Science.gov

Sample records for heat removal facility

  1. Preliminary numerical studies of an experimental facility for heat removal in natural circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertani, C.; De Salve, M.; Caramello, M.; Falcone, N.; Bersano, A.; Panella, B.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years particular attention has been dedicated to passive safety systems for heat removal in nuclear power plants. Passive safety systems can achieve a high level of safety, as they carry out their mission relying solely on physical principles like natural circulation, without any need of operators or energy sources. To qualify these systems and components experimental activities are necessary to study and to understand the governing physical phenomena. The present paper shows the design of an experimental facility to be installed in the laboratories of the Energy Department of Politecnico di Torino. The facility is inspired by the decay heat removal system for ALFRED reactor and comprehends a heated bayonet tube and a heat sink for the heat removal (a heat exchanger inside a pool). The thermal power is in the order of 1 kW. A RELAP5-3D model of the facility has been developed and sensitivity analyses were performed to highlight the geometry of the heat exchanger, the final heat sink, and the mass of water inside the loop. The results of this phase serve to understand the physical limits of the facility, to demonstrate a preliminary feasibility and to optimize the geometry for the desired operating conditions.

  2. Topical report: Natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) evaluation for generating additional reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) data.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C.P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R.W.; Pointer, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2005-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the Very High Temperature gas cooled Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept. One of the key passive safety features of the VHTR is the potential for decay heat removal by natural circulation of air in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). The air-cooled RCCS concept is notably similar to the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that was developed for the General Electric PRISM sodium-cooled fast reactor. As part of the DOE R&D program that supported the development of this fast reactor concept, the Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) was developed at ANL to provide proof-of-concept data for the RVACS under prototypic natural convection flow, temperature, and heat flux conditions. Due to the similarity between RVACS and the RCCS, current VHTR R&D plans call for the utilization of the NSTF to provide RCCS model development and validation data, in addition to supporting design validation and optimization activities. Both air-cooled and water-cooled RCCS designs are to be included. In support of this effort, ANL has been tasked with the development of an engineering plan for mechanical and instrumentation modifications to NSTF to ensure that sufficiently detailed temperature, heat flux, velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained to adequately qualify the codes under the expected range of air-cooled RCCS flow conditions. Next year, similar work will be carried out for the alternative option of a water-cooled RCCS design. Analysis activities carried out in support of this experiment planning task have shown that: (a) in the RCCS, strong

  3. Comparisons of RELAP5-3D Analyses to Experimental Data from the Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bucknor, Matthew; Hu, Rui; Lisowski, Darius; Kraus, Adam

    2016-04-17

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is an important passive safety system being incorporated into the overall safety strategy for high temperature advanced reactor concepts such as the High Temperature Gas- Cooled Reactors (HTGR). The Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) reflects a 1/2-scale model of the primary features of one conceptual air-cooled RCCS design. The project conducts ex-vessel, passive heat removal experiments in support of Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) program, while also generating data for code validation purposes. While experiments are being conducted at the NSTF to evaluate the feasibility of the passive RCCS, parallel modeling and simulation efforts are ongoing to support the design, fabrication, and operation of these natural convection systems. Both system-level and high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed to gain a complete understanding of the complex flow and heat transfer phenomena in natural convection systems. This paper provides a summary of the RELAP5-3D NSTF model development efforts and provides comparisons between simulation results and experimental data from the NSTF. Overall, the simulation results compared favorably to the experimental data, however, further analyses need to be conducted to investigate any identified differences.

  4. Scalability of the natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) data to VHTR/NGNP RCCS designs.

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R .B.; Feldman, E. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-08-07

    Passive safety in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is strongly dependent on the thermal performance of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). Scaled experiments performed in the Natural Shutdown Test Facility (NSTF) are to provide data for assessing and/or improving computer code models for RCCS phenomena. Design studies and safety analyses that are to support licensing of the VHTR will rely on these models to achieve a high degree of certainty in predicted design heat removal rate. To guide in the selection and development of an appropriate set of experiments a scaling analysis has been performed for the air-cooled RCCS option. The goals were to (1) determine the phenomena that dominate the behavior of the RCCS, (2) determine the general conditions that must be met so that these phenomena and their relative importance are preserved in the experiments, (3) identify constraints specific to the NSTF that potentially might prevent exact similitude, and (4) then to indicate how the experiments can be scaled to prevent distortions in the phenomena of interest. The phenomena identified as important to RCCS operation were also the subject of a recent PIRT study. That work and the present work collectively indicate that the main phenomena influencing RCCS heat removal capability are (1) radiation heat transport from the vessel to the air ducts, (2) the integral effects of momentum and heat transfer in the air duct, (3) buoyancy at the wall inside the air duct giving rise to mixed convection, and (4) multidimensional effects inside the air duct caused by non-uniform circumferential heat flux and non-circular geometry.

  5. Facilities removal working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.

  6. Design Report for the ½ Scale Air-Cooled RCCS Tests in the Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, D. D.; Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Bremer, N.; Aeschlimann, R. W.

    2014-06-01

    The Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) is a large scale thermal hydraulics test facility that has been built at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The facility was constructed in order to carry out highly instrumented experiments that can be used to validate the performance of passive safety systems for advanced reactor designs. The facility has principally been designed for testing of Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) concepts that rely on natural convection cooling for either air or water-based systems. Standing 25-m in height, the facility is able to supply up to 220 kW at 21 kW/m2 to accurately simulate the heat fluxes at the walls of a reactor pressure vessel. A suite of nearly 400 data acquisition channels, including a sophisticated fiber optic system for high density temperature measurements, guides test operations and provides data to support scaling analysis and modeling efforts. Measurements of system mass flow rate, air and surface temperatures, heat flux, humidity, and pressure differentials, among others; are part of this total generated data set. The following report provides an introduction to the top level-objectives of the program related to passively safe decay heat removal, a detailed description of the engineering specifications, design features, and dimensions of the test facility at Argonne. Specifications of the sensors and their placement on the test facility will be provided, along with a complete channel listing of the data acquisition system.

  7. CFD analysis for the applicability of the natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) for the simulation of the VHTR RCCS. Topical report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tzanos, C. P.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-05-16

    The Very High Temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) is one of the GEN IV reactor concepts that have been proposed for thermochemical hydrogen production and other process-heat applications like coal gasification. The USDOE has selected the VHTR for further research and development, aiming to demonstrate emissions-free electricity and hydrogen production at a future time. One of the major safety advantages of the VHTR is the potential for passive decay heat removal by natural circulation of air in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). The air-side of the RCCS is very similar to the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that has been proposed for the PRISM reactor design. The design and safety analysis of the RVACS have been based on extensive analytical and experimental work performed at ANL. The Natural Convective Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) at ANL that simulates at full scale the air-side of the RVACS was built to provide experimental support for the design and analysis of the PRISM RVACS system. The objective of this work is to demonstrate that the NSTF facility can be used to generate RCCS experimental data: to validate CFD and systems codes for the analysis of the RCCS; and to support the design and safety analysis of the RCCS.

  8. Topical report : CFD analysis for the applicability of the natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) for the simulation of the VHTR RCCS.

    SciTech Connect

    Tzanos, C. P.

    2007-05-16

    The Very High Temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) is one of the GEN IV reactor concepts that have been proposed for thermochemical hydrogen production and other process-heat applications like coal gasification. The United States Department of Energy has selected the VHTR for further research and development, aiming to demonstrate emissions-free electricity and hydrogen production at a future time. One of the major safety advantages of the VHTR is the potential for passive decay heat removal by natural circulation of air in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). The air-side of the RCCS is very similar to the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that has been proposed for the PRISM reactor design. The design and safety analysis of the RVACS have been based on extensive analytical and experimental work performed at ANL. The Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) at ANL that simulates at full scale the air-side of the RVACS was built to provide experimental support for the design and analysis of the PRISM RVACS system. The objective of this work is to demonstrate that the NSTF facility can be used to generate RCCS experimental data: to validate CFD and systems codes for the analysis of the RCCS; and to support the design and safety analysis of the RCCS. At this time no reference design is available for the NGNP. The General Atomics (GA) gas turbine - modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) has been used in many analyses as a starting reference design. In the GT-MHR the reactor outlet temperature is 850 C, while the target outlet reactor temperature in VHTR is 1000 C. VHTR scoping studies with a reactor outlet temperature of 1000 C have been performed at GA and INEL. Although the reactor outlet temperature in the VHTR is significantly higher than in the GT-MHR, the peak temperature in the reactor vessel (which is the heat source for the RCCS) is not drastically different. In this work, analyses have been performed using reactor vessel

  9. Groundwater removal near heat dissipating waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Manteufel, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    The thermohydrologic environment of heat-dissipating nuclear waste packages in a subsurface repository is affected by ventilation of the facility prior to permanent closure. Heat dissipated by the waste will raise the temperature of host rock and vaporize groundwater. Ventilation will remove some heat and water vapor from the subsurface, creating a desiccated region surrounding the waste packages. The resulting hot, dry environment will tend to favorably extend the containment time of the waste. This work evaluates the transient temperature field near emplacement drifts and predicts the extent of rock dryout and removal of groundwater. For two hypothetical ventilation schemes with 30-yr-old fuel and repository loading of 40 metric tons of uranium (MTU) per acre, about 4 to 5 m of rock surrounding the drifts are predicted to be dried during the preclosure period.

  10. Feasibility study for use of the natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) for VHTR water-cooled RCCS shutdown.

    SciTech Connect

    Tzanos, C.P.; Farmer, M.T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-08-31

    In summary, a scaling analysis of a water-cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) system was performed based on generic information on the RCCS design of PBMR. The analysis demonstrates that the water-cooled RCCS can be simulated at the ANL NSTF facility at a prototypic scale in the lateral direction and about half scale in the vertical direction. Because, by necessity, the scaling is based on a number of approximations, and because no analytical information is available on the performance of a reference water-cooled RCCS, the scaling analysis presented here needs to be 'validated' by analysis of the steady state and transient performance of a reference water-cooled RCCS design. The analysis of the RCCS performance by CFD and system codes presents a number of challenges including: strong 3-D effects in the cavity and the RCCS tubes; simulation of turbulence in flows characterized by natural circulation, high Rayleigh numbers and low Reynolds numbers; validity of heat transfer correlations for system codes for heat transfer in the cavity and the annulus of the RCCS tubes; the potential of nucleate boiling in the tubes; water flashing in the upper section of the RCCS return line (during limiting transient); and two-phase flow phenomena in the water tanks. The limited simulation of heat transfer in cavities presented in Section 4.0, strongly underscores the need of experimental work to validate CFD codes, and heat transfer correlations for system codes, and to support the analysis and design of the RCCS. Based on the conclusions of the scaling analysis, a schematic that illustrates key attributes of the experiment system is shown in Fig. 4. This system contains the same physical elements as the PBMR RCCS, plus additional equipment to facilitate data gathering to support code validation. In particular, the prototype consists of a series of oval standpipes surrounding the reactor vessel to provide cooling of the reactor cavity during both normal and off

  11. Heat exchanger with a removable tube section

    DOEpatents

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.

    1975-07-29

    A heat exchanger is described in which the tube sheet is secured against primary liquid pressure, but which allows for easy removal of the tube section. The tube section is supported by a flange which is secured by a number of shear blocks, each of which extends into a slot which is immovable with respect to the outer shell of the heat exchanger. (auth)

  12. Heat treatment of exchangers to remove coke

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.D.

    1990-02-20

    This patent describes a process for preparing furfural coke for removal from metallic surfaces. It comprises: heating the furfural coke without causing an evolution of heat capable of undesirably altering metallurgical properties of the surfaces in the presence of a gas containing molecular oxygen at a sufficient temperature below 800{degrees}F (427{degrees}C) for a sufficient time to change the crush strength of the coke so as to permit removal with a water jet at a pressure of five thousand pounds per square inch.

  13. Treatment Facility F: Accelerated Removal and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.; Buettner, M.H.; Carrigan, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    The Accelerated Removal and Validation (ARV) phase of remediation at the Treatment Facility F (TFF) site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was designed to accelerate removal of gasoline from the site when compared to normal, single shift, pump-and-treat operations. The intent was to take advantage of the in-place infrastructure plus the increased underground temperatures resulting from the Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project (DUSDP). Operations continued 24-hours (h) per day between October 4 and December 12, 1993. Three contaminant removal rate enhancement approaches were explored during the period of continuous operation. First, we tried several configurations of the vapor pumping system to maximize the contaminant removal rate. Second, we conducted two brief trials of air injection into the lower steam zone. Results were compared with computer models, and the process was assessed for contaminant removal rate enhancement. Third, we installed equipment to provide additional electrical heating of contaminated low-permeability soil. Four new electrodes were connected into the power system. Diagnostic capabilities at the TFF site were upgraded so that we could safely monitor electrical currents, soil temperatures, and water treatment system processes while approximately 300 kW of electrical energy was being applied to the subsurface.

  14. Very high-vacuum heat treatment facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Moody, M. V.; Richard, J.-P.

    1987-01-01

    A vacuum heat treatment facility, with hot zone dimensions of 12 x 19 x 19 cm, has been designed and constructed at a cost substantially below that of a commercial unit. The design incorporates efficient water cooling and a resistive heating element. A vacuum pressure of 1.5 x 10 to the -8th torr at room temperature has been obtained after baking. The temperature limit is approximately 1900 C. This limit results from the choice of niobium as the hot zone material.

  15. Very high-vacuum heat treatment facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Moody, M. V.; Richard, J.-P.

    1987-01-01

    A vacuum heat treatment facility, with hot zone dimensions of 12 x 19 x 19 cm, has been designed and constructed at a cost substantially below that of a commercial unit. The design incorporates efficient water cooling and a resistive heating element. A vacuum pressure of 1.5 x 10 to the -8th torr at room temperature has been obtained after baking. The temperature limit is approximately 1900 C. This limit results from the choice of niobium as the hot zone material.

  16. Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegley, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    While augmentation of heat transfer from a test article by helium gas at low pressures is well known, the method is rarely employed during space simulation testing because the test objectives are to simulate an orbital thermal environment. Test objectives of cryogenic optical testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) have typically not been constrained by orbital environment parameters. As a result, several methods of helium injection have been utilized at the XRCF since 1999 to decrease thermal transition times. A brief synopsis of these injection (and removal) methods including will be presented.

  17. Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haight, Harlan; Kegley, Jeff; Bourdreaux, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    While augmentation of heat transfer from a test article by helium gas at low pressures is well known, the method is rarely employed during space simulation testing because the test objectives usually involve simulation of an orbital thermal environment. Test objectives of cryogenic optical testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Cryogenic Facility (XRCF) have typically not been constrained by orbital environment parameters. As a result, several methods of helium injection have been utilized at the XRCF since 1999 to decrease thermal transition times. A brief synopsis of these injection (and removal) methods including will be presented.

  18. PANDA asymmetric-configuration passive decay heat removal test results

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, O.; Dreier, J.; Aubert, C.

    1997-12-01

    PANDA is a large-scale, low-pressure test facility for investigating passive decay heat removal systems for the next generation of LWRs. In the first series of experiments, PANDA was used to examine the long-term LOCA response of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) for the General Electric (GE) Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). The test objectives include concept demonstration and extension of the database available for qualification of containment codes. Also included is the study of the effects of nonuniform distributions of steam and noncondensable gases in the Dry-well (DW) and in the Suppression Chamber (SC). 3 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegley, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    While augmentation of heat transfer from a test article by helium gas at low pressures is well known, the method is rarely employed during space simulation testing because the test objectives are to simulate an orbital thermal environment. Test objectives of cryogenic optical testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) have typically not been constrained by orbital environment parameters. As a result, several methods of helium injection have been utilized at the XRCF since 1999 to decrease thermal transition times. A brief synopsis of these injection (and removal) methods including will be presented.

  20. Passive shut-down heat removal system

    DOEpatents

    Hundal, Rolv; Sharbaugh, John E.

    1988-01-01

    An improved shut-down heat removal system for a liquid metal nuclear reactor of the type having a vessel for holding hot and cold pools of liquid sodium is disclosed herein. Generally, the improved system comprises a redan or barrier within the reactor vessel which allows an auxiliary heat exchanger to become immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool whenever the reactor pump fails to generate a metal-circulating pressure differential between the hot and cold pools of sodium. This redan also defines an alternative circulation path between the hot and cold pools of sodium in order to equilibrate the distribution of the decay heat from the reactor core. The invention may take the form of a redan or barrier that circumscribes the inner wall of the reactor vessel, thereby defining an annular space therebetween. In this embodiment, the bottom of the annular space communicates with the cold pool of sodium, and the auxiliary heat exchanger is placed in this annular space just above the drawn-down level that the liquid sodium assumes during normal operating conditions. Alternatively, the redan of the invention may include a pair of vertically oriented, concentrically disposed standpipes having a piston member disposed between them that operates somewhat like a pressure-sensitive valve. In both embodiments, the cessation of the pressure differential that is normally created by the reactor pump causes the auxiliary heat exchanger to be immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool. Additionally, the redan in both embodiments forms a circulation flow path between the hot and cold pools so that the decay heat from the nuclear core is uniformly distributed within the vessel.

  1. Condensate removal device for heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trusch, R. B.; Oconnor, E. W. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A set of perforated tubes disposed at the gas output side of a heat exchanger, in a position not to affect the rate of flow of the air or other gas is described. The tubes are connected to a common manifold which is connected to a sucking device. Where it is necessary to conserve and recirculate the air sucked through the tubes, the output of the manifold is run through a separator to remove the condensate from the gas. The perforations in the slurper tubes are small, lying in the range of 0.010 inch to 0.100 inch. The tubes are disposed in contact with the surfaces of the heat exchanger on which the condensate is precipitated, whether fins or plates, so that the water may be directed to the tube openings by means of surface effects, together with the assistance of the air flow. Only about 5 percent of the air output need be thus diverted, and it effectively removes virtually all of the condensate.

  2. THERMAL STUDY OF THE DIII-D MACHINE HEAT REMOVAL CAPACITY

    SciTech Connect

    YIP,H; ADERSON,P.M; HOLTROP,K.L; HARRISON,S

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 With each plasma shot, the DIII-D tokamak dissipates 0.5 to 1.0 GJ of energy. Plasma shots may occur as frequently as every ten minutes, and the energy is removed in the form of heat by a cooling water system. to remove heat from the machine, cooling water circulates through each major heat source. These sources include the power supplies, motor/generator, rf current drives, neutral beam power supplies, magnetic field coils, and vacuum vessel. The cooling water system consists of isolated primary and secondary cooling loops separated by intermediate heat exchangers. As future DIII-D plans include operation during summer months and longer pulse duration, the cooling system's overall heat removal capability and performance efficiency must be assessed. Temperature and flow data from around the DIII-D facility are collected by a programmable logic controller (PLC); the data are used to analyze the heat generating sources, the heat transfer rate to intermediate heat exchangers, and the ultimate heat rejection to the environment via the cooling towers. A comparison of the original DIII-D machine design versus the actual performance determines the margin of heat removal capacity. projections of the heat removal rate for various longer plasma shots are made. Improvements in design and/or operational procedure will be necessary to attain the desired pulse duration.

  3. Emergency heat removal system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Dunckel, Thomas L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat removal system for nuclear reactors serving as a supplement to an Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) during a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) comprises a plurality of heat pipes having one end in heat transfer relationship with either the reactor pressure vessel, the core support grid structure or other in-core components and the opposite end located in heat transfer relationship with a heat exchanger having heat transfer fluid therein. The heat exchanger is located external to the pressure vessel whereby excessive core heat is transferred from the above reactor components and dissipated within the heat exchanger fluid.

  4. Algal-bacterial treatment facility removes selenium from drainage water

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Lundquist, Tryg J.; Green, F. Bailey; Zarate, Max A.; Oswald, William J.; Leighton, Terrance

    2000-01-25

    A demonstration algal-bacterial selenium removal (ABSR) facility has been treating agricultural drainage water in the Panoche Drainage District on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley since 1997. The project goals are to demonstrate the effectiveness of the ABSR technology for selenium removal, to investigate potential wildlife exposure to selenium at full-scale facilities, and to develop an operational plant configuration that will minimize the life-cycle cost for each pound of selenium removed. The facility consists of a series of ponds designed to promote native microorganisms that remove nitrate and selenium. Previous treatment research efforts sought to reduce selenium concentrations to less than 5 mu g/L, but the ABSR Facility demonstration focuses on providing affordable reduction of the selenium load that is discharged to the San Joaquin River. During 1997 and 1998, the best-performing ABSR plant configuration reduced nitrate by more than 95 percent and reduced total soluble selenium mass by 80 percent. Ongoing investigations focus on optimizing operational parameters and determining operational costs and scale-up engineering requirements. The preliminary total cost estimate for a 10-acre-foot per day ABSR facility is less than $200 per acre-foot of treated drainage water.

  5. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  6. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  7. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P [San Ramon, CA

    2012-07-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  8. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2015-12-08

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  9. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2013-12-10

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  10. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2015-03-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  11. Decay Heat Removal from a GFR Core by Natural Convection

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Wesley C.; Hejzlar, Pavel; Driscoll, Michael J.

    2004-07-01

    One of the primary challenges for Gas-cooled Fast Reactors (GFR) is decay heat removal after a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Due to the fact that thermal gas cooled reactors currently under design rely on passive mechanisms to dissipate decay heat, there is a strong motivation to accomplish GFR core cooling through natural phenomena. This work investigates the potential of post-LOCA decay heat removal from a GFR core to a heat sink using an external convection loop. A model was developed in the form of the LOCA-COLA (Loss of Coolant Accident - Convection Loop Analysis) computer code as a means for 1D steady state convective heat transfer loop analysis. The results show that decay heat removal by means of gas cooled natural circulation is feasible under elevated post-LOCA containment pressure conditions. (authors)

  12. A Heated Tube Facility for Rocket Coolant Channel Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James M.; Pease, Gary M.; Meyer, Michael L.

    1995-01-01

    The capabilities of a heated tube facility used for testing rocket engine coolant channels at the NASA Lewis Research Center are presented. The facility uses high current, low voltage power supplies to resistively heat a test section to outer wall temperatures as high as 730 C (1350 F). Liquid or gaseous nitrogen, gaseous helium, or combustible liquids can be used as the test section coolant. The test section is enclosed in a vacuum chamber to minimize heat loss to the surrounding system. Test section geometry, size, and material; coolant properties; and heating levels can be varied to generate heat transfer and coolant performance data bases.

  13. 77 FR 30888 - Heating, Cooling, and Lighting Standards for Bureau-Funded Dormitory Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...As required by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, the Secretary of the Interior has developed regulations using negotiated rulemaking that address heating, cooling, and lighting standards for Bureau-funded dormitory facilities. These regulations also make a technical change to remove an obsolete reference.

  14. Design and operation of the coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Havili, M.U.; Fraser-Smyth, L.L.; Wood, B.W.

    1996-02-01

    The coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel utilizes a combination of two technologies which had never been used together. These two technologies had proven effective separately and now in combination. However, it brought unique operational considerations which has never been considered previously. The front end of the facility is a Sulfiban process. This monoethanolamine (MEA) process effectively absorbs hydrogen sulfide and other acid gases from coke-oven gas. The final step in sulfur removal uses a Lo-Cat II. The Lo-Cat process absorbs and subsequently oxidizes H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. These two processes have been effective in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from coke-oven gas by 95%. Since the end of the start-up and optimization phase, emission rate has stayed below the 104.5 lb/hr limit of equivalent SO{sub 2} (based on a 24-hr average). In Jan. 1995, the emission rate from the sulfur removal facility averaged 86.7 lb/hr with less than 20 lb/hr from the Econobator exhaust. The challenges yet to be met are decreasing the operating expenses of the sulfur removal facility, notably chemical costs, and minimizing the impact of the heating system on unit reliability.

  15. Experimental and analytical studies of passive shutdown heat removal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, D.; Tessier, J.; Heineman, J.; Stewart, R.; Anderson, T.; August, C.; Chawla, T.; Cheung, F.B.; Despe, O.; Haupt, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Using a naturally circulating air stream to remove shutdown decay heat from a nuclear reactor vessel is a key feature of advanced liquid metal reactor (LMR) concepts developed by potential vendors selected by the Department of Energy. General Electric and Rockwell International continue to develop innovative design concepts aimed at improving safety, lowering plant costs, simplifying plant operation, reducing construction times, and most of all, enhancing plant licensability. The reactor program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical support to both organizations. The method of shutdown heat removal proposed employs a totally passive cooling system that rejects heat from the reactor by radiation and natural convection to air. The system is inherently reliable since it is not subject failure modes associated with active decay cooling systems. The system is designed to assure adequate cooling of the reactor under abnormal operating conditions associated with loss of heat removal through other heat transport paths.

  16. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger. Task 2, Pilot scale IFGT testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jankura, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of Task 2 (IFGT Pilot-Scale Tests at the B&W Alliance Research Center) is to evaluate the emission reduction performance of the Integrated flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) process for coal-fired applications. The IFGT system is a two-stage condensing heat exchanger that captures multiple pollutants - while recovering waste heat. The IFGT technology offers the potential of a addressing the emission of SO{sub 2} and particulate from electric utilities currently regulated under the Phase I and Phase II requirements defined in Title IV, and many of the air pollutants that will soon be regulated under Title III of the Clean Air Act. The performance data will be obtained at pilot-scale conditions similar to full-scale operating systems. The task 2 IFGT tests have been designed to investigate several aspects of IFGT process conditions at a broader range of variable than would be feasible at a larger scale facility. The performance parameters that will be investigated are as follows: SO{sub 2} removal; particulate removal; removal of mercury and other heavy metals; NO{sub x} removal; HF and HCl removal; NH{sub 3} removal; ammonia-sulfur compounds generation; and steam injection for particle removal. For all of the pollutant removal tests, removal efficiency will be based on measurements at the inlet and outlet of the IFGT facility. Heat recovery measurements will also be made during these tests to demonstrate the heat recovery provided by the IFGT technology. This report provides the Final Test Plan for the first coal tested in the Task 2 pilot-scale IFGT tests.

  17. Reaction heat used in static water removal from fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platner, J. L.

    1966-01-01

    Reaction heat is used for removal of water formed at the hydrogen fuel electrode in a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell. A portion of the heat inherent in the fuel cell current generation reaction is used to transfer excess water into water vapor and cause it to be exhausted from the cell by a porous vapor transport membrane adjoining a vapor cavity.

  18. 75 FR 54025 - Vessel and Facility Response Plans for Oil: 2003 Removal Equipment Requirements and Alternative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...-spill removal equipment associated with vessel response plans and marine transportation-related facility... and Facility Response Plans for Oil: 2003 Removal Equipment Requirements and Alternative Technology... and 155 [USCG-2001-8661] RIN 1625-AA26 Vessel and Facility Response Plans for Oil: 2003 Removal...

  19. Enhanced capability of the Combustion-Heated Scramjet Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, Kenneth E.; Andrews, Earl H.; Eggers, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The Combustion-Heated Scramjet Test Facility (CHSTF) is described together with its modifications. The expanded simulation capabilities of the facility are documented. Nozzle exit surveys and tunnel calibration information are presented. It is noted that these modifications included a new heat-sink nickel liner heater, a new Mach 4.7 nozzle, and a new 70-ft vacuum sphere exhaust system. It is found that the facility in the air ejector mode of operation performed similarly to that prior to the addition of the vacuum sphere ducting.

  20. Warmer apparatus for horticulture facilities utilizing solar heat

    SciTech Connect

    Kamanaka, R.

    1984-06-19

    A heat exchange apparatus which utilizes the solar heat, hot spring water or underground water comprises a cylindrical main body, an internal cylinder placed in the main body, a blower provided in an upper part of the internal cylinder, an air intake, a number of radially arranged air exhaust tubes, ring shaped upper and lower heat exchange compartments, and chambers formed between heat exchange compartments, on and under the upper and lower heat exchange compartment, upper and lower chambers are connected by coil tubes placed in heat exchange compartments, the outer coil tubes and inner coil tubes are successively connected so that each of connected coil tubes has the same overall length, which improves efficiency of heat exchange between air and water which are caused to move in a counterflow fashion. Such a heat exchange apparatus or its modification is utilized in a warmer apparatus for horticulture facilities utilizing solar heat comprising a sensor device provided in a greenhouse to detect the greenhouse temperature, a heat exchange device of a water-air counter-flow type functioning to collect and discharge heat provided with a control unit regulating various devices, a circulating pump and linked heat storage tanks serving as heat stocking means with a change-over valve to change the flow of water and sensors to detect water temperature are provided to pipings connecting said heat exchange device and heat storage tanks.

  1. Decay heat removal in HTGRs by Natural Circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tzoref, J.; Saphier, D.

    1990-01-01

    The coolability of a conceptual 1000-MW(thermal) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) with complete loss of forced circulation is investigated. Similar design concepts have been proposed by several designers. The important question is whether, for the given geometrical configuration and power density, natural circulation can be developed within a sufficiently short period so that passive cooling devices can be used to remove the decay heat. From the present study, it was concluded that if the reactor remains pressurized during the accident, and if passage near a passive cooling device with a minimum 0.3% nominal heat removal capacity of the reactor nominal decay power can be established, then the maximum fuel temperature will always stay below the 1600{degree}C limit, which is the limit for the beginning of fission product release. The generated decay heat under such conditions is partly removed by the developed natural circulation to the passive heat sink, whereas the rest is absorbed by the system large heat capacity. At the beginning of the accident, most of the decay heat is absorbed by the graphite in the thermal shield structure metal. In the course of the accident, the relative part of the heat dominant. The study was performed by using the DSNP modular simulation language. A dynamic model was developed for the natural circulation flow in the primary loop of a medium-size HTGR during loss of forced circulation.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE remove the protective cover from around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), which has been returned to the hangar from the launch pad. SIRTF will remain in the clean room until it returns to the pad in early August. One of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched, SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE remove the protective cover from around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), which has been returned to the hangar from the launch pad. SIRTF will remain in the clean room until it returns to the pad in early August. One of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched, SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE prepare to remove the canister from around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), which has been returned to the hangar from the launch pad. SIRTF will remain in the clean room until it returns to the pad in early August. One of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched, SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE prepare to remove the canister from around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), which has been returned to the hangar from the launch pad. SIRTF will remain in the clean room until it returns to the pad in early August. One of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched, SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE remove sections of the transportation canister from around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), which has been returned to the hangar from the launch pad. SIRTF will remain in the clean room until it returns to the pad in early August. One of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched, SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE remove sections of the transportation canister from around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), which has been returned to the hangar from the launch pad. SIRTF will remain in the clean room until it returns to the pad in early August. One of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched, SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE remove a portion of a transportation canister from around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), which has been returned to the hangar from the launch pad. SIRTF will remain in the clean room until it returns to the pad in early August. One of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched, SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE remove a portion of a transportation canister from around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), which has been returned to the hangar from the launch pad. SIRTF will remain in the clean room until it returns to the pad in early August. One of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched, SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space.

  6. 48 CFR 2922.101-4 - Removal of items from contractor facilities affected by work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contractor facilities affected by work stoppages. 2922.101-4 Section 2922.101-4 Federal Acquisition... ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 2922.101-4 Removal of items from contractor facilities affected by work stoppages. Before initiating any action under FAR 22.101-4 for removal of items from contractors' facilities...

