: From meteorological variables to impacts on <span class="hlt">productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Casanueva, Ana; Kotlarski, Sven; Liniger, Mark A.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Future climate change is likely to have important impacts in many socio-economic sectors. In particular, higher summer temperatures or more prolonged <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves may be responsible for health problems and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> losses related to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress, especially affecting people exposed to such situations (e.g. working under outside settings or in non-acclimatized workplaces). <span class="hlt">Heat</span> stress on the body under work load and consequently their <span class="hlt">productivity</span> loss can be described through <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress indices that are <span class="hlt">based</span> on multiple meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, wind and radiation. Exploring the changes of these variables under a warmer climate is of prime importance for the Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability communities. In particular, the H2020 project <span class="hlt">HEAT</span>-SHIELD aims at analyzing the impact of climate change on <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress in strategic industries in Europe (manufacturing, construction, transportation, tourism and agriculture) within an inter-sectoral framework (climate scientists, biometeorologists, physiologists and stakeholders). In the present work we explore present and future <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress over Europe using an ensemble of the state-of-the-art RCMs from the EURO-CORDEX initiative. Since RCMs cannot be directly used in impact studies due to their partly substantial biases, a standard bias correction method (empirical quantile mapping) is applied to correct the individual variables that are then used to derive <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress indices. The objectives of this study are twofold, 1) to test the ability of the separately bias corrected variables to reproduce the main characteristics of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress indices in present climate conditions and 2) to explore climate change projections of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress indices. We use the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) as primary <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress index, considering two different versions for indoor (or in the shade, <span class="hlt">based</span> on temperature and humidity conditions) and outdoor settings (including also wind and radiation). The WBGT</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10151931','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10151931"><span>Hanford <span class="hlt">production</span> reactor <span class="hlt">heat</span> releases 1951--1971</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kannberg, L.D.</p> <p>1992-04-01</p> <p>The purpose of this report is to document and detail the thermal releases from the Hanford nuclear <span class="hlt">production</span> reactors during the period 1951 through 1971, and to put these releases in historical perspective with respect to changing Columbia River flows and temperatures. This information can also be used as a foundation for further ecological evaluations. When examining Hanford <span class="hlt">production</span> reactor thermal releases to the Columbia River all related factors affecting the releases and the characteristics of the river should be considered. The major considerations in the present study were the characteristics of the releases themselves (primarily coolant flow rate, temperatures, discharge facilities, period of operation, and level of operation) and the characteristics of the river in that reach (primarily flow rate, temperature and mixing characteristics; the effects of dam construction were also taken into account). In addition, this study addressed ecological effects of thermal releases on aquatic species. Accordingly, this report includes discussion of the reactor cooling system, historical <span class="hlt">heat</span> releases, thermal mixing and transport studies, hydroelectric power development, and ecologic effects of Hanford <span class="hlt">production</span> reactor <span class="hlt">heat</span> releases on salmon and trout. Appendix A contains reactor operating statistics, and Appendix B provide computations of <span class="hlt">heat</span> added to the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and Richland, Washington.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/638193','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/638193"><span>Municipal water-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump <span class="hlt">heating</span> and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bloomquist, R.G.; Wegman, S.</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump systems <span class="hlt">based</span> on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump or <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger to determine if corrosion <span class="hlt">products</span> can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump or <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LatJP..49....3K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LatJP..49....3K"><span>Analysis of Competitiveness and Support Instruments for <span class="hlt">Heat</span> and Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span> from Wood Biomass in Latvia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klavs, G.; Kudrenickis, I.; Kundzina, A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Utilisation of renewable energy sources is one of the key factors in a search for efficient ways of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving the energy supply security. So far, the district <span class="hlt">heating</span> supply in Latvia has been <span class="hlt">based</span> on natural gas, with the wood fuel playing a minor role; the same is true for decentralised combined <span class="hlt">heat</span>-power (CHP) <span class="hlt">production</span>. The paper describes a method for evaluation of the economic feasibility of <span class="hlt">heat</span> and electricity <span class="hlt">production</span> from wood biomass under the competition between different fuel types and taking into account the electricity market. For the simulation, a cost estimation model is applied. The results demonstrate that wood biomass can successfully be utilised for competitive <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by boiler houses, while for electricity <span class="hlt">production</span> by CHP utilities it cannot compete on the market (even despite the low prices on wood biomass fuel) unless particular financial support instruments are applied. The authors evaluate the necessary support level and the impact of two main support instruments - the investment subsidies and the feed-in tariff - on the economic viability of wood-fuelled CHP plants, and show that the feed-in tariff could be considered as an instrument strongly affecting the competitiveness of such type CHP. Regarding the feed-in tariff determination, a compromise should be found between the economy-dictated requirement to develop CHP projects concerning capacities above 5 MWel - on the one hand, and the relatively small <span class="hlt">heat</span> loads in many Latvian towns - on the other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-12-12/pdf/2012-29957.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-12-12/pdf/2012-29957.pdf"><span>77 FR 74027 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple <span class="hlt">Heat</span>-Conducting Paths and <span class="hlt">Products</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-12-12</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple <span class="hlt">Heat</span>- Conducting Paths and <span class="hlt">Products</span>... integrated circuit packages provided with multiple <span class="hlt">heat</span>-conducting paths and <span class="hlt">products</span> containing same...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4154209','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4154209"><span>Using Forecast and Observed Weather Data to Assess Performance of Forecast <span class="hlt">Products</span> in Identifying <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Waves and Estimating <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Wave Effects on Mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Yeh-Hsin; Schwartz, Joel D.; Rood, Richard B.; O’Neill, Marie S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: <span class="hlt">Heat</span> wave and health warning systems are activated <span class="hlt">based</span> on forecasts of health-threatening hot weather. Objective: We estimated heat–mortality associations <span class="hlt">based</span> on forecast and observed weather data in Detroit, Michigan, and compared the accuracy of forecast <span class="hlt">products</span> for predicting <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves. Methods: We derived and compared apparent temperature (AT) and <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave days (with <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves defined as ≥ 2 days of daily mean AT ≥ 95th percentile of warm-season average) from weather observations and six different forecast <span class="hlt">products</span>. We used Poisson regression with and without adjustment for ozone and/or PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm) to estimate and compare associations of daily all-cause mortality with observed and predicted AT and <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave days. Results: The 1-day-ahead forecast of a local operational <span class="hlt">product</span>, Revised Digital Forecast, had about half the number of false positives compared with all other forecasts. On average, controlling for <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves, days with observed AT = 25.3°C were associated with 3.5% higher mortality (95% CI: –1.6, 8.8%) than days with AT = 8.5°C. Observed <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave days were associated with 6.2% higher mortality (95% CI: –0.4, 13.2%) than non–<span class="hlt">heat</span> wave days. The accuracy of predictions varied, but associations between mortality and forecast <span class="hlt">heat</span> generally tended to overestimate <span class="hlt">heat</span> effects, whereas associations with forecast <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves tended to underestimate <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave effects, relative to associations <span class="hlt">based</span> on observed weather metrics. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that incorporating knowledge of local conditions may improve the accuracy of predictions used to activate <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave and health warning systems. Citation: Zhang K, Chen YH, Schwartz JD, Rood RB, O’Neill MS. 2014. Using forecast and observed weather data to assess performance of forecast <span class="hlt">products</span> in identifying <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves and estimating <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave effects on mortality. Environ Health Perspect 122:912–918;</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20052376','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20052376"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">heat</span> on workers' health and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in Taiwan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Ro-Ting; Chan, Chang-Chuan</p> <p>2009-11-11</p> <p>The impact of global warming on population health is a growing concern and has been widely discussed. The issue of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress disorders and consequent <span class="hlt">productivity</span> reduction among workers has not yet been widely addressed. Taiwan is an island straddling the Tropic of Cancer in the West Pacific and has both subtropical and tropical climates. As of 2008, the economy of Taiwan accounts for 1.1% of the world gross domestic <span class="hlt">product</span> at purchasing power parity and is listed as 19th in the world and eighth in Asia, according to International Monetary Fund data. The aim of this paper is to identify occupations at risk and the potential health impacts of <span class="hlt">heat</span> on workers in Taiwan. Historical data relating to meteorology, population, the labour force and economy were obtained from publicly available databases from the Taiwanese government. Hot seasons with an average maximum temperature above 30 degrees C and relative humidity above 74%, lasting for four to six months from May to October, pose health threats to construction, farming and fishery workers. In particular, populations of ageing farmers and physically overloaded construction workers are the two most vulnerable worker categories in which high temperature impacts on health and <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. Currently, regulations and preventive actions for <span class="hlt">heat</span> relief are difficult to enforce for several reasons, including lack of equipment for measuring environmental conditions, lack of awareness of potential hazards and strict time constraints imposed on workers. There is an urgent need to systematically and comprehensively assess the impact of a warming climate on workers' health and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> to provide effective prevention strategies for a better working and living environment in Taiwan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980STIN...8115484.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980STIN...8115484."><span>Solar <span class="hlt">production</span> of intermediate temperature process <span class="hlt">heat</span>, phase 1 design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-08-01</p> <p>The system consists of 42,420 sq ft of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors are oriented in a North-South configuration and track East-West. A <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) is circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370 F and 450 F respectively. These temperatures are constantly maintained via a variable flow rate through the collectors (the flow rate varies in direct proportion to the level of insolation). Superheated steam is the final <span class="hlt">product</span> of the solar energy system. Final steam quality at the steam generator is 420 F and 165 Psia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..444..713M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..444..713M"><span>Personalized recommendation <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">heat</span> bidirectional transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, Wenping; Feng, Xiang; Wang, Shanfeng; Gong, Maoguo</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Personalized recommendation has become an increasing popular research topic, which aims to find future likes and interests <span class="hlt">based</span> on users' past preferences. Traditional recommendation algorithms pay more attention to forecast accuracy by calculating first-order relevance, while ignore the importance of diversity and novelty that provide comfortable experiences for customers. There are some levels of contradictions between these three metrics, so an algorithm <span class="hlt">based</span> on bidirectional transfer is proposed in this paper to solve this dilemma. In this paper, we agree that an object that is associated with history records or has been purchased by similar users should be introduced to the specified user and recommendation approach <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">heat</span> bidirectional transfer is proposed. Compared with the state-of-the-art approaches <span class="hlt">based</span> on bipartite network, experiments on two benchmark data sets, Movielens and Netflix, demonstrate that our algorithm has better performance on accuracy, diversity and novelty. Moreover, this method does better in exploiting long-tail commodities and cold-start problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=377728','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=377728"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> Resistance of Salmonella in Various Egg <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Garibaldi, J. A.; Straka, R. P.; Ijichi, K.</p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">heat</span>-resistance characteristics of Salmonella typhimurium Tm-1, a reference strain in the stationary phase of growth, were determined at several temperatures in the major types of <span class="hlt">products</span> produced by the egg industry. The time required to kill 90% of the population (D value) at a given temperature in specific egg <span class="hlt">products</span> was as follows: at 60 C (140 F), D = 0.27 min for whole egg; D = 0.60 min for whole egg plus 10% sucrose; D = 1.0 min for fortified whole egg; D = 0.20 min for egg white (pH 7.3), stabilized with aluminum; D = 0.40 min for egg yolk; D = 4.0 min for egg yolk plus 10% sucrose; D = 5.1 min for egg yolk plus 10% NaCl; D = 1.0 min for scrambled egg mix; at 55 C (131 F), D = 0.55 min for egg white (pH 9.2); D = 1.2 min for egg white (pH 9.2) plus 10% sucrose. The average Z value (number of degrees, either centigrade or fahrenheit, for a thermal destruction time curve to traverse one logarithmic cycle) was 4.6 C (8.3 F) with a range from 4.2 to 5.3 C. Supplementation with 10% sucrose appeared to have a severalfold greater effect on the <span class="hlt">heat</span> stabilization of egg white proteins than on S. typhimurium Tm-1. This information should be of value in the formulation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatments to insure that all egg <span class="hlt">products</span> be free of viable salmonellae. Images PMID:4890741</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMiMi..20k5002L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMiMi..20k5002L"><span>Fabrication, assembly and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer testing of low-profile copper-<span class="hlt">based</span> microchannel <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Bin; Chen, Ke; Meng, W. J.; Mei, Fanghua</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Low-profile, Cu-<span class="hlt">based</span> microchannel <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers (MHEs) with different geometric dimensions were fabricated, bonded and assembled. A transient liquid phase (TLP) process was used for bonding of Cu-<span class="hlt">based</span> MHEs with total thicknesses ranging from 600 µm to 1700 µm. The structural integrity of TLP-bonded Cu MHEs was examined. Device-level <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer testing was performed on a series of Cu-<span class="hlt">based</span> MHEs to study the influence of microchannel dimensions on overall <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer performance, corroborated by computational results from a simple 2D finite element analysis. The present results demonstrate the promise of low-profile metallic MHEs for high <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux cooling applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5832144','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5832144"><span>Flat plate <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers for the new <span class="hlt">production</span> reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ondrejcin, R.S.</p> <p>1988-12-07</p> <p>The New <span class="hlt">Production</span> Reactor (NPR) will require <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers (HX) as part of the ancillary equipment. The most common type of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger in the US is the shell and tube, the type presently in SRP reactor service. This type of design is the one that is normally described in detail in <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer texts. Other designs are more efficient, and there was a period when these designs were actively modified. The largest driving force for higher efficiency HX was the OPEC produced energy shortage of the early 1970's. Several comments were made by B.S. Spangler about flat plate HX for the NPR after my initial comparison between shell and tube and flat plate HX (DPST-88-729). Since answers were not readily available, Philippe Marchal of Packinox (Louveciennes, France) agreed to visit SRL. This report contains a series of answers to all comments raised in DPST-88-743 and some general statements comparing flat plate HX to shell and tube HX. 1 fig., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880009059','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880009059"><span>Laser <span class="hlt">production</span> and <span class="hlt">heating</span> of plasma for MHD application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jalufka, N. W.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Experiments have been made on the <span class="hlt">production</span> and <span class="hlt">heating</span> of plasmas by the absorption of laser radiation. These experiments were performed to ascertain the feasibility of using laser-produced or laser-<span class="hlt">heated</span> plasmas as the input for a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator. Such a system would have a broad application as a laser-to-electricity energy converter for space power transmission. Experiments with a 100-J-pulsed CO2 laser were conducted to investigate the breakdown of argon gas by a high-intensity laser beam, the parameters (electron density and temperature) of the plasma produced, and the formation and propagation of laser-supported detonation (LSD) waves. Experiments were also carried out using a 1-J-pulsed CO2 laser to <span class="hlt">heat</span> the plasma produced in a shock tube. The shock-tube hydrogen plasma reached electron densities of approximately 10 to the 17th/cu cm and electron temperatures of approximately 1 eV. Absorption of the CO2 laser beam by the plasma was measured, and up to approximately 100 percent absorption was observed. Measurements with a small MHD generator showed that the energy extraction efficiency could be very large with values up to 56 percent being measured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAP...106f4509E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAP...106f4509E"><span>Electrocaloric devices <span class="hlt">based</span> on thin-film <span class="hlt">heat</span> switches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Epstein, Richard I.; Malloy, Kevin J.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>We describe a new approach to refrigeration, <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumping, and electrical generation that allows one to exploit the attractive properties of thin films of electrocaloric materials. Layers of electrocaloric material coupled with thin-film <span class="hlt">heat</span> switches can work as either refrigerators and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps or electrical generators, depending on the phasing of the applied voltages and <span class="hlt">heat</span> switching. With <span class="hlt">heat</span> switches <span class="hlt">based</span> on thin layers of liquid crystals, the efficiency of electrocaloric thin-film devices can be at least as high as that of current thermoelectric devices. Advanced <span class="hlt">heat</span> switches that may use carbon nanotubes would enable thin-film refrigerators and generators to outperform conventional vapor-compression devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/956526','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/956526"><span>Electrocaloric devices <span class="hlt">based</span> on thini-film <span class="hlt">heat</span> switches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Epstein, Richard I; Malloy, Kevin J</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We describe a new approach to refrigeration and electrical generation that exploits the attractive properties of thin films of electrocaloric materials. Layers of electrocaloric material coupled with thin-film <span class="hlt">heat</span> switches can work as either refrigerators or electrical generators, depending on the phasing of the applied voltages and <span class="hlt">heat</span> switching. With <span class="hlt">heat</span> switches <span class="hlt">based</span> on thin layers of liquid crystals, the efficiency of these thin-film <span class="hlt">heat</span> engines can be at least as high as that of current thermoelectric devices. Advanced <span class="hlt">heat</span> switches would enable thin-film <span class="hlt">heat</span> engines to outperform conventional vaporcompression devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RuPhJ..60..227B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RuPhJ..60..227B"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> Capacity of the Polymer Composite <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Carbon Nanotubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Babaev, A. A.; Aliev, A. M.; Terukov, E. A.; Filippov, A. K.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The paper examines <span class="hlt">heat</span> capacity of the polymer composite <span class="hlt">based</span> on a large number of multiwall carbon nanotubes (95%/5%) in the temperature range of 300 K ≤ T < 450 K in the course of <span class="hlt">heating</span> and cooling. It identifies the anomalies of <span class="hlt">heat</span> capacity and thermal diffusion that are responsible for structural phase transitions of the first order.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790016461','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790016461"><span>Investigations about the quantitative changes of carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">production</span> in humans. Report 2: Carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">production</span> during fever and its relationship with <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liebermeister, C.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Investigations are cited and explained for carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">production</span> during fever and its relationship with <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. The general topics of discussion are: (1) carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">production</span> for alternating fever attacks; (2) <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance during the perspiration phase; (3) <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance during the chill phase; (4) the theory of fever; and (5) chill phase for other fever attacks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914314B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914314B"><span>The forgotten component of sub-glacial <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow: Upper crustal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and resultant total <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux on the Antarctic Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burton-Johnson, Alex; Halpin, Jacqueline; Whittaker, Joanne; Watson, Sally</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Seismic and magnetic geophysical methods have both been employed to produce estimates of <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux beneath the Antarctic ice sheet. However, both methods use a homogeneous upper crustal model despite the variable concentration of <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements within its composite lithologies. Using geological and geochemical datasets from the Antarctic Peninsula we have developed a new methodology for incorporating upper crustal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux models and have shown the greater variability this introduces in to estimates of crustal <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux, with implications for glaciological modelling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940000656&hterms=CFD+plume+heating&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCFD%2Bplume%2Bheating','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940000656&hterms=CFD+plume+heating&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCFD%2Bplume%2Bheating"><span>Study Of <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Of The <span class="hlt">Base</span> Region Of A Rocket</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ascoli, Edward P.; Heiba, Adel A.; Hsu, Yann-Fu; Lagnado, Ronald R.; Lynch, Edward D.; Ungewitter, Ronald J.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Report describes theoretical study of <span class="hlt">heating</span> in <span class="hlt">base</span> region of proposed rocket called "NLS 1.5 stage reference vehicle." Study employed approach <span class="hlt">based</span> on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Involved numerical simulations of flow field in <span class="hlt">base</span> region and in main exhaust plume of cluster of six engines with <span class="hlt">heat</span> shields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reaction+AND+enthalpy&id=EJ863175','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reaction+AND+enthalpy&id=EJ863175"><span>The Chemistry of Self-<span class="hlt">Heating</span> Food <span class="hlt">Products</span>: An Activity for Classroom Engagement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Pinto, Gabriel; Llorens-Molina, Juan Antonio</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Two commercial self-<span class="hlt">heating</span> food <span class="hlt">products</span> have been used to apply chemical concepts such as stoichiometry, enthalpies of reactions and solutions, and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in a classroom activity. These <span class="hlt">products</span> are the self-<span class="hlt">heating</span> beverages sold in Europe and the Meals, Ready to Eat or MREs used primarily by the military in the United States. The main…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Chemistry+AND+food&pg=4&id=EJ863175','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Chemistry+AND+food&pg=4&id=EJ863175"><span>The Chemistry of Self-<span class="hlt">Heating</span> Food <span class="hlt">Products</span>: An Activity for Classroom Engagement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Pinto, Gabriel; Llorens-Molina, Juan Antonio</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Two commercial self-<span class="hlt">heating</span> food <span class="hlt">products</span> have been used to apply chemical concepts such as stoichiometry, enthalpies of reactions and solutions, and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in a classroom activity. These <span class="hlt">products</span> are the self-<span class="hlt">heating</span> beverages sold in Europe and the Meals, Ready to Eat or MREs used primarily by the military in the United States. The main…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930013161','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930013161"><span><span class="hlt">Base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> methodology improvements, volume 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bender, Robert L.; Reardon, John E.; Somers, Richard E.; Fulton, Michael S.; Smith, Sheldon D.; Pergament, Harold</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This document is the final report for NASA MSFC Contract NAS8-38141. The contracted effort had the broad objective of improving the launch vehicles ascent <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> methodology to improve and simplify the determination of that environment for Advanced Launch System (ALS) concepts. It was pursued as an Advanced Development Plan (ADP) for the Joint DoD/NASA ALS program office with project management assigned to NASA/MSFC. The original study was to be completed in 26 months beginning Sep. 1989. Because of several program changes and emphasis on evolving launch vehicle concepts, the period of performance was extended to the current completion date of Nov. 1992. A computer code incorporating the methodology improvements into a quick prediction tool was developed and is operational for basic configuration and propulsion concepts. The code and its users guide are also provided as part of the contract documentation. Background information describing the specific objectives, limitations, and goals of the contract is summarized. A brief chronology of the ALS/NLS program history is also presented to provide the reader with an overview of the many variables influencing the development of the code over the past three years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17706652','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17706652"><span>Observer-<span class="hlt">based</span> monitoring of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Astorga-Zaragoza, Carlos-Manuel; Alvarado-Martínez, Víctor-Manuel; Zavala-Río, Arturo; Méndez-Ocaña, Rafael-Maxim; Guerrero-Ramírez, Gerardo-Vicente</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this work is to provide a method for monitoring performance degradation in counter-flow double-pipe <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers. The overall <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient is estimated by an adaptive observer and monitored in order to infer when the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger needs preventive or corrective maintenance. A simplified mathematical model is used to synthesize the adaptive observer and a more complex model is used for simulation. The reliability of the proposed method was demonstrated via numerical simulations and laboratory experiments with a bench-scale pilot plant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4757480','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4757480"><span>Singlet oxygen <span class="hlt">production</span> in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Prasad, Ankush; Ferretti, Ursula; Sedlářová, Michaela; Pospíšil, Pavel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In the current study, singlet oxygen formation by lipid peroxidation induced by <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress (40 °C) was studied in vivo in unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Primary and secondary oxidation <span class="hlt">products</span> of lipid peroxidation, hydroperoxide and malondialdehyde, were generated under <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress as detected using swallow-tailed perylene derivative fluorescence monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was initiated by enzymatic reaction as inhibition of lipoxygenase by catechol and caffeic acid prevented hydroperoxide formation. Ultra-weak photon emission showed formation of electronically excited species such as triplet excited carbonyl, which, upon transfer of excitation energy, leads to the formation of either singlet excited chlorophyll or singlet oxygen. Alternatively, singlet oxygen is formed by direct decomposition of hydroperoxide via Russell mechanisms. Formation of singlet oxygen was evidenced by the nitroxyl radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping spectroscopy and the imaging of green fluorescence of singlet oxygen sensor green detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Suppression of singlet oxygen formation by lipoxygenase inhibitors indicates that singlet oxygen may be formed via enzymatic lipid peroxidation initiated by lipoxygenase. PMID:26831215</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21636998','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21636998"><span>Molecular responses of Escherichia coli caused by <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress and recombinant protein <span class="hlt">production</span> during temperature induction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Ramírez, Octavio T; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In a recent review, we discussed the extensively used temperature-inducible expression system, <span class="hlt">based</span> on the pL and/or pR phage lambda promoters that are finely regulated by the thermo-labile cI857 repressor. In this system, an increase in temperature induces the heterologous protein <span class="hlt">production</span> and activates the <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock response, as well as the stringent and SOS responses. The same responses are activated just by the overproduction of recombinant protein. All such responses result in a metabolic burden to the cells, a decrease in the specific growth rate, and alterations in the central carbon metabolism. Altogether, these effects can alter the quantity and quality of the produced foreign protein. Here, we compare and discuss the transcription of selected genes, and the concomitant synthesis of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-shock proteins (hsp) soon after thermal induction, in relation to the responses that occur in other expression systems that also trigger the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-shock response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810022008','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810022008"><span>A Fresnel collector process <span class="hlt">heat</span> experiment at Capitol Concrete <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hauger, J. S.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>An experiment is planned, conducted and evaluated to determine the feasibility of using a Power Kinetics' Fresnel concentrator to provide process <span class="hlt">heat</span> in an industrial environment. The plant provides process steam at 50 to 60 psig to two autoclaves for curing masonry blocks. When steam is not required, the plant preheats hot water for later use. A second system is installed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory parabolic dish test site for hardware validation and experiment control. Experiment design allows for the extrapolation of results to varying demands for steam and hot water, and includes a consideration of some socio-technical factors such as the impact on <span class="hlt">production</span> scheduling of diurnal variations in energy availability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28651384','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28651384"><span>Agaricus bisporus <span class="hlt">production</span> on substrates pasteurized by self-<span class="hlt">heating</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Colmenares-Cruz, Stephania; Sánchez, José E; Valle-Mora, Javier</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The aim of this work was to determine if the self-<span class="hlt">heating</span> pasteurization procedure is technically applicable to the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. Firstly the substrates alone (corncob, Pangola grass and a mixture of both ingredients with wood shavings) were tested. Two supplementation trials were then undertaken using soybean, wheat bran, sheep manure, sesame seed, black bean and chia. Highest <span class="hlt">production</span> values (BE = 176.3% and Y = 26.6 kg/m(2)) were obtained using a 9% supplement, with a formula consisting of 25% each of soybean, black bean, wheat bran and chia, added at spawning and at casing. These results were comparable to those obtained with the Phase II compost traditionally used for A. bisporus cultivation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThEng..62..598P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThEng..62..598P"><span>Optimum load distribution between <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources <span class="hlt">based</span> on the Cournot model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Penkovskii, A. V.; Stennikov, V. A.; Khamisov, O. V.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>One of the widespread models of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> supply of consumers, which is represented in the "Single buyer" format, is considered. The methodological <span class="hlt">base</span> proposed for its description and investigation presents the use of principles of the theory of games, basic propositions of microeconomics, and models and methods of the theory of hydraulic circuits. The original mathematical model of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> supply system operating under conditions of the "Single buyer" organizational structure provides the derivation of a solution satisfying the market Nash equilibrium. The distinctive feature of the developed mathematical model is that, along with problems solved traditionally within the bounds of bilateral relations of <span class="hlt">heat</span> energy sources-<span class="hlt">heat</span> consumer, it considers a network component with its inherent physicotechnical properties of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> network and business factors connected with costs of the <span class="hlt">production</span> and transportation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> energy. This approach gives the possibility to determine optimum levels of load of <span class="hlt">heat</span> energy sources. These levels provide the given <span class="hlt">heat</span> energy demand of consumers subject to the maximum profit earning of <span class="hlt">heat</span> energy sources and the fulfillment of conditions for formation of minimum <span class="hlt">heat</span> network costs for a specified time. The practical realization of the search of market equilibrium is considered by the example of a <span class="hlt">heat</span> supply system with two <span class="hlt">heat</span> energy sources operating on integrated <span class="hlt">heat</span> networks. The mathematical approach to the solution search is represented in the graphical form and illustrates computations <span class="hlt">based</span> on the stepwise iteration procedure for optimization of levels of loading of <span class="hlt">heat</span> energy sources (groping procedure by Cournot) with the corresponding computation of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> energy price for consumers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..426H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..426H"><span>Revisiting the global surface energy budgets with maximum-entropy-<span class="hlt">production</span> model of surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Shih-Yu; Deng, Yi; Wang, Jingfeng</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The maximum-entropy-<span class="hlt">production</span> (MEP) model of surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes, <span class="hlt">based</span> on contemporary non-equilibrium thermodynamics, information theory, and atmospheric turbulence theory, is used to re-estimate the global surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes. The MEP model predicted surface fluxes automatically balance the surface energy budgets at all time and space scales without the explicit use of near-surface temperature and moisture gradient, wind speed and surface roughness data. The new MEP-<span class="hlt">based</span> global annual mean fluxes over the land surface, using input data of surface radiation, temperature data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (NASA CERES) supplemented by surface specific humidity data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), agree closely with previous estimates. The new estimate of ocean evaporation, not using the MERRA reanalysis data as model inputs, is lower than previous estimates, while the new estimate of ocean sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux is higher than previously reported. The MEP model also produces the first global map of ocean surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux that is not available from existing global reanalysis <span class="hlt">products</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...49.1531H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...49.1531H"><span>Revisiting the global surface energy budgets with maximum-entropy-<span class="hlt">production</span> model of surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Shih-Yu; Deng, Yi; Wang, Jingfeng</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>The maximum-entropy-<span class="hlt">production</span> (MEP) model of surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes, <span class="hlt">based</span> on contemporary non-equilibrium thermodynamics, information theory, and atmospheric turbulence theory, is used to re-estimate the global surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes. The MEP model predicted surface fluxes automatically balance the surface energy budgets at all time and space scales without the explicit use of near-surface temperature and moisture gradient, wind speed and surface roughness data. The new MEP-<span class="hlt">based</span> global annual mean fluxes over the land surface, using input data of surface radiation, temperature data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (NASA CERES) supplemented by surface specific humidity data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), agree closely with previous estimates. The new estimate of ocean evaporation, not using the MERRA reanalysis data as model inputs, is lower than previous estimates, while the new estimate of ocean sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux is higher than previously reported. The MEP model also produces the first global map of ocean surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux that is not available from existing global reanalysis <span class="hlt">products</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040142087&hterms=monkey&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmonkey','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040142087&hterms=monkey&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmonkey"><span>Light masking of circadian rhythms of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss, and body temperature in squirrel monkeys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Robinson, E. L.; Fuller, C. A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Whole body <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (HP) and <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss (HL) were examined to determine their relative contributions to light masking of the circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of body temperature and activity. Feeding was also measured. Responses to an entraining light-dark (LD) cycle (LD 12:12) and a masking LD cycle (LD 2:2) were compared. HP and HL contributed to both the daily rhythm and the masking changes in Tb. All variables showed phase-dependent masking responses. Masking transients at L or D transitions were generally greater during subjective day; however, L masking resulted in sustained elevation of Tb, HP, and HL during subjective night. Parallel, apparently compensatory, changes of HL and HP suggest action by both the circadian timing system and light masking on Tb set point. Furthermore, transient HL increases during subjective night suggest that gain change may supplement set point regulation of Tb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040142087&hterms=Body+temperature&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBody%2Btemperature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040142087&hterms=Body+temperature&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBody%2Btemperature"><span>Light masking of circadian rhythms of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss, and body temperature in squirrel monkeys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Robinson, E. L.; Fuller, C. A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Whole body <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (HP) and <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss (HL) were examined to determine their relative contributions to light masking of the circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of body temperature and activity. Feeding was also measured. Responses to an entraining light-dark (LD) cycle (LD 12:12) and a masking LD cycle (LD 2:2) were compared. HP and HL contributed to both the daily rhythm and the masking changes in Tb. All variables showed phase-dependent masking responses. Masking transients at L or D transitions were generally greater during subjective day; however, L masking resulted in sustained elevation of Tb, HP, and HL during subjective night. Parallel, apparently compensatory, changes of HL and HP suggest action by both the circadian timing system and light masking on Tb set point. Furthermore, transient HL increases during subjective night suggest that gain change may supplement set point regulation of Tb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20018963','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20018963"><span>Integrated bioenergy complex for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of power, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and bio-ethanol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Taviani, M.; Chiaramonti, D.; Tondi, G.; Grassi, G.</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>In this paper an integrated bioenergy complex for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of power, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and bio-ethanol is presented. Ethanol, in fact, has been recognized as a high-quality transportation fuel. The reduction of petroleum consumption, especially for transport, is a strategic goal especially for those countries that already have or will experience an intensive industrial development in the next future. For these motivations, the <span class="hlt">production</span> of bio-ethanol from Sweet Sorghum (which is now one of the most promising crop for this application in term of <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, inputs demand, and flexibility) is of great interest in most of countries. The proposed integrated complex produces power, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and bio-ethanol: the produced power and <span class="hlt">heat</span> are partly used for bio-ethanol processing and biomass pre-treatment, partly to be sold to the market. This system has important innovations allowing a decentralized energy and ethanol <span class="hlt">production</span> and creating new local jobs. The small power plant is <span class="hlt">based</span> upon a steam cycle with an advanced low emission combustor, capable of burning different biomass resources with a modest decrease in the efficiency value. The Bioenergy Complex, suitable to satisfy the needs of a 3,000 inhabitants village, is composed by the following sub-systems: (1) Sweet Sorghum plantation (250 ha); the main <span class="hlt">products</span> are: dry bagasse (approximately 3,900 Ton/year), grains (1,300 Ton/y) and sugar (1,850 Ton/y); (2) Cane crushing--sugar juice extraction system; (3) Sugar juice fermentation and distillation ethanol <span class="hlt">production</span> (approx. 835 Ton/y); (4) Biomass pre-treatment components (grinding, drying, briquetting, storage, etc.); and (5) Cogeneration unit--the expansion unit is constituted by a last generation reciprocating steam engine, coupled with a 500 kWe alternator; the <span class="hlt">heat</span> of the expanded flow is removed in the condenser, with an available thermal power of approximately 2,000 kWt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/415171','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/415171"><span>Subtask 12A1: Fabrication of <span class="hlt">production</span>-scale <span class="hlt">heat</span> of V-4Cr-4Ti</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chung, H.M.; Tsai, H.C.; Smith, D.L.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>On the basis of excellent properties that were determined for a laboratory-scale <span class="hlt">heat</span>, V-4Cr-4Ti has been identified previously as the most promising vanadium-<span class="hlt">based</span> candidate alloy for application in fusion reactor structural components. The objective of this work is to produce a large-scale (500-kg) ingot of the alloy and fabricate various plates and sheets from the ingot, thereby demonstrating a reliable method of fabricating an industrial-scale <span class="hlt">heat</span> of V-4Cr-4Ti that exhibits excellent properties. A 500-kg <span class="hlt">heat</span> of V-4Cr-4Ti, an alloy identified previously as the most promising vanadium-<span class="hlt">based</span> candidate alloy for application in fusion reactor structural components, has been produced. The ingot was produced by multiple vacuum-arc melting using screened high-quality raw materials of vanadium, chrome, and titanium. Several long bars {approx}64 mm in thickness and {approx}200 mm in width were extruded from the ingot, and plates and sheets of various thicknesses ranging from 1.0 to 29.2 mm were fabricated successfully from the extruded bars. The chemical composition of the ingot and the secondary fabrication procedures, specified on the basis of the experience and knowledge gained from fabrication, testing, and microstructural characterization of a laboratory-scale <span class="hlt">heat</span>, were found to be satisfactory. Charpy-impact tests showed that mechanical properties of the <span class="hlt">production</span>-scale <span class="hlt">heat</span> are as good as those of the laboratory-scale <span class="hlt">heat</span>. This demonstrates a method of reliable fabrication of industrial-scale <span class="hlt">heats</span> of V-4Cr-4Ti that exhibit excellent properties. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26590454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26590454"><span>The reliability of a <span class="hlt">heat</span> acclimation state test prescribed from metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> intensities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Willmott, A G B; Hayes, M; Dekerle, J; Maxwell, N S</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Acclimation state indicates an individual's phenotypic response to a thermally stressful environment, where changes in <span class="hlt">heat</span> dissipation capacity are determined during a <span class="hlt">heat</span> acclimation state test (HAST). Variations in thermoregulatory and sudomotor function are reported while exercising at intensities relative to maximal oxygen uptake. This inter-individual variation is not true when intensity is prescribed to elicit a fixed rate of metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (Ḣprod). This study investigated the reliability of peak Tre and two composite measures (sweat gain and sweat setpoint) derived from indices of thermosensitivity during a HAST prescribed from Ḣprod intensities. Fourteen participants (mean±SD; age 23±3 years, stature 174±7cm, body mass 75.0±9.4kg, body surface area 1.9±0.1m(2), peak oxygen consumption [V̇O2peak] 3.49±0.53Lmin(-1)) completed a lactate threshold-V̇O2peak test and two duplicate Ḣprod HASTs on a cycle ergometer. The HAST consisted of three, 30-min periods of exercise at fixed Ḣprod intensities relative to body mass (3, 4.5 and 6Wkg(-1)), within hot dry conditions (44.7±1.8°C and 18.1±4.7% relative humidity). Peak Tre (38.20±0.36 vs. 38.16±0.42°C, p=0.54), sweat setpoint (36.76±0.34 and 36.79±0.38°C, p=0.68) and sweat gain (0.37±0.14 and 0.40±0.18gs(-1)°C(-1), p=0.40) did not differ between HASTs. Typical error of measurement (TEM), coefficient variation (CV) and intra-class coefficient of correlation (ICC) were 0.19°C, 0.5% and 0.80 for peak Tre, 0.21°C, 0.6% and 0.65 for sweat setpoint and 0.09gs(-1)°C(-1), 28% and 0.68 for sweat gain, respectively. The use of fixed Ḣprod intensities relative to body mass is a reliable method for measuring Tre and ascertaining sweat setpoint during a HAST, whereas, sweat gain displays greater variability. A Ḣprod HAST appears sufficiently reliable for quantifying <span class="hlt">heat</span> acclimation state, where TEM in peak Tre and sweat setpoint are small enough to identify physiologically</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28919477','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28919477"><span>Influence of microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> on biogas <span class="hlt">production</span> from Sida hermaphrodita silage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zieliński, Marcin; Dębowski, Marcin; Rusanowska, Paulina</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>This study compared the effects on biogas <span class="hlt">production</span> of suspended sludge versus a combination of suspended sludge and immobilized biomass, and microwave versus convection <span class="hlt">heating</span>. Biogas <span class="hlt">production</span> was the highest in the hybrid bioreactor <span class="hlt">heated</span> by microwaves (385L/kg VS) and also the most stable, as shown by the FOS/TAC ratio and pH. Regardless of the type of <span class="hlt">heating</span>, biogas <span class="hlt">production</span> was 8% higher with immobilized biomass than without. Although the lag phase of biogas <span class="hlt">production</span> was shorter with microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> than without, the log phase was longer, and biogas <span class="hlt">production</span> in the microwave <span class="hlt">heated</span> bioreactors took about twice as long (ca. 40days) to plateau as in the conventionally <span class="hlt">heated</span> bioreactors. These differences in the profile of biogas <span class="hlt">production</span> are likely due to the athermal effects of microwave irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24239977','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24239977"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span>-resistance of Hamigera avellanea and Thermoascus crustaceus isolated from pasteurized acid <span class="hlt">products</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scaramuzza, Nicoletta; Berni, Elettra</p> <p>2014-01-03</p> <p><span class="hlt">Products</span> containing sugar or fruit derivatives are usually subjected to a pasteurization process that can anyway be ineffective to kill ascospores from <span class="hlt">heat</span>-resistant molds. Although the most occurring and economically relevant <span class="hlt">heat</span>-resistant species belong to Byssochlamys, Neosartorya, Talaromyces, and Eupenicillium genera, an increasing number of uncommon <span class="hlt">heat</span>-resistant isolates have been recently detected as spoiling microorganisms in such <span class="hlt">products</span>. Since Hamigera spp. and Thermoascus spp. were those more frequently isolated at SSICA, <span class="hlt">heat</span> resistance of Hamigera avellanea and Thermoascus crustaceus strains from pasteurized acid <span class="hlt">products</span> was studied in apple juice, in blueberry and grape juice and in a buffered glucose solution. Data obtained from thermal death curves and statistical elaboration of raw data showed that D values of H. avellanea may vary between 11.11 and 66.67 min at 87°C, between 4.67 and 13.51 at 90°C, and between 0.43 and 1.52 min at 95°C. Similarly, D values of T. crustaceus may vary between 18.52 and 90.91 min at 90°C, between 2.79 and 19.23 at 93°C, and between 1.11 and 2.53 min at 95°C. For both strains studied, the z-values calculated from the decimal reduction time curves did not prove to be significantly influenced by the <span class="hlt">heating</span> medium, that being 4.35°C, 5.39°C or 5.27°C for H. avellanea and 4.42°C, 3.69°C or 3.37°C for T. crustaceus, respectively in apple juice, in blueberry and grape juice or in the buffered glucose solution. Considering the pasteurization treatments industrially applied to fruit-<span class="hlt">based</span> foods, the variation of thermal parameters does not seem to be a possible way to avoid <span class="hlt">product</span> spoilage by these two species and only good practices applied to reduce the original load of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-resistant fungi can help producers to prevent losses in contaminated finished <span class="hlt">products</span>, as usually happens for other <span class="hlt">heat</span> resistant molds. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=222745','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=222745"><span>Differential <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock tolerance and expression of <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock inducible proteins in two stored-<span class="hlt">product</span> psocids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The recent recognition of psocid infestations as a major concern in stored <span class="hlt">products</span>, where their management with fumigants and conventional insecticides has proven difficult, and also the recent reemergence of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment as a potential tactic for control of stored-<span class="hlt">product</span> insects led to the pres...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5335W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5335W"><span>Constructing a model of 3D radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Willmot Noller, N. M.; Daly, J. S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> values in the crust and mantle rock inform <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow density data to provide crucial information about the structure of the Earth's lithosphere. In addition, accurate models of horizontal and vertical distribution of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> can help to define geothermal exploration targets. Low-enthalpy district scale space <span class="hlt">heating</span> and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) using hot, dry rock may provide sustainable energy resources in regions currently perceived as having low geothermal energy potential. Ireland is located within stable lithosphere, unaffected by recent tectonism and volcanism, and has an estimated <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow range below the measured global continental average. Nevertheless, borehole data indicate that <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> is variable across the island, with anomalously high rates observed, for example, in Cavan, Meath and Antrim. Data coverage is, however, poor. Radioactive isotopic decay generates <span class="hlt">heat</span> in rock. By using established <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> constants and known concentrations of unstable isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium, along with rock density values, a <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rate in μW m -3 is obtained. With the objective of compiling the first comprehensive database of information about the Irish lithosphere, in three dimensions, the authors present here initial results obtained from published and unpublished whole-rock major and trace element analyses. The presence of systematic trends correlating <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> to properties such as age and lithology are also investigated. Offering insight into the vertical component of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> distribution, Irish xenoliths emplaced in Lower Carboniferous volcanics are regarded as a reliable proxy for the present-day lower crust. Their geochemical composition gives <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> values that are higher than expected for the depths indicated by their thermobarometric data, suggesting that <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rates do not simply reduce with depth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NJPh...17h5011I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NJPh...17h5011I"><span>Linear irreversible <span class="hlt">heat</span> engines <span class="hlt">based</span> on local equilibrium assumptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Izumida, Yuki; Okuda, Koji</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We formulate an endoreversible finite-time Carnot cycle model <span class="hlt">based</span> on the assumptions of local equilibrium and constant energy flux, where the efficiency and the power are expressed in terms of the thermodynamic variables of the working substance. By analyzing the entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> rate caused by the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in each isothermal process during the cycle, and using the endoreversible condition applied to the linear response regime, we identify the thermodynamic flux and force of the present system and obtain a linear relation that connects them. We calculate the efficiency at maximum power in the linear response regime by using the linear relation, which agrees with the Curzon-Ahlborn (CA) efficiency known as the upper bound in this regime. This reason is also elucidated by rewriting our model into the form of the Onsager relations, where our model turns out to satisfy the tight-coupling condition leading to the CA efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046743','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046743"><span>Silicon-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Thermoelectrics: Harvesting Low Quality <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Using Economically Printed Flexible Nanostructured Stacked Thermoelectric Junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: UIUC is experimenting with silicon-<span class="hlt">based</span> materials to develop flexible thermoelectric devices—which convert <span class="hlt">heat</span> into energy—that can be mass-produced at low cost. A thermoelectric device, which resembles a computer chip, creates electricity when a different temperature is applied to each of its sides. Existing commercial thermoelectric devices contain the element tellurium, which limits <span class="hlt">production</span> levels because tellurium has become increasingly rare. UIUC is replacing this material with microscopic silicon wires that are considerably cheaper and could be equally effective. Improvements in thermoelectric device <span class="hlt">production</span> could return enough wasted <span class="hlt">heat</span> to add up to 23% to our current annual electricity <span class="hlt">production</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18608576','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18608576"><span><span class="hlt">Heating</span> applicator <span class="hlt">based</span> on reentrant cavity with optimized local <span class="hlt">heating</span> characteristics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ishihara, Y; Kameyama, Y; Minegishi, Y; Wadamori, N</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>A reentrant-cavity-<span class="hlt">based</span> applicator can produce a concentrated electric field between reentrant electrodes for localized <span class="hlt">heating</span>. However, this field is inadequate for treating early small tumors localized in the head and neck. In order to safely <span class="hlt">heat</span> such well-localized lesions, the electric field distribution should be more localized. In order to achieve localized <span class="hlt">heating</span>, four parameters of the reentrant cavity (applicator height, outer diameter, reentrant diameter, and reentrant gap size), which influence the distribution of the electric field produced in the reentrant gap, are optimized using the Taguchi method. The variation in the <span class="hlt">heating</span> characteristics affected by the size of the <span class="hlt">heating</span> object is estimated using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) index. In this study, the electromagnetic field distributions in a cylindrical phantom and an oblate sphere phantom are analyzed by the three-dimensional finite element method, and the full width at half height (FWHH) of the specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution in the reentrant gap is evaluated. It is shown that the optimized applicator yields both the maximum SNR and minimum mean FWHH, and the sizes of the <span class="hlt">heating</span> region in the phantom expressed using the averaged FWHH values of the SAR distribution are 60 and 80 mm along the radial and long-axis directions of the applicator, respectively. A <span class="hlt">heating</span> region can be robustly and optimally localized by using the Taguchi method and considering the variation in the size of the <span class="hlt">heating</span> object.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18041290','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18041290"><span>Backpropagation ANN-<span class="hlt">based</span> prediction of exertional <span class="hlt">heat</span> illness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aggarwal, Yogender; Karan, Bhuwan Mohan; Das, Barda Nand; Aggarwal, Tarana; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Exertional <span class="hlt">heat</span> illness is primarily a multi-system disorder results from the combined effect of exertional and thermoregulation stress. The severity of exertional <span class="hlt">heat</span> illness can be classified as mild, intermediate and severe from non-specific symptoms like thirst, myalgia, poor concentration, hysteria, vomiting, weakness, cramps, impaired judgement, headache, diarrhea, fatigue, hyperventilation, anxiety, and nausea to more severe symptoms like exertional dehydration, <span class="hlt">heat</span> cramps, <span class="hlt">heat</span> exhaustion, <span class="hlt">heat</span> injury, heatstroke, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure. At its early stage, it is quite difficult to find out the severity of disease with manual screening because of overlapping of symptoms. Therefore, one need to classify automatically the disease <span class="hlt">based</span> on symptoms. The 7:10:1 backpropagation artificial neural network model has been used to predict the clinical outcome from the symptoms that are routinely available to clinicians. The model has found to be effective in differentiating the different stages of exertional <span class="hlt">heat</span>-illness with an overall performance of 100%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SJRUE..12...10R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SJRUE..12...10R"><span>Technological Alternatives or Use of Wood Fuel in Combined <span class="hlt">Heat</span> and Power <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rusanova, Jekaterina; Markova, Darja; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, Kārlis</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Abstract Latvia aims for 40% share of renewable energy in the total final energy use. Latvia has large resources of biomass and developed district <span class="hlt">heating</span> systems. Therefore, use of biomass for <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power <span class="hlt">production</span> is an economically attractive path for increase of the share of renewable energy. The optimum technological solution for use of biomass and required fuel resources have to be identified for energy planning and policy purposes. The aim of this study was to compare several wood fuel <span class="hlt">based</span> energy conversion technologies from the technical and economical point of view. Three biomass conversion technologies for combined <span class="hlt">heat</span> and electricity <span class="hlt">production</span> (CHP) were analyzed: • CHP with steam turbine technology; • gasification CHP using gas engine; • bio-methane combined cycle CHP. Electricity prices for each alternative are presented. The results show the level of support needed for the analyzed renewable energy technologies and time period needed to reach price parity with the natural gas - fired combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) CHPss. The results also show that bio-methane technology is most competitive when compared with CCGT among the considered technologies regarding fuel consumption and electricity <span class="hlt">production</span>, but it is necessary to reduce investment costs to reach the electricity price parity with the natural gas CCGT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22507130','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22507130"><span>Pref-1 preferentially inhibits <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in brown adipose tissue.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Koppen, Arjen; Kalkhoven, Eric</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>In mammals there are two types of adipocytes with opposing functions. Brown adipocytes are characterized by a high number of mitochondria and are specialized for <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (thermogenesis), expressing thermogenic genes such as UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). White adipocytes, on the other hand, store energy. Although many key regulators in the differentiation of white adipocytes have been established, our current knowledge on the same proteins in brown adipogenesis is lagging behind. One example is Pref-1 (pre-adipocyte factor-1), which maintains white pre-adipocytes in an undifferentiated state, but is only poorly characterized in the brown pre-adipocyte lineage. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Armengol et al. now shed new light on the role and regulation of Pref-1 in brown pre-adipocytes. First, Pref-1 specifically inhibits the thermogenic gene programme in brown pre-adipocytes. Secondly, they identified the transcription factor C/EBPδ (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ) as a direct positive regulator of Pref-1 expression, whereas this protein does not fulfil this role in white adipogenesis. Taken together, these findings indicate that specific manipulation of brown adipocyte differentiation and/or function without interfering with their white adipocyte counterparts may be possible, which may open up new therapeutic ways to combat obesity-associated health problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800014327','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800014327"><span>Evaluation of thermal energy storage for the proposed Twin Cities District <span class="hlt">Heating</span> system. [using cogeneration <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and aquifiers for <span class="hlt">heat</span> storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meyer, C. F.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The technical and economic feasibility of incorporating thermal energy storage components into the proposed Twin Cities District <span class="hlt">heating</span> project was evaluated. The technical status of the project is reviewed and conceptual designs of district <span class="hlt">heating</span> systems with and without thermal energy storage were compared in terms of estimated capital requirements, fuel consumption, delivered energy cost, and environmental aspects. The thermal energy storage system is <span class="hlt">based</span> on cogeneration and the storage of <span class="hlt">heat</span> in aquifers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21905396','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21905396"><span>Climate change, workplace <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure, and occupational health and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in Central America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kjellstrom, Tord; Crowe, Jennifer</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Climate change is increasing <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure in places such as Central America, a tropical region with generally hot/humid conditions. Working people are at particular risk of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress because of the intrabody <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> caused by physical labor. This article aims to describe the risks of occupational <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure on health and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in Central America, and to make tentative estimates of the impact of ongoing climate change on these risks. A review of relevant literature and estimation of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure variable wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) in different locations within the region were used to estimate the effects. We found that <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress at work is a real threat. Literature from Central America and <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure estimates show that some workers are already at risk under current conditions. These conditions will likely worsen with climate change, demonstrating the need to create solutions that will protect worker health and <span class="hlt">productivity</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyE...74..465C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyE...74..465C"><span>Three-terminal <span class="hlt">heat</span> engine and refrigerator <span class="hlt">based</span> on superlattices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Yunjin; Jordan, Andrew N.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We propose a three-terminal <span class="hlt">heat</span> engine <span class="hlt">based</span> on semiconductor superlattices for energy harvesting. The periodicity of the superlattice structure creates an energy miniband, giving an energy window for allowed electron transport. We find that this device delivers a large power, nearly twice than the <span class="hlt">heat</span> engine <span class="hlt">based</span> on quantum wells, with a small reduction of efficiency. This engine also works as a refrigerator in a different regime of the system's parameters. The thermoelectric performance of the refrigerator is analyzed, including the cooling power and coefficient of performance in the optimized condition. We also calculate phonon <span class="hlt">heat</span> current through the system and explore the reduction of phonon <span class="hlt">heat</span> current compared to the bulk material. The direct phonon <span class="hlt">heat</span> current is negligible at low temperatures, but dominates over the electronic at room temperature and we discuss ways to reduce it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1280851','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1280851"><span>The recovery <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in non-myelinated garfish olfactory nerve fibres.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Howarth, J V; Ritchie, J M</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>1. The recovery <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of the non-myelinated fibres of garfish olfactory nerve has been measured. 2. At about 20 degrees C the total recovery <span class="hlt">heat</span> was 381 +/- 26 microcal g-1 impulse-1 at a stimulation frequency of 2 sec-1. 3. The time constant of decay of the recovery <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> after a brief period of stimulation was 78.7 +/- 3.1 sec at about 20 degrees C. 4. Changing the temperature (by +/- 5 degress C) had little effect on the total recovery <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced. 5. However, lowering the temperature reduced both the rate of rise, and the maximum rate of recovery <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> whereas the time constant of decay was increased. Raising the temperature produced corresponding changes in the opposite direction. 