  7. Assessment of ASME code examinations on regenerative, letdown and residual heat removal heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Gosselin, Stephen R.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.; Simonen, Fredric A.; Tinsley, G. A.; Lydell, B.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2005-07-01

    Inservice inspection requirements for pressure retaining welds in the regenerative, letdown, and residual heat removal heat exchangers are prescribed in Section XI Articles IWB and IWC of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Accordingly, volumetric and/or surface examinations are performed on heat exchanger shell, head, nozzle-to-head, and nozzle-to-shell welds. Inspection difficulties associated with the implementation of these Code-required examinations have forced operating nuclear power plants to seek relief from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The nature of these relief requests are generally concerned with metallurgical, geometry, accessibility, and radiation burden. Over 60% of licensee requests to the NRC identify significant radiation exposure burden as the principle reason for relief from the ASME Code examinations on regenerative heat exchangers. For the residual heat removal heat exchangers, 90% of the relief requests are associated with geometry and accessibility concerns. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was funded by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to review current practice with regard to volumetric and/or surface examinations of shell welds of letdown heat exchangers regenerative heat exchangers and residual (decay) heat removal heat exchangers Design, operating, common preventative maintenance practices, and potential degradation mechanisms are reviewed. A detailed survey of domestic and international PWR-specific operating experience was performed to identify pressure boundary failures (or lack of failures) in each heat exchanger type and NSSS design. The service data survey was based on the PIPExp® database and covers PWR plants worldwide for the period 1970-2004. Finally a risk assessment of the current ASME Code inspection requirements for residual heat removal, letdown, and regenerative heat exchangers is performed. The results are then reviewed to discuss the examinations relative to plant safety and

  8. Suitability of oil bioremediation in an Artic soil using surplus heating from an incineration facility.

    PubMed

    Couto, Nazaré; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille E; Højrup, Mads; Rodrigo, Ana P; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2014-05-01

    A 168-day period field study, carried out in Sisimiut, Greenland, assessed the potential to enhance soil remediation with the surplus heating from an incineration facility. This approach searches a feasible ex situ remediation process that could be extended throughout the year with low costs. Individual and synergistic effects of biostimulation were also tested, in parallel. An interim evaluation at the end of the first 42 days showed that biostimulation and active heating, as separate treatments, enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) removal compared to natural attenuation. The coupling of both technologies was even more effective, corroborating the benefits of both techniques in a remediation strategy. However, between day 42 and day 168, there was an opposite remediation trend with all treatments suggesting a stabilization except for natural attenuation, where PHC values continued to decrease. This enforces the "self-purification" capacity of the system, even at low temperatures. Coupling biostimulation with active heating was the best approach for PHC removal, namely for a short period of time (42 days). The proposed remediation scheme can be considered a reliable option for faster PHC removal with low maintenance and using "waste heating" from an incineration facility.

  9. Preliminary Heat Transfer Characteristics of RP-2 Fuel as Tested in the High Heat Flux Facility (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-21

    2005. This facility, coupled with established heated tube facilities, such as the NASA Glenn Heated Tube Facility ( HTF ) 3 and the Wright-Patterson...operation differs from the existing facilities in both construction and heating elements. Both the NASA Glenn HTF and the Wright-Patterson Phoenix Rig...ft/sec leading to heat fluxes of up to 100 BTU/in2 sec.1 In similarity to the HTF , the HHFF uses oxygen-free grade copper walled test sections

  10. 30 CFR 250.1729 - After I remove a platform or other facility, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false After I remove a platform or other facility... Decommissioning Activities Removing Platforms and Other Facilities § 250.1729 After I remove a platform or other facility, what information must I submit? Within 30 days after you remove a platform or other facility, you...

  11. Gradient Heating Facility. Experiment cartridges. Description and general specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breton, J.

    1982-01-01

    Specifications that define experiment cartridges that are compatible with the furnace of the gradient heating facility on board the Spacelab are presented. They establish a standard cartridge design independent of the type of experiment to be conducted. By using them, experimenters can design, construct, and test the hot section of the cartridge, known as the high temperature nacelle.

  12. Heat Transfer Modeling of Dry Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-01-13

    The present work was undertaken to provide heat transfer model that accurately predicts the thermal performance of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. One of the storage configurations being considered for DOE Aluminum-clad Spent Nuclear Fuel (Al-SNF), such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel, is in a dry storage facility. To support design studies of storage options a computational and experimental program has been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The main objective is to develop heat transfer models including natural convection effects internal to an interim dry storage canister and to geological codisposal Waste Package (WP). Calculated temperatures will be used to demonstrate engineering viability of a dry storage option in enclosed interim storage and geological repository WP and to assess the chemical and physical behaviors of the Al-SNF in the dry storage facilities. The current paper describes the modeling approaches and presents the computational results along with the experimental data.

  13. Evaluating the heat pump alternative for heating enclosed wastewater treatment facilities in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, C. J.; Phetteplace, G. E.

    1982-05-01

    This report presents a five-step procedure for evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of using heat pumps to recover heat from treatment plant effluent. The procedure is meant to be used at the facility planning level by engineers who are unfamiliar with this technology. An example of the use of the procedure and general design information are provided. Also, the report reviews the operational experience with heat pumps at wastewater plants located in Fairbanks, Alaska, Madison, Wisconsin, and Wilton, Maine.

  14. Horizontal Heat Exchanger Design and Analysis for Passive Heat Removal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vierow, Karen

    2005-08-29

    This report describes a three-year project to investigate the major factors of horizontal heat exchanger performance in passive containment heat removal from a light water reactor following a design basis accident LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The heat exchanger studied in this work may be used in advanced and innovative reactors, in which passive heat removal systems are adopted to improve safety and reliability The application of horizontal tube-bundle condensers to passive containment heat removal is new. In order to show the feasibility of horizontal heat exchangers for passive containment cooling, the following aspects were investigated: 1. the condensation heat transfer characteristics when the incoming fluid contains noncondensable gases 2. the effectiveness of condensate draining in the horizontal orientation 3. the conditions that may lead to unstable condenser operation or highly degraded performance 4. multi-tube behavior with the associated secondary-side effects This project consisted of two experimental investigations and analytical model development for incorporation into industry safety codes such as TRAC and RELAP. A physical understanding of the flow and heat transfer phenomena was obtained and reflected in the analysis models. Two gradute students (one funded by the program) and seven undergraduate students obtained research experience as a part of this program.

  15. Method and apparatus for heat treating materials to remove contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.; Miller, D.H.

    1980-05-06

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for heat treating metals to remove contaminants. Contaminated scrap metal is fed into one end of a rotating inclined retort. Heat is applied to the retort as the scrap metal is conveyed therein to remove the contaminant, and the processed metal is discharged from the opposite end of the retort. Combustible waste gases generated through the processing are fed to an afterburner where the combustible gases are burned and are discharged from the afterburner into a stack. A portion of the hot combusted gases are returned from the stack to the discharge end of the retort to thereby minimize oxidation of the scrap metal being treated as well as conserving fuel.

  16. Geothermal heating facilities for Frontier Inn, Susanville, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    A 38 unit motel composed of six major sections (coffee shop, A frame units, apartments, back units, two story units and office) was built over a number of years and exhibits widely varying types of construction. Space heating is provided by primarily electric resistance equipment with some propane use. Domestic hot water is provided primarily by propane with some electric resistance. The coffee shop uses fuel oil for both space and domestic hot water heating. A geothermal district heating system is being installed. Although the motel site is not located in the area of construction activity, it is expected that the pipeline will be extended. The potential of retrofitting the existing heating facilities at the inn to geothermal is studied.

  17. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Jankura, B. J.; Kudlac, G. A.; Bailey, R. T.

    1998-06-01

    The Integrated Flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) system is a new concept whereby a Teflon ® covered condensing heat exchanger is adapted to remove certain flue gas constituents, both particulate and gaseous, while recovering low level heat. The pollutant removal performance and durability of this device is the subject of a USDOE sponsored program to develop this technology. The program was conducted under contract to the United States Department of Energy's Fossil Energy Technology Center (DOE-FETC) and was supported by the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) within the Ohio Department of Development, the Electric Power Research Institute's Environmental Control Technology Center (EPRI-ECTC) and Babcock and Wilcox - a McDermott Company (B&W). This report covers the results of the first phase of this program. This Phase I project has been a two year effort. Phase I includes two experimental tasks. One task dealt principally with the pollutant removal capabilities of the IFGT at a scale of about 1.2MWt. The other task studied the durability of the Teflon ® covering to withstand the rigors of abrasive wear by fly ash emitted as a result of coal combustion. The pollutant removal characteristics of the IFGT system were measured over a wide range of operating conditions. The coals tested included high, medium and low-sulfur coals. The flue gas pollutants studied included ammonia, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, particulate, sulfur dioxide, gas phase and particle phase mercury and gas phase and particle phase trace elements. The particulate removal efficiency and size distribution was investigated. These test results demonstrated that the IFGT system is an effective device for both acid gas absorption and fine particulate collection. Although soda ash was shown to be the most effective reagent for acid gas absorption, comparative cost analyses suggested that magnesium enhanced lime was the most promising avenue for future study. The durability of the Teflon

  18. Oxy-Combustion Burner and Integrated Pollutant Removal Research and Development Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schoenfield; Manny Menendez; Thomas Ochs; Rigel Woodside; Danylo Oryshchyn

    2012-09-30

    A high flame temperature oxy-combustion test facility consisting of a 5 MWe equivalent test boiler facility and 20 KWe equivalent IPR® was constructed at the Hammond, Indiana manufacturing site. The test facility was operated natural gas and coal fuels and parametric studies were performed to determine the optimal performance conditions and generated the necessary technical data required to demonstrate the technologies are viable for technical and economic scale-up. Flame temperatures between 4930-6120F were achieved with high flame temperature oxy-natural gas combustion depending on whether additional recirculated flue gases are added to balance the heat transfer. For high flame temperature oxy-coal combustion, flame temperatures in excess of 4500F were achieved and demonstrated to be consistent with computational fluid dynamic modeling of the burner system. The project demonstrated feasibility and effectiveness of the Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process with Integrated Pollutant Removal process for CCS and CCUS. With these technologies total parasitic power requirements for both oxygen production and carbon capture currently are in the range of 20% of the gross power output. The Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process has been demonstrated at a Technology Readiness Level of 6 and is ready for commencement of a demonstration project.

  19. 30 CFR 250.1729 - After I remove a platform or other facility, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false After I remove a platform or other facility... CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Activities Removing Platforms and Other Facilities § 250.1729 After I remove a platform or other facility, what information must I submit? Within 30 days after you remove a...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1729 - After I remove a platform or other facility, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false After I remove a platform or other facility... CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Activities Removing Platforms and Other Facilities § 250.1729 After I remove a platform or other facility, what information must I submit? Within 30 days after you remove a...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1729 - After I remove a platform or other facility, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false After I remove a platform or other facility... CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Activities Removing Platforms and Other Facilities § 250.1729 After I remove a platform or other facility, what information must I submit? Within 30 days after you remove a...

  2. Passive decay heat removal by natural air convection after severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Erbacher, F.J.; Neitzel, H.J.; Cheng, X.

    1995-09-01

    The composite containment proposed by the Research Center Karlsruhe and the Technical University Karlsruhe is to cope with severe accidents. It pursues the goal to restrict the consequences of core meltdown accidents to the reactor plant. One essential of this new containment concept is its potential to remove the decay heat by natural air convection and thermal radiation in a passive way. To investigate the coolability of such a passive cooling system and the physical phenomena involved, experimental investigations are carried out at the PASCO test facility. Additionally, numerical calculations are performed by using different codes. A satisfying agreement between experimental data and numerical results is obtained.

  3. Preliminary Heat Transfer Characteristics of RP-2 Fuel as Tested in the High Heat Flux Facility (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-21

    operational in October 2005. This facility, coupled with established heated tube facilities, such as the NASA Glenn Heated Tube Facility ( HTF ) 3 and...Facility design and operation differs from the existing facilities in both construction and heating elements. Both the NASA Glenn HTF and the Wright...flow rates of up to 450 ft/sec leading to heat fluxes of up to 100 BTU/in2 sec.1 In similarity to the HTF , the HHFF uses oxygen-free grade copper

  4. 30 CFR 250.1728 - To what depth must I remove a platform or other facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... must use divers and the seafloor sediment stability poses safety concerns; or (3) The water depth is... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false To what depth must I remove a platform or other... Decommissioning Activities Removing Platforms and Other Facilities § 250.1728 To what depth must I remove a...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1728 - To what depth must I remove a platform or other facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... must use divers and the seafloor sediment stability poses safety concerns; or (3) The water depth is... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false To what depth must I remove a platform or other... Decommissioning Activities Removing Platforms and Other Facilities § 250.1728 To what depth must I remove a...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1728 - To what depth must I remove a platform or other facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... must use divers and the seafloor sediment stability poses safety concerns; or (3) The water depth is... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false To what depth must I remove a platform or other... Decommissioning Activities Removing Platforms and Other Facilities § 250.1728 To what depth must I remove a...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1728 - To what depth must I remove a platform or other facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sediment stability poses safety concerns; or (3) The water depth is greater than 800 meters (2,624 feet). ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false To what depth must I remove a platform or other... Activities Removing Platforms and Other Facilities § 250.1728 To what depth must I remove a platform or other...

  8. System Study: Residual Heat Removal 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-02-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the residual heat removal (RHR) system in two modes of operation (low-pressure injection in response to a large loss-of-coolant accident and post-trip shutdown-cooling) at 104 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant trends were identified in the RHR results.

  9. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger: Preliminary test plan for Task 2, Pilot scale IFGT testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jankura, B.J.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of Task 2 (IFGT Pilot-Scale Tests at the B&W Alliance Research Center) is to evaluate the emission reduction performance of the Integrated Flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) process for coal-fired applications. The IFGT system is a two-stage condensing heat exchanger that captures multiple pollutants -- while recovering waste heat. The IFGT technology offers the potential of addressing the emission of S0{sub 2} and particulate from electric utilities currently regulated under the Phase 1 and Phase 2 requirements defined in Title IV, and many of the air pollutants that will soon be regulated under Title III of the Clean Air Act. The performance data will be obtained at pilot-scale conditions similar to full-scale operating systems. The Task 2 IFGT tests have been designed to investigate several aspects of IFGT process conditions at a broader range of variables than would be feasible at a larger scale facility. The data from these tests greatly expands the IFGT performance database for coals and is needed for the technology to progress from the component engineering phase to system integration and commercialization. The performance parameters that will be investigated are as follows: SO{sub 2} removal; particulate removal; removal of mercury and other heavy metals; NO{sub x} removal; HF and HCl removal; NH{sub 3} removal; ammonia-sulfur compounds generation; and steam injection for particle removal. For all of the pollutant removal tests, removal efficiency will be based on measurements at the inlet and outlet of the IFGT facility. Heat recovery measurements will also be made during these tests to demonstrate the heat recovery provided by the IFGT technology. This report provides a preliminary test plan for all of the Task 2 pilot-scale IFGT tests.

  10. System retrofit provides decentralized heating for mental health facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, G.R. )

    1993-03-01

    This article describes a low temperature/pressure unitary heating equipment which significantly improves building environmental conditions. In 1988, the State of Georgia Department of Human Resources considered closing Brook Run, then named the Georgia Retardation Center. Closing the 101-acre (41-hectare) mental health campus and relocating 377 permanent residents and 925 staff were being considered because of trauma caused by repeated failures of the campus' heating system. The 22-year-old central high temperature water (HTW) campus underground piping system that served HVAC and domestic hot water loads had been leaking 40 gallons per minute (21 million gallons per year) of water at 350F (177C) and 290 psig (1999 kPa). The campus heating system was no longer serviceable. The cost for repairing routine leaks had averaged $100,000 per year. In addition, over $5,000,000 in capital expenditures had been previously spent for system restoration. The facility had been cited for failure to meet federal and state temperature guidelines as a result of repeated wintertime catastrophic heating system failures. Discouraged residents' parents wrote personal checks payable to then-Governor Joe Frank Harris for Heat at Georgia Retardation Center. Ten buildings totaling 191,000 ft[sup 2] (17 744m[sup 2]) were included in the retrofit project. These included five permanent resident cottages, two workshop buildings, a theater, the administration building and the maintenance shop.

  11. Tritium Removal by Laser Heating and Its Application to Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile; G. Guttadora; A. Carpe; S. Langish; K.M. Young; M. Nishi; W. Shu

    2001-11-16

    A novel laser heating technique has recently been applied to removing tritium from carbon tiles that had been exposed to deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas in the Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR). A continuous wave neodymium laser, of power up to 300 watts, was used to heat the surface of the tiles. The beam was focused to an intensity, typically 8 kW/cm{sup 2}, and rapidly scanned over the tile surface by galvanometer-driven scanning mirrors. Under the laser irradiation, the surface temperature increased dramatically, and temperatures up to 2,300 degrees C were recorded by an optical pyrometer. Tritium was released and circulated in a closed-loop system to an ionization chamber that measured the tritium concentration. Most of the tritium (up to 84%) could be released by the laser scan. This technique appears promising for tritium removal in a next-step DT device as it avoids oxidation, the associated deconditioning of the plasma facing surfaces, and the expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. Some engineering aspects of the implementation of this method in a next-step fusion device will be discussed.

  12. Tritium Removal by Laser Heating and Its Application to Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile; G. Guttadora; A. Carpe; S. Langish; K.M. Young; M. Nishi; W. Shu

    2001-11-16

    A novel laser heating technique has recently been applied to removing tritium from carbon tiles that had been exposed to deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas in the Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR). A continuous wave neodymium laser, of power up to 300 watts, was used to heat the surface of the tiles. The beam was focused to an intensity, typically 8 kW/cm{sup 2}, and rapidly scanned over the tile surface by galvanometer-driven scanning mirrors. Under the laser irradiation, the surface temperature increased dramatically, and temperatures up to 2,300 degrees C were recorded by an optical pyrometer. Tritium was released and circulated in a closed-loop system to an ionization chamber that measured the tritium concentration. Most of the tritium (up to 84%) could be released by the laser scan. This technique appears promising for tritium removal in a next-step DT device as it avoids oxidation, the associated deconditioning of the plasma facing surfaces, and the expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. Some engineering aspects of the implementation of this method in a next-step fusion device will be discussed.

  13. Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) Decay Heat Removal Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    K. D. Weaver; L-Y. Cheng; H. Ludewig; J. Jo

    2005-09-01

    Current research and development on the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) has focused on the design of safety systems that will remove the decay heat during accident conditions, ion irradiations of candidate ceramic materials, joining studies of oxide dispersion strengthened alloys; and within the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) the fabrication of carbide fuels and ceramic fuel matrix materials, development of non-halide precursor low density and high density ceramic coatings, and neutron irradiation of candidate ceramic fuel matrix and metallic materials. The vast majority of this work has focused on the reference design for the GFR: a helium-cooled, direct power conversion system that will operate with an outlet temperature of 850ºC at 7 MPa. In addition to the work being performed in the United States, seven international partners under the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) have identified their interest in participating in research related to the development of the GFR. These are Euratom (European Commission), France, Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Of these, Euratom (including the United Kingdom), France, and Japan have active research activities with respect to the GFR. The research includes GFR design and safety, and fuels/in-core materials/fuel cycle projects. This report is a compilation of work performed on decay heat removal systems for a 2400 MWt GFR during this fiscal year (FY05).

  14. Tritium emission reduction at Darlington tritium removal facility using a Bubbler System

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyanam, K.; Leilabadi, A.; El-Behairy, O.; Williams, G. I. D.; Vogt, H. K.

    2008-07-15

    Ontario Power Generation Nuclear (OPGN) has a 4 x 880 MWe CANDU nuclear station at its Darlington Nuclear Div. located in Bowmanville. The station operates a Tritium Removal Facility (TRF) to reduce and maintain low tritium levels in the Moderator and Heat Transport heavy water systems of Ontario's CANDU fleet by extracting, concentrating, immobilizing and storing as a metal tritide. Minimizing tritium releases to the environment is of paramount importance to ensure that dose to the public is as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) and to maintain credibility with the Public. Tritium is removed from the Cryogenic Distillation System to the Tritium Immobilization System (TIS) glove box via a transfer line that is protected by a rupture disc and relief valve. An overpressure event in 2003 had caused the rupture disc to blow, resulting in the release of a significant quantity of elemental tritium into the relief valve discharge line, which ties into the contaminated exhaust system. As a result of a few similar events occurring over a number of years of TRF operation, the released elemental tritium would have been converted to tritium oxide in the presence of a stagnant moist air environment in the stainless steel discharge line. A significant amount of tritium oxide hold-up in the discharge line was anticipated. To minimize any further releases to the environment, a Bubbler System was designed to remove and recover the tritium from the discharge line. This paper summarizes the results of several Bubbler recovery runs that were made over a period of a month. Approximately 3500 Ci of tritium oxide and 230 Ci of elemental tritium were removed and collected. The tritium contained in the water produced from the Bubbler system was later safely recovered in the station's downgraded D{sub 2}O clean-up and recovery system. (authors)

  15. Measurement of frost characteristics on heat exchanger fins. Part 1: Test facility and instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.; Chen, H.; Besant, R.W.

    1999-07-01

    A special test facility was developed to characterize frost growing on heat exchanger fins where the cold surfaces and the air supply conditions were similar to those experienced in freezers, i.e., cold surface temperatures ranging from {minus}35 C to {minus}40 C, air supply temperatures from {minus}10 C to {minus}20 C, and 80% to 100% relative humidity (RH). This test facility included a test section with removable fins to measure the frost height and mass concentration. Frost height on heat exchanger fins was measured using a new automated laser scanning system to measure the height of frost and its distribution on selected fins. The increase in air pressure loss resulting from frost growth on the fins was measured directly in the test loop. The frost mass accumulation distribution was measured for each test using special pre-etched fins that could be easily subdivided and weighed. The total heat rate was measured using a heat flux meter. These frost-measuring instruments were calibrated and the uncertainty of each is stated.

  16. Dynamic Response Testing in an Electrically Heated Reactor Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Morton, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Standard testing allows one to fully assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. The integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronic response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and full nuclear testing. By implementing a neutronic response model to simulate the dynamic response that would be expected in a fueled reactor system, one can better understand system integration issues, characterize integrated system response times and response characteristics, and assess potential design improvements at a relatively small fiscal investment. Initial system dynamic response testing was demonstrated on the integrated SAFE-100a heat pipe cooled, electrically heated reactor and heat exchanger hardware, utilizing a one-group solution to the point kinetics equations to simulate the expected neutronic response of the system (Bragg-Sitton, 2005). The current paper applies the same testing methodology to a direct drive gas cooled reactor system, demonstrating the applicability of the testing methodology to any reactor type and demonstrating the variation in system response characteristics in different reactor concepts. In each testing application, core power transients were controlled by a point kinetics model with reactivity feedback based on core average temperature; the neutron generation time and the temperature feedback coefficient are provided as model inputs. Although both system designs utilize a fast spectrum reactor, the method of cooling the reactor differs significantly, leading to a variable system response that can be demonstrated and assessed in a non-nuclear test facility.

  17. Heating Facilities: Klamath County Road Department Shops, Klamath Falls, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-30

    Maywood Industries is presently utilizing 118/sup 0/F water pumped from a geothermal well about 1500 feet deep. The Klamath County Road complex presently heats about 13,000 square feet of space using electric and natural gas heaters. It is planned to increase the total heated area to nearly 24,000 square feet. This study is based on eliminating the existing electrical and natural gas heaters and heating the entire 24,000 square feet geothermally. It was found to be practical and economically feasible to heat the road department shop complex geothermally. Capital cost is estimated to be $170,000. Annual energy savings for the enlarged facility would be 56,720 KWH of electricity and 36,924 therms of natural gas, with a first year value of $18,175. This savings, less operating costs, when applied with escalation considerations over a period of twenty years, result in a present worth of $382,385 when discounted at 8%. Thus, with 8% bonds financing of this project is economically attractive. (MHR)

  18. 30 CFR 250.1729 - After I remove a platform or other facility, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false After I remove a platform or other facility... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Activities Removing Platforms and Other Facilities § 250.1729 After I remove a platform or other facility, what information must I submit? Within 30 days...

  19. 48 CFR 1422.101-4 - Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1422.101-4 Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work...

  20. 48 CFR 1322.101-4 - Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1322.101-4 Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work...

  1. 48 CFR 1322.101-4 - Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1322.101-4 Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work...

  2. 48 CFR 1422.101-4 - Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1422.101-4 Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work...

  3. 48 CFR 1322.101-4 - Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1322.101-4 Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work...

  4. 48 CFR 1322.101-4 - Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1322.101-4 Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work...

  5. 48 CFR 2922.101-4 - Removal of items from contractor facilities affected by work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 2922.101-4 Removal of items from contractor facilities affected by work...

  6. 48 CFR 1422.101-4 - Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1422.101-4 Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work...

  7. 48 CFR 2922.101-4 - Removal of items from contractor facilities affected by work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 2922.101-4 Removal of items from contractor facilities affected by work...

  8. Boiling Experiment Facility for Heat Transfer Studies in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard; McQuillen, John; Chao, David

    2008-01-01

    Pool boiling in microgravity is an area of both scientific and practical interest. By conducting tests in microgravity, it is possible to assess the effect of buoyancy on the overall boiling process and assess the relative magnitude of effects with regards to other "forces" and phenomena such as Marangoni forces, liquid momentum forces, and microlayer evaporation. The Boiling eXperiment Facility is now being built for the Microgravity Science Glovebox that will use normal perfluorohexane as a test fluid to extend the range of test conditions to include longer test durations and less liquid subcooling. Two experiments, the Microheater Array Boiling Experiment and the Nucleate Pool Boiling eXperiment will use the Boiling eXperiment Facility. The objectives of these studies are to determine the differences in local boiling heat transfer mechanisms in microgravity and normal gravity from nucleate boiling, through critical heat flux and into the transition boiling regime and to examine the bubble nucleation, growth, departure and coalescence processes. Custom-designed heaters will be utilized to achieve these objectives.

  9. System Study: Residual Heat Removal 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the residual heat removal (RHR) system in two modes of operation (low-pressure injection in response to a large loss-of-coolant accident and post-trip shutdown-cooling) at 104 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trends were identified in the RHR results. A highly statistically significant decreasing trend was observed for the RHR injection mode start-only unreliability. Statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for RHR shutdown cooling mode start-only unreliability and RHR shutdown cooling model 24-hour unreliability.

  10. 30 CFR 285.910 - What must I do when I remove my facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do when I remove my facility? 285.910 Section 285.910 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning...

  11. 78 FR 69539 - Removal of Attestation Process for Facilities Using H-1A Registered Nurses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB67 Removal of Attestation Process for Facilities Using H-1A Registered Nurses AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Department of Labor... governing health care facilities using nonimmigrant foreign workers as registered nurses under the H-1A visa...

  12. 30 CFR 250.1728 - To what depth must I remove a platform or other facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must use divers and the seafloor sediment stability poses safety concerns; or (3) The water depth is... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false To what depth must I remove a platform or other... SHELF Decommissioning Activities Removing Platforms and Other Facilities § 250.1728 To what depth must I...

  13. Heat barrier for use in a nuclear reactor facility

    DOEpatents

    Keegan, Charles P.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal barrier for use in a nuclear reactor facility is disclosed herein. Generally, the thermal barrier comprises a flexible, heat-resistant web mounted over the annular space between the reactor vessel and the guard vessel in order to prevent convection currents generated in the nitrogen atmosphere in this space from entering the relatively cooler atmosphere of the reactor cavity which surrounds these vessels. Preferably, the flexible web includes a blanket of heat-insulating material formed from fibers of a refractory material, such as alumina and silica, sandwiched between a heat-resistant, metallic cloth made from stainless steel wire. In use, the web is mounted between the upper edges of the guard vessel and the flange of a sealing ring which surrounds the reactor vessel with a sufficient enough slack to avoid being pulled taut as a result of thermal differential expansion between the two vessels. The flexible web replaces the rigid and relatively complicated structures employed in the prior art for insulating the reactor cavity from the convection currents generated between the reactor vessel and the guard vessel.

  14. ALARA considerations for the whole body neutron irradiation facility source removal project at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Patrick T

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the activities that were involved with the safe removal of fourteen PuBe sources from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Whole Body Neutron Irradiation Facility (WBNIF). As part of a Department of Energy and BNL effort to reduce the radiological inventory, the WBNIF was identified as having no future use. In order to deactivate the facility and eliminate the need for nuclear safety management and long-term surveillance, it was decided to remove the neutron sources and dismantle the facility. In addition, the sources did not have DOT Special Form documentation so they would need to be encapsulated once removed for offsite storage or disposal. The planning and the administrative as well as engineering controls put in place enabled personnel to safely remove and encapsulate the sources while keeping exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  15. Electrochemical Technology for Oxygen Removal and Measurement in the CELSS Test Facility, Engineering Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, Michael E.; Covington, Al (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Life Support Flight Program is evaluating regenerative technologies, including those that utilize higher plants, as a means to reduce resupply over long duration space missions. Constructed to assist in the evaluation process is the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit (CTF-EDU) an environmentally closed (less than 1% mass and thermal leakage) technology test bed. This ground based fully functional prototype is currently configured to support crop growth, utilizing the power, volume and mass resources allocated for two space station racks. Sub-system technologies were selected considering their impact on available resources, their ability to minimize integration issues, and their degree of modularity. Gas specific mass handling is a key sub-system technology for both biological and physical/chemical life support technologies. The CTF-EDU requires such a system to accommodate non-linear oxygen production from crops, by enabling the control system to change and sustain partial pressure set points in the growth volume. Electrochemical cells are one of the technologies that were examined for oxygen handling in the CTF-EDU. They have been additionally considered to meet other regenerative life support functions, such as oxygen generation, the production of potable water from composite waste streams, and for having the potential to integrate life support functions with those of propulsion and energy storage. An oxygen removal system based on an electrochemical cell was chosen for the EDU due to it's low power, volume and mass requirements (10W, 0.000027 cu m, 4.5 kg) and because of the minimal number of integration considerations. Unlike it's competitors, the system doesn't require post treatments of its byproducts, or heat and power intensive regenerations, that also mandate system redundancy or cycling. The EDUs oxygen removal system only requires two resources, which are already essential to controlled plant growth: electricity and water. Additionally

  16. Electrochemical Technology for Oxygen Removal and Measurement in the CELSS Test Facility, Engineering Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, Michael E.; Covington, Al (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Life Support Flight Program is evaluating regenerative technologies, including those that utilize higher plants, as a means to reduce resupply over long duration space missions. Constructed to assist in the evaluation process is the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit (CTF-EDU) an environmentally closed (less than 1% mass and thermal leakage) technology test bed. This ground based fully functional prototype is currently configured to support crop growth, utilizing the power, volume and mass resources allocated for two space station racks. Sub-system technologies were selected considering their impact on available resources, their ability to minimize integration issues, and their degree of modularity. Gas specific mass handling is a key sub-system technology for both biological and physical/chemical life support technologies. The CTF-EDU requires such a system to accommodate non-linear oxygen production from crops, by enabling the control system to change and sustain partial pressure set points in the growth volume. Electrochemical cells are one of the technologies that were examined for oxygen handling in the CTF-EDU. They have been additionally considered to meet other regenerative life support functions, such as oxygen generation, the production of potable water from composite waste streams, and for having the potential to integrate life support functions with those of propulsion and energy storage. An oxygen removal system based on an electrochemical cell was chosen for the EDU due to it's low power, volume and mass requirements (10W, 0.000027 cu m, 4.5 kg) and because of the minimal number of integration considerations. Unlike it's competitors, the system doesn't require post treatments of its byproducts, or heat and power intensive regenerations, that also mandate system redundancy or cycling. The EDUs oxygen removal system only requires two resources, which are already essential to controlled plant growth: electricity and water. Additionally

  17. Dynamic Response Testing in an Electrically Heated Reactor Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Morton, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Standard testing allows one to fully assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. The integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronic response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and fueled nuclear testing. By implementing a neutronic response model to simulate the dynamic response that would be expected in a fueled reactor system, one can better understand system integration issues, characterize integrated system response times and response characteristics, and assess potential design improvements at a relatively small fiscal investment. Initial system dynamic response testing was demonstrated on the integrated SAFE-100a heat pipe (HP) cooled, electrically heated reactor and heat exchanger hardware, utilizing a one-group solution to the point kinetics equations to simulate the expected neutronic response of the system. Reactivity feedback calculations were then based on a bulk reactivity feedback coefficient and measured average core temperature. This paper presents preliminary results from similar dynamic testing of a direct drive gas cooled reactor system (DDG), demonstrating the applicability of the testing methodology to any reactor type and demonstrating the variation in system response characteristics in different reactor concepts. Although the HP and DDG designs both utilize a fast spectrum reactor, the method of cooling the reactor differs significantly, leading to a variable system response that can be demonstrated and assessed in a non-nuclear test facility. Planned system upgrades to allow implementation of higher fidelity dynamic testing are also discussed. Proposed DDG

  18. Dry-heat Depyrogenation Ovens for Pharmaceutical Compounding Facilities.

    PubMed

    Weller, Tom; Kragseth, Rolf; Dullinger, Roger; Illum, Henrik; Perry, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Sterilization kills microorganisms in compounded preparations, on the implements used to prepare them, and on the vessels that contain them, but depyrogenation incinerates the remaining debris and renders the treated tool, container, or meditation pyrogen free. Depyrogenation is thus an essential step in the preparation of sterile compounds, and the pharmacist who dispenses those formulations is directly responsible for ensuring their safety, potency, and purity. Dry heat provided by a depyrogenation oven or tunnel is the pharmaceutical gold standard for ensuring the elimination of pyrogens. In this report, we describe several depyrogenation ovens that are compliant with Current Good Manufacturing Practice standards and are appropriate for use in aseptic-compounding facilities that meet the guidelines set forth in United States Pharmacopela Chapter <797>.

  19. Final Removal Action Report of the CPP-603A Basin Facility

    SciTech Connect

    D. V. Croson

    2007-01-04

    This Final Removal Action Report describes the actions that were taken under the non-time-critical removal action recommended in the Action Memorandum for the Non-Time Critical Removal Action at the CPP-603A Basins, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as evaluated in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the CPP-603A Bason Non-Time Critical Removal Action, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The Removal Action implemented consolidation and recording the location of debris objects containing radioactive cobalt (cobalt-60), removal and management of a small high-activity debris object (SHADO 1), the removal, treatment, and disposal of the basin water at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) evaporation ponds, and filling the basins with grout/controlled low strength material.

  20. Heat removal from bipolar transistor by loop heat pipe with nickel and copper porous structures.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Patrik; Smitka, Martin; Malcho, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are used in many branches of industry, mainly for cooling of electrical elements and systems. The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work was to develop porous structures from copper and nickel powder with different grain sizes. For experiment copper powder with grain size of 50 and 100 μm and nickel powder with grain size of 10 and 25 μm were used. Analysis of these porous structures and LHP design are described in the paper. And the measurements' influences of porous structures in LHP on heat removal from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) have been made.

  1. Heat Removal from Bipolar Transistor by Loop Heat Pipe with Nickel and Copper Porous Structures

    PubMed Central

    Smitka, Martin; Malcho, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are used in many branches of industry, mainly for cooling of electrical elements and systems. The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work was to develop porous structures from copper and nickel powder with different grain sizes. For experiment copper powder with grain size of 50 and 100 μm and nickel powder with grain size of 10 and 25 μm were used. Analysis of these porous structures and LHP design are described in the paper. And the measurements' influences of porous structures in LHP on heat removal from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) have been made. PMID:24959622

  2. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  3. 30 CFR 585.912 - After I remove a facility, cable, or pipeline, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false After I remove a facility, cable, or pipeline... facility, cable, or pipeline, what information must I submit? Within 60 days after you remove a facility, cable, or pipeline, you must submit a written report to BOEM that includes the following: (a) A...

  4. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-06-15

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

  5. Grouping of light water reactors for evaluation of decay heat removal capability

    SciTech Connect

    Karol, R.; Fresco, A.; Perkins, K.R.

    1984-06-01

    This grouping report provides a compilation of decay heat removal systems (DHRS) data for operating commercial light water reactors. The reactors have been divided into 12 groups based on similarity of the DHRS and related systems as part of the NRC Task Action Plan on Shutdown Decay Heat Removal Requirements.

  6. Results from evaporation tests to support the MWTF heat removal system design

    SciTech Connect

    Crea, B.A.

    1994-12-22

    An experimental tests program was conducted to measure the evaporative heat removal from the surface of a tank of simulated waste. The results contained in this report constitute definition design data for the latest heat removal function of the MWTF primary ventilation system.

  7. Impact of the amount of working fluid in loop heat pipe to remove waste heat from electronic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitka, Martin; Kolková, Z.; Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, M.

    2014-03-01

    One of the options on how to remove waste heat from electronic components is using loop heat pipe. The loop heat pipe (LHP) is a two-phase device with high effective thermal conductivity that utilizes change phase to transport heat. It was invented in Russia in the early 1980's. The main parts of LHP are an evaporator, a condenser, a compensation chamber and a vapor and liquid lines. Only the evaporator and part of the compensation chamber are equipped with a wick structure. Inside loop heat pipe is working fluid. As a working fluid can be used distilled water, acetone, ammonia, methanol etc. Amount of filling is important for the operation and performance of LHP. This work deals with the design of loop heat pipe and impact of filling ratio of working fluid to remove waste heat from insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT).

  8. Thermal control system. [removing waste heat from industrial process spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewitt, D. R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The temperature of an exothermic process plant carried aboard an Earth orbiting spacecraft is regulated using a number of curved radiator panels accurately positioned in a circular arrangement to form an open receptacle. A module containing the process is insertable into the receptacle. Heat exchangers having broad exterior surfaces extending axially above the circumference of the module fit within arcuate spacings between adjacent radiator panels. Banks of variable conductance heat pipes partially embedded within and thermally coupled to the radiator panels extend across the spacings and are thermally coupled to broad exterior surfaces of the heat exchangers by flanges. Temperature sensors monitor the temperature of process fluid flowing from the module through the heat exchanges. Thermal conduction between the heat exchangers and the radiator panels is regulated by heating a control fluid within the heat pipes to vary the effective thermal length of the heat pipes in inverse proportion to changes in the temperature of the process fluid.

  9. Shroud boundary condition characterization experiments at the Radiant Heat Facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Nakos, James Thomas; Gill, Walter

    2004-10-01

    A series of experiments was performed to better characterize the boundary conditions from an inconel heat source ('shroud') painted with Pyromark black paint. Quantifying uncertainties in this type of experimental setup is crucial to providing information for comparisons with code predictions. The characterization of this boundary condition has applications in many scenarios related to fire simulation experiments performed at Sandia National Laboratories Radiant Heat Facility (RHF). Four phases of experiments were performed. Phase 1 results showed that a nominal 1000 C shroud temperature is repeatable to about 2 C. Repeatability of temperatures at individual points on the shroud show that temperatures do not vary more than 10 C from experiment to experiment. This variation results in a 6% difference in heat flux to a target 4 inches away. IR camera images showed the shroud was not at a uniform temperature, although the control temperature was constant to about {+-}2 C during a test. These images showed that a circular shaped, flat shroud with its edges supported by an insulated plate has a temperature distribution with higher temperatures at the edges and lower temperatures in the center. Differences between the center and edge temperatures were up to 75 C. Phase 3 results showed that thermocouple (TC) bias errors are affected by coupling with the surrounding environment. The magnitude of TC error depends on the environment facing the TC. Phase 4 results were used to estimate correction factors for specific applications (40 and 63-mil diameter, ungrounded junction, mineral insulated, metal-sheathed TCs facing a cold surface). Correction factors of about 3.0-4.5% are recommended for 40 mil diameter TCs and 5.5-7.0% for 63 mil diameter TCs. When mounted on the cold side of the shroud, TCs read lower than the 'true' shroud temperature, and the TC reads high when on the hot side. An alternate method uses the average of a cold side and hot side TC of the same size to

  10. A radiant heating test facility for space shuttle orbiter thermal protection system certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherborne, W. D.; Milhoan, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    A large scale radiant heating test facility was constructed so that thermal certification tests can be performed on the new generation of thermal protection systems developed for the space shuttle orbiter. This facility simulates surface thermal gradients, onorbit cold-soak temperatures down to 200 K, entry heating temperatures to 1710 K in an oxidizing environment, and the dynamic entry pressure environment. The capabilities of the facility and the development of new test equipment are presented.

  11. 76 FR 74804 - Reopening the Comment Period for the Klamath Facilities Removal Draft Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    .... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to Ms. Elizabeth Vasquez, Bureau of Reclamation, 2800 Cottage Way... Vasquez, Bureau of Reclamation, (916) 978-5040, evasquez@usbr.gov ; or Mr. Gordon Leppig, California... INFORMATION: The publication and comment history of the Klamath Facilities Removal Draft EIS/EIR is as follows...

  12. 48 CFR 222.101-4 - Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.101-4 Removal of items from... items from the facility, shall— (i) Before initiating any action, contact the labor advisor to obtain... mediation agency regarding the effect movement of the items would have on labor negotiations. Normally...

  13. 48 CFR 22.101-4 - Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 22.101-4 Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work... appearance of force and prevent incidents that might detrimentally affect labor-management relations. (c...

  14. 48 CFR 222.101-4 - Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.101-4 Removal of items from... items from the facility, shall— (i) Before initiating any action, contact the labor advisor to obtain... mediation agency regarding the effect movement of the items would have on labor negotiations. Normally...

  15. 48 CFR 22.101-4 - Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 22.101-4 Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work... appearance of force and prevent incidents that might detrimentally affect labor-management relations. (c...

  16. 48 CFR 222.101-4 - Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.101-4 Removal of items from... items from the facility, shall— (i) Before initiating any action, contact the labor advisor to obtain... mediation agency regarding the effect movement of the items would have on labor negotiations. Normally...

  17. 48 CFR 222.101-4 - Removal of items from contractors' facilities affected by work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.101-4 Removal of items from... items from the facility, shall— (i) Before initiating any action, contact the labor advisor to obtain... mediation agency regarding the effect movement of the items would have on labor negotiations. Normally...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1725 - When do I have to remove platforms and other facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SHELF Decommissioning Activities Removing Platforms and Other Facilities § 250.1725 When do I have to... which adequate financial assurance for decommissioning has been provided to a Federal agency which has... decommissioning within a time following cessation of the new use acceptable to MMS. The approval will specify: (1...

  19. 18 CFR 1304.406 - Removal of unauthorized, unsafe, and derelict structures or facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION... structure, and/or cause it to be removed, from the Tennessee River system and/or lands in the custody or... approval from TVA for any facility located anywhere along or in the Tennessee River or its tributaries....

  20. Removal site evaluation report for the Isotope Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This removal site evaluation (RmSE) report of the Isotope Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was prepared to provide the Environmental Restoration Program with information necessary to evaluate whether hazardous and/or radiological contaminants in and around the Isotopes Facility pose a substantial risk to human health or the environment and if remedial site evaluations (RSEs) or removal actions are required. The scope of the project included: (1) a review of historical evidence regarding operations and use of the facility; (2) interviews with facility personnel concerning current and past operating practices; (3) a site inspection; and (4) identification of hazard areas requiring maintenance, removal, or remedial actions. The results of RmSE indicate that no substantial risks exist from contaminants present in the Isotope Facilities because adequate controls and practices exist to protect human health and the environment. The recommended correction from the RmSE are being conducted as maintenance actions; accordingly, this RmSE is considered complete and terminated.

  1. Improved Heat Removal by Microscopic Surface Texturing of Capillaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    177, 1978. 36. T.R. Thomas, Ed., Rough Surfaces, Longman, New York, 1982. 37. D.J. Whitehouse and J.F. Archard , "Properties of Random Surface of... David P. DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat Transfer, John Wiley & Sons, NY, 1981. 54. Frank Kreith and William Z. Black, Basic Heat Transfer, Harper & Row, NY

  2. Descaling: Removal of Heat-Treat Scale from Stainless Steels,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Several panels of 17-7 PH stainless steels were cleaned by various procedures and heat-treated to the TH 1050 condition. The cleaning procedre which... 1050 and examined for harmful effects. The preferred procedure for producing clean scale-free heat-treated stainless steel parts was to treat the parts

  3. Engineering report for interim solids removal modifications of the Steam Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Steam Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility (SPWTF) treats wastewater from the Y-12 Plant coal yard, steam plant, and water demineralizer facility. The facility is required to comply with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) standards prior to discharge to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The existing facility was designed to meet Best Available Technology (BAT) standards and has been in operation since 1988. The SPWTF has had intermittent violations of the NPDES permit primarily due to difficulties in complying with the limit for total iron of 1.0 ppM. A FY-1997 Line Item project, SPWTF Upgrades, is planned to improve the capabilities of the SPWTF to eliminate non-compliances with the permit limits. The intent of the Interim Solids Removal Modification project is to improve the SPWTF effluent quality and to provide pilot treatment data to assist in the design and implementation of the SPWTF Upgrades Line Item Project.

  4. 30 CFR 585.912 - After I remove a facility, cable, or pipeline, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false After I remove a facility, cable, or pipeline..., cable, or pipeline, what information must I submit? Within 60 days after you remove a facility, cable, or pipeline, you must submit a written report to BOEM that includes the following: (a) A summary...

  5. 30 CFR 585.912 - After I remove a facility, cable, or pipeline, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false After I remove a facility, cable, or pipeline..., cable, or pipeline, what information must I submit? Within 60 days after you remove a facility, cable, or pipeline, you must submit a written report to BOEM that includes the following: (a) A summary...

  6. Methodology for characterizing heat removal mechanism in human skin during cryogen spray cooling.

    PubMed

    Pikkula, Brian M; Tunnell, James W; Anvari, Bahman

    2003-05-01

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) reduces epidermal damage during laser treatment of various dermatoses. The goal of this study was to determine the heat removal mechanism in skin and quantify the amount in response to CSC. Thermocouples were imbedded in four model substrates with a range of thermal diffusivities, greater than three orders of magnitude in difference, to measure the temperature profiles in response to CSC and sapphire contact cooling, which removes heat completely by conduction. An algorithm solving an inverse heat conduction problem was subsequently used to quantify the amount of heat removal from the substrates using the measured temperatures. The interface thermal conductance and internal temperatures within the substrates were computed by a finite difference algorithm that solved the heat conduction equation. Results verify a marked increase in heat removal and interface thermal conductance with increasing thermal diffusivity. By estimation from the model substrate results, heat removal and interface thermal conductance values for skin were obtained. Data demonstrate that during CSC, evaporation is the dominant heat transfer mechanism in materials with higher thermal diffusivities; however, conductive cooling dominates in substrates with lower thermal diffusivities such as skin.

  7. The Removal Action Work Plan for CPP-603A Basin Facility

    SciTech Connect

    B. T. Richards

    2006-06-05

    This revised Removal Action Work Plan describes the actions to be taken under the non-time-critical removal action recommended in the Action Memorandum for the Non-Time Critical Removal Action at the CPP-603A Basins, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as evaluated in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the CPP-603A Basin Non-Time Critical Removal Action, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The regulatory framework outlined in this Removal Action Work Plan has been modified from the description provided in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (DOE/NE-ID-11140, Rev. 1, August 2004). The modification affects regulation of sludge removal, treatment, and disposal, but the end state and technical approaches have not changed. Revision of this document had been delayed until the basin sludge was successfully managed. This revision (Rev. 1) has been prepared to provide information that was not previously identified in Rev. 0 to describe the removal, treatment, and disposal of the basin water at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) CERCLA Disposal Facility evaporation ponds and fill the basins with grout/controlled low strength material (CLSM) was developed. The Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the CPP-603A Basin Non-Time Critical Removal Action, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center - conducted pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act - evaluated risks associated with deactivation of the basins and alternatives for addressing those risks. The decision to remove and dispose of the basin water debris not containing uranium grouted in place after the sludge has been removed and managed under the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act has been documented in the Act Memorandum for the Non-Time Critical Removal Action at the CPP-603A Basins, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center.

  8. Radiant Heat Test Facility (RHTF): User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelPapa, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the RHTF. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non- NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  9. Heat removal characteristics of waste storage tanks. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kummerer, M.

    1995-10-01

    A topical report that examines the relationship between tank heat load and maximum waste temperatures. The passive cooling response of the tanks is examined, and loss of active cooling in ventilated tanks is investigated.

  10. Strategy of Construction and Demolition Waste Management after Chemical Industry Facilities Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashkinova, I. N.; Batrakova, G. M.; Vaisman, Ya I.

    2017-06-01

    Mixed waste products are generated in the process of irrelevant industrial projects’ removal if conventional techniques of their demolition and dismantling are applied. In Russia the number of unused chemical industry facilities including structures with high rate of wear is growing. In removing industrial buildings and production shops it is used conventional techniques of demolition and dismantling in the process of which mixed waste products are generated. The presence of hazardous chemicals in these wastes makes difficulties for their use and leads to the increasing volume of unutilized residues. In the process of chemical industry facilities’ removal this fact takes on special significance as a high level of hazardous chemicals in the waste composition demands for the realization of unprofitable measures aimed at ensuring environmental and industrial safety. The proposed strategy of managing waste originated from the demolition and dismantling of chemical industry facilities is based on the methodology of industrial metabolism which allows identifying separate material flows of recycled, harmful and ballast components, performing separate collection of components during removal and taking necessary preventive measures. This strategy has been tested on the aniline synthesis plant being in the process of removal. As a result, a flow of 10 wt. %, subjected to decontamination, was isolated from the total volume of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste). The considered approach allowed using the resource potential of more than 80wt. % of waste and minimizing the disposed waste volume.

  11. Decay heat removal from a Particle Bed Reactor Nuclear Thermal Rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, Eric

    1993-06-01

    Nuclear Thermal Rockets used in propulsion systems for planetary exploration will generate significant amounts of heat following normal engine shutdown due to the buildup of and decay of radioactive fission products. The amount of energy that is generated as decay heat is approximately 2-5 percent of the energy released during nominal operation. Various schemes are possible for removing this heat, including using primary coolant (hydrogen) to cool the reactor. Depending on the amount of coolant required, this may result in a large weight penalty for the mission. This paper quantifies the amount of decay heat that must be removed from the engine, shows the resulting impact on the vehicle design for particular missions, and examines possible approaches for reducing the amount of coolant required for decay heat removal. The costs and benefits of these schemes will be shown for several different missions. The missions that will be considered include both manned Mars missions and unmanned planetary exploration missions.

  12. Heat-Assisted Machining for Material Removal Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Hadzley, A. B.; Hafiz, S. Muhammad; Azahar, W.; Izamshah, R.; Mohd Shahir, K.; Abu, A.

    2015-09-01

    Heat assisted machining (HAM) is a process where an intense heat source is used to locally soften the workpiece material before machined by high speed cutting tool. In this paper, an HAM machine is developed by modification of small CNC machine with the addition of special jig to hold the heat sources in front of the machine spindle. Preliminary experiment to evaluate the capability of HAM machine to produce groove formation for slotting process was conducted. A block AISI D2 tool steel with100mm (width) × 100mm (length) × 20mm (height) size has been cut by plasma heating with different setting of arc current, feed rate and air pressure. Their effect has been analyzed based on distance of cut (DOC).Experimental results demonstrated the most significant factor that contributed to the DOC is arc current, followed by the feed rate and air pressure. HAM improves the slotting process of AISI D2 by increasing distance of cut due to initial cutting groove that formed during thermal melting and pressurized air from the heat source.

  13. Predictable Therma-fil removal technique using the system-B heat source.

    PubMed

    Guess, Garrett M

    2004-01-01

    A clinical tip is suggested to assist in the removal of Therma-fil obturators during conventional endodontic retreatment. Using a heat source such as the System-B, the plastic carriers that are normally an obstacle to retreatment can be efficiently removed using the technique described.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE (background) remove sections of the transportation canister from around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), which has been returned to the hangar from the launch pad. Additional workers (foreground) prepare the Delta payload attach fitting, from which SIRTF was demated, for further use. SIRTF will remain in the clean room until it returns to the pad in early August. One of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched, SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE (background) remove sections of the transportation canister from around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), which has been returned to the hangar from the launch pad. Additional workers (foreground) prepare the Delta payload attach fitting, from which SIRTF was demated, for further use. SIRTF will remain in the clean room until it returns to the pad in early August. One of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched, SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space.

  15. Cryogenic Heat-Exchanger Design for Freeze-out Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Landfill Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Chung, Myung Jin; Park, Seong Bum

    A cryogenic heat exchanger to remove carbon dioxide from landfill gas (LFG) is proposed and designed for applications to LNG production in distributed-scale. Since the major components of LFG are methane and carbon dioxide, CO2 removal is a significant pre-process in the liquefaction systems. A new and simple approach is proposed to directly remove carbon dioxide as frost on the surface wall along the cooling passage in a liquefying heat exchanger and to install two identical heat exchangers in parallel for alternative switching. As a first step of feasibility study, combined heat and mass transfer analysis is performed on the freeze-out process of CO2 in a counterflow heat exchanger, where CH4-CO2 mixture is cooled below its frost temperature in thermal contact with cold refrigerant. Engineering correlations for the analogy of heat and mass transfer are incorporated into numerical heat exchanger analysis with detailed fluid properties. The developed analytical model is used to estimate the distribution of CO2 accumulation and the required heat exchanger size with latent thermal load for the cryogenic CO2 removal in various operating conditions.

  16. Uncertainties of stormwater characteristics and removal rates of stormwater treatment facilities: implications for stormwater handling.

    PubMed

    Langeveld, J G; Liefting, H J; Boogaard, F C

    2012-12-15

    Stormwater runoff is a major contributor to the pollution of receiving waters. This study focuses at characterising stormwater in order to be able to determine the impact of stormwater on receiving waters and to be able to select the most appropriate stormwater handling strategy. The stormwater characterisation is based on determining site mean concentrations (SMCs) and their uncertainties as well as the treatability of stormwater by monitoring specific pollutants concentration levels (TSS, COD, BOD, TKN, TP, Pb, Cu, Zn, E.coli) at three full scale stormwater treatment facilities in Arnhem, the Netherlands. This has resulted in 106 storm events being monitored at the lamella settler, 59 at the high rate sand filter and 132 at the soil filter during the 2 year monitoring period. The stormwater characteristics in Arnhem in terms of SMCs for main pollutants TSS and COD and settling velocities differ from international data. This implies that decisions for stormwater handling made on international literature data will very likely be wrong due to assuming too high concentrations of pollutants and misjudgement of the treatability of stormwater. The removal rates monitored at the full scale treatment facilities are within the expected range, with the soil filter and the sand filter having higher removal rates than the lamella settler. The full scale pilots revealed the importance of incorporating gross solids removal in the design of stormwater treatment facilities, as the gross solids determine operation and maintenance requirements.

  17. Device for the removal of heat from waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Kalberer, F.

    1983-12-27

    Waste water is led into a container (1) through a inlet (4) at the top. A connection (20) between the inlet (4) and an outlet (21) having a check valve (22) comprises adjacent to the inlet (4) two inverted frusto-conical hollow bodies (24, 25) which are directly connected to each other. The connecting surface between the two hollow bodies (24, 25) is formed as a coarse screen (26). A round fine screen (30), which diverges downwardly, surrounds the hollow bodies (24,25). Heat exchangers (31) are located in the space between the fine screen (30) and the wall (2) of the container (1). An outlet (5) terminates at the bottom of the container and connects with a riser (6) and via a bend (7) with the sewerage conduit (8). Through the coarse screen (26) the waste water reaches the container, and the heat can reach the heat exchangers (31) through the fine screen (30), so that practically uncontaminated water is present at the heat exchangers, and the need for cleansing is substantially diminished.

  18. The use of ferrofluids for heat removal: Advantage or disadvantage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauzina, Marina T.; Bozhko, Aleksandra A.; Krauzin, Pavel V.; Suslov, Sergey A.

    2017-06-01

    It is shown experimentally that, depending on the relative orientation of the gravity and the thermal gradient and on the pre-history of experiment, the application of a uniform external vertical magnetic field to a spherical cavity filled with magnetic ferrofluid can either enhance or suppress a convective heat transfer.

  19. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Doug Buford (top), with the Aft Engine shop, along with another worker, removes a heat shield on one of Columbia's engines. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  20. High Heat Flux Surface Coke Deposition and Removal Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    deposited over the course of multiple missions. Therefore, there is a need for a method to survey coke layer thicknesses and locations in the cooling...thin coke layers makes this a difficult and challenging problem. Reaction Systems, Inc. has developed a low temperature oxidation method that can...rapidly remove the coke layers in the cooling channels and at the same time map their location. We demonstrated this technique in a recent SBIR Phase II

  1. Flathead Electric Cooperative Facility Geothermal Heat Pump System Upgrade.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaobing

    2014-06-01

    High initial cost and lack of public awareness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, which is a heating only central GSHP system using shallow aquifer as heat source and installed at a warehouse and truck bay at Kalispell, MT. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, utility bills, and calculations of energy consumptions of conventional central heating systems for providing the same heat outputs as the central GSHP system did. The evaluated performance metrics include energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of GSHP system compared with conventional heating systems. This case study also identified areas for reducing uncertainties in performance evaluation, improving operational efficiency, and reducing installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future. Publication of ASHRAE at the annual conference in Seattle June 2014.

  2. Flathead Electric Cooperative Facility Geothermal Heat Pump System Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaobing

    2014-06-01

    High initial cost and lack of public awareness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, which is a heating only central GSHP system using shallow aquifer as heat source and installed at a warehouse and truck bay at Kalispell, MT. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, utility bills, and calculations of energy consumptions of conventional central heating systems for providing the same heat outputs as the central GSHP system did. The evaluated performance metrics include energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of GSHP system compared with conventional heating systems. This case study also identified areas for reducing uncertainties in performance evaluation, improving operational efficiency, and reducing installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future. Publication of ASHRAE at the annual conference in Seattle.

  3. SASSYS analysis of degraded shut-down heat-removal performance in LMFBRs

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F.E.; Prohammer, F.G.

    1982-01-01

    The SASSYS LMFBR systems analysis code was developed to analyze the consequences of failures in the hsutdown heat removal system and to determine whether this system can perform its mission adequately even with some of its components inoperable. SASSYS provides a detailed thermal-hydraulic analysis of the reactor core, inlet and outlet coolant plenums, primary and intermediate heat transport systems, steam generators, and emergency heat removal systems for any LMFBR design. One key feature of the code is the sodium boiling model, which can be especially significant in cases where pump power is lost and normal natural circulation heads are insufficient to prevent temporary flow stagnation in part or all of the core. In such cases, boiling in part of the core should provide the driving head to re-establish flow, while at the same time removing enough heat to prevent melting of fuel and clad.

  4. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forseberg, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    This document describes passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor which employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated evaporator located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  5. Renewable energy technologies for federal facilities: Solar water heating

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This sheet presents information on solar water heaters (passive and active), solar collectors (flat plate, evacuated tube, parabolic trough), lists opportunities for use of solar water heating, and describes what is required and the costs. Important terms are defined.

  6. Heat Recovery at Army Materiel Command (AMC) Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    were directed toward closing energy balances and determining the opera- tional excess air levels for the rotary hearth furnace , oil incinerator, water...spray cooler, rotary hearth furnace natural draft stack, and Area C boiler plant. Gas analysis and temperature monitoring equipment were brought to the...the greatest potential for heat reco- very: 1. Area C condensing heat exchanger, score = 42 2. Rotary hearth furnace recuperator, score = 33 3. Draw

  7. Studies of Plasma Instability Processes Excited by Ground Based High Power HF ("Heating") Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    by ground based high power HF (’ heating ’) facilities 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Dr. Alexander...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 Grant SPC 00-4010 Final Report STUDIES OF PLASMA INSTABILITY PROCESSES EXCITED BY GROUND BASED HIGH POWER HF (" HEATING ...growing field of ionospheric HF heating . The main new results can be summarized as following: 1. Two sets of observations of suprathermal electrons

  8. A unique high heat flux facility for testing hypersonic engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the Hot Gas Facility, a unique, reliable, and cost-effective high-heat-flux facility for testing hypersonic engine components developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Hot Gas Facility is capable of providing heat fluxes ranging from 200 Btu/sq ft per sec on flat surfaces up to 8000 Btu/sq ft per sec at a leading edge stagnation point. The usefulness of the Hot Gas Facility for the NASP community was demonstrated by testing hydrogen-cooled structures over a range of temperatures and pressures. Ranges of the Reynolds numbers, Prandtl numbers, enthalpy, and heat fluxes similar to those expected during hypersonic flights were achieved.

  9. Proposed Design and Operation of a Heat Pipe Reactor using the Sandia National Laboratories Annular Core Test Facility and Existing UZrH Fuel Pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Pandya, Tara; Peters, Curtis

    2005-02-01

    Heat Pipe Reactors (HPR) for space power conversion systems offer a number of advantages not easily provided by other systems. They require no pumping, their design easily deals with freezing and thawing of the liquid metal, and they can provide substantial levels of redundancy. Nevertheless, no reactor has ever been operated and cooled with heat pipes, and the startup and other operational characteristics of these systems remain largely unknown. Signification deviations from normal reactor heat removal mechanisms exist, because the heat pipes have fundamental heat removal limits due to sonic flow issues at low temperatures. This paper proposes an early prototypic test of a Heat Pipe Reactor (using existing 20% enriched nuclear fuel pins) to determine the operational characteristics of the HPR. The proposed design is similar in design to the HOMER and SAFE-300 HPR designs (Elliot, Lipinski, and Poston, 2003; Houts, et. al, 2003). However, this reactor uses existing UZrH fuel pins that are coupled to potassium heat pipes modules. The prototype reactor would be located in the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor Facility where the fuel pins currently reside. The proposed reactor would use the heat pipes to transport the heat from the UZrH fuel pins to a water pool above the core, and the heat transport to the water pool would be controlled by adjusting the pressure and gas type within a small annulus around each heat pipe. The reactor would operate as a self-critical assembly at power levels up to 200 kWth. Because the nuclear heated HPR test uses existing fuel and because it would be performed in an existing facility with the appropriate safety authorization basis, the test could be performed rapidly and inexpensively. This approach makes it possible to validate the operation of a HPR and also measure the feedback mechanisms for a typical HPR design. A test of this nature would be the world's first operating Heat Pipe Reactor. This reactor is therefore called "HPR-1".

  10. Jet pump-drive system for heat removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, James R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The invention does away with the necessity of moving parts such as a check valve in a nuclear reactor cooling system. Instead, a jet pump, in combination with a TEMP, is employed to assure safe cooling of a nuclear reactor after shutdown. A main flow exists for a reactor coolant. A point of withdrawal is provided for a secondary flow. A TEMP, responsive to the heat from said coolant in the secondary flow path, automatically pumps said withdrawn coolant to a higher pressure and thus higher velocity compared to the main flow. The high velocity coolant is applied as a driver flow for the jet pump which has a main flow chamber located in the main flow circulation pump. Upon nuclear shutdown and loss of power for the main reactor pumping system, the TEMP/jet pump combination continues to boost the coolant flow in the direction it is already circulating. During the decay time for the nuclear reactor, the jet pump keeps running until the coolant temperature drops to a lower and safe temperature where the heat is no longer a problem. At this lower temperature, the TEMP/jet pump combination ceases its circulation boosting operation. When the nuclear reactor is restarted and the coolant again exceeds the lower temperature setting, the TEMP/jet pump automatically resumes operation. The TEMP/jet pump combination is thus automatic, self-regulating and provides an emergency pumping system free of moving parts.

  11. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, Michael M.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path.

  12. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, M.M.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-07

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path. 2 figures.

  13. High heat flux testing of divertor plasma facing materials and components using the HHF test facility at IPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Yashashri; Khirwadkar, S. S.; Belsare, Sunil; Swamy, Rajamannar; Tripathi, Sudhir; Bhope, Kedar; Kanpara, Shailesh

    2016-02-01

    The High Heat Flux Test Facility (HHFTF) was designed and established recently at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR) in India for testing heat removal capability and operational life time of plasma facing materials and components of the ITER-like tokamak. The HHFTF is equipped with various diagnostics such as IR cameras and IR-pyrometers for surface temperature measurements, coolant water calorimetry for absorbed power measurements and thermocouples for bulk temperature measurements. The HHFTF is capable of simulating steady state heat load of several MW m-2 as well as short transient heat loads of MJ m-2. This paper presents the current status of the HHFTF at IPR and high heat flux tests performed on the curved tungsten monoblock type of test mock-ups as well as transient heat flux tests carried out on pure tungsten materials using the HHFTF. Curved tungsten monoblock type of test mock-ups were fabricated using hot radial pressing (HRP) technique. Two curved tungsten monoblock type test mock-ups successfully sustained absorbed heat flux up to 14 MW m-2 with thermal cycles of 30 s ON and 30 s OFF duration. Transient high heat flux tests or thermal shock tests were carried out on pure tungsten hot-rolled plate material (Make:PLANSEE) with incident power density of 0.49 GW m-2 for 20 milliseconds ON and 1000 milliseconds OFF time. A total of 6000 thermal shock cycles were completed on pure tungsten material. Experimental results were compared with mathematical simulations carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics for transient high heat flux tests.