6. the recovery <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> measured in the present experiments is consistent with the previously measured oxygen consumption in the same preparation. PMID:490341</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27892683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27892683"><span>Computer simulation for improving radio frequency (RF) <span class="hlt">heating</span> uniformity of food <span class="hlt">products</span>: a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Zhi; Marra, Francesco; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; Wang, Shaojin</p> <p>2016-11-28</p> <p>Radio frequency (RF) <span class="hlt">heating</span> has great potential for achieving rapid and volumetric <span class="hlt">heating</span> in foods, providing safe and high quality food <span class="hlt">products</span> due to deep penetration depth, moisture self-balance effects, and leaving no chemical residues. However, the non-uniform <span class="hlt">heating</span> problem (usually resulting in hot and cold spots in the <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>) needs to be resolved. The inhomogeneous temperature distribution not only affects the quality of the food but also raises the issue of food safety when the microorganisms or insects may not be controlled in the cold spots. The mathematical modelling for RF <span class="hlt">heating</span> processes has been extensively studied in a wide variety of agricultural <span class="hlt">products</span> recently. This paper presents a comprehensive review of recent progresses in computer simulation for RF <span class="hlt">heating</span> uniformity improvement and the offered solutions to reduce the <span class="hlt">heating</span> non-uniformity. It provides a brief introduction on the basic principle of RF <span class="hlt">heating</span> technology, analyzes the applications of numerical simulation, and discusses the factors influencing the RF <span class="hlt">heating</span> uniformity and the possible methods to improve <span class="hlt">heating</span> uniformity. Mathematical modelling improves the understanding of RF <span class="hlt">heating</span> of food and is essential to optimize the RF treatment protocol for pasteurization and disinfestation applications. Recommendations for future research have been proposed to further improve the accuracy of numerical models, by covering both <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfers in the model, validating these models with sample movement and mixing, and identifying the important model parameters by sensitivity analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3651413','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3651413"><span>Effects of steam pretreatment and co-<span class="hlt">production</span> with ethanol on the energy efficiency and process economics of combined biogas, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and electricity <span class="hlt">production</span> from industrial hemp</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background The study presented here has used the commercial flow sheeting program Aspen Plus™ to evaluate techno-economic aspects of large-scale hemp-<span class="hlt">based</span> processes for producing transportation fuels. The co-<span class="hlt">production</span> of biogas, district <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power from chopped and steam-pretreated hemp, and the co-<span class="hlt">production</span> of ethanol, biogas, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power from steam-pretreated hemp were analysed. The analyses include assessments of <span class="hlt">heat</span> demand, energy efficiency and process economics in terms of annual cash flows and minimum biogas and ethanol selling prices (MBSP and MESP). Results Producing biogas, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power from chopped hemp has the highest overall energy efficiency, 84% of the theoretical maximum (<span class="hlt">based</span> on lower <span class="hlt">heating</span> values), providing that the maximum capacity of district <span class="hlt">heat</span> is delivered. The combined <span class="hlt">production</span> of ethanol, biogas, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power has the highest energy efficiency (49%) if district <span class="hlt">heat</span> is not produced. Neither the inclusion of steam pretreatment nor co-<span class="hlt">production</span> with ethanol has a large impact on the MBSP. Ethanol is more expensive to produce than biogas is, but this is compensated for by its higher market price. None of the scenarios examined are economically viable, since the MBSP (EUR 103–128 per MWh) is higher than the market price of biogas (EUR 67 per MWh). The largest contribution to the cost is the cost of feedstock. Decreasing the retention time in the biogas process for low solids streams by partly replacing continuous stirred tank reactors by high-rate bioreactors decreases the MBSP. Also, recycling part of the liquid from the effluent from anaerobic digestion decreases the MBSP. The <span class="hlt">production</span> and prices of methane and ethanol influence the process economics more than the <span class="hlt">production</span> and prices of electricity and district <span class="hlt">heat</span>. Conclusions To reduce the <span class="hlt">production</span> cost of ethanol and biogas from biomass, the use of feedstocks that are cheaper than hemp, give higher output of ethanol and biogas, or combined <span class="hlt">production</span> with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23607263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23607263"><span>Effects of steam pretreatment and co-<span class="hlt">production</span> with ethanol on the energy efficiency and process economics of combined biogas, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and electricity <span class="hlt">production</span> from industrial hemp.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barta, Zsolt; Kreuger, Emma; Björnsson, Lovisa</p> <p>2013-04-22</p> <p>The study presented here has used the commercial flow sheeting program Aspen Plus™ to evaluate techno-economic aspects of large-scale hemp-<span class="hlt">based</span> processes for producing transportation fuels. The co-<span class="hlt">production</span> of biogas, district <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power from chopped and steam-pretreated hemp, and the co-<span class="hlt">production</span> of ethanol, biogas, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power from steam-pretreated hemp were analysed. The analyses include assessments of <span class="hlt">heat</span> demand, energy efficiency and process economics in terms of annual cash flows and minimum biogas and ethanol selling prices (MBSP and MESP). Producing biogas, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power from chopped hemp has the highest overall energy efficiency, 84% of the theoretical maximum (<span class="hlt">based</span> on lower <span class="hlt">heating</span> values), providing that the maximum capacity of district <span class="hlt">heat</span> is delivered. The combined <span class="hlt">production</span> of ethanol, biogas, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power has the highest energy efficiency (49%) if district <span class="hlt">heat</span> is not produced. Neither the inclusion of steam pretreatment nor co-<span class="hlt">production</span> with ethanol has a large impact on the MBSP. Ethanol is more expensive to produce than biogas is, but this is compensated for by its higher market price. None of the scenarios examined are economically viable, since the MBSP (EUR 103-128 per MWh) is higher than the market price of biogas (EUR 67 per MWh). The largest contribution to the cost is the cost of feedstock. Decreasing the retention time in the biogas process for low solids streams by partly replacing continuous stirred tank reactors by high-rate bioreactors decreases the MBSP. Also, recycling part of the liquid from the effluent from anaerobic digestion decreases the MBSP. The <span class="hlt">production</span> and prices of methane and ethanol influence the process economics more than the <span class="hlt">production</span> and prices of electricity and district <span class="hlt">heat</span>. To reduce the <span class="hlt">production</span> cost of ethanol and biogas from biomass, the use of feedstocks that are cheaper than hemp, give higher output of ethanol and biogas, or combined <span class="hlt">production</span> with higher value <span class="hlt">products</span> are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRB..122.4064K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRB..122.4064K"><span>Pitfalls in modeling mantle convection with internal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korenaga, Jun</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>The mantle of the Earth, and probably of other terrestrial planets as well, is <span class="hlt">heated</span> from below and within. The <span class="hlt">heating</span> mode of mantle convection is thus mixed <span class="hlt">heating</span>, and it is also time dependent because the amount of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-producing isotopes in the mantle is steadily decreasing by radioactive decay and because the basal <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux originating in the cooling of the core can vary with time. This mode of transient mixed <span class="hlt">heating</span> presents its own challenges to the study of mantle convection, but such difficulties are not always appreciated in the recent literature. The purpose of this tutorial is to clarify the issue of <span class="hlt">heating</span> mode by explaining relevant concepts in a coherent manner, including the internal <span class="hlt">heating</span> ratio, the Urey ratio, secular cooling, and the connection between the thermal budget of the Earth and the geochemical models of the Earth. The importance of such basic concepts will be explained with some illustrative examples in the context of the thermal evolution of the Earth, and a summary of common pitfalls will be provided, with a possible strategy for how to avoid them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11455789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11455789"><span>Determination of the Maillard <span class="hlt">product</span> oxalic acidmonolysinylamide (OMA) in <span class="hlt">heated</span> milk <span class="hlt">products</span> by ELISA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hasenkopf, K; Ubel, B; Bordiehn, T; Pischetsrieder, M</p> <p>2001-06-01</p> <p>Oxalic acid monolysinylamide (OMA), a Maillard <span class="hlt">product</span> which had initially been identified as a reaction <span class="hlt">product</span> of L-ascorbic acid, was formed, dependent on the reaction conditions, also from other carbohydrate sources. At elevated temperatures and in the presence of oxygen, the reaction of lactose with proteins resulted in the formation of relatively high amounts of OMA. Using a polyclonal antibody, which bound with high specificity and affinity to OMA-modified proteins, a competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure OMA formation in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-treated milk <span class="hlt">products</span>. The assay performance was characterized for OMA-modified beta-lactoglobulin diluted in buffer or pasteurized milk. For the latter, the least detectable dose was determined as 1.4 ng/ml with a linear range for quantification between 2 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml. For some samples intra- and interassay variation were determined. The ELISA was used to measure OMA-formation in <span class="hlt">heated</span> milk and commercially available infant formula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6326211','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6326211"><span><span class="hlt">Production</span> of concrete articles utilizing <span class="hlt">heat</span>-reclaiming system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wauhop Jr., B. J.; Stratz, W. W.</p> <p>1985-07-30</p> <p>A method of producing concrete articles comprises reclaiming a portion of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> energy from the kiln atmosphere during the curing of the concrete articles, and then utilizing the reclaimed <span class="hlt">heat</span> energy to pre-<span class="hlt">heat</span> mixing water used to form other concrete articles, or to add to boiler feed water used to generate low pressure steam, or both. In the case where two or more kilns are operated simultaneously at staggered curing cycles, the high temperature kiln atmosphere from the kiln undergoing cool down is intermixed with the low temperature kiln atmosphere from the kiln undergoing <span class="hlt">heat</span> up thereby reclaiming <span class="hlt">heat</span> energy from one kiln and using it in the other kiln thereby reducing the total energy consumption required for curing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19133482','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19133482"><span>Differential <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock tolerance and expression of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-inducible proteins in two stored-<span class="hlt">product</span> psocids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guedes, R N C; Zhu, K Y; Opit, G P; Throne, J E</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The recent recognition of psocids as a major concern in stored <span class="hlt">products</span> and also the reemergence of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment as a control tactic of stored-<span class="hlt">product</span> insects led to the present investigation. The objectives of this study were to determine whether there are differences in <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock tolerance of two species of stored-<span class="hlt">product</span> psocids--Lepinotus reticulatus Enderlein (Trogiidae) and Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein) (Liposcelididae)--and to determine whether <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock proteins (HSPs) underlay such tolerance. Time-response bioassays were therefore carried out at increasing temperatures for both psocids. The lethal time (LT)50 and LT95 estimates were correlated with the expression of <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock proteins after exposure at the same range of temperatures for 30 min. The expression of HSP was determined through Western blot analyses using HSP 70 antibody. Liposcelis entomophila was more than two-fold more tolerant than L. reticulatus for nearly all of the range of temperatures (> or = 40.0 degrees C). Expression of HSP 70 was not observed for either of the psocid species, but the expression of two low-molecular-mass <span class="hlt">heat</span>-inducible proteins (HIPs; 23 and 27 kDa) was observed in L. entomophila. The expression of these small proteins was induced by exposure to higher temperatures, and the trend was particularly strong for HIP 27. In contrast, no expression of small <span class="hlt">heat</span>-inducible proteins was detected in L. reticulatus, reflecting its higher susceptibility to <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatments. The relatively high <span class="hlt">heat</span> tolerance of L. entomophila might help explain its more common occurrence in grain stored in warmer regions of the world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6212749','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6212749"><span>Volatile <span class="hlt">production</span> during preignition coal <span class="hlt">heating</span>. Quarterly progress report, April 1981 - June 1981</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1981-07-01</p> <p>The goal of this program is to determine the characteristic pyrolysis behavior of representative coals under laser <span class="hlt">heating</span>. The use of a CO/sub 2/ laser enables a controllable <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate to be given to the coal particles as they pass through the laser beam. The development of such a laser <span class="hlt">heating</span> diagnostic should prove to be an extremely valuable tool for generation of a data <span class="hlt">base</span> necessary for the future design of coal burning facilities. The experimental configuration is illustrated. A dilute coal/gas stream, surrounded aby an inert shield flow is passed through a laser beam from an Avco HPL CO/sub 2/ laser. Under a prescribed flux density, and thus <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate, the particle pyrolyse. The gaseous <span class="hlt">products</span> are sampled and subsequently analyzed (primarily by gas chromatography) for carbon conversion. Particle temperature is to be monitored by a two-color pyrometer and particle velocity by laser Doppler velocimeter, by which means, evolution of the pyrolysis process can be determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1127090','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1127090"><span>Varying properties of in situ <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment of a tar sands formation <span class="hlt">based</span> on assessed viscosities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J</p> <p>2014-03-04</p> <p>A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing <span class="hlt">heat</span> to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. A viscosity of one or more zones of the hydrocarbon layer is assessed. The <span class="hlt">heating</span> rates in the zones are varied <span class="hlt">based</span> on the assessed viscosities. The <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate in a first zone of the formation is greater than the <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate in a second zone of the formation if the viscosity in the first zone is greater than the viscosity in the second zone. Fluids are produced from the formation through the <span class="hlt">production</span> wells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MMTA...44.5154C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MMTA...44.5154C"><span>Numerical Modeling of Vacuum <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Treatment of Nickel-<span class="hlt">based</span> Superalloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cosentino, Francesco; Warnken, Nils; Gebelin, Jean-Christophe; Reed, Roger C.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Numerical modeling is carried out of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer effects arising during <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment of single-crystal nickel-<span class="hlt">based</span> superalloys, of the type used for high pressure turbine blades in jet engines. For these components, fine control of the thermal history during processing is needed to avoid incipient melting and to develop the properties needed for service applications. Computational fluid dynamics methods are employed for the analysis. The modeling is used to predict the temporal evolution of the temperature distribution inside the treated component, to calculate <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients, and to analyze the homogeneity of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer. The impact of the boundary conditions is investigated with particular emphasis on the temperature of the <span class="hlt">heating</span> elements. Its value was derived from an analytical model of the furnace using effective view factors. The predictions of the modeling are tested against measurements made on laboratory-scale apparatus containing features of <span class="hlt">production</span>-scale equipment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982STIN...8311592H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982STIN...8311592H"><span>Diesel driven low capacity <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump for <span class="hlt">heating</span> and hot water <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoefler, P.</p> <p>1982-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> pumps that reduce primary energy consumption for <span class="hlt">heating</span> needs when they are driven by an internal combustion motor were studied. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced as well from the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump as from the combustion in the diesel motor was used for home <span class="hlt">heating</span> and hot water preparation. The objective was a 25kW capacity for a one familiy house. Material used should be standard, so a special design diesel motor or <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump was not considered. An air/water cooled type diesel motor was coupled to a 12kW capacity <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump for an outdoor temperature of 3 C using R12 freon as refrigerant. Description of all elements is given. Tests were in the laboratory and in a one family house. The expected efficiency factor of 1.34 could not be confirmed and an average annual value of only 1.05 is assumed. The diesel driven <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump can not produce the energy savings hoped for.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HMT....53.1983W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HMT....53.1983W"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer performance of a pulsating <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe charged with acetone-<span class="hlt">based</span> mixtures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Wenqing; Cui, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Yue</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Pulsating <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipes (PHPs) are used as high efficiency <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers, and the selection of working fluids in PHPs has a great impact on the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer performance. This study investigates the thermal resistance characteristics of the PHP charged with acetone-<span class="hlt">based</span> binary mixtures, where deionized water, methanol and ethanol were added to and mixed with acetone, respectively. The volume mixing ratios were 2:1, 4:1 and 7:1, and the <span class="hlt">heating</span> power ranged from 10 to 100 W with filling ratios of 45, 55, 62 and 70%. At a low filling ratio (45%), the zeotropic characteristics of the binary mixtures have an influence on the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer performance of the PHP. Adding water, which has a substantially different boiling point compared with that of acetone, can significantly improve the anti-dry-out ability inside the PHP. At a medium filling ratio (55%), the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer performance of the PHP is affected by both phase transition characteristics and physical properties of working fluids. At high <span class="hlt">heating</span> power, the thermal resistance of the PHP with acetone-water mixture is between that with pure acetone and pure water, whereas the thermal resistance of the PHP with acetone-methanol and acetone-ethanol mixtures at mixing ratios of 2:1 and 4:1 is less than that with the corresponding pure fluids. At high filling ratios (62 and 70%), the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer performance of the PHP is mainly determined by the properties of working fluids that affects the flow resistance. Thus, the PHP with acetone-methanol and acetone-ethanol mixtures that have a lower flow resistance shows better <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer performance than that with acetone-water mixture.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HMT...tmp..207W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HMT...tmp..207W"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer performance of a pulsating <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe charged with acetone-<span class="hlt">based</span> mixtures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Wenqing; Cui, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Yue</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Pulsating <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipes (PHPs) are used as high efficiency <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers, and the selection of working fluids in PHPs has a great impact on the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer performance. This study investigates the thermal resistance characteristics of the PHP charged with acetone-<span class="hlt">based</span> binary mixtures, where deionized water, methanol and ethanol were added to and mixed with acetone, respectively. The volume mixing ratios were 2:1, 4:1 and 7:1, and the <span class="hlt">heating</span> power ranged from 10 to 100 W with filling ratios of 45, 55, 62 and 70%. At a low filling ratio (45%), the zeotropic characteristics of the binary mixtures have an influence on the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer performance of the PHP. Adding water, which has a substantially different boiling point compared with that of acetone, can significantly improve the anti-dry-out ability inside the PHP. At a medium filling ratio (55%), the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer performance of the PHP is affected by both phase transition characteristics and physical properties of working fluids. At high <span class="hlt">heating</span> power, the thermal resistance of the PHP with acetone-water mixture is between that with pure acetone and pure water, whereas the thermal resistance of the PHP with acetone-methanol and acetone-ethanol mixtures at mixing ratios of 2:1 and 4:1 is less than that with the corresponding pure fluids. At high filling ratios (62 and 70%), the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer performance of the PHP is mainly determined by the properties of working fluids that affects the flow resistance. Thus, the PHP with acetone-methanol and acetone-ethanol mixtures that have a lower flow resistance shows better <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer performance than that with acetone-water mixture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5697718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5697718"><span>New industrial <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump applications to fructose <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1990-04-01</p> <p>An energy cost reduction study of the American Fructose Decatur,Inc. High Fructose Corn Syrup process has been completed. The objective was to find cost effective energy cost reduction projects and to develop a coherent strategy for realizing the savings. There are many possible options for reducing energy cost. To facilitate a fair comparison of the options, Pinch Technology was used to identify appropriate <span class="hlt">heat</span> recovery, <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumping and cogeneration options. Of particular interest were the opportunities for utilizing <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps, for energy cost reduction or other profit increasing uses. Therefore, where a <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumping scheme was identified, its merits relative to other potential projects was carefully evaluated to ensure that the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump was technically and economically sound. It is felt that the results obtained in this study are applicable to other wet corn milling sites which include a refinery section, due to the similarity of processes throughout the industry. This study and others indicate that reductions in thermal energy consumption of 15--25% can be expected through increased <span class="hlt">heat</span> recovery. Also, the use of MVR and thermocompression evaporators is appropriate and additional economically viable opportunities exist for using industrial <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps to increase even further the level of energy cost reduction achievable. 17 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5630118','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5630118"><span>New industrial <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump applications to textile <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>Application of pinch technology to the US industries in an early screening study has identified potential for <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps in several standard processes such as distillation and drying processes. Due to lack process information, the previous study was not able to draw any definite conclusion concerning the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump application potential in textile process. However, the commonly encountered drying process in the finishing section of textile plant has been shown to create opportunities for <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump placement. The site selected for this study is a textile plant in North Carolina and the participating utility is Duke Power Company. The objective of this study is to further identify the energy savings potential through advanced <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps and other energy conservation methods developed in the context of pinch technology. The key findings of this study are as follows. The previously unrecoverable waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the exhaust air can now be reclaimed through a spray type air washer and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump system. The recommended <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump system recovers <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the looper exhaust and use it to preheat the air in the gas tenter. A reduction of 50% of the gas consumption in the tenter can be achieved. The removal of lint from the exhaust air reduced the potential of air pollution. The collected lint can be burned in the boiler as a supplemental fuel source to reduce the fuel consumption in the plant. With fuel price predicted to go up and electricity price remain relatively stable in the future, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump system can payback in less than three years. 15 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1660i0036B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1660i0036B"><span><span class="hlt">Base</span> fluid in improving <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer for EV car battery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bin-Abdun, Nazih A.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman, A. B.; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Adnan, Nazrul H.; Heng, R.; Kamarudin, H.; Zunaidi, I.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>This study examined the effects of <span class="hlt">base</span> fluid (as coolants) channeling inside the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger in the process of the increase in thermal conductivity between EV car battery and the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger. The analysis showed that secondary cooling system by means of water has advantages in improving the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer process and reducing the electric power loss on the form of thermal energy from batteries. This leads to the increase in the efficiency of the EV car battery, hence also positively reflecting the performance of the EV car. The present work, analysis is performed to assess the design and use of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger in increasing the performance efficiency of the EV car battery. This provides a preface to the use this design for nano-fluids which increase and improve from <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28084451','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28084451"><span>Optimization-<span class="hlt">based</span> design of a <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux concentrator.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peralta, Ignacio; Fachinotti, Víctor D; Ciarbonetti, Ángel A</p> <p>2017-01-13</p> <p>To gain control over the diffusive <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux in a given domain, one needs to engineer a thermal metamaterial with a specific distribution of the generally anisotropic thermal conductivity throughout the domain. Until now, the appropriate conductivity distribution was usually determined using transformation thermodynamics. By this way, only a few particular cases of <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux control in simple domains having simple boundary conditions were studied. Thermal metamaterials <span class="hlt">based</span> on optimization algorithm provides superior properties compared to those using the previous methods. As a more general approach, we propose to define the <span class="hlt">heat</span> control problem as an optimization problem where we minimize the error in guiding the <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux in a given way, taking as design variables the parameters that define the variable microstructure of the metamaterial. In the present study we numerically demonstrate the ability to manipulate <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux by designing a device to concentrate the thermal energy to its center without disturbing the temperature profile outside it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5234015','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5234015"><span>Optimization-<span class="hlt">based</span> design of a <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux concentrator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Peralta, Ignacio; Fachinotti, Víctor D.; Ciarbonetti, Ángel A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>To gain control over the diffusive <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux in a given domain, one needs to engineer a thermal metamaterial with a specific distribution of the generally anisotropic thermal conductivity throughout the domain. Until now, the appropriate conductivity distribution was usually determined using transformation thermodynamics. By this way, only a few particular cases of <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux control in simple domains having simple boundary conditions were studied. Thermal metamaterials <span class="hlt">based</span> on optimization algorithm provides superior properties compared to those using the previous methods. As a more general approach, we propose to define the <span class="hlt">heat</span> control problem as an optimization problem where we minimize the error in guiding the <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux in a given way, taking as design variables the parameters that define the variable microstructure of the metamaterial. In the present study we numerically demonstrate the ability to manipulate <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux by designing a device to concentrate the thermal energy to its center without disturbing the temperature profile outside it. PMID:28084451</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...740591P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...740591P"><span>Optimization-<span class="hlt">based</span> design of a <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux concentrator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peralta, Ignacio; Fachinotti, Víctor D.; Ciarbonetti, Ángel A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>To gain control over the diffusive <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux in a given domain, one needs to engineer a thermal metamaterial with a specific distribution of the generally anisotropic thermal conductivity throughout the domain. Until now, the appropriate conductivity distribution was usually determined using transformation thermodynamics. By this way, only a few particular cases of <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux control in simple domains having simple boundary conditions were studied. Thermal metamaterials <span class="hlt">based</span> on optimization algorithm provides superior properties compared to those using the previous methods. As a more general approach, we propose to define the <span class="hlt">heat</span> control problem as an optimization problem where we minimize the error in guiding the <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux in a given way, taking as design variables the parameters that define the variable microstructure of the metamaterial. In the present study we numerically demonstrate the ability to manipulate <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux by designing a device to concentrate the thermal energy to its center without disturbing the temperature profile outside it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5595974','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5595974"><span>Species <span class="hlt">production</span> and <span class="hlt">heat</span> release rates in two-layered natural gas fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zukoski, E.E.; Morehart, J.H.; Kubota, T.; Toner, S.J. )</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>A fire burning in an enclosure with restricted ventilation will result in the accumulation of a layer of warm <span class="hlt">products</span> of combustion mixed with entrained air adjacent to the ceiling. For many conditions, the depth of this layer will extend to occupy a significant fraction of the volume of the room. Eventually, the interface between this vitiated ceiling layer and the uncontaminated environment below will position itself so that a large portion of the combustion processes occur in this vitiated layer. A description is given of experimental work concerning the rates of formation of <span class="hlt">product</span> species and <span class="hlt">heat</span> release in a turbulent, buoyant natural gas diffusion flame burning in this two-layered configuration. The enclosure was modeled by placing a hood above a burner so that it accumulated the plume gases, and the unsteady development of the ceiling layer was modeled by the direct addition of air into the upper portion of the hood. Measurements of the composition of these gases allowed the computation of stoichiometries and <span class="hlt">heat</span> release rates. These investigations showed that the species produced in the flame depend primarily on the stoichiometry of the gases present in the ceiling layer and weakly on the temperature of the layer, but are independent of the fuel pair ratio of the mass transported into the layer by the plume. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> release rates in the fires were compared to a theoretical limit <span class="hlt">based</span> on a stoichiometric reaction of fuel and air with excess components left unchanged by the combustion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22252338','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22252338"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">heating</span> system using a geothermal <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump on the <span class="hlt">production</span> performance and housing environment of broiler chickens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>A geothermal <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump (GHP) is a potential <span class="hlt">heat</span> source for the economic <span class="hlt">heating</span> of broiler houses with optimum <span class="hlt">production</span> performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a <span class="hlt">heating</span> system using a GHP on <span class="hlt">production</span> performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional <span class="hlt">heating</span> system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of <span class="hlt">heating</span>, and <span class="hlt">production</span> performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased when chicks were reared in the GHP broiler house compared with that of chicks reared in the conventional broiler house (1.73 vs. 1.62 kg/bird). The <span class="hlt">heating</span> system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the <span class="hlt">heating</span> system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the conventional broiler house compared with those in the GHP house. Fuel consumption was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) and electricity consumption significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the GHP house compared with the consumption in the conventional house during the experiment. The total energy cost of <span class="hlt">heating</span> the GHP house was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of the conventional house. It is concluded that a GHP system could increase the <span class="hlt">production</span> performance of broiler chicks due to increased inside air quality of the broiler house. The GHP system had lower CO(2) and NH(3) emissions with lower energy cost than the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27441284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27441284"><span>The equivalence of minimum entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> and maximum thermal efficiency in endoreversible <span class="hlt">heat</span> engines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haseli, Y</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to investigate the thermal efficiency and power <span class="hlt">production</span> of typical models of endoreversible <span class="hlt">heat</span> engines at the regime of minimum entropy generation rate. The study considers the Curzon-Ahlborn engine, the Novikov's engine, and the Carnot vapor cycle. The operational regimes at maximum thermal efficiency, maximum power output and minimum entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> rate are compared for each of these engines. The results reveal that in an endoreversible <span class="hlt">heat</span> engine, a reduction in entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> corresponds to an increase in thermal efficiency. The three criteria of minimum entropy <span class="hlt">production</span>, the maximum thermal efficiency, and the maximum power may become equivalent at the condition of fixed <span class="hlt">heat</span> input.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12836950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12836950"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stress on <span class="hlt">production</span> in dairy cattle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>West, J W</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>The southeastern United States is characterized as humid subtropical and is subject to extended periods of high ambient temperature and relative humidity. Because the primary nonevaporative means of cooling for the cow (radiation, conduction, convection) become less effective with rising ambient temperature, the cow becomes increasingly reliant upon evaporative cooling in the form of sweating and panting. High relative humidity compromises evaporative cooling, so that under hot, humid conditions common to the Southeast in summer the dairy cow cannot dissipate sufficient body <span class="hlt">heat</span> to prevent a rise in body temperature. Increasing air temperature, temperature-humidity index and rising rectal temperature above critical thresholds are related to decreased dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield and to reduced efficiency of milk yield. Modifications including shade, barns which enhance passive ventilation, and the addition of fans and sprinklers increase body <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss, lowering body temperature and improving DMI. New technologies including tunnel ventilation are being investigated to determine if they offer cooling advantages. Genetic selection for <span class="hlt">heat</span> tolerance may be possible, but continued selection for greater performance in the absence of consideration for <span class="hlt">heat</span> tolerance will result in greater susceptibility to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. The nutritional needs of the cow change during <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress, and ration reformulation to account for decreased DMI, the need to increase nutrient density, changing nutrient requirements, avoiding nutrient excesses and maintenance of normal rumen function is necessary. Maintaining cow performance in hot, humid climatic conditions in the future will likely require improved cooling capability, continued advances in nutritional formulation, and the need for genetic advancement which includes selection for <span class="hlt">heat</span> tolerance or the identification of genetic traits which enhance <span class="hlt">heat</span> tolerance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15752327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15752327"><span>Improvement of bioinsecticides <span class="hlt">production</span> through adaptation of Bacillus thuringiensis cells to <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment and NaCl addition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ghribi, D; Zouari, N; Jaoua, S</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The present work aimed to increase yields of delta-endotoxin <span class="hlt">production</span> through adaptation of Bacillus thuringiensis cells to <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock and sodium chloride and to investigate their involvements in bioinsecticides <span class="hlt">production</span> improvement. Growing B. thuringiensis cells were <span class="hlt">heat</span> treated after different incubation times to study the response of the adaptative surviving cells in terms of delta-endotoxin synthesis. Similarly, adaptation of B. thuringiensis cells to sodium chloride was investigated. Adaptation to combined stressors was also evaluated. When applied separately in the glucose-<span class="hlt">based</span> medium, 20-min <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment of 6-h-old cultures and addition of 7 g l(-1) NaCl at the beginning of the incubation gave respectively 38 and 27% delta-endotoxin <span class="hlt">production</span> improvements. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> shock improved toxin synthesis yields, while NaCl addition improved delta-endotoxin <span class="hlt">production</span> by increasing the spore titres without significant effect on toxin synthesis yields. Cumulative improvements (66%) were obtained by combination of the two stressors at the conditions previously established for each one. Interestingly, when the similar approach was conducted by using the large scale <span class="hlt">production</span> medium <span class="hlt">based</span> on gruel and fish meal, 17, 8 and 29% delta-endotoxin <span class="hlt">production</span> improvements were respectively, obtained with <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock, NaCl and combined stressors. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> treatment of vegetative B. thuringiensis cells and NaCl addition to the culture media improved bioinsecticides <span class="hlt">production</span>. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> treatment increased toxin synthesis yields, while addition of NaCl increased biomass <span class="hlt">production</span> yields. Cumulative improvements of 66 and 29% were obtained in glucose and economic <span class="hlt">production</span> media, respectively. Overproduction of bioinsecticides by B. thuringiensis could be obtained by the combination of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment of vegetative cells and addition of NaCl to the culture medium. This should contribute to a significant reduction of the cost of B. thuringiensis bioinsecticides <span class="hlt">production</span> and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160001822','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160001822"><span>Space Launch System <span class="hlt">Base</span> <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Test: Experimental Operations & Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish; MacLean, Matthew; Seaford, Mark; Holden, Michael</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the <span class="hlt">base</span> of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> test. These <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was <span class="hlt">based</span> on the Space Shuttle <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Test methodology and conditions are presented, and <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> results from 76 runs are reported in non-dimensional form. Regions of high <span class="hlt">heating</span> are identified and comparisons of various configuration and conditions are highlighted. <span class="hlt">Base</span> pressure and radiometer results are also reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/571188','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/571188"><span><span class="hlt">Production</span> of coagulase, deoxyribonuclease and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable deoxyribonuclease by canine isolates of staphylococci.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wierup, M</p> <p>1978-12-01</p> <p>Staphylococci isolated from different infections in dogs have been investigated for <span class="hlt">production</span> of coagulase, deoxyribonuclease (DNase) and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable DNase. Alll coagulase-positive strains (220) also produced DNase and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable nuclease. However, 4 out of 15 coagulase-negative strains were also positive in both the DNase and the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable DNase tests. Several tests for DNase and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable DNase were evaluated. No strains were DNase-positive, <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable DNase-negative, or vice-versa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1053847','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1053847"><span>Liquid Salt <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Exchanger Technology for VHTR <span class="hlt">Based</span> Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Anderson, Mark; Sridhara, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Peterson, Per</p> <p>2012-10-11</p> <p>The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a <span class="hlt">heat</span> carrier for transferring high-temperature process <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature <span class="hlt">heat</span> efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion <span class="hlt">products</span>, which can be used to measure material loss in <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980053187','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980053187"><span>Analysis of Aerospike Plume Induced <span class="hlt">Base-Heating</span> Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Ten-See</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Computational analysis is conducted to study the effect of an aerospike engine plume on X-33 <span class="hlt">base-heating</span> environment during ascent flight. To properly account for the effect of forebody and aftbody flowfield such as shocks and to allow for potential plume-induced flow-separation, thermo-flowfield of trajectory points is computed. The computational methodology is <span class="hlt">based</span> on a three-dimensional finite-difference, viscous flow, chemically reacting, pressure-<span class="hlt">base</span> computational fluid dynamics formulation, and a three-dimensional, finite-volume, spectral-line <span class="hlt">based</span> weighted-sum-of-gray-gases radiation absorption model computational <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer formulation. The predicted convective and radiative <span class="hlt">base-heat</span> fluxes are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MMI....19..315L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MMI....19..315L"><span>Deformation behavior of SS400 Thick plate by high-frequency-induction-<span class="hlt">heating-based</span> line <span class="hlt">heating</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Kwang Seok; Eom, Deuk Ha; Lee, Jung-Hwan</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>In this study, the line <span class="hlt">heating</span>-induced permanent deformation behavior of an SS400 thick plate was investigated through both numerical analysis and experimental testing by applying high-frequency induction <span class="hlt">heating</span> after generating dual-curvature by secondary line <span class="hlt">heating</span>. First, an approach <span class="hlt">based</span> on electromagnetic-thermal-structural coupling numerical analysis was adopted for predicting the temperature distribution and subsequent permanent deformation over the SS400 carbon steel plate. Experimental line <span class="hlt">heating</span> was also carried out to validate the feasibility of the numerical analysis by applying newly designed laboratory-scale high-frequency (HF) induction-<span class="hlt">heating</span> (IH) equipment. It was found that the shape of the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-affected zone (HAZ) generated by HF IH and the subsequent microstructure of the SS400 carbon steel plate within the HAZ were strongly dependent on the input power. Permanent vertical deformation increased with an increase in the input power, regardless of the shape of the doubly curved plates (concave- or saddle-type plates). Transverse curvature determined in both the simulation and the experiment were investigated and compared.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AIPC..608..220C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AIPC..608..220C"><span>MEMS loop <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe <span class="hlt">based</span> on coherent porous silicon technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cytrynowicz, Debra; Hamdan, Mohammed; Medis, Praveen; Shuja, Ahmed; Henderson, H. Thurman; Gerner, Frank M.; Golliher, Eric</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the theory, modeling, design, fabrication and preliminary test results of the MEMS loop <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe being developed at the Center for Microelectronic Sensors and MEMS at the University of Cincinnati. The emphasis is placed upon the silicon micro wick and its <span class="hlt">production</span> through a novel technique known as Coherent Porous Silicon (CPS) Technology. .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JEMat..42.1634D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JEMat..42.1634D"><span>Thermal Optimization of the <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Exchanger in an Automotive Exhaust-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Thermoelectric Generator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deng, Y. D.; Liu, X.; Chen, S.; Tong, N. Q.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Recent advances in thermoelectric technologies have made exhaust-<span class="hlt">based</span> thermoelectric generators (TEGs) promising to recover waste <span class="hlt">heat</span>. The thermal performance of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger in exhaust-<span class="hlt">based</span> TEGs is studied in this work. In terms of interface temperature and thermal uniformity, the thermal characteristics of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers with different internal structures, lengths, and materials are discussed. Following computational fluid dynamics simulations, infrared experiments are carried out on a high-performance <span class="hlt">production</span> engine with a dynamometer. Simulation and experimental results show that a plate-shaped <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger made of brass with fishbone-shaped internal structure and length of 600 mm achieves a relatively ideal thermal performance, which is practically helpful to enhance the thermal performance of the TEG.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22521772','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22521772"><span>r-PROCESS LANTHANIDE <span class="hlt">PRODUCTION</span> AND <span class="hlt">HEATING</span> RATES IN KILONOVAE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.</p> <p>2015-12-20</p> <p>r-process nucleosynthesis in material ejected during neutron star mergers may lead to radioactively powered transients called kilonovae. The timescale and peak luminosity of these transients depend on the composition of the ejecta, which determines the local <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate from nuclear decays and the opacity. Kasen et al. and Tanaka and Hotokezaka pointed out that lanthanides can drastically increase the opacity in these outflows. We use the new general-purpose nuclear reaction network SkyNet to carry out a parameter study of r-process nucleosynthesis for a range of initial electron fractions Y{sub e}, initial specific entropies s, and expansion timescales τ. We find that the ejecta is lanthanide-free for Y{sub e} ≳ 0.22−0.30, depending on s and τ. The <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate is insensitive to s and τ, but certain, larger values of Y{sub e} lead to reduced <span class="hlt">heating</span> rates, due to individual nuclides dominating the <span class="hlt">heating</span>. We calculate approximate light curves with a simplified gray radiative transport scheme. The light curves peak at about a day (week) in the lanthanide-free (-rich) cases. The <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate does not change much as the ejecta becomes lanthanide-free with increasing Y{sub e}, but the light-curve peak becomes about an order of magnitude brighter because it peaks much earlier when the <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate is larger. We also provide parametric fits for the <span class="hlt">heating</span> rates between 0.1 and 100 days, and we provide a simple fit in Y{sub e}, s, and τ to estimate whether or not the ejecta is lanthanide-rich.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...815...82L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...815...82L"><span>r-process Lanthanide <span class="hlt">Production</span> and <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Rates in Kilonovae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>r-process nucleosynthesis in material ejected during neutron star mergers may lead to radioactively powered transients called kilonovae. The timescale and peak luminosity of these transients depend on the composition of the ejecta, which determines the local <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate from nuclear decays and the opacity. Kasen et al. and Tanaka & Hotokezaka pointed out that lanthanides can drastically increase the opacity in these outflows. We use the new general-purpose nuclear reaction network SkyNet to carry out a parameter study of r-process nucleosynthesis for a range of initial electron fractions Ye, initial specific entropies s, and expansion timescales τ. We find that the ejecta is lanthanide-free for Ye ≳ 0.22-0.30, depending on s and τ. The <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate is insensitive to s and τ, but certain, larger values of Ye lead to reduced <span class="hlt">heating</span> rates, due to individual nuclides dominating the <span class="hlt">heating</span>. We calculate approximate light curves with a simplified gray radiative transport scheme. The light curves peak at about a day (week) in the lanthanide-free (-rich) cases. The <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate does not change much as the ejecta becomes lanthanide-free with increasing Ye, but the light-curve peak becomes about an order of magnitude brighter because it peaks much earlier when the <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate is larger. We also provide parametric fits for the <span class="hlt">heating</span> rates between 0.1 and 100 days, and we provide a simple fit in Ye, s, and τ to estimate whether or not the ejecta is lanthanide-rich.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/987343','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/987343"><span>Geoneutrinos and <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> in the Earth: Constraints and Implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>McDonough, Bill [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>Recent results from antineutrino (geoneutrino) studies at KamLAND are coincident with geochemical models of Th and U in the Earth.  KamLAND and Borexino detectors are on line, thus uncertainties in counting statistics will be reduced as data are accumulated.  The SNO+ detector, situated in the middle of the North American plate will come on line in ~3 yrs and will be best suited to yield a precise estimate of the continental contribution to the Earth’s Th & U budget.  The distribution of <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements in the Earth drives convection and plate tectonics.  Geochemical models posit that ~40% of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements are in the continental crust, with the remainder in the mantle.  Although models of core formation allow for the incorporation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements, the core contribution of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> is considered to be negligible.  Most parameterized convection models for the Earth require significant amounts of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> of the Earth, a factor of two greater than geochemical models predict.  The initial KamLAND results challenge these geophysical models and support geochemical models calling for a significant contribution from secular cooling of the mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/987343','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/987343"><span>Geoneutrinos and <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> in the Earth: Constraints and Implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McDonough, Bill</p> <p>2008-07-02</p> <p>Recent results from antineutrino (geoneutrino) studies at KamLAND are coincident with geochemical models of Th and U in the Earth.  KamLAND and Borexino detectors are on line, thus uncertainties in counting statistics will be reduced as data are accumulated.  The SNO+ detector, situated in the middle of the North American plate will come on line in ~3 yrs and will be best suited to yield a precise estimate of the continental contribution to the Earth’s Th & U budget.  The distribution of <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements in the Earth drives convection and plate tectonics.  Geochemical models posit that ~40% of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements are in the continental crust, with the remainder in the mantle.  Although models of core formation allow for the incorporation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements, the core contribution of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> is considered to be negligible.  Most parameterized convection models for the Earth require significant amounts of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> of the Earth, a factor of two greater than geochemical models predict.  The initial KamLAND results challenge these geophysical models and support geochemical models calling for a significant contribution from secular cooling of the mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1016794','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1016794"><span>Geoneutrinos and <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> in the Earth: Constraints and Implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McConough, Bill</p> <p>2008-07-02</p> <p>Recent results from antineutrino (geoneutrino) studies at KamLAND are coincident with geochemical models of Th and U in the Earth. KamLAND and Borexino detectors are on line, thus uncertainties in counting statistics will be reduced as data are accumulated. The SNO+ detector, situated in the middle of the North American plate will come on line in {approx}3 yrs and will be best suited to yield a precise estimate of the continental contribution to the Earth's Th & U budget. The distribution of <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements in the Earth drives convection and plate tectonics. Geochemical models posit that {approx}40% of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements are in the continental crust, with the remainder in the mantle. Although models of core formation allow for the incorporation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements, the core contribution of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> is considered to be negligible. Most parameterized convection models for the Earth require significant amounts of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> of the Earth, a factor of two greater than geochemical models predict. The initial KamLAND results challenge these geophysical models and support geochemical models calling for a significant contribution from secular cooling of the mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15206614','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15206614"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress on <span class="hlt">production</span> parameters and immune responses of commercial laying hens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mashaly, M M; Hendricks, G L; Kalama, M A; Gehad, A E; Abbas, A O; Patterson, P H</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>The present study was conducted to determine the adverse effects of high temperature and humidity not only on live performance and egg quality but also on immune function in commercial laying hens. One hundred eighty 31-wk-old laying hens at peak <span class="hlt">production</span> were used in this study. Hens were housed in cages (15 cages of 4 birds/cage) in each of 3 environmental chambers and received 1 of 3 treatments. The 3 treatments were control (average temperature and relative humidity), cyclic (daily cyclic temperature and humidity), and <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress (constant <span class="hlt">heat</span> and humidity) for 5 wk. Different <span class="hlt">production</span> and immune parameters were measured. Body weight and feed consumption were significantly reduced in hens in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress group. Egg <span class="hlt">production</span>, egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, and specific gravity were significantly inhibited among hens in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress group. Likewise, total white blood cell (WBC) counts and antibody <span class="hlt">production</span> were significantly inhibited in hens in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress group. In addition, mortality was higher in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress group compared to the cyclic and control groups. Even though T- and B-lymphocyte activities were not significantly affected by any of the treatments, lymphocytes from hens in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress group had the least activity at 1 wk following treatment. These results indicate that <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress not only adversely affects <span class="hlt">production</span> performance but also inhibits immune function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.774a2135K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.774a2135K"><span>Development and optimization of a two-stage gasifier for <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kosov, V. V.; Zaichenko, V. M.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The major methods of biomass thermal conversion are combustion in excess oxygen, gasification in reduced oxygen, and pyrolysis in the absence of oxygen. The end <span class="hlt">products</span> of these methods are <span class="hlt">heat</span>, gas, liquid and solid fuels. From the point of view of energy <span class="hlt">production</span>, none of these methods can be considered optimal. A two-stage thermal conversion of biomass <span class="hlt">based</span> on pyrolysis as the first stage and pyrolysis <span class="hlt">products</span> cracking as the second stage can be considered the optimal method for energy <span class="hlt">production</span> that allows obtaining synthesis gas consisting of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and not containing liquid or solid particles. On the <span class="hlt">base</span> of the two stage cracking technology, there was designed an experimental power plant of electric power up to 50 kW. The power plant consists of a thermal conversion module and a gas engine power generator adapted for operation on syngas. Purposes of the work were determination of an optimal operation temperature of the thermal conversion module and an optimal mass ratio of processed biomass and charcoal in cracking chamber of the thermal conversion module. Experiments on the pyrolysis <span class="hlt">products</span> cracking at various temperatures show that the optimum cracking temperature is equal to 1000 °C. From the results of measuring the volume of gas produced in different mass ratios of charcoal and wood biomass processed, it follows that the maximum volume of the gas in the range of the mass ratio equal to 0.5-0.6.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA558580','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA558580"><span>Estimated Metabolic <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Helicopter Aircrew Members during Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>individual performed. Metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> was estimated using a mechanical efficiency of 20% for human movement and a standardized conversion to watts (W...various activities an individual performed. Metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> was estimated using a mechanical efficiency of 20% for human movement and a standardized...expenditure for that hour. To calculate metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, a mechanical efficiency of muscular work of 20% was assumed (21, 23). Therefore</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150021500','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150021500"><span>Subscale Water <span class="hlt">Based</span> Phase Change Material <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Exchanger Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Supplemental <span class="hlt">heat</span> rejection devices are required in many spacecraft as the radiators are not sized to meet the full <span class="hlt">heat</span> rejection demand. One means of obtaining additional <span class="hlt">heat</span> rejection is through the use of phase change material <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers (PCM HX's). PCM HX's utilize phase change to store energy in unfavorable thermal environments (melting) and reject the energy in favorable environments (freezing). Traditionally, wax has been used as a PCM on spacecraft. However, water is an attractive alternative because it is capable of storing about 40% more energy per unit mass due to its higher latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> of fusion. The significant problem in using water as a PCM is its expansion while freezing, leading to structural integrity concerns when housed in an enclosed <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger volume. Significant investigation and development has taken place over the past five years to understand and overcome the problems associated with water PCM HX's. This paper reports on the final efforts by Johnson Space Center's Thermal Systems Branch to develop a water <span class="hlt">based</span> PCM HX. The test article developed and reported on is a subscale version of the full-scale water-<span class="hlt">based</span> PCM HX's constructed by Mezzo Technologies. The subscale unit was designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation and previous full-scale water PCM HX development. Design modifications to the subscale unit included use of urethane bladder, decreased aspect ratio, perforated protection sheet, and use of additional mid-plates. Testing of the subscale unit was successful and 150 cycles were completed without fail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJD...71..230S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJD...71..230S"><span>A quantum <span class="hlt">heat</span> engine <span class="hlt">based</span> on Tavis-Cummings model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Kai-Wei; Li, Ran; Zhang, Guo-Feng</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>This paper will investigate a four-stroke quantum <span class="hlt">heat</span> engine <span class="hlt">based</span> on the Tavis-Cummings model. The cycle of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> engine is similar to the Otto cycle in classical thermodynamics. The relationship between output power as well as cycle efficiency and external physical system parameters are given. Under this condition, the entanglement behavior of the system will be studied. The system can show considerable entanglement by strictly controlling relevant parameters. Unlike common two-level quantum <span class="hlt">heat</span> engines, efficiency is a function of temperature, showing interesting and unexpected phenomena. Several ways to adjust engine properties by external parameters are proposed, with which the output power and efficiency can be optimized. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> engine model exhibits high efficiency and output power with the participation of a small number of photons, and decay rapidly as the number of photons increases in entangled area but shows interesting behaviors in non-entangled area of photon numbers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090041776','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090041776"><span>Method of <span class="hlt">Heating</span> a Foam-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Catalyst Bed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fortini, Arthur J.; Williams, Brian E.; McNeal, Shawn R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">heating</span> a foam-<span class="hlt">based</span> catalyst bed has been developed using silicon carbide as the catalyst support due to its readily accessible, high surface area that is oxidation-resistant and is electrically conductive. The foam support may be resistively <span class="hlt">heated</span> by passing an electric current through it. This allows the catalyst bed to be <span class="hlt">heated</span> directly, requiring less power to reach the desired temperature more quickly. Designed for heterogeneous catalysis, the method can be used by the petrochemical, chemical processing, and power-generating industries, as well as automotive catalytic converters. Catalyst beds must be <span class="hlt">heated</span> to a light-off temperature before they catalyze the desired reactions. This typically is done by <span class="hlt">heating</span> the assembly that contains the catalyst bed, which results in much of the power being wasted and/or lost to the surrounding environment. The catalyst bed is <span class="hlt">heated</span> indirectly, thus requiring excessive power. With the electrically <span class="hlt">heated</span> catalyst bed, virtually all of the power is used to <span class="hlt">heat</span> the support, and only a small fraction is lost to the surroundings. Although the light-off temperature of most catalysts is only a few hundred degrees Celsius, the electrically <span class="hlt">heated</span> foam is able to achieve temperatures of 1,200 C. Lower temperatures are achievable by supplying less electrical power to the foam. Furthermore, because of the foam s open-cell structure, the catalyst can be applied either directly to the foam ligaments or in the form of a catalyst- containing washcoat. This innovation would be very useful for heterogeneous catalysis where elevated temperatures are needed to drive the reaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3899060','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3899060"><span>Practical considerations for maximizing <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Subramanian, Manny; Ishmael Parsai, E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: A combination of hyperthermia and radiation in the treatment of cancer has been proven to provide better tumor control than radiation administered as a monomodality, without an increase in complications or serious toxicities. Moreover, concurrent administration of hyperthermia and radiation displays synergistic enhancement, resulting in greater tumor cell killing than hyperthermia and radiation delivered separately. The authors have designed a new thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and <span class="hlt">heat</span> for concurrent brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatments when implanted in solid tumors. This innovative seed, similar in size and geometry to conventional seeds, will have self-regulating thermal properties. Methods: The new seed's geometry is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the standard BEST Model 2301 125I seed, resulting in very similar dosimetric properties. The TB seed generates <span class="hlt">heat</span> when placed in an oscillating magnetic field via induction <span class="hlt">heating</span> of a ferromagnetic Ni–Cu alloy core that replaces the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard Model 2301. The alloy composition is selected to undergo a Curie transition near 50 °C, drastically decreasing power <span class="hlt">production</span> at higher temperatures and providing for temperature self-regulation. Here, the authors present experimental studies of the magnetic properties of Ni–Cu alloy material, the visibility of TB seeds in radiographic imaging, and the ability of seed prototypes to uniformly <span class="hlt">heat</span> tissue to a desirable temperature. Moreover, analyses are presented of magnetic shielding and thermal expansion of the TB seed, as well as matching of radiation dose to temperature distributions for a short interseed distance in a given treatment volume. Results: Annealing the Ni–Cu alloy has a significant effect on its magnetization properties, increasing the sharpness of the Curie transition. The TB seed preserves the radiographic properties of the BEST 2301 seed in both plain x rays and CT images</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251195','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251195"><span>Practical considerations for maximizing <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Ishmael Parsai, E.; Subramanian, Manny</p> <p>2014-02-15</p> <p>Purpose: A combination of hyperthermia and radiation in the treatment of cancer has been proven to provide better tumor control than radiation administered as a monomodality, without an increase in complications or serious toxicities. Moreover, concurrent administration of hyperthermia and radiation displays synergistic enhancement, resulting in greater tumor cell killing than hyperthermia and radiation delivered separately. The authors have designed a new thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and <span class="hlt">heat</span> for concurrent brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatments when implanted in solid tumors. This innovative seed, similar in size and geometry to conventional seeds, will have self-regulating thermal properties. Methods: The new seed's geometry is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the standard BEST Model 2301{sup 125}I seed, resulting in very similar dosimetric properties. The TB seed generates <span class="hlt">heat</span> when placed in an oscillating magnetic field via induction <span class="hlt">heating</span> of a ferromagnetic Ni–Cu alloy core that replaces the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard Model 2301. The alloy composition is selected to undergo a Curie transition near 50 °C, drastically decreasing power <span class="hlt">production</span> at higher temperatures and providing for temperature self-regulation. Here, the authors present experimental studies of the magnetic properties of Ni–Cu alloy material, the visibility of TB seeds in radiographic imaging, and the ability of seed prototypes to uniformly <span class="hlt">heat</span> tissue to a desirable temperature. Moreover, analyses are presented of magnetic shielding and thermal expansion of the TB seed, as well as matching of radiation dose to temperature distributions for a short interseed distance in a given treatment volume. Results: Annealing the Ni–Cu alloy has a significant effect on its magnetization properties, increasing the sharpness of the Curie transition. The TB seed preserves the radiographic properties of the BEST 2301 seed in both plain x rays and CT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930004817','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930004817"><span>Solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system for a lunar <span class="hlt">base</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An investigation of the feasibility of using a solar water heater for a lunar <span class="hlt">base</span> is described. During the investigation, computer codes were developed to model the lunar <span class="hlt">base</span> configuration, lunar orbit, and <span class="hlt">heating</span> systems. Numerous collector geometries, orientation variations, and system options were identified and analyzed. The results indicate that the recommended solar water heater could provide 88 percent of the design load and would not require changes in the overall lunar <span class="hlt">base</span> design. The system would give a 'safe-haven' water <span class="hlt">heating</span> capability and use only 7 percent to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. As a result, a fixed position photovoltaic array can be reduced by 21 sq m.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212417V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212417V"><span>Reliable radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of representative lithological groups</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vilà, Miquel; Fernández, Manel</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Determining the temperature distribution within the lithosphere requires the knowledge of the radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (RHP) distribution within the crust and the lithospheric mantle. RHP of crustal rocks varies considerably at different scales as a result of the petrogenetic processes responsible for their formation and therefore RHP depends on the considered lithologies. In this work we address RHP variability of some common lithological groups from a compilation of a total of 2188 representative U, Th and K concentrations of different worldwide rock types derived from 102 geochemical and geophysical datasets previously published. To optimize the use of the generated RHP database we have classified and renamed the rock-type denominations of the original works following a petrologic classification scheme with a hierarchical structure. To compute RHP a reasonable average density was assigned for each lithologic group. The RHP data of each lithological group is presented in cumulative distribution plots, and we report a table with the mean, the standard deviation, the minimum and maximum values, and the significant percentiles (10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th) of these lithological groups. In general, for each lithological group exists a wide zone around the median value with a constant slope indicating RHP values with the same probability of occurrence. This zone usually includes the RHP range defined by the 25th and the 75th percentile. When compare previuos RHP estimates of representative lithological groups with our results it is observed that most of them fall between the 25th and 75th percentiles obtained. We integrate our results in a schematic model of the differentiation processes undergone by lithospheric rocks. This model allows us to discuss the RHP variability for the different igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic lithological groups from a petrogenetic viewpoint. Finally we give some useful guidelines to assign RHP values to lithospheric thermal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/170588','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/170588"><span>Convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer behavior of the <span class="hlt">product</span> slurry of the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Muguercia, I.; Yang, G.; Ebadian, M.