  14. Effects of droplet velocity, diameter, and film height on heat removal during cryogen spray cooling.

    PubMed

    Pikkula, Brian M; Tunnell, James W; Chang, David W; Anvari, Bahman

    2004-08-01

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is an effective method to reduce or eliminate epidermal damage during laser treatment of various dermatoses. This study sought to determine the effects of specific cryogen properties on heat removal. Heat removal was quantified using an algorithm that solved an inverse heat conduction problem from internal temperature measurements made within a skin phantom. A nondimensional parameter, the Weber number, characterized the combined effects of droplet velocity, diameter, and surface tension. CSC experiments with laser irradiation were conducted on ex vivo human skin samples to assess the effect of Weber number on epidermal protection. An empirical relationship between heat removal and the difference in droplet temperature and the substrate, droplet velocity, and diameter was obtained. Histological sections of irradiated ex vivo human skin demonstrated that sprays with higher Weber numbers increased epidermal protection. Results indicate that the cryogen film acts as an impediment to heat transfer between the impinging droplets and the substrate. This study offers the importance of Weber number in heat removal and epidermal protection.

  15. Equipment and facilities for induction heating and annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, H. H.

    1994-04-01

    The quality of various metal products and the effectiveness of their production depend in large measure on the welding technology and its capabilities in joining individual elements that are made of the same or different materials. This is particularly important in the mass production of transport vehicles and the manufacture of parts and assemblies that are used in chemical plants or power generating stations. Welding is often the final process in the fabrication of detail parts, which makes it necessary to improve welding technology. We shall present some examples of the use of induction heating for the heat treatment of various welded joints and detail parts.

  16. Institute for High Heat Flux Removal (IHHFR). Phases I, II, and III

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Ronald D.

    2014-08-31

    The IHHFR focused on interdisciplinary applications as it relates to high heat flux engineering issues and problems which arise due to engineering systems being miniaturized, optimized, or requiring increased high heat flux performance. The work in the IHHFR focused on water as a coolant and includes: (1) the development, design, and construction of the high heat flux flow loop and facility; (2) test section development, design, and fabrication; and, (3) single-side heat flux experiments to produce 2-D boiling curves and 3-D conjugate heat transfer measurements for single-side heated test sections. This work provides data for comparisons with previously developed and new single-side heated correlations and approaches that address the single-side heated effect on heat transfer. In addition, this work includes the addition of single-side heated circular TS and a monoblock test section with a helical wire insert. Finally, the present work includes: (1) data base expansion for the monoblock with a helical wire insert (only for the latter geometry), (2) prediction and verification using finite element, (3) monoblock model and methodology development analyses, and (4) an alternate model development for a hypervapotron and related conjugate heat transfer controlling parameters.

  17. Mathematical modeling of the removal efficiency of hydrogen from steels treated in vacuum facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magaon, Miruna; Ardelean, Erika; Şerban, Sorina; PuÅ£an, Vasile

    2017-07-01

    Purity in gases has a considerable influence on the quality of steel, more precisely nitrogen and hydrogen. In this paper are presented the results of researches conducted at an electrical steelwork, equipped with vacuum facilities, in order to establish some correlations between the hydrogen removal efficiency from the liquid steel (ηH) and three main vacuuming parameters: the vacuuming duration Dvac, the duration of ultra-high vacuum Duhv. and the pressure in the vacuum facility Pvac. All the data obtained during the research was processed in the MATLAB calculation program, in order to obtain double correlations, using three types of equations. The results are presented, in this paper, both in analytical and graphical form (the correlation surface and the plane projection of the level curves).

  18. Jet pump-drive system for heat removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, J. R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A jet pump, in combination with a TEMP, is employed to assure safe cooling of a nuclear reactor after shutdown. A TEMP, responsive to the heat from the coolant in the secondary flow path, automatically pumps the withdrawn coolant to a higher pressure and thus higher velocity compared to the main flow. The high velocity coolant is applied as a driver flow for the jet pump which has a main flow chamber located in the main flow circulation pump. Upon nuclear shutdown and loss of power for the main reactor pumping system, the TEMP/jet pump combination continues to boost the coolant flow in the direction it is already circulating. During the decay time for the nuclear reactor, the jet pump keeps running until the coolant temperature drops to a lower and safe temperature. At this lower temperature, the TEMP/jet jump combination ceases its circulation boosting operation. The TEMP/jet pump combination is automatic, self-regulating and provides an emergency pumping system free of moving parts.

  19. The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor: Report on Safety System Design for Decay Heat Removal

    SciTech Connect

    K. D. Weaver; T. Marshall; T. Y. C. Wei; E. E. Feldman; M. J. Driscoll; H. Ludewig

    2003-09-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) was chosen as one of the Generation IV nuclear reactor systems to be developed based on its excellent potential for sustainability through reduction of the volume and radiotoxicity of both its own fuel and other spent nuclear fuel, and for extending/utilizing uranium resources orders of magnitude beyond what the current open fuel cycle can realize. In addition, energy conversion at high thermal efficiency is possible with the current designs being considered, thus increasing the economic benefit of the GFR. However, research and development challenges include the ability to use passive decay heat removal systems during accident conditions, survivability of fuels and in-core materials under extreme temperatures and radiation, and economical and efficient fuel cycle processes. This report addresses/discusses the decay heat removal options available to the GFR, and the current solutions. While it is possible to design a GFR with complete passive safety (i.e., reliance solely on conductive and radiative heat transfer for decay heat removal), it has been shown that the low power density results in unacceptable fuel cycle costs for the GFR. However, increasing power density results in higher decay heat rates, and the attendant temperature increase in the fuel and core. Use of active movers, or blowers/fans, is possible during accident conditions, which only requires 3% of nominal flow to remove the decay heat. Unfortunately, this requires reliance on active systems. In order to incorporate passive systems, innovative designs have been studied, and a mix of passive and active systems appears to meet the requirements for decay heat removal during accident conditions.

  20. Transient testing of the FFTF for decay-heat removal by natural convection

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, T R; Johnson, H G; Stover, R L

    1982-06-01

    This paper reports on the series of transient tests performed in the FFTF as a major part of the pre-operations testing program. The structure of the transient test program was designed to verify the capability of the FFTF to safely remove decay heat by natural convection. The series culminated in a scram from full power to complete natural convection in the plant, simulating a loss of all electrical power. Test results and acceptance criteria related to the verification of safe decay heat removal are presented.

  1. Heating facilities, Blue Mountain Community College, Pendleton, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-30

    Blue Mountain Community College campus consists of five major buildings totalling about 193,000 square feet in area. Four of these buildings are heated using hot water circulating systems, and the fifth by a low pressure steam system. The boilers for each of the systems are natural gas fired. A successful agricultural well was drilled adjacent to the campus, which during a twelve hour test produced 780 gallons per minute of 65/sup 0/F water. It was concluded that heating the campus utilizing a heat pump system is possible using readily available and proven equipment. Annual energy saving in natural gas will amount to 98,400 therms. This is an 82% reduction in the annual usage forecast after implementation of recommendations made as a result of the energy audit. The first year value of the natural gas saved is $49,200. This savings, less operating costs, when applied with escalation consideration over a period of twenty years, indicates that a capital investment of $367,500 can be justified. This assumes the project would be financed with 8% tax-free bonds. A system design was developed, new equipment sized, needed modifications identified, and major items estimated.

  2. Emergency Decay Heat Removal in a GEN-IV Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Lap Y.; Ludewig, Hans; Jo, Jae

    2006-07-01

    A series of transient analyses using the system code RELAP5-3d has been performed to confirm the efficacy of a proposed hybrid active/passive combination approach to the decay heat removal for an advanced 2400 MWt GEN-IV gas-cooled fast reactor. The accident sequence of interest is a station blackout simultaneous with a small break (10 sq.inch/0.645 m{sup 2}) in the reactor vessel. The analyses cover the three phases of decay heat removal in a depressurization accident: (1) forced flow cooling by the power conversion unit (PCU) coast down, (2) active forced flow cooling by a battery powered blower, and (3) passive cooling by natural circulation. The blower is part of an emergency cooling system (ECS) that by design is to sustain passive decay heat removal via natural circulation cooling 24 hours after shutdown. The RELAP5 model includes the helium-cooled reactor, the ECS (primary and secondary side), the PCU with all the rotating machinery (turbine and compressors) and the heat transfer components (recuperator, pre-cooler and inter-cooler), and the guard containment that surrounds the reactor and the PCU. The transient analysis has demonstrated the effectiveness of passive decay heat removal by natural circulation cooling when the guard containment pressure is maintained at or above 800 kPa. (authors)

  3. 75 FR 56914 - Removal of the List of Ports of Embarkation and Export Inspection Facilities from the Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... arrangements, testing and treatment of animals, facility location, disposal of animal wastes, lighting, office... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 91 RIN 0579-AD25 Removal of the List of Ports of Embarkation and Export Inspection Facilities from the Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  4. 30 CFR 285.912 - After I remove a facility, cable, or pipeline, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false After I remove a facility, cable, or pipeline, what information must I submit? 285.912 Section 285.912 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER...

  5. On the potential for BECCS efficiency improvement through heat recovery from both post-combustion and oxy-combustion facilities.

    PubMed

    Dowell, N Mac; Fajardy, M

    2016-10-20

    In order to mitigate climate change to no more than 2 °C, it is well understood that it will be necessary to directly remove significant quantities of CO2, with bioenergy CCS (BECCS) regarded as a promising technology. However, BECCS will likely be more costly and less efficient at power generation than conventional CCS. Thus, approaches to improve BECCS performance and reduce costs are of importance to facilitate the deployment of this key technology. In this study, the impact of biomass co-firing rate and biomass moisture content on BECCS efficiency with both post- and oxy-combustion CO2 capture technologies was evaluated. It was found that post-combustion capture BECCS (PCC-BECCS) facilities will be appreciably less efficient than oxy-combustion capture BECCS (OCC-BECCS) facilities. Consequently, PCC-BECCS have the potential to be more carbon negative than OCC-BECCS per unit electricity generated. It was further observed that the biomass moisture content plays an important role in determining the BECCS facilities' efficiency. This will in turn affect the enthalpic content of the BECCS plant exhaust and implies that exhaust gas heat recovery may be an attractive option at higher rates of co-firing. It was found that there is the potential for the recovery of approximately 2.5 GJheat per tCO2 at a temperature of 100 °C from both PCC-BECCS and OCC-BECCS. On- and off-site applications for this recovered heat are discussed, considering boiler feedwater pre-heating, solvent regeneration and district heating cases.

  6. Method and apparatus for removing heat from electronic devices using synthetic jets

    DOEpatents

    Sharma, Rajdeep; Weaver, Jr., Stanton Earl; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Arik, Mehmet; Icoz, Tunc; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas

    2014-04-15

    An apparatus for removing heat comprises a heat sink having a cavity, and a synthetic jet stack comprising at least one synthetic jet mounted within the cavity. At least one rod and at least one engaging structure to provide a rigid positioning of the at least one synthetic jet with respect to the at least one rod. The synthetic jet comprises at least one orifice through which a fluid is ejected.

  7. Method and apparatus for removing heat from electronic devices using synthetic jets

    DOEpatents

    Sharma, Rajdeep; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Arik, Mehmet; Icoz, Tunc; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas

    2015-11-24

    An apparatus for removing heat comprises a heat sink having a cavity, and a synthetic jet stack comprising at least one synthetic jet mounted within the cavity. At least one rod and at least one engaging structure to provide a rigid positioning of the at least one synthetic jet with respect to the at least one rod. The synthetic jet comprises at least one orifice through which a fluid is ejected.

  8. Mercury Reduction and Removal from High Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 12511

    SciTech Connect

    Behrouzi, Aria; Zamecnik, Jack

    2012-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site during production of enriched uranium and plutonium required by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. One of the constituents in the nuclear waste is mercury, which is present because it served as a catalyst in the dissolution of uranium-aluminum alloy fuel rods. At high temperatures mercury is corrosive to off-gas equipment, this poses a major challenge to the overall vitrification process in separating mercury from the waste stream prior to feeding the high temperature melter. Mercury is currently removed during the chemical process via formic acid reduction followed by steam stripping, which allows elemental mercury to be evaporated with the water vapor generated during boiling. The vapors are then condensed and sent to a hold tank where mercury coalesces and is recovered in the tank's sump via gravity settling. Next, mercury is transferred from the tank sump to a purification cell where it is washed with water and nitric acid and removed from the facility. Throughout the chemical processing cell, compounds of mercury exist in the sludge, condensate, and off-gas; all of which present unique challenges. Mercury removal from sludge waste being fed to the DWPF melter is required to avoid exhausting it to the environment or any negative impacts to the Melter Off-Gas system. The mercury concentration must be reduced to a level of 0.8 wt% or less before being introduced to the melter. Even though this is being successfully accomplished, the material balances accounting for incoming and collected mercury are not equal. In addition, mercury has not been effectively

  9. Influence of wick properties in a vertical LHP on remove waste heat from electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Smitka, Martin E-mail: patrik.nemec@fstroj.uniza.sk Nemec, Patrik E-mail: patrik.nemec@fstroj.uniza.sk Malcho, Milan E-mail: patrik.nemec@fstroj.uniza.sk

    2014-08-06

    The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work is to develop porous wick of sintered nickel powder with different grain sizes. These porous wicks were used in LHP and there were performed a series of measurements to remove waste heat from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT)

  10. Influence of wick properties in a vertical LHP on remove waste heat from electronic equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitka, Martin; Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work is to develop porous wick of sintered nickel powder with different grain sizes. These porous wicks were used in LHP and there were performed a series of measurements to remove waste heat from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT).

  11. Modeling of heat transfer in a rotary kiln thermal desorder for removal of petroleum from soils

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, Hsien-Tsung; Krasnoperov, L.V.; Bozzelli, J.W.

    1996-10-01

    A continuous feed rotary kiln thermal desorber was designed and constructed to study the heat transfer in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils. A mathematical model of heat transfer that correlates temperatures of gas, soil, and kiln wall will purge gas flow, soil feed rate, kiln rotation speed and soil residence time in the kiln desorber is developed. A fourth order Runge-Kutta method was used to numerically integrate the heat transfer process along the kiln length and to calculate the temperature profiles. Comparison of predicted and measured gas and soil temperature profile is presented.

  12. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger. Task 3, Long term testing at the ECTC

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, K.H.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this task is to demonstrate long term operation of a condensing heat exchanger for coal-fired conditions. A small condensing heat exchanger will be installed at the Environmental Control Technology Center in Barker, New York. It will be installed downstream of the flue gas particulate removal system. The test will determine the amount of wear, if any, on the Teflon{trademark} covered internals of the heat exchanger. Visual inspection and measurements will be obtained for the Teflon{trademark} covered tubes during the test. The material wear study will conducted over a one year calendar period, and the CHX equipment will be operated to the fullest extent allowable.

  13. Design of Water-Drip Cooling Facilities for Heat Treatment of Mill Rollers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudin, Yu. V.; Maisuradze, M. V.; Anufriev, N. P.

    2013-07-01

    Water-drip cooling devices based on centrifugal jet atomizers are studied experimentally. Their main operating characteristics such as the irrigation density, the uniformity of the distribution of irrigation over the cooled surface, the dependence of the heat transfer factor on the surface temperature, etc. are determined. The effect of the design and production parameters of the quenching facilities on their operating characteristics and mode of cooling of large steel articles is considered for mill rollers as an example. The results of the tests are used to design cooling facilities and heat treatment processes for mill rollers with the use of water-drip quenching.

  14. FFTF/IEM (Fast Flux Test Facility/Interim Examination and Maintenance) cell fuel pin removal equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwell, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a fuel pin removal device used for pin removal from irradiated fuel assemblies at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). After irradiation in the FFTF, selected fuel assemblies are remotely disassembled in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) cell. The remote disassembly, following sodium removal, consists of slitting and removing the duct and then removing the fuel pins one-at-a-time by sliding the pins from parallel attachment rails. All pins are removed from one rail before starting on the next. The new pin removal equipment has been used very successfully on the last three fuel experiments disassembled in the IEM cell, including one assembly containing residual sodium. Pin removal time has been cut in half, and this once tedious and time-consuming activity has been turned into an almost effortless evolution.

  15. Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption for CO(sub 2) and Heat Removal/Rejection in a Martian PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacomini, Christine; Powers, Aaron; Bowers, Chad; Straub-Lopez, Katie; Anderson, Grant; MacCallum, Taber; Paul, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Two of the fundamental problems facing the development of a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use on Mars, are (i) heat rejection (because traditional technologies use sublimation of water, which wastes a scarce resource and contaminates the premises), and (ii) rejection of CO2 in an environment with a ppCO2 of 0.4-0.9 kPa. Patent-pending Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed to address both these challenges. The technology utilizes an adsorbent that when cooled with liquid CO2 to near sublimation temperatures (195K) removes metabolically-produced CO2 in the vent loop. Once fully loaded, the adsorbent is then warmed externally by the vent loop (approx. 300K), rejecting the captured CO2 to Mars ambient. Two beds are used to effect a continuous cycle of CO2 removal/rejection as well as facilitate heat exchange out of the vent loop. Any cryogenic fluid can be used in the application; however, since CO2 is readily available at Mars and can be easily produced and stored on the Martian surface, the solution is rather elegant and less complicated when employing liquid CO2. As some metabolic heat will need to be rejected anyway, finding a practical use for metabolic heat is also an overall benefit to the PLSS. To investigate the feasibility of the technology, a series of experiments was conducted which lead to the selection and partial characterization of an appropriate adsorbent. The adsorbent NaX successfully removed CO2 from a simulated vent loop at the prescribed temperature swing anticipated during PLSS operating conditions on Mars using a cryogenic fluid. Thermal conductivity of the adsorbent was also measured to eventually aid in a demonstrator design of the technology. These results provide no show stoppers to the development of MTSA technology and allow its development to focus on other design challenges as listed in the conclusions.

  16. Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption for CO(sub 2) and Heat Removal/Rejection in a Martian PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacomini, Christine; Powers, Aaron; Bowers, Chad; Straub-Lopez, Katie; Anderson, Grant; MacCallum, Taber; Paul, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Two of the fundamental problems facing the development of a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use on Mars, are (i) heat rejection (because traditional technologies use sublimation of water, which wastes a scarce resource and contaminates the premises), and (ii) rejection of CO2 in an environment with a ppCO2 of 0.4-0.9 kPa. Patent-pending Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed to address both these challenges. The technology utilizes an adsorbent that when cooled with liquid CO2 to near sublimation temperatures (195K) removes metabolically-produced CO2 in the vent loop. Once fully loaded, the adsorbent is then warmed externally by the vent loop (approx. 300K), rejecting the captured CO2 to Mars ambient. Two beds are used to effect a continuous cycle of CO2 removal/rejection as well as facilitate heat exchange out of the vent loop. Any cryogenic fluid can be used in the application; however, since CO2 is readily available at Mars and can be easily produced and stored on the Martian surface, the solution is rather elegant and less complicated when employing liquid CO2. As some metabolic heat will need to be rejected anyway, finding a practical use for metabolic heat is also an overall benefit to the PLSS. To investigate the feasibility of the technology, a series of experiments was conducted which lead to the selection and partial characterization of an appropriate adsorbent. The adsorbent NaX successfully removed CO2 from a simulated vent loop at the prescribed temperature swing anticipated during PLSS operating conditions on Mars using a cryogenic fluid. Thermal conductivity of the adsorbent was also measured to eventually aid in a demonstrator design of the technology. These results provide no show stoppers to the development of MTSA technology and allow its development to focus on other design challenges as listed in the conclusions.

  17. The performance optimization of a gas turbine cogeneration/heat pump facility with thermal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Spakovsky, M.R. von; Curti, V.; Batato, M.

    1995-01-01

    With the push for greater energy conservation, the need for heating and/or power production is being filled by cogeneration facilities. Thus, the search for the best performance at the least cost for such multipurpose plants is made much more difficult by the fact that such facilities must meet differing goals or demands. Such a facility exists at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) and has been studied in order to find the optimum modes of operation as a function of time for variations in both the heating and electrical demands this facility must meet. The results of this study are presented here. The plant itself provides heat and electricity for both the EPFL and the University of Lausanne and is projected to supply electricity to the exterior utility grid provided it can be shown to be economically viable. The plant`s primary components include two gas turbines, a heat recovery system, two heat pumps, a set of heat storage tanks, and both medium and low-temperature district heating networks. In order to find the optimum mode of operation, a mixed-integer linear programming approach was used, which balances the competing costs of operation and minimizes these costs subject to the operational constraints placed on the system. The effects of both the cost of the fuel and the costs of electricity sold and bought on the best performance of the system are evaluated. In addition, the important features of the modeling process are discussed, in particular the heat storage tanks, which complicate the optimization of the series of steady-state models used to model the overall quasi-steady-state behavior of the system.

  18. Moisture removal characteristics of thin layer rough rice under sequenced infrared radiation heating and cooling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice drying with infrared (IR) radiation has been investigated during recent years and showed promising potential with improved quality and energy efficiency. The objective of this study was to further investigate the moisture removal characteristics of thin layer rough rice heated by IR and cooled ...

  19. A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area, heat removal storage casks. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area, heat removal storage casks. Plan, section, and details. Ralph M. Parsons 1480-7 ANP/GE-3-720-S-1. Date: November 1958. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index no. 034-0720-60-693-107459 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Decay heat removal during SB LOCA with loss of all feedwater

    SciTech Connect

    Prosek, A.; Mavko, B.; Petelin, S.

    1994-12-31

    The aim of this research was to investigate decay heat removal during SB LOCA with simultaneous loss of all feedwater in a two loop PWR plant. Following a SB LOCA, the major concern is to keep the core covered assuring decay heat removal from the core thereby preventing cladding damage. Analysis was performed based on the data for Krsko NPP in Slovenia. The spectrum of break sizes in the cold leg was analyzed using the RELAP5/MOD2 code. The results indicate that when the break diameter is lower than 2.5 cm, the steam generators will dry out and the primary side bleed and feed procedure should be initiated. For break diameters between 2.5 cm to 5.1 cm the decay heat can be removed by the break flow and by relieving the steam through the steam generator relief valves. For break diameters greater than 5.1 cm the break flow is sufficient to remove all dissipated decay heat.

  1. Magnetic pollen grains as sorbents for facile removal of organic pollutants in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Thio, Beng Joo Reginald; Clark, Kristin K; Keller, Arturo A

    2011-10-30

    Plant materials have long been demonstrated to sorb organic compounds. However, there are no known reports about pollen grains acting as sorbents to remove hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) such as pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from contaminated waters. We report a facile and effective method to remove HOCs from water using magnetized short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen grains. We dispersed the magnetized pollen grains in two different water samples - deionized (DI) and natural storm water to mimic real environmental conditions likely to be encountered during treatment. The magnetized pollen grains were readily separated from the aqueous media via a magnetic field after adsorption of the HOCs. We measured the adsorption of five representative HOCs (acenaphthene, phenanthrene, atrazine, diuron, and lindane) onto magnetized ragweed pollen in different aqueous matrices. We demonstrate that the adsorption capacity of the magnetized ragweed pollen can be regenerated to a large extent for reuse as a sorbent. Our results also indicate that the magnetized pollen grains are as effective as activated carbon (AC) in removing HOCs from both types of contaminated waters. The high HOC sorption of the ragweed pollen allows it to have potential remediation application in the field under realistic conditions.

  2. Removal site evaluation report on the Tower Shielding Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This removal site evaluation report for the Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was prepared to provide the Environmental Restoration Program with information necessary to evaluate whether hazardous and/or radiological contaminants in and around the Tower Shielding Facility pose a substantial risk to human health or the environment (i.e., a high probability of adverse effects) and if remedial site evaluations or removal actions are, therefore, required. The scope of the project included a review of historical evidence regarding operations and use of the facility; interviews with facility personnel concerning current and past operating practices; a site inspection; and identification of hazard areas requiring maintenance, removal, or remedial actions. Based an the findings of this removal site evaluation, adequate efforts are currently being made at the TSF to contain and control existing contamination and hazardous substances on site in order to protect human health and the environment No conditions requiring maintenance or removal actions to mitigate imminent or potential threats to human health and the environment were identified during this evaluation. Given the current conditions and status of the buildings associated with the TSF, this removal site evaluation is considered complete and terminated according to the requirements for removal site evaluation termination.

  3. Shellfish mariculture facility which employs passive solar heating and heat pump systems. Performance and cost analysis study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zoto, G.A.; Krabach, M.H.

    1984-06-01

    This report incorporates operations data such as clam growth rates, clam biomass buildup, water volume, and algal food requirements compiled while developing a year-round production schedule for production of hard clam seed. The facility includes a passive solar hatchery and heat pump. Three major areas which affect development of energy-efficient mariculture are addressed: biological operation parameters, energy requirements, and system economics. (LEW)

  4. Optimization of cryogenic and heat removal system of space borne magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musicki, Z.; Hilal, M. A.; McIntosh, G. E.

    Space-based superconducting magnets require a refrigerator system to maintain operating temperature at the design value. The magnets use helium gas cooled shields and multilayer insulation. Refrigerator power is determined based on the heat leak to the shields and to the magnet winding, as well as current leads and charging losses. Electric power is supplied by a power source such as an SP-100-type reactor or solar panels. Cryogenic and heat removal system masses included in the optimization are: the insulation and shields, the refrigerator, the power supply and the heat removal panel. The system is optimized to determine the optimum radiator temperature, superinsulation thickness, helium mass flow rate and helium inlet temperature to the shields.

  5. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces – an occupational health concern for women?

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Rekha, Shanmugam; Manikandan, Krishnamoorthy; Latha, Perumal Kamalakkannan; Vennila, Viswanathan; Ganesan, Nalini; Kumaravel, Perumal; Chinnadurai, Stephen Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Background Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. Objective The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014–2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT), sweat rate (SwR), and urine specific gravity (USG) were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Results Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C) during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=−2.3879, p=0.0192), inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ2=4.03, p=0.0444), and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ2=42.92, p=0.0005×10−7) reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. Conclusions The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the need of the hour to

  6. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces - an occupational health concern for women?

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Rekha, Shanmugam; Manikandan, Krishnamoorthy; Latha, Perumal Kamalakkannan; Vennila, Viswanathan; Ganesan, Nalini; Kumaravel, Perumal; Chinnadurai, Stephen Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Background Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. Objective The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014-2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT), sweat rate (SwR), and urine specific gravity (USG) were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Results Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C) during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=-2.3879, p=0.0192), inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ (2)=4.03, p=0.0444), and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ (2)=42.92, p=0.0005×10(-7)) reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. Conclusions The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the need of the hour

  7. Geothermal greenhouse heating facilities for the Klamath County Nursing Home, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    The Klamath County Nursing Home, located in Klamath Falls, Oregon, was constructed in 1976. The building of 55,654 square feet currently houses care facilities for approximately 120 persons. During the initial planning for the nursing home, the present site was selected primarily on the basis of its geothermal resource. This resource currently provides space and domestic hot water heating for the nursing home, Merle West Medical Center and the Oregon Institute of Technology. The feasibility of installing a geothermal heating system in a planned greenhouse for the nursing home is explored. The greenhouse system would be tied directly to the existing hot water heating system for the nursing home.

  8. The heat removal capability of actively cooled plasma-facing components for the ITER divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missirlian, M.; Richou, M.; Riccardi, B.; Gavila, P.; Loarer, T.; Constans, S.

    2011-12-01

    Non-destructive examination followed by high-heat-flux testing was performed for different small- and medium-scale mock-ups; this included the most recent developments related to actively cooled tungsten (W) or carbon fibre composite (CFC) armoured plasma-facing components. In particular, the heat-removal capability of these mock-ups manufactured by European companies with all the main features of the ITER divertor design was investigated both after manufacturing and after thermal cycling up to 20 MW m-2. Compliance with ITER requirements was explored in terms of bonding quality, heat flux performances and operational compatibility. The main results show an overall good heat-removal capability after the manufacturing process independent of the armour-to-heat sink bonding technology and promising behaviour with respect to thermal fatigue lifetime under heat flux up to 20 MW m-2 for the CFC-armoured tiles and 15 MW m-2 for the W-armoured tiles, respectively.

  9. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities. 590.548 Section 590.548 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  10. Brayton-Cycle Heat Recovery System Characterization Program. Glass-furnace facility test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-29

    The test plan for development of a system to recover waste heat and produce electricity and preheated combustion air from the exhaust gases of an industrial glass furnace is described. The approach is to use a subatmospheric turbocompressor in a Brayton-cycle system. The operational furnace test requirements, the operational furnace environment, and the facility design approach are discussed. (MCW)

  11. GEOMETRY, HEAT REMOVAL AND KINETICS SCOPING MODELS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, B

    2007-11-16

    It is recognized that detailed models of proposed hydrogen storage systems are essential to gain insight into the complex processes occurring during the charging and discharging processes. Such insight is an invaluable asset for both assessing the viability of a particular system and/or for improving its design. The detailed models, however, require time to develop and run. Clearly, it is much more efficient to begin a modeling effort with a good system design and to progress from that point. To facilitate this approach, it is useful to have simplified models that can quickly estimate optimal loading and discharge kinetics, effective hydrogen capacities, system dimensions and heat removal requirements. Parameters obtained from these models can then be input to the detailed models to obtain an accurate assessment of system performance that includes more complete integration of the physical processes. This report describes three scoping models that assess preliminary system design prior to invoking a more detailed finite element analysis. The three models address the kinetics, the scaling and heat removal parameters of the system, respectively. The kinetics model is used to evaluate the effect of temperature and hydrogen pressure on the loading and discharge kinetics. As part of the kinetics calculations, the model also determines the mass of stored hydrogen per mass of hydride (in a particular reference form). As such, the model can determine the optimal loading and discharge rates for a particular hydride and the maximum achievable loading (over an infinite period of time). The kinetics model developed with the Mathcad{reg_sign} solver, runs in a mater of seconds and can quickly be used to identify the optimal temperature and pressure for either the loading or discharge processes. The geometry scoping model is used to calculate the size of the system, the optimal placement of heat transfer elements, and the gravimetric and volumetric capacities for a particular

  12. Removal U(VI) from artificial seawater using facilely and covalently grafted polyacrylonitrile fibers with lysine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenting; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Hongsen; Li, Rumin; Li, Zhanshuang; Jing, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Polyacrylonitrile fibers (PANF) covalently modified with lysine (PAN-Lys) was facilely synthesized and carefully characterized. The critical factors affecting U(VI) adsorption from aqueous solution were exploited, such as initial pH, contact time, concentration and temperature. The adsorption process is strongly dependent on solution pH. With excellent adsorption capacity and high affinity toward U(VI), the process for U(VI) is extremely rapid and the equilibrium can be reached within 20 min. The thermodynamics and kinetics were strictly evaluated. In addition, the hypothetical adsorption mechanisms were proposed. Moreover, the adsorption behavior at low concentrations (3-30 μg L-1) in simulated seawater was also investigated. Therefore, PAN-Lys can be potentially utilized for the efficient removal of U(VI) from seawater.

  13. The optimization of the removal process of nitrogen content from steels treated in vacuum facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magaon, Miruna; Vǎtǎşescu, Mihail; HepuÅ£, Teodor; Crişan, Eugen

    2017-07-01

    Purity in gases has a considerable influence on the quality of steel, more precisely nitrogen and hydrogen. In this paper are presented the results of researches conducted at an electrical steelwork, in order to establish correlations between a series of vacuuming parameters, which influence the amount of nitrogen removed from the liquid steel. The steelwork is equipped with CAE (Electric Arc Furnace) type EBT (Eccentric Bottom Tapping), LF (Ladle-Furnace) and VD (Vacuum-Degassing) facilities and a 5 wires MTC (Continuous Casting Machine). All the data obtained during the research was processed in the MATLAB calculation program, the results being presented both in analytical and graphical form. The technological analyze of the correlation equations and the graphical representations allowed to establish the variation limits of the independent parameters, in order to advancely reduce the steel hydrogen content.

  14. The derived emission limit for tritiated hydrogen gas from the Darlington Tritium Removal Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neil, Barry C. J.

    1993-06-01

    The derivation of the emission limit for tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) from Tritium Removal Facility is described using the model CEDM-HT. This compartment model assumes equilibrium between HT in air and tritium oxide (HTO) in the soil resulting from HT oxidation by soil bacteria. Subsequent transfer of this HTO occurs to air and food, resulting in dose to people. The factors taken into account in determining the critical group and the dose and emission limit calculations are described. The consumption of local-grown fruits and root vegetables was found to be potentially the major contributor to adult dose resulting from HT emissions. For young children, milk consumption is also potentially significant.

  15. Assessment of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) Technology at the MSFC ECLS Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomes, Kristin; Long, David; Carter, Layne; Flynn, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia. Removal (VPCAR) technology has been previously discussed as a viable option for. the Exploration Water Recovery System. This technology integrates a phase change process with catalytic oxidation in the vapor phase to produce potable water from exploration mission wastewaters. A developmental prototype VPCAR was designed, built and tested under funding provided by a National Research. Announcement (NRA) project. The core technology, a Wiped Film Rotating Device (WFRD) was provided by Water Reuse Technologies under the NRA, whereas Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International performed the hardware integration and acceptance test. of the system. Personnel at the-Ames Research Center performed initial systems test of the VPCAR using ersatz solutions. To assess the viability of this hardware for Exploration. Life Support (ELS) applications, the hardware has been modified and tested at the MSFC ECLS Test facility. This paper summarizes the hardware modifications and test results and provides an assessment of this technology for the ELS application.

  16. Facile synthesis of uniform hierarchical composites CuO-CeO2 for enhanced dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Pan; Niu, Helin; Chen, Jingshuai; Song, Jiming; Mao, Changjie; Zhang, Shengyi; Gao, Yuanhao; Chen, Changle

    2016-12-01

    The hierarchically shaped CuO-CeO2 composites were prepared through a facile solvothermal method without using any template. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. In the characterization, we found that CuO-CeO2 composites were showed uniform size and morphology which were consisted of the secondary nanoflakes interconnected with each other. Most interestingly, the composites showed efficient performance to remove methyl blue and Congo red dyes from water with maximum adsorption capacities of 2131.24 and 1072.09 mg g-1, respectively. In addition, because of their larger surface area and the unique hierarchical structures, the adsorption performance of the CuO-CeO2 composites is much better than the materials of CuO and CeO2.

  17. Recent results of high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Watson, Robert D.; Marshall, Theron D.; McDonald, Jimmie M.

    1996-11-01

    High heat flux testing for the US fusion power program is the primary mission of the Plasma Materials Test Facility (PMTF) located at Sandia National Laboratory. This facility, an official Department of Energy User Facility, has been in operation for over 15 years and has provided much of the high heat flux data used in the design and evaluation of plasma facing components for many of the world's magnetic fusion tokamak experiments. In addition to domestic tokamaks such as Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Princeton, the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics, and Alcator C-Mod at MIT, components for international experiments like TEXTOR, Tore- Supra, and Jet also have been tested at the PMTF. High heat flux testing spans a wide spectrum including thermal shock tests on passively cooled materials, thermal response and thermal fatigue tests on actively cooled components, critical heat flux burnout testes, braze reliability tests, and safety related tests. The program's main focus now is on testing of beryllium and tungsten armor tiles bonded to divertor, limiter, and first wall components for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The ITER project is a collaboration among the US, EU, RF, and Japanese fusion programs. This article provides a brief overview of the high heat flux testing capabilities at the PMTF, and describes some recent test results.

  18. Recent results of high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Youchison, D.L.; Watson, R.D.; Marshall, T.D.; McDonald, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    High heat flux testing for the United States fusion power program is the primary mission of the Plasma Materials Test Facility (PMTF) located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This facility, an official Department of Energy User Facility, has been in operation for over 15 years and has provided much of the high heat flux data used in the design and evaluation of plasma facing components for many of the world`s magnetic fusion tokamak experiments. In addition to domestic tokamaks such as Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton, the DIII-D tokamak pt General Atomics, and Alcator C-Mod at MIT, components for international experiments like TEXTOR, Tore-Supra, and JET also have been tested at the PMTF. High heat flux testing spans a wide spectrum including thermal shock tests on passively cooled materials, thermal response and thermal fatigue tests on actively cooled components, critical heat flux burnout tests, braze reliability tests, and safety related tests. The program`s main focus now is on testing of beryllium and tungsten armor tiles bonded to divertor, limiter, and first wall components for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The ITER project is a collaboration among the US, EU, RF, and Japanese fusion programs. This article provides a brief overview of the high heat flux testing capabilities at the PMTF, and describes some recent test results.

  19. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger: Phase 1 final report, October 1995--July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, R.T.; Jankura, B.J.; Kudlac, G.A.

    1998-06-01

    The Integrated Flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) system is a new concept whereby a Teflon{reg_sign} covered condensing heat exchanger is adapted to remove certain flue gas constitutents, both particulate and gaseous, while recovering low level heat. Phase 1 includes two experimental tasks. One task dealt principally with the pollutant removal capabilities of the IFGT at a scale of about 1.2MW{sub t}. The other task studied the durability of the Teflon{reg_sign} covering to withstand the rigors of abrasive wear by fly ash emitted as a result of coal combustion. The pollutant removal characteristics of the IFGT system were measured over a wide range of operating conditions. The coals tested included high, medium and low-sulfur coals. The flue gas pollutants studied included ammonia, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, particulate, sulfur dioxide, gas phase and particle phase mercury and gas phase and particle phase trace elements. The particulate removal efficiency and size distribution was investigated. These test results demonstrated that the IFGT system is an effective device for both acid gas absorption and fine particulate collection. The durability of the Teflon{reg_sign} covered heat exchanger tubes was studied on a pilot-scale single-stage condensing heat exchanger (CHX{reg_sign}). Data from the test indicate that virtually no decrease in Teflon{reg_sign} thickness was observed for the coating on the first two rows of heat exchanger tubes, even at high inlet particulate loadings. Evidence of wear was present only at the microscopic level, and even then was very minor in severity.

  20. Darlington tritium removal facility and station upgrading plant dynamic process simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Busigin, A.; Williams, G. I. D.; Wong, T. C. W.; Kulczynski, D.; Reid, A.

    2008-07-15

    Ontario Power Generation Nuclear (OPGN) has a 4 x 880 MWe CANDU nuclear station at its Darlington Nuclear Div. located in Bowmanville. The station has been operating a Tritium Removal Facility (TRF) and a D{sub 2}O station Upgrading Plant (SUP) since 1989. Both facilities were designed with a Distributed Control System (DCS) and programmable logic controllers (PLC) for process control. This control system was replaced with a DCS only, in 1998. A dynamic plant simulator was developed for the Darlington TRF (DTRF) and the SUP, as part of the computer control system replacement. The simulator was used to test the new software, required to eliminate the PLCs. The simulator is now used for operator training and testing of process control software changes prior to field installation. Dynamic simulation will be essential for the ITER isotope separation system, where the process is more dynamic than the relatively steady-state DTRF process. This paper describes the development and application of the DTRF and SUP dynamic simulator, its benefits, architecture, and the operational experience with the simulator. (authors)

  1. A facile approach towards amino-coated polyethersulfone particles for the removal of toxins.

    PubMed

    Song, Xin; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Weifeng; Sun, Shudong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2017-01-01

    The removal of toxins is important due to the damage to aquatic environment. In this work, a facile and green approach based on mussel-inspired coatings was used to fabricate amino-coated particles via the reaction between amine and catechol, using hexanediamine as the representative amine. The particles were characterized by Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particles showed selective adsorption capability to Congo red (CR) and the adsorption process fitted the pseudo-second-order model, the intraparticle diffusion model, the Langmuir isotherm, the Freundlich isotherm and the Sips isotherm well. Furthermore, this approach was verified to have applicability to various amines such as diethylenetriamine (DETA), triethylenetetramine (TETA) and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), and the amino-coated particles exhibited diverse adsorption capacities to CR, Cu(2+) and bilirubin. Considering that the approach is easy to operate and the whole preparation process is in an aqueous solution, it is believed that the facile, green and economical approach has great potential to prepare particles for wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Resistively-Heated Microlith-based Adsorber for Carbon Dioxide and Trace Contaminant Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhury, S.; Walsh, D.; Perry, J.

    2005-01-01

    An integrated sorber-based Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) and Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) prototype was designed, fabricated and tested. It corresponds to a 7-person load. Performance over several adsorption/regeneration cycles was examined. Vacuum regenerations at effective time/temperature conditions, and estimated power requirements were experimentally verified for the combined CO2/trace contaminant removal prototype. The current paper details the design and performance of this prototype during initial testing at CO2 and trace contaminant concentrations in the existing CDRA, downstream of the drier. Additional long-term performance characterization is planned at NASA. Potential system design options permitting associated weight, volume savings and logistic benefits, especially as relevant for long-duration space flight, are reviewed. The technology consisted of a sorption bed with sorbent- coated metal meshes, trademarked and patented as Microlith by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI). By contrast the current CO2 removal system on the International Space Station employs pellet beds. Preliminary bench scale performance data (without direct resistive heating) for simultaneous CO2 and trace contaminant removal was reviewed in SAE 2004-01-2442. In the prototype, the meshes were directly electrically heated for rapid response and accurate temperature control. This allowed regeneration via resistive heating with the potential for shorter regeneration times, reduced power requirement, and net energy savings vs. conventional systems. A novel flow arrangement, for removing both CO2 and trace contaminants within the same bed, was demonstrated. Thus, the need for a separate trace contaminant unit was eliminated resulting in an opportunity for significant weight savings. Unlike the current disposable charcoal bed, zeolites for trace contaminant removal are amenable to periodic regeneration.

  3. Facile fabrication of magnetic carboxymethyl starch/poly(vinyl alcohol) composite gel for methylene blue removal.

    PubMed

    Gong, Guisheng; Zhang, Faai; Cheng, Zehong; Zhou, Li

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a simple method to fabricate magnetic carboxymethyl starch/poly(vinyl alcohol) (mCMS/PVA) composite gel. The obtained mCMS/PVA was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The application of mCMS/PVA as an adsorbent for removal of cationic methylene blue (MB) dye from water was investigated. Benefiting from the combined merits of carboxymethyl starch and magnetic gel, the mCMS/PVA simultaneously exhibited excellent adsorption property toward MB and convenient magnetic separation capability. The effects of initial dye concentration, contact time, pH and ionic strength on the adsorption performance of mCMS/PVA adsorbent were investigated systematically. The adsorption process of mCMS/PVA for MB fitted pseudo-second-order model and Freundlich isotherm. Moreover, desorption experiments revealed that the mCMS/PVA adsorbent could be well regenerated in ethanol solution without obvious compromise of removal efficiency even after eight cycles of desorption/adsorption. Considering the facile fabrication process and robust adsorption performance, the mCMS/PVA composite gel has great potential as a low cost adsorbent for environmental decontamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Facile biofunctionalization of silver nanoparticles for enhanced antibacterial properties, endotoxin removal, and biofilm control.

    PubMed

    Lambadi, Paramesh Ramulu; Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Kumar, Piyush; Vasnani, Priyanka; Thalluri, Sitaramanjaneya Mouli; Bisht, Neha; Pathania, Ranjana; Navani, Naveen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases cause a huge burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Pathogenic bacteria establish infection by developing antibiotic resistance and modulating the host's immune system, whereas opportunistic pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa adapt to adverse conditions owing to their ability to form biofilms. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were biofunctionalized with polymyxin B, an antibacterial peptide using a facile method. The biofunctionalized nanoparticles (polymyxin B-capped silver nanoparticles, PBSNPs) were assessed for antibacterial activity against multiple drug-resistant clinical strain Vibrio fluvialis and nosocomial pathogen P. aeruginosa. The results of antibacterial assay revealed that PBSNPs had an approximately 3-fold higher effect than the citrate-capped nanoparticles (CSNPs). Morphological damage to the cell membrane was followed by scanning electron microscopy, testifying PBSNPs to be more potent in controlling the bacterial growth as compared with CSNPs. The bactericidal effect of PBSNPs was further confirmed by Live/Dead staining assays. Apart from the antibacterial activity, the biofunctionalized nanoparticles were found to resist biofilm formation. Electroplating of PBSNPs onto stainless steel surgical blades retained the antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. Further, the affinity of polymyxin for endotoxin was exploited for its removal using PBSNPs. It was found that the prepared nanoparticles removed 97% of the endotoxin from the solution. Such multifarious uses of metal nanoparticles are an attractive means of enhancing the potency of antimicrobial agents to control infections.

  5. Facile biofunctionalization of silver nanoparticles for enhanced antibacterial properties, endotoxin removal, and biofilm control

    PubMed Central

    Lambadi, Paramesh Ramulu; Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Kumar, Piyush; Vasnani, Priyanka; Thalluri, Sitaramanjaneya Mouli; Bisht, Neha; Pathania, Ranjana; Navani, Naveen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases cause a huge burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Pathogenic bacteria establish infection by developing antibiotic resistance and modulating the host’s immune system, whereas opportunistic pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa adapt to adverse conditions owing to their ability to form biofilms. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were biofunctionalized with polymyxin B, an antibacterial peptide using a facile method. The biofunctionalized nanoparticles (polymyxin B-capped silver nanoparticles, PBSNPs) were assessed for antibacterial activity against multiple drug-resistant clinical strain Vibrio fluvialis and nosocomial pathogen P. aeruginosa. The results of antibacterial assay revealed that PBSNPs had an approximately 3-fold higher effect than the citrate-capped nanoparticles (CSNPs). Morphological damage to the cell membrane was followed by scanning electron microscopy, testifying PBSNPs to be more potent in controlling the bacterial growth as compared with CSNPs. The bactericidal effect of PBSNPs was further confirmed by Live/Dead staining assays. Apart from the antibacterial activity, the biofunctionalized nanoparticles were found to resist biofilm formation. Electroplating of PBSNPs onto stainless steel surgical blades retained the antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. Further, the affinity of polymyxin for endotoxin was exploited for its removal using PBSNPs. It was found that the prepared nanoparticles removed 97% of the endotoxin from the solution. Such multifarious uses of metal nanoparticles are an attractive means of enhancing the potency of antimicrobial agents to control infections. PMID:25834431

  6. Natural circulation decay heat removal from an SP-100, 550 kWe power system for a lunar outpost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Xue, Huimin

    1992-06-01

    This research investigated the decay heat removal from the SP-100 reactor core of a 550-kWe power system for a lunar outpost by natural circulation of lithium coolant. A transient model that simulates the decay heat removal loop (DHRL) of the power system was developed and used to assess the system's decay heat removal capability. The effects of the surface area of the decay heat rejection radiator, the dimensions of the decay heat exchanger (DHE) flow duct, the elevation of the DHE, and the diameter of the rise and down pipes in the DHRL on the decay heat removal capability were examined. Also, to determine the applicability of test results at earth gravity to actual system performance on the lunar surface, the effect of the gravity constant (1 g and 1/6 g) on the thermal behavior of the system after shutdown was investigated.

  7. Natural circulation decay heat removal from an SP-100, 550 kWe power system for a lunar outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Xue, Huimin

    1992-01-01

    This research investigated the decay heat removal from the SP-100 reactor core of a 550-kWe power system for a lunar outpost by natural circulation of lithium coolant. A transient model that simulates the decay heat removal loop (DHRL) of the power system was developed and used to assess the system's decay heat removal capability. The effects of the surface area of the decay heat rejection radiator, the dimensions of the decay heat exchanger (DHE) flow duct, the elevation of the DHE, and the diameter of the rise and down pipes in the DHRL on the decay heat removal capability were examined. Also, to determine the applicability of test results at earth gravity to actual system performance on the lunar surface, the effect of the gravity constant (1 g and 1/6 g) on the thermal behavior of the system after shutdown was investigated.

  8. Particulate generation during disruption simulation on the SIRENS high heat flux facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, John Phillip

    2000-12-01

    Successful implementation of advanced electrical power generation technology into the global marketplace requires at least two fundamental ideals: cost effectiveness and the guarantee of public safety. One general area of concern for fusion devices is the production of particulate, often referred to as dust or aerosol, from material exposed to high energy density fusion plasma. This dust may be radiologically activated and/or chemically toxic, and, if released to the environment, could become a hazard to the public. The goal of this investigation was to provide insight into the production and transport of particulate generated during the event of extreme heat loads to surfaces directly exposed to high energy density plasma. A step towards achieving this goal was an experiment campaign carried out with the S&barbelow;urface I&barbelow;nteṞaction E&barbelow;xperiment at Ṉorth Carolina S&barbelow;tate (SIRENS), a facility used for high heat flux experiments. These experiments involved exposing various materials, including copper, stainless steel 316, tungsten, aluminum, graphite (carbon), and mixtures of carbon and metals, to the high energy density plasma of the SIRENS source section. Comparison of simulation results with experiment observations provides an understanding of the physical mechanisms forming the particulate and indicates if mechanisms other than those in the model were present in the experiment. Key results from this comparison were: the predicted amount of mass mobilized from the source section was generally much lower than that measured, the calculated and measured particle count median diameters were similar at various locations in the expansion chamber, and the measured standard deviations were larger than those predicted by the model. These results implicate that other mechanisms (e.g., mobilization of melted material) in addition to ablation were responsible for mass removal in the source section, a large number of the measured particles were

  9. Cyclic process for producing methane in a tubular reactor with effective heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-Lee

    1986-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  10. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-lee

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  11. Emergency Cooling of Nuclear Power Plant Reactors With Heat Removal By a Forced-Draft Cooling Tower

    SciTech Connect

    Murav’ev, V. P.

    2016-07-15

    The feasibility of heat removal during emergency cooling of a reactor by a forced-draft cooling tower with accumulation of the peak heat release in a volume of precooled water is evaluated. The advantages of a cooling tower over a spray cooling pond are demonstrated: it requires less space, consumes less material, employs shorter lines in the heat removal system, and provides considerably better protection of the environment from wetting by entrained moisture.

  12. Dynamic model for predicting survival of mature larvae of Tribolium confusum during facility heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Boina, Dhana Raj; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Alavi, Sajid

    2008-06-01

    Structural heat treatment, a viable alternative to methyl bromide fumigation, involves raising the ambient temperature of food-processing facilities between 50 and 60 degrees C by using gas, electric, or steam heaters, and holding these elevated temperatures for 24 h or longer to kill stored-product insects. A dynamic model was developed to predict survival of mature larvae, which is the most heat-tolerant stage of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (Jacquelin du Val), at elevated temperatures between 46 and 60 degrees C. The model is based on two nonlinear relationships: 1) logarithmic survival of T. confusum mature larvae as a function of time, and 2) logarithmic reduction in larval survival as a function of temperature. The dynamic model was validated with nine independent data sets collected during actual facility heat treatments conducted on two separate occasions at the Kansas State University pilot flour and feed mills. The rate of increase of temperature over time varied among the nine locations where mature larvae of T. confusum were exposed, and the approximate heating rates during the entire heat treatment ranged from 1.1 to 13.2 degrees C/h. The absolute deviation in the predicted number of larvae surviving the heat treatment was within 3-7% of the actual observed data. Comparison of the absolute deviation in the time taken for equivalent larval survival showed that the model predictions were within 2-6% of the observed data. The dynamic model can be used to predict survival of mature larvae of T. confusum during heat treatments of food-processing facilities based on time-dependent temperature profiles obtained at any given location.

  13. Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption for CO2 and Heat Removal/Rejection in a Martian PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacomini, Christine; Powers, Aaron; Bower, Chad; Straub-Lopez, Kathrine; Anderson, Grant; MacCallum, Taber; Paul, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    Two of the fundamental problems facing the development of a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use on Mars, are (i) heat rejection (because traditional technologies use sublimation of water, which wastes a scarce resource and contaminates the premises), and (ii) rejection of carbon dioxide (CO2) in an environment with a CO2 partial pressure (ppCO2) of 0.4-0.9 kPa. Patent-pending Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed to address both these challenges. The technology utilizes an adsorbent that when cooled with liquid CO2 to near sublimation temperatures (195K) removes metabolically-produced CO2 in the ventilation loop. Once fully loaded, the adsorbent is then warmed externally by the ventilation loop (300K), rejecting the captured CO2 to Mars ambient. Two beds are used to provide a continuous cycle of CO2 removal/rejection as well as facilitate heat exchange out of the ventilation loop. Any cryogenic fluid can be used in the application; however, since CO2 is readily available on Mars and can be easily produced and stored on the Martian surface, the solution is rather elegant and less complicated when employing liquid CO2. As some metabolic heat will need to be rejected anyway, finding a practical use for metabolic heat is also an overall benefit to the PLSS. To investigate the feasibility of the technology, a series of experiments were conducted which lead to the selection and partial characterization of an appropriate adsorbent. The Molsiv Adsorbents 13X 8x12 (also known as NaX zeolite) successfully removed CO2 from a simulated ventilation loop at the prescribed temperature swing anticipated during PLSS operating conditions on Mars using a cryogenic fluid. Thermal conductivity of the adsorbent was also measured to eventually aid in a demonstrator design of the technology. These results provide no show stoppers to the development of MTSA technology and allow its development to focus on other design

  14. Heat removal (wetting, heat transfer, T/H, secondary circuit, code validation etc.)

    SciTech Connect

    Dury, T.; Siman-Tov, M.

    1996-06-01

    This working group provided a comprehensive list of feasibility and uncertainty issues. Most of the issues seem to fall into the `needed but can be worked out` category. They feel these can be worked out as the project develops. A few issues can be considered critical or feasibility issues (that must be proven to be feasible). Those include: (1) Thermal shock and its mitigation (>1 MW); how to inject the He bubbles (if used) - back pressure into He lines - mercury traces in He lines; how to maintain proper bubble distribution and size (static and dynamic; if used); vibrations and fatigue (dynamic); possibility of cavitation from thermal shock. (2) Wetting and/or non-wetting of mercury on containment walls with or without gases and its effect on heat transfer (and materials). (3) Prediction capabilities in the CFD code; bubbles behavior in mercury (if used) - cross stream turbulence (ESS only) - wetting/non-wetting effects. (4) Cooling of beam `windows`; concentration of local heat deposition at center, especially if beam is of parabolic profile.

  15. Effectiveness of photocatalytic filter for removing volatile organic compounds in the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Huang, Wei-Ming; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Lou, Chia-ling; Yang, Shinhao

    2006-05-01

    Nowadays, the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system has been an important facility for maintaining indoor air quality. However, the primary function of typical HVAC systems is to control the temperature and humidity of the supply air. Most indoor air pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), cannot be removed by typical HVAC systems. Thus, some air handling units for removing VOCs should be added in typical HVAC systems. Among all of the air cleaning techniques used to remove indoor VOCs, photocatalytic oxidation is an attractive alternative technique for indoor air purification and deodorization. The objective of this research is to investigate the VOC removal efficiency of the photocatalytic filter in a HVAC system. Toluene and formaldehyde were chosen as the target pollutants. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber equipped with a simplified HVAC system. A mechanical filter coated with Degussa P25 titania photocatalyst and two commercial photocatalytic filters were used as the photocatalytic filters in this simplified HVAC system. The total air change rates were controlled at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 hr(-1), and the relative humidity (RH) was controlled at 30%, 50%, and 70%. The ultraviolet lamp used was a 4-W, ultraviolet-C (central wavelength at 254 nm) strip light bulb. The first-order decay constant of toluene and formaldehyde found in this study ranged from 0.381 to 1.01 hr(-1) under different total air change rates, from 0.34 to 0.433 hr(-1) under different RH, and from 0.381 to 0.433 hr(-1) for different photocatalytic filters.

  16. System Analysis for Decay Heat Removal in Lead-Bismuth Cooled Natural Circulated Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Takaaki Sakai; Yasuhiro Enuma; Takashi Iwasaki; Kazuhiro Ohyama

    2002-07-01

    Decay heat removal analyses for lead-bismuth cooled natural circulation reactors are described in this paper. A combined multi-dimensional plant dynamics code (MSG-COPD) has been developed to conduct the system analysis for the natural circulation reactors. For the preliminary study, transient analysis has been performed for a 100 MWe lead-bismuth-cooled reactor designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In addition, decay heat removal characteristics of a 400 MWe lead-bismuth-cooled natural circulation reactor designed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been evaluated by using MSG-COPD. PRACS (Primary Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System) is prepared for the JNC's concept to get sufficient heat removal capacity. During 2000 sec after the transient, the outlet temperature shows increasing tendency up to the maximum temperature of 430 Centigrade, because the buoyancy force in a primary circulation path is temporary reduced. However, the natural circulation is recovered by the PRACS system and the out let temperature decreases successfully. (authors)

  17. System Analysis for Decay Heat Removal in Lead-Bismuth-Cooled Natural-Circulation Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Takaaki; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Takashi

    2004-03-15

    Decay heat removal analyses for lead-bismuth-cooled natural-circulation reactors are described in this paper. A combined multidimensional plant dynamics code (MSG-COPD) has been developed to conduct the system analysis for the natural-circulation reactors. For the preliminary study, transient analysis has been performed for a 300-MW(thermal) lead-bismuth-cooled reactor designed by Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, decay heat removal characteristics of a 400-MW(electric) lead-bismuth-cooled natural-circulation reactor designed by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been evaluated by using MSG-COPD. The primary reactor auxiliary cooling system (PRACS) is prepared for the JNC concept to get sufficient heat removal capacity. During 2000 s after the transient, the outlet temperature shows increasing tendency up to the maximum temperature of 430 deg. C because the buoyancy force in a primary circulation path is temporarily reduced. However, the natural circulation is recovered by the PRACS system, and the outlet temperature decreases successfully.

  18. Heat removal using microclimate foot cooling: a thermal foot manikin study.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Demes, Robert; Endrusick, Thomas L; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Montain, Scott J

    2014-04-01

    It has been proposed that microclimate cooling systems exploit the peripheral extremities because of more efficient heat transfer. The purpose of this study was to quantify, using a patented microclimate cooling technique, the heat transfer from the plantar surface of the foot for comparison to other commonly cooled body regions. A military boot was fitted with an insole embedded with a coiled, 1.27 m length of hollow tubing terminating in inlet and outlet valves. A thermal foot manikin with a surface temperature of 34 degrees C was placed in the boot and the valves were connected to a system that circulated water through the insole at a temperature of 20 degrees C and flow rate of 120 ml x min(-1). The manikin foot served as a constant heat source to determine heat transfer provided by the insole. Testing was done with the foot model dry and sweating at a rate of 500 ml x h(- 1) x m(-2). Climatic chamber conditions were 30 degrees C with 30% RH. Heat loss was approximately 4.1 +/- 0.1 and approximately 7.7 +/- 0.3 W from the dry and sweating foot models, respectively. On a relative scale, the heat loss was 3.0 W and 5.5 W per 1% (unit) body surface area, respectively, for the dry and sweating conditions. The relative heat loss afforded by plantar foot cooling was similar compared to other body regions, but the absolute amount of heat removal is unlikely to make an impact on whole body heat balance.

  19. Organic compound destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for plasma incinerator off-gases using an electrically heated secondary combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, C.G.; Babko-Malyi, S.; Battleson, D.M.; Olstad, S.J.

    1998-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a series pilot-scale plasma incineration tests of simulated mixed wastes at the MSE Technology Applications, Inc. technology development test facility in Butte, MT. One of the objectives of the test series was to assess the ability of an electrically heated afterburner to destroy organic compounds that may be present in the off-gases resulting from plasma incineration of mixed wastes. The anticipated benefit of an electrically heated afterburner was to decrease total off-gas volume by 50% or more, relative to fossil fuel-fired afterburners. For the present test series, feeds of interest to the DOE Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) were processed in a plasma centrifugal furnace while metering selected organic compounds upstream of the electrically heated afterburner. The plasma furnace was equipped with a transferred-mode torch and was operated under oxidizing conditions. Feeds consisted of various mixtures of soil, plastics, portland cement, silicate fines, diesel fuel, and scrap metals. Benzene, chloroform, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were selected for injection as simulates of organics likely to be present in DOE mixed wastes, and because of their relative rankings on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) thermal stability index. The organic compounds were injected into the off-gas system at a nominal concentration of 2,000 ppmv. The afterburner outlet gas stream was periodically sampled, and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the electrically heated afterburner, at operating temperatures of 1,800--1,980 F (982--1,082 C), organic compound destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) for benzene, chloroform, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were found to be > 99.99%.

  20. Analysis of pressure drop and heat transfer data from the reversing flow test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, P D; Bell, K J

    1989-05-01

    The Reversing Flow Test Facility is part of the heat engine R and D capabilities at Argonne National Laboratory. The facility permits the study of heat transfer and pressure drop under conditions of rapidly reversing flow. This report summarizes the results that have been obtained to date from more than 100 data sets that cover a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and frequencies. Pressure drop data are presented as normalized pressure drop vs. the Reynolds number calculated from the amplitude of the oscillatory flow. Heat transfer data for the regenerators are presented as regenerator effectiveness vs. Reynolds number. Three significant conclusions are derived from our analysis of the data: (1) no frequency dependence is observed in either the pressure drop or the heat transfer data, (2) the measured pressure drops for the heater and coolers are distinctly higher than those calculated from steady-flow correlations, and (3) the heat transfer coefficient in the heater is about 80 percent of that predicted by steady-flow correlations. The correlations presented here provide the basis for improving existing models. 4 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. The potential removal of imidacloprid from water by heat-treated kerolites.

    PubMed

    Socías-Viciana, M; González-Pradas, E; Saifi, M; Ureña-Amate, M D; Flores-Céspedes, F; Fernández-Pérez, M

    2003-10-01

    The adsorption of imidacloprid [1-(6-chloro-3-pyridinylmethyl)-N-nitroimidazolidin-2-ylideneamine] on heat-treated kerolite samples at 110 degrees C (K-110), 200 degrees C (K-200), 400 degrees C (K-400) and 600 degrees C (K-600) from pure water solution at 25 degrees C has been studied. The evolution of the surface properties of the kerolite samples, such as specific surface area and porosity, after heat treatment were analysed. The clays were characterised by using FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis, surface analysis and Hg porosimetry. The experimental adsorption data points were fitted to the Freundlich equation in order to calculate the adsorption capacities (Kf) of the samples; Kf values ranged from 242 mg kg(-1) for the K-110 sample to 1005 mg kg(-1) for the K-600 sample. The values obtained for the removal efficiency (R) ranged from 62.8% for K-110 to 87.2% for K-600. The adsorption experiments showed that the stronger the heat treatment, the more effective was the adsorption of imidacloprid from pure water. This work shows the potential use of heat-activated kerolite for the removal of imidacloprid from environmental waters and drinking water resources.

  2. Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein N.

    1988-01-01

    An improved reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system for a sodium cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The sodium cooled nuclear reactor is of the type having a reactor vessel liner separating the reactor hot pool on the upstream side of an intermediate heat exchanger and the reactor cold pool on the downstream side of the intermediate heat exchanger. The improvement includes a flow path across the reactor vessel liner flow gap which dissipates core heat across the reactor vessel and containment vessel responsive to a casualty including the loss of normal heat removal paths and associated shutdown of the main coolant liquid sodium pumps. In normal operation, the reactor vessel cold pool is inlet to the suction side of coolant liquid sodium pumps, these pumps being of the electromagnetic variety. The pumps discharge through the core into the reactor hot pool and then through an intermediate heat exchanger where the heat generated in the reactor core is discharged. Upon outlet from the heat exchanger, the sodium is returned to the reactor cold pool. The improvement includes placing a jet pump across the reactor vessel liner flow gap, pumping a small flow of liquid sodium from the lower pressure cold pool into the hot pool. The jet pump has a small high pressure driving stream diverted from the high pressure side of the reactor pumps. During normal operation, the jet pumps supplement the normal reactor pressure differential from the lower pressure cold pool to the hot pool. Upon the occurrence of a casualty involving loss of coolant pump pressure, and immediate cooling circuit is established by the back flow of sodium through the jet pumps from the reactor vessel hot pool to the reactor vessel cold pool. The cooling circuit includes flow into the reactor vessel liner flow gap immediate the reactor vessel wall and containment vessel where optimum and immediate discharge of residual reactor heat occurs.