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mattus, A.J.; Hunt, R.D.</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for immobilizing liquid form low level radioactive waste (LLW). An experimental study has been conducted to measure the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer properties of the NAC <span class="hlt">product</span> slurry. The results indicate that the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient for both concentration slurries is much higher than that of pure water, which may be due to the higher conductivity of the gibbsite powder. For the 20% concentration slurry, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient increased as the generalized Reynolds number and slurry temperature increased. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient of 40% is a function of the Reynolds number only. The test results also indicate that the thermal entrance region can be observed only when the generalized Reynolds number is smaller than 1,000. The correlation equation is also developed <span class="hlt">based</span> on the experimental data in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-24/pdf/2013-24352.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-24/pdf/2013-24352.pdf"><span>78 FR 63410 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer <span class="hlt">Products</span>: Test Procedures for Direct <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Equipment...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-24</p> <p>...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to revise its test procedures for direct <span class="hlt">heating</span> equipment and pool heaters established under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. This rulemaking will fulfill DOE's statutory obligation to review its test procedures for covered <span class="hlt">products</span> at least once every seven years. For direct <span class="hlt">heating</span> equipment, the proposed amendments would add provisions......</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19758800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19758800"><span>Performance evaluation of adding ethanol <span class="hlt">production</span> into an existing combined <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power plant.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Starfelt, F; Thorin, E; Dotzauer, E; Yan, J</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, the configuration and performance of a polygeneration system are studied by modelling the integration of a lignocellulosic wood-to-ethanol process with an existing combined <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power (CHP) plant. Data from actual plants are applied to validate the simulation models. The integrated polygeneration system reaches a total efficiency of 50%, meeting the <span class="hlt">heating</span> load in the district <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. Excess <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the ethanol <span class="hlt">production</span> plant supplies 7.9 MW to the district <span class="hlt">heating</span> system, accounting for 17.5% of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> supply at full <span class="hlt">heating</span> load. The simulation results show that the <span class="hlt">production</span> of ethanol from woody biomass is more efficient when integrated with a CHP plant compared to a stand-alone <span class="hlt">production</span> plant. The total biomass consumption is reduced by 13.9% while producing the same amounts of <span class="hlt">heat</span>, electricity and ethanol fuel as in the stand-alone configurations. The results showed that another feature of the integrated polygeneration system is the longer annual operating period compared to existing cogeneration. Thus, the renewable electricity <span class="hlt">production</span> is increased by 2.7% per year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=248483','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=248483"><span>Virtual Grower: Software to Calculate <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Costs of Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Production</span> in the US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Greenhouses are used in many climates either for season extension or year-round <span class="hlt">production</span>, and can be expensive to <span class="hlt">heat</span>. Greenhouse users and growers are often faced with management decisions that rely on an understanding of how temperature settings, <span class="hlt">heating</span> systems, fuel types, and construction d...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23690144','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23690144"><span>Working in Australia's <span class="hlt">heat</span>: health promotion concerns for health and <span class="hlt">productivity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Sudhvir; Hanna, Elizabeth G; Kjellstrom, Tord</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>This exploratory study describes the experiences arising from exposure to extreme summer <span class="hlt">heat</span>, and the related health protection and promotion issues for working people in Australia. Twenty key informants representing different industry types and occupational groups or activities in Australia provided semi-structured interviews concerning: (i) perceptions of workplace <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure in the industry they represented, (ii) reported impacts on health and <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, as well as (iii) actions taken to reduce exposure or effects of environmental <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure. All interviewees reported that excessive <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure presents a significant challenge for their industry or activity. People working in physically demanding jobs in temperatures>35°C frequently develop symptoms, and working beyond <span class="hlt">heat</span> tolerance is common. To avoid potentially dangerous health impacts they must either slow down or change their work habits. Such health-preserving actions result in lost work capacity. Approximately one-third of baseline work <span class="hlt">productivity</span> can be lost in physically demanding jobs when working at 40°C. Employers and workers consider that <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure is a 'natural hazard' in Australia that cannot easily be avoided and so must be accommodated or managed. Among participants in this study, the locus of responsibility for coping with <span class="hlt">heat</span> lay with the individual, rather than the employer. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> exposure during Australian summers commonly results in adverse health effects and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> losses, although quantification studies are lacking. Lack of understanding of the hazardous nature of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure exacerbates the serious risk of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress, as entrenched attitudinal barriers hamper amelioration or effective management of this increasing occupational health threat. Educational programmes and workplace <span class="hlt">heat</span> guidelines are required. Without intervention, climate change in hot countries, such as Australia, can be expected to further exacerbate <span class="hlt">heat</span>-related burden of disease and loss</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28163064','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28163064"><span>Thermal stability of plant sterols and formation of their oxidation <span class="hlt">products</span> in vegetable oils and margarines upon controlled <span class="hlt">heating</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Yuguang; Knol, Diny; Valk, Iris; van Andel, Vincent; Friedrichs, Silvia; Lütjohann, Dieter; Hrncirik, Karel; Trautwein, Elke A</p> <p>2017-02-02</p> <p>Fat-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">products</span> like vegetable oils and margarines are commonly used for cooking, which may enhance oxidation of plant sterols (PS) present therein, leading to the formation of PS oxidation <span class="hlt">products</span> (POP). The present study aims to assess the kinetics of POP formation in six different fat-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">products</span>. Vegetable oils and margarines without and with added PS (7.5-7.6% w/w) in esterified form were <span class="hlt">heated</span> in a Petri-dish at temperatures of 150, 180 and 210°C for 8, 12 and 16min. PS and POP were analysed using GC-FID and GC-MS-SIM, respectively. Increasing PS content, temperature and <span class="hlt">heating</span> time led to higher POP formation in all tested fat-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">products</span>. PS (either naturally occurring or added) in margarines were less susceptible to oxidation as compared to PS in vegetable oils. The susceptibility of sitosterol to oxidation was about 20% lower than that of campesterol under all the applied experimental conditions. During <span class="hlt">heating</span>, the relative abundance of 7-keto-PS (expressed as% of total POP) decreased in all the fat-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">products</span> regardless of their PS contents, which was accompanied by an increase in the relative abundance of 7-OH-PS and 5,6-epoxy-PS, while PS-triols were fairly unchanged. In conclusion, <span class="hlt">heating</span> time, temperature, initial PS content and the matrix of the fat-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">products</span> (vegetable oil vs. margarine) showed distinct effects on POP formation and composition of individual POP formed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930012823','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930012823"><span>NLS cycle 1 and NLS 2 <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> technical notes. Appendix 3: Preliminary cycle 1 NLS <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> environments. Cycle 1 NLS <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> environments. NLS 2 650K STME <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bender, Robert L.; Reardon, John E.; Prendergast, Maurice J.; Schmitz, Craig P.; Brown, John R.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A preliminary analysis of National Launch System ascent plume induced <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> environments has been completed to support the Induced Environments Panel's objective to assist in maturing the NLS vehicle (1.5 stage and heavy launch lift vehicle) design. Environments during ascent have been determined from this analysis for a few selected locations on the engine nozzles and <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> shield for both vehicles. The environments reflect early summer 1991 configurations and performance data and conservative methodology. A more complete and thorough analysis is under way to update these environments for the cycle 1 review in January 1992.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA468215','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA468215"><span>Thermal Stabilizing of Shelf-Stable Egg <span class="hlt">Products</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Radio Frequency Energy Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">based</span> on the automatic program was determined. We produced 10 trays of RF <span class="hlt">heated</span> scrambled eggs without any temperature tubings in the tray...stability. The new vessel was tested to <span class="hlt">heat</span> several food <span class="hlt">products</span> such as mashed potatoes and scrambled eggs . Relatively uniform <span class="hlt">heating</span> pattern...Preliminary results of RF <span class="hlt">heated</span> scrambled eggs showed greenish-black discoloration and an undesirable syneresis after processing and storage. In order</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26495875','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26495875"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> Dissipation Interfaces <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Vertically Aligned Diamond/Graphite Nanoplatelets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Santos, N F; Holz, T; Santos, T; Fernandes, A J S; Vasconcelos, T L; Gouvea, C P; Archanjo, B S; Achete, C A; Silva, R F; Costa, F M</p> <p>2015-11-11</p> <p>Crystalline carbon-<span class="hlt">based</span> materials are intrinsically chemically inert and good <span class="hlt">heat</span> conductors, allowing their applications in a great variety of devices. A technological step forward in <span class="hlt">heat</span> dissipators <span class="hlt">production</span> can be given by tailoring the carbon phase microstructure, tuning the CVD synthesis conditions. In this work, a rapid bottom-up synthesis of vertically aligned hybrid material comprising diamond thin platelets covered by a crystalline graphite layer was developed. A single run was designed in order to produce a high aspect ratio nanostructured carbon material favoring the thermal dissipation under convection-governed conditions. The produced material was characterized by multiwavelength Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy (scanning and transmission), and the macroscopic <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux was evaluated. The results obtained confirm the enhancement of <span class="hlt">heat</span> dissipation rate in the developed hybrid structures, when compared to smooth nanocrystalline diamond films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-06/pdf/2012-13675.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-06/pdf/2012-13675.pdf"><span>77 FR 33486 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple <span class="hlt">Heat</span>-Conducting Paths and <span class="hlt">Products</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-06</p> <p>... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple <span class="hlt">Heat</span>- Conducting Paths and <span class="hlt">Products</span>.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided... sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit packages provided...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7064914','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7064914"><span>Adjustments in metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by squirrel monkeys exposed to microwaves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adair, E.R.; Adams, B.W.</p> <p>1982-04-01</p> <p>The basic fact that microwave exposure can lower metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> has been previously demonstrated for the mouse by Ho and Edwards (1977) and for the rat by Phillips et al. (1975). The general conclusion drawn from both studies was that the metabolic reduction produced by microwave exposure was dose dependent. The present study extends the investigation into the effects of microwave exposure on metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> to a primate, the squirrel monkey. When squirrel monkeys are restrained in cool environments, body temperature is regulated by an increase in metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. The results of the current study demonstrate that either brief or prolonged whole-body exposure to a microwave field will cause a reduction of this elevated <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by an amount directly related to the microwave energy absorbed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981745"><span>Enhancing methane <span class="hlt">production</span> from waste activated sludge using combined free nitrous acid and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pre-treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>Methane <span class="hlt">production</span> from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often limited by the slow degradation and poor substrate availability of WAS. Our previous study revealed that WAS pre-treatment using free nitrous acid (FNA, i.e. HNO2) is an economically feasible and environmentally friendly method for promoting methane <span class="hlt">production</span>. In order to further improve methane <span class="hlt">production</span> from WAS, this study presents a novel strategy <span class="hlt">based</span> on combined FNA and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pre-treatment. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated for 24 h with FNA alone (0.52-1.43 mg N/L at 25 °C), <span class="hlt">heat</span> alone (35, 55 and 70 °C), and FNA (0.52-1.11 mg N/L) combined with <span class="hlt">heat</span> (35, 55 and 70 °C). The pre-treated WAS was then used for biochemical methane potential tests. Compared to the control (no FNA or <span class="hlt">heat</span> pre-treatment of WAS), biochemical methane potential of the pre-treated WAS was increased by 12-16%, 0-6%, 17-26%, respectively; hydrolysis rate was improved by 15-25%, 10-25%, 20-25%, respectively, for the three types of pre-treatment. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> pre-treatment at 55 and 70 °C, independent of the presence or absence of FNA, achieved approximately 4.5 log inactivation of pathogens (in comparison to ∼1 log inactivation with FNA treatment alone), thus capable of producing Class A biosolids. The combined FNA and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pre-treatment is an economically and environmentally attractive technology for the pre-treatment of WAS prior to anaerobic digestion, particularly considering that both FNA and <span class="hlt">heat</span> can be produced as by-<span class="hlt">products</span> of anaerobic sludge digestion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988IJBm...32...73K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988IJBm...32...73K"><span>Temperature and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> patterns inside organism clusters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kyaw Tha Paw, U.</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p>Clustering of organisms under cold air temperature conditions is modelled with a finite-difference method. Metabolic functions of temperature are used to simulate completely ectothermic, completely endothermic, and other organisms. To adequately match real conditions, the core temperature is kept constant at a high level, while the periphery of the organism cluster is assigned a lower temperature representing the cold conditions under which clustering is observed for organisms. The numerical model reasonably predicts the observed temperature distribution in honeybee clusters. The results do not support suggestions that organisms could overheat in the core of a cluster if they do not use thermoregulatory mechanisms to cool down. Endothermic organisms are not as efficient as ectothermic ones in <span class="hlt">heating</span> a cluster core temperature to a given level. The general ectothermic metabolic rate function exhibited one of the highest efficiencies for <span class="hlt">heating</span> the cluster.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...63a2052C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...63a2052C"><span>Cooling Load Estimation in the Building <span class="hlt">Based</span> On <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chairani; Sulistyo, S.; Widyawan</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heating</span>, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is the largest source of energy consumption. In this research, we discuss cooling load in the room by considering the different <span class="hlt">heat</span> source and the number of occupancy. Energy cooling load is affected by external and internal <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources. External cooling load in this discussion include convection outdoor/exterior using the DOE-2 algorithm, calculation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> using Thermal Analysis Research Program (TARP), and Conduction Transfer Function (CTF). The internal cooling load is calculated <span class="hlt">based</span> on the activity of the occupants in the office, a number of occupants, <span class="hlt">heat</span> gain from lighting, and <span class="hlt">heat</span> gain from electrics equipment. Weather data used is Surakarta weather and design day used is Jakarta design day. We use the ASHRAE standard for building materials and the metabolic of occupants while on the activity. The results show that the number of occupancies have an influence of cooling load. A large number of occupancy will cause the cooling load is great as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1573...28F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1573...28F"><span>A helium <span class="hlt">based</span> pulsating <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe for superconducting magnets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fonseca, Luis Diego; Miller, Franklin; Pfotenhauer, John</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study was inspired to investigate an alternative cooling system using a helium-<span class="hlt">based</span> pulsating <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipes (PHP), for low temperature superconducting magnets. In addition, the same approach can be used for exploring other low temperature applications. The advantages of PHP for transferring <span class="hlt">heat</span> and smoothing temperature profiles in various room temperature applications have been explored for the past 20 years. An experimental apparatus has been designed, fabricated and operated and is primarily composed of an evaporator and a condenser; in which both are thermally connected by a closed loop capillary tubing. The main goal is to measure the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer properties of this device using helium as the working fluid. The evaporator end of the PHP is comprised of a copper winding in which <span class="hlt">heat</span> loads up to 10 watts are generated, while the condenser is isothermal and can reach 4.2 K via a two stage Sumitomo RDK408A2 GM cryocooler. Various experimental design features are highlighted. Additionally, performance results in the form of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and temperature characteristics are provided as a function of average condenser temperature, PHP fill ratio, and evaporator <span class="hlt">heat</span> load. Results are summarized in the form of a dimensionless correlation and compared to room temperature systems. Implications for superconducting magnet stability are highlighted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413829H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413829H"><span>Modelling Hydraulic and Thermal Responses in a Benchmark for Deep Geothermal <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holzbecher, E.; Oberdorfer, P.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Geothermal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> from deep reservoirs (5000-7000 m) is currently examined within the collaborative research program "Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling" (gebo), funded by the Ministry of Science and Culture of Lower Saxony (Germany) and Baker Hughes. The projects concern exploration and characterization of geothermal reservoirs as well as <span class="hlt">production</span>. They are gathered in the four major topic fields: geosystem, drilling, materials, technical system. We present modelling of a benchmark set-up concerning the geothermal <span class="hlt">production</span> itself. The benchmark model "Horstberg" was originally created by J. Löhken and is <span class="hlt">based</span> on geological data, concerning the Horstberg site in Lower Saxony. The model region consists of a cube with a side length of 5 km, in which 13 geological layers are included. A fault zone splits the region into two parts with shifted layering. A well is implemented, reaching from the top to an optional depth crossing all layers including the fault zone. The original geological model was rebuilt and improved in COMSOL Multiphysics Version 4.2a. The heterogeneous and detailed configuration makes the model interesting for benchmarking hydrogeological and geothermal applications. It is possible to inject and pump at any level in the well and to study the hydraulic and thermal responses of the system. The hydraulic and thermal parameters can be varied, and groundwater flow can be introduced. Moreover, it is also possible to examine structural mechanical responses to changes in the stress field (which is not further examined here). The main purpose of the presented study is to examine the dynamical flow characteristics of a hydraulic high conductive zone (Detfurth) in connection to a high conductive fault. One example is the fluid injection in the Detfurth zone and <span class="hlt">production</span> in the fault. The high conductive domains can provide a hydraulic connection between the well screens and the initiated flow circuit could be used for geothermal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3016720','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3016720"><span>Wasp Hawking Induces Endothermic <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> in Guard Bees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tan, K.; Li, H.; Yang, M.X.; Hepburn, H.R.; Radloff, S.E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>When vespine wasps, Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), hawk (capture) bees at their nest entrances alerted and poised guards of Apis cerana cerana F. and Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola (Hymenoptera: Apidae) have average thoracic temperatures slightly above 24° C. Many additional worker bees of A. cerana, but not A. mellifera, are recruited to augment the guard bee cohort and begin wing-shimmering and body-rocking, and the average thoracic temperature rises to 29.8 ± 1.6° C. If the wasps persist hawking, about 30 guard bees of A. cerana that have raised their thoracic temperatures to 31.4 ± 0.9° C strike out at a wasp and form a ball around it. Within about three minutes the core temperature of the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-balling A. cerana guard bees reaches about 46° C, which is above the lethal limit of the wasps, which are therefore killed. Although guard bees of A. mellifera do not exhibit the serial behavioural and physiological changes of A. cerana, they may also <span class="hlt">heat</span>-ball hawking wasps. Here, the differences in the sequence of changes in the behaviour and temperature during “resting” and “<span class="hlt">heat</span>-balling” by A. cerana and A. mellifera are reported. PMID:21073346</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21073346','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21073346"><span>Wasp hawking induces endothermic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in guard bees.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, K; Li, H; Yang, M X; Hepburn, H R; Radloff, S E</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>When vespine wasps, Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), hawk (capture) bees at their nest entrances alerted and poised guards of Apis cerana cerana F. and Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola (Hymenoptera: Apidae) have average thoracic temperatures slightly above 24° C. Many additional worker bees of A. cerana, but not A. mellifera, are recruited to augment the guard bee cohort and begin wing-shimmering and body-rocking, and the average thoracic temperature rises to 29.8 ± 1.6° C. If the wasps persist hawking, about 30 guard bees of A. cerana that have raised their thoracic temperatures to 31.4 ± 0.9° C strike out at a wasp and form a ball around it. Within about three minutes the core temperature of the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-balling A. cerana guard bees reaches about 46° C, which is above the lethal limit of the wasps, which are therefore killed. Although guard bees of A. mellifera do not exhibit the serial behavioural and physiological changes of A. cerana, they may also <span class="hlt">heat</span>-ball hawking wasps. Here, the differences in the sequence of changes in the behaviour and temperature during "resting" and "<span class="hlt">heat</span>-balling" by A. cerana and A. mellifera are reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910012859','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910012859"><span>A comparison of microwave versus direct solar <span class="hlt">heating</span> for lunar brick <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yankee, S. J.; Strenski, D. G.; Pletka, B. J.; Patil, D. S.; Mutsuddy, B. C.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two processing techniques considered suitable for producing bricks from lunar regolith are examined: direct solar <span class="hlt">heating</span> and microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span>. An analysis was performed to compare the two processes in terms of the amount of power and time required to fabricate bricks of various sizes. Microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> was shown to be significantly faster than solar <span class="hlt">heating</span> for rapid <span class="hlt">production</span> of realistic-size bricks. However, the relative simplicity of the solar collector(s) used for the solar furnace compared to the equipment necessary for microwave generation may present an economic tradeoff.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPS...351...45R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPS...351...45R"><span>Electrical power <span class="hlt">production</span> from low-grade waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> using a thermally regenerative ethylenediamine battery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rahimi, Mohammad; D'Angelo, Adriana; Gorski, Christopher A.; Scialdone, Onofrio; Logan, Bruce E.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Thermally regenerative ammonia-<span class="hlt">based</span> batteries (TRABs) have been developed to harvest low-grade waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> as electricity. To improve the power <span class="hlt">production</span> and anodic coulombic efficiency, the use of ethylenediamine as an alternative ligand to ammonia was explored here. The power density of the ethylenediamine-<span class="hlt">based</span> battery (TRENB) was 85 ± 3 W m-2-electrode area with 2 M ethylenediamine, and 119 ± 4 W m-2 with 3 M ethylenediamine. This power density was 68% higher than that of TRAB. The energy density was 478 Wh m-3-anolyte, which was ∼50% higher than that produced by TRAB. The anodic coulombic efficiency of the TRENB was 77 ± 2%, which was more than twice that obtained using ammonia in a TRAB (35%). The higher anodic efficiency reduced the difference between the anode dissolution and cathode deposition rates, resulting in a process more suitable for closed loop operation. The thermal-electric efficiency <span class="hlt">based</span> on ethylenediamine separation using waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> was estimated to be 0.52%, which was lower than that of TRAB (0.86%), mainly due to the more complex separation process. However, this energy recovery could likely be improved through optimization of the ethylenediamine separation process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10766936','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10766936"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in human skeletal muscle at the onset of intense dynamic exercise.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González-Alonso, J; Quistorff, B; Krustrup, P; Bangsbo, J; Saltin, B</p> <p>2000-04-15</p> <p>1. We hypothesised that <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of human skeletal muscle at a given high power output would gradually increase as <span class="hlt">heat</span> liberation per mole of ATP produced rises when energy is derived from oxidation compared to phosphocreatine (PCr) breakdown and glycogenolysis. 2. Five young volunteers performed 180 s of intense dynamic knee-extensor exercise ( approximately 80 W) while estimates of muscle <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, power output, oxygen uptake, lactate release, lactate accumulation and ATP and PCr hydrolysis were made. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was determined continuously by (i) measuring <span class="hlt">heat</span> storage in the contracting muscles, (ii) measuring <span class="hlt">heat</span> removal to the body core by the circulation, and (iii) estimating <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer to the skin by convection and conductance as well as to the body core by lymph drainage. 3. The rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> storage in knee-extensor muscles was highest during the first 45 s of exercise (70-80 J s-1) and declined gradually to 14 +/- 10 J s-1 at 180 s. 4. The rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> removal by blood was negligible during the first 10 s of exercise, rising gradually to 112 +/- 14 J s-1 at 180 s. The estimated rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> release to skin and <span class="hlt">heat</span> removal via lymph flow was < 2 J s-1 during the first 5 s and increased progressively to 24 +/- 1 J s-1 at 180 s. The rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> increased significantly throughout exercise, being 107 % higher at 180 s compared to the initial 5 s, with half of the increase occurring during the first 38 s, while power output remained essentially constant. 5. The contribution of muscle oxygen uptake and net lactate release to total energy turnover increased curvilinearly from 32 % and 2 %, respectively, during the first 30 s to 86 % and 8 %, respectively, during the last 30 s of exercise. The combined energy contribution from net ATP hydrolysis, net PCr hydrolysis and muscle lactate accumulation is estimated to decline from 37 % to 3 % comparing the same time intervals. 6. The magnitude and rate of elevation in <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/901210','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/901210"><span>THERM 2.0: a PC Program for Analyzing Two-Dimensional <span class="hlt">Heat</span>Transfer through Building <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Windows and Daylighting Group</p> <p>1997-12-08</p> <p>THERM is a state-of-the-art, Microsoft Windows{trademark}-<span class="hlt">based</span> computer program developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for use by building component manufacturers, engineers, educators, students, architects, and others interested in <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer. Using THERM, you can model two-dimensional <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer effects in building components such as windows, walls, foundations, roofs, and doors; appliances; and other <span class="hlt">products</span> where thermal bridges are of concern. THERM's <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer analysis allows you to evaluate a <span class="hlt">product</span>'s energy efficiency and local temperature patterns, which may relate directly to problems with condensation, moisture damage, and structural integrity. THERM's two-dimensional conduction <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer analysis is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the finite-element method, which can model the complicated geometries of building <span class="hlt">products</span>. The program's graphic interface allows you to draw cross sections of <span class="hlt">products</span> or components to be analyzed. To create the cross sections, you can trace imported files in DXF or bitmap format, or input the geometry from known dimensions. Each cross section is represented by a combination of polygons. You define the material properties for each polygon and introduce the environmental conditions to which the component is exposed by defining the boundary conditions surrounding the cross section. Once the model is created, the remaining analysis (mesher and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer) is automatic. You can view results from THERM in several forms, including U-factors, isotherms, <span class="hlt">heat</span>-flux vectors, and local temperatures. This version of THERM includes several new technical and user interface features; the most significant is a radiation view-factor algorithm. This feature increases the accuracy of calculations in situations where you are analyzing non-planar surfaces that have different temperatures and exchange energy through radiation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer. This <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer mechanism is important in greenhouse windows, hollow cavities, and some</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJT....38..151Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJT....38..151Z"><span>Experimental Investigation on the Specific <span class="hlt">Heat</span> of Carbonized Phenolic Resin-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Ablative Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Te; Ye, Hong; Zhang, Lisong; Cai, Qilin</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>As typical phenolic resin-<span class="hlt">based</span> ablative materials, the high silica/phenolic and carbon/phenolic composites are widely used in aerospace field. The specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> of the carbonized ablators after ablation is an important thermophysical parameter in the process of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer, but it is rarely reported. In this investigation, the carbonized samples of the high silica/phenolic and carbon/phenolic were obtained through carbonization experiments, and the specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> of the carbonized samples was determined by a 3D DSC from 150 °C to 970 °C. Structural and compositional characterizations were performed to determine the mass fractions of the fiber and the carbonized <span class="hlt">product</span> of phenolic which are the two constituents of the carbonized samples, while the specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> of each constituent was also measured by 3D DSC. The masses of the carbonized samples were reduced when <span class="hlt">heated</span> to a high temperature in the specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> measurements, due to the thermal degradation of the carbonized <span class="hlt">product</span> of phenolic resin in the carbonized samples. The raw experimental specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> of the two carbonized samples and the carbonized <span class="hlt">product</span> of phenolic resin was modified according to the quality changes of the carbonized samples presented by TGA results. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on the mass fraction and the specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> of each constituent, a weighted average method was adopted to obtain the calculated results of the carbonized samples. Due to the unconsolidated property of the fiber samples which impacts the reliability of the DSC measurement, there is a certain deviation between the experimental and calculated results of the carbonized samples. Considering the similarity of composition and structure, the data of quartz glass and graphite were used to substitute the specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> of the high silica fiber and carbon fiber, respectively, resulting in better agreements with the experimental ones. Furthermore, the accurate specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> of the high silica fiber and carbon fiber bundles was obtained by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8349E..2YZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8349E..2YZ"><span>XML-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">product</span> information processing method for <span class="hlt">product</span> design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhen Yu</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Design knowledge of modern mechatronics <span class="hlt">product</span> is <span class="hlt">based</span> on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus <span class="hlt">product</span> design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics <span class="hlt">product</span> design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">product</span> information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of <span class="hlt">product</span> design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of <span class="hlt">product</span> function element, <span class="hlt">product</span> structure element, <span class="hlt">product</span> mapping relationship between function and structure <span class="hlt">based</span> on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-<span class="hlt">based</span> design system and <span class="hlt">product</span> innovation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8349E..2YZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8349E..2YZ"><span>XML-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">product</span> information processing method for <span class="hlt">product</span> design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhen Yu</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Design knowledge of modern mechatronics <span class="hlt">product</span> is <span class="hlt">based</span> on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus <span class="hlt">product</span> design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics <span class="hlt">product</span> design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">product</span> information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of <span class="hlt">product</span> design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of <span class="hlt">product</span> function element, <span class="hlt">product</span> structure element, <span class="hlt">product</span> mapping relationship between function and structure <span class="hlt">based</span> on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-<span class="hlt">based</span> design system and <span class="hlt">product</span> innovation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22590984','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22590984"><span>The scientific <span class="hlt">base</span> of <span class="hlt">heating</span> water by microwave</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Akdoğan, Ender; Çiftçi, Muharrem</p> <p>2016-03-25</p> <p>This article is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the master thesis [4] related to our invention which was published in World Intellectual Property Organization (WO/2011/048506) as a microwave water heater. In the project, a prototype was produced to use microwave in industrial <span class="hlt">heating</span>. In order to produce the prototype, the most appropriate material kind for microwave-water experiments was determined by a new energy loss rate calculation technique. This new energy loss calculation is a determinative factor for material permeability at microwave frequency band (1-100 GHz). This experimental series aim to investigate the rationality of using microwave in <span class="hlt">heating</span> industry. Theoretically, <span class="hlt">heating</span> water by microwave (with steady frequency 2.45 GHz) is analyzed from sub-molecular to Classical Mechanic results of <span class="hlt">heating</span>. In the study, we examined Quantum Mechanical <span class="hlt">base</span> of <span class="hlt">heating</span> water by microwave experiments. As a result, we derived a Semi-Quantum Mechanical equation for microwave-water interactions and thus, Wien displacement law can be derived to verify experimental observations by this equation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1722n0001A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1722n0001A"><span>The scientific <span class="hlt">base</span> of <span class="hlt">heating</span> water by microwave</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akdoǧan, Ender; ćiftçi, Muharrem</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>This article is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the master thesis [4] related to our invention which was published in World Intellectual Property Organization (WO/2011/048506) as a microwave water heater. In the project, a prototype was produced to use microwave in industrial <span class="hlt">heating</span>. In order to produce the prototype, the most appropriate material kind for microwave-water experiments was determined by a new energy loss rate calculation technique. This new energy loss calculation is a determinative factor for material permeability at microwave frequency band (1-100 GHz). This experimental series aim to investigate the rationality of using microwave in <span class="hlt">heating</span> industry. Theoretically, <span class="hlt">heating</span> water by microwave (with steady frequency 2.45 GHz) is analyzed from sub-molecular to Classical Mechanic results of <span class="hlt">heating</span>. In the study, we examined Quantum Mechanical <span class="hlt">base</span> of <span class="hlt">heating</span> water by microwave experiments. As a result, we derived a Semi-Quantum Mechanical equation for microwave-water interactions and thus, Wien displacement law can be derived to verify experimental observations by this equation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.P23C1281M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.P23C1281M"><span>Percussive and Proboscis <span class="hlt">Based</span> Lunar <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Flow Probes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mumm, E.; Zacny, K.; Kumar, N.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The subsurface temperature of the Moon is strongly influenced by the diurnal, annual, and precession fluctuations of the insolation. Therefore, to measure the <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow, the probe has to be inserted to a depth of at least 3m. There are a number of ways the <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow probe can be deployed. These methods differ in many ways such as simplicity and mass of the deployment system, power required to deploy it, extent of thermal isolation between temperature sensors and between sensors themselves and surface system (deployment system, lander, electronics box etc), thermal sensor placement within the hole (radiative as opposed to conducive coupling), and methods of deployment. The percussive <span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow probe utilizes a percussive approach to drive a small diameter (20mm) cone penetrometer to >3 meter depths, deploying ring-like thermal sensors every 30 cm. It leaves only small sensors in the borehole, maximizing measurement sensitivity by minimizing thermal coupling from the lander to the electrical tether. The proboscis <span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow probe utilizes a pneumatic (gas) approach to lower the <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow probe, a lenticular tape, to 3 meters. The system offers extremely low mass, volume, and simple deployment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/395376','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/395376"><span>Convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient model for spherical <span class="hlt">products</span> subject to hydrocooling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dincer, I.</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>An analytical model was developed to determine the convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients of spherical <span class="hlt">products</span> being cooled in any medium. In order to verify the present model, the experimental center temperature measurements of the individual spherical <span class="hlt">products</span> (i.e., plums, peaches, tomatoes, pears) were determined in batches containing 5 and 20 kg of <span class="hlt">product</span>. It was found that the convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient of an individual <span class="hlt">product</span> varied with the batch weight. This study shows that the present model is a simple and effective tool to determine such coefficients and could be a benefit to the refrigeration industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910017L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910017L"><span>Numerical analysis of temperature distribution due to basement radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, St. Lawrence Lowlands, eastern Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Hejuan; Giroux, Bernard; Harris, Lyal B.; Mansour, John</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Although eastern Canada is considered as having a low potential for high-temperature geothermal resources, the possibility for additional localized radioactive <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources in Mesoproterozoic Grenvillian basement to parts of the Palaeozoic St. Lawrence Lowlands in Quebec, Canada, suggests that this potential should be reassessed. However, such a task remains hard to achieve due to scarcity of <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow data and ambiguity about the nature of the basement. To get an appraisal, the impact of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> for different Grenville Province crystalline basement units on temperature distribution at depth was simulated using the Underworld Geothermal numerical modelling code. The region south of Trois-Rivières was selected as representative for the St. Lawrence Lowlands. An existing 3D geological model <span class="hlt">based</span> on well log data, seismic profiles and surface geology was used to build a catalogue of plausible thermal models. Statistical analyses of radiogenic element (U, Th, K) concentrations from neighbouring outcropping Grenville domains indicate that the radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of rocks in the modelled region is in the range of 0.34-3.24 μW/m3, with variations in the range of 0.94-5.83 μW/m3 for the Portneuf-Mauricie (PM) Domain, 0.02-4.13 μW/m3 for the Shawinigan Domain (Morin Terrane), and 0.34-1.96 μW/m3 for the Parc des Laurentides (PDL) Domain. Various scenarios considering basement characteristics similar to the PM domain, Morin Terrane and PDL Domain were modelled. The results show that the temperature difference between the scenarios can be as much as 12 °C at a depth of 5 km. The results also show that the temperature distribution is strongly affected by both the concentration of radiogenic elements and the thermal conductivity of the basement rocks. The thermal conductivity in the basement affects the trend of temperature change between two different geological units, and the spatial extent of thermal anomalies. The validity of the results was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8810252','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8810252"><span>Achievement of thermal stability by varying metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in flying honeybees.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harrison, J F; Fewell, J H; Roberts, S P; Hall, H G</p> <p>1996-10-04</p> <p>Thermoregulation of the thorax allows endothermic insects to achieve power outputs during flight that are among the highest in the animal kingdom. Flying endothermic insects, including the honeybee Apis mellifera, are believed to thermoregulate almost exclusively by varying <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss. Here it is shown that a rise in air temperature from 20 degrees to 40 degrees C causes large decreases in metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and wing-beat frequency in honeybees during hovering, agitated, or loaded flight. Thus, variation in <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> may be the primary mechanism for achieving thermal stability in flying honeybees, and this mechanism may occur commonly in endothermic insects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......140G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......140G"><span>Diamond-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> spreaders for power electronic packaging applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guillemet, Thomas</p> <p></p> <p>As any semiconductor-<span class="hlt">based</span> devices, power electronic packages are driven by the constant increase of operating speed (higher frequency), integration level (higher power), and decrease in feature size (higher packing density). Although research and innovation efforts have kept these trends continuous for now more than fifty years, the electronic packaging technology is currently facing a challenge that must be addressed in order to move toward any further improvements in terms of performances or miniaturization: thermal management. Thermal issues in high-power packages strongly affect their reliability and lifetime and have now become one of the major limiting factors of power modules development. Thus, there is a strong need for materials that can sustain higher <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux levels while safely integrating into the electronic package architecture. In such context, diamond is an attractive candidate because of its outstanding thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, and high electrical resistivity. Its low <span class="hlt">heat</span> capacity relative to metals such as aluminum or copper makes it however preferable for <span class="hlt">heat</span> spreading applications (as a <span class="hlt">heat</span>-spreader) rather than for dissipating the <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux itself (as a <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink). In this study, a dual diamond-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span>-spreading solution is proposed. Polycrystalline diamond films were grown through laser-assisted combustion synthesis on electronic substrates (in the U.S) while, in parallel, diamond-reinforced copper-matrix composite films were fabricated through tape casting and hot pressing (in France). These two types of diamond-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span>-spreading films were characterized and their microstructure and chemical composition were related to their thermal performances. Particular emphasize was put on the influence of interfaces on the thermal properties of the materials, either inside a single material (grain boundaries) or between dissimilar materials (film/substrate interface, matrix/reinforcement interface). Finally, the packaging</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28477223','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28477223"><span>Differences in response to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress due to <span class="hlt">production</span> level and breed of dairy cows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gantner, Vesna; Bobic, Tina; Gantner, Ranko; Gregic, Maja; Kuterovac, Kresimir; Novakovic, Jurica; Potocnik, Klemen</p> <p>2017-05-06</p> <p>The climatic conditions in Croatia are deteriorating which significantly increases the frequency of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. This creates a need for an adequate dairy farming strategy. The impact of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress can be reduced in many ways, but the best long-term solution includes the genetic evaluation and selection for <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress resistance. In order to create the basis for genetic evaluation, this research determined the variation in daily milk yield (DMY) and somatic cell count (SCC) as well as the differences in resistance to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress due to <span class="hlt">production</span> level (high, low) and breed (Holstein, Simmental) of dairy cattle breed in Croatia. For statistical analysis, 1,070,554 test-day records from 70,135 Holsteins reared on 5679 farms and 1,300,683 test-day records from 86,013 Simmentals reared on 8827 farms in Croatia provided by the Croatian Agricultural Agency were used. The results of this research indicate that the high-producing cows are much more susceptible to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress than low-producing especially Holsteins. Also, the results of this research indicate that Simmental breed, in terms of daily milk <span class="hlt">production</span> and somatic cell count, could be more resistant to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress than Holstein. The following research should determine whether Simmentals are genetically more appropriate for the challenges that are in store for the future milk <span class="hlt">production</span> in this region. Furthermore, could an adequate <span class="hlt">production</span> level be achieved with Simmentals by maintaining the <span class="hlt">heat</span> resistance?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH23B1871C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH23B1871C"><span>The socio economic impact of <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves in labor <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in the agricultural sector in California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Castillo, F.; Wehner, M. F.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Scientific evidence points to an increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme events related to climate change. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> waves is one such event and it impacts both the urban and rural areas of high and low income countries. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> waves have an important impact on agricultural labor which takes place mostly outdoors. In this study we use weather data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) and the California Department of Agriculture to analyze the impact of <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves on labor <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in the agricultural sector in California. In particular, we analyze 12 counties from the Central and Imperial Valleys and the 10 most important crops (value wise) in each county. Using temperature and relative humidity we develop a <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Index (HI), a measure of relative human discomfort to <span class="hlt">heat</span>. We use the HI as a variable in a <span class="hlt">production</span> function analysis to determine how <span class="hlt">heat</span> extremes impact agricultural <span class="hlt">productivity</span> via the labor factor of <span class="hlt">production</span>. By including crop labor requirements we are able to identify impacts of the HI to specific crops. This analysis allows for a design and implementation of adaptive measures to the future impact of <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves in the agricultural sector in California and, with modifications, elsewhere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJBm..tmp...60G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJBm..tmp...60G"><span>Differences in response to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress due to <span class="hlt">production</span> level and breed of dairy cows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gantner, Vesna; Bobic, Tina; Gantner, Ranko; Gregic, Maja; Kuterovac, Kresimir; Novakovic, Jurica; Potocnik, Klemen</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>The climatic conditions in Croatia are deteriorating which significantly increases the frequency of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. This creates a need for an adequate dairy farming strategy. The impact of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress can be reduced in many ways, but the best long-term solution includes the genetic evaluation and selection for <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress resistance. In order to create the basis for genetic evaluation, this research determined the variation in daily milk yield (DMY) and somatic cell count (SCC) as well as the differences in resistance to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress due to <span class="hlt">production</span> level (high, low) and breed (Holstein, Simmental) of dairy cattle breed in Croatia. For statistical analysis, 1,070,554 test-day records from 70,135 Holsteins reared on 5679 farms and 1,300,683 test-day records from 86,013 Simmentals reared on 8827 farms in Croatia provided by the Croatian Agricultural Agency were used. The results of this research indicate that the high-producing cows are much more susceptible to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress than low-producing especially Holsteins. Also, the results of this research indicate that Simmental breed, in terms of daily milk <span class="hlt">production</span> and somatic cell count, could be more resistant to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress than Holstein. The following research should determine whether Simmentals are genetically more appropriate for the challenges that are in store for the future milk <span class="hlt">production</span> in this region. Furthermore, could an adequate <span class="hlt">production</span> level be achieved with Simmentals by maintaining the <span class="hlt">heat</span> resistance?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...635568A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...635568A"><span>Correlations in quantum thermodynamics: <span class="hlt">Heat</span>, work, and entropy <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alipour, S.; Benatti, F.; Bakhshinezhad, F.; Afsary, M.; Marcantoni, S.; Rezakhani, A. T.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We provide a characterization of energy in the form of exchanged <span class="hlt">heat</span> and work between two interacting constituents of a closed, bipartite, correlated quantum system. By defining a binding energy we derive a consistent quantum formulation of the first law of thermodynamics, in which the role of correlations becomes evident, and this formulation reduces to the standard classical picture in relevant systems. We next discuss the emergence of the second law of thermodynamics under certain—but fairly general—conditions such as the Markovian assumption. We illustrate the role of correlations and interactions in thermodynamics through two examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27767124','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27767124"><span>Correlations in quantum thermodynamics: <span class="hlt">Heat</span>, work, and entropy <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alipour, S; Benatti, F; Bakhshinezhad, F; Afsary, M; Marcantoni, S; Rezakhani, A T</p> <p>2016-10-21</p> <p>We provide a characterization of energy in the form of exchanged <span class="hlt">heat</span> and work between two interacting constituents of a closed, bipartite, correlated quantum system. By defining a binding energy we derive a consistent quantum formulation of the first law of thermodynamics, in which the role of correlations becomes evident, and this formulation reduces to the standard classical picture in relevant systems. We next discuss the emergence of the second law of thermodynamics under certain-but fairly general-conditions such as the Markovian assumption. We illustrate the role of correlations and interactions in thermodynamics through two examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5073246','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5073246"><span>Correlations in quantum thermodynamics: <span class="hlt">Heat</span>, work, and entropy <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Alipour, S.; Benatti, F.; Bakhshinezhad, F.; Afsary, M.; Marcantoni, S.; Rezakhani, A. T.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We provide a characterization of energy in the form of exchanged <span class="hlt">heat</span> and work between two interacting constituents of a closed, bipartite, correlated quantum system. By defining a binding energy we derive a consistent quantum formulation of the first law of thermodynamics, in which the role of correlations becomes evident, and this formulation reduces to the standard classical picture in relevant systems. We next discuss the emergence of the second law of thermodynamics under certain—but fairly general—conditions such as the Markovian assumption. We illustrate the role of correlations and interactions in thermodynamics through two examples. PMID:27767124</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22558920','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22558920"><span>Adaptation to hot climate and strategies to alleviate <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress in livestock <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Renaudeau, D; Collin, A; Yahav, S; de Basilio, V; Gourdine, J L; Collier, R J</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Despite many challenges faced by animal producers, including environmental problems, diseases, economic pressure, and feed availability, it is still predicted that animal <span class="hlt">production</span> in developing countries will continue to sustain the future growth of the world's meat <span class="hlt">production</span>. In these areas, livestock performance is generally lower than those obtained in Western Europe and North America. Although many factors can be involved, climatic factors are among the first and crucial limiting factors of the development of animal <span class="hlt">production</span> in warm regions. In addition, global warming will further accentuate <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress-related problems. The objective of this paper was to review the effective strategies to alleviate <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress in the context of tropical livestock <span class="hlt">production</span> systems. These strategies can be classified into three groups: those increasing feed intake or decreasing metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, those enhancing <span class="hlt">heat</span>-loss capacities, and those involving genetic selection for <span class="hlt">heat</span> tolerance. Under <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress, improved <span class="hlt">production</span> should be possible through modifications of diet composition that either promotes a higher intake or compensates the low feed consumption. In addition, altering feeding management such as a change in feeding time and/or frequency, are efficient tools to avoid excessive <span class="hlt">heat</span> load and improve survival rate, especially in poultry. Methods to enhance <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange between the environment and the animal and those changing the environment to prevent or limit <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress can be used to improve performance under hot climatic conditions. Although differences in thermal tolerance exist between livestock species (ruminants > monogastrics), there are also large differences between breeds of a species and within each breed. Consequently, the opportunity may exist to improve thermal tolerance of the animals using genetic tools. However, further research is required to quantify the genetic antagonism between adaptation and <span class="hlt">production</span> traits to evaluate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EPJWC..3305004I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EPJWC..3305004I"><span>Monitoring of Building <span class="hlt">Heating</span> and Cooling Systems <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Geothermal <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Pump in Galicia (Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iglesias, M.; Rodriguez, J.; Franco, D.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>In November 2009 was signed an agreement between Galicia's Government and EnergyLab to develop a project related with the geothermal heatpumps (hereafter, GSHP) technology. That project consisted in replacing the existing thermal equipment generators (diesel boilers and air-water <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps) by GSHP systems in representative public buildings: two nursery schools, a university library, a health centre and a residential building. This new systems will reach the demands of existing <span class="hlt">heating</span>, cooling and domestic hot water (hereafter, DHW). These buildings can serve as examples of energy and economic savings that can offer this technology. We will show detailed analysis of the GSHP facilities monitored, since the starting-up of them. Which includes: COP's, EER's, energy consumption, operating costs, operation hours of the system, economic and emissions comparative, geothermal exchange evolution graphs, environmental conditions evolution graphs (temperature and demands), etc. The results presented show an example of the important benefits of the GSHP technology and the significant savings that can offer its implementation for <span class="hlt">heating</span>, cooling and DHW <span class="hlt">production</span>. Note to the reader: The article number has been corrected on web pages on November 22, 2013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003500','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003500"><span>Continued Water-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Phase Change Material <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Exchanger Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, Scott W.; Sheth, Rubik B.; Poynot, Joe; Giglio, Tony; Ungar, Gene K.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In a cyclical <span class="hlt">heat</span> load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to meet the full <span class="hlt">heat</span> rejection demands. Traditionally, a supplemental <span class="hlt">heat</span> rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional <span class="hlt">heat</span> rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HX's do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development two full-scale, Orion sized water-<span class="hlt">based</span> PCM HX's were constructed by Mezzo Technologies. These HX's were designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation to a full-scale design. Design options considered included bladder restraint and clamping mechanisms, bladder manufacturing, tube patterns, fill/drain methods, manifold dimensions, weight optimization, and midplate designs. Two units, Units A and B, were constructed and differed only in their midplate design. Both units failed multiple times during testing. This report highlights learning outcomes from these tests and are applied to a final sub-scale PCM HX which is slated to be tested on the ISS in early 2017.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvB..95x5432E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvB..95x5432E"><span>Thermoelectric properties of an interacting quantum dot <span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erdman, Paolo Andrea; Mazza, Francesco; Bosisio, Riccardo; Benenti, Giuliano; Fazio, Rosario; Taddei, Fabio</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>We study the thermoelectric properties and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-to-work conversion performance of an interacting, multilevel quantum dot (QD) weakly coupled to electronic reservoirs. We focus on the sequential tunneling regime. The dynamics of the charge in the QD is studied by means of master equations for the probabilities of occupation. From here we compute the charge and <span class="hlt">heat</span> currents in the linear response regime. Assuming a generic multiterminal setup, and for low temperatures (quantum limit), we obtain analytical expressions for the transport coefficients which account for the interplay between interactions (charging energy) and level quantization. In the case of systems with two and three terminals we derive formulas for the power factor Q and the figure of merit Z T for a QD-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> engine, identifying optimal working conditions which maximize output power and efficiency of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-to-work conversion. Beyond the linear response we concentrate on the two-terminal setup. We first study the thermoelectric nonlinear coefficients assessing the consequences of large temperature and voltage biases, focusing on the breakdown of the Onsager reciprocal relation between thermopower and Peltier coefficient. We then investigate the conditions which optimize the performance of a <span class="hlt">heat</span> engine, finding that in the quantum limit output power and efficiency at maximum power can almost be simultaneously maximized by choosing appropriate values of electrochemical potential and bias voltage. At last we study how energy level degeneracy can increase the output power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017132','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017132"><span>Continued Water-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Phase Change Material <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Exchanger Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, Scott; Poynot, Joe</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In a cyclical <span class="hlt">heat</span> load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to reject the full <span class="hlt">heat</span> load requirement. Traditionally, a supplemental <span class="hlt">heat</span> rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional <span class="hlt">heat</span> rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HXs do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development two full-scale, Orion sized water-<span class="hlt">based</span> PCM HX's were constructed by Mezzo Technologies. These HX's were designed by applying prior research and experimentation to the full scale design. Design options considered included bladder restraint and clamping mechanisms, bladder manufacturing, tube patterns, fill/drain methods, manifold dimensions, weight optimization, and midplate designs. Design and construction of these HX's led to successful testing of both PCM HX's.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........16P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........16P"><span>A finite element method <span class="hlt">based</span> microwave <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer modeling of frozen multi-component foods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pitchai, Krishnamoorthy</p> <p></p> <p>Microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> is fast and convenient, but is highly non-uniform. Non-uniform <span class="hlt">heating</span> in microwave cooking affects not only food quality but also food safety. Most food industries develop microwavable food <span class="hlt">products</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on "cook-and-look" approach. This approach is time-consuming, labor intensive and expensive and may not result in optimal food <span class="hlt">product</span> design that assures food safety and quality. Design of microwavable food can be realized through a simulation model which describes the physical mechanisms of microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> in mathematical expressions. The objective of this study was to develop a microwave <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer model to predict spatial and temporal profiles of various heterogeneous foods such as multi-component meal (chicken nuggets and mashed potato), multi-component and multi-layered meal (lasagna), and multi-layered food with active packages (pizza) during microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span>. A microwave <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer model was developed by solving electromagnetic and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer equations using finite element method in commercially available COMSOL Multiphysics v4.4 software. The microwave <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer model included detailed geometry of the cavity, phase change, and rotation of the food on the turntable. The predicted spatial surface temperature patterns and temporal profiles were validated against the experimental temperature profiles obtained using a thermal imaging camera and fiber-optic sensors. The predicted spatial surface temperature profile of different multi-component foods was in good agreement with the corresponding experimental profiles in terms of hot and cold spot patterns. The root mean square error values of temporal profiles ranged from 5.8 °C to 26.2 °C in chicken nuggets as compared 4.3 °C to 4.7 °C in mashed potatoes. In frozen lasagna, root mean square error values at six locations ranged from 6.6 °C to 20.0 °C for 6 min of <span class="hlt">heating</span>. A microwave <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer model was developed to include susceptor assisted microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> of a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......263S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......263S"><span>Study of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and transfer in shredded tires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sellassie, Kassahun G.</p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this study is to determine the cause(s) of initial exothermic reactions in shredded tire. The primary hypothesis was that the oxidation of exposed steel wires, the oxidation of rubber, or sulfur causes the exothermic reactions in shredded tire. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer properties of the shredded tires by using a hot-plate apparatus. The experiments were conducted by varying the physical and environmental conditions as follows: (1) Tire size, (2) Wire content, (3) Water content, (4) Effective stress, (5) Air supply, (6) pH, (7) Humic Acid. First, laboratory testing was conducted to determine the effects of tire size on the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer properties of shredded tires. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> coefficient and diffusivity ranged from 3.0 to 3.5 W/m-K and 0.0002 to 0.00084 m 2/hour, respectively. Next, experiments were conducted to determine the effects of wire content on the exothermic reaction rate of tire shreds. When various amounts of wire (i.e., 5% to 15%) were exposed, the reaction rate increased, 2800 Btu for every lb of iron that is oxidized. In comparison, tire shreds with no wire were also tested under the same experimental conditions as above, however, no exothermic reaction occurred. These tests (i.e., with no wire) illustrate that carbon black in rubber molecule considers not oxidize. It was postulated that the reaction between iron in the wire and sulfur in the tire may be a potential cause of the exothermic reaction under low oxygen conditions. Experiments without air supply yielded no exothermic reaction. Thus, sulfur did not cause exotherm, because it is at low energy level and immobilized in the vulcanization process. In addition, experiments were conducted as the air supply was varied from 0 to 4 psi. With air pressure of less than 4-psi, no reaction occurred until 4-psi air was provided for the experiment. In conclusion, the design of an embankment with tire shreds should include shredded tires of bigger size</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6465909','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6465909"><span>System for vaporizing carbon dioxide utilizing the <span class="hlt">heat</span> by-<span class="hlt">product</span> of the refrigeration system as a <span class="hlt">heat</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shaw, H.L.</p> <p>1980-12-23</p> <p>The present invention is directed to a carbonation and refrigeration system wherein the <span class="hlt">heat</span> of the refrigerant output side of the refrigeration compressor is utilized to vaporize liquid carbon dioxide into CO/sub 2/ gas which is introduced into a liquid <span class="hlt">product</span>. The carbonation and refrigeration system successfully utilizes the <span class="hlt">heat</span> of the refrigerant to vaporize the CO/sub 2/ liquid regardless of the cooling demand of the system caused by seasonal temperature variations. For example during the winter months when the cooling demand is as low as 10% of the cooling demand in the summer, the carbonation and refrigeration system operates effectively to vaporize the CO/sub 2/ liquid by means of a <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger and a desuperheater which are connected in communication with the superheated vapor emerging from the output side of a refrigeration compressor. In addition, the carbonation and refrigeration system of the present invention cools more efficiently by extracting some of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the condensed refrigerant entering the receiver of the refrigeration system. In this manner, the refrigeration compressor can operate more efficiently.