  3. An investigation of natural circulation decay heat removal from an SP-100 reactor system for a lunar outpost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Xue, Huimin

    1992-01-01

    A transient thermal-hydraulic model of the decay heat removal from a 550 kWe SP-100 power system for a lunar outpost has been developed and used to assess the coolability of the system by natural circulation after reactor shutdown. Results show that natural circulation of lithium coolant is sufficient to ensure coolability of the reactor core after shutdown. Further improvement of the decay heat removal capability of the system could be achieved by increasing the dimensions of the decay heat exchanger duct. A radiator area of 10-15 m2 would be sufficient to maintain the reactor core safely coolable by natural circulation after shutdown. Increasing the area of the decay heat rejection radiator or the diameter of the heat pipes in the guard vessel wall insignificantly affects the decay heat removal capability of the system.

  4. ADVANCED HEAT TRANSFER TEST FACILITY, TRA666A. ELEVATIONS. ROOF FRAMING PLAN. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADVANCED HEAT TRANSFER TEST FACILITY, TRA-666A. ELEVATIONS. ROOF FRAMING PLAN. CONCRETE BLOCK SIDING. SLOPED ROOF. ROLL-UP DOOR. AIR INTAKE ENCLOSURE ON NORTH SIDE. F.C. TORKELSON 842-MTR-666-A5, 8/1966. INL INDEX NO. 531-0666-00-851-152258, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. First observations of stimulated electromagnetic emission at the SPEAR heating facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurik, Roman; Tereshchenko, Evgeniy; Yeoman, Tim; Robinson, T. R.

    The results of the first stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) observations at the SPEAR (Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar) heating facility are reported. The presented observations were recorded by the HF receiver during the February-March 2007 experimental campaign at the SPEAR heating facility. Due to low power of the SPEAR and the high polar ionosphere variability to estimate efficiency this heating facility the measurements of the SEE generated by the SPEAR was used. SEE observations are one of the key ground-based diagnostics of ionospheric plasma excitation by powerful radio frequency transmissions (RF) which significantly depend on the ionospheric condition, pumping parameters and the gyroharmonic frequency. In these observations the SPEAR transmitters were operated at 2kW, resulting in an Effective Radiated Power (ERP) for SPEAR of 13 - 15 MW and the beam direction was field-aligned (8 degrees south of vertical). During time periods when fo F2 was higher then pumping frequency (4.45 MHz, above the 3rd gyroharmonic) well developed steady state features of SEE were observed. As examples of these features, the down-shifted maximum (DM) and broad continuum (BC) of SEE spectra are registered. The observations of the SEE demonstrate clearly that the power of the SPEAR heating facility was enough for non-linear modification of the ionospheric plasma and can be used with the other diagnostic methods. The polar cap location of the SPEAR (78.2N, 16.1E) makes it a new and convenient tool for the investigation of nonlinear plasma processes in the very high latitude regions. SPEAR is operated under financial support from PPARC grant PP/E002544/1. The authors acknowledge Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant No. 06-05-64540) for financial support. The work was supported by program of Presidium of RAS No. 16.

  6. Passive solar-heating retrofit of a maintenance facility: First-year performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, D. R.; Callahan, J. M.

    1982-09-01

    A 12,000 sf maintenance facility in Connecticut was retrofitted with a 1,500 sf passive solar Trombe wall, 2 in. of foam roof insulation and a new control system that allows night/weekend temperature setback. A new separate boiler was installed to heat an office/locker wing of the facility. An energy-consumption monitoring system was installed and collected data for 11/2 years before the retrofit and one complete year after the retrofit. Actual energy consumption for the facility was very close to that predicted using simple analytic methods. After the solar wall was installed and other energy-conservation measures implemented the yearly oil consumption was reduced to 2744 gallons/year.

  7. A unique high heat flux facility for testing hypersonic engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1990-01-01

    A major concern in advancing the state-of-the-art technologies for hypersonic vehicles is the development of an aeropropulsion system capable of withstanding high thermal loads expected during hypersonic flights. Consequently, there is a need for experimental facilities capable of providing a high heat flux environment for testing compound concepts and verifying analyses. A hydrogen/oxygen rocket engine was developed to provide a high enthalpy/high heat flux environment for component evaluation. This Hot Gas Facility is capable of providing heat fluxes ranging from 200 (on flat surfaces) up to 8000 Btu per sq ft per sec (at a leading edge stagnation point). Gas temperatures up to 5500 R can be attained as well as Reynolds numbers up to 360,000 per ft. Test articles such as cowl leading edges, transpiration-cooled seals, fuel injectors, and cooled panel concepts can be evaluated with gaseous hydrogen as coolant. This facility and its configuration and test capabilities are discussed. Results from flow characterization experiments are also shown and their implications considered.

  8. NOM removal by adsorption and membrane filtration using heated aluminum oxide particles.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenxiao; Kim, Jaeshin; Benjamin, Mark M

    2008-01-15

    Heated aluminum oxide particles (HAOPs) are a newly synthesized adsorbent with attractive properties for use in hybrid adsorption/membrane filtration systems. This study compared removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from water by adsorption onto HAOPs with that by adsorption onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) or coagulation with alum or ferric chloride (FeCl3); explored the overlap between the NOM molecules that preferentially adsorb to HAOPs and those that are removed by the more conventional approaches; and evaluated NOM removal and fouling in hybrid adsorbent/membrane systems. For equivalent molar doses of the trivalent metals, HAOPs remove more NOM, and NOM with higher SUVA254, than alum or FeCl3. Most of the HAOPs-nonadsorbable fraction of the NOM can be adsorbed by PAC; in fact, that fraction appears to be preferentially adsorbed compared to the average NOM in untreated water. Predeposition of the adsorbents on a microfiltration membrane improves system performance. For the water tested, at a flux of 100 L/m2-hr, predeposition of 11 mg/L PAC and 5 mg/L HAOPs (as Al3+) allowed the system to operate 5 times as long before the transmembrane pressure increased by 1 psi and to remove 10-20 times as much NOM as when no adsorbents were added.

  9. Removal of silver nanoparticles using live and heat shock Aspergillus niger cultures.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Ola M

    2014-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) are extensively used in many industrial and medical applications; however, the impact of their release in the environment is still considered an understudied field. In the present work, SNPs present in aqueous lab waste water (average size of 30 nm) were used to determine their impact on microflora if released in soil rhizosphere and sewage waste water. The results showed that 24 h incubation with different SNP concentrations resulted in a 2.6-fold decrease for soil rhizosphere microflora and 7.45-fold decrease for sewage waste water microflora, both at 24 ppm. Live and heat shock (50 and 70 °C) Aspergillus niger cultures were used to remove SNP waste, the results show 76.6, 81.74 and 90.8 % SNP removal, respectively after 3 h incubation. There was an increase in the log total bacterial count again after SNP removal by A. niger in the following order: live A. niger < 50 °C heat shock A. niger < 70 °C heat shock A. niger. The pH value decreased from 5.8 to 3.8 in the same order suggesting the production of an acid in the culture media. Scanning electron microscopy images showed agglomeration and/or complexation of SNP particles, in a micron size, in between the fungal mycelia, hence settling on and in between the mycelial network. The results suggest that silver was reduced again and agglomerated and/or chelated together in its oxidized form by an acid in A. niger media. More studies are recommended to determine the acid and the heat shock proteins to confirm the exact mode of action.

  10. Design and construction of the NMSU Geothermally Heated Greenhouse Research Facility: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenmackers, R.

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and performance of the New Mexico State University (NMSU) Geothermal Greenhouse Research Facility. Two 6000-square-foot greenhouses were built on the NMSU campus and supplied with geothermal energy for heating. The geothermal water is pumped from one of three wells producing water at temperatures from 141/degree/F to 148/degree/F. Heat is delivered to the greenhouse space by means of overhead fan-coil unit heaters. The two greenhouses are double-glazed on roof and wall surfaces employing a total of four different film materials: Tedlar/Reg Sign/, Melinex/Reg Sign/, Softglass/Reg Sign/, and Agrifilm/Reg Sign/. One greenhouse is cooled using a traditional fan and pad cooling system. The second greenhouse is cooled with a high-pressure fog system and natural ventilation through roof and side vents. A 2400-square-foot metal building next to the greenhouses provides office, work, and storage space for the facility. The greenhouse facility was leased to two commerical tenants who produced a variety of crops. The performance of the greenhouses was monitored and reported both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results from the tenant's pilot-scale studies in the NMSU greenhouse facility were transferred and applied to two commercial greenhouse ranges that were built in southern New Mexico during 1986/87. 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. FACILITY UPGRADES FOR RECEIPT FROM ACTINIDE REMOVAL AND MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, T; Stephen Phillips, S; Benjamin Culbertson, B; Beverly02 Davis, B; Aaron Staub, A

    2007-02-13

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently on an aggressive program to empty its High Level Waste (HLW) tanks and immobilize its radioactive waste into a durable borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). As a part of that program, two new processes will be brought on-line to assist in emptying the HLW tanks. These processes are in addition to the current sludge removal process and are called the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (MCU) Process. In order to accept and process the streams generated from these two new processes, several facility modifications are required and are broken down into several projects. These projects are handling the facility modifications required for the Tank Farm (241-96H), and DWPF vitrification facility (221-S), and DWPF ancillary facilities (511-S, and 512-S). Additional modifications to the 221-S building were required to address the flammability concern from the solvent carryover from the MCU process. This paper will describe a summary of the modifications impacting the 511-S, 512-S, and the 221-S facilities in order to receive the new streams from the ARP and MCU processes at the DWPF.

  12. A feasible way to remove the heat during adsorptive methane storage.

    PubMed

    Gütlein, Stefan; Burkard, Christoph; Zeilinger, Johannes; Niedermaier, Matthias; Klumpp, Michael; Kolb, Veronika; Jess, Andreas; Etzold, Bastian J M

    2015-01-06

    Methane originating from biogas or natural gas is an attractive and environmentally friendly alternative to gasoline. Adsorption is seen as promising storage technology, but the heat released limits fast filling of these systems. Here a lab scale adsorptive methane storage tank, capable to study the temperature increase during fast filling, was realized. A variation of the filling time from 1 h to 31 s, showed a decrease of the storage capacity of 14% and temperature increase of 39.6 °C. The experimental data could be described in good accordance with a finite element simulation solving the transient mass, energy, and impulse balance. The simulation was further used to extrapolate temperature development in real sized car tanks and for different heat pipe scenarios, resulting in temperature rises of approximately 110 °C. It could be clearly shown, that with heat conductivity as solei mechanism the heat cannot be removed in acceptable time. By adding an outlet to the tank a feed flow cooling with methane as heat carrier was realized. This setup was proofed in simulation and lab scale experiments to be a promising technique for fast adsorbent cooling and can be crucial to leverage the full potential of adsorptive methane gas storage.

  13. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger: Phase 1 final report, November 1995--May 1997. Addendum 1: Task 2 topical report -- Pollutant removal tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, R.T.; Jankura, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    Integrated Flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) uses two Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHXs{reg_sign}) in series to recover waste heat from the flue gas and remove a variety of pollutants from the flue gas. The Teflon{reg_sign}-covered internals of the condensing heat exchanger permit heat recovery at temperatures below the acid dew-point of the flue gas. The pollutant removal characteristics of the IFGT system were measured over a wide range of operating conditions in a pilot Integrated Flue Gas Treatment System rated at 1.2 MW{sub t} (4 million Btu/hr) using a wide range of coals. The coals tested included a high-sulfur coal, a medium-sulfur coal and a low-sulfur coal. The flue gas pollutants investigated included ammonia, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, particulate, sulfur dioxide, gas phase and particle phase mercury and gas phase and particle phase trace elements. The particulate removal efficiency and size distribution was also investigated. Soda ash, lime and magnesium-lime scrubbing reagents were investigated. The test results show that the IFGT system can remove greater than 95% removal of acid gases with a liquid-to-gas ratio less than 1.34 l/m{sup 3} (10 gal/1,000 ft{sup 3}), and that lime reagents show promise as a substitute for soda ash. Particulate and ammonia gas removal was also very high. Ionic mercury removal averaged 80%, while elemental mercury removal was very low. Trace metals were found to be concentrated in the fine particulate with removal efficiencies in the range of 50% to 80%. The data measured in this task provides the basis for predictions of the performance of an IFGT system for both utility and industrial applications.

  14. Modeling and Simulation of Radiative Compressible Flows in Aerodynamic Heating Arc-Jet Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensassi, Khalil; Laguna, Alejandro A.; Lani, Andrea; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulations of an arc heated flow inside NASA's 20 [MW] Aerodynamics heating facility (AHF) are performed in order to investigate the three-dimensional swirling flow and the current distribution inside the wind tunnel. The plasma is considered in Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium(LTE) and is composed of Air-Argon gas mixture. The governing equations are the Navier-Stokes equations that include source terms corresponding to Joule heating and radiative cooling. The former is obtained by solving an electric potential equation, while the latter is calculated using an innovative massively parallel ray-tracing algorithm. The fully coupled system is closed by the thermodynamics relations and transport properties which are obtained from Chapman-Enskog method. A novel strategy was developed in order to enable the flow solver and the radiation calculation to be preformed independently and simultaneously using a different number of processors. Drastic reduction in the computational cost was achieved using this strategy. Details on the numerical methods used for space discretization, time integration and ray-tracing algorithm will be presented. The effect of the radiative cooling on the dynamics of the flow will be investigated. The complete set of equations were implemented within the COOLFluiD Framework. Fig. 1 shows the geometry of the Anode and part of the constrictor of the Aerodynamics heating facility (AHF). Fig. 2 shows the velocity field distribution along (x-y) plane and the streamline in (z-y) plane.

  15. Geothermal greenhouse-heating facilities for the Klamath County Nursing Home, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    The Klamath County Nursing Home, located in Klamath Falls, Oregon, was constructed in 1976. The building of 55,654 square feet currently houses care facilities for approximately 120 persons. During the initial planning for the Nursing Home, the present site was selected primarily on the basis of its geothermal resource. This resource (approx. 190/sup 0/F) currently provides space and domestic hot water heating for the Nursing Home, Merle West Medical Center and the Oregon Institute of Technology. The feasibility of installing a geothermal heating system in a planned greenhouse for the Nursing Home is explored. The greenhouse system would be tied directly to the existing hot water heating system for the Nursing Home.

  16. Modification of hot cells for general purpose heat source assembly at the radioisotope power systems facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carteret, Betty A.

    1992-01-01

    Eight existing, unused hot cells currently are being modified for use in the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) to assemble 238Pu-fueled heat sources for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Four air atmosphere cells will be used for storage, decanning, and decontamination of the iridium-clad radioisotope fuel. The remaining four argon atmosphere cells will be used to assemble fuel and graphite components for production and packaging of general purpose heat source (GPHS) assembly modules, which provide heat to drive the thermoelectric conversion process in the generators. The hot cells will be equipped to perform remote and glovebox-type operations. They will provide shielding and contamination control measures to reduce worker radiation exposure to levels within current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines. Designs emphasize the Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) radiation protection policy.

  17. Modification of hot cells for general purpose heat source assembly at the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carteret, B. A.

    1991-09-01

    Eight existing, unused hot cells currently are being modified for use in the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) to assemble Pu-238 fueled heat sources for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Four air atmosphere cells will be used for storage, decanning, and decontamination of the iridium-clad radioisotope fuel. The remaining four argon atmosphere cells will be used to assemble fuel and graphite components for production and packaging of general purpose heat source (GPHS) assembly modules, which provide heat to drive the thermoelectric conversion process in the generators. The hot cells will be equipped to perform remote and glovebox-type operations. They will provide shielding and contamination control measures to reduce worker radiation exposure to levels within current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines. Designs emphasize the Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) radiation protection policy.

  18. Teflon probing for the flow characterization of arc-heated wind tunnel facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulli, Stefano; Ground, Cody; Crisanti, Matthew; Maddalena, Luca

    2014-02-01

    The experimental flow characterization of the arc-heated wind tunnel of the University of Texas at Arlington is investigated in this work using ablative Teflon probes in combination with total pressure measurements. A parallel analytical work, focused on the dimensional analysis of the ablation process, has been conducted with the purpose of improving existing semi-empirical correlations for the heat blockage due to the mass injection inside the boundary layer. A control volume analysis at the receding surface of the specimens is used to calculate the wall heat transfer for a non-ablating probe by including the blockage effect. The new correlations, obtained for the convective blockage, show an improvement of the correlation coefficient of 110 % with respect to those available in literature, once a new blowing parameter containing the stagnation pressure is introduced. A correlation developed by NASA during the Round-Robin program, which relates the Teflon mass loss rate to the total pressure and cold-wall heat flux measured experimentally, is also used to predict the wall heat transfer referred to the ablation temperature of Teflon. For both approaches, a simplified stagnation point convective heat transfer equation allows the average stagnation enthalpy to be calculated. Several locations downstream of the nozzle exit have been surveyed, and selected points of the facility's performance map have been used for the experimental campaign. The results show that both approaches provide similar results in terms of stagnation heat flux and enthalpy prediction with uncertainties comparable to those provided by standard intrusive heat flux probes ( δ q max < 25 %). The analysis of the Teflon's ablated surface does not reveal significant flow non-uniformities, and a 1.14 heat flux enhancement factor due to the shock-shock interaction is detectable at x = 3.5 in. from the nozzle exit plane. The results show the use of ablative probes for the flow characterization of arc

  19. Assessment of the advantages of a residual heat removal system inside the reactor pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, G.M.

    1995-09-01

    In the framework of research on diversified means for removing residual heat from pressurized water reactors, the CEA is studying a passive system called RRP (Refroidissement du Reacteur au Primaire, or primary circuit cooling system). This system consists of integrated heat-exchangers and a layout of the internal structures so as to obtain convection from the primary circuit inside the vessel, whatever the state of the loops. This system is operational for all primary circuit temperatures and pressures, as well as for a wide range of conditions: such as independent from the state of the loops, low volume of water in the primary circuit, compatibility with either a passive or an active operation mode, and compatibility with any other decay heat removal systems. This paper presents an evaluation of the performance of the RRP system in the event of a small primary circuit break in a totally passive operation mode without the intervention of any another system. The results of this evaluation show the potential interest of such a system: a clear increase of the time-delay for the implementation of a low pressure safety injection system and no need for the use of a high pressure safety injection system.

  20. High Enthalpy Studies of Capsule Heating in an Expansion Tunnel Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Aaron; MacLean, Matthew; Holden, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Measurements were made on an Orion heat shield model to demonstrate the capability of the new LENS-XX expansion tunnel facility to make high quality measurements of heat transfer distributions at flow velocities from 3 km/s (h(sub 0) = 5 MJ/kg) to 8.4 km/s (h(sub 0) = 36 MJ/kg). Thirty-nine heat transfer gauges, including both thin-film and thermocouple instruments, as well as four pressure gauges, and high-speed Schlieren were used to assess the aerothermal environment on the capsule heat shield. Only results from laminar boundary layer runs are reported. A major finding of this test series is that the high enthalpy, low-density flows displayed surface heating behavior that is observed to be consistent with some finite-rate recombination process occurring on the surface of the model. It is too early to speculate on the nature of the mechanism, but the response of the gages on the surface seems generally repeatable and consistent for a range of conditions. This result is an important milestone in developing and proving a capability to make measurements in a ground test environment and extrapolate them to flight for conditions with extreme non-equilibrium effects. Additionally, no significant, isolated stagnation point augmentation ("bump") was observed in the tests in this facility. Cases at higher Reynolds number seemed to show the greatest amount of overall increase in heating on the windward side of the model, which may in part be due to small-scale particulate.

  1. Heat Tracing Percolation in Managed Aquifer Recharge Facilities using Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Ellis, W.; Bauer, B.; Hutchinson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Percolation rates in Managed Aquifer Rechage (MAR) facilities, such as recharge basins and stream channels, can vary widely through both time and space. Natural variations in sediment hydraulic conductivity can create 'dead zones' in which percolation rates are negligible. Clogging is a constant problem, leading to decays in facility percolation rates . Measuring percolation rate variations is important for management, maintenance, and remediation of surface MAR facilities We have used Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FODTS) to monitor percolation in two very different recharge facilities. The first is a small (2 ha) nearly round recharge basin of homogeneous sediment type in which water balance can be closely monitored. The second is a long narrow river channel separated from an active river by a levee. The alluvial sediment in the river channel varies widely in texture and water balance is difficult to monitor independently. Both facilities were monitored by trenching in fiber optic cable and measuring the propagation rate of the diurnal temperature oscillations carried downward with infiltrating water. In this way, heat was used as a tracer of percolation rates along the section defined by the trenched cable (400 and 1600 m, respectively). We were able to confirm the FODTS measurements of percolation in the recharge basin and demonstrate its wide applicability in the river channel. Results from the measurements have been used to understand both the hydraulic behavior of percolation in the facilities and to make management decisions regarding facility operations and the potential need for additional surface sediment remediation. Estimation of specific discharge (m/day) through the basin using the wavelet method. Basin stage is shown above

  2. 18 CFR 1304.406 - Removal of unauthorized, unsafe, and derelict structures or facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... derelict structures or facilities. If, at any time, any dock, wharf, boathouse (fixed or floating), nonnavigable houseboat, outfall, aerial cable, or other fixed or floating structure or facility (including any..., unsafe, and derelict structures or facilities. 1304.406 Section 1304.406 Conservation of Power and Water...

  3. Phosphorus removal mechanisms at the Yellow River Sweetwater Creek Water Reclamation Facility, Gwinnett County, Georgia. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Borowy, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    This research investigated the capabilities of the Yellow River Sweetwater Creek Water Reclamation Facility in Gwinnett County, GA. to remove phosphorus biologically. Phosphorus levels and removal locations were analyzed in plant operational units (sampling events), while in reactor experiments (pilot studies), waste was subjected to various conditions to promote-biological phosphorus release and uptake. Analysis of plant conditions at the time of experimentation indicates that one-half of the plant phosphorus removal is accomplished biologically through incorporation of phosphorus in microbial cells during growth. It does not appear, however, that enhanced biological phosphorus removal (BPR) is possible due to wastestream characteristics and/or microbial population. It was noted that the basic anaerobic-aerobic sequence associated with enhanced BPR appears to be occurring with the secondary clarifier sludge blanket and return to compartment A of the nitrification basin.

  4. Parametric Study to Characterize Low Activity Waste Tank Heat Removal Alternatives for Phase 1 Specification Development

    SciTech Connect

    GRENARD, C.E.

    2000-09-11

    Alternative for removing heat from Phase 1, low-activity waste feed double-shell tanks using the ventilation systems have been analyzed for Phase 1 waste feed delivery. The analysis was a parametric study using a model that predicted the waste temperatures for a range of primary and annulus ventilation system flow rates. The analysis was performed to determine the ventilation flow required to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding the Limiting Conditions for Operation limits during normal operation and the Safety Limits during off-normal events.

  5. Cooling system for removing metabolic heat from an hermetically sealed spacesuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, B. W.; Vykukal, H. C.; Williams, B. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved cooling and ventilating system is described for removing metabolic heat, waste gases and water vapor generated by a wearer of an hermetically sealed spacesuit. The cooling system was characterized by a body suit, having a first circuit for simultaneously establishing a cooling flow of water through the thorax and head sections of the body suit. Circulation patches were included mounted in the thorax section and head section of the body suit. A second circuit for discharing a flow of gas throughout the spacesuit and a disconnect unit for coupling the circuits with a life support system externally related to the spacesuit were provided.

  6. Removal of histological sections from glass for electron microscopy - Use of Quetol 651 resin and heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. M.; Joyce, K.; Dantoni Damelio, E.

    1983-01-01

    A number of approaches have been used to separate stained conventional histological sections from glass slides in preparation for a study with the electron microscope. However, in each reported case some problems were encountered with respect to the separation process. The present investigation is concerned with the use of the epoxy resin Quetol 651 as an embedding medium for this procedure, taking into account the simple application of heat (62-64 C) for performing the separation step. After the tissue has been removed from the glass by the considered technique, it is thin sectioned, and stained with uranyl acetate-lead citrate.

  7. Removal of histological sections from glass for electron microscopy - Use of Quetol 651 resin and heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. M.; Joyce, K.; Dantoni Damelio, E.

    1983-01-01

    A number of approaches have been used to separate stained conventional histological sections from glass slides in preparation for a study with the electron microscope. However, in each reported case some problems were encountered with respect to the separation process. The present investigation is concerned with the use of the epoxy resin Quetol 651 as an embedding medium for this procedure, taking into account the simple application of heat (62-64 C) for performing the separation step. After the tissue has been removed from the glass by the considered technique, it is thin sectioned, and stained with uranyl acetate-lead citrate.

  8. Steady Heat Removal Test by BWR Drywell Cooler under Accident Management Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yokobori, Seiichi; Tobimatsu, Toshimi; Akinaga, Makoto; Fukasawa, Masanori; Nagasaka, Hideo

    2002-07-01

    This paper deals with the heat removal performance of the BWR drywell local cooler (DWC) applied as a Japanese phase-II accident management. Separated effect tests were conducted using a single DWC unit of a typical BWR plant under severe accident (SA) condition. It was demonstrated that noncondensable gas mixture with nitrogen and helium was constantly vented from the DWC casing and the favorable steam condensation rate was maintained even under the highest assumed gas condition. The DWC was found to be promising even under wide range of SA conditions. (authors)

  9. Opportunities for Combined Heat and Power at Wastewater Treatment Facilities: Market Analysis and Lessons from the Field

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report presents the opportunities for combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the municipal wastewater treatment sector, and it documents the experiences of the wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) operators who have employed CHP.

  10. Thermally-Conductive Metallic Coatings and Applications for Heat Removal on In-Space Cryogenic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameen, Lauren; Hervol, David; Waters, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    For large in-space cryogenic upper stages, substantial axial heat removal from a forward skirt by vapor-based heat interception may not be achieved by simple attachment methods unless sufficient thermal conductance from the skirt to the cooling fluid can be achieved. Preferable methods would allow for the addition of the cooling system to existing structure with minimal impact on the structure. Otherwise, significant modification to the basic structural design andor novel and complex attachment mechanisms with high effective thermal conductance are likely to be required. The approach being pursued by evolvable Cryogenics (eCryo) is to increase the thermal performance of a relatively simple attachment system by applying metallic or other thermally conductive material coatings to the mating surface area of the fluid channel where it is attached the skirt wall. The expectation of candidate materials is that the dramatic increase in conductivity of pure metals at temperatures close to liquid hydrogen vapor temperature will compensate for the reduced actual contact area typical of mechanical joints. Basic contact conductance data at low temperatures for candidate interface materials is required to enable the test approach. A test rig was designed at NASA Glenn Research Center to provide thermal contact resistance testing between small sample coupons coated with conductive material via electron beam evaporation, a low-temperature option that will not affect physical properties of base materials. Average coating thicknesses were 10 k. The test fixture was designed to mount directly to a cryocooler cold head within a vacuum test chamber. The purpose of this test was to determine qualitative contact conductance between various test samples. Results from this effort will be implemented in a sub-scale vapor-based heat interception test, where the applicability for increased heat removal on large structural skirts will be considered.

  11. Potential soil contaminant levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at industrial facilities employing heat transfer operations

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.E.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.

    1992-04-01

    Certain manufacturing facilities formerly used large quantities of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) fluids in heat transfer operations. At many of these locations, operations have also involved PCB-containing electrical equipment. Commonly, over many years of plant operations, spills and leaks have resulted in PCB soil contamination. Dioxins and furans have been associated with PCB contamination in both the technical and popular press. Consequently, the need for analyses for dioxins and furans must be evaluated at locations where soils are contaminated with PCBs. This report presents an evaluation of potential dioxin and furan soil contamination based on heat transfer operations and spills from electrical equipment. The following five scenarios were examined for dioxin and furan contamination: (1) impurities in heat transfer fluids, (2) formation during heat transfer operations, (3) pyrolysis of heat transfer fluids, (4) impurities in dielectric fluids, and (5) pyrolysis of dielectric fluids. The potential contamination with dioxins and furans was calculated and compared with a 20 ppb guideline that has been used by the Centers for Disease Control for dioxin in subsoil. The results demonstrated that dioxins are formed only under pyrolytic conditions and only from the trichlorobenzenes present in dielectric fluids. Furans are found as impurities in PCB fluids but, as with dioxins, are not formed in significant quantities except during pyrolysis. Fortunately, pyrolytic conditions involving PCB fluids and soil contamination are unlikely; therefore, analyses for dioxin and furan contamination in soils will rarely be needed.

  12. Cold test plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tank contents removal project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) Tanks Contents Removal Project Cold Test Plan describes the activities to be conducted during the cold test of the OHF sluicing and pumping system at the Tank Technology Cold Test Facility (TTCTF). The TTCTF is located at the Robotics and Process Systems Complex at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The cold test will demonstrate performance of the pumping and sluicing system, fine-tune operating instructions, and train the personnel in the actual work to be performed. After completion of the cold test a Technical Memorandum will be prepared documenting completion of the cold test, and the equipment will be relocated to the OHF site.

  13. Sources and potential application of waste heat utilization at a gas processing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshehhi, Alyas Ali

    Waste heat recovery (WHR) has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of oil and gas plants, chemical and other processing facilities, and reduce their environmental impact. In this Thesis a comprehensive energy audit at Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Ltd. (GASCO) ASAB gas processing facilities is undertaken to identify sources of waste heat and evaluate their potential for on-site recovery. Two plants are considered, namely ASAB0 and ASAB1. Waste heat evaluation criteria include waste heat grade (i.e., temperature), rate, accessibility (i.e., proximity) to potential on-site waste heat recovery applications, and potential impact of recovery on installation performance and safety. The operating parameters of key waste heat source producing equipment are compiled, as well as characteristics of the waste heat streams. In addition, potential waste heat recovery applications and strategies are proposed, focusing on utilities, i.e., enhancement of process cooling/heating, electrical/mechanical power generation, and steam production. The sources of waste heat identified at ASAB facilities consist of gas turbine and gas generator exhaust gases, flared gases, excess propane cooling capacity, excess process steam, process gas air-cooler heat dissipation, furnace exhaust gases and steam turbine outlet steam. Of the above waste heat sources, exhaust gases from five gas turbines and one gas generator at ASAB0 plant, as well as from four gas turbines at ASAB1 plant, were found to meet the rate (i.e., > 1 MW), grade (i.e., > 180°C), accessibility (i.e., < 50 m from potential on-site WHR applications) and minimal impact criteria on the performance and safety of existing installations, for potential waste heat recovery. The total amount of waste heat meeting these criteria were estimated at 256 MW and 289 MW at ASAB0 and ASAB1 plants, respectively, both of which are substantial. Of the 289 MW waste generated at ASAB1, approximately 173 MW are recovered by waste heat

  14. Enthalpy By Energy Balance for Aerodynamic Heating Facility at NASA Ames Research Center Arc Jet Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hightower, T. Mark; MacDonald, Christine L.; Martinez, Edward R.; Balboni, John A.; Anderson, Karl F.; Arnold, Jim O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) Arc Jet Facilities' Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) has been instrumented for the Enthalpy By Energy Balance (EB2) method. Diagnostic EB2 data is routinely taken for all AHF runs. This paper provides an overview of the EB2 method implemented in the AHF. The chief advantage of the AHF implementation over earlier versions is the non-intrusiveness of the instruments used. For example, to measure the change in cooling water temperature, thin film 1000 ohm Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) are used with an Anderson Current Loop (ACL) as the signal conditioner. The ACL with 1000 ohm RTDs allows for very sensitive measurement of the increase in temperature (Delta T) of the cooling water to the arc heater, which is a critical element of the EB2 method. Cooling water flow rates are measured with non-intrusive ultrasonic flow meters.

  15. Phase 1 development of an aquifer heat storage facility. Part 1: Summary and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harasim, A.; Weissenbach, B.

    1982-03-01

    A surface aquifer pilot plan was defined. Several versions of construction were drafted and the costs were calculated for variable site conditions. Aquifer heat storage facilities larger than 5,000 cu m (water equivalent) are cheaper than any known storage concept. Simultaneous with technical and economic studies, problems of chemical mass transport in two typical soil materials (calcareous gravel water and red marl water) were investigated in lab tests. Special attention was paid to the biological behavior of a wet gravel bed in view of the possibility of clogging by slime. Recommendations are given to ensure safe operation of the storage plant. Corrosion in the storage facility was considered for various materials. Results show that cement structures are preferred.