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22597047','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22597047"><span>Mutually unbiased <span class="hlt">product</span> <span class="hlt">bases</span> for multiple qudits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McNulty, Daniel; Pammer, Bogdan; Weigert, Stefan</p> <p>2016-03-15</p> <p>We investigate the interplay between mutual unbiasedness and <span class="hlt">product</span> <span class="hlt">bases</span> for multiple qudits of possibly different dimensions. A <span class="hlt">product</span> state of such a system is shown to be mutually unbiased to a <span class="hlt">product</span> basis only if each of its factors is mutually unbiased to all the states which occur in the corresponding factors of the <span class="hlt">product</span> basis. This result implies both a tight limit on the number of mutually unbiased <span class="hlt">product</span> <span class="hlt">bases</span> which the system can support and a complete classification of mutually unbiased <span class="hlt">product</span> <span class="hlt">bases</span> for multiple qubits or qutrits. In addition, only maximally entangled states can be mutually unbiased to a maximal set of mutually unbiased <span class="hlt">product</span> <span class="hlt">bases</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21528726','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21528726"><span>Optimization of Salmonella enteritidis recombinant <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock protein 60 <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rainczak, K; Bajzert, J; Galli, J; Selera, A; Wieliczko, A; Borkowski, J; Stefaniak, T</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to optimize conditions for producing Salmonella Enteritidis recombinant <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock protein 60 (rHsp60). Seven Escherichia coli host strains (Rosetta, Turner, C41, C43, Origami, BL21pLys, Rosetta pLys) were transformed by a recombinant plasmid containing Hsp60 gene from Salmonella Enteritidis, and then cultured and induced by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The highest S. Enteritidis rHsp60 yield was obtained using E. coli strain C41. Induction of this strain using IPTG allowed the yield 400 microg of S. Enteritidis Hsp60 protein/2L of culture, but by autoinduction the yield exceeded 800 microg/2L.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15675671','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15675671"><span>Cardiac tissue ablation with catheter-<span class="hlt">based</span> microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rappaport, C</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>The common condition of atrial fibrillation is often treated by cutting diseased cardiac tissue to disrupt abnormal electrical conduction pathways. <span class="hlt">Heating</span> abnormal tissue with electromagnetic power provides a minimally invasive surgical alternative to treat these cardiac arrhythmias. Radio frequency ablation has become the method of choice of many physicians. Recently, microwave power has also been shown to have great therapeutic benefit in medical treatment requiring precise <span class="hlt">heating</span> of biological tissue. Since microwave power tends to be deposited throughout the volume of biological media, microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> offers advantages over other <span class="hlt">heating</span> modalities that tend to <span class="hlt">heat</span> primarily the contacting surface. It is also possible to <span class="hlt">heat</span> a deeper volume of tissue with more precise control using microwaves than with purely thermal conduction or RF electrode <span class="hlt">heating</span>. Microwave Cardiac Ablation (MCA) is used to treat heart tissue that allows abnormal electrical conduction by <span class="hlt">heating</span> it to the point of inactivation. Microwave antennas that fit within catheter systems can be positioned close to diseased tissue. Specialized antenna designs that unfurl from the catheter within the heart can then radiate specifically shaped fields, which overcome problems such as excessive surface <span class="hlt">heating</span> at the contact point. The state of the art in MCA is reviewed in this paper and a novel catheter-<span class="hlt">based</span> unfurling wide aperture antenna is described. This antenna consists of the centre conductor of a coaxial line, shaped into a spiral and insulated from blood and tissue by a non-conductive fluid filled balloon. Initially stretched straight inside a catheter for transluminal guiding, once in place at the cardiac target, the coiled spiral antenna is advanced into the inflated balloon. Power is applied in the range of 50-150 W at the reserved industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) frequency of 915 MHz for 30-90 s to create an irreversible lesion. The antenna is then retracted back into the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=314693','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=314693"><span>Genetic interactions for <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress and <span class="hlt">production</span> level: predicting foreign from domestic data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Genetic by environmental interactions were estimated from U.S. national data by separately adding random regressions for <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress (HS) and herd <span class="hlt">production</span> level (HL) to the all-breed animal model to improve predictions of future records and rankings in other climate and <span class="hlt">production</span> situations. Yie...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4977177','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4977177"><span>Effects of dairy <span class="hlt">products</span> on intestinal integrity in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed pigs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sanz Fernandez, M Victoria; Pearce, Sarah C; Mani, Venkatesh; Gabler, Nicholas K; Metzger, Lloyd; Patience, John F; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> stress compromises intestinal integrity which may partially explain its negative effects on animal health and <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. Research suggests that challenged intestinal barrier function improves with dietary dairy <span class="hlt">products</span> in various models. Thus, the study objective was to evaluate the effects of bovine milk whey protein (WP) and colostral whey protein (CWP) on intestinal integrity in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed pigs. Crossbred gilts (39 ± 3 kg body weight) were fed 1 of 4 diets (n = 8 pigs/diet): control (Ct), control diet containing an 80% WP and 20% CWP <span class="hlt">product</span> (WP80), control diet containing a 98% WP and 2% CWP <span class="hlt">product</span> (WP98), and control diet containing a 100% WP <span class="hlt">product</span> (WP100). After 7d on experimental diets, pigs were exposed to constant <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress conditions (32 °C) for 24h. There were no treatment differences in growth or body temperature indices prior to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. During <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure, both rectal temperature and respiration rate increased (+0.85 °C and 3-fold, respectively; P < 0.01), and feed intake and body weight decreased (44% and -0.5kg, respectively; P < 0.01), but neither variable was affected by dietary treatments. Plasma L-lactate and D-lactate concentrations increased (36%; P < 0.01) and tended to increase (19%; P = 0.09) with <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. After 24h of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure, WP100-fed pigs had lower plasma D-lactate relative to Ct-fed pigs. Ileal transepithelial electrical resistance was decreased (37%; P = 0.02) in WP80 pigs, compared with controls. No differences were detected in other intestinal integrity ex vivo measurements. These data demonstrate that dietary WP and CWP did not mitigate intestinal integrity dysfunction during severe <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. PMID:27583294</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4087866','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4087866"><span>[Toxicological evaluation of the outgassing of tetrafluoroethylene-<span class="hlt">based</span> thermostable polymeric materials during <span class="hlt">heating</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ushakov VFLV; Solomin, G I; Tikhonova, G P; Gorshunova, A I; Liubarskaia, I I</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the composition and toxicity of fluoroplastic F-40 thermodestruction <span class="hlt">products</span> at 300-500 degrees C and to identify the maximally allowable temperature for their safe use. When <span class="hlt">heated</span> over 400 degrees C, the <span class="hlt">products</span> of luoroplastic F-40 evolution included such compounds as hydrogen fluoride, fluro-organic compounds, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde. When <span class="hlt">heated</span> at 500 degrees C, the thermodestruction <span class="hlt">products</span> caused the highest mortality rate of mice. The pathogenesis and clinical development of fluoroplastic F-40 poisoning are primarily associated with fluoro-compounds. It is concluded that the temperature 300 degrees C is the maximum temperature at which tetrafluroethylene-<span class="hlt">based</span> polymers can be used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050165087&hterms=alan+williams&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dalan%2Bwilliams','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050165087&hterms=alan+williams&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dalan%2Bwilliams"><span>Asymmetric <span class="hlt">Base</span>-Bleed Effect on Aerospike Plume-Induced <span class="hlt">Base-Heating</span> Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Ten-See; Droege, Alan; DAgostino, Mark; Lee, Young-Ching; Williams, Robert</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>A computational <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer design methodology was developed to study the dual-engine linear aerospike plume-induced <span class="hlt">base-heating</span> environment during one power-pack out, in ascent flight. It includes a three-dimensional, finite volume, viscous, chemically reacting, and pressure-<span class="hlt">based</span> computational fluid dynamics formulation, a special <span class="hlt">base</span>-bleed boundary condition, and a three-dimensional, finite volume, and spectral-line-<span class="hlt">based</span> weighted-sum-of-gray-gases absorption computational radiation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer formulation. A separate radiation model was used for diagnostic purposes. The computational methodology was systematically benchmarked. In this study, near-<span class="hlt">base</span> radiative <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes were computed, and they compared well with those measured during static linear aerospike engine tests. The <span class="hlt">base-heating</span> environment of 18 trajectory points selected from three power-pack out scenarios was computed. The computed asymmetric <span class="hlt">base-heating</span> physics were analyzed. The power-pack out condition has the most impact on convective <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> when it happens early in flight. The source of its impact comes from the asymmetric and reduced <span class="hlt">base</span> bleed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27503713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27503713"><span>Mitigation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress-related complications by a yeast fermentate <span class="hlt">product</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Giblot Ducray, Henri Alexandre; Globa, Ludmila; Pustovyy, Oleg; Reeves, Stuart; Robinson, Larry; Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Sorokulova, Iryna</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> stress results in a multitude of biological and physiological responses which can become lethal if not properly managed. It has been shown that <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress causes significant adverse effects in both human and animals. Different approaches have been proposed to mitigate the adverse effects caused by <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress, among which are special diet and probiotics. We characterized the effect of the yeast fermentate EpiCor (EH) on the prevention of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress-related complications in rats. We found that increasing the body temperature of animals from 37.1±0.2 to 40.6±0.2°C by exposure to <span class="hlt">heat</span> (45°C for 25min) resulted in significant morphological changes in the intestine. Villi height and total mucosal thickness decreased in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed rats pre-treated with PBS in comparison with control animals not exposed to the <span class="hlt">heat</span>. Oral treatment of rats with EH before <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress prevented the traumatic effects of <span class="hlt">heat</span> on the intestine. Changes in intestinal morphology of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed rats, pre-treated with PBS resulted in significant elevation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) level in the serum of these animals. Pre-treatment with EH was effective in the prevention of LPS release into the bloodstream of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed rats. Our study revealed that elevation of body temperature also resulted in a significant increase of the concentration of vesicles released by erythrocytes in rats, pre-treated with PBS. This is an indication of a pathological impact of <span class="hlt">heat</span> on the erythrocyte structure. Treatment of rats with EH completely protected their erythrocytes from this <span class="hlt">heat</span>-induced pathology. Finally, exposure to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress conditions resulted in a significant increase of white blood cells in rats. In the group of animals pre-treated with EH before <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress, the white blood cell count remained the same as in non-<span class="hlt">heated</span> controls. These results showed the protective effect of the EH <span class="hlt">product</span> in the prevention of complications, caused by <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5052838','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5052838"><span>Methanation of CO and CO/sub 2/ for <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Arcilla, N.T.; Plumlee, D.E.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>This study explores workable CO and CO/sub 2/ methanation systems for process <span class="hlt">heat</span> as part of a Thermo-Chemical <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Pipe (TCHP) <span class="hlt">based</span> on methane reforming. Tested methanator designs and methanation catalyst materials were reviewed to identify those suitable in high temperature, high pressure methanation. 7 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28675841','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28675841"><span>Comparison of microwave and conduction-convection <span class="hlt">heating</span> autohydrolysis pretreatment for bioethanol <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aguilar-Reynosa, Alejandra; Romaní, Aloia; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Garrote, Gil; Ruiz, Héctor A</p> <p>2017-06-20</p> <p>This work describes the application of two forms of <span class="hlt">heating</span> for autohydrolysis pretreatment on isothermal regimen: conduction-convection <span class="hlt">heating</span> and microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> processing using corn stover as raw material for bioethanol <span class="hlt">production</span>. Pretreatments were performed using different operational conditions: residence time (10-50 min) and temperature (160-200°C) for both pretreatments. Subsequently, the susceptibility of pretreated solids was studied using low enzyme loads, and high substrate loads. The highest conversion was 95.1% for microwave pretreated solids. Also solids pretreated by microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> processing showed better ethanol conversion in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (92% corresponding to 33.8g/L). Therefore, microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> processing is a promising technology in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1180158','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1180158"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in chemically skinned smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia coli.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lönnbro, P; Hellstrand, P</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>1. The rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of chemically skinned guinea-pig taenia coli smooth muscle at 25 degrees C was measured using microcalorimetric techniques. 2. Muscle strips were mounted isometrically and incubated in solutions containing MgATP (3.2 mM) and phosphocreatine (PCr, 12 mM), pH 6.9. Activation was obtained by the injection of Ca2+ into the sample compartment of the calorimeter. 3. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rate of the resting preparation (pCa 9) was 0.40 +/- 0.03 mW g-1 wet weight (n = 23). During maximal activation (pCa 4.8) the <span class="hlt">heat</span> rate increased to 1.12 +/- 0.07 mW g-1 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 15). With stepwise increase in [Ca2+] from pCa 9 to 4.8 the energetic cost of force maintenance tended to increase at higher [Ca2+]. 4. After activation by Ca2+, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rate reached its maximum while force was still increasing. 5. Changing ionic strength from 90 to 150 mM had no effect on either basal or activated <span class="hlt">heat</span> rate. Oligomycin, amphotericin B and the adenylate kinase inhibitor Ap5A had no effect on the basal <span class="hlt">heat</span> rate. 6. Exchanging ATP in the incubation medium for inosine triphosphate (ITP) reduced the force and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> after injection of Ca2+. The basal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was not lowered when ATP was exchanged for ITP. 7. The observed enthalpy change for PCr splitting at 25 degrees C (pH 6.9, ionic strength 90 mM) was -28 +/- 3 kJ mol-1 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 9). After correction for the phosphate equilibrium, buffer reactions, and Mg2+ binding to PCr and HPO42-, the net enthalpy change is calculated to be -39 +/- 3 kJ mol-1. 8. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in the skinned smooth muscle consists of one basal component present in relaxed muscle, and one component associated with contraction. The nature of the basal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> is unclear but does not seem to involve turnover of phosphate on the myosin light chains. The increase in the energetic tension cost with increasing activation by Ca2+ has implications for the understanding of the contractile</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HMT...tmp..115D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HMT...tmp..115D"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer performance of water and Nanoencapsulated n-nonadecane <span class="hlt">based</span> Nanofluids in a double pipe <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doruk, Semahat; Şara, Osman Nuri; Karaipekli, Ali; Yapıcı, Sinan</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and pressure drop characteristics for the flow of water, which is <span class="hlt">base</span> fluid, and nanoencapsulated n-nonadecane <span class="hlt">based</span> nanofluids in a double pipe <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger were investigated. The results showed that no improvement in overall <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient was observed for the nanofluids containing 0.42% and 0.84% solid volume ratios with reference to the <span class="hlt">base</span> fluid, while an improvement of about 10% was obtained for the nanofluids containing 1.68% solid volume ratio. It was found that the friction factors for the nanofluids exhibited a slight increase reference to the <span class="hlt">base</span> fluid. A performance analysis <span class="hlt">based</span> on constant pumping power was also performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25098878','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25098878"><span>Vacuum evaporation treatment of digestate: full exploitation of cogeneration <span class="hlt">heat</span> to process the whole digestate <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guercini, S; Castelli, G; Rumor, C</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Vacuum evaporation represents an interesting and innovative solution for managing animal waste surpluses in areas with high livestock density. To reduce operational costs, a key factor is the availability of an inexpensive source of <span class="hlt">heat</span>, such as that coming from an anaerobic digestion (AD) plant. The aim of this study was to test vacuum evaporation for the treatment of cattle slurry digestate focusing on <span class="hlt">heat</span> exploitation. Tests were performed with a pilot plant fed with the digestate from a full-scale AD plant. The results were used to evaluate if and how cogeneration <span class="hlt">heat</span> can support both the AD plant and the subsequent evaporation of the whole daily digestate <span class="hlt">production</span> in a full-scale plant. The concentrate obtained (12% total solids) represents 40-50% of the influent. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> requirement is 0.44 kWh/kg condensate. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> power availability exceeding the needs of the digestor ranges from 325 (in winter) to 585 kW (in summer) versus the 382 kW required for processing the whole digestate <span class="hlt">production</span>. To by-pass fluctuations, we propose to use the <span class="hlt">heat</span> coming from the cogenerator directly in the evaporator, tempering the digestor with the latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> of distillation vapor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6045810','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6045810"><span>Greenhouse soil <span class="hlt">heating</span> for improved <span class="hlt">production</span> and energy conservation. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roller, W.L.; Elwell, D.L.</p> <p>1981-09-01</p> <p>A three-year study of the beneficial use of simulated power plant reject <span class="hlt">heat</span> for soil <span class="hlt">heating</span> in greenhouses is described. The effect of 25, 30, 35, and 40/sup 0/C warm water on the temperature of and moisture distribution in three diverse, greenhouse soils was studied, and the growth response of variety HR-5 lettuce in this environment was determined. Detailed information on soil temperature and moisture distribution, <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer rates, and lettuce <span class="hlt">production</span> yield under various operating conditions was obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=heat+AND+processes&id=EJ951463','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=heat+AND+processes&id=EJ951463"><span>The <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Is on: An Inquiry-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Investigation for Specific <span class="hlt">Heat</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Herrington, Deborah G.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A substantial number of upper-level science students and practicing physical science teachers demonstrate confusion about thermal equilibrium, <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer, <span class="hlt">heat</span> capacity, and specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> capacity. The traditional method of instruction, which involves learning the related definitions and equations, using equations to solve <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22heat+transfer%22&pg=2&id=EJ951463','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22heat+transfer%22&pg=2&id=EJ951463"><span>The <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Is on: An Inquiry-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Investigation for Specific <span class="hlt">Heat</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Herrington, Deborah G.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A substantial number of upper-level science students and practicing physical science teachers demonstrate confusion about thermal equilibrium, <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer, <span class="hlt">heat</span> capacity, and specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> capacity. The traditional method of instruction, which involves learning the related definitions and equations, using equations to solve <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6844594','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6844594"><span>Advanced <span class="hlt">heat</span>-pipe <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger and microprocessor-<span class="hlt">based</span> modulating burner controls development. Final report, January 1985-December 1987</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lowenstein, A.; Cohen, B.; Feldman, S.; Marsala, J.; Spatz, M.</p> <p>1988-02-01</p> <p>The work presented in the report includes: (1) the development of a <span class="hlt">heat</span>-pipe condensing <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger; (2) the development of a nominal 100,000-Btu/hr modulating air/gas valve; (3) the experimental performance studies of water/copper thermosyphons; (4) the field operation of a six-zone warm-air <span class="hlt">heating</span> system; (5) the adaptation of a conventional venturi-type burner to modulation; and (6) the results of a one-day workshop for manufacturers of HVAC equipment on <span class="hlt">heat</span>-pipe <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers. Several of the accomplishments of the project included: A unique air/gas valve was adapted to furnaces with <span class="hlt">heat</span>-pipe and drum-type <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers, providing these furnaces with over a 5-to-1 turndown capability. A six-zone warm-air <span class="hlt">heating</span> system was tested for two winters with the modulating furnaces previously described. A data <span class="hlt">base</span> for the application of copper/water thermosyphons was started. A ten-tube <span class="hlt">heat</span>-pipe <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger was incorporated into a conventional clam-shell furnace as its second-stage condensing <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger with only a small increase in the furnace's dimensions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1351719','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1351719"><span>On the increase in rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> caused by stretch in frog's skeletal muscle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Clinch, N. F.</p> <p>1968-01-01</p> <p>1. The increase in rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> caused by stretch in the unstimulated frog's sartorius (stretch response) has been measured using a conventional thermopile technique. 2. The rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was found constant between l0 (the distance in vivo between the tendons when the legs were in a straight line) and 1·2 l0, and rose rapidly above this length to reach 3-5 times the basal rate at 1·3 l0. Stretching to greater lengths appeared to damage the muscles. 3. The stretch response is increased by several substances which increase the duration of the active state. 4. Unlike the rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> at l0, the stretch response is increased by procaine; while the presence of CO2 greatly reduces it. 5. Evidence is presented supporting the hypothesis that the stretch response is associated with the appearance of tension in the sarcolemma. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:5652883</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/974750','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/974750"><span>An evaluation of alternate <span class="hlt">production</span> methods for Pu-238 general purpose <span class="hlt">heat</span> source pellets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mark Borland; Steve Frank</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the <span class="hlt">production</span> of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the <span class="hlt">production</span> of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS <span class="hlt">product</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18445304','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18445304"><span>Fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and energy cost of standing activity in veal calves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Labussière, Etienne; Dubois, Serge; van Milgen, Jaap; Bertrand, Gérard; Noblet, Jean</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Metabolic body size of veal calves is still calculated by using the 0.75 exponent and no data were available to determine energy cost of physical activity during the whole fattening period. Data from two trials focusing on protein and/or energy requirements were used to determine the coefficient of metabolic body size and the energy cost of standing activity in male Prim'Holstein calves. Total <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was measured by indirect calorimetry in ninety-five calves weighing 60-265 kg and was divided using a modelling approach between components related to the BMR, physical activity and feed intake. The calculation of the energy cost of standing activity was <span class="hlt">based</span> on quantifying the physical activity by using force sensors on which the metabolism cage was placed and on the interruption of an IR beam allowing the determination of standing or lying position of the calf. The best exponent relating zero activity fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (FHP 0) to metabolic body size was 0.85, which differed significantly from the traditionally used 0.75. Per additional kJ metabolizable energy (ME) intake, FHP 0 increased by 0.28 kJ; at a conventional daily 650 kJ/kg body weight (BW)0.85 ME intake, daily FHP 0 averaged 310 kJ/kg BW 0.85. Calves stood up sixteen times per day; total duration of standing increased from 5.1 to 6.4 h per day as animals became older. The hourly energy cost of standing activity was proportional to BW 0.65 and was estimated as 12.4 kJ/kg BW 0.65. These estimates allow for a better estimation of the maintenance energy requirements in veal calves.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19227063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19227063"><span>Microwave <span class="hlt">heated</span> resin injector for advanced composite <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stanculovic, Sebastijan; Feher, Lambert</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A novel microwave (MW) injector at 2.45 GHz for resin infiltration has been developed at the Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Research Center Karlsruhe (FZK), Germany. Resin injection is an essential step in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) for aerospace applications. A compact, low-cost and automated MW injector provides an efficient and safe energy transfer from the MW source to the resin and supports an appropriate electromagnetic field structure for homogeneous infiltration. The system provides temperature monitoring and an automatized MW power switching, which ensures a fast response of the MW system to rapid changes in the temperature for high flow rates of the resin. In low power measurements with a vector network analyzer, the geometry of the injector cavity has been adjusted to provide an efficient system. The MW injector has been tested for specific resin systems infiltrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/39507','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/39507"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> resistant soy adhesives for structural wood <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Christopher G. Hunt; Charles Frihart; Jane O' Dell</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Because load-bearing bonded wood assemblies must support the structure during a fire, the limited softening and depolymerization of biobased polymers at elevated temperatures should be an advantage of biobased adhesives compared to fossil fuel-<span class="hlt">based</span> adhesives. Because load-bearing bonded wood assemblies must support the structure during a fire, the limited softening...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=240854','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=240854"><span>Microwave <span class="hlt">Heating</span> of TV-Dinner Type <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Modified from an inverter-<span class="hlt">based</span> microwave oven, a new microwave system was developed to pasteurize mechanically tenderized beef, inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and placed into a 12 oz CPET tray containing de-ionized water. The system allowed the sample surface temperature to first increas...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HMT....52..255C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HMT....52..255C"><span>A numerical study of EGS <span class="hlt">heat</span> extraction process <span class="hlt">based</span> on a thermal non-equilibrium model for <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in subsurface porous <span class="hlt">heat</span> reservoir</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Jiliang; Jiang, Fangming</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>With a previously developed numerical model, we perform a detailed study of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> extraction process in enhanced or engineered geothermal system (EGS). This model takes the EGS subsurface <span class="hlt">heat</span> reservoir as an equivalent porous medium while it considers local thermal non-equilibrium between the rock matrix and the fluid flowing in the fractured rock mass. The application of local thermal non-equilibrium model highlights the temperature-difference <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange process occurring in EGS reservoirs, enabling a better understanding of the involved <span class="hlt">heat</span> extraction process. The simulation results unravel the mechanism of preferential flow or short-circuit flow forming in homogeneously fractured reservoirs of different permeability values. EGS performance, e.g. <span class="hlt">production</span> temperature and lifetime, is found to be tightly related to the flow pattern in the reservoir. Thermal compensation from rocks surrounding the reservoir contributes little <span class="hlt">heat</span> to the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transmission fluid if the operation time of an EGS is shorter than 15 years. We find as well the local thermal equilibrium model generally overestimates EGS performance and for an EGS with better <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange conditions in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> reservoir, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> extraction process acts more like the local thermal equilibrium process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/215673','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/215673"><span>Shock initiation of a <span class="hlt">heated</span> ammonium perchlorate-<span class="hlt">based</span> propellant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tarver, C.M.; Urtiew, P.A.; Tao, W.C.</p> <p>1996-04-01</p> <p>Solid propellants are containing ammonium perchlorate (AP), aluminum, and a carboxylterminated polybutadiene binder (CTPB) are known to burn reliably and to be very insensitive to transition to detonation under ambient conditions. In accident scenarios, these propellants may become more shock sensitive when they are subjected to <span class="hlt">heat</span> and/or multiple impacts. The shock sensitivity of one such propellant, ANB-3066, is determined using embedded manganin pressure gauges at an elevated temperature of 170 C. The measured pressure histories are modeled using the Ignition and Growth reactive flow model of shock initiation and detonation. The experiments clearly show that ANB-3066 is not significant more shock sensitive at 170 C than it is at ambient temperature. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow calculations indicate that less than 20% of the chemical energy of AP and CTPB reactions is released at input shock pressures as high as 21 GPa. The aluminum component does not reach the high temperatures required for it to react. These results indicate that AP-<span class="hlt">based</span> solid propellants are still extremely resistant to shock to detonation transition even when <span class="hlt">heated</span> to temperatures close to the thermal decomposition temperature of the propellant formulation. The shock insensitivity of <span class="hlt">heated</span> AP-<span class="hlt">based</span> propellants is hypothesized to be due to the melting of the AP component during shock loading and the relatively low temperatures produced by the weakly exothermic decomposition of AP and binder.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10323E..5UG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10323E..5UG"><span>Optofluidic microring flowmeter <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gong, Yuan; Zhang, Minglei; Gong, Chaoyang; Wu, Yu; Rao, Yunjiang; Fan, Xudong</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We demonstrate an optofluidic flow rate sensor <span class="hlt">based</span> on the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer effect in a microfluidic channel for the lab-on-a-chip applications. By employing an optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR), the wavelength shift of the resonant dip of the whispering gallery mode is detected as a function of the flow rate when the flow is <span class="hlt">heated</span> by a 1480 nm laser. A measurement range of 2 μL/min - 100 μL/min, a minimum detectable change of 30 nL/min for the flow rate detection are achieved. Experimental results indicate that the OFRR flow rate sensor has good repeatability and the inverse sensitivity is beneficial for detecting the low flow rate with high sensitivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27304296','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27304296"><span>Laser-<span class="hlt">heating-based</span> active optics for synchrotron radiation applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Fugui; Li, Ming; Gao, Lidan; Sheng, Weifan; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaowei</p> <p>2016-06-15</p> <p>Active optics has attracted considerable interest from researchers in synchrotron radiation facilities because of its capacity for x-ray wavefront correction. Here, we report a novel and efficient technique for correcting or modulating a mirror surface profile <span class="hlt">based</span> on laser-<span class="hlt">heating</span>-induced thermal expansion. An experimental study of the characteristics of the surface thermal deformation response indicates that the power of a milliwatt laser yields a bump height as low as the subnanometer scale and that the variation of the spot size modulates the response function width effectively. In addition, the capacity of the laser-<span class="hlt">heating</span> technique for free-form surface modulation is demonstrated via a one-dimensional surface correction experiment. The developed method is a promising new approach toward effective x-ray active optics coupled with at-wavelength metrology techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22062037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22062037"><span>Furosine as an index of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment intensity in meat <span class="hlt">products</span>: Its application to cooked ham.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pompei, C; Spagnolello, A</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>Furosine, a <span class="hlt">product</span> of acid hydrolysis of Amadori compounds, has been proposed as an index of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> treament intensity in various food <span class="hlt">products</span>. In this paper we suggest furosine as an index of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment in pork-meat <span class="hlt">products</span> as well. Furosine is not detectable in fresh raw pork muscle and in injected tumbled pork muscle, the latter being used for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of cooked ham. Activation energy of furosine formation in raw muscle and tumbled muscle, in the temperature range of 70 °-90 °C, was 79.2 kJ/mole and 81.7 kJ/mole, respectively. Furosine concentration was assessed in cooked hams whose time-temperature profiles, with reference to the cooking and cooling processes, were well known, thus enabling the verification of the feasibility of its use in the evaluation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> damage. The good correlation between the values found during this investigation and the values foreseen by kinetic calculation confirms that furosine can be used as an index of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment intensity in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of cooked ham.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAfES.114...67Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAfES.114...67Y"><span>Estimating and interpretation of radioactive <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> using airborne gamma-ray survey data of Gabal Arrubushi area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Youssef, Mohamed A. S.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The present work deals with mapping of radioactive <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> from rocks in the Gabal Arrubushi area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt <span class="hlt">based</span> on airborne spectral gamma-ray survey data. The results show that the radioactive <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in the areas ranges from 0.01 μWm-3 to 5.2 μWm-3. Granites, muscovite and sericite schists in the western part of Gabal Arrubushi area have abnormally high radioactive <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> values from 2.57 μWm-3 to 4.44 μWm-3. Meanwhile, the higher averages of radioactive <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of these rock units change from 1.21 μWm-3 to 1.5 μWm-3. The intermediate averages of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of felsitic mylonite schist, chlorite schist, felsites, amphibolites and Hammamat sediments are below the crustal average value range, i.e., from 0.8 μWm-3 to 1.2 μWm-3. The lowest averages of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> values are less than 0.8 μWm-3 and found in the following rock units: Wadi sediments, rhyolites, andesites, gabbro and serpentinites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JVGR..338....1H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JVGR..338....1H"><span>Gamma-ray spectrometry in the field: Radioactive <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in the Central Slovakian Volcanic Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harley, Thomas L.; Westaway, Rob; McCay, Alistair T.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>We report 62 sets of measurements from central-southern Slovakia, obtained using a modern portable gamma-ray spectrometer, which reveal the radioactive <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks of the Late Cenozoic Central Slovakian Volcanic Zone. Sites in granodiorite of the Štiavnica pluton are thus shown to have <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in the range 2.2-4.9 μW m- 3, this variability being primarily a reflection of variations in content of the trace element uranium. Sites in dioritic parts of this pluton have a lower, but overlapping, range of values, 2.1-4.4 μW m- 3. Sites that have been interpreted in adjoining minor dioritic intrusions of similar age have <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in the range 1.4-3.3 μW m- 3. The main Štiavnica pluton has zoned composition, with potassium and uranium content and radioactive <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> typically increasing inward from its margins, reflecting variations observed in other granodioritic plutons elsewhere. It is indeed possible that the adjoining dioritic rocks, hitherto assigned to other minor intrusions of similar age, located around the periphery of the Štiavnica pluton, in reality provide further evidence for zonation of the same pluton. The vicinity of this pluton is associated with surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow 40 mW m- 2 above the regional background. On the basis of our <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> measurements, we thus infer that the pluton has a substantial vertical extent, our preferred estimate for the scale depth for its downward decrease in radioactive <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> being 8 km. Nonetheless, this pluton lacks any significant negative Bouguer gravity anomaly. We attribute this to the effect of the surrounding volcanic caldera, filled with relatively low-density lavas, 'masking' the pluton's own gravity anomaly. We envisage that emplacement occurred when the pluton was much hotter, and thus of lower density, than at present, its continued uplift, evident from the local geomorphology, being the isostatic consequence of localized erosion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9877E..27S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9877E..27S"><span>Detection of <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave using Kalpana-1 VHRR land surface temperature <span class="hlt">product</span> over India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shah, Dhiraj; Pandya, Mehul R.; Pathak, Vishal N.; Darji, Nikunj P.; Trivedi, Himanshu J.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> Waves can have notable impacts on human mortality, ecosystem, economics and energy supply. The effect of <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave is much more intense during summer than the other seasons. During the period of April to June, spells of very hot weather occur over certain regions of India and global warming scenario may result in further increases of such temperature anomalies and corresponding <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves conditions. In this paper, satellite observations have been used to detect the <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave conditions prevailing over India for the period of May-June 2015. The Kalpana-1 VHRR derived land surface temperature (LST) <span class="hlt">products</span> have been used in the analysis to detect the <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave affected regions over India. Results from the analysis shows the detection of <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave affected pixels over Indian land mass. It can be seen that during the study period the parts of the west India, Indo-gangetic plane, Telangana and part of Vidarbh was under severe <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave conditions which is also confirmed with Automatic Weather Station (AWS) air temperature observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJWC..4204001C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJWC..4204001C"><span>Nuclear data <span class="hlt">production</span>, calculation and measurement: a global overview of the gamma <span class="hlt">heating</span> issue</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Colombier, A.-C.; Amharrak, H.; Fourmentel, D.; Ravaux, S.; Régnier, D.; Gueton, O.; Hudelot, J.-P.; Lemaire, M.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The gamma <span class="hlt">heating</span> evaluation in different materials found in current and future generations of nuclear reactor (EPRTM, GENIV, MTR-JHR), is becoming an important issue especially for the design of many devices (control rod, heavy reflector, in-core & out-core experiments…). This paper deals with the works started since 2009 in the Reactor Studies Department of CEA Cadarache in ordre to answer to several problematic which have been identified as well for nuclear data <span class="hlt">production</span> and calculation as for experimental measurement methods. The selected subjects are: <list list-type="bullet" list-content="dash"> <list-item id="bid.1"> Development of a Monte Carlo code (FIFRELIN) to simulate the prompt fission gamma emission which represents the major part of the gamma <span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> inside the core </list-item> <list-item id="bid.2"> <span class="hlt">Production</span> and qualification of new evaluations of nuclear data especially for radiative capture and inelastic neutron scattering which are the main sources of gamma <span class="hlt">heating</span> out-core </list-item> <list-item id="bid.3"> Development and qualification of a recommended method for the total gamma <span class="hlt">heating</span> calculation using the Monte Carlo simulation code TRIPOLI-4 </list-item> <list-item id="bid.4"> Development, test and qualification of new devices dedicated to the in-core gamma <span class="hlt">heating</span> measurement as well in MTR-JHR as in zero power facilities (EOLE-MINERVE) of CEA, Cadarache to increase the experimental measurement accuracy. </list-item> </list></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22864434','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22864434"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment on microbial communities of granular sludge for biological hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alibardi, Luca; Favaro, Lorenzo; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Basaglia, Marina; Casella, Sergio</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Dark fermentation shares many features with anaerobic digestion with the exception that to maximize hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>, methanogens and hydrogen-consuming bacteria should be inhibited. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> treatment is widely applied as an inoculum pre-treatment due to its effectiveness in inhibiting methanogenic microflora but it may not exclusively select for hydrogen-producing bacteria. This work evaluated the effects of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment on microbial viability and structure of anaerobic granular sludge. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> treatment was carried out on granular sludge at 100 °C with four residence times (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h). Hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> of treated sludges was studied from glucose by means of batch test at different pH values. Results indicated that each <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment strongly influenced the granular sludge resulting in microbial communities having different hydrogen <span class="hlt">productions</span>. The highest hydrogen yields (2.14 moles of hydrogen per mole of glucose) were obtained at pH 5.5 using the sludge treated for 4 h characterized by the lowest CFU concentration (2.3 × 10(3)CFU/g sludge). This study demonstrated that <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment should be carefully defined according to the structure of the sludge microbial community, allowing the selection of highly efficient hydrogen-producing microbes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711701F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711701F"><span>Stability of Continental Lithosphere <span class="hlt">based</span> on Analogue Experiments with Microwave Induced Internal <span class="hlt">Heating</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fourel, Loic; Limare, Angela; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia; Vilella, Kenny; Farnetani, Cinzia; Kaminski, Edouard; Jaupart, Claude</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Continental lithosphere is usually depicted as the upper conductive layer of the Earth. Its formation is achieved through melt depletion that generates a residue that is less dense and more viscous than the underlying convecting mantle. As it is cooled from above, continental lithosphere can develop its own convective currents and may become unstable depending on its thickness and density contrast with the mantle. But chemical differentiation due to mantle magmatism also enriches continental lithosphere in <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements. According to present estimates, the Earth's mantle may have lost as much as half of its radioactive elements in favour of continental crust and this stratified redistribution of <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources has two main effects. First, mantle convection vigor decreases and becomes increasingly sensitive to <span class="hlt">heat</span> supply from the core. Second, localized <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> at the top surface increases the continental insulating effects and competes against lithospheric instabilities. In the present study, we focus on the later and we determine which amount of internal <span class="hlt">heating</span> is required to keep the lithosphere stable for a given rate of cooling from the top. The physics underlying instability triggering corresponds to the problem of a two differentially <span class="hlt">heated</span> layered system cooled from above, where the top layer is less dense and more viscous than the bottom one, representative of the lithosphere-mantle system. Few studies have been devoted to the intrinsic characteristics of this layered type of convection. Here, we present a state of the art laboratory setup to generate internal <span class="hlt">heating</span> in controlled conditions <span class="hlt">based</span> on microwave (MW) absorption. The volumetric <span class="hlt">heat</span> source can be localized in space and its intensity can be varied in time. Our tank prototype has horizontal dimensions of 30 cm x 30 cm and 5 cm height. A uniform and constant temperature is maintained at the upper boundary by an aluminium <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger and adiabatic conditions are imposed at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28458215','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28458215"><span>Transformation of iodide and formation of iodinated by-<span class="hlt">products</span> in <span class="hlt">heat</span> activated persulfate oxidation process.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Lu; Kong, Deyang; Ji, Yuefei; Lu, Junhe; Yin, Xiaoming; Zhou, Quansuo</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Formation of halogenated disinfection by-<span class="hlt">products</span> (DBPs) in sulfate radical-<span class="hlt">based</span> advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs) have attracted considerable concerns recently. Previous studies have focused on the formation of chlorinated and brominated DBPs. This research examined the transformation of I(-) in <span class="hlt">heat</span> activated PS oxidation process. Phenol was employed as a model compound to mimic the reactivity of dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) toward halogenation. It was found that I(-) was transformed to free iodine which attacked phenol subsequently leading to iodinated DBPs such as iodoform and iodoacetic acids. Iodophenols were detected as the intermediates during the formation of the iodoform and triiodoacetic acid (TIAA). However, diiodoacetic acid (DIAA) was formed almost concomitantly with iodophenols. In addition, the yield of DIAA was significantly higher than that of TIAA, which is distinct from conventional halogenation process. Both the facts suggest that different pathway might be involved during DIAA formation in SR-AOPs. Temperature and persulfate dose were the key factors governing the transformation process. The iodinated by-<span class="hlt">products</span> can be further degraded by excessive SO4(-) and transformed to iodate. This study elucidated the transformation pathway of I(-) in SR-AOPs, which should be taken into consideration when persulfate was applied in environmental matrices containing iodine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25474205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25474205"><span>Detection of horse meat contamination in raw and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-processed meat <span class="hlt">products</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P; Ofori, Jack A</p> <p>2014-12-31</p> <p>Europe's recent problems with the adulteration of beef <span class="hlt">products</span> with horse meat highlight the need for a reliable method for detecting horse meat in food for human consumption. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (mAb) <span class="hlt">based</span> enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for horse meat detection. Two mAbs, H3E3 (IgG2b) and H4E7 (IgG2a), were characterized as horse-selective, and competitive ELISAs (cELISAs) employing these mAbs were developed. The cELISAs were found to be capable of detecting levels as low as 1% of horse meat in raw, cooked, and autoclaved ground beef or pork, being useful analytical tools for addressing the health, economic, and ethical concerns associated with adulterating meat <span class="hlt">products</span> with horse meat. However, due to cross-reaction with raw poultry meat, it is recommended that samples be <span class="hlt">heated</span> (100 °C for 15 min) prior to analysis to eliminate possible false-positive results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6872830','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6872830"><span>Use of geothermal <span class="hlt">heat</span> to recover alcohol and other valuable <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>La Mori, P.N.; Zahradnik, R.L.</p> <p>1982-11-02</p> <p>Method for the use of <span class="hlt">heat</span>, especially ''waste <span class="hlt">heat</span>'', from geothermal steam or brines for the manufacture of chemicals such as alcohol, which comprises, according to one embodiment, flashing the brine to produce steam, passing the steam to a turbine for electrical energy generation, and employing the steam from the turbine discharge and/or the flashed brine to provide some or all of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> requirements for the fermentation distillation process for <span class="hlt">production</span> of alcohols, e.g. (methanol and/or ethanol) from agricultural wastes. The method can also be utilized for the <span class="hlt">production</span> by distillation and/or by industrial fermentation and/or by hydrolysis of other chemicals (such as furfural and acetone).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24946013','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24946013"><span>Estimation of surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux and temperature distributions in a multilayer tissue <span class="hlt">based</span> on the hyperbolic model of <span class="hlt">heat</span> conduction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Haw-Long; Chen, Wen-Lih; Chang, Win-Jin; Yang, Yu-Ching</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this study, an inverse algorithm <span class="hlt">based</span> on the conjugate gradient method and the discrepancy principle is applied to solve the inverse hyperbolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> conduction problem in estimating the unknown time-dependent surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux in a skin tissue, which is stratified into epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layers, from the temperature measurements taken within the medium. Subsequently, the temperature distributions in the tissue can be calculated as well. The concept of finite <span class="hlt">heat</span> propagation velocity is applied to the modeling of the bioheat transfer problem. The inverse solutions will be justified <span class="hlt">based</span> on the numerical experiments in which two different <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux distributions are to be determined. The temperature data obtained from the direct problem are used to simulate the temperature measurements. The influence of measurement errors on the precision of the estimated results is also investigated. Results show that an excellent estimation on the time-dependent surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux can be obtained for the test cases considered in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=287698','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=287698"><span>Alteration of fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study was designed to examine alteration of fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (FHP) during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW=348 ±13 kg) were weight-matched into pairs and utilized in a two period crossover design experiment. Each period consisted of two temperature segments,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=278549','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=278549"><span>Alteration of fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study was designed to examine alteration of fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (FHP) during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW = 348±26kg) were weight matched into pairs and utilized in a two period crossover design experiment. Each period consisted of two segments, one each at...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5295890','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5295890"><span>Volatile <span class="hlt">production</span> during preignition <span class="hlt">heating</span>. Final technical report, 15 September 1980-30 September 1982</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ballantyne, A.; Chou, H.; Flusberg, A.; Neoh, K.; Orozco, N.; Stickler, D.</p> <p>1983-10-01</p> <p>Pulverized coal particles, in a flowing inert nitrogen stream, have been <span class="hlt">heated</span> by high power Carbon Dioxide Laser. The consequence of such an irradiation have proved to be both novel and surprising as a result of the rapid quenching of primary coal <span class="hlt">products</span>. It ahs been found that the gas phase yield from such <span class="hlt">heating</span> (typically, temperatures in excess of 1400 K at rates approx. 2 x 10/sup 5/ K/s) is very small (< 0.2 percent of coal carbon and hydrogen). Analysis of the solid residue has shown the presence of fine lacy particulate chains of material of 0.1 ..mu..m diameter, which appears to be soluble in tetrahydrofuran. The yields of solute were significantly much higher than for raw coals. Molecular weight of the solute material was high, being in the range of 600 to 3000. The above and substantiating evidence point to a new mechanism of high <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate pyrolysis in which only tar-like materials are produced as primary <span class="hlt">products</span> from the coal. It is hypothesized that gas phase <span class="hlt">products</span> are primarily the result of secondary reactions of these primary <span class="hlt">products</span> in the hot gas environments usually employed by other <span class="hlt">heating</span> techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-05/pdf/2012-16359.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-05/pdf/2012-16359.pdf"><span>77 FR 39735 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple <span class="hlt">Heat</span>-Conducting Paths and <span class="hlt">Products</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-05</p> <p>... Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple <span class="hlt">Heat</span>- Conducting Paths and <span class="hlt">Products</span> Containing Same... within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit packages provided with multiple... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=342456','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=342456"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment on antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of orange by-<span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study investigated the changes in functional components, antioxidative activities, antibacterial activities, anti-inflammatory activities of orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by-<span class="hlt">products</span> (OBP) by <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment at 50 and 100 degrees C (hereafter, 50D and 100D extracts, respectively). Optimal...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=325489','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=325489"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, respiratory quotient, and methane loss subsequent to LPS challenge in beef heifers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Respiration calorimetry was used to measure energy utilization during an acute phase response (APR) to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Eight Angus heifers (208 +/- 29.2 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two calorimeters in four 2-day periods for measurement of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (HP), methane (CH4), and r...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19760680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19760680"><span>Assessment of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment of dairy <span class="hlt">products</span> by MALDI-TOF-MS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meltretter, Jasmin; Birlouez-Aragon, Inès; Becker, Cord-Michael; Pischetsrieder, Monika</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The formation of the Amadori <span class="hlt">product</span> from lactose (protein lactosylation) is a major parameter to evaluate the quality of processed milk. Here, MALDI-TOF-MS was used for the relative quantification of lactose-adducts in <span class="hlt">heated</span> milk. Milk was <span class="hlt">heated</span> at a temperature of 70, 80, and 100 degrees C between 0 and 300 min, diluted, and subjected directly to MALDI-TOF-MS. The lactosylation rate of alpha-lactalbumin increased with increasing reaction temperature and time. The results correlated well with established markers for <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment of milk (concentration of total soluble protein, soluble alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin at pH 4.6, and fluorescence of advanced Maillard <span class="hlt">products</span> and soluble tryptophan index; r=0.969-0.997). The method was also applied to examine commercially available dairy <span class="hlt">products</span>. In severely <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">products</span>, protein pre-purification by immobilized metal affinity chromatography improved spectra quality. Relative quantification of protein lactosylation by MALDI-TOF-MS proved to be a very fast and reliable method to monitor early Maillard reaction during milk processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=271080','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=271080"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> and moisture <span class="hlt">production</span> of growing-finishing gilts as affected by environmental temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> and moisture <span class="hlt">production</span> (HMP) values are used to size ventilation fans in animal housing. The HMP values that are currently published in the ASABE (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers) standards were from data collected in the early 1950. This study is one of a series of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2278909','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2278909"><span>Muscle <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and anaerobic energy turnover during repeated intense dynamic exercise in humans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krustrup, Peter; González-Alonso, José; Quistorff, Bjørn; Bangsbo, Jens</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The aim of the present study was to examine muscle <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, oxygen uptake and anaerobic energy turnover throughout repeated intense exercise to test the hypotheses that (i) energy turnover is reduced when intense exercise is repeated and (ii) anaerobic energy <span class="hlt">production</span> is diminished throughout repeated intense exercise. Five subjects performed three 3 min intense one-legged knee-extensor exercise bouts (EX1, EX2 and EX3) at a power output of 65 ± 5 W (mean ±s.e.m.), separated by 6 min rest periods. Muscle, femoral arterial and venous temperatures were measured continuously during exercise for the determination of muscle <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. In addition, thigh blood flow was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood were sampled frequently during exercise for the determination of muscle oxygen uptake. Anaerobic energy turnover was estimated as the difference between total energy turnover and aerobic energy turnover. Prior to exercise, the temperature of the quadriceps muscle was passively elevated to 37.02 ± 0.12 °C and it increased 0.97 ± 0.08 °C during EX1, which was higher (P < 0.05) than during EX2 (0.79 ± 0.05 °C) and EX3 (0.77 ± 0.06 °C). In EX1 the rate of muscle <span class="hlt">heat</span> accumulation was higher (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s compared to EX2 and EX3, whereas the rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> release to the blood was greater (P < 0.05) throughout EX2 and EX3 compared to EX1. The rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, determined as the sum of <span class="hlt">heat</span> accumulation and release, was the same in EX1, EX2 and EX3, and it increased (P < 0.05) from 86 ± 8 during the first 15 s to 157 ± 7 J s−1 during the last 15 s of EX1. Oxygen extraction was higher during the first 60 s of EX2 and EX3 than in EX 1 and thigh oxygen uptake was elevated (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s of EX2 and throughout EX3 compared to EX1. The anaerobic energy <span class="hlt">production</span> during the first 105 s of EX2 and 150 s of EX3 was lower (P < 0.05) than in EX1. The present study demonstrates that when intense exercise</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3693913','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3693913"><span>Specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> capacity of molten salt-<span class="hlt">based</span> alumina nanofluid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>There is no consensus on the effect of nanoparticle (NP) addition on the specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> capacity (SHC) of fluids. In addition, the predictions from the existing model have a large discrepancy from the measured SHCs in nanofluids. We show that the SHC of the molten salt-<span class="hlt">based</span> alumina nanofluid decreases with reducing particle size and increasing particle concentration. The NP size-dependent SHC is resulted from an augmentation of the nanolayer effect as particle size reduces. A model considering the nanolayer effect which supports the experimental results was proposed. PMID:23800321</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003152','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003152"><span>Joule-<span class="hlt">Heated</span> Molten Regolith Electrolysis Reactor Concepts for Oxygen and Metals <span class="hlt">Production</span> on the Moon and Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sibille, Laurent; Dominques, Jesus A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The maturation of Molten Regolith Electrolysis (MRE) as a viable technology for oxygen and metals <span class="hlt">production</span> on explored planets relies on the realization of the self-<span class="hlt">heating</span> mode for the reactor. Joule <span class="hlt">heat</span> generated during regolith electrolysis creates thermal energy that should be able to maintain the molten phase (similar to electrolytic Hall-Heroult process for aluminum <span class="hlt">production</span>). Self-<span class="hlt">heating</span> via Joule <span class="hlt">heating</span> offers many advantages: (1) The regolith itself is the crucible material, it protects the vessel walls (2) Simplifies the engineering of the reactor (3) Reduces power consumption (no external <span class="hlt">heating</span>) (4) Extends the longevity of the reactor. Predictive modeling is a tool chosen to perform dimensional analysis of a self-<span class="hlt">heating</span> reactor: (1) Multiphysics modeling (COMSOL) was selected for Joule <span class="hlt">heat</span> generation and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer (2) Objective is to identify critical dimensions for first reactor prototype.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMDI33A..03B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMDI33A..03B"><span>U, Th, and K in planetary cores: Implications for volatile elements and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boujibar, A.; Habermann, M.; Righter, K.; Ross, D. K.; Righter, M.; Chidester, B.; Rapp, J. F.; Danielson, L. R.; Pando, K.; Andreasen, R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The accretion of terrestrial planets is known to be accompanied with volatile loss due to strong solar winds produced by the young Sun and due to energetic impacts. It was previously expected that Mercury, the innermost planet is depleted in volatile elements in comparison to other terrestrial planets. These predictions have been recently challenged by the MESSENGER mission to Mercury that detected relatively high K/U and K/Th ratios on Mercury's surface, suggesting a volatile content similar to Earth and Mars. However previous studies showed that Fe-rich metals can incorporate substantial U, Th and K under reducing conditions and with high sulfur contents, which are two conditions relevant to Mercury. In order to quantify the fractionation of these <span class="hlt">heat</span>-producing elements during core segregation, we determined experimentally their partition coefficients (Dmet/sil) between metal and silicate at varying pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity and sulfur content. Our data confirm that U, Th, and K become more siderophile with decreasing fO2 and increasing sulfur content, with a stronger effect for U and Th in comparison to K. Hence Mercury's core is likely to have incorporated more U and Th than K, resulting in the elevated K/U and K/Th ratios measured on the surface. The bulk concentrations of U, Th, and K in terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) are calculated <span class="hlt">based</span> on geochemical constraints on core-mantle differentiation. Significant amounts of U, Th and K are partitioned into the cores of Mercury, Venus and Earth, but much less into Mars' core. The resulting bulk planet K/U and K/Th correlate with the heliocentric distance, which suggests an overall volatile depletion in the inner Solar System. These results have important implications for internal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. The role of impact erosion on the evolution of Th/U ratio will also be addressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063973','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063973"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate on slow pyrolysis behavior, kinetic parameters and <span class="hlt">products</span> properties of moso bamboo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Dengyu; Zhou, Jianbin; Zhang, Qisheng</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Effects of <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate on slow pyrolysis behaviors, kinetic parameters, and <span class="hlt">products</span> properties of moso bamboo were investigated in this study. Pyrolysis experiments were performed up to 700 °C at <span class="hlt">heating</span> rates of 5, 10, 20, and 30 °C/min using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a lab-scale fixed bed pyrolysis reactor. The results show that the onset and offset temperatures of the main devolatilization stage of thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) curves obviously shift toward the high-temperature range, and the activation energy values increase with increasing <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate. The <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate has different effects on the pyrolysis <span class="hlt">products</span> properties, including biochar (element content, proximate analysis, specific surface area, <span class="hlt">heating</span> value), bio-oil (water content, chemical composition), and non-condensable gas. The solid yields from the fixed bed pyrolysis reactor are noticeably different from those of TGA mainly because the thermal hysteresis of the sample in the fixed bed pyrolysis reactor is more thorough.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812146K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812146K"><span>Modelling of labour <span class="hlt">productivity</span> loss due to climate change: <span class="hlt">HEAT</span>-SHIELD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kjellstrom, Tord; Daanen, Hein</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Climate change will bring higher <span class="hlt">heat</span> levels (temperature and humidity combined) to large parts of the world. When these levels reach above thresholds well defined by human physiology, the ability to maintain physical activity levels decrease and labour <span class="hlt">productivity</span> is reduced. This impact is of particular importance in work situations in areas with long high intensity hot seasons, but also affects cooler areas during <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves. Our modelling of labour <span class="hlt">productivity</span> loss includes climate model data of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Inter-comparison Project (ISI-MIP), calculations of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress indexes during different months, estimations of work capacity loss and its annual impacts in different parts of the world. Different climate models will be compared for the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and the outcomes of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) agreements. The validation includes comparisons of modelling outputs with actual field studies using historical <span class="hlt">heat</span> data. These modelling approaches are a first stage contribution to the European Commission funded <span class="hlt">HEAT</span>-SHIELD project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24491646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24491646"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> stress impairs the nutritional metabolism and reduces the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of egg-laying ducks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Xianyong; Lin, Yingcai; Zhang, Hanxing; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shang; Ruan, Dong; Jiang, Zongyong</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>This research was conducted to determine the effect of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress on the nutritional metabolism and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of egg-laying shelducks. Healthy shelducks (n=120) in the early laying stage (uniform body weights and normal feed intakes) were randomly assigned to two identical climate chambers and exposed to constant high temperature (34°C) or control temperature (23°C) for 28d. The <span class="hlt">heat</span>-exposed ducks had reduced feed intakes and laying rates (P<0.05), increased frequency of panting and spreading wings and dull featheration; egg weight, eggshell thickness and strength, and Haugh unit also decreased and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of egg yolk increased (P<0.05). Compared with the control ducks, the plasma concentrations of HCO3(-), phosphorus, glucose, thyroxine and activities of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were decreased, while there were increased concentrations of corticosterone (P<0.05). The content of MDA and lactate in plasma and liver was greater in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-exposed than in control ducks, but superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant enzymes (T-AOC) activities and glutathione (GSH) contents were less. The expression of HSP70 gene expression in the liver was increased in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed ducks. The relative weight of oviduct, number of large ovarian follicles, length of the oviduct all decreased (P<0.05) in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-treated ducks, as did expression of carbonic anhydrase and calcium binding protein genes in the shell gland as a result of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. In summary, <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress decreased the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of ducks, which related to reduced feed intake, protein synthesis, endocrine dysfunction, less antioxidant capacity, and derangement of calcium and phosphorous balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A21D0087G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A21D0087G"><span>The <span class="hlt">Heated</span> Halo for Space-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Blackbody Emissivity Measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gero, P.; Taylor, J. K.; Best, F. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Garcia, R. K.; Adler, D. P.; Ciganovich, N. N.; Knuteson, R. O.; Tobin, D. C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The accuracy of radiance measurements with space-<span class="hlt">based</span> infrared spectrometers is contingent on the quality of the calibration subsystem, as well as knowledge of its uncertainty. Upcoming climate benchmark missions call for measurement uncertainties better than 0.1 K (k=3) in radiance temperature for the detection of spectral climate signatures. Blackbody cavities impart the most accurate calibration for spaceborne infrared sensors, provided that their temperature and emissivity is traceably determined on-orbit. The On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) has been developed at the University of Wisconsin and has undergone further refinement under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) to meet the stringent requirements of the next generation of infrared remote sensing instruments. It provides on-orbit determination of both traceable temperature and emissivity for calibration blackbodies. The <span class="hlt">Heated</span> Halo is the component of the OARS that provides a robust and compact method to measure the spectral emissivity of a blackbody in situ. A carefully baffled thermal source is placed in front of a blackbody in an infrared spectrometer system, and the combined radiance of the blackbody and <span class="hlt">Heated</span> Halo reflection is observed. Knowledge of key temperatures and the viewing geometry allow the blackbody cavity spectral emissivity to be calculated. We present the results from the <span class="hlt">Heated</span> Halo methodology implemented with a new Absolute Radiance Interferometer (ARI), which is a prototype space-<span class="hlt">based</span> infrared spectrometer designed for climate benchmarking. We show the evolution of the technical readiness level of this technology and we compare our findings to models and other experimental methods of emissivity determination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V43A2563N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V43A2563N"><span>Modeling the Daly Gap: The Influence of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> in Controlling Magma Extraction and Eruption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nelson, B. K.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Bachmann, O.; Dufek, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A century-old issue in volcanology is the origin of the gap in chemical compositions observed in magmatic series on ocean islands and arcs - the "Daly Gap". If the gap forms during differentiation from a mafic parent, models that predict the dynamics of magma extraction as a function of chemical composition must simulate a process that results in volumetrically biased, bimodal compositions of erupted magmas. The probability of magma extraction is controlled by magma dynamical processes, which have a complex response to magmatic <span class="hlt">heat</span> evolution. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss from the magmatic system is far from a simple, monotonic function of time. It is modified by the crystallization sequence, chamber margin <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux, and is buffered by latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. We use chemical and thermal calculations of MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack, 1995) as input to the physical model of QUANTUM (Dufek & Bachmann, 2010) to predict crystallinity windows of most probable magma extraction. We modeled two case studies: volcanism on Tenerife, Canary Islands, and the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) of Campi Flegrei, Italy. Both preserve a basanitic to phonolitic lineage and have comparable total alkali concentrations; however, CI has high and Tenerife has low K2O/Na2O. Modeled thermal histories of differentiation for the two sequences contrast strongly. In Tenerife, the rate of latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> is almost always greater than sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, with spikes in the ratio of latent to sensible <span class="hlt">heats</span> of up to 40 associated with the appearance of Fe-Ti oxides at near 50% crystallization. This punctuated <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> must cause magma temperature change to stall or slow in time. The extended time spent at ≈50% crystallinity, associated with dynamical processes that enhance melt extraction near 50% crystallinity, suggests the magma composition at this interval should be common. In Tenerife, the modeled composition coincides with that of the first peak in the bimodal frequency-composition distribution. In our</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/233931','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/233931"><span>Mechanically alloyed Ni-<span class="hlt">base</span> alloys for <span class="hlt">heat</span>-resistant applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilson, R.K.; Fischer, J.J.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>INCONEL alloys MA 754 and MA 758 are nickel-<span class="hlt">base</span> oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys made by mechanical alloying (MA). Commercial use of Ma Ni-<span class="hlt">base</span> alloys to date has been predominantly in aerospace applications of alloy MA 754 as turbine engine vanes. Both alloys are suitable for industrial <span class="hlt">heat</span> treating components and other <span class="hlt">heat</span> resistant alloy applications. Field trials and commercial experience in such applications of MA alloys are being gained while high temperature property characterization and new <span class="hlt">product</span> form development continue. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is the standard consolidation method for billets from which large bar and plate are produced for industrial applications of MA. This paper describes <span class="hlt">production</span> of standard mill shapes from HIP billets, and it presents information on current and potential uses of MA alloys in applications such as: skid rails for use in high temperature walking beam furnaces, <span class="hlt">heat</span> treating furnace components, components for handling molten glass, and furnace tubes. The paper includes comparison of the properties obtained in alloy MA 754 (20% Cr) and alloy MA 758 (30% Cr).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050071703','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050071703"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> of Combustion of the <span class="hlt">Product</span> Formed by the Reaction of Acetylene, Ethylene, and Diborane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tannenbaum, Stanley</p> <p>1957-01-01</p> <p>The net <span class="hlt">heat</span> of combustion of the <span class="hlt">product</span> formed by the reaction of diborane with a mixture of acetylene and ethylene was found to be 20,440 +/- 150 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water, and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen-bomb calorimeter, and the combustion was believed to be 98 percent complete. The estimated net-<span class="hlt">heat</span> of combustion for complete combustion would therefore be 20,850 +/- 150 Btu per pound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5749033','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5749033"><span>Water flow calorimetry measurements of <span class="hlt">heat</span> loads for a volume <span class="hlt">production</span> H/sup -/ source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Purgalis, P.; Ackerman, G.; Kwan, J.; Wells, R.P.</p> <p>1987-10-01</p> <p>The design of volume-<span class="hlt">production</span> H/sup -/ sources requires the knowledge of <span class="hlt">heat</span> loads on the source components. The arc and filament heater power input to a 20 cm diameter x 23 cm long source can be 50 kW or higher, practically all of which is absorbed in the cooling water. Water flow calorimetry measurements were made to determine the <span class="hlt">heat</span> loads on the bucket walls, grid no. 1, and magnetic filter rods. The measurements are presented for two different filament locations, for three different values of arc power, and for three values of source gas pressure. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1820g0012D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1820g0012D"><span>Research on central <span class="hlt">heating</span> system control strategy <span class="hlt">based</span> on genetic algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ding, Sa; Yang, Jianhua; Lu, Wei; Duan, Zhipeng</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The central <span class="hlt">heating</span> is a major way of warming in northeast China in winter, however, the traditional <span class="hlt">heating</span> method is inefficient, intensifying the energy consumption. How to improve the <span class="hlt">heating</span> efficiency and reduce energy waste attracts more and more attentions in our country. In this paper, the mathematical model of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer station temperature control system was established <span class="hlt">based</span> on the structure of central <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. The feedforward-feedback control strategy was used to overcome temperature fluctuations caused by the pressurized <span class="hlt">heating</span> exchange system. The genetic algorithm was used to optimize the parameters of PID controller and simulation results demonstrated that central <span class="hlt">heating</span> temperature achieved well control effect and meet stabilization requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4177126','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4177126"><span>Sorbitol required for cell growth and ethanol <span class="hlt">production</span> by Zymomonas mobilis under <span class="hlt">heat</span>, ethanol, and osmotic stresses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background During ethanol fermentation, the ethanologenic bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis may encounter several environmental stresses such as <span class="hlt">heat</span>, ethanol and osmotic stresses due to high sugar concentration. Although supplementation of the compatible solute sorbitol into culture medium enhances cell growth of Z. mobilis under osmotic stress, the protective function of this compound on cell growth and ethanol <span class="hlt">production</span> by this organism under other stresses such as <span class="hlt">heat</span> and ethanol has not been described yet. The formation of sorbitol in Z. mobilis was carried out by the action of the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) enzyme which is regulated by the gfo gene. Therefore, the gfo gene in Z. mobilis was disrupted by the fusion-PCR-<span class="hlt">based</span> construction technique in the present study, and the protective function of sorbitol on cell growth, protein synthesis and ethanol <span class="hlt">production</span> by Z. mobilis under <span class="hlt">heat</span>, ethanol, and osmotic stresses was investigated. Results <span class="hlt">Based</span> on the fusion-PCR-<span class="hlt">based</span> construction technique, the gfo gene in Z. mobilis was disrupted. Disruption of the Z. mobilis gfo gene resulted in the reduction of cell growth and ethanol <span class="hlt">production</span> not only under osmotic stress but also under <span class="hlt">heat</span> and ethanol stresses. Under these stress conditions, the transcription level of pdc, adhA, and adhB genes involved in the pyruvate-to-ethanol (PE) pathway as well as the synthesis of proteins particularly in Z. mobilis disruptant strain were decreased compared to those of the parent. These findings suggest that sorbitol plays a crucial role not only on cell growth and ethanol <span class="hlt">production</span> but also on the protection of cellular proteins from stress responses. Conclusion We showed for the first time that supplementation of the compatible solute sorbitol not only promoted cell growth but also increased the ethanol fermentation capability of Z. mobilis under <span class="hlt">heat</span>, ethanol, and osmotic stresses. Although the molecular mechanism involved in tolerance to stress conditions</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17135606','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17135606"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and body temperature during cooling and rewarming in overweight and lean men.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Claessens-van Ooijen, Anne M J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Wouters, Loek; Schoffelen, Paul F M; van Steenhoven, Anton A; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>To compare overweight and lean subjects with respect to thermogenesis and physiological insulation in response to mild cold and rewarming. Ten overweight men (mean BMI, 29.2 +/- 2.8 kg/m(2)) and 10 lean men (mean BMI, 21.1 +/- 2.0 kg/m(2)) were exposed to cold air for 1 hour, followed by 1 hour of rewarming. Body composition was determined by hydrodensitometry and deuterium dilution. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and body temperatures were measured continuously by indirect calorimetry and thermistors, respectively. Muscle activity was recorded using electromyography. In both groups, <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> increased significantly during cooling (lean, p = 0.004; overweight, p = 0.006). The increase was larger in the lean group compared with the overweight group (p = 0.04). During rewarming, <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> returned to baseline in the overweight group and stayed higher compared with baseline in the lean group (p = 0.003). The difference in <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> between rewarming and baseline was larger in the lean (p = 0.01) than in the overweight subjects. Weighted body temperature of both groups decreased during cold exposure (lean, p = 0.002; overweight, p < 0.001) and did not return to baseline during rewarming. Overweight subjects showed a blunted mild cold-induced thermogenesis. The insulative cold response was not different among the groups. The energy-efficient response of the overweight subjects can have consequences for energy balance in the long term. The results support the concept of a dynamic <span class="hlt">heat</span> regulation model instead of temperature regulation around a fixed set point.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17297103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17297103"><span>Relationship of thermal status to <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed dairy cows given recombinant bovine somatotropin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Settivari, R S; Spain, J N; Ellersieck, M R; Byatt, J C; Collier, R J; Spiers, D E</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>The responses of lactating Holstein cows to daily administration of bovine somatotropin (bST) were measured at thermoneutrality (Tn) and under both constant and cycled <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stress conditions to determine the relationship between thermal status and bST-induced shifts in milk <span class="hlt">production</span>. All tests included a 5-d acclimation period at Tn (18 degrees C), followed by a 2-d increase in ambient temperature to 28.5 degrees C. After d 3, ambient temperature was cycled between 28.5 (day) and 25.5 degrees C (night) for 4 d. Daily injections with either 31 mg of bST or saline began on d 1 of the experiment. Milk <span class="hlt">production</span>, feed intake, and respiratory rate (RR) were measured daily. Intraperitoneal, telemetric temperature transmitters were used for a continuous measure of core body temperature (T(core)). Blood samples were collected during each phase to evaluate the changes in serum chemistry in response to bST and <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. Following a 15-d recovery, cows were switched across injection treatments and the study was repeated. Milk <span class="hlt">production</span> decreased by approximately 18.4% below the initial yield at Tn by the end of 7 d of <span class="hlt">heat</span> challenge. Although a reduction in milk <span class="hlt">production</span> occurred during <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress in both groups, milk <span class="hlt">production</span> was higher in bST-treated cows compared with control cows during periods of constant and cyclic <span class="hlt">heat</span>. Likewise, bST treatment during the entire period increased the milk-to-feed ratio over the control level by approximately 11.3%. Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 and serum nonesterified fatty acids accompanied the increased growth hormone level with bST treatment (approximately 122.0 and 88.8%, respectively), whereas plasma urea nitrogen was reduced by approximately 13.3% to reflect the shift to lipid metabolism. There was no difference in T(core) of the treatment and control groups at Tn. Both bST and control cows increased RR and T(core) above the Tn level by approximately 94.8 and 2.9%, respectively, during constant <span class="hlt">heat</span>, with a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21796051','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21796051"><span>Sweating is greater in NCAA football linemen independently of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deren, Tomasz M; Coris, Eric E; Bain, Anthony R; Walz, Steve M; Jay, Ollie</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The study's purpose was to investigate whether differences in local sweat rates on the upper body between American football linemen (L) and backs (B) exist independently of differences in metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. Twelve NCAA Division I American football players (6 linemen (mass = 141.6 ± 6.5 kg, body surface area (BSA) = 2.67 ± 0.08 m2) and 6 backs (mass = 88.1 ± 13.4 kg, BSA = 2.11 ± 0.19 m2)) cycled at a fixed metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> per unit BSA of 350 W·m(-2) for 60 min in a climatic chamber (t(db) [dry bulb temperature] = 32.4°C ± 1.0°C, t(wb) [wet bulb temperature] = 26.3°C ± 0.6°C, v [air velocity] = 0.9 ± 0.1 m·s(-1)). Local sweat rates on the head, arm, shoulder, lower back, and chest were measured after 10, 30, and 50 min of exercise. Core temperature, mean skin temperature, and HR were measured throughout exercise. Because metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> per unit surface area was fixed between participants, the rate of evaporation required for <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance was similar (L = 261 ± 35 W·m(-2), B = 294 ± 30 W·m(-2), P = 0.11). However, local sweat rates on the head, arm, shoulder, and chest were all significantly greater (P < 0.05) in linemen at all time points, and end-exercise core temperature was significantly greater (P = 0.033) in linemen (38.5°C ± 0.4°C) relative to backs (38.0°C ± 0.2°C) despite a ∼25% lower <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> per unit mass. The change in mean skin temperature from rest was greater in linemen (P < 0.001) after 15, 30, 45, and 60 min, and HR was greater in linemen for the last 30 min of exercise. Football linemen sweat significantly more on the torso and head than football backs independently of any differences in metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> per unit BSA and therefore the evaporative requirements for <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance. Despite greater sweating, linemen demonstrated significantly greater elevations in core temperature suggesting that sweating efficiency (i.e., the proportion of sweat that evaporates) was much lower in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNR....13.6201N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNR....13.6201N"><span>Novel nanofluids <span class="hlt">based</span> on mesoporous silica for enhanced <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nikkam, N.; Saleemi, M.; Toprak, M. S.; Li, S.; Muhammed, M.; Haghighi, E. B.; Khodabandeh, R.; Palm, B.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Nanofluids, which are liquids with engineered nanometer-sized particles suspensions, have drawn remarkable attraction from the researchers because of their enormous potential to enhance the efficiency in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer fluids. In the present study, water-<span class="hlt">based</span> calcined mesoporous silica nanofluids were prepared and characterized. The commercial mesoporous silica (MPSiO2) nanoparticles were dispersed in deionized water by means of pH adjustment and ultrasonic agitation. MPSiO2 nanoparticles were observed to have an average particle size of 350 ± 100 nm by SEM analysis. The concentration of MPSiO2 was varied between 1 and 6 wt%. The physicochemical properties of nanofluids were characterized using various techniques, such as particle size analyzer, zeta-potential meter, TEM, and FT-IR. The thermal conductivity was measured by Transient Plane Source (TPS) method, and nanofluids showed a higher thermal conductivity than the <span class="hlt">base</span> liquid for all the tested concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPS...246..960H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPS...246..960H"><span>Study of reactions of activated Mg-<span class="hlt">based</span> powders in <span class="hlt">heated</span> steam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Hai-tao; Zou, Mei-shuai; Guo, Xiao-yan; Yang, Rong-jie; Li, Yun-kai</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Activated Mg-<span class="hlt">based</span> powders are prepared by high-energy milling and characterised with XRD, SEM, TG and BET techniques. This study focus on reactions of Mg-<span class="hlt">based</span> powders with flowing steam that is <span class="hlt">heated</span> at 500, 600, and 700 °C in a transparent pipe furnace. Morphologies and phases of solid reaction <span class="hlt">products</span> are analysed by SEM, XRD, and residual metal content, and ignition delay times are measured. Experimental results show that all Mg-<span class="hlt">based</span> powders oxidise at 500 °C and ignite at 600 °C. At 700 °C, all samples burn completely to form magnesium oxide (MgO) within 5 min. Residual metal contents and ignition delay times of all samples decrease with increasing temperature, and ignition delay times of activated Mg-<span class="hlt">based</span> materials containing cobalto-cobaltic oxide (Co3O4) are only 22 s at 700 °C. Milled Mg powders are more reactive in <span class="hlt">heated</span> steam than unmilled Mg powders, and the addition of Co3O4 further increases magnesium reactivity in <span class="hlt">heated</span> steam.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27939928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27939928"><span>How Vial Geometry Variability Influences <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Transfer and <span class="hlt">Product</span> Temperature During Freeze-Drying.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scutellà, Bernadette; Passot, Stéphanie; Bourlés, Erwan; Fonseca, Fernanda; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Vial design features can play a significant role in <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer between the shelf and the <span class="hlt">product</span> and, consequently, in the final quality of the freeze-dried <span class="hlt">product</span>. Our objective was to investigate the impact of the variability of some geometrical dimensions of a set of tubing vials commonly used for pharmaceuticals <span class="hlt">production</span> on the distribution of the vial <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients (Kv) and its potential consequence on <span class="hlt">product</span> temperature. Sublimation tests were carried out using pure water and 8 combinations of chamber pressure (4-50 Pa) and shelf temperature (-40°C and 0°C) in 2 freeze-dryers. Kv values were individually determined for 100 vials located in the center of the shelf. Vial bottom curvature depth and contact area between the vial and the shelf were carefully measured for 120 vials and these data were used to calculate Kv distribution due to variability in vial geometry. At low pressures commonly used for sensitive <span class="hlt">products</span> (below 10 Pa), the vial-shelf contact area appeared crucial for explaining Kv heterogeneity and was found to generate, in our study, a <span class="hlt">product</span> temperature distribution of approximately 2°C during sublimation. Our approach provides quantitative guidelines for defining vial geometry tolerance specifications and <span class="hlt">product</span> temperature safety margins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982whe..conf.....K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982whe..conf.....K"><span>Thermochemical hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on magnetic fusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krikorian, O. H.; Brown, L. C.</p> <p>1982-06-01</p> <p>Conceptual design studies were carried out on an integrated fusion/chemical plant system using a Tandem Mirror Reactor fusion energy source to drive the General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Water-Splitting Cycle and produce hydrogen as a future feedstock for synthetic fuels. Blanket design studies for the Tandem Mirror Reactor show that several design alternatives are available for providing <span class="hlt">heat</span> at sufficiently high temperatures to drive the General Atomic Cycle. The concept of a Joule-boosted decomposer is introduced in one of the systems investigated to provide <span class="hlt">heat</span> electrically for the highest temperature step in the cycle (the SO3 decomposition step), and thus lower blanket design requirements and costs. Flowsheeting and conceptual process designs have been developed for a complete fusion-driven hydrogen plant, and the information has been used to develop a plot plan for the plant and to estimate hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> costs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27669898','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27669898"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and error probability relation in Landauer reset at effective temperature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neri, Igor; López-Suárez, Miquel</p> <p>2016-09-27</p> <p>The erasure of a classical bit of information is a dissipative process. The minimum <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced during this operation has been theorized by Rolf Landauer in 1961 to be equal to kBT ln2 and takes the name of Landauer limit, Landauer reset or Landauer principle. Despite its fundamental importance, the Landauer limit remained untested experimentally for more than fifty years until recently when it has been tested using colloidal particles and magnetic dots. Experimental measurements on different devices, like micro-mechanical systems or nano-electronic devices are still missing. Here we show the results obtained in performing the Landauer reset operation in a micro-mechanical system, operated at an effective temperature. The measured <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange is in accordance with the theory reaching values close to the expected limit. The data obtained for the <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> is then correlated to the probability of error in accomplishing the reset operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5037424','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5037424"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and error probability relation in Landauer reset at effective temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Neri, Igor; López-Suárez, Miquel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The erasure of a classical bit of information is a dissipative process. The minimum <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced during this operation has been theorized by Rolf Landauer in 1961 to be equal to kBT ln2 and takes the name of Landauer limit, Landauer reset or Landauer principle. Despite its fundamental importance, the Landauer limit remained untested experimentally for more than fifty years until recently when it has been tested using colloidal particles and magnetic dots. Experimental measurements on different devices, like micro-mechanical systems or nano-electronic devices are still missing. Here we show the results obtained in performing the Landauer reset operation in a micro-mechanical system, operated at an effective temperature. The measured <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange is in accordance with the theory reaching values close to the expected limit. The data obtained for the <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> is then correlated to the probability of error in accomplishing the reset operation. PMID:27669898</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1087664','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1087664"><span>Novel Cyclotron-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Radiometal <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>DeGrado, Timothy R.</p> <p>2013-10-31</p> <p>Accomplishments: (1) Construction of prototype solution target for radiometal <span class="hlt">production</span>; (2) Testing of prototype target for <span class="hlt">production</span> of following isotopes: a. Zr-89. Investigation of Zr-89 <span class="hlt">production</span> from Y-89 nitrate solution. i. Defined problems of gas evolution and salt precipitation. ii. Solved problem of precipitation by addition of nitric acid. iii. Solved gas evolution problem with addition of backpressure regulator and constant degassing of target during irradiations. iv. Investigated effects of Y-89 nitrate concentration and beam current. v. Published abstracts at SNM and ISRS meetings; (3) Design of 2nd generation radiometal solution target. a. Included reflux chamber and smaller target volume to conserve precious target materials. b. Included aluminum for prototype and tantalum for working model. c. Included greater varicosities for improved <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer; and, (4) Construction of 2nd generation radiometal solution target started.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..497L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..497L"><span>The critical role of extreme <span class="hlt">heat</span> for maize <span class="hlt">production</span> in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lobell, David B.; Hammer, Graeme L.; McLean, Greg; Messina, Carlos; Roberts, Michael J.; Schlenker, Wolfram</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Statistical studies of rainfed maize yields in the United States and elsewhere have indicated two clear features: a strong negative yield response to accumulation of temperatures above 30°C (or extreme degree days (EDD)), and a relatively weak response to seasonal rainfall. Here we show that the process-<span class="hlt">based</span> Agricultural <span class="hlt">Production</span> Systems Simulator (APSIM) is able to reproduce both of these relationships in the Midwestern United States and provide insight into underlying mechanisms. The predominant effects of EDD in APSIM are associated with increased vapour pressure deficit, which contributes to water stress in two ways: by increasing demand for soil water to sustain a given rate of carbon assimilation, and by reducing future supply of soil water by raising transpiration rates. APSIM computes daily water stress as the ratio of water supply to demand, and during the critical month of July this ratio is three times more responsive to 2°C warming than to a 20% precipitation reduction. The results suggest a relatively minor role for direct <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress on reproductive organs at present temperatures in this region. Effects of elevated CO2 on transpiration efficiency should reduce yield sensitivity to EDD in the coming decades, but at most by 25%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18292280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18292280"><span>Tracking <span class="hlt">heat</span>-resistant, cold-thriving fluid milk spoilage bacteria from farm to packaged <span class="hlt">product</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huck, J R; Sonnen, M; Boor, K J</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>Control of psychrotolerant endospore-forming spoilage bacteria, particularly Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp., is economically important to the dairy industry. These microbes form endospores that can survive high-temperature, short-time pasteurization; hence, their presence in raw milk represents a major potential cause of milk spoilage. A previously developed culture-dependent selection strategy and an rpoB sequence-<span class="hlt">based</span> subtyping method were applied to bacterial isolates obtained from environmental samples collected on a New York State dairy farm. A total of 54 different rpoB allelic types putatively identified as Bacillus (75% of isolates), Paenibacillus (24%), and Sporosarcina spp. (1%) were identified among 93 isolates. Assembly of a broader data set, including 93 dairy farm isolates, 57 raw milk tank truck isolates, 138 dairy plant storage silo isolates, and 336 pasteurized milk isolates, identified a total of 154 rpoB allelic types, representing an extensive diversity of Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. Our molecular subtype data clearly showed that certain endospore-forming bacterial subtypes are present in the dairy farm environment as well as in the processing plant. The potential for entry of these ubiquitous <span class="hlt">heat</span>-resistant spoilage organisms into milk <span class="hlt">production</span> and processing systems, from the dairy farm to the processing plant, represents a considerable challenge that will require a comprehensive farm-to-table approach to fluid milk quality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4093027','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4093027"><span>Solid Waste from Swine Wastewater as a Fuel Source for <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Myung-Ho; Kumar, Sanjay; Ra, ChangSix</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study was to evaluate the feasibility of recycling the solids separated from swine wastewater treatment process as a fuel source for <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and to provide a data set on the gas emissions and combustion properties. Also, in this study, the heavy metals in ash content were analyzed for its possible use as a fertilizer. Proximate analysis of the solid recovered from the swine wastewater after flocculation with organic polymer showed high calorific (5,330.50 kcal/kg) and low moisture (15.38%) content, indicating that the solid separated from swine wastewater can be used as an alternative fuel source. CO and NOx emissions were found to increase with increasing temperature. Combustion efficiency of the solids was found to be stable (95 to 98%) with varied temperatures. Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed five thermal effects (four exothermic and one endothermic), and these effects were distinguished in three stages, water evaporation, heterogeneous combustion of hydrocarbons and decomposition reaction. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on the calorific value and combustion stability results, solid separated from swine manure can be used as an alternative source of fuel, however further research is still warranted regarding regulation of CO and NOx emissions. Furthermore, the heavy metal content in ash was below the legal limits required for its usage as fertilizer. PMID:25049526</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980ntis.reptY....H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980ntis.reptY....H"><span>Solar process <span class="hlt">heat</span>. Citations from the NTIS data <span class="hlt">base</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hundemann, A. S.</p> <p>1980-04-01</p> <p>Feasibility, design, cost, and economic potential of solar process <span class="hlt">heat</span> are discussed. Potential applications to industries using hot water or steam and to <span class="hlt">heat</span> used for dehydration processes in agriculture are covered. Contains 60 abstracts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PMag...91.1864D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PMag...91.1864D"><span>Dissipated energy and entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> for an unconventional <span class="hlt">heat</span> engine: the stepwise `circular cycle'</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>di Liberto, Francesco; Pastore, Raffaele; Peruggi, Fulvio</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>When some entropy is transferred, by means of a reversible engine, from a hot <span class="hlt">heat</span> source to a colder one, the maximum efficiency occurs, i.e. the maximum available work is obtained. Similarly, a reversible <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps transfer entropy from a cold <span class="hlt">heat</span> source to a hotter one with the minimum expense of energy. In contrast, if we are faced with non-reversible devices, there is some lost work for <span class="hlt">heat</span> engines, and some extra work for <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps. These quantities are both related to entropy <span class="hlt">production</span>. The lost work, i.e. ? , is also called 'degraded energy' or 'energy unavailable to do work'. The extra work, i.e. ? , is the excess of work performed on the system in the irreversible process with respect to the reversible one (or the excess of <span class="hlt">heat</span> given to the hotter source in the irreversible process). Both quantities are analysed in detail and are evaluated for a complex process, i.e. the stepwise circular cycle, which is similar to the stepwise Carnot cycle. The stepwise circular cycle is a cycle performed by means of N small weights, dw, which are first added and then removed from the piston of the vessel containing the gas or vice versa. The work performed by the gas can be found as the increase of the potential energy of the dw's. Each single dw is identified and its increase, i.e. its increase in potential energy, evaluated. In such a way it is found how the energy output of the cycle is distributed among the dw's. The size of the dw's affects entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> and therefore the lost and extra work. The distribution of increases depends on the chosen removal process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007360','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007360"><span>Development of Naphthalene PLIF for Visualizing Ablation <span class="hlt">Products</span> From a Space Capsule <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Shield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Combs, C. S.; Clemens, N. T.; Danehy, P. M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will use an ablative <span class="hlt">heat</span> shield. To better design this <span class="hlt">heat</span> shield and others that will undergo planetary entry, an improved understanding of the ablation process would be beneficial. Here, a technique developed at The University of Texas at Austin that uses planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a low-temperature sublimating ablator (naphthalene) to enable visualization of the ablation <span class="hlt">products</span> in a hypersonic flow is applied. Although high-temperature ablation is difficult and expensive to recreate in a laboratory environment, low-temperature sublimation creates a limited physics problem that can be used to explore ablation-<span class="hlt">product</span> transport in a hypersonic flow-field. In the current work, a subscale capsule reentry vehicle model with a solid naphthalene <span class="hlt">heat</span> shield has been tested in a Mach 5 wind tunnel. The PLIF technique provides images of the spatial distribution of sublimated naphthalene in the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-shield boundary layer, separated shear layer, and backshell recirculation region. Visualizations of the capsule shear layer using both naphthalene PLIF and Schlieren imaging compared favorably. PLIF images have shown high concentrations of naphthalene in the capsule separated flow region, intermittent turbulent structures on the <span class="hlt">heat</span> shield surface, and interesting details of the capsule shear layer structure. It was shown that, in general, the capsule shear layer appears to be more unsteady at lower angels of attack. The PLIF images demonstrated that during a wind tunnel run, as the model <span class="hlt">heated</span> up, the rate of naphthalene ablation increased, since the PLIF signal increased steadily over the course of a run. Additionally, the shear layer became increasingly unsteady over the course of a wind tunnel run, likely because of increased surface roughness but also possibly because of the increased blowing. Regions with a relatively low concentration of naphthalene were also identified in the capsule backshell</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24165865','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24165865"><span>Joule <span class="hlt">heating</span> effects on reservoir-<span class="hlt">based</span> dielectrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kale, Akshay; Patel, Saurin; Qian, Shizhi; Hu, Guoqing; Xuan, Xiangchun</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Reservoir-<span class="hlt">based</span> dielectrophoresis (rDEP) is a recently developed technique that exploits the inherent electric field gradients at a reservoir-microchannel junction to focus, trap, and sort particles. However, the locally amplified electric field at the junction is likely to induce significant Joule <span class="hlt">heating</span> effects that are not considered in previous studies. This work investigates experimentally and numerically these effects on particle transport and control in rDEP processes in PDMS/PDMS microchips. It is found that Joule <span class="hlt">heating</span> effects can reduce rDEP focusing considerably and may even disable rDEP trapping. This is caused by the fluid temperature rise at the reservoir-microchannel junction, which significantly increases the local particle velocity due to fluid flow and particle electrophoresis while has a weak impact on the particle velocity due to rDEP. The numerical predictions of particle stream width and electric current, which are the respective indicators of rDEP manipulation and fluid temperature, are demonstrated to both match the experimental measurements with a good accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7970E..12F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7970E..12F"><span>Model-<span class="hlt">based</span> mask data preparation (MB-MDP) and its impact on resist <span class="hlt">heating</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fujimura, Aki; Kamikubo, Takashi; Bork, Ingo</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Complex mask shapes will be required on critical layer masks for 20nm logic node, threatening to explode the mask write times. Model-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Mask Data Preparation (MB-MDP) has been introduced to reduce the shot count required to write complex masks while simultaneously improving resolution and dose margin of sub-100nm features. For <span class="hlt">production</span> use of MB-MDP, a number of questions have been raised and answered. This paper summarizes these potential issues and their resolutions. In particular, the paper takes an in-depth look at one of the questions: impact of overlapping shots on <span class="hlt">heating</span> effect. The paper concludes that while <span class="hlt">heating</span> effect is an important issue for all e-beam writing even with conventional non-overlapping shots, overall dose density per unit time over microns of space is the principal driver behind <span class="hlt">heating</span> effects. Highly local shot density and shot sequencing does not affect <span class="hlt">heating</span> significantly, particularly for smaller shots. MB-MDP does not introduce any additional concerns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20778982','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20778982"><span>Measurements of bremsstrahlung <span class="hlt">production</span> and x-ray cryostat <span class="hlt">heating</span> in VENUS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lyneis, C.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.; Virostek, S.; Loew, T.; Heinen, A.; Tarvainen, O.</p> <p>2006-03-15</p> <p>The VENUS superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is designed to operate at 28 GHz with up to 10 kW of rf power. Most of this power is absorbed by the plasma electrons and then dumped onto the plasma chamber wall. The distribution of <span class="hlt">heating</span> and bremsstrahlung <span class="hlt">production</span> is highly nonuniform and reflects the geometry of the magnetic confinement fields. The nonuniform distribution of electron losses to the wall results in localized <span class="hlt">heating</span> on the aluminum chamber walls, which can lead to burnout. In addition, part of the bremsstrahlung produced by the collision of the hot-electrons with the walls is absorbed by the cold mass of the superconducting magnet leading to an additional <span class="hlt">heat</span> load in the cryostat in the order of several watts. Therefore a new plasma chamber has been installed that incorporates a high-Z tantalum shield to reduce the cryostat <span class="hlt">heating</span> and enhance water cooling to minimize the chance of burnout. In order to better understand the <span class="hlt">heat</span> load, the spectrum of the bremsstrahlung has been carefully measured as a function of rf power, magnetic confinement, and rf frequency. In addition, the distribution of electron <span class="hlt">heating</span> in VENUS magnetic field has been simulated with a three-dimensional computer code [H. Heinen and H. J. Andra, Proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on ECR Sources (CERN, Geneva, 1999), 224; H. J. Andra and A. Heinen, Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on ECR lon Sources, ECRIS'02 (Jyvaeskylae, Finland 2002), 85.] to better understand the <span class="hlt">heat</span> load distribution on the plasma chamber wall. The new plasma chamber design, results of the bremsstrahlung measurements, and the effectiveness of the high-Z shielding are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdWR...79..153H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdWR...79..153H"><span>Dissolved gas exsolution to enhance gas <span class="hlt">production</span> and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance <span class="hlt">heating</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hegele, P. R.; Mumford, K. G.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Condensation of volatile organic compounds in colder zones can be detrimental to the performance of an in situ thermal treatment application for the remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones. A novel method to increase gas <span class="hlt">production</span> and limit convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss in more permeable, potentially colder, zones involves the injection and liberation of dissolved gas from solution during <span class="hlt">heating</span>. Bench-scale electrical resistance <span class="hlt">heating</span> experiments were performed with a dissolved carbon dioxide and sodium chloride solution to investigate exsolved gas saturations and transport regimes at elevated, but sub-boiling, temperatures. At sub-boiling temperatures, maximum exsolved gas saturations of Sg = 0.12 were attained, and could be sustained when the carbon dioxide solution was injected during <span class="hlt">heating</span> rather than emplaced prior to <span class="hlt">heating</span>. This gas saturation was estimated to decrease groundwater relative permeability to krw = 0.64. Discontinuous gas transport was observed above saturations of Sg = 0.07, demonstrating the potential of exsolved CO2 to bridge vertical gas transport through colder zones.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17390399','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17390399"><span>Reducing the formation of glucose degradation <span class="hlt">products</span> in peritoneal dialysis solutions by ultrahigh temperature ohmic <span class="hlt">heating</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shapira, Alina; Shazman, Asher; Ungar, Yael; Shimoni, Eyal</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is commonly performed by using preprepared dialysis solutions containing glucose, which are thermally treated to achieve commercial sterilization. A series of glucose degradation <span class="hlt">products</span> (GDPs) are being formed, which react with the tissue during the dialysis procedure, thus baring a negative effect on the patient and the dialysis process. The present study tested the efficacy of ohmic <span class="hlt">heating</span> as an alternative thermal treatment for continuous sterilization of PD solutions. The process was compared to conventional retort treatment, and GDPs accumulation was measured. Thermal treatments using the ohmic <span class="hlt">heating</span> system were performed at three temperatures (105, 125, and 150 degrees C) with residence time at each temperature ranging from 0.84 to 12.0 s. The resulting concentrations of glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO), and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) in the PD solutions were measured. None of these GDPs were found in PD fluids treated by ohmic <span class="hlt">heating</span> at 105 degrees C. The concentration of 3-DG, after a standard sterilization treatment (121 degrees C, 20 or 40 min) was one order of magnitude higher (approximately 140 and 242 microM) than after ohmic <span class="hlt">heating</span> treatment at 125 degrees C. The results of the present study suggest that this technique can be used to produce solutions with much lower content of GDPs. It also demonstrates the advantage of using the ohmic <span class="hlt">heating</span> technology as a tool for high temperature short time treatment of PD fluids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23474835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23474835"><span>Investigation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> induced reactions between lipid oxidation <span class="hlt">products</span> and amino acids in lipid rich model systems and hazelnuts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karademir, Yeşim; Göncüoğlu, Neslihan; Gökmen, Vural</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>This study aimed to investigate the contribution of lipid oxidation to non-enzymatic browning reactions in lipid rich model and actual food systems. Hazelnut oil and model reaction mixtures consisting of different amino acids were <span class="hlt">heated</span> under certain conditions to determine possible lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reaction <span class="hlt">products</span>. In model systems, the Schiff <span class="hlt">base</span> of 2,4-decadienal, its decarboxylated form, and reaction <span class="hlt">products</span> formed after hydrolytic cleavage of the Schiff <span class="hlt">base</span> or decarboxylated form were identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. No furosine was detected in hazelnuts after roasting at 160 °C while the concentration of free amino acids significantly decreased. 2,4-Decadienal reacted effectively with all amino acids studied through a Maillard type carbonyl-amine condensation pathway. (2E,4E)-Deca-2,4-dien-1-amine was identified as a typical reaction <span class="hlt">product</span> in model systems and roasted hazelnuts. In lipid-rich foods like hazelnuts, lipid-derived carbonyls might be responsible for potential modifications of free and protein bound amino acids during <span class="hlt">heating</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1223713','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1223713"><span>Hyperthyroidism increases the uncoupled ATPase activity and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Arruda, Ana Paula; Da-Silva, Wagner S; Carvalho, Denise P; De Meis, Leopoldo</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase is able to modulate the distribution of energy released during ATP hydrolysis, so that a portion of energy is used for Ca2+ transport (coupled ATPase activity) and a portion is converted into <span class="hlt">heat</span> (uncoupled ATPase activity). In this report it is shown that T4 administration to rabbits promotes an increase in the rates of both the uncoupled ATPase activity and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, and that the degree of activation varies depending on the muscle type used. In white muscles hyperthyroidism promotes a 0.8-fold increase of the uncoupled ATPase activity and in red muscle a 4-fold increase. The yield of vesicles from hyperthyroid muscles is 3-4-fold larger than that obtained from normal muscles; thus the rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by the Ca2+-ATPase expressed in terms of g of muscle in hyperthyroidism is increased by a factor of 3.6 in white muscles and 12.0 in red muscles. The data presented suggest that the Ca2+-ATPase uncoupled activity may represent one of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources that contributes to the enhanced thermogenesis noted in hyperthyroidism. PMID:12887329</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28706531','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28706531"><span>Crop <span class="hlt">Production</span> under Drought and <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Stress: Plant Responses and Management Options.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fahad, Shah; Bajwa, Ali A; Nazir, Usman; Anjum, Shakeel A; Farooq, Ayesha; Zohaib, Ali; Sadia, Sehrish; Nasim, Wajid; Adkins, Steve; Saud, Shah; Ihsan, Muhammad Z; Alharby, Hesham; Wu, Chao; Wang, Depeng; Huang, Jianliang</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Abiotic stresses are one of the major constraints to crop <span class="hlt">production</span> and food security worldwide. The situation has aggravated due to the drastic and rapid changes in global climate. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> and drought are undoubtedly the two most important stresses having huge impact on growth and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of the crops. It is very important to understand the physiological, biochemical, and ecological interventions related to these stresses for better management. A wide range of plant responses to these stresses could be generalized into morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses. Interestingly, this review provides a detailed account of plant responses to <span class="hlt">heat</span> and drought stresses with special focus on highlighting the commonalities and differences. Crop growth and yields are negatively affected by sub-optimal water supply and abnormal temperatures due to physical damages, physiological disruptions, and biochemical changes. Both these stresses have multi-lateral impacts and therefore, complex in mechanistic action. A better understanding of plant responses to these stresses has pragmatic implication for remedies and management. A comprehensive account of conventional as well as modern approaches to deal with <span class="hlt">heat</span> and drought stresses have also been presented here. A side-by-side critical discussion on salient responses and management strategies for these two important abiotic stresses provides a unique insight into the phenomena. A holistic approach taking into account the different management options to deal with <span class="hlt">heat</span> and drought stress simultaneously could be a win-win approach in future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5489704','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5489704"><span>Crop <span class="hlt">Production</span> under Drought and <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Stress: Plant Responses and Management Options</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fahad, Shah; Bajwa, Ali A.; Nazir, Usman; Anjum, Shakeel A.; Farooq, Ayesha; Zohaib, Ali; Sadia, Sehrish; Nasim, Wajid; Adkins, Steve; Saud, Shah; Ihsan, Muhammad Z.; Alharby, Hesham; Wu, Chao; Wang, Depeng; Huang, Jianliang</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Abiotic stresses are one of the major constraints to crop <span class="hlt">production</span> and food security worldwide. The situation has aggravated due to the drastic and rapid changes in global climate. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> and drought are undoubtedly the two most important stresses having huge impact on growth and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of the crops. It is very important to understand the physiological, biochemical, and ecological interventions related to these stresses for better management. A wide range of plant responses to these stresses could be generalized into morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses. Interestingly, this review provides a detailed account of plant responses to <span class="hlt">heat</span> and drought stresses with special focus on highlighting the commonalities and differences. Crop growth and yields are negatively affected by sub-optimal water supply and abnormal temperatures due to physical damages, physiological disruptions, and biochemical changes. Both these stresses have multi-lateral impacts and therefore, complex in mechanistic action. A better understanding of plant responses to these stresses has pragmatic implication for remedies and management. A comprehensive account of conventional as well as modern approaches to deal with <span class="hlt">heat</span> and drought stresses have also been presented here. A side-by-side critical discussion on salient responses and management strategies for these two important abiotic stresses provides a unique insight into the phenomena. A holistic approach taking into account the different management options to deal with <span class="hlt">heat</span> and drought stress simultaneously could be a win-win approach in future. PMID:28706531</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6334779','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6334779"><span>Comparison of conventional and solar-water-<span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">products</span> and industries report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Noreen, D; LeChevalier, R; Choi, M; Morehouse, J</p> <p>1980-07-11</p> <p>President Carter established a goal that would require installation of at least one million solar water heaters by 1985 and 20 million water-<span class="hlt">heating</span> systems by the year 2000. The goals established require that the solar industry be sufficiently mature to provide cost-effective, reliable designs in the immediate future. The objective of this study was to provide the Department of Energy with quantified data that can be used to assess and redirect, if necessary, the program plans to assure compliance with the President's goals. Results deal with the <span class="hlt">product</span>, the industry, the market, and the consumer. All issues are examined in the framework of the conventional-hot-water industry. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on the results of this solar hot water assessment study, there is documented proof that the solar industry is blessed with over 20 good solar hot water systems. A total of eight generic types are currently being produced, but a majority of the systems being sold are included in only five generic types. The good systems are well-packaged for quality, performance and installation ease. These leading systems are sized and designed to fit the requirements of the consumer in every respect. This delivery end also suffers from a lack of understanding of the best methods for selling the <span class="hlt">product</span>. At the supplier end, there are problems also, including: some design deficiencies, improper materials selection and, occasionally, the improper selection of components and subsystems. These, in total, are not serious problems in the better systems and will be resolved as this industry matures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26566956','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26566956"><span>Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-not-burn tobacco <span class="hlt">products</span> in Japan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Hoshino, Takahiro; Bekki, Kanae; Inaba, Yohei; Kunugita, Naoki</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In addition to some electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), new <span class="hlt">heat</span>-not-burn tobacco <span class="hlt">products</span> Ploom and iQOS have recently begun to be sold by tobacco companies. These <span class="hlt">products</span> are regulated differently in Japan, depending on whether the contents are liquid or tobacco leaf. Our objective was to estimate percentages of awareness and use of e-cigarettes and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-not-burn tobacco <span class="hlt">products</span> among the Japanese population, including minors. An internet survey (randomly sampled research agency panellists) with a propensity score adjustment for "being a respondent in an internet survey" using a nationally representative sample in Japan. A total of 8240 respondents aged 15-69 years in 2015 (4084 men and 4156 women). Adjusted percentages of awareness and use of e-cigarettes (nicotine or non-nicotine e-cigarettes) and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-not-burn <span class="hlt">products</span> among total participants; <span class="hlt">product</span> types and percentages ever used among e-cigarettes ever users. Of respondents in Japan, 48% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 47-49] were aware of e-cigarettes and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-not-burn tobacco <span class="hlt">products</span>, 6.6% (95% CI = 6.1-7.1) had ever used, 1.3% (95% CI = 1.0-1.5) had used in the last 30 days and 1.3% (95% CI = 1.1-1.6) had experience of > 50 sessions. Seventy-two per cent (95% CI = 69-76) of ever users used non-nicotine e-cigarettes, while 33% (95% CI = 30-37) of them used nicotine e-cigarettes, which has the majority share world-wide; 7.8% (95% CI = 5.5-10.0) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.1-10.7) of them used the new devices, Ploom and iQOS, respectively, with a relatively higher percentage among the younger population. Approximately half the respondents in a Japanese internet survey were aware of e-cigarettes and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-not-burn tobacco <span class="hlt">products</span>, 6.6% had ever used. More than 70% of ever users used non-nicotine e-cigarettes, the sale of which is not legally prohibited, even to minors, in Japan, and 33% of them used nicotine e-cigarettes; 3.5% of never smoking men and 1.3% of never smoking women had ever</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16120480','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16120480"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in Eastern Desert, Egypt.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abbady, Adel G E; El-Arabi, A M; Abbady, A</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Radioactive <span class="hlt">heat-production</span> data of Igneous and Metamorphic outcrops in the Eastern Desert are presented. Samples were analysed using a low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The <span class="hlt">heat-production</span> rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 microWm(-3) (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite ) to 0.91 microWm(-3) (metagabbro). The contribution due to U is about 51%, as that from Th is 31% and 18% from K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%, 19% and 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values except in some areas containing granites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9565242','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9565242"><span>The reduction of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in exercising pigeons after L-carnitine supplementation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Janssens, G P; Buyse, J; Seynaeve, M; Decuypere, E; De Wilde, R</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>Four groups (CS,CR,PS,PR) of nine trained male racing pigeons were deprived of feed for 1 d and then subjected to a respiration chamber test in order to study the effect of oral 1-carnitine supplementation on the energy metabolism during flight. One week before, groups CS and CR were orally supplemented with 90 mg of 1-carnitine daily, whereas PS and PR were given a placebo. Groups CS and PS underwent flight simulation by electrostimulation of the breast muscles. Flight simulation increased <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, kept respiratory quotient from decreasing, decreased thyroxine levels, and increased weight loss. L-Carnitine decreased the rise in <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during electrostimulation but did not influence respiratory quotient, weight loss, or thyroid hormones. L-Carnitine supplementation in pigeons improves fatty acid combustion efficiency during heavy exercise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/816214','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/816214"><span>Synchrotron-<span class="hlt">based</span> FTIR spectromicroscopy: Cytotoxicity and <span class="hlt">heating</span> considerations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.</p> <p>2002-12-13</p> <p>Synchrotron radiation-<span class="hlt">based</span> Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging bioanalytical and imaging tool. This unique technique provides mid-infrared (IR) spectra, hence chemical information, with high signal-to-noise at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 to 10 microns. Thus it enables researchers to locate, identify, and track specific chemical events within an individual living mammalian cell. Mid-IR photons are too low in energy (0.05 - 0.5 eV) to either break bonds or to cause ionization. In this review, we show that the synchrotron IR beam has no detectable effects on the short- and long-term viability, reproductive integrity, cell-cycle progression, and mitochondrial metabolism in living human cells, and produces only minimal sample <span class="hlt">heating</span> (< 0.5 degrees C). These studies have established an important foundation for SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy in biological and biomedical research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950010003','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950010003"><span>Thermal control systems for low-temperature <span class="hlt">heat</span> rejection on a lunar <span class="hlt">base</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, Matthias; Nanjundan, Ashok</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>One of the important issues in the design of a lunar <span class="hlt">base</span> is the thermal control system (TCS) used to reject low-temperature <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the <span class="hlt">base</span>. The TCS ensures that the <span class="hlt">base</span> and the components inside are maintained within an acceptable temperature range. The temperature of the lunar surface peaks at 400 K during the 336-hour lunar day. Under these circumstances, direct dissipation of waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the lunar <span class="hlt">base</span> using passive radiators would be impractical. Thermal control systems <span class="hlt">based</span> on thermal storage, shaded radiators, and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps have been proposed. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on proven technology, innovation, realistic complexity, reliability, and near-term applicability, a <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump-<span class="hlt">based</span> TCS was selected as a candidate for early missions. In this report, Rankine-cycle <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps and absorption <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps (ammonia water and lithium bromide-water) have been analyzed and optimized for a lunar <span class="hlt">base</span> cooling load of 100 kW.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035239','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035239"><span>SPECTRAL data-<span class="hlt">based</span> estimation of soil <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Singh, R.K.; Irmak, A.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth; Verma, S.B.; Suyker, A.E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Numerous existing spectral-<span class="hlt">based</span> soil <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux (G) models have shown wide variation in performance for maize and soybean cropping systems in Nebraska, indicating the need for localized calibration and model development. The objectives of this article are to develop a semi-empirical model to estimate G from a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and net radiation (Rn) for maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) fields in the Great Plains, and present the suitability of the developed model to estimate G under similar and different soil and management conditions. Soil <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes measured in both irrigated and rainfed fields in eastern and south-central Nebraska were used for model development and validation. An exponential model that uses NDVI and Rn was found to be the best to estimate G <span class="hlt">based</span> on r2 values. The effect of geographic location, crop, and water management practices were used to develop semi-empirical models under four case studies. Each case study has the same exponential model structure but a different set of coefficients and exponents to represent the crop, soil, and management practices. Results showed that the semi-empirical models can be used effectively for G estimation for nearby fields with similar soil properties for independent years, regardless of differences in crop type, crop rotation, and irrigation practices, provided that the crop residue from the previous year is more than 4000 kg ha-1. The coefficients calibrated from particular fields can be used at nearby fields in order to capture temporal variation in G. However, there is a need for further investigation of the models to account for the interaction effects of crop rotation and irrigation. Validation at an independent site having different soil and crop management practices showed the limitation of the semi-empirical model in estimating G under different soil and environment conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8181975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8181975"><span>Circadian fluctuation in <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of young calves at different ambient temperatures in relation to posture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schrama, J W; Noordhuizen, J P; Arieli, A; Brandsma, H A; van der Linden, J M; Verstegen, M W</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>Circadian fluctuations in the effect of ambient temperature (Ta) on <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (Htot) and its relation to posture were investigated in young calves in this study. Twenty-three 6-d-old Holstein-Friesian male calves were assigned to one of four Ta treatments: 5, 9, 13, or 18 degrees C. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was measured per calf continuously every 9 min by indirect calorimetry for 5 d. The posture during these 9-min periods was derived from physical activity measurements by Doppler-radar meters. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> varied within a day; it was highest when calves were drinking (milk or water). The influence of Ta on Htot was larger for the light (including feeding periods) than for the dark phase of the day, being related to the larger Ta effect during the feeding periods. Lower critical temperatures (LCT) were 14.1, 15.2, and 16.8 degrees C and extra thermal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">productions</span> below LCT (ETH) were 8.48, 8.28, and 11.55 kJ.kg-.75.d-1.C degrees-1 for the dark, the light (excluding feeding periods), and the feeding phase during the day, respectively. Time spent standing was not affected by Ta but varied during the day (24-h period). Averaged over Ta, 51% of the within day variation in Htot was accounted for by the calf's posture. Correction of Htot for the time spent standing reduced the difference in both ETH and LCT between phases of the day. The present study demonstrates that circadian fluctuations exist in the thermal requirements of young calves. Part of these fluctuations are related to within-day variation in time spent standing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982AIPC...84...32G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982AIPC...84...32G"><span>Computer modeling of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treating austenitic and nickel <span class="hlt">based</span> alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glickstein, S. S.; Friedman, E.; Berman, R. M.</p> <p>1982-05-01</p> <p>The adequacy of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> treating process depends upon the thermal cycle experienced by the material during <span class="hlt">heat</span> treating in the furnace and quenching. While thermocouples placed at the surface of the material during <span class="hlt">heat</span> treating can assure the adequacy of the process for the material at the surface, assurance that inner regions of the material are experiencing the proper temperature transient is not guaranteed. To assess present process standards for <span class="hlt">heat</span> treating 17-4 PH stainless steel and air quenching Inoconel X after solution treatment, computer models of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer within the material were developed. Sensitivity studies were conducted to determine the effects of material bar diameter, peak temperature, material properties, <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients, and neighboring bar stock. The computer modeling provided an easy and inexpensive technique for determining the adequacy of present <span class="hlt">heat</span> treating process standards and for ensuring that future standards will provide the desired requirements. Details of these sensitivity studies are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22106036','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22106036"><span>Fuel and cladding nano-technologies <span class="hlt">based</span> solutions for long life <span class="hlt">heat</span>-pipe <span class="hlt">based</span> reactors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Popa-Simil, L.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>A novel nuclear reactor concept, unifying the fuel pipe with fuel tube functionality has been developed. The structure is a quasi-spherical modular reactor, designed for a very long life. The reactor module unifies the fuel tube with the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe and a graphite beryllium reflector. It also uses a micro-hetero-structure that allows the fission <span class="hlt">products</span> to be removed in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe flow and deposited in a getter area in the cold zone of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe, but outside the neutron flux. The reactor operates as a breed and burn reactor - it contains the fuel pipe with a variable enrichment, starting from the hot-end of the pipe, meant to assure the initial criticality, and reactor start-up followed by area with depleted uranium or thorium that get enriched during the consumption of the first part of the enriched uranium. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1544068','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1544068"><span>Extreme <span class="hlt">heat</span> reduces and shifts United States premium wine <span class="hlt">production</span> in the 21st century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>White, M. A.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Jones, G. V.; Pal, J. S.; Giorgi, F.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Premium wine <span class="hlt">production</span> is limited to regions climatically conducive to growing grapes with balanced composition and varietal typicity. Three central climatic conditions are required: (i) adequate <span class="hlt">heat</span> accumulation; (ii) low risk of severe frost damage; and (iii) the absence of extreme <span class="hlt">heat</span>. Although wine <span class="hlt">production</span> is possible in an extensive climatic range, the highest-quality wines require a delicate balance among these three conditions. Although historical and projected average temperature changes are known to influence global wine quality, the potential future response of wine-producing regions to spatially heterogeneous changes in extreme events is largely unknown. Here, by using a high-resolution regional climate model forced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios A2 greenhouse gas emission scenario, we estimate that potential premium winegrape <span class="hlt">production</span> area in the conterminous United States could decline by up to 81% by the late 21st century. While increases in <span class="hlt">heat</span> accumulation will shift wine <span class="hlt">production</span> to warmer climate varieties and/or lower-quality wines, and frost constraints will be reduced, increases in the frequency of extreme hot days (>35°C) in the growing season are projected to eliminate winegrape <span class="hlt">production</span> in many areas of the United States. Furthermore, grape and wine <span class="hlt">production</span> will likely be restricted to a narrow West Coast region and the Northwest and Northeast, areas currently facing challenges related to excess moisture. Our results not only imply large changes for the premium wine industry, but also highlight the importance of incorporating fine-scale processes and extreme events in climate-change impact studies. PMID:16840557</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985IJBm...29...37W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985IJBm...29...37W"><span>Supramaximal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> induced by aminophylline in temperature-acclimated rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, L. C. H.</p> <p>1985-03-01</p> <p>Previous studies have shown that aminophylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (thereby increasing intracellular cyclic AMP concentration) elicits supramaximal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and improves cold tolerance in rats acclimated to 22°C. To test whether aminophylline-stimulated supramaximal thermogenesis is independent of both the thermogenic capacity (i.e. aerobic fitness) and the mode of thermogenesis (shivering vs. non-shivering), rats (adult male Sprague-Dawley, approximately 400 g) of two different ages (4 11 month and 9 17 month, n=12 for each) were acclimated to 5, 15, and 25°C in succession and their thermogenic responses to aminophylline subsequently assessed. Aminophylline elicited supramaximal thermogenesis and improved cold tolerance regardless of age or acclimating temperatures. Further, the absolute net increase in <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> stimulated by aminophylline was also similar for all acclimating temperatures. After acclimating to 15°C, a single injection of aminophylline in the older rats elicited thermogenesis greater than that of the controls acclimated to 5°C; in the younger rats, aminophylline duplicated 46% of the increase in thermogenesis observed after acclimating to 5°C. These results indicated that the aminophylline-stimulated extra <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> is independent of both the thermogenic capacity and the mode of thermogenesis. It is possible that an enhanced substrate mobilization consequent to increased intracellular cyclic AMP concentration by aminophylline underlies the common mechanism via which supramaximal thermogenesis is elicited in temperature-acclimated rats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085115','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085115"><span>Isolation and identification of oxidation <span class="hlt">products</span> of syringol from brines and <span class="hlt">heated</span> meat matrix.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bölicke, Sarah-Maria; Ternes, Waldemar</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>In this study we developed new extraction and detection methods (using HPLC-UV and LC-MS), making it possible to analyze the smoke phenol syringol and its oxidation <span class="hlt">products</span> nitrososyringol, nitrosyringol, and the syringol dimer 3,3',5,5'-tetramethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diol, which were identified in <span class="hlt">heated</span> meat for the first time. Preliminary brine experiments performed with different concentrations of ascorbic acid showed that high amounts of this antioxidant also resulted in almost complete degradation of syringol and to formation of the oxidation <span class="hlt">products</span> when the brines were <span class="hlt">heated</span> at low pH values. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> treatment (80°C) and subsequent simulated digestion applied to meat samples containing syringol, ascorbic acid and different concentrations of sodium nitrite produced 3,3',5,5'-tetramethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diol even at a low nitrite level in the meat matrix, while nitroso- and nitrosyringol were isolated only after the digestion experiments. Increasing amounts of oxygen in the meat matrix decreased the syringol concentration and enhanced the formation of the reaction <span class="hlt">products</span> in comparison to the samples without added oxygen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23848664','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23848664"><span>Dissipation and entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> in deterministic <span class="hlt">heat</span> conduction of quasi-one-dimensional systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morriss, Gary P; Truant, Daniel P</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>We explore the consequences of a deterministic microscopic thermostat-reservoir contact mechanism. With different temperature reservoirs at each end of a two-dimensional system, a <span class="hlt">heat</span> current is produced and the system has an anomalous thermal conductivity. The microscopic form for the local <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux vector is derived and both the kinetic and potential contributions are calculated. The total <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux vector is shown to satisfy the continuity equation. The properties of this nonequilibrium steady state are studied as functions of system size and temperature gradient, identifying key scaling relations for the local fluid properties and separating bulk and boundary effects. The local entropy density calculated from the local equilibrium distribution is shown to be a very good approximation to the entropy density calculated directly from the velocity distribution even for systems that are far from equilibrium. The dissipation and kinetic entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> and flux are compared quantitatively and the differing mechanisms discussed within the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook approximation. For equal-temperature reservoirs the entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> near the reservoir walls is shown to be proportional to the local phase space contraction calculated from the tangent space dynamics. However, for unequal temperatures, the connection between local entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> and local phase space contraction is more complicated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12831998','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12831998"><span>Influence of the hypothalamus on the midbrain tonic inhibitory mechanism on metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uno, Tadashi; Roth, Joachim; Shibata, Masaaki</p> <p>2003-07-15</p> <p>Influence of the hypothalamus on increased body temperature was examined in male rats. Body temperature was increased by removing the midbrain tonic inhibitory mechanism (TIM) on <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> from brown adipose tissue (BAT) by microinjections of a local anesthetic, procaine, into the midbrain. Procaine microinjections in unanesthetized rats increased rectal temperature that was followed by a strong tail skin temperature rise. Procaine microinjections in unanesthetized and decerebrated rats also increased rectal temperature but without skin temperature rise. These decerebrated animals fatally developed hyperthermia. In anesthetized rats, procaine microinjections increased temperature of the interscapular BAT (IBAT) higher with shorter onset for temperature rise than rectal temperature. Increased IBAT temperature by procaine microinjections in anesthetized rats was attenuated during hypothalamic warming, and enhanced during hypothalamic cooling when compared with that observed during thermoneutral hypothalamic temperature. These results suggest that the midbrain TIM is able to function in unanesthetized conscious rats, and that the integrity of the midbrain mechanism to tonically inhibit metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> does not require the presence of intact hypothalamus. These results also suggest that the hypothalamus modulates directly or indirectly IBAT <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> that was induced by removal of the midbrain TIM.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18656347','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18656347"><span><span class="hlt">Production</span> of pyrolytic liquids from industrial sewage sludges in an induction-<span class="hlt">heating</span> reactor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsai, Wen-Tien; Chang, Jeng-Hung; Hsien, Kuo-Jung; Chang, Yuan-Ming</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>With the application of induction-<span class="hlt">heating</span>, the pyrolytic experiments have been carried out for three sewage sludges from the food processing factories in an externally <span class="hlt">heated</span> fixed-bed reactor. The thermochemical characteristics of sludge samples were first analyzed. The results indicated that the calorific value had about 15 MJ/kg on an average, suggesting that it had a potential for biomass energy source. However, its nitrogen concentration was relatively high. From the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves, it showed that the pyrolysis reaction can be almost finished in the temperature range of 450-750 degrees C. The yields of resulting liquid and char <span class="hlt">products</span> from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge were discussed for examining the effects of pyrolysis temperature (500-800 degrees C), <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate (200-500 degrees C/min), and holding time (1-8 min). Overall, the variation of yield was not so significant in the experimental conditions for three sewage sludges. All results of the resulting liquid <span class="hlt">products</span> analyzed by elemental analyzer, pH meter, Karl-Fischer moisture titrator and bomb calorimeter were in consistence with those analyses by FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the pyrolysis liquid <span class="hlt">products</span> contained large amounts of water (>73% by weight) mostly derived from the bound water in the biosludge feedstocks and the condensation reactions during the pyrolysis reaction, and fewer contents of oxygenated hydrocarbons composing of carbonyl and nitrogen-containing groups, resulting in low pH and low calorific values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107i3903S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107i3903S"><span>System optimization of a <span class="hlt">heat-switch-based</span> electrocaloric <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smullin, Sylvia J.; Wang, Yunda; Schwartz, David E.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Realization of the potential of electrocaloric <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps includes consideration of not only material properties but also device characteristics and cycle operation. We present detailed models and analysis that elucidate the key parameters for performance optimization. We show that the temperature lift, cooling power, and efficiency of a system driven by <span class="hlt">heat</span> switches depend on system operating conditions and the combined thermal properties of both the <span class="hlt">heat</span> switches and the electrocaloric capacitor. We show experimental results that validate the models and draw conclusions about building high-performance systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26456509','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26456509"><span>Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species <span class="hlt">production</span> by fish muscle mitochondria: Potential role in acute <span class="hlt">heat</span>-induced oxidative stress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Banh, Sheena; Wiens, Lilian; Sotiri, Emianka; Treberg, Jason R</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Acute <span class="hlt">heat</span> challenge is known to induce cell-level oxidative stress in fishes. Mitochondria are well known for the capacity to make reactive oxygen species (ROS) and as such are often implicated as a source of the oxidants associated with this thermally-induced oxidative stress. This implication is often asserted, despite little direct data for mitochondrial ROS metabolism in fishes. Here we characterize mitochondrial ROS metabolism in three Actinopterygian fish species at two levels, the capacity for superoxide/H2O2 <span class="hlt">production</span> and the antioxidant thiol-reductase enzyme activities. We find that red muscle mitochondria from all three species have measurable ROS <span class="hlt">production</span> and respond to different assay conditions consistent with what might be anticipated; assuming similar relative contributions from difference ROS producing sites as found in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria. Although there are species and assay specific exceptions, fish mitochondria may have a greater capacity to produce ROS than that found in the rat when either normalized to respiratory capacity or determined at a common assay temperature. The interspecific differences in ROS <span class="hlt">production</span> are not correlated with thiol-<span class="hlt">based</span> antioxidant reductase activities. Moreover, mimicking an acute in vivo <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress by comparing the impact of increasing assay temperature on these processes in vitro, we find evidence supporting a preferential activation of mitochondrial H2O2 <span class="hlt">production</span> relative to the increase in the capacity of reductase enzymes to supply electrons to the mitochondrial matrix peroxidases. This supports the contention that mitochondria may be, at least in part, responsible for the ROS that lead to oxidative stress in fish tissues exposed to acute <span class="hlt">heat</span> challenge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1850j0005F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1850j0005F"><span>Perspectives of advanced thermal management in solar thermochemical syngas <span class="hlt">production</span> using a counter-flow solid-solid <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Falter, Christoph; Sizmann, Andreas; Pitz-Paal, Robert</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>A modular reactor model is presented for the description of solar thermochemical syngas <span class="hlt">production</span> involving counter-flow <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers that recuperate <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the solid phase. The development of the model is described including <span class="hlt">heat</span> diffusion within the reactive material as it travels through the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger, which was previously identified to be a possibly limiting factor in <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger design. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer within the reactive medium is described by conduction and radiation, where the former is modeled with the three-resistor model and the latter with the Rosseland diffusion approximation. The applicability of the model is shown by the analysis of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger efficiency for different material thicknesses and porosities in a system with 8 chambers and oxidation and reduction temperatures of 1000 K and 1800 K, respectively. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> exchanger efficiency is found to rise strongly for a reduction of material thickness, as the element mass is reduced and a larger part of the elements takes part in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange process. An increase of porosity enhances radiation <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange but deteriorates conduction. The overall <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange in the material is improved for high temperatures in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger, as radiation dominates the energy transfer. The model is shown to be a valuable tool for the development and analysis of solar thermochemical reactor concepts involving <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange from the solid phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760008486','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760008486"><span>Studies of the use of high-temperature nuclear <span class="hlt">heat</span> from an HTGR for hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Peterman, D. D.; Fontaine, R. W.; Quade, R. N.; Halvers, L. J.; Jahromi, A. M.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The results of a study which surveyed various methods of hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> using nuclear and fossil energy are presented. A description of these methods is provided, and efficiencies are calculated for each case. The process designs of systems that utilize the <span class="hlt">heat</span> from a general atomic high temperature gas cooled reactor with a steam methane reformer and feed the reformer with substitute natural gas manufactured from coal, using reforming temperatures, are presented. The capital costs for these systems and the resultant hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> price for these cases are discussed along with a research and development program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22466970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22466970"><span>Role of chloride ion in hydroxyl radical <span class="hlt">production</span> in photosystem II under <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress: electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yadav, Deepak Kumar; Pospíšil, Pavel</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Hydroxyl radical (HO•) <span class="hlt">production</span> in photosystem II (PSII) was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping technique. It is demonstrated here that the exposure of PSII membranes to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress (40 °C) results in HO• formation, as monitored by the formation of EMPO-OH adduct EPR signal. The presence of different exogenous halides significantly suppressed the EMPO-OH adduct EPR signal in PSII membranes under <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. The addition of exogenous acetate and blocker of chloride channel suppressed the EMPO-OH adduct EPR signal, whereas the blocker of calcium channel did not affect the EMPO-OH adduct EPR signal. <span class="hlt">Heat</span>-induced hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) <span class="hlt">production</span> was studied by amplex red fluorescent assay. The presence of exogenous halides, acetate and chloride blocker showed the suppression of H₂O₂ <span class="hlt">production</span> in PSII membranes under <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on our results, it is proposed that the formation of HO• under <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress is linked to uncontrolled accessibility of water to the water-splitting manganese complex caused by the release of chloride ion on the electron donor side of PSII. Uncontrolled water accessibility to the water-splitting manganese complex causes the formation of H₂O₂ due to improper water oxidation, which leads to the formation of HO• via the Fenton reaction under <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7658187','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7658187"><span>Effects of solar radiation and wind speed on metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by two mammals with contrasting coat colours.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walsberg, G E; Wolf, B O</p> <p>1995-07-01</p> <p>We report the first empirical data describing the interactive effects of simultaneous changes in irradiance and convection on energy expenditure by live mammals. Whole-animal rates of solar <span class="hlt">heat</span> gain and convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss were measured for representatives of two ground squirrel species, Spermophilus lateralis and Spermophilus saturatus, that contrast in coloration. Radiative <span class="hlt">heat</span> gain was quantified as the decrease in metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> caused by the animal's exposure to simulated solar radiation. Changes in convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss were quantified as the variation in metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> caused by changes in wind speed. For both species, exposure to 780 W m-2 of simulated solar radiation significantly reduced metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> at all wind speeds measured. Reductions were greatest at lower wind speeds, reaching 42% in S. lateralis and 29% in S. saturatus. Solar <span class="hlt">heat</span> gain, expressed per unit body surface area, did not differ significantly between the two species. This <span class="hlt">heat</span> gain equalled 14-21% of the radiant energy intercepted by S. lateralis and 18-22% of that intercepted by S. saturatus. Body resistance, an index of animal insulation, declined by only 10% in S. saturatus and 13% in S. lateralis as wind speed increased from 0.5 to 4.0 ms-1. These data demonstrate that solar <span class="hlt">heat</span> gain can be essentially constant, despite marked differences in animal coloration, and that variable exposure to wind and sunlight can have important consequences for both thermoregulatory stress experienced by animals and their patterns of energy allocation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000HMT....36..217T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000HMT....36..217T"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span>-and-mass transfer analysis from vegetable and fruit <span class="hlt">products</span> stored in cold conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tashtoush, B.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> and mass transfer process taking place during fruit and vegetable <span class="hlt">products</span> in cold storage are studied. A mathematical model describing these processes is presented and the resulting governing equations are solved for different storing conditions. The relative humidity of the ventilating air and the temperature of the stored <span class="hlt">product</span> bulk are found for different initial air relative humidity and airflow rates. As the <span class="hlt">product</span> bulk depth increased up to 4.2m, the relative humidity of the ventilating air approaches the steady state value. When the relative humidity is larger than the equilibrium relative humidity value, an increase in the ventilating air rate reduces the losses of the <span class="hlt">product</span> during the period of its storage, while larger losses occur when the relative humidity values are lower than the equilibrium ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11297291','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11297291"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer properties, moisture loss, <span class="hlt">product</span> yield, and soluble proteins in chicken breast patties during air convection cooking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murphy, R Y; Johnson, E R; Duncan, L K; Clausen, E C; Davis, M D; March, J A</p> <p>2001-04-01</p> <p>Chicken breast patties were processed in an air convection oven at air temperatures of 149 to 218 C, air velocities of 7.1 to 12.7 m3/min, and air relative humidities of 40 to 95%. The air humidity was controlled via introducing steam into the oven. The patties were processed to a final center temperature of 50 to 80 C. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> flux, <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient, moisture loss in the cooked chicken patties, the <span class="hlt">product</span> yield, and the changes of soluble proteins in the <span class="hlt">product</span> were evaluated for the cooking system. During cooking, <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux varied with the processing time. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> flux increased with increasing air humidity. The effective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient was obtained for different cooking conditions. Air humidity in the oven affected the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient. The moisture loss in the cooked <span class="hlt">products</span> increased with increasing the final <span class="hlt">product</span> temperature and the oven air temperature. The soluble proteins in the cooked patties decreased with increasing the final <span class="hlt">product</span> temperature. Increasing humidity increased <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient and therefore reduced cooking time. Reducing oven temperature, reducing internal temperature, and increasing air humidity increased the <span class="hlt">product</span> yield. Soluble proteins might be used as an indicator for the degree of cooking. The results from this study are important for evaluating commercial thermal processes and improving <span class="hlt">product</span> yields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23685851','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23685851"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> exposure, cardiovascular stress and work <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in rice harvesters in India: implications for a climate change future.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sahu, Subhashis; Sett, Moumita; Kjellstrom, Tord</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Excessive workplace <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposures create well-known risks of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stroke, and it limits the workers' capacity to sustain physical activity. There is very limited evidence available on how these effects reduce work <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, while the quantitative relationship between <span class="hlt">heat</span> and work <span class="hlt">productivity</span> is an essential basis for climate change impact assessments. We measured hourly <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure in rice fields in West Bengal and recorded perceived health problems via interviews of 124 rice harvesters. In a sub-group (n = 48) heart rate was recorded every minute in a standard work situation. Work <span class="hlt">productivity</span> was recorded as hourly rice bundle collection output. The hourly <span class="hlt">heat</span> levels (WBGT = Wet Bulb Globe Temperature) were 26-32°C (at air temperatures of 30-38°C), exceeding international standards. Most workers reported exhaustion and pain during work on hot days. Heart rate recovered quickly at low <span class="hlt">heat</span>, but more slowly at high <span class="hlt">heat</span>, indicating cardiovascular strain. The hourly number of rice bundles collected was significantly reduced at WBGT>26°C (approximately 5% per°C of increased WBGT). We conclude that high <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure in agriculture caused <span class="hlt">heat</span> strain and reduced work <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. This reduction will be exacerbated by climate change and may undermine the local economy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA588946','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA588946"><span>An Integrated Chemical Reactor-<span class="hlt">Heat</span> Exchanger <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Ammonium Carbamate (POSTPRINT)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>display, or disclose the work. 14. ABSTRACT In this work we present our recent effort in developing a novel <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger <span class="hlt">based</span> on endothermic ...conditions. 15. SUBJECT TERMS aircraft thermal management, ammonium carbamate, chemical reactor <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger, endothermic decomposition 16... endothermic chemical reaction (HEX reactor). The proposed HEX reactor is designed to provide additional <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink capability for aircraft thermal management</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3733161','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3733161"><span>Arabidopsis <span class="hlt">HEAT</span> SHOCK TRANSCRIPTION FACTORA1b overexpression enhances water <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, resistance to drought, and infection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Richard, François; Bowden, Laura; Morison, James I.L.; Mullineaux, Philip M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span>-stressed crops suffer dehydration, depressed growth, and a consequent decline in water <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, which is the yield of harvestable <span class="hlt">product</span> as a function of lifetime water consumption and is a trait associated with plant growth and development. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> shock transcription factor (HSF) genes have been implicated not only in thermotolerance but also in plant growth and development, and therefore could influence water <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. Here it is demonstrated that Arabidopsis thaliana plants with increased HSFA1b expression showed increased water <span class="hlt">productivity</span> and harvest index under water-replete and water-limiting conditions. In non-stressed HSFA1b-overexpressing (HSFA1bOx) plants, 509 genes showed altered expression, and these genes were not over-represented for development-associated genes but were for response to biotic stress. This confirmed an additional role for HSFA1b in maintaining basal disease resistance, which was stress hormone independent but involved H2O2 signalling. Fifty-five of the 509 genes harbour a variant of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock element (HSE) in their promoters, here named HSE1b. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR confirmed binding of HSFA1b to HSE1b in vivo, including in seven transcription factor genes. One of these is MULTIPROTEIN BRIDGING FACTOR1c (MBF1c). Plants overexpressing MBF1c showed enhanced basal resistance but not water <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, thus partially phenocopying HSFA1bOx plants. A comparison of genes responsive to HSFA1b and MBF1c overexpression revealed a common group, none of which harbours a HSE1b motif. From this example, it is suggested that HSFA1b directly regulates 55 HSE1b-containing genes, which control the remaining 454 genes, collectively accounting for the stress defence and developmental phenotypes of HSFA1bOx. PMID:23828547</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046746','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046746"><span>Solar Thermochemical Fuels <span class="hlt">Production</span>: Solar Fuels via Partial Redox Cycles with <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Recovery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-12-19</p> <p><span class="hlt">HEATS</span> Project: The University of Minnesota is developing a solar thermochemical reactor that will efficiently produce fuel from sunlight, using solar energy to produce <span class="hlt">heat</span> to break chemical bonds. The University of Minnesota is envisioning producing the fuel by using partial redox cycles and ceria-<span class="hlt">based</span> reactive materials. The team will achieve unprecedented solar-to-fuel conversion efficiencies of more than 10% (where current state-of-the-art efficiency is 1%) by combined efforts and innovations in material development, and reactor design with effective <span class="hlt">heat</span> recovery mechanisms and demonstration. This new technology will allow for the effective use of vast domestic solar resources to produce precursors to synthetic fuels that could replace gasoline.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/196989','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/196989"><span>Application of amorphous filler metals in <span class="hlt">production</span> of fusion reactor high <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kalin, B.A.; Fedotov, V.T.; Grigoriev, A.E.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>The technology of Al-Si, Zr-Ti-Be and Ti-Zr-Cu-Ni amorphous filler metals for Be and graphite brazing with Cu, Mo and V was developed. The fusion reactor high <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux components from Cu-Be, Cu-graphite, Mo-Be, Mo-graphite, V-Re and V-graphite materials were produced by brazing. Every component represents metallic <span class="hlt">base</span>, to which Be or graphite plates are brazed. The distance between plates was equal 0.2 times the plate height. These components were irradiated by hydrogen plasma with 5 x 10{sup 6} W/m{sup 2} power. The microstructure and the element distribution in the brazed zone were investigated before and after <span class="hlt">heat</span> plasma irradiation. Topography graphite plate surfaces and topography of metal surfaces between plates were also investigated after <span class="hlt">heat</span> plasma irradiation. The results of microstructure investigation and material erosion are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1866e0003K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1866e0003K"><span>Process of optimization of district <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by utilizing waste energy from metallurgical processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Konovšek, Damjan; Fužir, Miran; Slatinek, Matic; Šepul, Tanja; Plesnik, Kristijan; Lečnik, Samo</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>In a consortium with SIJ (Slovenian Steel Group), Metal Ravne, the local community of Ravne na Koro\\vskem and the public research Institut Jožef Stefan, with its registered office in Slovenia, Petrol Energetika, d.o.o. set up a technical and technological platform of an innovative energy case for a transition of steel industry into circular economy with a complete energy solution called »Utilization of Waste <span class="hlt">Heat</span> from Metallurgical Processes for District <span class="hlt">Heating</span> of Ravne na Koro\\vskem. This is the first such project designed for a useful utilization of waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> in steel industry which uses modern technology and innovative system solutions for an integration of a smart, efficient and sustainable <span class="hlt">heating</span> and cooling system and which shows a growth potential. This will allow the industry and cities to make energy savings, to improve the quality of air and to increase the benefits for the society we live in. On the basis of circular economy, we designed a target-oriented co-operation of economy, local community and public research institute to produce new business models where end consumers are put into the centre. This innovation opens the door for steel industry and local community to a joint aim that is a transition into efficient low-carbon energy systems which are <span class="hlt">based</span> on involvement of natural local conditions, renewable energy sources, the use of waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> and with respect for the principles of sustainable development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HMT....50.1707A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HMT....50.1707A"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in the windings of the stators of electric machines under stationary condition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alebouyeh Samami, Behzad; Pieper, Martin; Breitbach, Gerd; Hodapp, Josef</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In electric machines due to high currents and resistive losses (joule <span class="hlt">heating</span>) <span class="hlt">heat</span> is produced. To avoid damages by overheating the design of effective cooling systems is required. Therefore the knowledge of <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer processes is necessary. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a good and effective calculation method for the temperature analysis <span class="hlt">based</span> on homogenization techniques. These methods have been applied for the stator windings in a slot of an electric machine consisting of copper wires and resin. The key quantity here is an effective thermal conductivity, which characterizes the heterogeneous wire resin-arrangement inside the stator slot. To illustrate the applicability of the method, the analysis of a simplified, homogenized model is compared with the detailed analysis of temperature behavior inside a slot of an electric machine according to the <span class="hlt">heat</span> generation. We considered here only the stationary situation. The achieved numerical results are accurate and show that the applied homogenization technique works in practice. Finally the results of simulations for the two cases, the original model of the slot and the homogenized model chosen for the slot (unit cell), are compared to experimental results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23340103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23340103"><span>High <span class="hlt">productivity</span> cultivation of a <span class="hlt">heat</span>-resistant microalga Chlorella sorokiniana for biofuel <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Tingting; Zheng, Yubin; Yu, Liang; Chen, Shulin</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>To augment biomass and lipid <span class="hlt">productivities</span> of heterotrophic cultured microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana, the influence of environmental temperature and medium factors, such as carbon source, nitrogen source, and their initial concentrations was investigated in this study. The microalga C. sorokiniana could tolerate up to 42°C and showed the highest growth rate of 1.60d(-1) at 37°C. The maximum dry cell weight (DCW) and corresponding lipid concentration was obtained with 80gL(-1) of initial glucose and 4gL(-1) of initial KNO3 at 37°C. In 5-L batch fermentation, the DCW increased dramatically from 0.9gL(-1) to 37.6gL(-1) in the first 72h cultivation, with the DCW <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of 12.2gL(-1)d(-1). The maximum lipid content of 31.5% was achieved in 96h and the lipid <span class="hlt">productivity</span> was 2.9gL(-1)d(-1). The results showed C. sorokiniana could be a promising strain for biofuel <span class="hlt">production</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19920310','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19920310"><span>Nosehouse: <span class="hlt">heat</span>-conserving ventilators <span class="hlt">based</span> on nasal counterflow exchangers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vogel, Steven</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Small birds and mammals commonly minimize respiratory <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss with reciprocating counterflow exchangers in their nasal passageways. These animals extract <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the air in an exhalation to warm those passageways and then use that <span class="hlt">heat</span> to warm the subsequent inhalation. Although the near-constant volume of buildings precludes direct application of the device, a pair of such exchangers located remotely from each other circumvents that problem. A very simple and crudely constructed small-scale physical model of the device worked well enough as a <span class="hlt">heat</span> conserver to suggest utility as a ventilator for buildings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030060643','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030060643"><span><span class="hlt">Base</span>-Bleed Effect on X-33 Aerospike Plume Induced <span class="hlt">Base-Heating</span> Environment During Power-Pack Out</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Tee-See; Droege, Alan; D'Agostino, Mark; Lee, Young-Ching; Williams, Robert</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A computational <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer methodology was developed to study the dual-engine linear aerospike plume induced <span class="hlt">base-heating</span> environment during one power-pack out, in ascent flight. One power-pack out results in reduction of power levels for both engines. That, in turn, reduces the amount of <span class="hlt">base</span>-bleed and changes the distribution of <span class="hlt">base</span>-bleed on the two pillows. Hence, the concern of increased <span class="hlt">base-heating</span> during power-pack out. The thermo-flowfield of the entire vehicle was computed. The computational methodology for the convective <span class="hlt">heating</span> is <span class="hlt">based</span> on a three-dimensional, finite-volume, viscous, chemically reacting, and pressure-<span class="hlt">based</span> computational fluid dynamics formulation. The computational methodology for the radiative <span class="hlt">heating</span> is <span class="hlt">based</span> on a three-dimensional, finite-volume, and spectral-line-<span class="hlt">based</span> weighted-sum-of-gray-gases absorption computational radiation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer formulation. A separate radiation model was used for diagnostic purposes. The computational methodology was systematically benchmarked. In this study, near-<span class="hlt">base</span> radiative <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes were computed and they compared well with those measured from an installed linear aerospike engine tests. The <span class="hlt">base-heating</span> environment of 18 trajectory points selected from three power-pack out ascent scenarios was computed and is presented here. The power-pack out condition has the most impact on convective <span class="hlt">base-heating</span> when it happens early in flight. The some of its impact comes from the asymmetric and reduced <span class="hlt">base</span>-bleed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24054220','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24054220"><span>Renoprotective effects of Maillard reaction <span class="hlt">products</span> generated during <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment of ginsenoside Re with leucine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Ji Hoon; Han, Im-Ho; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Young-Joo; Lee, Woojung; Eom, Dae-Woon; Choi, Pilju; Cheon, Gab Jin; Jang, Hyuk-Jai; Kim, Su-Nam; Ham, Jungyeob; Kang, Ki Sung</p> <p>2014-01-15</p> <p>The structural change of ginsenoside and the generation of Maillard reaction <span class="hlt">products</span> (MRPs) are important to the increase in the biological activities of Panax ginseng. This study was carried out to identify the renoprotective active component of P. ginseng using the Maillard reaction model experiment with ginsenoside Re and leucine. Ginsenoside Re was gradually converted into less-polar ginsenosides Rg2, Rg6 and F4 by <span class="hlt">heat</span>-processing, followed by separation of the glucosyl moiety at carbon-20. The free radical-scavenging activity of the ginsenoside Re-leucine mixture was increased by <span class="hlt">heat</span>-processing. The improved free radical-scavenging activity by <span class="hlt">heat</span>-processing was mediated by the generation of MRPs from the reaction of glucose and leucine. The cisplatin-induced LLC-PK1 renal cell damage was also significantly reduced by treatment with MRPs. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-processed glucose-leucine mixture (major MRPs from the ginsenoside Re-leucine mixture) showed protective effects against cisplatin-induced oxidative renal damage in rats through the inhibition of caspase-3 activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/976521','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/976521"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing <span class="hlt">product</span> gas from coal gasifiers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Parkinson, W. J. ,</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger configurations that could be used to extract <span class="hlt">heat</span> from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent <span class="hlt">product</span> gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process <span class="hlt">heat</span> is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28740318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28740318"><span>Increased advanced glycation end <span class="hlt">product</span> specific fluorescence in repeatedly <span class="hlt">heated</span> used cooking oil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chhabra, Anupriya; Bhatia, Alka; Ram, Anil Kumar; Goel, Sumit</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Repeated <span class="hlt">heating</span> of cooking oils is known to cause their degradation and generation of toxins. Dietary Advanced glycation end <span class="hlt">products</span> (dAGEs) are formed when the foods are cooked in dry <span class="hlt">heat</span> at very high temperatures. dAGEs are believed to contribute significantly to total pool of AGEs in body. In this study, cooking oil samples used for frying snacks were collected from 102 shops. AGEs were extracted using Aqueous-TCA-chloroform method. Fluorescent AGE levels were determined using a fluorescence spectrophotometer and compared with AGEs in corresponding fresh oil samples collected from same shops. Palm oil was most commonly (62.5%) used for cooking. Most of the samples were subjected to several rounds of <span class="hlt">heating</span> (1-6). AGE specific fluorescence (ASF) in used oil (range = 8.5-745.11) samples was found to be significantly higher in 88/102 as compared to the corresponding fresh oil samples. Treatment with inhibitors like lime concentrate and vitamin C decreased ASF (10/14 and 10/11 samples respectively) of the used oils. The results suggest that cooking oil subjected to repeated <span class="hlt">heating</span> can contribute to increase in fluorescent AGEs in diet. Simple practices like liberal use of common household substances like lime concentrate may help to reduce these in fried food.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11001057T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11001057T"><span>Thermal Energy Consumption in the <span class="hlt">Heat</span>-Technology <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Solid Composite Fuel From Low-Grade Raw Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tabakaev, Roman; Astafev, Alexander; Kazakov, Alexander; Zavorin, Alexander</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>An evaluation is made of the thermal energy consumed in the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-technology <span class="hlt">production</span> of solid composite fuel from low-grade organic raw materials. It is shown that the <span class="hlt">heat</span> of decomposition of the organic mass and the combustion of the by-<span class="hlt">products</span> of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-technology may be sufficient to cover all the energy needs for processing peat, brown coal and wood chips. Producing solid composite fuel from sapropel requires external resources to compensate for part of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> consumed. Calculations show that it is possible for the thermal processing of raw materials to proceed autothermally due to the <span class="hlt">heat</span> of decomposition when the moisture content at the reactor inlet is limited: for peat it should be no more than 35%, 54% for brown coal, and 37% for wood chips. The low <span class="hlt">heat</span> of decomposition of the sapropel organic mass means that its thermal processing cannot proceed autothermally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28139172','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28139172"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> exposure and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in orchards: Implications for climate change research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Quiller, Grant; Krenz, Jennifer; Ebi, Kristie; Hess, Jeremy J; Fenske, Richard A; Sampson, Paul D; Pan, Mengjie; Spector, June T</p> <p>2017-01-31</p> <p>Recent studies suggest that <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure degrades work <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, but such studies have not considered individual- and workplace-level factors. Forty-six tree fruit harvesters (98% Latino/a) from six orchards participated in a cross-sectional study in Central/Eastern Washington in 2015. The association between maximum measured work-shift Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGTmax) and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> (total weight of fruit bins collected per time worked) was estimated using linear mixed effects models, adjusting for relevant confounders. The mean (standard deviation) WBGTmax was 27.9 (3.6)°C in August and 21.2 (2.0)°C in September. There was a trend of decreasing <span class="hlt">productivity</span> with increasing WBGTmax, but this association was not statistically significant. When individual- and workplace-level factors were included in the model, the association approached the null. Not considering individual, work, and economic factors that affect rest and recovery in projections of the impacts of climate change could result in overestimates of reductions in future <span class="hlt">productivity</span> and underestimate risk of <span class="hlt">heat</span> illness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JSP...137..165S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JSP...137..165S"><span>Fluctuation Theorems for Entropy <span class="hlt">Production</span> and <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Dissipation in Periodically Driven Markov Chains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shargel, Benjamin Hertz; Chou, Tom</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Asymptotic fluctuation theorems are statements of a Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry in the rate function of either the time-averaged entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> or <span class="hlt">heat</span> dissipation of a process. Such theorems have been proved for various general classes of continuous-time deterministic and stochastic processes, but always under the assumption that the forces driving the system are time independent, and often relying on the existence of a limiting ergodic distribution. In this paper we extend the asymptotic fluctuation theorem for the first time to inhomogeneous continuous-time processes without a stationary distribution, considering specifically a finite state Markov chain driven by periodic transition rates. We find that for both entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> and <span class="hlt">heat</span> dissipation, the usual Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry of the rate function is generalized to an analogous relation between the rate functions of the original process and its corresponding backward process, in which the trajectory and the driving protocol have been time-reversed. The effect is that spontaneous positive fluctuations in the long time average of each quantity in the forward process are exponentially more likely than spontaneous negative fluctuations in the backward process, and vice-versa, revealing that the distributions of fluctuations in universes in which time moves forward and backward are related. As an additional result, the asymptotic time-averaged entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> is obtained as the integral of a periodic entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> rate that generalizes the constant rate pertaining to homogeneous dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20545882','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20545882"><span>Scaling of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by thermogenic flowers: limits to floral size and maximum rate of respiration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seymour, Roger S</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Effect of size of inflorescences, flowers and cones on maximum rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> is analysed allometrically in 23 species of thermogenic plants having diverse structures and ranging between 1.8 and 600 g. Total respiration rate (, micromol s(-1)) varies with spadix mass (M, g) according to in 15 species of Araceae. Thermal conductance (C, mW degrees C(-1)) for spadices scales according to C = 18.5M(0.73). Mass does not significantly affect the difference between floral and air temperature. Aroids with exposed appendices with high surface area have high thermal conductance, consistent with the need to vaporize attractive scents. True flowers have significantly lower <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and thermal conductance, because closed petals retain <span class="hlt">heat</span> that benefits resident insects. The florets on aroid spadices, either within a floral chamber or spathe, have intermediate thermal conductance, consistent with mixed roles. Mass-specific rates of respiration are variable between species, but reach 900 nmol s(-1) g(-1) in aroid male florets, exceeding rates of all other plants and even most animals. Maximum mass-specific respiration appears to be limited by oxygen delivery through individual cells. Reducing mass-specific respiration may be one selective influence on the evolution of large size of thermogenic flowers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPS...273.1030Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPS...273.1030Z"><span>Internal <span class="hlt">heating</span> of lithium-ion batteries using alternating current <span class="hlt">based</span> on the <span class="hlt">heat</span> generation model in frequency domain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jianbo; Ge, Hao; Li, Zhe; Ding, Zhanming</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study develops a method to internally preheat lithium-ion batteries at low temperatures with sinusoidal alternating current (AC). A <span class="hlt">heat</span> generation rate model in frequency domain is developed <span class="hlt">based</span> on the equivalent electrical circuit. Using this model as the source term, a lumped energy conservation model is adopted to predict the temperature rise. These models are validated against the experimental results of preheating an 18650 cell at different thermal insulation conditions. The effects of current amplitude and frequency on the <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate are illustrated with a series of simulated contours of <span class="hlt">heating</span> time. These contours indicate that the <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate increases with higher amplitude, lower frequency and better thermal insulation. The cell subjected to an alternating current with an amplitude of 7 A (2.25 C) and a frequency of 1 Hz, under a calibrated <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient of 15.9 W m-2 K-1, can be <span class="hlt">heated</span> from -20 °C to 5 °C within 15 min and the temperature distribution remains essentially uniform. No capacity loss is found after repeated AC preheating tests, indicating this method incurs little damage to the battery health. These models are computationally-efficient and can be used in real time to control the preheating devices in electric vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23341982','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23341982"><span>No major differences found between the effects of microwave-<span class="hlt">based</span> and conventional <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment methods on two different liquid foods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Géczi, Gábor; Horváth, Márk; Kaszab, Tímea; Alemany, Gonzalo Garnacho</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Extension of shelf life and preservation of <span class="hlt">products</span> are both very important for the food industry. However, just as with other processes, speed and higher manufacturing performance are also beneficial. Although microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> is utilized in a number of industrial processes, there are many unanswered questions about its effects on foods. Here we analyze whether the effects of microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> with continuous flow are equivalent to those of traditional <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer methods. In our study, the effects of <span class="hlt">heating</span> of liquid foods by conventional and continuous flow microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> were studied. Among other properties, we compared the stability of the liquid foods between the two <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatments. Our goal was to determine whether the continuous flow microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> and the conventional <span class="hlt">heating</span> methods have the same effects on the liquid foods, and, therefore, whether microwave <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment can effectively replace conventional <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatments. We have compared the colour, separation phenomena of the samples treated by different methods. For milk, we also monitored the total viable cell count, for orange juice, vitamin C contents in addition to the taste of the <span class="hlt">product</span> by sensory analysis. The majority of the results indicate that the circulating coil microwave method used here is equivalent to the conventional <span class="hlt">heating</span> method <span class="hlt">based</span> on thermal conduction and convection. However, some results in the analysis of the milk samples show clear differences between <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer methods. According to our results, the colour parameters (lightness, red-green and blue-yellow values) of the microwave treated samples differed not only from the untreated control, but also from the traditional <span class="hlt">heat</span> treated samples. The differences are visually undetectable, however, they become evident through analytical measurement with spectrophotometer. This finding suggests that besides thermal effects, microwave-<span class="hlt">based</span> food treatment can alter <span class="hlt">product</span> properties in other ways as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3547058','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3547058"><span>No Major Differences Found between the Effects of Microwave-<span class="hlt">Based</span> and Conventional <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Treatment Methods on Two Different Liquid Foods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Géczi, Gábor; Horváth, Márk; Kaszab, Tímea; Alemany, Gonzalo Garnacho</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Extension of shelf life and preservation of <span class="hlt">products</span> are both very important for the food industry. However, just as with other processes, speed and higher manufacturing performance are also beneficial. Although microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> is utilized in a number of industrial processes, there are many unanswered questions about its effects on foods. Here we analyze whether the effects of microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> with continuous flow are equivalent to those of traditional <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer methods. In our study, the effects of <span class="hlt">heating</span> of liquid foods by conventional and continuous flow microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> were studied. Among other properties, we compared the stability of the liquid foods between the two <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatments. Our goal was to determine whether the continuous flow microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> and the conventional <span class="hlt">heating</span> methods have the same effects on the liquid foods, and, therefore, whether microwave <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment can effectively replace conventional <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatments. We have compared the colour, separation phenomena of the samples treated by different methods. For milk, we also monitored the total viable cell count, for orange juice, vitamin C contents in addition to the taste of the <span class="hlt">product</span> by sensory analysis. The majority of the results indicate that the circulating coil microwave method used here is equivalent to the conventional <span class="hlt">heating</span> method <span class="hlt">based</span> on thermal conduction and convection. However, some results in the analysis of the milk samples show clear differences between <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer methods. According to our results, the colour parameters (lightness, red-green and blue-yellow values) of the microwave treated samples differed not only from the untreated control, but also from the traditional <span class="hlt">heat</span> treated samples. The differences are visually undetectable, however, they become evident through analytical measurement with spectrophotometer. This finding suggests that besides thermal effects, microwave-<span class="hlt">based</span> food treatment can alter <span class="hlt">product</span> properties in other ways as well. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980ntis.reptST...R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980ntis.reptST...R"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> pipes. Citations from the NTIS data <span class="hlt">base</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reed, W. E.</p> <p>1980-04-01</p> <p>Theory, design, fabrication, testing, and operation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipes are presented in these Federally-sponsored research reports. Applications are described in the areas of <span class="hlt">heating</span> and air conditioning, power generation, electronics cooling, spacecraft, nuclear reactors, cooling engines, and thermodynamics. This updated bibliography contains 247 abstracts, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980ntis.reptSU...R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980ntis.reptSU...R"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> pipes. Citations from the NTIS data <span class="hlt">base</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reed, W. E.</p> <p>1980-04-01</p> <p>Theory, design, fabrication, testing, and operation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipes are presented in these Federally sponsored research reports. Applications are described in the areas of <span class="hlt">heating</span> and air conditioning, power generation, electronics cooling, spacecraft, nuclear reactors, cooling engines, and thermodynamics. This updated bibliography contains 70 abstracts, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050196725','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050196725"><span>GRCop-84: A High Temperature Copper-<span class="hlt">based</span> Alloy For High <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Flux Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ellis, David L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>While designed for rocket engine main combustion chamber liners, GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb) offers potential for high <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux applications in industrial applications requiring a temperature capability up to approximately 700 C (1292 F). GRCop-84 is a copper-<span class="hlt">based</span> alloy with excellent elevated temperature strength, good creep resistance, long LCF lives and enhanced oxidation resistance. It also has a lower thermal expansion than copper and many other low alloy copper-<span class="hlt">based</span> alloys. GRCop-84 can be manufactured into a variety of shapes such as tubing, bar, plate and sheet using standard <span class="hlt">production</span> techniques and requires no special <span class="hlt">production</span> techniques. GRCop-84 forms well, so conventional fabrication methods including stamping and bending can be used. GRCop-84 has demonstrated an ability to be friction stir welded, brazed, inertia welded, diffusion bonded and electron beam welded for joining to itself and other materials. Potential applications include plastic injection molds, resistance welding electrodes and holders, permanent metal casting molds, vacuum plasma spray nozzles and high temperature <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012160','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012160"><span>Comment on 'A reinterpretation of the linear <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> relationship for the exponential model of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in the crust' by R.N. Singh & J.G. Negi.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lachenbruch, A.H.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>In their recent paper, Singh & Negi, (This journal, 57, 741-744) contend that if thd slope of the empirical linear relation between <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> is interpreted as the decay-length of an exponential depth-distribution of sources, a discrepancy rises, whereas if it is interpreted as the depth of a step distribution, it does not. I should like to point out that their discrepancy follows from their arbitrary assumption of one of a range of physical possibilities unconstrained by the observations; with an equally valid alternate assumption (Lachenbruch 1970) the discrepancy disappears. In any case such discrepancies are probably minor compared to physical difficulties that arise from the step model, and to uncertainties introduced by other assumptions in any simple model.-Author</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10111104','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10111104"><span>A review and development of correlations for <span class="hlt">base</span> pressure and <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> in supersonic flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lamb, J.P.; Oberkampf, W.L.</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>A comprehensive review of experimental <span class="hlt">base</span> pressure and <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> data related to supersonic and hypersonic flight vehicles has been completed. Particular attention was paid to free-flight data as well as wind tunnel data for models without rear sting support. Using theoretically <span class="hlt">based</span> correlation parameters, a series of internally consistent, empirical prediction equations has been developed for planar and axisymmetric geometries (wedges, cones, and cylinders). These equations encompass the speed range from low supersonic to hypersonic flow and laminar and turbulent forebody boundary layers. A wide range of cone and wedge angles and cone bluntness ratios was included in the data <span class="hlt">base</span> used to develop the correlations. The present investigation also included preliminary studies of the effect of angle of attack and specific-<span class="hlt">heat</span> ratio of the gas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850047888&hterms=thorium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dthorium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850047888&hterms=thorium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dthorium"><span>Crustal radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and the selective survival of ancient continental crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, P.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>It is pointed out that the oldest terrestrial rocks have so far revealed no evidence of the impact phase of earth evolution. This observation suggests that processes other than impact were dominant at the time of stabilization of these units. However, a use of the oldest terrestrial rocks as a sample of the early terrestrial crust makes it necessary to consider the possibility that these rocks may represent a biased sample. In the present study, the global continental <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow data set is used to provide further evidence that potassium, uranium, and thorium abundances are, on the average, low in surviving Archean crust relative to younger continental crust. An investigation is conducted of the implications of relatively low crustal radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> to the stabilization of early continental crust, and possible Archean crustal stabilization models are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850024773&hterms=thorium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dthorium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850024773&hterms=thorium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dthorium"><span>Crustal radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and the selective survival of ancient continental crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, P.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>It is pointed out that the oldest terrestrial rocks have so far revealed no evidence of the impact phase of Earth evolution. This observation suggests that processes other than impact were dominant at the time of stabilization of these units. However, a use of the oldest terrestrial rocks as a sample of the early terrestrial crust makes it necessary to consider the possibility that these rocks may represent a biased sample. In the present study, the global continental <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow data set is used to provide further evidence that potassium, uranium, and thorium abundances are, on the average, low in surviving Archean crust relative to younger continental crust. An investigation is conducted of the implications of relatively low crustal radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> to the stabilization of early continental crust, and possible Archean crustal stabilization models are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18442900','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18442900"><span>Demand for waste as fuel in the swedish district <span class="hlt">heating</span> sector: a <span class="hlt">production</span> function approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Furtenback, Orjan</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper evaluates inter-fuel substitution in the Swedish district <span class="hlt">heating</span> industry by analyzing almost all the district <span class="hlt">heating</span> plants in Sweden in the period 1989-2003, specifically those plants incinerating waste. A multi-output plant-specific <span class="hlt">production</span> function is estimated using panel data methods. A procedure for weighting the elasticities of factor demand to produce a single matrix for the whole industry is introduced. The price of waste is assumed to increase in response to the energy and CO2 tax on waste-to-energy incineration that was introduced in Sweden on 1 July 2006. Analysis of the plants involved in waste incineration indicates that an increase in the net price of waste by 10% is likely to reduce the demand for waste by 4.2%, and increase the demand for bio-fuels, fossil fuels, other fuels and electricity by 5.5%, 6.0%, 6.0% and 6.0%, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4294310','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4294310"><span>Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Method on Pyrolysis <span class="hlt">Products</span> of Wood Biomass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current <span class="hlt">heating</span> was studied. The effects of catalysts on <span class="hlt">product</span> compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current <span class="hlt">heating</span> and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds. PMID:25614894</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740033929&hterms=solar+energy+production&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Benergy%2Bproduction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740033929&hterms=solar+energy+production&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Benergy%2Bproduction"><span>Skylab and solar exploration. [chromosphere-corona structure, energy <span class="hlt">production</span> and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transport processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Von Puttkamer, J.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Review of some of the findings concerning solar structure, energy <span class="hlt">production</span>, and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transport obtained with the aid of the manned Skylab space station observatory launched on May 14, 1973. Among the topics discussed are the observation of thermonuclear fusion processes which cannot be simulated on earth, the observation of short-wave solar radiation not visible to observers on earth, and the investigation of energy-transport processes occurring in the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona. An apparent paradox is noted in that the cooler chromosphere is <span class="hlt">heating</span> the hotter corona, seemingly in defiance of the second law of thermodynamics, thus suggesting that a nonthermal mechanism underlies the energy transport. Understanding of this nonthermal mechanism is regarded as an indispensable prerequisite for future development of plasma systems for terrestrial applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850024773&hterms=Processes+continental+crust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DProcesses%2Bcontinental%2Bcrust','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850024773&hterms=Processes+continental+crust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DProcesses%2Bcontinental%2Bcrust"><span>Crustal radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and the selective survival of ancient continental crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, P.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>It is pointed out that the oldest terrestrial rocks have so far revealed no evidence of the impact phase of Earth evolution. This observation suggests that processes other than impact were dominant at the time of stabilization of these units. However, a use of the oldest terrestrial rocks as a sample of the early terrestrial crust makes it necessary to consider the possibility that these rocks may represent a biased sample. In the present study, the global continental <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow data set is used to provide further evidence that potassium, uranium, and thorium abundances are, on the average, low in surviving Archean crust relative to younger continental crust. An investigation is conducted of the implications of relatively low crustal radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> to the stabilization of early continental crust, and possible Archean crustal stabilization models are discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850047888&hterms=Processes+continental+crust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DProcesses%2Bcontinental%2Bcrust','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850047888&hterms=Processes+continental+crust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DProcesses%2Bcontinental%2Bcrust"><span>Crustal radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and the selective survival of ancient continental crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, P.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>It is pointed out that the oldest terrestrial rocks have so far revealed no evidence of the impact phase of earth evolution. This observation suggests that processes other than impact were dominant at the time of stabilization of these units. However, a use of the oldest terrestrial rocks as a sample of the early terrestrial crust makes it necessary to consider the possibility that these rocks may represent a biased sample. In the present study, the global continental <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow data set is used to provide further evidence that potassium, uranium, and thorium abundances are, on the average, low in surviving Archean crust relative to younger continental crust. An investigation is conducted of the implications of relatively low crustal radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> to the stabilization of early continental crust, and possible Archean crustal stabilization models are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000NW.....87..193R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000NW.....87..193R"><span>Thermal Gains Through Collective Metabolic <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> in Social Caterpillars of Eriogaster lanestris</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruf, C.; Fiedler, K.</p> <p></p> <p>We investigated thermal characteristics of aggregations of social, tent-building caterpillars of the small eggar moth Eriogaster lanestris (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae). The highly synchronous behavior of individuals of the colony has important consequences for their thermal ecology. Air temperature in the tent fluctuates according to the caterpillars' activity: air temperature slowly rises about 2.5-3 °C above the surroundings when caterpillars aggregate in the tent after feeding and decreases rapidly when the larvae leave the tent. Thermal energy can be stored for a few hours when ambient temperature drops. Experiments show that metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> sufficiently explains this effect. As even minor additional <span class="hlt">heat</span> gain may reduce developmental time, aggregating in the tent may thus confer selective advantages under overcast weather or at night, when behavioral thermoregulation through basking is not possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22101444','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22101444"><span>Additional paper waste in pulping sludge for biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> by <span class="hlt">heat</span>-shocked sludge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chairattanamanokorn, Prapaipid; Tapananont, Supachok; Detjaroen, Siriporn; Sangkhatim, Juthatip; Anurakpongsatorn, Patana; Sirirote, Pramote</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Dark anaerobic fermentation is an interesting alternative method for producing biohydrogen (H(2)) as a renewable fuel because of its low cost and various usable organic substrates. Pulping sludge from wastewater treatment containing plentiful cellulosic substrate could be feasibly utilized for H(2) <span class="hlt">production</span> by dark fermentation. The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal proportion of pulping sludge to paper waste, the optimal initial pH, and the optimal ratio of carbon and nitrogen (C/N) for H(2) <span class="hlt">production</span> by anaerobic seed sludge pretreated with <span class="hlt">heat</span>. The pulping sludge was pretreated with NaOH solution at high temperature and further hydrolyzed with crude cellulase. Pretreatment of the pulping sludge with 3% NaOH solution under autoclave at 121 °C for 2 h, hydrolysis with 5 FPU crude cellulase at 50 °C, and pH 4.8 for 24 h provided the highest reducing sugar <span class="hlt">production</span> yield (229.68 ± 2.09 mg/g(TVS)). An initial pH of 6 and a C/N ratio of 40 were optimal conditions for H(2) <span class="hlt">production</span>. Moreover, the supplement of paper waste in the pulping sludge enhanced the cumulative H(2) <span class="hlt">production</span> yield. The continuous hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> was further conducted in a glass reactor with nylon pieces as supporting media and the maximum hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> yield was 151.70 ml/g(TVS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982STIN...0314092O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982STIN...0314092O"><span>Calorimetric Determinations of the <span class="hlt">Heat</span> and <span class="hlt">Products</span> of Detonation for Explosives: October 1961 to April 1982</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ornellas, D. L.</p> <p>1982-04-01</p> <p>This report is a compilation of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-of-detonation and <span class="hlt">product</span>-composition data obtained at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the last 21 years. In each determination, a 25-g high-explosive charge was detonated in a bomb calorimeter; a complete calorimetric measurement was made in 1 to 2 h with a precision of 0.3%. Data were interpreted using thermodynamic and hydrodynamic computer calculations. For unconfined or lightly confined charges, the released energy is largely retained in the <span class="hlt">products</span>, which are subsequently shocked considerably off the Chapman-Jouguet isentrope by reflections from the bomb wall. For heavily confined charges, the detonation energy is largely converted to kinetic and internal energy of the confining case, and the <span class="hlt">products</span> expand with minimal reshock along the Chapman-Jouguet isentrope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMMR44A..02L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMMR44A..02L"><span>Effects of a core/mantle chemical boundary layer with variable internal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> on the thermal evolution of the core</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lassiter, J. C.