  16. Decay Heat Removal in GEN IV Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Lap-Yan; Wei, Thomas Y. C.

    2009-01-01

    The safety goal of the current designs of advanced high-temperature thermal gas-cooled reactors (HTRs) is that no core meltdown would occur in a depressurization event with a combination of concurrent safety system failures. This study focused on the analysis of passive decay heat removal (DHR) in a GEN IV direct-cycle gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) which is based on the technology developments of the HTRs. Given the different criteria and design characteristics of the GFR, an approach different from that taken for the HTRs for passive DHR would have to be explored. Different design options based on maintaining core flow weremore » evaluated by performing transient analysis of a depressurization accident using the system code RELAP5-3D. The study also reviewed the conceptual design of autonomous systems for shutdown decay heat removal and recommends that future work in this area should be focused on the potential for Brayton cycle DHRs.« less

  17. Enhanced primary sludge sonication by heat insulation to reclaim carbon source for biological phosphorous removal.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qing; Wang, Qi; Zhu, Yanbing; Li, Fang; Zhuang, Lin; Yang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound pretreatment is a potent step to disintegrate primary sludge (PS). The supernatant of sonicated PS is recycled as an alternative carbon source for biological phosphorus removal. In this study, we investigated the role of temperature on PS disintegration during sonication. We found that a temperature of 60°C yielded a dissolution rate of about 2% soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) as compared to 7% SCOD using sonication at the specific energy (SE) of 7359kJ/kg TS. Using the SE of 6000kJ/kg TS with heat insulation during sonication, the SCOD dissolution rate of PS was similar to the result at the SE of 7051kJ/kg TS without heat insulation. Upon treatment with sonication, the PS released low concentrations of Cu and Zn into the supernatant. The phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs) used the supernatant of sonicated PS as the carbon source. Supplementation with the diluted sonicated PS supernatant (SCOD≈1000mg/L) in anaerobic phase resulted in the release of phosphorus (36mg/L) and the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) (0.36g PHA/g SS). Compared with sodium acetate, higher polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV) faction in the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) was observed in the biomass when incubated with sonicated PS as the carbon source. This work provides a simple pathway to conserve energy and to enhance efficiencies of ultrasonic pretreatment and the recovery of carbon source from the sludge for improving the phosphorus removal in the ENR system.

  18. The influence of heat treatments on several types of base-metal removable partial denture alloys.

    PubMed

    Morris, H F; Asgar, K; Rowe, A P; Nasjleti, C E

    1979-04-01

    Four removable partial denture alloys, Vitallium (Co-Cr alloy), Dentillium P.D. (Fe-Cr alloy), Durallium L.G. (Co-Cr-Ni alloy), and Ticonium 100 (Ni-Cr alloy), were evaluated in the as-cast condition and after heat treatment for 15 minutes at 1,300 degrees, 1,600 degrees, 1,900 degrees, and 2,200 degrees F followed by quenching in water. The following properties were determined and compared for each alloy at each heat treatment condition: the yield strengths at 0.01%, 0.1%, and 0.2% offsets, the ultimate tensile strength, the percent elongation, the modulus of elasticity, and the Knoop microhardness. The results were statistically analyzed. Photomicrographs were examined for each alloy and test condition. The following conclusions were made: 1. The "highest values" were exhibited by the as-cast alloy. 2. Heat treatment of the partial denture alloys tested resulted in reductions in strength, while the elongations varied. This study demonstrates that, in practice, one should avoid (a) prolonged "heat-soaking" while soldering and (b) grinding or polishing of the casting until the alloy is "red hot". 3. Durallium L.G. was the least affected by the various heat treatment conditions. 4. Conventional reporting of the yield strength at 0.2% offset, the ultimate tensile strength, and percent elongation are not adequate to completely describe and compare the mechanical behavior of alloys. The reporting of the yield strength at 0.01% offset, in addition to the other reported properties, will provide a more complete description of the behavior of the dental alloys.

  19. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low-temperature heat pipe experiment package power system results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiller, Smith E.; Sullivan, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of a self-contained Direct Energy Transfer Power System which was developed to provide power to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Low-Temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package is presented. The power system operated successfully for the entire mission. Data recorded by the onboard recorder shows that the system operated within design specifications. Other than unanticipated overcharging of the battery, the power system operated as expected for nearly 32,000 low earth orbit cycles, and was still operational when tested after the LDEF recovery. Some physical damage was sustained by the solar array panels due to micrometeoroid hits, but there were not electrical failures.

  20. 77 FR 60041 - Heating, Cooling, and Lighting Standards for Bureau-Funded Dormitory Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is confirming the interim final rule published and effective on May 24, 2012, addressing heating, cooling, and lighting standards for Bureau-funded dormitory facilities. This rule was developed through negotiated rulemaking, as required by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. The May 24, 2012, publication stated that the BIA would review comments on the interim final rule and either confirm the rule or initiate a proposed rulemaking. BIA did not receive any adverse comments, and therefore confirms the rule without change.

  1. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low-temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) power system results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiller, Smith E.; Sullivan, David

    1991-01-01

    An overview of a self contained Direct Energy Transfer (DET) Power System which was developed to provide power to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) Experiment. A brief synopsis of the flight characteristics of the power system are presented to illustrate the system's capability to function successfully in a low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment. The successful space flight operations of the battery, solar arrays, and power system electronics during the flight period of almost six years (approximately 32,000 LEO cycles) are discussed.

  2. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low-temperature heat pipe experiment package power system results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiller, Smith E.; Sullivan, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of a self-contained Direct Energy Transfer Power System which was developed to provide power to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Low-Temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package is presented. The power system operated successfully for the entire mission. Data recorded by the onboard recorder shows that the system operated within design specifications. Other than unanticipated overcharging of the battery, the power system operated as expected for nearly 32,000 low earth orbit cycles, and was still operational when tested after the LDEF recovery. Some physical damage was sustained by the solar array panels due to micrometeoroid hits, but there were not electrical failures.

  3. Conceptual design of two-phase fluid mechanics and heat transfer facility for spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, B. F.; Hill, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Five specific experiments were analyzed to provide definition of experiments designed to evaluate two phase fluid behavior in low gravity. The conceptual design represents a fluid mechanics and heat transfer facility for a double rack in Spacelab. The five experiments are two phase flow patterns and pressure drop, flow boiling, liquid reorientation, and interface bubble dynamics. Hardware was sized, instrumentation and data recording requirements defined, and the five experiments were installed as an integrated experimental package. Applicable available hardware was selected in the experiment design and total experiment program costs were defined.

  4. Facile synthesis of graphene oxide-modified lithium hydroxide for low-temperature chemical heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xixian; Huang, Hongyu; Wang, Zhihui; Kubota, Mitsuhiro; He, Zhaohong; Kobayashi, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    LiOH·H2O nanoparticles supported on graphene oxide (GO) were facilely synthesized by a hydrothermal process. The mean diameter of nanoparticles on the integrated graphene sheet was about 5⿿10 nm showed by SEM and TEM results. XRD results suggested that the nanoparticles are in good agreement with the data of LiOH·H2O. The as-prepared sample showed a greatly enhanced thermal energy storage density and exhibit higher rate of heat release than pure lithium hydroxide, and thermal conductivity of composites increased due to the introduction of nano carbon. LiOH·H2O/GO nanocomposites are novel chemical heat storage materials for potential highly efficient energy system.

  5. Ultrafine particle removal by residential heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning filters.

    PubMed

    Stephens, B; Siegel, J A

    2013-12-01

    This work uses an in situ filter test method to measure the size-resolved removal efficiency of indoor-generated ultrafine particles (approximately 7-100 nm) for six new commercially available filters installed in a recirculating heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system in an unoccupied test house. The fibrous HVAC filters were previously rated by the manufacturers according to ASHRAE Standard 52.2 and ranged from shallow (2.5 cm) fiberglass panel filters (MERV 4) to deep-bed (12.7 cm) electrostatically charged synthetic media filters (MERV 16). Measured removal efficiency ranged from 0 to 10% for most ultrafine particles (UFP) sizes with the lowest rated filters (MERV 4 and 6) to 60-80% for most UFP sizes with the highest rated filter (MERV 16). The deeper bed filters generally achieved higher removal efficiencies than the panel filters, while maintaining a low pressure drop and higher airflow rate in the operating HVAC system. Assuming constant efficiency, a modeling effort using these measured values for new filters and other inputs from real buildings shows that MERV 13-16 filters could reduce the indoor proportion of outdoor UFPs (in the absence of indoor sources) by as much as a factor of 2-3 in a typical single-family residence relative to the lowest efficiency filters, depending in part on particle size.

  6. Los Alamos PWR decay-heat-removal studies. Summary results and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B E; Henninger, R J; Horley, E; Lime, J F; Nassersharif, B; Smith, R

    1986-03-01

    The adequacy of shutdown-decay-heat removal in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) is currently under investigation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. One part of this effort is the review of feed-and-bleed procedures that could be used if the normal cooling mode through the steam generators were unavailable. Feed-and-bleed cooling is effected by manually activating the high-pressure injection (HPI) system and opening the power-operated relief valves (PORVs) to release the core decay energy. The feasibility of the feed-and-bleed concept as a diverse mode of heat removal has been evaluated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The TRAC-PF1 code has been used to predict the expected performance of the Oconee-1 and Calvert Cliffs-1 reactors of Bobcock and Wilcox and Combustion Engineering, respectively, and the Zion-1 and H.B. Robinson-2 plants of Westinghouse. Feed and bleed was successfully applied in each of the four plants studied, provided it was initiated no later than the time of loss of secondary heat sink. Feed and bleed was successfully applied in two of the plants, Oconee-1 and Zion-1, provided it was initiated no later than the time of primary system saturation. Feed and bleed in Calvert Cliffs-1 when initiated at the time of primary system saturation did result in core dryout; however, the core heatup was eventually terminated by coolant injection. Feed-and-bleed initiation at primary system saturation was not studied for H.B. Robinson-2. Insights developed during the analyses of specific plant transients have been identified and documented. 33 refs., 107 figs., 26 tabs.

  7. Calorimeter probes for measuring high thermal flux. [in electric-arc jet facilities for planetary entry heating simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes expendable, slug-type calorimeter probes developed for measuring high heat-flux levels of 10-30 kW/sq cm in electric-arc jet facilities. The probes are constructed with thin tungsten caps mounted on Teflon bodies; the temperature of the back surface of the tungsten cap is measured, and its rate of change gives the steady-state, absorbed heat flux as the calorimeter probe heats to destruction when inserted into the arc jet. It is concluded that the simple construction of these probes allows them to be expendable and heated to destruction to obtain a measurable temperature slope at high heating rates.

  8. Feasibility Study of SSTO Base Heating Simulation in Pulsed-Type Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Chung Sik; Sharma, Surendra; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A laboratory simulation of the base heating environment of the proposed reusable Single-Stage-To-Orbit vehicle during its ascent flight was proposed. The rocket engine produces CO2 and H2, which are the main combustible components of the exhaust effluent. The burning of these species, known as afterburning, enhances the base region gas temperature as well as the base heating. To determine the heat flux on the SSTO vehicle, current simulation focuses on the thermochemistry of the afterburning, thermophysical properties of the base region gas, and ensuing radiation from the gas. By extrapolating from the Saturn flight data, the Damkohler number for the afterburning of SSTO vehicle is estimated to be of the order of 10. The limitations on the material strengths limit the laboratory simulation of the flight Damkohler number as well as other flow parameters. A plan is presented in impulse facilities using miniature rocket engines which generate the simulated rocket plume by electric ally-heating a H2/CO2 mixture.

  9. Feasibility Study of SSTO Base Heating Simulation in Pulsed-Type Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Chung Sik; Sharma, Surendra; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A laboratory simulation of the base heating environment of the proposed reusable Single-Stage-To-Orbit vehicle during its ascent flight was proposed. The rocket engine produces CO2 and H2, which are the main combustible components of the exhaust effluent. The burning of these species, known as afterburning, enhances the base region gas temperature as well as the base heating. To determine the heat flux on the SSTO vehicle, current simulation focuses on the thermochemistry of the afterburning, thermophysical properties of the base region gas, and ensuing radiation from the gas. By extrapolating from the Saturn flight data, the Damkohler number for the afterburning of SSTO vehicle is estimated to be of the order of 10. The limitations on the material strengths limit the laboratory simulation of the flight Damkohler number as well as other flow parameters. A plan is presented in impulse facilities using miniature rocket engines which generate the simulated rocket plume by electric ally-heating a H2/CO2 mixture.

  10. Study on natural convection capability of liquid gallium for passive decay heat removal system (PDHRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Ha, K. S.; Lee, S. W.; Park, S. D.; Kim, S. M.; Seo, H.; Kim, J. H.; Bang, I. C.

    2012-07-01

    The safety issues of the SFRs are important due to the fact that it uses sodium as a nuclear coolant, reacting vigorously with water and air. For that reason, there are efforts to seek for alternative candidates of liquid metal coolants having excellent heat transfer property and to adopt improved safety features to the SFR concepts. This study considers gallium as alternative liquid metal coolant applicable to safety features in terms of chemical activity issue of the sodium and aims to experimentally investigate the natural convection capability of gallium as a feasibility study for the development of gallium-based passive safety features in SFRs. In this paper, the design and construction of the liquid gallium natural convection loop were carried out. The experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of liquid gallium resulting in heat removal {approx}2.53 kW were compared with existing correlations and they were much lower than the correlations. To comparison of the experimental data with computer code analysis, gallium property code was developed for employing MARS-LMR (Korea version of RELAP) based on liquid gallium as working fluid. (authors)

  11. Thioether-Based Fluorescent Covalent Organic Framework for Selective Detection and Facile Removal of Mercury(II).

    PubMed

    Ding, San-Yuan; Dong, Ming; Wang, Ya-Wen; Chen, Yan-Tao; Wang, Huai-Zhen; Su, Cheng-Yong; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-09

    Heavy metal ions are highly toxic and widely spread as environmental pollutants. New strategies are being developed to simultaneously detect and remove these toxic ions. Herein, we take the intrinsic advantage of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) and develop fluorescent COFs for sensing applications. As a proof-of-concept, a thioether-functionalized COF material, COF-LZU8, was "bottom-up" integrated with multifunctionality for the selective detection and facile removal of mercury(II): the π-conjugated framework as the signal transducer, the evenly and densely distributed thioether groups as the Hg(2+) receptor, the regular pores facilitating the real-time detection and mass transfer, together with the robust COF structure for recycle use. The excellent sensing performance of COF-LZU8 was achieved in terms of high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, easy visibility, and real-time response. Meanwhile, the efficient removal of Hg(2+) from water and the recycling of COF-LZU8 offers the possibility for practical applications. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and solid-state NMR investigations verified the strong and selective interaction between Hg(2+) and the thioether groups of COF-LZU8. This research not only demonstrates the utilization of fluorescent COFs for both sensing and removal of metal ions but also highlights the facile construction of functionalized COFs for environmental applications.

  12. In-situ surface debris inspection and removal system for upward-facing transport mirrors of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gourdin, W H; Dzenitis, E; Martin, D; Listiyo, K; Sherman, G; Kent, W; Butlin, R; Stolz, C J; Pryatel, J

    2004-11-10

    We describe a system to inspect and remove surface debris in-situ from the surfaces of upward-facing mirrors that transport 1053 nm laser light to the target chamber of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Grazing angle (2-5{sup o}) illumination with a bar light highlights debris {approx}10 {micro}m in size and larger, which is then viewed through windows in the enclosures of selected mirrors. Debris is removed with 1-second bursts of high velocity (76 m/s) clean air delivered across the optic surfaces by a commercially available linear nozzle (''gas knife''). Experiments with aluminum, stainless steel, glass and polystyrene particles of various sizes >30 {micro}m show that particle removal efficiency is near 100% over most of the mirror surfaces for all sizes tested.

  13. New methods to detect particle velocity and mass flux in arc-heated ablation/erosion facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brayton, D. B.; Bomar, B. W.; Seibel, B. L.; Elrod, P. D.

    1980-01-01

    Arc-heated flow facilities with injected particles are used to simulate the erosive and ablative/erosive environments encountered by spacecraft re-entry through fog, clouds, thermo-nuclear explosions, etc. Two newly developed particle diagnostic techniques used to calibrate these facilities are discussed. One technique measures particle velocity and is based on the detection of thermal radiation and/or chemiluminescence from the hot seed particles in a model ablation/erosion facility. The second technique measures a local particle rate, which is proportional to local particle mass flux, in a dust erosion facility by photodetecting and counting the interruptions of a focused laser beam by individual particles.

  14. Facile synthesis of light harvesting semiconductor bismuth oxychloride nano photo-catalysts for efficient removal of hazardous organic pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Seddigi, Zaki S.; Baig, Umair; Ahmed, Saleh A.; Abdulaziz, M. A.; Danish, Ekram Y.; Khaled, Mazen M.; Lais, Abul

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, bismuth oxychloride nanoparticles–a light harvesting semiconductor photocatalyst–were synthesized by a facile hydrolysis route, with sodium bismuthate and hydroxylammonium chloride as the precursor materials. The as-synthesized semiconductor photocatalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Photoluminescence spectroscopy techniques. The crystal structure, morphology, composition, and optical properties of these facile synthesized bismuth oxychloride nanoparticles (BiOCl NPs) were compared to those of traditional bismuth oxychloride. In addition, the photocatalytic performance of facile-synthesized BiOCl NPs and traditional BiOCl, as applied to the removal of hazardous organic dyes under visible light illumination, is thoroughly investigated. Our results reveal that facile-synthesized BiOCl NPs display strong UV-Vis light adsorption, improved charge carrier mobility and an inhibited rate of charge carrier recombination, when compared to traditional BiOCl. These enhancements result in an improved photocatalytic degradation rate of hazardous organic dyes under UV-Vis irradiance. For instance, the facile-synthesized BiOCl NPs attained 100% degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange dyes in approximately 30 mins under UV-Vis irradiation, against 55% degradation for traditional BiOCl under similar experimental conditions. PMID:28245225

  15. Facile synthesis of light harvesting semiconductor bismuth oxychloride nano photo-catalysts for efficient removal of hazardous organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Seddigi, Zaki S; Gondal, Mohammed A; Baig, Umair; Ahmed, Saleh A; Abdulaziz, M A; Danish, Ekram Y; Khaled, Mazen M; Lais, Abul

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, bismuth oxychloride nanoparticles-a light harvesting semiconductor photocatalyst-were synthesized by a facile hydrolysis route, with sodium bismuthate and hydroxylammonium chloride as the precursor materials. The as-synthesized semiconductor photocatalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Photoluminescence spectroscopy techniques. The crystal structure, morphology, composition, and optical properties of these facile synthesized bismuth oxychloride nanoparticles (BiOCl NPs) were compared to those of traditional bismuth oxychloride. In addition, the photocatalytic performance of facile-synthesized BiOCl NPs and traditional BiOCl, as applied to the removal of hazardous organic dyes under visible light illumination, is thoroughly investigated. Our results reveal that facile-synthesized BiOCl NPs display strong UV-Vis light adsorption, improved charge carrier mobility and an inhibited rate of charge carrier recombination, when compared to traditional BiOCl. These enhancements result in an improved photocatalytic degradation rate of hazardous organic dyes under UV-Vis irradiance. For instance, the facile-synthesized BiOCl NPs attained 100% degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange dyes in approximately 30 mins under UV-Vis irradiation, against 55% degradation for traditional BiOCl under similar experimental conditions.

  16. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrell, Dennis L.

    1993-01-01

    A shielded storage rack has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE's Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which processes and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGs. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford's MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford's calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  17. Removal of ethylene and bioaerosol by chlorine dioxide using a chemical scrubbing system in a fruit and vegetable storage facility.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tsu-Hua; Wu, Li-Chun; You, Ya-Ting; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2009-02-15

    Ethylene (C2H4) and bioaerosol are commonly present in the inside atmosphere of postharvest fruit and vegetable storage facilities, which may affect the aging of postharvest fruit and human health. We have assessed the feasibility of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as the scrubbing solution in a chemical scrubbing tower for simultaneously removing C2H4 and bioaerosol emissions from a gas stream. Parameters such as the ClO2concentration, contact time, and liquid-to-gas (L/G) ratio were examined with the aim of determining the optimal operating conditions. Using the system reported here, the optimal C2H4 removal efficiency was 99.5% when 500 ppm ClO2 was used at a reaction time of 30-60 s under a continuous non-recycle ClO2 flow mode. In terms of C2H4 removal, a greater L/G resulted in a higher C2H4 removal efficiency up to the optimal ratio of 12.5. In terms of the simultaneous removal of C2H4 and bioaerosol, the removal efficiency of C2H4 was 99.2% and those for the bioaersols of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were 99.92 and 99.10%, respectively, under a continuous non-recycle flow mode. Our results also indicate that oxidation reduction potential (ORP) can be a valuable indicator for the timing of the replacement of the scrubbing solution in the system under a continuous recycle flow mode. Additional confirmation of the feasibility of the ORP as an indicator of C2H4 and bioaerosol removal in situ was obtained in a 3-month test of our system in continuous recycle flow mode with the periodical replacement of scrubbing solution, ClO2. The removal efficiencies for C2H4, bacterial and fungus aerosol, and total hydrocarbon compounds (THC) were 83.4, 96.8, 96.1, and 76.5%, respectively. Our results prove that ClO2 is an excellent scrubbing solution in the chemical scrubbing tower for the removal of C2H4 emissions and bioaerosol. We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of this system in a fruit and vegetable storage facility.

  18. Thermal-hydraulic processes involved in loss of residual heat removal during reduced inventory operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, C.D.; McHugh, P.R.; Naff, S.A.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1991-02-01

    This paper identifies the topics needed to understand pressurized water reactor response to an extended loss of residual heat removal event during refueling and maintenance outages. By identifying the possible plant conditions and cooling methods that would be used for each cooling mode, the controlling thermal-hydraulic processes and phenomena were identified. Controlling processes and phenomena include: gravity drain, core water boil-off, and reflux cooling processes. Important subcategories of the reflux cooling processes include: the initiation of reflux cooling from various plant conditions, the effects of air on reflux cooling, core level depression effects, issues regarding the steam generator secondaries, and the special case of boiler-condenser cooling with once-through steam generators. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Initial operation of a solar heating and cooling system in a full-scale solar building test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, R. H.; Miao, D.; Hamlet, I. L.; Jensen, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Solar Building Test Facility (SBTF) located at Hampton, Virginia became operational in early summer of 1976. This facility is a joint effort by NASA-Lewis and NASA-Langley to advance the technology for heating and cooling of office buildings with solar energy. Its purposes are to (1) test system components which include high-performing collectors, (2) test performance of complete solar heating and cooling system, (3) investigate component interactions and (4) investigate durability, maintenance and reliability of components. The SBTF consists of a 50,000 square foot office building modified to accept solar heated water for operation of an absorption air conditioner and for the baseboard heating system. A 12,666 square foot solar collector field with a 30,000 gallon storage tank provides the solar heated water. A description of the system and the collectors selected is given here, along with the objectives, test approach, expected system performance and some preliminary results.

  20. Initial operation of a solar heating and cooling system in a full-scale solar building test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, R. H.; Miao, D.; Hamlet, I. L.; Jensen, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Solar Building Test Facility (SBTF) located at Hampton, Virginia became operational in early summer of 1976. This facility is a joint effort by NASA-Lewis and NASA-Langley to advance the technology for heating and cooling of office buildings with solar energy. Its purposes are to (1) test system components which include high-performing collectors, (2) test performance of complete solar heating and cooling system, (3) investigate component interactions and (4) investigate durability, maintenance and reliability of components. The SBTF consists of a 50,000 square foot office building modified to accept solar heated water for operation of an absorption air conditioner and for the baseboard heating system. A 12,666 square foot solar collector field with a 30,000 gallon storage tank provides the solar heated water. A description of the system and the collectors selected is given here, along with the objectives, test approach, expected system performance and some preliminary results.

  1. Optimization of residual heat removal pump axial thrust and axial bearing

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, F.

    1996-12-01

    The residual heat removal (RHR) pumps of German 1300 megawatt pressurized-water reactor (PWR) power plants are of the single stage end suction type with volute casing or with diffuser and forged circular casing. Due to the service conditions the pumps have to cover the full capacity range as well as a big variation in suction static pressure. This results in a big difference in the axial thrust that has to be borne by the axial bearing. Because these pumps are designed to operate without auxiliary systems (things that do not exist can not fail), they are equipped with antifriction bearings and sump oil lubrication. To minimize the heat production within the bearing casing, a number of PWR plants have pumps with combined axial/radial bearings of the ball type. Due to the fact that the maximum axial thrust caused by static pressure and hydrodynamic forces on the impeller is too big to be borne by that type of axial bearing, the impellers were designed to produce a hydrodynamic axial force that counteracts the static axial force. Thus, the resulting axial thrust may change direction when the static pressure varies.

  2. Thermophysiological responses induced by a body heat removal system with Peltier devices in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Suzurikawa, Jun; Fujimoto, Sho; Mikami, Kousei; Jonai, Hiroshi; Inoue, Takenobu

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injuries often experience thermoregulation disorders as well as sensory and motor disabilities. In order to prevent such individuals from becoming hyperthermic, we developed a body heat removal system (BHRS) with thermoelectric devices. Our BHRS comprises four Peltier devices mounted on a wheelchair backrest and continuously transfers body heat through the contacting interface to the external environment. Here, we characterized thermophysiological responses induced by this novel contact-type cooling system. A cooling experiment in a hot environment with five able-bodied subjects demonstrated that sweating and systolic blood pressure in the back-cooling (BC) trial were significantly suppressed compared with those in no-cooling (NC) trial, while no difference was found in oral and skin temperatures. A correlation was observed between chest skin temperature and blood flow in the NC trial; this was not observed in the BC trial. These results suggest that BHRS modulates normal thermoregulatory responses, including sweating and vascular dilation and has the capability to partly replace these functions.

  3. Facile and Scalable Preparation of Graphene Oxide-Based Magnetic Hybrids for Fast and Highly Efficient Removal of Organic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Tifeng; Liu, Yazhou; Wu, Yitian; Zhang, Qingrui; Yan, Xuehai; Gao, Faming; Bauer, Adam J. P.; Liu, Jianzhao; Zeng, Tingying; Li, Bingbing

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the facile preparation and the dye removal efficiency of nanohybrids composed of graphene oxide (GO) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles with various geometrical structures. In comparison to previously reported GO/Fe3O4 composites prepared through the one-pot, in situ deposition of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, the GO/Fe3O4 nanohybrids reported here were obtained by taking advantage of the physical affinities between sulfonated GO and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which allows tuning the dimensions and geometries of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in order to decrease their contact area with GO, while still maintaining the magnetic properties of the nanohybrids for easy separation and adsorbent recycling. Both the as-prepared and regenerated nanohybrids demonstrate a nearly 100% removal rate for methylene blue and an impressively high removal rate for Rhodamine B. This study provides new insights into the facile and controllable industrial scale fabrication of safe and highly efficient GO-based adsorbents for dye or other organic pollutants in a wide range of environmental-related applications. PMID:26220847

  4. Implementation of remove monitoring in facilities under safeguards with unattended systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beddingfield, David H; Nordquist, Heather A; Umebayaashi, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring is being applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at nuclear facilities around the world. At the Monju Reactor in Japan we have designed, developed and implemented a remote monitoring approach that can serve as a model for applying remote monitoring to facilities that are already under full-scope safeguards using unattended instrumentation. Remote monitoring implementations have historically relied upon the use of specialized data collection hardware and system design features that integrate remote monitoring into the safeguards data collection system. The integration of remote monitoring and unattended data collection increases the complexity of safeguards data collection systems. This increase in complexity necessarily produces a corresponding reduction of system reliability compared to less-complex unattended monitoring systems. At the Monju facility we have implemented a remote monitoring system that is decoupled from the activity of safeguards data collection. In the completed system the function of remote data transfer is separated from the function of safeguards data collection. As such, a failure of the remote monitoring function cannot produce an associated loss of safeguards data, as is possible with integrated remote-monitoring implementations. Currently, all safeguards data from this facility is available to the IAEA on a 24/7 basis. This facility employs five radiation-based unattended systems, video surveillance and numerous optical seal systems. The implementation of remote monitoring at this facility, while increasing the complexity of the safeguards system, is designed to avoid any corresponding reduction in reliability of the safeguards data collection systems by having decoupled these functions. This design and implementation can serve as a model for implementation of remote monitoring at nuclear facilities that currently employ unattended safeguards systems.

  5. Thermal hydraulic design and decay heat removal of a solid target for a spallation neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, N.; Nio, D.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Mishima, K.; Kawai, M.; Furusaka, M.

    2005-08-01

    Thermal hydraulic design and thermal stress calculations were conducted for a water-cooled solid target irradiated by a MW-class proton beam for a spallation neutron source. Plate type and rod bundle type targets were examined. The thickness of the plate and the diameter of the rod were determined based on the maximum and the wall surface temperature. The thermal stress distributions were calculated by a finite element method (FEM). The neutronics performance of the target is roughly proportional to its average density. The averaged densities of the designed targets were calculated for tungsten plates, tantalum clad tungsten plates, tungsten rods sheathed by tantalum and Zircaloy and they were compared with mercury density. It was shown that the averaged density was highest for the tungsten plates and was high for the tantalum cladding tungsten plates, the tungsten rods sheathed by tantalum and Zircaloy in order. They were higher than or equal to that of mercury for the 1 2 MW proton beams. Tungsten target without the cladding or the sheath is not practical due to corrosion by water under irradiation condition. Therefore, the tantalum cladding tungsten plate already made successfully by HIP and the sheathed tungsten rod are the candidate of high performance solid targets. The decay heat of each target was calculated. It was low enough low compared to that of ISIS for the target without tantalum but was about four times as high as that of ISIS when the thickness of the tantalum cladding was 0.5 mm. Heat removal methods of the decay heat with tantalum were examined. It was shown that a special cooling system was required for the target exchange when tantalum was used for the target. It was concluded that the tungsten rod target sheathed with stainless steel or Zircaloy was the most reliable from the safety considerations and had similar neutronics performance to that of mercury.

  6. Thermal Testing of Ablators in the NASA Johnson Space Center Radiant Heat Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Papa, Steven; Milhoan, Jim; Remark, Brian; Suess, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    A spacecraft's thermal protection system (TPS) is required to survive the harsh environment experienced during reentry. Accurate thermal modeling of the TPS is required to since uncertainties in the thermal response result in higher design margins and an increase in mass. The Radiant Heat Test Facility (RHTF) located at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) replicates the reentry temperatures and pressures on system level full scale TPS test models for the validation of thermal math models. Reusable TPS, i.e. tile or reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC), have been the primary materials tested in the past. However, current capsule designs for MPCV and commercial programs have required the use of an ablator TPS. The RHTF has successfully completed a pathfinder program on avcoat ablator material to demonstrate the feasibility of ablator testing. The test results and corresponding ablation analysis results are presented in this paper.

  7. A ternary TiO2/WO3/graphene nanocomposite adsorbent: facile preparation and efficient removal of Rhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-qiang; Li, Xiao-hui; Lü, Jie; Si, Chong-dian; Liu, Guang-jun; Gao, Hong-tao; Wang, Pi-bo

    2014-08-01

    Ternary TiO2/WO3/graphene (TWG) nanocomposites were prepared by a facile salt-ultrasonic assisted hydrothermal method. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. Both anatase TiO2 and orthorhombic WO3 formed in the nanocomposites, along with a highly disordered overlay of individual graphene nanosheets. Polyhedral and spherical TiO2 and WO3 nanoparticles of uniform size 10-30 nm were densely anchored to the graphene sheets. The maximum specific surface area of the products was 144.59 m2·g-1. The products showed clear abilities for the removal of Rhodamine B in the absence of illumination. Furthermore, the adsorption activity of the products exhibited only a slight decrease after three successive cycles. The results demonstrate that the ternary nanocomposites could be used as a high-efficiency adsorbent for the removal of environmental contaminants.