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Estimates of conductive <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow across the core/mantle boundary suggest high <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow values of 7-14 TW for a core/mantle temperature drop of 1000-1800 K. This level of <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow predicts an inner core age of less than 1-2 Ga. However, some models of core/mantle thermal evolution predict late onset of inner core crystallization may require implausibly high core temperatures in the Archaean [1]. Sequestration of <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements at the <span class="hlt">base</span> of the mantle may reduce core/mantle <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow and increase the age of the inner core [1]. In addition, Boyet and Carlson [2] reported ^{142}Nd excesses in terrestrial samples relative to chondrites, and proposed that an enriched reservoir produced by early differentiation may be "hidden" at the <span class="hlt">base</span> of the mantle, and that this reservoir could contain up to 43% of the Earth's <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements. The runaway core thermal evolution predicted by Buffett [1] for models with a relatively young inner core results from two assumptions. First, Buffett assumes that core/mantle <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow has decreased ~3x since the onset of inner core crystallization, because the power required to drive the geodynamo today is much lower than prior to inner core crystallization. Second, Buffett treats the core/mantle boundary as a thermal boundary with strongly temperature-dependant viscosity, so that relatively small increases in core temperature result in a large decrease in boundary layer thickness and increase in core/mantle <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow. If the core/mantle boundary is a chemical rather than purely thermal boundary the boundary layer thickness need not be time- or temperature-dependant. As a result, core/mantle <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow is roughly linearly proportional to core-mantle ΔT, rather than exponential. Provided that modern core/mantle <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow is greater than the <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow required to drive the geodynamo in the absence of inner core crystallization, no significant secular evolution in core/mantle <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow is required. Given these assumptions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4390352','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4390352"><span>Solar Radiation during Rewarming from Torpor in Elephant Shrews: Supplementation or Substitution of Endogenous <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thompson, Michelle L.; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi; Bennett, Nigel C.; McKechnie, Andrew E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Many small mammals bask in the sun during rewarming from heterothermy, but the implications of this behaviour for their energy balance remain little understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether solar radiation supplements endogenous metabolic thermogenesis (i.e., rewarming occurs through the additive effects of internally-produced and external <span class="hlt">heat</span>), or whether solar radiation reduces the energy required to rewarm by substituting (i.e, replacing) metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. To address this question, we examined patterns of torpor and rewarming rates in eastern rock elephant shrews (Elephantulus myurus) housed in outdoor cages with access to either natural levels of solar radiation or levels that were experimentally reduced by means of shade cloth. We also tested whether acclimation to solar radiation availability was manifested via phenotypic flexibility in basal metabolic rate (BMR), non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity and/or summit metabolism (Msum). Rewarming rates varied significantly among treatments, with elephant shrews experiencing natural solar radiation levels rewarming faster than conspecifics experiencing solar radiation levels equivalent to approximately 20% or 40% of natural levels. BMR differed significantly between individuals experiencing natural levels of solar radiation and conspecifics experiencing approximately 20% of natural levels, but no between-treatment difference was evident for NST capacity or Msum. The positive relationship between solar radiation availability and rewarming rate, together with the absence of acclimation in maximum non-shivering and total <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> capacities, suggests that under the conditions of this study solar radiation supplemented rather than substituted metabolic thermogenesis as a source of <span class="hlt">heat</span> during rewarming from heterothermy. PMID:25853244</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25853244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25853244"><span>Solar radiation during rewarming from torpor in elephant shrews: supplementation or substitution of endogenous <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thompson, Michelle L; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi; Bennett, Nigel C; McKechnie, Andrew E</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Many small mammals bask in the sun during rewarming from heterothermy, but the implications of this behaviour for their energy balance remain little understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether solar radiation supplements endogenous metabolic thermogenesis (i.e., rewarming occurs through the additive effects of internally-produced and external <span class="hlt">heat</span>), or whether solar radiation reduces the energy required to rewarm by substituting (i.e, replacing) metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. To address this question, we examined patterns of torpor and rewarming rates in eastern rock elephant shrews (Elephantulus myurus) housed in outdoor cages with access to either natural levels of solar radiation or levels that were experimentally reduced by means of shade cloth. We also tested whether acclimation to solar radiation availability was manifested via phenotypic flexibility in basal metabolic rate (BMR), non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity and/or summit metabolism (Msum). Rewarming rates varied significantly among treatments, with elephant shrews experiencing natural solar radiation levels rewarming faster than conspecifics experiencing solar radiation levels equivalent to approximately 20% or 40% of natural levels. BMR differed significantly between individuals experiencing natural levels of solar radiation and conspecifics experiencing approximately 20% of natural levels, but no between-treatment difference was evident for NST capacity or Msum. The positive relationship between solar radiation availability and rewarming rate, together with the absence of acclimation in maximum non-shivering and total <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> capacities, suggests that under the conditions of this study solar radiation supplemented rather than substituted metabolic thermogenesis as a source of <span class="hlt">heat</span> during rewarming from heterothermy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25233167','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25233167"><span>Comparison of cortical bone drilling induced <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> among common drilling tools.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Significant data exist regarding <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of twist drills; however, there are little data regarding cannulated drills or Kirschner (K) wires. This study compared the <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced during bone drilling with twist drills, K wires, and a cannulated drill. It was hypothesized that drilling temperature would increase with tool sizes used in orthopaedic surgery; with twist drills producing the least amount of <span class="hlt">heat</span> followed by cannulated drills and K wires. Twist drills (2.0, 2.5, and 3.5 mm), K wires (1.25, 1.6, and 2.0 mm), and a cannulated drill (2.7 mm) were driven into warmed human cadaveric tibia by a battery-powered hand drill. The drill was secured on a servo-controlled linear actuator to provide a constant advancing speed (1 mm/s) during drilling. Two thermocouples were embedded 2 mm from the surface at 0.5 and 1.5 mm from the drill hole margin. Eight tests were performed for each tool. Twist drills exhibited a positive trend between size and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. The size effect was less significant with K wires. K wires resulted in significantly (P = 0.008 at 0.5 mm) higher peak temperatures than twist drills of the same size. A 2.7-mm cannulated drill produced more than double the temperature rise of a 2.5-mm twist drill. Twist drills produced the smallest temperature rise among all bit types. Thermal effects should not be a reason for choosing K-wire size. The cannulated drill showed significantly higher temperatures when compared with standard drills, reaching maximal temperatures comparable with K wires.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25256946','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25256946"><span>Effects of obesity on body temperature in otherwise-healthy females when controlling hydration and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during exercise in the <span class="hlt">heat</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adams, J D; Ganio, Matthew S; Burchfield, Jenna M; Matthews, Andy C; Werner, Rachel N; Chokbengboun, Amanda J; Dougherty, Erin K; LaChance, Alex A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Previous studies investigating body temperature responses in obese individuals during exercise in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> fail to control metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> or hydration status during exercise. To determine if there are differences in body temperature responses between obese and non-obese females when controlling metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during exercise. Twenty healthy females, ten obese (43.5 ± 4.5 % fat, 77.5 ± 14.4 kg) and ten non-obese (26.3 ± 6.2 % fat, 53.7 ± 6.4 kg), cycled for 60 min in a warm environment (40 °C, 30 % humidity) at a work load that elicited either 300 W of metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (fixed <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>; FHP) or 175 W/m(2) of skin surface area (body surface area, BSA). Before and during exercise, rectal temperature (T re), mean skin temperature (T sk), oxygen uptake (VO2), and sweat rate were measured. Fluid was provided throughout exercise so that euhydration was maintained throughout. In the FHP trial, when absolute <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was similar between obese (287 ± 15 W) and non-obese (295 ± 18 W) individuals (P > 0.05), there were no differences at the end of exercise in T re (38.26 ± 0.40 vs. 38.30 ± 0.30 °C, respectively) or T sk (36.94 ± 1.65 vs. 35.85 ± 0.67 °C) (all P > 0.05). In the BSA trials, relative <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was similar between obese and non-obese individuals (168 ± 8 vs. 176 ± 5 W/m(2), respectively; P > 0.05). Similar to the FHP trials, there were no differences between obese and non-obese T re (38.45 ± 0.33 vs. 38.08 ± 0.29 °C, respectively) or T sk (36.82 ± 1.04 vs. 36.11 ± 0.64 °C) at the end of exercise (all P > 0.05). When obese and non-obese females exercised at a fixed metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and euhydration was maintained, there were no differences in body temperature between groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9808E..1GZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9808E..1GZ"><span>NDSI <span class="hlt">products</span> system <span class="hlt">based</span> on Hadoop platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Yan; Jiang, He; Yang, Xiaoxia; Geng, Erhui</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Snow is solid state of water resources on earth, and plays an important role in human life. Satellite remote sensing is significant in snow extraction with the advantages of cyclical, macro, comprehensiveness, objectivity, timeliness. With the continuous development of remote sensing technology, remote sensing data access to the trend of multiple platforms, multiple sensors and multiple perspectives. At the same time, in view of the remote sensing data of compute-intensive applications demand increase gradually. However, current the producing system of remote sensing <span class="hlt">products</span> is in a serial mode, and this kind of <span class="hlt">production</span> system is used for professional remote sensing researchers mostly, and <span class="hlt">production</span> systems achieving automatic or semi-automatic <span class="hlt">production</span> are relatively less. Facing massive remote sensing data, the traditional serial mode producing system with its low efficiency has been difficult to meet the requirements of mass data timely and efficient processing. In order to effectively improve the <span class="hlt">production</span> efficiency of NDSI <span class="hlt">products</span>, meet the demand of large-scale remote sensing data processed timely and efficiently, this paper build NDSI <span class="hlt">products</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> system <span class="hlt">based</span> on Hadoop platform, and the system mainly includes the remote sensing image management module, NDSI <span class="hlt">production</span> module, and system service module. Main research contents and results including: (1)The remote sensing image management module: includes image import and image metadata management two parts. Import mass basis IRS images and NDSI <span class="hlt">product</span> images (the system performing the <span class="hlt">production</span> task output) into HDFS file system; At the same time, read the corresponding orbit ranks number, maximum/minimum longitude and latitude, <span class="hlt">product</span> date, HDFS storage path, Hadoop task ID (NDSI <span class="hlt">products</span>), and other metadata information, and then create thumbnails, and unique ID number for each record distribution, import it into <span class="hlt">base/product</span> image metadata database. (2)NDSI <span class="hlt">production</span> module: includes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10685183','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10685183"><span>Extent and economic effect of <span class="hlt">heat</span> loads on dairy cattle <span class="hlt">production</span> in Australia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mayer, D G; Davison, T M; McGowan, M R; Young, B A; Matschoss, A L; Hall, A B; Goodwin, P J; Jonsson, N N; Gaughan, J B</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>To investigate the extent of <span class="hlt">heat</span> load problems, caused by the combination of excessive temperature and humidity, in Holstein-Friesian cows in Australia. Also, to outline how milk <span class="hlt">production</span> losses and consequent costs from this can be estimated and minimised. Long-term meteorological data for Australia were analysed to determine the distribution of hot conditions over space and time. Fifteen dairy <span class="hlt">production</span> regions were identified for higher-resolution data analysis. Both the raw meteorological data and their integration into a temperature-humidity thermal index were compiled onto a computer program. This mapping software displays the distribution of climatic patterns, both Australia-wide and within the selected dairying regions. Graphical displays of the variation in historical records for 200 locations in the 15 dairying regions are also available. As a separate study, <span class="hlt">production</span> data from research stations, on-farm trials and milk factory records were statistically analysed and correlated with the climatic indices, to estimate <span class="hlt">production</span> losses due to hot conditions. Both milk yields and milk constituents declined with increases in the temperature-humidity index. The onset and rate of this decline are dependent on a number of factors, including location, level of <span class="hlt">production</span>, adaptation, and management regime. These results have been integrated into a farm-level economic analysis for managers of dairy properties. By considering the historical patterns of hot conditions over time and space, along with expected <span class="hlt">production</span> losses, managers of dairy farms can now conduct an economic evaluation of investment strategies to alleviate <span class="hlt">heat</span> loads. These strategies include the provision of sprinklers, shade structures, or combinations of these.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=281176','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=281176"><span>Using flowering and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-loss models for improving greenhouse energy-use efficiency in annual bedding plant <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In temperate climates, annual bedding plants are typically produced in <span class="hlt">heated</span> greenhouses from late winter through early summer. Temperature, photoperiod, light intensity, and transplant date are commonly manipulated during commercial <span class="hlt">production</span> so that plants are in flower for predetermined market ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HMT...tmp..179L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HMT...tmp..179L"><span>Preparation and testing of nickel-<span class="hlt">based</span> superalloy/sodium <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Qin; Han, Haitao; Hu, Longfei; Chen, Siyuan; Yu, Jijun; Ai, Bangcheng</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>In this work, a kind of uni-piece nickel-<span class="hlt">based</span> superalloy/sodium <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe is proposed. Five models of high temperature <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe were prepared using GH3044 and GH4099 nickel-<span class="hlt">based</span> superalloys. And their startup performance and ablation resistance were investigated by quartz lamp calorifier radiation and wind tunnel tests, respectively. It is found that the amount of charging sodium affects the startup performance of <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipes apparently. No startup phenomenon was found for insufficient sodium charged model. In contrast, the models charged with sufficient sodium startup successfully, displaying a uniform temperature distribution. During wind tunnel test, the corresponding models experienced a shorter startup time than that during quartz lamp <span class="hlt">heating</span>. GH4099/sodium <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe shows excellent ablation resistance, being better than that of GH3044/sodium <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe. Therefore, it is proposed that this kind of <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe has a potential application in thermal protection system of hypersonic cruise vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7014918','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7014918"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> engine <span class="hlt">based</span> on shape-memory alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goldstein, D.</p> <p>1989-12-01</p> <p>This patent application discloses a tubular gear made of shape memory alloy in sheet form, having longitudinal corrugations and being floating supported for rotation about an axis fixedly spaced from the rotational axis of a roller gear in meshing engagement with the corrugations. The tubular gear is sequentially deformed by exposure to radiated <span class="hlt">heat</span> causing the shape memory alloy to expand circumferentially and by said meshing engagement with roller gear. Such deformation of the tubular gear within differential temperature regions established by restricted exposure to the radiated <span class="hlt">heat</span>, induces and sustains rotation of the tubular gear to convert the <span class="hlt">heat</span> energy into mechanical energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25772629','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25772629"><span>Fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and metabolic BW in group-housed broilers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Noblet, J; Dubois, S; Lasnier, J; Warpechowski, M; Dimon, P; Carré, B; van Milgen, J; Labussière, E</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (FHP) is used for characterizing the basal metabolic rate of animals and the corresponding maintenance energy requirements and in the calculation of net energy value of feeds. In broilers, the most recent FHP estimates were obtained in the 1980s in slow-growing and fatter birds than nowadays. The FHP values (n=73; six experiments) measured in 3 to 6-week-old modern lines of broilers weighing 0.6 to 2.8 kg and growing at 80 to 100 g/day were used to update these literature values. Each measurement was obtained in a group of fasting broilers (5 to 14 birds) kept in a respiration chamber for at least 24 h. The FHP estimate corresponds to the asymptotic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> corrected for zero physical activity obtained by modeling the decrease in <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during the fasting day. The compilation of these data indicates that FHP was linearly related to the BW(0.70) (in kg), which can be considered as the metabolic BW of modern broilers. The 0.70 exponent differs from the conventional value of 0.75 used for mature animals. The FHP per kg of BW(0.70) ranged between 410 and 460 kJ/day according to the experiment (P<0.01). An experiment conducted with a shorter duration of fasting (16 h) indicated that FHP values are higher than those obtained over at least 24 h of fasting. Our values are similar to those obtained previously on fatter and slow-growing birds, even though the comparison is difficult since measurement conditions and methodologies have changed during the last 30 years. The FHP values obtained in our trials represent a basis for energy nutrition of modern broilers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3102P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3102P"><span>Correction to the ERA-40 surface flux <span class="hlt">products</span> consistent with the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">heat</span> and water budgets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pettenuzzo, D.; Large, W. G.; Pinardi, N.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>A new air-sea physics parametrization is developed along with a correction of the ECMWF Era-40 reanalysis in order to close the <span class="hlt">heat</span> and fresh water budgets for the Mediterranean basin during the period that ranges from 1958 to 2001. The empirical bulk formulas for the evaluation of the radiative part of the total <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux has been replaced by the use of the ECMWF ERA-40 reanalysis radiative fields. The latter and the basic forcing fields used to compute the surface fluxes on a standard OGCM have been corrected by comparison with different reliable data sets and in-situ data. The correction method is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the preliminary evaluation of the best estimate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> and fresh water budgets for the period 1985-2001 using the benchmark fields in order to validate them, and the computation of bias reduction terms applicable to the ECMWF fields for those 17 years. The obtained space-dependent factors are subsequently extended to the entire ERA-40 reanalysis time window. This method provides a surface total <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux QT of -7 W/m2 and a deficit E-P of -0.64 m/yr. Interannual and climatological values of QT and FT are presented and related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA406188','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA406188"><span>Studies of Plasma Instability Processes Excited by Ground <span class="hlt">Based</span> High Power HF ("<span class="hlt">Heating</span>") Facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-04-01</p> <p>by ground <span class="hlt">based</span> high power HF (’ <span class="hlt">heating</span> ’) facilities 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Dr. Alexander...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 Grant SPC 00-4010 Final Report STUDIES OF PLASMA INSTABILITY PROCESSES EXCITED BY GROUND <span class="hlt">BASED</span> HIGH POWER HF (" <span class="hlt">HEATING</span> ...growing field of ionospheric HF <span class="hlt">heating</span> . The main new results can be summarized as following: 1. Two sets of observations of suprathermal electrons</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HMT...tmp..154L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HMT...tmp..154L"><span>A revised correlation <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer model of slug flow in mini/micro-channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Xuejiao; Jia, Li; Yin, Liaofei; An, Zhoujian</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>As flow boiling in mini/micro-channel, slug flow was corresponding to the optimal <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer ability owing to the evaporation of thin liquid film. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer mechanism of liquid film evaporation, a simplified <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer model of slug flow was proposed. Li-Wu <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer correlation (Int J <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Mass Transf 53(9): 1778-1787, 2010) was revised by introducing evaporation parameter, C e . With the evaporation parameter, C e , the revised correlation predicted the slug flow database with MAE (Mean Absolute Error) 25.14%, which improved the prediction accuracy remarkably.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Th%26Ae..23..755V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Th%26Ae..23..755V"><span>Studying regimes of convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of high-temperature silicate melts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Volokitin, O. G.; Sheremet, M. A.; Shekhovtsov, V. V.; Bondareva, N. S.; Kuzmin, V. I.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The article presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the <span class="hlt">production</span> of high-temperature silicate melts using the energy of low-temperature plasma in a conceptually new setup. A mathematical model of unsteady regimes of convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer is developed and numerically implemented under the assumption of non-Newtonian nature of flow in the melting furnace with plasma-chemical synthesis of high-temperature silicate melts. Experiments on melting silicate containing materials were carried out using the energy of low-temperature plasma. The dependence of dynamic viscosity of various silicate materials (basalt, ash, waste of oil shale) was found experimentally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=551234','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=551234"><span><span class="hlt">Production</span> and properties of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable extracellular hemolysin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Johnson, M K; Boese-Marrazzo, D</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Of 12 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were found to produce <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable extracellular hemolysin in highly aerated peptone broth supplemented with glycerol, fructose, or mannitol. Glucose supported good hemolysin <span class="hlt">production</span> only in medium that was highly buffered. The yield of both cells and hemolysin was lower with organic acids as supplement. Growth-limiting phosphate concentrations produced maximum hemolysin levels. Purified hemolysin preparations contained two hemolytic glycolipids. The kinetics of hemolysis at various levels of purified lysin and the effects of variation in lysin and erythrocyte concentration are described. Images Fig. 3 PMID:6776058</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750012376','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750012376"><span>Aerodynamic and <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> studies on space shuttle configurations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heating</span> rate and pressure measurements were obtained on a 25-O space shuttle model in a vacuum chamber. Correlation data on windward laminar and turbulent boundary layers and leeside surfaces of the space shuttle orbiter are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5574463','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5574463"><span>Ultra lightweight unfurlable radiator for lunar <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> rejection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Garner, S.D.; Gernert, N.J. )</p> <p>1993-01-10</p> <p>A proof-of-concept (POC) ultra lightweight lunar radiator was fabricated and tested. The POC radiator has a specific weight of 5 kg/kW one quarter the specific weight of current ambient temperature space radiators. The significant weight reduction was due to the radiator's unique design. It is a multi-cellular <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe radiator utilizing the lunar gravity for condensate return. The innovation of this radiator is the laminated film material used as the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe envelope. By utilizing a flexible, durable, leak tight laminate structure instead of the typical ridge <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe envelope, significant weight reductions were achieved. In addition, the resulting radiator is extremely flexible, allowing it to be rolled or folded and compactly stored during transit to the lunar surface. Testing demonstrated that a laminated film <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe radiator offers improved performance and significant weight savings over conventional space radiators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7285A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7285A"><span>Radiogenic <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> in the Gölcük Caldera and Direkli, Isparta Angle (Southwest Anatolia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ayten Uyanık, Nurten; Öncü, Ziya; Akkurt, İskender</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> is one of the important parameter due to the radioactivity has existed since beginning of universe as prediction of Big-Bang theory. In this study the radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of the Gölcük caldera and Direkli fields of the Isparta-Turkey, has been investigated. Total of 1390 data were obtained in the study area. The study area is included of the Gölcük volcanism and its around that is located in Isparta province of Turkey's Mediterranean region. The Gölcük volcanism is a young volcanism. Around this volcanism the andesite, trachy andesite, tuff, pumice and such a geological units is available. The data were collected using in-situ measurements with gamm-ray spectrometer. These measurements were covered natural radioactive elements (Uranium U, Thorium Th and Potassium K). Radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> values were calculated using the literature relationships and in-situ measurement values of these radioactive elements. Radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> map of study area were obtained using radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> values. In the map the red zone areas shows highest <span class="hlt">heat</span> values while green zones areas of the map presents lowest <span class="hlt">heat</span> values. Key words: Radioactive elements, radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span>, map, Gölcük-Direkli(Isparta), Turkey</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009567','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009567"><span>Water <span class="hlt">Based</span> Phase Change Material <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Exchanger Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, Scott W.; Sheth, Ribik B.; Atwell, Matt; Cheek, Ann; Agarwal, Muskan; Hong, Steven; Patel, Aashini,; Nguyen, Lisa; Posada, Luciano</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In a cyclical <span class="hlt">heat</span> load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft’s radiators are not sized to reject the full <span class="hlt">heat</span> load requirement. Traditionally, a supplemental <span class="hlt">heat</span> rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a “topper” to meet the additional <span class="hlt">heat</span> rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HXs do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. Studies conducted in this paper investigate utilizing water’s high latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> of formation as a PCM, as opposed to traditional waxes, and corresponding complications surrounding freezing water in an enclosed volume. Work highlighted in this study is primarily visual and includes understanding ice formation, freeze front propagation, and the solidification process of water/ice. Various test coupons were constructed of copper to emulate the interstitial pin configuration (to aid in conduction) of the proposed water PCM HX design. Construction of a prototypic HX was also completed in which a flexible bladder material and interstitial pin configurations were tested. Additionally, a microgravity flight was conducted where three copper test articles were frozen continuously during microgravity and 2-g periods and individual water droplets were frozen during microgravity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=377937','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=377937"><span>Control of Byssochlamys and Related <span class="hlt">Heat</span>-resistant Fungi in Grape <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>King, A. Douglas; Michener, H. David; Ito, Keith A.</p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span>-resistant strains of Byssochlamys fulva, B. nivea, and other <span class="hlt">heat</span>-resistant fungi were isolated from vineyard soil, grapes, grape-processing lines, and waste pomace. They are known to remain in grape juice occasionally and to grow in grape juice <span class="hlt">products</span>. Ascospores of these fungi have a D value (decimal reduction time) of about 10 min at 190 F (88 C), but in the presence of 90 μliters of SO2 per liter (normally added to the juice) the D value was cut in half. Filtration through a commercial diatomaceous filter aid (also a common processing step) entrapped all but about 0.001% of experimentally added spores. Thus, <span class="hlt">heat</span> in the presence of SO2 and filtration together can reduce the population of these spores by several orders of magnitude. Growth was also prevented by benzoate or sorbate in low concentrations. Oxygen must be reduced to extremely low levels before lack of oxygen limits growth. Images PMID:16349856</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6485220','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6485220"><span>Effects of pulse-modulated microwave radiation and conventional <span class="hlt">heating</span> on sperm <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lebovitz, R.M.; Johnson, L.; Samson, W.K.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The effects on testicular function of pulse-modulated microwave radiation (PM MWR, 1.3 GHz) and of conventional <span class="hlt">heating</span> were studied in the rat. Anesthetized adult males (Sprague-Dawley, 400-500 g) were treated then killed at specific intervals with respect to the 13-day cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. PM MWR at 7.7 mW/g (90 min) yielded a modest decline in daily sperm <span class="hlt">production</span> (DSP) that derived primarily from effects on primary spermatocytes. PM MWR at 4.2 mW/g was ineffective. The mean intratesticular temperature during the former reached 40 degrees C and did not exceed 38 degrees C during the latter. MWR considerably in excess of 7.7 mW/g yielded decrements in virtually all germ cell types, with primary spermatocytes again being most markedly affected. Using conventional <span class="hlt">heating</span>, intratesticular temperatures in excess of 39 degrees C for 60 min were required for significant decrements in DSP. Levels of circulating follicle-stimulating hormone and of leutinizing hormone were resistant to either treatment. We conclude that the damage threshold and the differential sensitivity of immature germ cells to PM MWR can be adequately explained by the consequent macroscopic <span class="hlt">heating</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JPS...125...52O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JPS...125...52O"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer characteristics of the metal hydride vessel <span class="hlt">based</span> on the plate-fin type <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oi, Tsutomu; Maki, Kohei; Sakaki, Yoshinori</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer characteristics of the metal hydride vessel <span class="hlt">based</span> on the plate-fin type <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger were investigated. Metal hydride beds were filled with AB 2 type hydrogen-storage alloy's particles, Ti 0.42Zr 0.58Cr 0.78Fe 0.57Ni 0.2Mn 0.39Cu 0.03, with a storage capacity of 0.92 wt.%. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer model in the metal hydride bed <span class="hlt">based</span> on the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer mechanism for packed bed proposed by Kunii and co-workers is presented. The time-dependent hydrogen absorption/desorption rate and pressure in the metal hydride vessel calculated by the model were compared with the experimental results. During the hydriding, calculated hydrogen absorption rates agreed with measured ones. Calculated thermal equilibrium hydrogen pressures were slightly lower than the measured hydrogen pressures at the inlet of metal hydride vessel. Taking account of the pressure gradient between the inlet of metal hydride vessel and the metal hydride bed, it is considered that this discrepancy is reasonable. During the dehydriding, there were big differences between the calculated hydrogen desorption rates and measured ones. As calculated hydrogen desorption rates were lower than measured ones, there were big differences between the calculated thermal equilibrium hydrogen pressures and the measured hydrogen pressures at the inlet of metal hydride vessel. It is considered that those differences are due to the differences of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer characteristics such as thermal conductivity of metal hydride particles and porosity between the assumed and actual ones. It is important to obtain the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer characteristics such as thermal conductivity of metal hydride particles and porosity both during the hydriding and dehydriding to design a metal hydride vessel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010116591&hterms=CFD+plume+heating&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCFD%2Bplume%2Bheating','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010116591&hterms=CFD+plume+heating&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCFD%2Bplume%2Bheating"><span>Towards Understanding the Fluid Dynamic Phenomenon of Interest to Rocket <span class="hlt">Base</span> <span class="hlt">Heating</span>: A Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Venkatapathy, E.; Park, C.; Palmer, G.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The significance of the <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> problem for rockets during ascent is due to the complex interaction between the rocket nozzle plumes and the external-flow which can change the flow characteristics in the <span class="hlt">base</span> region dramatically. At lower altitudes the external-flow merges with the plume-flow, without the formation of a large separated flow region, and the cooler external-flow promotes convective cooling of the <span class="hlt">base</span> wall. Under these conditions the majority of the <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> is due to radiative <span class="hlt">heating</span> from the shock <span class="hlt">heated</span> plume gases. At higher altitudes, however, the process of <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> is not so straightforward. The plume and the <span class="hlt">base</span> flow expands dramatically and separated flow regions occur in the <span class="hlt">base</span> area. Hot exhaust gases from the rocket nozzle will be entrained into the separated flow regions and produce a convective component to the <span class="hlt">base</span> wall <span class="hlt">heating</span>. Further, if the rocket exhaust-gas contains soot, the soot can increase the emission from the gas and dramatically increase the wall absorption coefficient for radiative <span class="hlt">heating</span> if it is deposited on the walls . In addition, if the rocket exhaust gas is fuel rich, the fuel can bum in the separated flow regions and further increase the <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span>. The <span class="hlt">base</span> burning phenomenon, and the increased <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> caused by it at higher altitudes, have been observed for the Space Shuttle and Saturn Rocket. Under these conditions, the total <span class="hlt">heating</span> is significantly higher than the <span class="hlt">heating</span> without separated flow in the <span class="hlt">base</span> region, and the increase in <span class="hlt">heating</span> is directly attributable to the fluid dynamic complexity of the <span class="hlt">base</span> region. Realistic simulation of the <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> requires that the calculated flow environment reproduce the fluid dynamic flow features accurately. Thus, it will be necessary to introduce into the CFD codes the capability for the flow to respond to the complex vehicle geometry, the effect of turbulence, the ability to accurately reproduce the plume shock/shear layer structures and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9485E..1GD','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9485E..1GD"><span>Detection of seal contamination in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-sealed food packaging <span class="hlt">based</span> on active infrared thermography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'huys, Karlien; Saeys, Wouter; De Ketelaere, Bart</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>In the food industry packaging is often applied to protect the <span class="hlt">product</span> from the environment, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the material used and the closure (seal). The material is selected <span class="hlt">based</span> on the specific needs of the food <span class="hlt">product</span> to be wrapped. However, proper closure of the package is often harder to achieve. One problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of food particles between the seal. Seal contamination can cause a decreased seal strength and thus an increased packaging failure risk. It can also trigger the formation of microchannels through which air and microorganisms can enter and spoil the enclosed food. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal-contaminated packages from the <span class="hlt">production</span> chain is essential. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the <span class="hlt">heat</span> of the sealing bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. The cooling profile of contaminated seals was recorded. The detection performance of four processing methods (<span class="hlt">based</span> on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profile, pulsed phase thermography and a matched filter) was compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify contamination. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter of 0.63 mm) and the lowest processing time (0.42 s per sample) were obtained for the method <span class="hlt">based</span> on a single frame. Presumably, practical limitations in the recording stage prevented the added value of active thermography to be fully reflected in this application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60..277R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60..277R"><span>Effects of ventilation behaviour on indoor <span class="hlt">heat</span> load <span class="hlt">based</span> on test reference years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosenfelder, Madeleine; Koppe, Christina; Pfafferott, Jens; Matzarakis, Andreas</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Since 2003, most European countries established <span class="hlt">heat</span> health warning systems to alert the population to <span class="hlt">heat</span> load. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> health warning systems are <span class="hlt">based</span> on predicted meteorological conditions outdoors. But the majority of the European population spends a substantial amount of time indoors, and indoor thermal conditions can differ substantially from outdoor conditions. The German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) extended the existing <span class="hlt">heat</span> health warning system (HHWS) with a thermal building simulation model to consider <span class="hlt">heat</span> load indoors. In this study, the thermal building simulation model is used to simulate a standardized building representing a modern nursing home, because elderly and sick people are most sensitive to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. Different types of natural ventilation were simulated. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on current and future test reference years, changes in the future <span class="hlt">heat</span> load indoors were analyzed. Results show differences between the various ventilation options and the possibility to minimize the thermal <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress during summer by using an appropriate ventilation method. Nighttime ventilation for indoor thermal comfort is most important. A fully opened window at nighttime and the 2-h ventilation in the morning and evening are more sufficient to avoid <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress than a tilted window at nighttime and the 1-h ventilation in the morning and the evening. Especially the ventilation in the morning seems to be effective to keep the <span class="hlt">heat</span> load indoors low. Comparing the results for the current and the future test reference years, an increase of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress on all ventilation types can be recognized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26049286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26049286"><span>Effects of ventilation behaviour on indoor <span class="hlt">heat</span> load <span class="hlt">based</span> on test reference years.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rosenfelder, Madeleine; Koppe, Christina; Pfafferott, Jens; Matzarakis, Andreas</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Since 2003, most European countries established <span class="hlt">heat</span> health warning systems to alert the population to <span class="hlt">heat</span> load. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> health warning systems are <span class="hlt">based</span> on predicted meteorological conditions outdoors. But the majority of the European population spends a substantial amount of time indoors, and indoor thermal conditions can differ substantially from outdoor conditions. The German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) extended the existing <span class="hlt">heat</span> health warning system (HHWS) with a thermal building simulation model to consider <span class="hlt">heat</span> load indoors. In this study, the thermal building simulation model is used to simulate a standardized building representing a modern nursing home, because elderly and sick people are most sensitive to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. Different types of natural ventilation were simulated. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on current and future test reference years, changes in the future <span class="hlt">heat</span> load indoors were analyzed. Results show differences between the various ventilation options and the possibility to minimize the thermal <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress during summer by using an appropriate ventilation method. Nighttime ventilation for indoor thermal comfort is most important. A fully opened window at nighttime and the 2-h ventilation in the morning and evening are more sufficient to avoid <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress than a tilted window at nighttime and the 1-h ventilation in the morning and the evening. Especially the ventilation in the morning seems to be effective to keep the <span class="hlt">heat</span> load indoors low. Comparing the results for the current and the future test reference years, an increase of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress on all ventilation types can be recognized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T24C..07C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T24C..07C"><span>The role of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in the generation of ultra high temperature crustal metamorphism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clark, C.; Healy, D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>How the Earth’s crust can reach temperatures greater than 900°C at depths less than 40 km to produce ultrahigh temperature (UHT) metamorphism is a question exercising the minds of many researchers. Many models of continental geothermal gradients fail to account for this type of metamorphism yet natural examples of these rocks are being identified more frequently in orogenic belts around the world. UHT metamorphism is best preserved in rocks of sedimentary origin. This is in part because sedimentary rocks have chemical compositions that generate distinctive mineral phases under conditions of extreme temperature, but there also is a strong indication that this style of metamorphism is often associated with tectonic inversion of a sedimentary basin. It is widely accepted that such high geothermal gradients require thickening of crustal rocks that are either already anomalously hot, or have the potential to become so through elevated concentrations of U, Th and K. The applicability of these models hinges on two key factors (1) that there is a threshold enrichment of the relevant crustal column in U, Th and K and (2) the crust has enough time to respond conductively to the <span class="hlt">heat</span> generated through the radioactive decay of these elements. In this presentation we will examine these two factors in an ideal natural laboratory, the Madurai Block of the Southern Granulite Terrane, India. We will constrain the duration of high-geothermal metamorphism through the application of in-situ Sensitive High Resolution Ion Probe (SHRIMP) geochronology linked to the development of UHT mineral assemblages. We will also present 1D numerical models for the temporal evolution of geothermal gradients in these rocks. Our models couple the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity and <span class="hlt">heat</span> capacity from recent studies with in-situ radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> measurements from lithologies within the Madurai Block and integrate the effect of the consumption of <span class="hlt">heat</span> due to the initiation of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26266563','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26266563"><span>MRSA decontamination using octenidine-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">products</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Danilevicius, Mindaugas; Juzéniené, Audra; Juzénaité-Karneckiené, Indré; Veršinina, Anželika</p> <p></p> <p>Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are an increasing problem worldwide with a high risk of severe illness and mortality in hospitalised patients. Patients with chronic wounds are at particular risk of developing MRSA infections. As octenidine-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">products</span> have shown promising success in decontamination in the past, the aim of the present study was to determine its efficacy, safety, and tolerability in decontaminating hospitalised MRSA-positive patients. From 1 April 2011 until 9 November 2012, 36 patients were screened MRSA-positive at the Republican Vilnius University Hospital, Vilnius, Lithuania. At least three swab tests were performed for each patient to screen for MRSA, one from each nostril and one from the perineum. In patients with wounds, an additional swab was taken from the wound surface. In the affected patients octenidine-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">products</span> were used in one or two cycles of 7 days each. In addition, adverse events were recorded and the tolerability was assessed using a 4-point scale ranging from 'very good' to 'poor'. Complete decontamination was achieved in 24 patients (67%) following treatment with the octenidine-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">products</span>. None of the patients experienced side-effects or secondary symptoms such as skin irritation or allergic reactions during the course of the study. In addition, octenidine was very well tolerated in the majority of patients (n=31; 86%). The results demonstrate that octenidine-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">products</span> are highly efficient in the multifaceted decontamination of hospitalised MRSA-positive patients. Having a range of <span class="hlt">products</span> that can be used for full body decontamination (including the scalp and nasal passages) is of particular significance when developing an MRSA decontamination protocol, as multiple parts of the body can be affected. Combined with a favourable safety and tolerability profile, octenidine-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">products</span> thus represent a good choice in multifaceted MRSA decontamination regimes, which are necessary to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSH13C2447W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSH13C2447W"><span>Magnetic Influences on Turbulent <span class="hlt">Heating</span> and Jet <span class="hlt">Production</span> in Coronal Holes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woolsey, L. N.; Cranmer, S. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">heating</span> of the solar wind from open-field regions in the corona is the subject of an ongoing body of work in the solar physics community. We present recent progress to understand the role of Alfvén-wave-driven turbulence in flux tubes open to the heliosphere. Our models use three-dimensional, time-dependent forms of the reduced magnetohydrodynamics equations to find the resulting properties of the solar wind. We use the BRAID model (van Ballegooijen et al., 2011) on open flux tubes that epitomize the most common magnetic structures in the corona: a polar coronal hole, an open flux tube on the boundary of an equatorial streamer, and one that neighbors a strong active region. Our results agree with prior work using the time-steady, one-dimensional ZEPHYR model (Cranmer et al., 2007; Woolsey and Cranmer, 2014). In addition, the time dependence in BRAID lets us explore the bursty, nanoflare-like nature of the <span class="hlt">heating</span> in these flux tubes. We find that the transient <span class="hlt">heating</span> can be captured into separate events with an average energy of 1022 erg, with a maximum energy of 1025 erg. The bursty <span class="hlt">heating</span> lead us to pursue a better understanding of the physical processes responsible for the network jets seen in IRIS data (see e.g. Tian et al., 2014). We search for correlations between the supergranular magnetic field properties—using the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager aboard SDO—and jet <span class="hlt">productivity</span> to make better estimates of the mass and energy budget of these small-scale features and to find evidence of the mechanisms responsible for the network jets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11745550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11745550"><span>Metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> as a measure of macrophage response to particles from orthopedic implant materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Charlebois, S J; Daniels, A U; Smith, R A</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>An in vitro method to gauge metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> response of macrophages (MØ) to particulates is described. Whereas the majority of work cited relies on chemical analysis to assess MØ response to particles, we have used isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) for direct continuous measurement of metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> to gauge the response. IMC is a screening method, in that it ensures that no energy-consuming phagocytic response goes undetected, and that the aggregate metabolic magnitude of the responses is determined. A four-well IMC was used in all microcalorimetric measurements. To accommodate "zero-time" monitoring of the interaction of particles and cells, a set of identical test chambers was constructed for use in the IMC. MØs were injected from outside the IMC onto particles contained in collagen or gelatin on glass coverslips at the bottom of each chamber. IMC runs were performed using MØs only, MØs and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) positive control, and MØs and clean or LPS-bound particles of either high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or cobalt-chrome alloy (CoCr). Total <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced by the negative controls (MØs alone) was lower than for MØ exposure to LPS or particles. The trend was a higher response for LPS-bound HDPE compared with clean HDPE particles, though not significant. In conclusion, our results have shown that IMC can be used to detect the <span class="hlt">heat</span> associated with the phagocytosis of particulate materials by MØs in vitro. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6762E..0GK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6762E..0GK"><span>Network-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> quality control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kwon, Yongjin; Tseng, Bill; Chiou, Richard</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>This study investigates the feasibility of remote quality control using a host of advanced automation equipment with Internet accessibility. Recent emphasis on <span class="hlt">product</span> quality and reduction of waste stems from the dynamic, globalized and customer-driven market, which brings opportunities and threats to companies, depending on the response speed and <span class="hlt">production</span> strategies. The current trends in industry also include a wide spread of distributed manufacturing systems, where design, <span class="hlt">production</span>, and management facilities are geographically dispersed. This situation mandates not only the accessibility to remotely located <span class="hlt">production</span> equipment for monitoring and control, but efficient means of responding to changing environment to counter process variations and diverse customer demands. To compete under such an environment, companies are striving to achieve 100%, sensor-<span class="hlt">based</span>, automated inspection for zero-defect manufacturing. In this study, the Internet-<span class="hlt">based</span> quality control scheme is referred to as "E-Quality for Manufacturing" or "EQM" for short. By its definition, EQM refers to a holistic approach to design and to embed efficient quality control functions in the context of network integrated manufacturing systems. Such system let designers located far away from the <span class="hlt">production</span> facility to monitor, control and adjust the quality inspection processes as <span class="hlt">production</span> design evolves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040095935&hterms=global+product&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bproduct','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040095935&hterms=global+product&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bproduct"><span>Vertical Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall <span class="hlt">Products</span> from December 1997 to November 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">heating</span> over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America ) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> (maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed <span class="hlt">heating</span> budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (<span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>) as well as improve the GCE model. Review of other latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> algorithms will be discussed in the workshop.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040095935&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtropics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040095935&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtropics"><span>Vertical Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall <span class="hlt">Products</span> from December 1997 to November 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">heating</span> over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America ) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> (maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed <span class="hlt">heating</span> budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (<span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>) as well as improve the GCE model. Review of other latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> algorithms will be discussed in the workshop.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/867128','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/867128"><span>Carbonaceous material for <span class="hlt">production</span> of hydrogen from low <span class="hlt">heating</span> value fuel gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Koutsoukos, Elias P.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A process for the catalytic <span class="hlt">production</span> of hydrogen, from a wide variety of low <span class="hlt">heating</span> value fuel gases containing carbon monoxide, comprises circulating a carbonaceous material between two reactors--a carbon deposition reactor and a steaming reactor. In the carbon deposition reactor, carbon monoxide is removed from a fuel gas and is deposited on the carbonaceous material as an active carbon. In the steaming reactor, the reactive carbon reacts with steam to give hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The carbonaceous material contains a metal component comprising from about 75% to about 95% cobalt, from about 5% to about 15% iron, and up to about 10% chromium, and is effective in suppressing the <span class="hlt">production</span> of methane in the steaming reactor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10771731','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10771731"><span>[<span class="hlt">Heat</span> exchange between human body and environment (theoretical <span class="hlt">bases</span> of physiological measurement and evaluation)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pezzagno, G</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>In the first part of this report the theory of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange between human body and external environment is developed. In particular, the problems concerning energy expenditure and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> [metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span>] during physical activity, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange between internal organs and body surface, and its elimination are considered. Proposal of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange equations (in case of conduction, convection, evaporation, radiation transport) are made, and the involved parameters and constants are indicated. Some pages are devoted to <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange through the lung and to "perspiratio insensibilis". In the second part the problems concerning the wellbeing and the thermal discomfort are discussed. A description of some widely employed indices of thermal stress, strain and comfort concludes the report [P4SR index, HSI index, ITS index, TTL index, HR index, WBGT index, TE indices]. In the end, the Fanger equations of thermal comfort are presented and discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Nanot..28i5403K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Nanot..28i5403K"><span>Conversion efficiency of an energy harvester <span class="hlt">based</span> on resonant tunneling through quantum dots with <span class="hlt">heat</span> leakage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kano, Shinya; Fujii, Minoru</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We study the conversion efficiency of an energy harvester <span class="hlt">based</span> on resonant tunneling through quantum dots with <span class="hlt">heat</span> leakage. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> leakage current from a hot electrode to a cold electrode is taken into account in the analysis of the harvester operation. Modeling of electrical output indicates that a maximum <span class="hlt">heat</span> leakage current is not negligible because it is larger than that of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> current harvested into electrical power. A reduction of <span class="hlt">heat</span> leakage is required in this energy harvester in order to obtain efficient <span class="hlt">heat</span>-to-electrical conversion. Multiple energy levels of a quantum dot can increase the output power of the harvester. Heavily doped colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are a possible candidate for a quantum-dot monolayer in the energy harvester to reduce <span class="hlt">heat</span> leakage, scaling down device size, and increasing electrical output via multiple discrete energy levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTB..tmp..325L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTB..tmp..325L"><span>Response of Cryolite-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Bath to a Shift in <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Input/output Balance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>A technology for low amperage potline operation is now recognized as a competitive advantage for the aluminum smelting industry in order to align smelter operations with the power and aluminum price markets. This study investigates the cryolite-<span class="hlt">based</span> bath response to <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance shifts when the <span class="hlt">heat</span> extraction from the bath is adjusted to different levels in a laboratory analogue. In the analogue experiments, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance shift is driven by a graphite `cold finger' <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger, which can control the <span class="hlt">heat</span> extraction from the analogue, and a corresponding change in <span class="hlt">heat</span> input from the furnace which maintains the control temperature of the lab "cell." This paper reports the first experimental results from shifting the steady state of the lab cell <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance, and investigates the effects on the frozen ledge and bath superheat. The lab cell energy balances are compared with energy balances in a published industrial cell model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTB...48.1079L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTB...48.1079L"><span>Response of Cryolite-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Bath to a Shift in <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Input/output Balance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>A technology for low amperage potline operation is now recognized as a competitive advantage for the aluminum smelting industry in order to align smelter operations with the power and aluminum price markets. This study investigates the cryolite-<span class="hlt">based</span> bath response to <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance shifts when the <span class="hlt">heat</span> extraction from the bath is adjusted to different levels in a laboratory analogue. In the analogue experiments, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance shift is driven by a graphite `cold finger' <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger, which can control the <span class="hlt">heat</span> extraction from the analogue, and a corresponding change in <span class="hlt">heat</span> input from the furnace which maintains the control temperature of the lab "cell." This paper reports the first experimental results from shifting the steady state of the lab cell <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance, and investigates the effects on the frozen ledge and bath superheat. The lab cell energy balances are compared with energy balances in a published industrial cell model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28082731','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28082731"><span>Conversion efficiency of an energy harvester <span class="hlt">based</span> on resonant tunneling through quantum dots with <span class="hlt">heat</span> leakage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kano, Shinya; Fujii, Minoru</p> <p>2017-03-03</p> <p>We study the conversion efficiency of an energy harvester <span class="hlt">based</span> on resonant tunneling through quantum dots with <span class="hlt">heat</span> leakage. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> leakage current from a hot electrode to a cold electrode is taken into account in the analysis of the harvester operation. Modeling of electrical output indicates that a maximum <span class="hlt">heat</span> leakage current is not negligible because it is larger than that of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> current harvested into electrical power. A reduction of <span class="hlt">heat</span> leakage is required in this energy harvester in order to obtain efficient <span class="hlt">heat</span>-to-electrical conversion. Multiple energy levels of a quantum dot can increase the output power of the harvester. Heavily doped colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are a possible candidate for a quantum-dot monolayer in the energy harvester to reduce <span class="hlt">heat</span> leakage, scaling down device size, and increasing electrical output via multiple discrete energy levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27869499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27869499"><span>Capsaicinoids improve egg <span class="hlt">production</span> by regulating ovary nuclear transcription factors against <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress in quail.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sahin, N; Orhan, C; Tuzcu, M; Juturu, V; Sahin, K</p> <p>2016-12-12</p> <p>To examine the molecular mechanism of capsaicinoid supplementation from capsicum extract, laying Japanese quail (n = 180, 5 weeks old) were reared either at 22°C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or at 34°C for 8 h/d (<span class="hlt">heat</span> stress, HS) and fed on one of three diets containing 0, 25 or 50 mg of capsaicinoids per kilogram for 12 weeks (2 × 3 factorial arrangement). The results revealed that exposure to HS decreased feed consumption by 10.7% and egg <span class="hlt">production</span> by 13.6%, increased serum and ovary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by 66.9% and 88.1%, respectively, and reduced ovary superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities by 28.3%, 48.7% and 43.8%, respectively. There were magnifications in the ovary nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB) levels by 42.4% and suppressions in nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), protein kinase B (Akt) and haem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) levels by 29.2%, 38.2% and 30.7%, respectively, in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed quail. With increasing supplemental capsaicinoids, there were linear increases in egg <span class="hlt">production</span>, antioxidant enzyme activity, linear decreases in ovary MDA and NF-κB levels and linear increases in ovary Nrf2, Akt and HO-1 levels at a greater extent in quail reared under TN condition than those reared under HS condition. Two-way treatment interactions showed that the degree of restorations in all response variables was more notable under the HS environment than under the TN environment as supplemental capsaicinoid level was increased. In conclusion, capsaicinoid supplementation alleviates oxidative stress through regulating the ovary nuclear transcription factors in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed quail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26953943','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26953943"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Energy Efficiency of Broilers Infected With Necrotic Enteritis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>M'Sadeq, Shawkat A; Wu, Shu-Biao; Choct, Mingan; Swick, Robert A</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Necrotic enteritis (NE) in poultry is the most important bacterial disease in terms of economic losses. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of an experimental challenge with necrotic enteritis on respiration and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in birds pretreated with dietary acylated starch or antibiotics (AB) zinc bacitracin (50 mg/kg) plus salinomycin (60 mg/kg). In total, 48 1-day-old Ross 308 male broilers were assigned to floor pens until day 10. On day 11, birds were randomly placed into 16 calorimetric chambers with four replicates of three birds per treatment. Treatments were: control, AB, acetylated high-amylose maize starch (SA), or butyrylated high-amylose maize starch (SB). Birds were NE challenged by inoculation with 5000 sporulated oocysts each of Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina and 2500 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria brunetti on day 9 and Clostridium perfringens (3.8 × 10(8) colony-forming units) on day 14. The results showed that <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (HP), respiratory quotient (RQ), <span class="hlt">heat</span> increment, weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), and livability (LV) of birds fed control, SA, and SB diets were lower than birds fed AB at 19 and 42 hr postinoculation (P < 0.05). At 65 hr postchallenge, increased FI and WG of birds were observed, indicating recovery from NE. During the entire period, from day 14 to day 17, birds fed control, SA, and SB had lower WG, FI, HP, RQ, metabolizable energy intake (MEI), and metabolizable energy (P < 0.01) than those fed AB. The data demonstrate that Eimeria sp. and C. perfringens challenge reduces growth performance, HP, RQ, metabolizable energy, and MEI of birds fed control, SA, and SB but not AB diets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25084057','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25084057"><span>Gas <span class="hlt">production</span> and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance <span class="hlt">heating</span> of water and trichloroethene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hegele, P R; Mumford, K G</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The effective remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones using in situ thermal treatment requires successful capture of gas that is produced. Replicate electrical resistance <span class="hlt">heating</span> experiments were performed in a thin bench-scale apparatus, where water was boiled and pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) trichloroethene (TCE) and water were co-boiled in unconsolidated silica sand. Quantitative light transmission visualization was used to assess gas <span class="hlt">production</span> and transport mechanisms. In the water boiling experiments, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the gas phase into connected channels were observed at critical gas saturations of Sgc=0.233±0.017, which allowed for continuous gas transport out of the sand. In experiments containing a colder region above a target <span class="hlt">heated</span> zone, condensation prevented the formation of steam channels and discrete gas clusters that mobilized into colder regions were trapped soon after discontinuous transport began. In the TCE-water experiments, co-boiling at immiscible fluid interfaces resulted in discontinuous gas transport above the DNAPL pool. Redistribution of DNAPL was also observed above the pool and at the edge of the vapor front that propagated upwards through colder regions. These results suggest that the subsurface should be <span class="hlt">heated</span> to water boiling temperatures to facilitate gas transport from specific locations of DNAPL to extraction points and reduce the potential for DNAPL redistribution. Decreases in electric current were observed at the onset of gas phase <span class="hlt">production</span>, which suggests that coupled electrical current and temperature measurements may provide a reliable metric to assess gas phase development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCHyd.165...24H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCHyd.165...24H"><span>Gas <span class="hlt">production</span> and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance <span class="hlt">heating</span> of water and trichloroethene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hegele, P. R.; Mumford, K. G.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The effective remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones using in situ thermal treatment requires successful capture of gas that is produced. Replicate electrical resistance <span class="hlt">heating</span> experiments were performed in a thin bench-scale apparatus, where water was boiled and pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) trichloroethene (TCE) and water were co-boiled in unconsolidated silica sand. Quantitative light transmission visualization was used to assess gas <span class="hlt">production</span> and transport mechanisms. In the water boiling experiments, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the gas phase into connected channels were observed at critical gas saturations of Sgc = 0.233 ± 0.017, which allowed for continuous gas transport out of the sand. In experiments containing a colder region above a target <span class="hlt">heated</span> zone, condensation prevented the formation of steam channels and discrete gas clusters that mobilized into colder regions were trapped soon after discontinuous transport began. In the TCE-water experiments, co-boiling at immiscible fluid interfaces resulted in discontinuous gas transport above the DNAPL pool. Redistribution of DNAPL was also observed above the pool and at the edge of the vapor front that propagated upwards through colder regions. These results suggest that the subsurface should be <span class="hlt">heated</span> to water boiling temperatures to facilitate gas transport from specific locations of DNAPL to extraction points and reduce the potential for DNAPL redistribution. Decreases in electric current were observed at the onset of gas phase <span class="hlt">production</span>, which suggests that coupled electrical current and temperature measurements may provide a reliable metric to assess gas phase development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26937586','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26937586"><span>Isolation and identification of oxidation <span class="hlt">products</span> of guaiacol from brines and <span class="hlt">heated</span> meat matrix.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bölicke, Sarah-Maria; Ternes, Waldemar</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this study we investigated the formation of the oxidation <span class="hlt">products</span> of guaiacol in brines and <span class="hlt">heated</span> meat matrix: 6-nitrosoguaiacol, 4-nitroguaiacol and 6-nitroguaiacol. For this purpose we applied a newly developed HPLC-UV and LC-MS method. For the first time, 6-nitrosoguaiacol was determined in brine and meat (containing guaiacol and sodium nitrite), which had been <span class="hlt">heated</span> to 80°C and subsequently subjected to simulated digestion. Application of 500mg/L ascorbic acid to the brines reduced guaiacol degradation at pH3 and simultaneously inhibited the formation of 6-nitrosoguaiacol compared to brines containing only 100mg/L of ASC. The oxidation <span class="hlt">products</span> were isolated with a new extraction method from meat samples containing 400mg/kg sodium nitrite at pH3.6 following simulated digestion. When oxygen was added, 6-nitrosoguaiacol was determined even at legally allowed levels (150mg/kg) of the curing agent. Finally, we developed a new LC-MS method for the separation and qualitative determination of the four main smoke methoxyphenols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28489201','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28489201"><span>Water temperature, body mass and fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aguilar, Fredy A A; Cruz, Thaline M P DA; Mourão, Gerson B; Cyrino, José Eurico P</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Knowledge on fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (HEf) of fish is key to develop bioenergetics models thus improving feeding management of farmed species. The core of knowledge on HEf of farmed, neotropical fish is scarce. This study assessed the effect of body mass and water temperature on standard metabolism and fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, an omnivore, Neotropical fresh water characin important for farming and fisheries industries all through South American continent. An automated, intermittent flow respirometry system was used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR) of pacu (17 - 1,050 g) at five water temperatures: 19, 23, 26, 29 and 33 °C. Mass specific SMR increased with increasing water temperature but decreased as function of body mass. The allometric exponent for scaling HEf was 0.788, and lied in the range recorded for all studied warm-water fish. The recorded van't Hoff factor (Q10) for pacu (2.06) shows the species low response to temperature increases. The model HEf = 0.04643×W0.7882×T1.837 allows to predict HEf (kJ d-1) from body mass (W, kg) and water temperature (T, °C), and can be used in bioenergetical models for the species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......192S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......192S"><span>Hysteresis <span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> induction bonding of composite materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suwanwatana, Witchuda</p> <p></p> <p>The viability of using magnetic particulate susceptor materials for induction <span class="hlt">heating</span> during bonding of polymer matrix composites is well established in this work. The unique ability to offer localized <span class="hlt">heating</span>, geometric flexibility, and self-controlled temperature is the major advantage of this technique. Hysteresis <span class="hlt">heating</span> is tailored through careful design of the microstructure of nickel particulate polymer films (Ni/PSU). An excellent <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate can be attained in the frequency range of 1 to 10 MHz for particle volume fraction below percolation of 0.26. The diameter of nickel particle should be kept between 65 nm to 10 mum to ensure multi-domain <span class="hlt">heating</span>, Curie temperature control, negligible shielding effect, minimum eddy current, and slight particle oxidation. The hysteresis <span class="hlt">heating</span> behavior of the Ni/PSU films is found to be volumetric in nature and proportional to the cube of applied magnetic field. On the other hand, <span class="hlt">heat</span> generation is inversely proportional to the size of the multi-domain particles. The frequency effect; however, provide maximum <span class="hlt">heat</span> generation at the domain wall resonance frequency. Curie temperature control is observed when sufficiently high magnetic fields (˜138 Oe) are applied. The master curves of AC <span class="hlt">heat</span> generation in Ni/PSU films are established and show a strong particle size effect. Hysteresis fusion bonding of glass/polyphenylene sulfide thermoplastic composites using a magnetic film as the thermoplastic adhesive shows that the bond strength of hysteresis-welded materials is comparable to that of autoclave-welded materials while offering an order of magnitude reduction in cycle time. The relative contribution of the intimate contact and healing mechanisms to the fusion bonding process indicates that hysteresis bonding is controlled by intimate contact. The macroscopic failure modes vary from mostly adhesive composite/film (low bond strength) to a combination of adhesive composite/film, cohesive film, cohesive composite and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20133100','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20133100"><span>Acid and <span class="hlt">base</span> degraded <span class="hlt">products</span> of ketorolac.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salaris, Margherita; Nieddu, Maria; Rubattu, Nicola; Testa, Cecilia; Luongo, Elvira; Rimoli, Maria Grazia; Boatto, Gianpiero</p> <p>2010-06-05</p> <p>The stability of ketorolac tromethamine was investigated in acid (0.5M HCl) and alkaline conditions (0.5M NaOH), using the same procedure reported by Devarajan et al. [2]. The acid and <span class="hlt">base</span> degradation <span class="hlt">products</span> were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=233020','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=233020"><span>Development of Cotton-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Nonwovens <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This article briefly describes the planned or projected developments of cotton-<span class="hlt">based</span> nonwoven <span class="hlt">products</span>, using state-of-the art technologies and equipment that now, after the devastating hurricane Katrina, have been made available for research at the Southern Regional Reserach Center. Although we sti...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...64a2094M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...64a2094M"><span>Optimization <span class="hlt">based</span> inversion method for the inverse <span class="hlt">heat</span> conduction problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mu, Huaiping; Li, Jingtao; Wang, Xueyao; Liu, Shi</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Precise estimation of the thermal physical properties of materials, boundary conditions, <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux distributions, <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources and initial conditions is highly desired for real-world applications. The inverse <span class="hlt">heat</span> conduction problem (IHCP) analysis method provides an alternative approach for acquiring such parameters. The effectiveness of the inversion algorithm plays an important role in practical applications of the IHCP method. Different from traditional inversion models, in this paper a new inversion model that simultaneously highlights the measurement errors and the inaccurate properties of the forward problem is proposed to improve the inversion accuracy and robustness. A generalized cost function is constructed to convert the original IHCP into an optimization problem. An iterative scheme that splits a complicated optimization problem into several simpler sub-problems and integrates the superiorities of the alternative optimization method and the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) algorithm is developed for solving the proposed cost function. Numerical experiment results validate the effectiveness of the proposed inversion method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014icee.book..171H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014icee.book..171H"><span>Design of Biomass Gasification and Combined <span class="hlt">Heat</span> and Power Plant <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Laboratory Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haydary, Juma; Jelemenský, Ľudovít</p> <p></p> <p>Three types of wooden biomass were characterized by calorimetric measurements, proximate and elemental analysis, thermogravimetry, kinetics of thermal decomposition and gas composition. Using the Aspen steady state simulation, a plant with the processing capacity of 18 ton/h of biomass was modelled <span class="hlt">based</span> on the experimental data obtained under laboratory conditions. The gasification process has been modelled in two steps. The first step of the model describes the thermal decomposition of the biomass <span class="hlt">based</span> on a kinetic model and in the second step, the equilibrium composition of syngas is calculated by the Gibbs free energy of the expected components. The computer model of the plant besides the reactor model includes also a simulation of other plant facilities such as: feed drying employing the energy from the process, ash and tar separation, gas-steam cycle, and hot water <span class="hlt">production</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers. The effect of the steam to air ratio on the conversion, syngas composition, and reactor temperature was analyzed. Employment of oxygen and air for partial combustion was compared. The designed computer model using all Aspen simulation facilities can be applied to study different aspects of biomass gasification in a Combined <span class="hlt">Heat</span> and Power plant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7263360','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7263360"><span>Acid-<span class="hlt">base</span> regulation during <span class="hlt">heating</span> and cooling in the lizard, Varanus exanthematicus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wood, S C; Johansen, K; Glass, M L; Hoyt, R W</p> <p>1981-04-01</p> <p>Current concepts of acid-<span class="hlt">base</span> balance in ectothermic animals require that arterial pH vary inversely with body temperature in order to maintain a constant OH-/H+ and constant net charge on proteins. The present study evaluates acid-<span class="hlt">base</span> regulation in Varanus exanthematicus under various regimes of <span class="hlt">heating</span> and cooling between 15 and 38 degrees C. Arterial blood was sampled during <span class="hlt">heating</span> and cooling at various rates, using restrained and unrestrained animals with and without face masks. Arterial pH was found to have a small temperature dependence, i.e., pH = 7.66--0.005 (T). The slope (dpH/dT = -0.005), while significantly greater than zero (P less than 0.05), is much less than that required for a constant OH-/H+ or a constant imidazole alphastat (dpH/dT congruent to 0.018). The physiological mechanism that distinguishes this species from most other ectotherms is the presence of a ventilatory response to temperature-induced changes in CO2 <span class="hlt">production</span> and O2 uptake, i.e., VE/VO2 is constant. This results in a constant O2 extraction and arterial saturation (approx. 90%), which is adaptive to the high aerobic requirements of this species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1877i0001A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1877i0001A"><span>Experimental determination of nanofluid specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> with SiO2 nanoparticles in different <span class="hlt">base</span> fluids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akilu, S.; Baheta, A. T.; Sharma, K. V.; Said, M. A.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Nanostructured ceramic materials have recently attracted attention as promising <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer fluid additives owing to their outstanding <span class="hlt">heat</span> storage capacities. In this paper, experimental measurements of the specific <span class="hlt">heats</span> of SiO2-Glycerol, SiO2-Ethylene Glycol, and SiO2-Glycerol/Ethylene Glycol mixture 60:40 ratio (by mass) nanofluids with different volume concentrations of 1.0-4.0% have been carried out using differential scanning calorimeter at temperatures of 25 °C and 50 °C. Experimental results indicate lower specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> capacities are found with SiO2 nanofluids compared to their respective <span class="hlt">base</span> fluids. The specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> was decreasing with the increase of concentration, and this decrement depends on upon the type of the <span class="hlt">base</span> fluid. It is observed that temperature has a positive impact on the specific <span class="hlt">heat</span> capacity. Furthermore, the experimental values were compared with the theoretical model predictions, and a satisfactory agreement was established.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0693859','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0693859"><span><span class="hlt">HEAT</span>-RESISTANT MATERIAL WITH SILICON CARBIDE AS A <span class="hlt">BASE</span>,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A new high-temperature material, termed SG-60, is a silicon carbide -graphite composite in which the graphite is the thermostability carrier since it...is more <span class="hlt">heat</span>-conducting and softer (<span class="hlt">heat</span> conductivity of graphite is 0.57 cal/g-cm-sec compared with 0.02 cal/g-cm-sec for silicon carbide ) while... silicon carbide is the carrier of high-temperature strength and hardness. The high covalent bonding strength of the atoms of silicon carbide (283 kcal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/722564','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/722564"><span>Tension and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during isometric contractions and shortening in the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gilbert, S H</p> <p>1978-09-01</p> <p>1. Tension and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> were measured during phasic isometric contractions and isovelocity shortening in the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of Mytilus edulis at 20 degrees C. 2. Isometric tension at lo was 550 +/- 40 mN/mm2 (S.D. for 173 observations in nine muscles), while the isometric maintenance <span class="hlt">heat</span> rate was 1.0 +/- 0.2 mW/g wet wt. (S.D. for seventy-eight observations in eight muscles). 3. Isometric tension and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> were measured as functions of muscle length over a range of 0.79--1.14 lo and were found to bear a linear relation to each other. 4. The force-velocity relation was determined in isovelocity releases imposed during tetanic stimulation and was found to fit the Hill equation with parameters alpha/Po = 0.07 +/- 0.01 and b/lo = 0.016 +/- 0.0007 sec-1 (S.E. from non-linear least-squares regression of the pooled data from seven experiments). 5. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> measured in the same experiments showed that shortening <span class="hlt">heat</span> is produced with a shortening <span class="hlt">heat</span> coefficient alpha/Po of 0.15. Shortening <span class="hlt">heat</span> does not appear to be force-dependent, and separate experiments confirmed that it is a linear function of the amount of shortening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.C41C0214G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.C41C0214G"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> Flux Comparison Using Buoy- and SAR-derived Motion <span class="hlt">Products</span> From ISW 1992</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geiger, C. A.; Drinkwater, M. R.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Sea-ice kinematics relevant to surface fluxes using ERS-1 SAR images coincident with buoys in the western Weddell Sea in Austral Autumn of 1992 is examined. Using a toy model, effects of aliasing in surface flux determination are tested. Results show variability associated with storms, ocean tides, inertial oscillations, and other high frequency forcing affects integrated sea-ice growth rates along this shelf/slope location. Integrated salt and new ice <span class="hlt">production</span> rates computed from buoys are found to be two times larger than those using ERS-1 SAR motion <span class="hlt">products</span>. Cognizant of the limitations in satellite image pairs separated by time, we report on differences in salt and ice <span class="hlt">production</span> rates, it follows directly that the differences in salt and ice <span class="hlt">production</span> rates result primarily from inadequate temporal resolution of shorter than daily (sub-daily) <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux variability and sea-ice divergence. Comparison with other studies shows the problem is widespread thereby impacting the modeling of sea-ice mass balance and variability. These small-scale processes have significant ramifications to larger scales and the global thermohaline circulation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.T14A..04H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.T14A..04H"><span>Evolution Of The West Antarctic Rift System And the Importance of Crustal <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huerta, A. D.; Harry, D. L.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p> boundary due to <span class="hlt">heat</span> conducted from the warm East Antarctic crust. Thus, crustal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> can play an important role in controlling the deformational evolution of extensional systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cmns...11..178K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cmns...11..178K"><span>Excess <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> in Pd/D during Periodic Pulse Discharge Current in Various Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karabut, A. B.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>Experimental data from low-energy nuclear reactions (LERN) in condensed media are presented. The nuclear reactions <span class="hlt">products</span> were found in solid cathode media used in glow discharge. Apparently, the nuclear reactions were initiated when bombarding the cathode surface by plasma ions with the energy of 1.0-2.0 keV. Excess <span class="hlt">heat</span> from a high current glow discharge reaction in D2, Xe, and Kr using cathodes already charged with preliminary deuterium-charged Pd and Ti cathode samples are given. Excess <span class="hlt">heat</span> up to 10-15 W and efficiency up to 130% was recorded under the experiments for Pd cathode samples in D2 discharge. Excess <span class="hlt">heat</span> up to 5 W and efficiency up to 150% was recorded for Pd cathodes that were charged with deuterium before the run, in Xe and Kr discharges. At the same time excess <span class="hlt">heat</span> was not observed for pure Pd cathode samples in Xe and Kr discharges. The formation of impurity nuclides (7Li, 13C, 15N, 20Ne, 29Si, 44Ca, 48Ca, 56Fe, 57Fe, 59Co, 64Zn, 66Zn, 75As, 107Ag, 109Ag, 110Cg, 111Cg, 112Cg, 114Cg, and 115In) with the efficiency up to 1013 at./s was recorded. The isotopic ratios of these new nuclides ware quite different from the natural ratios. Soft X-ray radiation from the solid-state cathode with the intensity up to 0.01 Gy/s was recorded in experiments with discharges in H2, D2, Ar, Xe, and Kr. The X-ray radiation was observed in bursts of up to 106 photons, with up to 105 bursts per second while the discharge was formed and within 100 ms after turning off the discharge current. The results of the X-ray radiation registration showed that the exited energy levels have a lifetime up to 100 ms or more, and the energy of 1.2-2.5 keV. A possible mechanism for producing excess <span class="hlt">heat</span> and nuclear transmutation reactions in the solid medium with the exited energy levels is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HTMP...36..441H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HTMP...36..441H"><span>Analysis of Power Supply <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Effect during High Temperature Experiments <span class="hlt">Based</span> on the Electromagnetic Steel Teeming Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, Ming; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Xin'an; Shi, Chunyang; Liu, Tie; He, Jicheng</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>For further lowering inclusions and improving the quality of steel, a new electromagnetic steel-teeming technology <span class="hlt">based</span> on electromagnetic induction <span class="hlt">heating</span> was proposed. To assess the proposed technology, an experimental platform that imitates the actual <span class="hlt">production</span> condition of steelmakers was established. High temperature experiments were performed to investigate the melting length of Fe-C alloy under different power and frequency conditions. The <span class="hlt">heating</span> effect was analyzed, and the method of magnetic shielding to reduce the power loss of power supply was put forward. The results show that when the power is 40 kW and frequency is 25 kHz, the melting length of the Fe-C alloy is 89.2 mm in 120 s, which meets the requirements of steel teeming. In addition, when magnetic shielding material is installed under the induction coil, the power loss is reduced by about 64 %, effectively improving the <span class="hlt">heating</span> effect of power supply.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPES....2..756G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPES....2..756G"><span>Thermodynamic Analysis of the Use a Chemical <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Pump to Link a Supercritical Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactor and a Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycle for Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.; Pioro, Igor</p> <p></p> <p> of the combined system comprising a SCW nuclear power generation plant and a chemical <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump, which provides high-temperature <span class="hlt">heat</span> to a thermochemical water splitting cycle for hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>. It is concluded that the proposed chemical <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump permits the utilization efficiency of nuclear energy to be improved by at least 2% without jeopardizing nuclear reactor safety. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on this analysis, further research appears to be merited on the proposed advanced design of a nuclear power generation plant combined with a chemical <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump, and implementation in appropriate applications seems worthwhile.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60.1377S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60.1377S"><span>Assessment of <span class="hlt">heat</span> tolerance and <span class="hlt">production</span> performance of Aardi, Damascus, and their crossbred goats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samara, Emad Mohammed; Abdoun, Khalid Ahmed; Okab, Aly Bassunny; Al-Badwi, Mohammed Abdo; El-Zarei, Mohamed Fawzy; Al-Seaf, Ali Mohamed; Al-Haidary, Ahmed Abrahim</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The question of whether the adaptability and <span class="hlt">production</span> performance in goats may be enhanced using a crossbreeding program between bucks of a native and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-tolerant breed and does of an exotic and dual-purpose breed was approached and examined herein by comparing purebred Aardi and Damascus goats and their crossbred lines (i.e., 1/2 Aardi 1/2 Damascus (½A½D) and 1/4 Aardi 3/4 Damascus (¼A¾D)) reared in a region characterized by dry and hot bioclimatic conditions. Twenty-four male 6-month-old kids randomly segregated into four groups (six replicates/group) were used for the experiment. Climatic, thermo-physiological, biophysiological, metabolic, blood hematological, and biochemical measurements were all determined. The obtained results indicated that such a program was proven to be successful. This conclusion was demonstrated by the findings that crossbred goats (i.e., 1/2A1/2D and 1/4A3/4D) under such bioclimatic conditions were able to show ( P < 0.05) higher <span class="hlt">heat</span> tolerance capabilities compared to purebred Damascus goats as well as manifested ( P < 0.05) higher <span class="hlt">production</span> performance compared to the purebred Aardi goats. Accordingly, these evidences could emphasize that the crossbreeding may enable these animals to display a simultaneous improvement of both traits by the possible benefits that could arise from heterosis and breed complementarity. Researches dealing with this aspect may very well improve our understanding of goat's <span class="hlt">production</span> and welfare under harsh environmental conditions. Future studies should include an economic analysis of traits that have the potential to impact the overall profitability to a vertically coordinated system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5665279','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5665279"><span>Application of <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Pump Dehumidification : A Case Study : Drying Lumber at Diamond Wood <span class="hlt">Products</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilson, James B.</p> <p>1990-09-01</p> <p>A case study was conducted of a new dehumidification kiln used for drying four-quarter red alder. To determine the energy and drying costs, the study included the measurement of all process parameters such as electricity and natural gas use, water extraction, wet- and dry-bulb temperatures, venting, and total drying. For comparative purposes wood from the same source was dried in a conventional kiln and similar measurements were taken. Dehumidification equipment is essentially a <span class="hlt">heat</span> recovery system <span class="hlt">based</span> on a refrigeration unit that condenses the water vapor in the kiln onto a cold coil where the <span class="hlt">heat</span> of condensation is transferred to the refrigerant. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> in the refrigerant is then pumped back into the kiln to maintain drying. The potential exists to reduce dehumidification drying costs by following recommended changes to equipment and operation. There were a number of reasons why the dehumidification kiln did not function as expected, some of which can be corrected to improve both energy efficiency and drying cost. Although the dehumidification kiln studied did not provide the drying cost and energy savings expected, dehumidification drying of wood should not be excluded as an alternative drying method when considering new equipment for most lumber species. A properly designed and installed system can offer significant energy and cost savings over conventional kilns. 10 figs., 11 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040035731&hterms=global+product&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bproduct','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040035731&hterms=global+product&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bproduct"><span>Vertical Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release over the Global Tropics Using TRMM Rainfall <span class="hlt">Products</span> from December 1997 to November 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">heating</span> over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> (maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in straitform percentage estimates from PR on latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMXX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM- LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed <span class="hlt">heating</span> budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (<span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>) as well as improve the GCE model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030020782&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtropics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030020782&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtropics"><span>Vertical Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM rainfall <span class="hlt">products</span> from December 1997 to November 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2001. Rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DE 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">heating</span> over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs. west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> (maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in strtaiform percentage estimates from PR on latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed <span class="hlt">heating</span> budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (<span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>) as well as improve the GCE model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040035731&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtropics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040035731&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtropics"><span>Vertical Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release over the Global Tropics Using TRMM Rainfall <span class="hlt">Products</span> from December 1997 to November 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">heating</span> over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> (maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in straitform percentage estimates from PR on latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMXX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM- LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed <span class="hlt">heating</span> budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (<span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>) as well as improve the GCE model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020081030&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtropics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020081030&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtropics"><span>Vertical Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release Over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall <span class="hlt">Products</span> from December 1997 to November 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">heating</span> over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> (maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed <span class="hlt">heating</span> budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (<span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>) as well as improve the GCE model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030020782&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtropics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030020782&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtropics"><span>Vertical Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM rainfall <span class="hlt">products</span> from December 1997 to November 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2001. Rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DE 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">heating</span> over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs. west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> (maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in strtaiform percentage estimates from PR on latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed <span class="hlt">heating</span> budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (<span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>) as well as improve the GCE model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020081030&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtropics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020081030&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtropics"><span>Vertical Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release Over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall <span class="hlt">Products</span> from December 1997 to November 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">heating</span> over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> (maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed <span class="hlt">heating</span> budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (<span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>) as well as improve the GCE model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..95c2132H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..95c2132H"><span>Measurement-<span class="hlt">based</span> formulation of quantum <span class="hlt">heat</span> engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hayashi, Masahito; Tajima, Hiroyasu</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>There exist two formulations for quantum <span class="hlt">heat</span> engines that model energy transfer between two microscopic systems. One is the semiclassical scenario and the other is the full quantum scenario. The former is formulated as unitary evolution for the internal system and is adopted by the statistical mechanics community. In the latter, the whole process is formulated as unitary and is adopted by the quantum information community. This paper proposes a model for quantum <span class="hlt">heat</span> engines that transfer energy from a collection of microscopic systems to a macroscopic system like a fuel cell. In such a situation, the amount of extracted work is visible for a human. For this purpose, we formulate a quantum <span class="hlt">heat</span> engine as the measurement process whose measurement outcome is the amount of extracted work. Under this model, we derive a suitable energy-conservation law and propose a more concrete submodel. Then we derive a trade-off relation between the measurability of the amount of work extraction and the coherence of the internal system, which limits the applicability of the semiclassical scenario to a <span class="hlt">heat</span> engine transferring energy from a collection of microscopic systems to a macroscopic system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED198312.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED198312.pdf"><span>Air Conditioning, <span class="hlt">Heating</span>, and Refrigeration. Competency-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Curriculum Manual.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gourley, Frank A., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>This manual was developed to serve as an aid to administrators and instructors involved with postsecondary air conditioning, <span class="hlt">heating</span>, and refrigeration programs. The first of six chapters contains general information on program implementation, the curriculum design, facilities and equipment requirements, and textbooks and references. Chapter 2…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.745c2096I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.745c2096I"><span>Thermal evaluation of water-<span class="hlt">based</span> alumina nanofluid in an electronic <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Issa, R. J.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>An experimental study was conducted to investigate the thermal performance of a water-<span class="hlt">based</span> Al2O3 nanofluid in an electronic <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink application. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer tests were carried out using 20 nm alumina particles at a concentration of 5% by mass, and a coolant temperature ranging from 47 to 57 oC. The results were compared to a baseline case using deionized water as a coolant. Thermal conductivity and viscosity tests conducted on alumina nanofluids show both parameters increase with nanoparticles mass concentration. Alumina nanofluid with 5% nanoparticles mass concentration behaves as a shear thinning fluid. Tests conducted on an electronic <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink show <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux and coolant <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient increase with bulk mass flow rate. Compared to cooling by deionized water, the average increase in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient using water-<span class="hlt">based</span> alumina nanofluid as a coolant was about 20%, while the average increase in <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux was about 24%. An additional decrease in the <span class="hlt">heated</span> wall cross-section temperature between 4.1 and 4.9 oC is also seen. For the same pumping power, the presence of nanoparticles in the <span class="hlt">base</span> fluid is shown to have a significant effect on the increase in <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050111470','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050111470"><span>Asymmetric <span class="hlt">Base</span>-Bleed Effect on Aerospike Plume-Induced <span class="hlt">Base-Heating</span> Environment During Power-Pack Out</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Ten-See; Droege, Alan; D'Agostino, Mark; Lee, Young-Ching; Williams, Robert</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A computational <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer design methodology was developed to study tbe dual-engine linear aerospike plume-induced <span class="hlt">base-heating</span> environment during one power-pack out, in ascent flight. It includes a three-dimensional, finite volume, viscous, chemically reacting, and pressure-<span class="hlt">based</span> computational fluid dynamics formulation, a special <span class="hlt">base</span>-bleed boundary condition, and a three-dimensional, finite volume, and spectral-line-<span class="hlt">based</span> weighted-sum-of-gray-gases absorption computational radiation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer formulation. A separate radiation model was used for diagnostic purposes. The computational methodology was systematically benchmarked. in this study, near-<span class="hlt">base</span> radiative <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes were computed, and they compared well with those measured during static linear aerospike engine tests. The <span class="hlt">base-heating</span> environment of 18 trajectory points secected from three power-pack out scenarios was computed. The computed asymmetric <span class="hlt">base-heating</span> physics were analyzed. The power-pack out condition has the most impact on convective <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> when it happens early in flight. The soume of its impact comes from the asymmetric and reduced <span class="hlt">base</span> bleed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf"><span>24 CFR 200.950 - Building <span class="hlt">product</span> standards and certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Systems...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf"><span>24 CFR 200.950 - Building <span class="hlt">product</span> standards and certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Systems...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf"><span>24 CFR 200.950 - Building <span class="hlt">product</span> standards and certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Systems...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf"><span>24 CFR 200.950 - Building <span class="hlt">product</span> standards and certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Systems...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf"><span>24 CFR 200.950 - Building <span class="hlt">product</span> standards and certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Systems...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/183283','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/183283"><span>Technical and economic analyses of hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> via indirectly <span class="hlt">heated</span> gasification and pyrolysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mann, M.K.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>Technoeconomic analyses have been conducted on two processes to produce hydrogen from biomass: indirectly-<span class="hlt">heated</span> gasification of biomass followed by steam reforming of the syngas, and biomass pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. The analysis of the gasification-<span class="hlt">based</span> process was highly detailed, including a process flowsheet, material and energy balances calculated with a process simulation program, equipment cost estimation, and the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen. The pyrolysis-<span class="hlt">based</span> process analysis was of a less detailed nature, as all necessary experimental data have not been obtained; this analysis is a follow-up to the preliminary economic analysis presented at the 1994 Hydrogen Program Review. A coproduct option in which pyrolysis oil is used to produce hydrogen and a commercial adhesive was also studied for economic viability. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on feedstock availability estimates, three plant sizes were studied: 907 T/day, 272 T/day, and 27 T/day. The necessary selling price of hydrogen produced by steam reforming syngas from the Battelle Columbus Laboratories indirectly <span class="hlt">heated</span> biomass gasifier falls within current market values for the large and medium size plants within a wide range of feedstock costs. Results show that the small scale plant does not produce hydrogen at economically competitive prices, indicating that if gasification is used as the upstream process to produce hydrogen, local refueling stations similar to current gasoline stations, would probably not be feasible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990HM.....44..125K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990HM.....44..125K"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in Littorina saxatilis Olivi and Littorina neritoides L. (gastropoda: Prosobranchia) during an experimental exposure to air</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kronberg, Inge</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>The adaptation of littorinid molluscs to prolonged aerial exposure was investigated by the determination of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. Littorina saxatilis, inhabiting the upper eulittoral, reached a maximum metabolic activity during submersion (<span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>: 3.26×10-3J s-1 (gadw)-1. On the first three days of desiccation, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was continuously reduced to 40% of the submersed value. A prolonged aerial exposure was lethal for this species. In the supralittoral L. neritoides, three stages of energy metabolism could be observed: An intermediate <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during submersion (1.97×10-3Js-1 (gadw)-1), an increased metabolism during the first hour of aerial exposure (<span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> 204% of submersed value), and a minimal metabolism (39% of the submersed value and 19% of maximum value) during the following days and weeks of desiccation. Recovery depended on water salinity; L. saxatilis proved to be less euryhaline than L. neritoides. Thus, the metabolic adaptations correlate with the level of littoral habitat; inactivity combined with a drastically reduced energy consumption is a metabolically economic way to survive in periodically dry environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hot&pg=5&id=EJ1104568','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hot&pg=5&id=EJ1104568"><span>Repairing Student Misconceptions in <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Transfer Using Inquiry-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Prince, Michael; Vigeant, Margot; Nottis, Katharyn</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Eight inquiry-<span class="hlt">based</span> activities, described here in sufficient detail for faculty to adopt in their own courses, were designed to teach students fundamental concepts in <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer. The concept areas chosen were (1) factors affecting the rate vs. amount of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer, (2) temperature vs. perceptions of hot and cold, (3) temperature vs. energy…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=color+AND+energy&id=EJ1104568','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=color+AND+energy&id=EJ1104568"><span>Repairing Student Misconceptions in <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Transfer Using Inquiry-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Prince, Michael; Vigeant, Margot; Nottis, Katharyn</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Eight inquiry-<span class="hlt">based</span> activities, described here in sufficient detail for faculty to adopt in their own courses, were designed to teach students fundamental concepts in <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer. The concept areas chosen were (1) factors affecting the rate vs. amount of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer, (2) temperature vs. perceptions of hot and cold, (3) temperature vs. energy…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24316604','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24316604"><span>Different assay conditions for detecting the <span class="hlt">production</span> and release of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-labile and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable toxins in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rocha, Letícia B; Ozaki, Christiane Y; Horton, Denise S P Q; Menezes, Caroline A; Silva, Anderson; Fernandes, Irene; Magnoli, Fabio C; Vaz, Tania M I; Guth, Beatriz E C; Piazza, Roxane M F</p> <p>2013-12-02</p> <p>Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produce <span class="hlt">heat</span>-labile (LT) and/or <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable enterotoxins (ST). Despite that, the mechanism of action of both toxins are well known, there is great controversy in the literature concerning the in vitro <span class="hlt">production</span> and release of LT and, for ST, no major concerns have been discussed. Furthermore, the majority of published papers describe the use of only one or a few ETEC isolates to define the <span class="hlt">production</span> and release of these toxins, which hinders the detection of ETEC by phenotypic approaches. Thus, the present study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of ST and LT toxin <span class="hlt">production</span> and release under laboratory conditions. Accordingly, a collection of 90 LT-, ST-, and ST/LT-producing ETEC isolates was used to determine a protocol for toxin <span class="hlt">production</span> and release aimed at ETEC detection. For this, we used previously raised anti-LT antibodies and the anti-ST monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies described herein. The presence of bile salts and the use of certain antibiotics improved ETEC toxin <span class="hlt">production</span>/release. Triton X-100, as chemical treatment, proved to be an alternative method for toxin release. Consequently, a common protocol that can increase the <span class="hlt">production</span> and release of LT and ST toxins could facilitate and enhance the sensitivity of diagnostic tests for ETEC using the raised and described antibodies in the present work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HMT....52.2015U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HMT....52.2015U"><span>Experimental study of laminar forced convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of deionized water <span class="hlt">based</span> copper (I) oxide nanofluids in a tube with constant wall <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Umer, Asim; Naveed, Shahid; Ramzan, Naveed</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Nanofluids, having 1-100 nm size particles in any <span class="hlt">base</span> fluid are promising fluid for <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer intensification due to their enhanced thermal conductivity as compared with the <span class="hlt">base</span> fluid. The forced convection of nanofluids is the major practical application in <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer equipments. In this study, <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer enhancements at constant wall <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux under laminar flow conditions were investigated. Nanofluids of different volume fractions (1, 2 and 4 %) of copper (I) oxide nanoparticles in deionized water were prepared using two step technique under mechanical mixing and ultrasonication. The results were investigated by increasing the Reynolds number of the nanofluids at constant <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux. The trends of Nusselt number variation with dimensionless length (X/D) and Reynolds numbers were studied. It was observed that <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient increases with increases particles volume concentration and Reynolds number. The maximum enhancement in <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient of 61 % was observed with 4 % particle volume concentration at Reynolds number (Re ~ 605).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2262981','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2262981"><span>Activation of <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Shock and Antioxidant Responses by the Natural <span class="hlt">Product</span> Celastrol: Transcriptional Signatures of a Thiol-targeted Molecule</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Trott, Amy; West, James D.; Klaić, Lada; Westerheide, Sandy D.; Silverman, Richard B.; Morimoto, Richard I.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Stress response pathways allow cells to sense and respond to environmental changes and adverse pathophysiological states. Pharmacological modulation of cellular stress pathways has implications in the treatment of human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. The quinone methide triterpene celastrol, derived from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has numerous pharmacological properties, and it is a potent activator of the mammalian <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock transcription factor HSF1. However, its mode of action and spectrum of cellular targets are poorly understood. We show here that celastrol activates Hsf1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae at a similar effective concentration seen in mammalian cells. Transcriptional profiling revealed that celastrol treatment induces a battery of oxidant defense genes in addition to <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock genes. Celastrol activated the yeast Yap1 oxidant defense transcription factor via the carboxy-terminal redox center that responds to electrophilic compounds. Antioxidant response genes were likewise induced in mammalian cells, demonstrating that the activation of two major cell stress pathways by celastrol is conserved. We report that celastrol's biological effects, including inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor activity, can be blocked by the addition of excess free thiol, suggesting a chemical mechanism for biological activity <span class="hlt">based</span> on modification of key reactive thiols by this natural <span class="hlt">product</span>. PMID:18199679</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJT....32..523J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJT....32..523J"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> and Mass Transfer Measurements for Tray-Fermented Fungal <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jou, R.-Y.; Lo, C.-T.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this study, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer in static tray fermentation, which is widely used in solid-state fermentation (SSF) to produce fungal <span class="hlt">products</span>, such as enzymes or koji, is investigated. Specifically, kinetic models of transport phenomena in the whole-tray chamber are emphasized. The effects of temperature, moisture, and humidity on microbial growth in large-scale static tray fermentation are essential to scale-up SSF and achieve uniform fermentation. In addition, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer of static tray fermentation of Trichoderma fungi with two tray setups—traditional linen coverings and stacks in a temperature-humidity chamber is examined. In both these setups, the following factors of fermentation were measured: air velocity, air temperature, illumination, pH, carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, and substrate temperature, and the effects of bed height, moisture of substrate, and relative humidity of air are studied. A thin (1 cm) bed at 28 °C and 95 % relative humidity is found to be optimum. Furthermore, mixing was essential for achieving uniform fermentation of Trichoderma fungi. This study has important applications in large-scale static tray fermentation of fungi.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10173667','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10173667"><span>Performance of a CEBAF <span class="hlt">production</span> cavity after high-temperature <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kneisel, P.; Rao, M.</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>CEBAF`s <span class="hlt">production</span> cavities are tested in a vertical configuration after appropriate chemical surface treatment prior to installation into the accelerator. The performance of these cavities is excellent, often exceeding the specifications of E{sub acc}=5 MV/m at 2 K by factors of 2 to 3. In such cases the cavities are often limited by thermal-magnetic breakdown. A cavity that exhibited a limiting gradient of E{sub acc} {le} 16.4 MV/m has been <span class="hlt">heat</span>-treated at 1400{degrees}C for 6 hours in the presence of titanium as a solid state gettering material to improve the thermal stability of the niobium. After the <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment a gradient of E{sub acc}=20.5 MV/m corresponding to a peak surface electric field of E{sub peak}=52 MV/m has been measured. In addition to the cavity results, data on thermal conductivity and tensile properties of samples which have undergone the same treatments as the cavity are reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/664627','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/664627"><span><span class="hlt">Production</span> of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources for the Cassini mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>George, T.G.; Foltyn, E.M.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>NASA{close_quote}s Cassini mission to Saturn, scheduled to launch in October, 1997, is perhaps the most ambitious interplanetary explorer ever constructed. Electric power for the spacecraft{close_quote}s science instruments and on-board computers will be provided by three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) powered by 216 {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}-fueled General-Purpose <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Source (GPHS) capsules. In addition, critical equipment and instruments on the spacecraft and Huygens probe will be warmed by 128 Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). Fabrication and assembly of the GPHS capsules and LWRHU <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources was performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) between January 1994 and September 1996. During this <span class="hlt">production</span> campaign, LANL pressed and sintered 315 GPHS fuel pellets and 181 LWRHU pellets. By October 1996, NMT-9 had delivered a total of 235 GPHS capsules to EG&G Mound Applied Technologies (EG&G MAT) in Miamisburg, Ohio. EG&G MAT conditioned the capsules for use, loaded the capsules into the Cassini RTGs, tested the RTGs, and coordinated transportation to Kennedy Space Center (KSC). LANL also fabricated and assembled a total of 180 LWRHUs. The LWRHUs required for the Cassini spacecraft were shipped to KSC in mid-1997. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JOM....67b.484R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JOM....67b.484R"><span>Changes in Quartz During <span class="hlt">Heating</span> and the Possible Effects on Si <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ringdalen, Eli</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>In Si and FeSi <span class="hlt">production</span>, the main Si source is SiO2, in the form of quartz. Reactions with SiO2 generate SiO gas that further reacts with SiC to Si. During <span class="hlt">heating</span>, quartz will transform to other SiO2 modifications with cristobalite as the stable high-temperature phase. Transformation to cristobalite is a slow process. Its rate has been investigated for several industrial quartz sources and has been shown to vary considerably among the different quartz types. Other differences in behavior during <span class="hlt">heating</span> between these quartz sources, such as softening temperature and volume expansion, have also been studied. The quartz-cristobalite ratio will affect the rate of reactions involving SiO2. The industrial consequences and other implications of the observed difference between quartz types are discussed. Initial studies of industrial quartz were published by Ringdalen et al. In the current work, a new experimental method has been developed, and an investigation of several new quartz sources has confirmed the earlier observed large variation between different sources. The repeatability of the data has been studied and the effect of gas atmosphere investigated. The results from the earlier work are included as a basis for the discussion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3372821','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3372821"><span>Dry period <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress relief effects on prepartum progesterone, calf birth weight, and milk <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wolfenson, D; Flamenbaum, I; Berman, A</p> <p>1988-03-01</p> <p>Effects of cooling high producing dairy cows during the dry period were examined in 84 pluriparous Israeli-Holstein cows. Cooling was by a combination of wetting and forced ventilation from 0600 to 1800 h until parturition and common management afterwards for both groups. Cooling maintained diurnal increase in rectal temperature within .2 degrees C as compared with .5 degrees C in control cows in warmer months, Mean rectal temperatures at 1400 h in control cows were moderate, within 39.2 degrees C. Cooling did not affect prepartum or postpartum body condition score or mean blood progesterone during the dry period. Results suggested a possible increase in blood progesterone in later pregnancy by cooling during hot weather. Cooling increased mean 150-d milk <span class="hlt">production</span> by 3.6 kg/d (3.1 kg FCM/d). Prepartum cooling negatively affected first lactation month yield in cows calving in early summer. Prepartum cooling might prevent adaptation to <span class="hlt">heat</span> and impair subsequent postpartum performance. Prepartum progesterone was not related to milk yield. Calves' birth weight increased by cooling, but the effect was mostly in older cows. Birth weight was related to milk yield, independently of cooling effect, mostly in older cows. Cooling during the dry period might increase milk yield as it does during lactation. Results indicate possible benefit of cooling dry cows even under mild <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2754440','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2754440"><span>Satellite-<span class="hlt">based</span> terrestrial <span class="hlt">production</span> efficiency modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McCallum, Ian; Wagner, Wolfgang; Schmullius, Christiane; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Obersteiner, Michael; Fritz, Steffen; Nilsson, Sten</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Production</span> efficiency models (PEMs) are <span class="hlt">based</span> on the theory of light use efficiency (LUE) which states that a relatively constant relationship exists between photosynthetic carbon uptake and radiation receipt at the canopy level. Challenges remain however in the application of the PEM methodology to global net primary <span class="hlt">productivity</span> (NPP) monitoring. The objectives of this review are as follows: 1) to describe the general functioning of six PEMs (CASA; GLO-PEM; TURC; C-Fix; MOD17; and BEAMS) identified in the literature; 2) to review each model to determine potential improvements to the general PEM methodology; 3) to review the related literature on satellite-<span class="hlt">based</span> gross primary <span class="hlt">productivity</span> (GPP) and NPP modeling for additional possibilities for improvement; and 4) <span class="hlt">based</span> on this review, propose items for coordinated research. This review noted a number of possibilities for improvement to the general PEM architecture - ranging from LUE to meteorological and satellite-<span class="hlt">based</span> inputs. Current PEMs tend to treat the globe similarly in terms of physiological and meteorological factors, often ignoring unique regional aspects. Each of the existing PEMs has developed unique methods to estimate NPP and the combination of the most successful of these could lead to improvements. It may be beneficial to develop regional PEMs that can be combined under a global framework. The results of this review suggest the creation of a hybrid PEM could bring about a significant enhancement to the PEM methodology and thus terrestrial carbon flux modeling. Key items topping the PEM research agenda identified in this review include the following: LUE should not be assumed constant, but should vary by plant functional type (PFT) or photosynthetic pathway; evidence is mounting that PEMs should consider incorporating diffuse radiation; continue to pursue relationships between satellite-derived variables and LUE, GPP and autotrophic respiration (Ra); there is an urgent need for satellite-<span class="hlt">based</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000032790','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000032790"><span>Retrieved Vertical Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release Using TRMM Rainfall <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Olson, W. S.; Meneghini, R.; Yang, S.; Simpson, J.; Kummerow, C.; Smith, E.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This paper represents the first attempt to use TRMM rainfall information to estimate the four dimensional latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> structure over the global tropics for February 1998. The mean latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles over six oceanic regions (TOGA COARE IFA, Central Pacific, S. Pacific Convergence Zone, East Pacific, Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean) and three continental regions (S. America, Central Africa and Australia) are estimated and studied. The <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles obtained from the results of diagnostic budget studies over a broad range of geographic locations are used to provide comparisons and indirect validation for the <span class="hlt">heating</span> algorithm estimated <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles. Three different latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> algorithms, the Goddard Convective-Stratiform (CSH) <span class="hlt">heating</span>, the Goddard Profiling (GPROF) <span class="hlt">heating</span>, and the Hydrometeor <span class="hlt">heating</span> (HH) are used and their results are intercompared. The horizontal distribution or patterns of latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> release from the three different <span class="hlt">heating</span> retrieval methods are quite similar. They all can identify the areas of major convective activity (i.e., a well defined ITCZ in the Pacific, a distinct SPCZ) in the global tropics. The magnitude of their estimated latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> release is also not in bad agreement with each other and with those determined from diagnostic budget studies. However, the major difference among these three <span class="hlt">heating</span> retrieval algorithms is the altitude of the maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level. The CSH algorithm estimated <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles only show one maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level, and the level varies between convective activity from various geographic locations. These features are in good agreement with diagnostic budget studies. By contrast, two maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> levels were found using the GPROF <span class="hlt">heating</span> and HH algorithms. The latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles estimated from all three methods can not show cooling between active convective events. We also examined the impact of different TMI (Multi-channel Passive Microwave Sensor) and PR (Precipitation Radar</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA600892','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA600892"><span>Curing of a Bisphenol-E <span class="hlt">Based</span> Cyanate Ester using Magnetic Nanoparticles as an Internal <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Source through Induction <span class="hlt">Heating</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>laboratory oven . The two <span class="hlt">heating</span> methods gave similar differential scanning calorimetry temperature profiles, conversion rates, and glass transition...<span class="hlt">heating</span> in a conventional laboratory oven . The two <span class="hlt">heating</span> methods gave similar differential scanning calorimetry temperature profiles, conversion rates...3 microwave induction <span class="hlt">heating</span>,4 dielectric <span class="hlt">heating</span>,5 and photo-induced thermal front polymerization.6 Only recently have nanoparticles been embedded</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21160745','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21160745"><span>Sodium <span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Pipe Modules for Space Reactor Concepts: Stainless Steel SAFE-100 Core</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martin, James J.; Reid, Robert S.</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe cooled reactor is one of several candidate reactor cores being considered for advanced space power and propulsion systems to support future space exploration applications. Long life <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe modules, with designs verified through a combination of theoretical analysis and experimental lifetime evaluations, would be necessary to establish the viability of any of these candidates, including the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe reactor option. A hardware-<span class="hlt">based</span> program was initiated to establish the infrastructure necessary to build <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe modules. This effort, initiated by Los Alamos National Laboratory and referred to as the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) project, set out to fabricate and perform non-nuclear testing on a modular <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe reactor prototype that can provide 100-kWt from the core to an energy conversion system at 700 deg. C. Prototypic <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe hardware was designed, fabricated, filled, closed-out and acceptance tested. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040082323','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040082323"><span>Sodium <span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Pipe Modules for Space Reactor Concepts: Stainless Steel SAFE-100 Core</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Martin, James J.; Reid, Robert S.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe cooled reactor is one of several candidate reactor cores being considered for advanced space power and propulsion systems to support future space exploration applications. Long life <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe modules, with designs verified through a combination of theoretical analysis and experimental lifetime evaluations, would be necessary to establish the viability of any of these candidates, including the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe reactor option. A hardware-<span class="hlt">based</span> program was initiated to establish the infrastructure necessary to build <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe modules. This effort, initiated by Los Alamos National Laboratory and referred to as the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) project, set out to fabricate and perform non-nuclear testing on a modular <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe reactor prototype that can provide 100 kilowatt from the core to an energy conversion system at 700 C. Prototypic <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe hardware was designed, fabricated, filled, closed-out and acceptance tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JThSc..25...60L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JThSc..25...60L"><span>Experimental study on rack cooling system <span class="hlt">based</span> on a pulsating <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Qianyi; Jia, Li</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A rack cooling system <span class="hlt">based</span> on a large scale flat plate pulsating <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe is proposed. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> generated from IT equipment in a closed rack is transferred by the rear door pulsating <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe to the chilled air passage and is avoided to release into the room. The influence of the start-up performance of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe, the load of the rack and the load dissipation to the temperature and the velocity distribution in the rack are discussed. It is found that the temperature would be lower and the temperature distribution would be more uniform in the rack when the pulsating <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe is in operation. Also, the effect of rack electricity load on temperature distribution is analyzed. It is indicated that higher velocity of chilled air will improve <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer of the rack.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113169Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113169Z"><span>Remote sensing image-<span class="hlt">based</span> analysis for <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves assessment hazard in urban areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zoran, M.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Climate change and extreme climate events are the great environmental concerns facing mankind in the twenty first century. Surface temperatures are expected to continue to increase globally and major changes are likely to occur in the global hydrological and energy cycles.Extreme climate events like <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves are a key manifestation of complex systems, in both the natural and human world.It was estimated that during last years regional surface warming caused the frequency, intensity and duration of <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves to increase over Europe. During last period global warming was intensified because the global mean surface temperature has increased since the late 19th century.As urbanization has become an important contributor for global warming, Urban <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Island (UHI) effect, will be sure to influence the regional climate, environment, and socio-economic development. Much more, extreme climatic events as <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves will amplify the UHI effect with severe urban ecosystem health consequences. Remote sensing is a key to mesoscale modeling through specification of land cover distributions and creating spatial <span class="hlt">products</span> of moisture, reflectance, and surface temperatures. Because the knowledge of urban surface energy budgets and urban <span class="hlt">heat</span> islands is significant to assess urban climatology, global environmental change, and human-environment interactions important for planning and management practices, is very important to study land surface temperatures and urban energy budget characteristics using the technology of satellite remote sensing imagery. In this study MODIS and IKONOS satellite remote sensing images for 1989 to 2007 period have been selected to retrieve the urban biogeophysical parameters and brightness temperatures in relation with changes of land use/cover types over Bucharest metropolitan area, Romania. The spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">heat</span> islands has been changed from a mixed pattern, where bare land, semi-bare land and land under development were warmer than other</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..407Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..407Z"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> Waves Assessment in Urban Areas Through Remote Sensing Image-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zoran, Maria</p> <p></p> <p>Climate change and extreme climate events are the great environmental concerns facing mankind in the twenty first century. Surface temperatures are expected to continue to increase globally and major changes are likely to occur in the global hydrological and energy cycles.Extreme climate events like <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves are a key manifestation of complex systems, in both the natu-ral and human world.It was estimated that during last years regional surface warming caused the frequency, intensity and duration of <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves to increase over Europe. During last pe-riod global warming was intensified because the global mean surface temperature has increased since the late 19th century.As urbanization has become an important contributor for global warming, Urban <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Island (UHI) effect, will be sure to influence the regional climate, envi-ronment, and socio-economic development.Much more, extreme climatic events as <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves will amplify the UHI effect with severe urban ecosystem health consequences. Remote sensing is a key to mesoscale modeling through specification of land cover distributions and creating spatial <span class="hlt">products</span> of moisture, reflectance, and surface temperatures. Because the knowledge of urban surface energy budgets and urban <span class="hlt">heat</span> islands is significant to assess urban climatology, global environmental change, and human-environment interactions important for planning and management practices, is very important to study land surface temperatures and urban energy budget characteristics using the technology of satellite remote sensing imagery. In this study MODIS and IKONOS satellite remote sensing images for 1989 to 2008 period have been se-lected to retrieve the urban biogeophysical parameters and brightness temperatures in relation with changes of land use/cover types over Bucharest metropolitan area, Romania. The spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">heat</span> islands has been changed from a mixed pattern, where bare land, semi-bare land and land under development were warmer than</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006198','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006198"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer and pressure distributions on hemisphere-cylinders in methane-air combustion <span class="hlt">products</span> at Mach 7</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weinstein, I.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span>-transfer and pressure distributions were measured over the surfaces of three hemisphere-cylinder models tested at a nominal Mach number of 7 in the Langley 8-foot high-temperature structures tunnel which uses methane-air <span class="hlt">products</span> of combustion as a test medium. The results showed that the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer and pressure distributions over the surface of the models were in good agreement with experimental data obtained in air and also with theoretical predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5615759','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5615759"><span>Microstructural Investigation of <span class="hlt">Heat</span>-Treated Ultra-High Performance Concrete for Optimum <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kang, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hyung; Hong, Sung-Gul; Moon, Juhyuk</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>For optimum <span class="hlt">production</span> of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), the material and microstructural properties of UHPC cured under various <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment (HT) conditions are studied. The effects of HT temperature and duration on the hydration reaction, microstructure, and mechanical properties of UHPC are investigated. Increasing HT temperature accelerates both cement hydration and pozzolanic reaction, but the latter is more significantly affected. This accelerated pozzolanic reaction in UHPC clearly enhances compressive strength. However, strength after the HT becomes stable as most of the hydration finishes during the HT period. Particularly, it was concluded that the mechanical benefit of the increased temperature and duration on the 28 day-strength is not noticeable when the HT temperature is above 60 °C (with a 48 h duration) or the HT duration is longer than 12 h (with 90 °C temperature). On the other hand, even with a minimal HT condition such as 1 day at 60 °C or 12 h at 90 °C, outstanding compressive strength of 179 MPa and flexural tensile strength of 49 MPa are achieved at 28 days. Microstructural investigation conducted herein suggests that portlandite content can be a good indicator for the mechanical performance of UHPC regardless of its HT curing conditions. These findings can contribute to reducing manufacturing energy consumption, cost, and environmental impact in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of UHPC and be helpful for practitioners to better understand the effect of HT on UHPC and optimize its <span class="hlt">production</span>. PMID:28930189</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28930189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28930189"><span>Microstructural Investigation of <span class="hlt">Heat</span>-Treated Ultra-High Performance Concrete for Optimum <span class="hlt">Production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kang, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hyung; Hong, Sung-Gul; Moon, Juhyuk</p> <p>2017-09-20</p> <p>For optimum <span class="hlt">production</span> of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), the material and microstructural properties of UHPC cured under various <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment (HT) conditions are studied. The effects of HT temperature and duration on the hydration reaction, microstructure, and mechanical properties of UHPC are investigated. Increasing HT temperature accelerates both cement hydration and pozzolanic reaction, but the latter is more significantly affected. This accelerated pozzolanic reaction in UHPC clearly enhances compressive strength. However, strength after the HT becomes stable as most of the hydration finishes during the HT period. Particularly, it was concluded that the mechanical benefit of the increased temperature and duration on the 28 day-strength is not noticeable when the HT temperature is above 60 °C (with a 48 h duration) or the HT duration is longer than 12 h (with 90 °C temperature). On the other hand, even with a minimal HT condition such as 1 day at 60 °C or 12 h at 90 °C, outstanding compressive strength of 179 MPa and flexural tensile strength of 49 MPa are achieved at 28 days. Microstructural investigation conducted herein suggests that portlandite content can be a good indicator for the mechanical performance of UHPC regardless of its HT curing conditions. These findings can contribute to reducing manufacturing energy consumption, cost, and environmental impact in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of UHPC and be helpful for practitioners to better understand the effect of HT on UHPC and optimize its <span class="hlt">production</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24811351','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24811351"><span>Detection of soybean proteins in fermented soybean <span class="hlt">products</span> by using <span class="hlt">heating</span> extraction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morishita, Naoki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Toyoda, Masatake</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Soybean is used in processed foods worldwide. Because soybean can cause adverse reactions in some atopic patients, appropriate labeling regarding its content in processed foods is needed to better protect consumers. In the previous study, we developed a reliable sandwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method with high sensitivity and specificity for detecting soybean proteins by using antibody to Gly m Bd 30K, which was originally characterized as a vacuolar protein with a molecular mass of 34 kDa in soybean. The ELISA displayed satisfactory repeatability and reproducibility in an interlaboratory evaluation. However, it could not detect soybean protein in fermented soybean <span class="hlt">products</span>. We therefore developed an extraction method combined with a <span class="hlt">heating</span> process to inhibit soybean protein degradation by microbial proteolytic enzymes in fermented soybean <span class="hlt">products</span>. This extraction method enables the sensitive detection of soybean protein in fermented soybean <span class="hlt">products</span> such as natto and miso. It was able to detect with high-sensitivity soybean protein present at 10 μg/g levels in model processed foods. This method is suitable for quantifying soybean protein in processed foods without the degrading effects of microbial proteolytic enzymes. The present extraction method can be used sensitively to monitor labeling systems in a reliable manner and should be useful for the mandatory inspections required under Japanese regulations. The extraction and ELISA methods that we developed enable sensitive detection of soybean protein in soybean <span class="hlt">products</span>, including fermented foods. These methods should be useful for reliable and sensitive monitoring of <span class="hlt">product</span> labeling systems and should help to solve the problem of insensitive in soybean labeling of processed foods. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760008511','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760008511"><span>Studies of the use of <span class="hlt">heat</span> from high temperature nuclear sources for hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Farbman, G. H.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Future uses of hydrogen and hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> processes that can meet the demand for hydrogen in the coming decades were considered. To do this, a projection was made of the market for hydrogen through the year 2000. Four hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> processes were selected, from among water electrolysis, fossil <span class="hlt">based</span> and thermochemical water decomposition systems, and evaluated, using a consistent set of ground rules, in terms of relative performance, economics, resource requirements, and technology status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090016332','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090016332"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> of Combustion of the <span class="hlt">Product</span> Formed by the Reaction of Diborane with 1,3-Butadiene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tannenbaum, Stanley; Allen, Harrison, Jr.</p> <p>1953-01-01</p> <p>The net <span class="hlt">heat</span> of combustion of the <span class="hlt">product</span> formed by the reaction of diborane with 1,3-butadiene was found to be 18,700+/-150 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water, and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen-bomb calorimeter, and the combustion was believed to be 98 percent complete. The estimated net <span class="hlt">heat</span> of combustion for complete combustion would therefore be 19,075+/-150 Btu per pound. Since this value is approximately the same as the <span class="hlt">heat</span> of combustion of butadiene, it seems certain that the material is partially oxidized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940045','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940045"><span>NGNP Process <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Exchanger</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and <span class="hlt">heat</span> for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process <span class="hlt">heat</span> to be utilized, intermediate <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange is required to transfer <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process <span class="hlt">heat</span> technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange from NGNP. For process <span class="hlt">heat</span> it is desired that, intermediate <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers (IHX) transfer <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the NGNP in the most efficient w