  8. Facile synthesis of graphene nano zero-valent iron composites and their efficient removal of trichloronitromethane from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haifeng; Cao, Yu; Wei, Enze; Gong, Tingting; Xian, Qiming

    2016-03-01

    Halonitromethanes (HNMs), as an emerging class of disinfection by-products containing nitrogen (N-DBPs) in drinking water, have possessed public health concerns. Two most studied materials, graphene and nanometer-sized zero-valent iron, have been successfully combined into binary nanocomposites (G-nZVI) via facile carbonization and calcinations of glucose and ferric chloride, which was used in the removal of HNMs from drinking water in this study. When the Fe/C mass ratio was 1:5, the as-prepared G-nZVI hybrids comprised numerous dispersed Fe(0) nanoparticles with a range of 5-10 nm in diameter. Batch experimental results indicated that the as-prepared G-nZVI could effectively remove trichloronitromethane (TCNM), a dominant in the group of HNMs from drinking water. About 99% of initial TCNM could be adsorbed and degraded under 60 mg/L G-nZVI dosage within 120 min. Kinetic studies indicated that the removal of TCNM by G-nZVI followed a pseudo first order rate (R(2) > 0.9). The degradation pathways of TCNM by G-nZVI nanocomposites might include dechlorination and denitration of TCNM. The Fe was in the form of iron oxides in the graphene material shape which was then restored to Fe(0) again via calcinations. These results indicated that the synthesized G-nZVI nanocomposites could be a powerful material to remove HNMs from drinking water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Thrust Removal Scheme for the FAST-MAC Circulation Control Model Tested in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, David T.; Milholen, William E., II; Jones, Gregory S.; Goodliff, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    A second wind tunnel test of the FAST-MAC circulation control semi-span model was recently completed in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The model allowed independent control of four circulation control plenums producing a high momentum jet from a blowing slot near the wing trailing edge that was directed over a 15% chord simple-hinged flap. The model was configured for transonic testing of the cruise configuration with 0deg flap deflection to determine the potential for drag reduction with the circulation control blowing. Encouraging results from analysis of wing surface pressures suggested that the circulation control blowing was effective in reducing the transonic drag on the configuration, however this could not be quantified until the thrust generated by the blowing slot was correctly removed from the force and moment balance data. This paper will present the thrust removal methodology used for the FAST-MAC circulation control model and describe the experimental measurements and techniques used to develop the methodology. A discussion on the impact to the force and moment data as a result of removing the thrust from the blowing slot will also be presented for the cruise configuration, where at some Mach and Reynolds number conditions, the thrust-removed corrected data showed that a drag reduction was realized as a consequence of the blowing.

  10. Facile synthesis of copper(II)-decorated magnetic particles for selective removal of hemoglobin from blood samples.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chun; Ma, Xiangdong; Yao, Xin; Jia, Li

    2015-12-11

    In this report, the Cu(2+)-immobilized magnetic particles were prepared by a facile route and they were used as adsorbents for removal of high abundance of hemoglobin in blood based on immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid modified magnetic particles (EDTA-Fe3O4) were first synthesized through a one-pot solvothermal method and then charged with copper ions. The as-prepared Cu(2+)-EDTA-Fe3O4 particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry and zeta potential. Factors affecting the adsorption of bovine hemoglobin on Cu(2+)-EDTA-Fe3O4 particles (including contact time, solution pH, ionic strength and initial concentration of protein) were investigated. The adsorption process followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the adsorption equilibrium could be achieved in 60min. The adsorption isotherm data could be well described by a Langmuir model and the maximum adsorption capacity was 1250mgg(-1). The as-prepared particles showed high efficiency and excellent selectivity for removal of hemoglobin from bovine and human blood. The removal process integrated the selectivity of immobilized metal affinity chromatography and the convenience of magnetic separation. The results demonstrated that Cu(2+)-EDTA-Fe3O4 particles had potential application in removal of abundant histidine-rich proteins in biomedical diagnosis analysis.

  11. An evaluation of analog and numerical techniques for unsteady heat transfer measurement with thin-film gauges in transient facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, William K.; Rae, William J.; Woodward, Scott H.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of frequency response considerations in the use of thin-film gages for unsteady heat transfer measurements in transient facilities is considered, and methods for evaluating it are proposed. A departure frequency response function is introduced and illustrated by an existing analog circuit. A Fresnel integral temperature which possesses the essential features of the film temperature in transient facilities is introduced and is used to evaluate two numerical algorithms. Finally, criteria are proposed for the use of finite-difference algorithms for the calculation of the unsteady heat flux from a sampled temperature signal.

  12. Flow Property Measurement Using Laser-Induced Fluorescence in the NASA Ames Interaction Heating Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinstead, Jay Henderson; Porter, Barry J.; Carballo, Julio Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The spectroscopic diagnostic technique of two photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) of atomic species has been applied to single-point measurements of velocity and static temperature in the NASA Ames Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) arc jet. Excitation spectra of atomic oxygen and nitrogen were recorded while scanning a tunable dye laser over the absorption feature. Thirty excitation spectra were acquired during 8 arc jet runs at two facility operating conditions; the number of scans per run varied between 2 and 6. Curve fits to the spectra were analyzed to recover their Doppler shifts and widths, from which the flow velocities and static temperatures, respectively, were determined. An increase in the number of independent flow property pairs from each as-measured scan was obtained by extracting multiple lower-resolution scans. The larger population sample size enabled the mean property values and their uncertainties for each run to be characterized with greater confidence. The average plus or minus 2 sigma uncertainties in the mean velocities and temperatures for all 8 runs were plus or minus 1.4% and plus or minus 11%, respectively.

  13. Design of a Polar-Drive, Alpha-Heating Platform for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, T. J. B.; Marozas, J. A.; Delettrez, J. A.; McKenty, P. W.; Skupsky, S.; Cao, D.; Chenhall, J.; Moses, G.

    2014-10-01

    Polar drive (PD) allows one to conduct direct-drive-ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) while the facility is configured for x-ray drive. A PD-ignition design has previously been developed. A new, robust PD design has been developed with the goal of achieving alpha-heating and deuterium-tritium yields in excess of 1016 neutrons at the NIF with the final optics and direct-drive cryogenic target positioner intended for subsequent PD-ignition experiments. This design uses a higher fuel adiabat, which precludes scaling to ignition but results in greater stability and experimental control, minimizing fuel-shell mix during the deceleration phase of the implosion. The new design also incorporates the effects of cross-beam energy transfer and nonlocal electron transport. This platform will make it possible to test radiation-hydrodynamic codes in preparation for PD-ignition experiments. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  14. Facility for high heat flux testing of irradiated fusion materials and components using infrared plasma arc lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Kiggans, Jim; Harper, David C; Snead, Lance Lewis; Schaich, Charles Ross

    2014-01-01

    A new high-heat flux testing facility using water-wall stabilized high-power high-pressure argon Plasma Arc Lamps (PALs) has been developed for fusion applications. It can handle irradiated plasma facing component materials and mock-up divertor components. Two PALs currently available at ORNL can provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over a heated area of 9x12 and 1x10 cm2, respectively, which are fusion-prototypical steady state heat flux conditions. The facility will be described and the main differences between the photon-based high-heat flux testing facilities, such as PALs, and the e-beam and particle beam facilities more commonly used for fusion HHF testing are discussed. The components of the test chamber were designed to accommodate radiation safety and materials compatibility requirements posed by high-temperature exposure of low levels irradiated tungsten articles. Issues related to the operation and temperature measurements during testing are presented and discussed.

  15. The 0.040-scale space shuttle orbiter base heating model tests in the Lewis Research Center space power facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezelick, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Space shuttle base heating tests were conducted using a 0.040-scale model in the Plum Brook Space Power Facility of The NASA Lewis Research Center. The tests measured heat transfer rates, pressure distributions, and gas recovery temperatures on the orbiter vehicle 2A base configuration resulting from engine plume impingement. One hundred and sixty-eight hydrogen-oxygen engine firings were made at simulated flight altitudes ranging from 120,000 to 360,000 feet.

  16. Diagnostic development in precise opacity measurement of radiatively heated Al plasma on Shenguang II laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Yang, Jiamin; Zhang, Jiyan; Liu, Jinsong; Yuan, Xiao; Jin, Fengtao

    2009-04-01

    Simultaneous measurements of the self-emission spectrum, the backlighting source spectrum, and the transmission spectrum in one shot, which reduce the experimental uncertainties from shot-to-shot fluctuation, are essential for precise opacity experiments. In order to achieve precise absorption spectrum of Al plasmas, a special half sample sandwich target was designed and short backlighter was used to provide time- and space-resolving diagnostics on the Shenguang II high power laser facility. In the measurement, a cylindrical cavity with CH foam baffles was used to provide a clean x-ray radiation environment for sample heating. The x-ray source spectrum, the transmission spectrum, and the self-emission spectrum of the soft x-ray heated Al sample were recorded in one shot with a penta-erythritol tetrakis (hydroxymethy) methane C(CH2OH)4 (PET) crystal spectrometer by using the point-projection method. Experimental results have been compared with the calculation results of a detailed level accounting opacity code.

  17. Evaluation of the effectiveness of ceiling fans for reducing heating requirements in Army facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Many claims have been made for ceiling fans as energy-saving devices. Fans destratify the air in a building; that is, they reduce the temperature differences between floor and ceiling. Depending on outside conditions, this can reduce heat loss. To quantify the effectiveness of fans during the heating season, USA-CERL, funded through a Facilities Engineering Applications Program (formerly FTAT) project, collected vertical thermal stratification measurements in Army buildings that had been equipped with ceiling fans. The buildings were located at Fort Carson, CO and Fort McClellan, AL. By analyzing how much the key building temperatures (ceiling, floor, and mean indoor) changed when ceiling fans were used, the USA-CERL engineers estimated the energy savings associated with fans. The results showed that, in general, the buildings with the greatest initial stratification showed the greatest savings. In addition, the degree of thermal stratification was determined to be a linear function of outside air temperature. However, more research is needed to determine the relationship between stratification and building characteristics. Thus, the degree of stratification in a building and possible factors affecting it should be evaluated carefully before installing ceiling fans.

  18. Hydrodynamic response of solid target heated by heavy ion beams from future facility HIAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jieru; Zhao, Yongtao; Cheng, Rui; Xu, Zhongfeng; Xiao, Guoqing

    2017-09-01

    The hydrodynamic response of solid target heated by heavy ion beams at High Intensity Accelerator Facility (HIAF) project was simulated with 1-D computer code. The energy deposition was benchmarked by a 2-D program. The work serves to show the prospect of HIAF project for High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) study, and provide helpful information for the future experiments. Various target materials and schemes are used in the calculation. The results show that in the first phase of HIAF project, the available ion beam is already a powerful tool to generate HED matter with specially designed target, and the second phase of the project will extend the accessible state of matter a big step further. What's more, the hydrodynamic behavior of the target under direct heating indicates that the beam parameter design for HEDP research should come to a compromise, which means, for example, with higher intensity or smaller focal spot, the beam pulse length must be compressed short enough to avoid the target dispersal before the end of the pulse.

  19. Diagnostic development in precise opacity measurement of radiatively heated Al plasma on Shenguang II laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Yang; Yang Jiamin; Zhang Jiyan; Liu Jinsong; Yuan Xiao; Jin Fengtao

    2009-04-15

    Simultaneous measurements of the self-emission spectrum, the backlighting source spectrum, and the transmission spectrum in one shot, which reduce the experimental uncertainties from shot-to-shot fluctuation, are essential for precise opacity experiments. In order to achieve precise absorption spectrum of Al plasmas, a special half sample sandwich target was designed and short backlighter was used to provide time- and space-resolving diagnostics on the Shenguang II high power laser facility. In the measurement, a cylindrical cavity with CH foam baffles was used to provide a clean x-ray radiation environment for sample heating. The x-ray source spectrum, the transmission spectrum, and the self-emission spectrum of the soft x-ray heated Al sample were recorded in one shot with a penta-erythritol tetrakis (hydroxymethy) methane C(CH{sub 2}OH){sub 4} (PET) crystal spectrometer by using the point-projection method. Experimental results have been compared with the calculation results of a detailed level accounting opacity code.

  20. Initial high-power testing of the ATF (Advanced Toroidal Facility) ECH (electron cyclotron heating) system

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is a moderate aspect ratio torsatron that will utilize 53.2 GHz 200 kW Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) to produce nearly current-free target plasmas suitable for subsequent heating by strong neutral beam injection. The initial configuration of the ECH system from the gyrotron to ATF consists of an optical arc detector, three bellows, a waveguide mode analyzer, two TiO/sub 2/ mode absorbers, two 90/sup 0/ miter bends, two waveguide pumpouts, an insulating break, a gate valve, and miscellaneous straight waveguide sections feeding a launcher radiating in the TE/sub 02/ mode. Later, a focusing Vlasov launcher will be added to beam the ECH power to the saddle point in ATF magnetic geometry for optimum power deposition. The ECH system has several unique features; namely, the entire ECH system is evacuated, the ECH system is broadband, forward power is monitored by a newly developed waveguide mode analyzer, phase correcting miter bends will be employed, and the ECH system will be capable of operating short pulse to cw. Initial high-power tests show that the overall system efficiency is 87%. The waveguide mode analyzer shows that the gyrotron mode output consists of 13% TE/sub 01/, 82.6% TE/sub 02/, 2.5% TE/sub 03/, and 1.9% TE/sub 04/. 4 refs.

  1. Removal and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants in an urban stormwater bioretention facility.

    PubMed

    DiBlasi, Catherine J; Li, Houng; Davis, Allen P; Ghosh, Upal

    2009-01-15

    This research investigated the removal and fate of 16 USEPA priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from urban stormwater runoff through a bioretention cell. Bioretention is an infiltration/filtration practice containing a mixed layer of about 90 cm of soil, sand, and organic matter, planted with appropriate vegetation. Field water quality monitoring and bioretention media core analyses were performed. The results indicate that bioretention is a promising management practice to control runoff PAH pollutants. The PAH event mean concentration (EMC) reduction ranged from 31 to 99%, with a mean discharge EMC of 0.22 microg/L. The mass load decreased from a mean value of 0.0180 kg/ha yr to 0.0025 kg/ha yr, suggesting an average PAH mass load reduction of 87% to the discharging watershed. The most dominant PAH species monitored were fluoranthene and pyrene. Influent PAHs indicated strong affiliation with runoff total suspended solids (TSS). As such, PAH removal positively correlated with TSS removal. Low rainfall depth was associated with high influent PAH concentration and resulted in favorable PAH removal. Source investigation suggested that the PAHs measured in the monitored cell were from pyrogenic sources, likely resulting from vehicle combustion processes. Sealers used in parking lots and driveway coatings were also a possible source of PAHs. Media core analyses indicated that the intercepted PAH compounds transported only a few centimeters vertically in the soil media near the runoff entrance location, suggesting that a shallow cell design may be adequate for systems focusing on PAH removal.

  2. Facility for high-heat flux testing of irradiated fusion materials and components using infrared plasma arc lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Ohriner, Evan K.; Kiggans, Jim; Harper, David C.; Snead, Lance L.; Schaich, Charles R.

    2014-04-01

    A new high-heat flux testing (HHFT) facility using water-wall stabilized high-power high-pressure argon plasma arc lamps (PALs) has been developed for fusion applications. It can accommodate irradiated plasma facing component materials and sub-size mock-up divertor components. Two PALs currently available at Oak Ridge National Laboratory can provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW m-2, which are prototypic of fusion steady state heat flux conditions, over a heated area of 9 × 12 and 1 × 10 cm2, respectively. The use of PAL permits the heat source to be environmentally separated from the components of the test chamber, simplifying the design to accommodate safe testing of low-level irradiated articles and materials under high-heat flux. Issues related to the operation and temperature measurements during testing of tungsten samples are presented and discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of this photon-based HHFT facility are compared to existing e-beam and particle beam facilities used for similar purposes.

  3. The Chandra X-ray Observatory removed from its container in the Vertical Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Inside the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF), the overhead crane lifts Chandra X-ray Observatory completely out of its protective container. While in the VPF, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components; it will also be tested, fueled and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  4. The Chandra X-ray Observatory removed from its container in the Vertical Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Inside the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF), workers begin lifting the Chandra X-ray Observatory out of its protective container. While in the VPF, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components; it will also be tested, fueled and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  5. The Chandra X-ray Observatory removed from its container in the Vertical Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Inside the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF), the overhead crane lifts Chandra X-ray Observatory completely out of its protective container. While in the VPF, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components; it will also be tested, fueled and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  6. The Chandra X-ray Observatory removed from its container in the Vertical Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Inside the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF), workers begin lifting the Chandra X-ray Observatory out of its protective container. While in the VPF, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components; it will also be tested, fueled and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  7. ALARA plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) Tanks Contents Removal Project is to remove the liquid low-level waste from the five underground storage tanks located at OHF and transfer the resulting slurry to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks facility for treatment and disposal. Among the technical objectives for the OHF Project, there is a specific provision to maintain personnel exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) during each activity of the project and to protect human health and the environment. The estimated doses and anticipated conditions for accomplishing this project are such that an ALARA Plan is necessary to facilitate formal radiological review of the campaign. This ALARA Plan describes the operational steps necessary for accomplishing the job together with the associated radiological impacts and planned controls. Individual and collective dose estimates are also provided for the various tasks. Any significant changes to this plan (i.e., planned exposures that are greater than 10% of original dose estimates) will require formal revision and concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page. Deviations from this plan (i.e., work outside the scope covered by this plan) also require the preparation of a task-specific ALARA Review that will be amended to this plan with concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page.

  8. TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR ION-EXCHANGE WASTE REMOVAL PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2010-07-12

    The small column ion exchange (SCIX) process treats low curie salt (LCS) waste before feeding it to the saltstone facility to be made into grout. Through this process, radioactive cesium from the salt solution is absorbed into the CST bed. A CST column loaded with radioactive cesium will generate significant heat from radiolytic decay. If engineering designs of the CST sorption column can not handle this thermal load, hot spots may develop locally within the column and degrade the performance of the ion-exchange process. The CST starts to degrade at about 80 to 85 C, and the CST completely changes to another material above 120 C. In addition, the process solution will boil around 130 C. If the column boiled dry, the sorbent could plug the column and require replacement of the column module. The objective of the present work is to compute temperature distributions across the column as a function of transit time after the initiation of accidents when there is loss of the salt solution flow in the CST column under abnormal conditions of the process operations. In this situation, the customer requested that the calculations should be conservative in that the model results would show the maximum centerline temperatures achievable by the CST design configurations. The thermal analysis results will be used to evaluate the fluid temperature distributions and the process component temperatures within the ion exchange system. This information will also assist in the system design and maintenance.

  9. Hot particulate removal and desulfurization results from the METC integrated gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rockey, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is conducting experimental testing using a 10-inch diameter fluid-bed gasifier (FBG) and modular hot gas cleanup rig (MGCR) to develop advanced methods for removing contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas streams for commercial development of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The program focus is on hot gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The purpose of this poster is to present the program objectives and results of the work conducted in cooperation with industrial users and vendors to meet the vision for IGCC of reducing the capital cost per kilowatt to $1050 and increasing the plant efficiency to 52% by the year 2010.

  10. Efficient removal of antibiotics in a fluidized bed reactor by facile fabricated magnetic powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianqing; Yang, Qunfeng; Xu, Dongmei; Zeng, Xiaomei; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

    2017-02-01

    Powdered activated carbons (PACs) with micrometer size are showing great potential for enabling and improving technologies in water treatment. The critical problem in achieving practical application of PAC involves simple, effective fabrication of magnetic PAC and the design of a feasible reactor that can remove pollutants and recover the adsorbent efficiently. Herein, we show that such materials can be fabricated by the combination of PAC and magnetic Fe3O4 with chitosan-Fe hydrogel through a simple co-precipitation method. According to the characterization results, CS-Fe/Fe3O4/PAC with different micrometers in size exhibited excellent magnetic properties. The adsorption of tetracycline was fast and efficient, and 99.9% removal was achieved in 30 min. It also possesses good usability and stability to co-existing ions, organics, and different pH values due to its dispersive interaction nature. Finally, the prepared CS-Fe/Fe3O4/PAC also performed well in the fluidized bed reactor with electromagnetic separation function. It could be easily separated by applying a magnetic field and was effectively in situ regenerated, indicating a potential of practical application for the removal of pollutants from water.

  11. Experimental investigations on active cooling thermal protection structure of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustor in arc heated facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianqiang, Tu; Jinlong, Peng; Xianning, Yang; Lianzhong, Chen

    2016-10-01

    The active cooling thermal protection technology is the efficient method to resolve the long-duration work and reusable problems of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustor, where worst thermo-mechanical loads occur. The fuel is passed through coolant channels adjacent to the heated surfaces to absorb heat from the heating exchanger panels, prior to injection into the combustor. The heating exchanger both cooled down the wall temperature of the combustor wall and heats and cracks the hydrocarbon fuel inside the panel to permit an easier combustion and satisfying combustion efficiency. The subscale active cooling metallic panels, with dimensions of 100×100 mm and different coolant channel sizes, have been tested under typical combustion thermal environment produced by arc heated Turbulent Flow Duct (TFD). The heat exchange ability of different coolant channel sizes has been obtained. The big-scale active cooling metallic panel, with dimensions of 100 × 750 mm and the coolant channel sizes of better heating exchange performance, has been made and tested in the big-scale arc heated TFD facility. The test results show that the local superheated ablation is easy to happen for the cooling fuel assigned asymmetrically in the bigscale active cooling metallic panel, and the cooling fuel rate can reduce 8%˜10% after spraying the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) in the heating surface.

  12. Thermalhydraulic aspects of decay heat removal by natural circulation in fast reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, C.M.; Hetsroni, G.; Banerjee, S.

    1990-01-01

    Natural convection in enclosures have been studied numerically to provide insight into the scaling laws existing for removal of decay heat in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFR). Specifically, 3-D simulations have been carried out for natural circulation in a cylinder with small aspect ratio (of the order of 0.5). These results have been compared to the results of an experiment conducted by UCSB, in collaboration with GE, to provide benchmark data for code validation. Parametric studies have been conducted to establish the validity of a 3-D Finite difference code that uses body-fitted grids for simulations of complex geometries. Further, numerical simulations have been carried out to demonstrate the importance of 3-D computer codes as tools in the design and scale-up of prototype LMFRs. It has been shown that the geometry of the passive safety systems is key to safe operation of LMFRs under shutdown conditions. The key phenomena that occur in such situations have bee studied and the available experimental studies have been identified. The future direction for modeling of natural convection recirculating flows in confined enclosures has been proposed. 31 refs.

  13. Thermalhydraulic aspects of decay heat removal by natural circulation in fast reactor systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, C.M.; Hetsroni, G.; Banerjee, S.

    1990-12-31

    Natural convection in enclosures have been studied numerically to provide insight into the scaling laws existing for removal of decay heat in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFR). Specifically, 3-D simulations have been carried out for natural circulation in a cylinder with small aspect ratio (of the order of 0.5). These results have been compared to the results of an experiment conducted by UCSB, in collaboration with GE, to provide benchmark data for code validation. Parametric studies have been conducted to establish the validity of a 3-D Finite difference code that uses body-fitted grids for simulations of complex geometries. Further, numerical simulations have been carried out to demonstrate the importance of 3-D computer codes as tools in the design and scale-up of prototype LMFRs. It has been shown that the geometry of the passive safety systems is key to safe operation of LMFRs under shutdown conditions. The key phenomena that occur in such situations have bee studied and the available experimental studies have been identified. The future direction for modeling of natural convection recirculating flows in confined enclosures has been proposed. 31 refs.

  14. Improved reliability of residual heat removal capability in pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Tsong-Lun; Fitzpatrick, R.; Yoon, Won Hyo

    1987-01-01

    The work presented in this paper was performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in supporting Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) effort towards the resolution of Generic Issue 99 ''Reactor Coolant System (RCS)/Residual Heat Removal (RHR) Suction Line Interlocks on Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs).'' Operational experience of US PWRs indicates that numerous loss of RHR events have occurred during plant shutdown. Of particular significance is the loss of RHR suction due to the inadvertent closure of the RHR suction/isolation valves or an excess lowering of the water level in the reactor vessel. In the absence of prompt mitigative action by the operator, the core may become uncovered. Various design/operational changes have been proposed. The objective of this paper is to estimate the improvement in the RHR reliability and the risk reduction potential provided by those proposed RHR design/operational changes. The benefits of those changes are expressed in terms of the reduction in the frequency of loss-of-cooling events and the frequency of core damage.

  15. Graphene-enhanced thermal interface materials for heat removal from photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadah, M.; Gamalath, D.; Hernandez, E.; Balandin, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The increase in the temperature of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells affects negatively their power conversion efficiency and decreases their lifetime. The negative effects are particularly pronounced in concentrator solar cells. Therefore, it is crucial to limit the PV cell temperature by effectively removing the excess heat. Conventional thermal phase change materials (PCMs) and thermal interface materials (TIMs) do not possess the thermal conductivity values sufficient for thermal management of the next generation of PV cells. In this paper, we report the results of investigation of the increased efficiency of PV cells with the use of graphene-enhanced TIMs. Graphene reveals the highest values of the intrinsic thermal conductivity. It was also shown that the thermal conductivity of composites can be increased via utilization of graphene fillers. We prepared TIMs with up to 6% of graphene designed specifically for PV cell application. The solar cells were tested using the solar simulation module. It was found that the drop in the output voltage of the solar panel under two-sun concentrated illumination can be reduced from 19% to 6% when grapheneenhanced TIMs are used. The proposed method can recover up to 75% of the power loss in solar cells.

  16. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  17. ELF/VLF emissions generated in the ionosphere by heating facilities - a new tool for ionospheric and magnetospheric research

    SciTech Connect

    Kotik, D.S.

    1994-12-01

    A brief summary of ELF/VLF generation experiments using the SURA heating facility is presented. The possibilities of applications of the measured ionospherically generated low frequency signal parameters for diagnosing the physical phenomena in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere are discussed.

  18. Facile preparation of ion-imprinted composite film for selective electrochemical removal of nickel(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao; Zhang, Hao; Hao, Xiaogang; Guan, Guoqing; Abudula, Abuliti

    2014-06-25

    A facile unipolar pulse electropolymerization (UPEP) technique is successfully applied for the preparation of ion-imprinted composite film composed of ferricyanide-embedded conductive polypyrrole (FCN/PPy) for the selective electrochemical removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater. The imprinted heavy metal ions are found to be easily removed in situ from the growing film only by tactfully applying potential oscillation due to the unstable coordination of FCN to the imprinted ions. The obtained Ni(2+) ion-imprinted FCN/PPy composite film shows fast uptake/release ability for the removal of Ni(2+) ions from aqueous solution, and the adsorption equilibrium time is less than 50 s. The ion exchange capacity reaches 1.298 mmol g(-1) and retains 93.5% of its initial value even after 1000 uptake/release cycles. Separation factors of 6.3, 5.6, and 6.2 for Ni(2+)/Ca(2+), Ni(2+)/K(+), and Ni(2+)/Na(+), respectively, are obtained. These characteristics are attributed to the high identification capability of the ion-imprinted composite film for the target ions and the dual driving forces resulting from both PPy and FCN during the redox process. It is expected that the present method can be used for simple preparation of other ion-imprinted composite films for the separation and recovery of target heavy metal ions as well.

  19. Initial operation of a solar heating and cooling system in a full-scale solar building test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, R. H.; Miao, D.; Hamlet, I. L.; Jensen, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Solar Building Test Facility (SBTF) was constructed to advance the technology for heating and cooling of office buildings with solar energy. Its purposes are to (1) test system components which include high-performing collectors, (2) test the performance of a complete solar heating and cooling system, (3) investigate component interactions, and (4) investigate durability, maintenance and reliability of components. The SBTF consists of a 50,000 square foot office building modified to accept solar heated water for operation of an absorption air conditioner and for the baseboard heating system. A 12,666 square foot solar collector field with a 30,000 gallon storage tank provides the solar heated water. A description of the system and the collectors selected is printed along with the objectives, test approach, expected system performance, and some preliminary results.

  20. Development of a tritium recovery system from CANDU tritium removal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Draghia, M.; Pasca, G.; Porcariu, F.

    2015-03-15

    The main purpose of the Tritium Recovery System (TRS) is to reduce to a maximum possible extent the release of tritium from the facility following a tritium release in confinement boundaries and also to have provisions to recover both elemental and vapors tritium from the purging gases during maintenance and components replacement from various systems processing tritium. This work/paper proposes a configuration of Tritium Recovery System wherein elemental tritium and water vapors are recovered in a separated, parallel manner. The proposed TRS configuration is a combination of permeators, a platinum microreactor (MR) and a trickle bed reactor (TBR) and consists of two branches: one branch for elemental tritium recovery from tritiated deuterium gas and the second one for tritium recovery from streams containing a significant amount of water vapours but a low amount, below 5%, of tritiated gas. The two branches shall work in a complementary manner in such a way that the bleed stream from the permeators shall be further processed in the MR and TBR in view of achieving the required decontamination level. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed TRS in comparison with state of the art tritium recovery system from tritium processing facilities is also discussed. (authors)

  1. Removal of antibiotics from wastewater by sewage treatment facilities in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Gulkowska, A; Leung, H W; So, M K; Taniyasu, S; Yamashita, N; Yeung, Leo W Y; Richardson, Bruce J; Lei, A P; Giesy, J P; Lam, Paul K S

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of nine antibiotics [erythromycin-H(2)O (ERY-H(2)O); trimethoprim (TMP); tetracycline (TET); norfloxacin (NOR); penicillin G (PEN G); penicillin V (PEN V); cefalexin (CLX); cefotaxim (CTX); and cefazolin (CFZ)] were measured in influent and effluent samples from four sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Hong Kong as well as in influent samples from one STP in Shenzhen. Levels of PEN V and CFZ were below method detection limits in all of the samples analyzed. CLX concentrations were the highest in most of the Hong Kong samples, ranging from 670 to 2900 ng/L and 240 to 1800 ng/L in influent and effluent samples, respectively, but CLX was not detected in the samples from Shenzhen. Comparatively lower concentrations were observed for ERY-H(2)O (470-810 ng/L) and TET (96-1300 ng/L) in the influent samples from all STPs in Hong Kong. CTX was found to be the dominant antibiotic in the Shenzhen STP influents with a mean concentration of 1100 ng/L, but occurred at lower concentrations in Hong Kong sewage. These results likely reflect regional variations in the prescription and use patterns of antibiotics between Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Antibiotic removal efficiencies depended on their chemical properties and the wastewater treatment processes used. In general, relatively higher removal efficiencies were observed for NOR (5-78%) and TET (7-73%), which are readily adsorbed to particulate matter, while lower removal efficiencies were observed for ERY-H(2)O (9-19%), which is relatively persistent in the environment. Antibiotics were removed more efficiently at Hong Kong STPs employing secondary treatment processes compared with those using primary treatment only. Concentrations of NOR measured in effluents from STPs in Hong Kong were lower than the predicted no-effect concentration of 8000 ng/L determined in a previous study. Therefore, concentrations of antibiotics measured in this preliminary study would be unlikely to cause adverse effects on microorganisms used

  2. Comparison of efficacy of sodium hypochlorite with sodium perborate in removal of stains from heat-cured clear acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Mathai, Joseph Robin; Sholapurkar, Amar A; Raghu, Aparna; Shenoy, Revathi P; Mallya, H Madhukar; Pai, Keerthilatha M; D'Souza, Mariette

    2011-01-01

    Acrylic resin bases of removable dentures attract stains and odor-producing organic and inorganic deposits. The use of chemical denture cleanser soaks is the most popular method of denture cleansing. This study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of two different denture cleansers--sodium perborate (Clinsodent) and sodium hypochlorite (VI-Clean)--in removing tea, coffee, turmeric and tobacco (paan) stains from heat-cured clear acrylic resins. Distilled water was used as a control. Both Clinsodent and VI-Clean were found to be the least effective in removing coffee stains and best for removing turmeric stain. It is necessary that the dental professional be aware of these results to ensure that denture wearers know how to select the appropriate denture cleanser.

  3. AGHF, Helms removes a sample from the LMS-1 Spacelab core facility module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-07-09

    STS078-368-022 (20 June - 7 July 1996) --- Astronauts Susan J. Helms, payload commander, and Terence T. (Tom) Henricks, mission commander, prepare a sample cartridge containing semiconductor crystals for Spacelab research. The crystals were later placed in the Advanced Gradient Heating Furnace (AGHF) in the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS-1) Science Module. The AGHF is designed for directional solidification of the crystals in the sample cartridges. The microgravity of space allows the crystals to grow in a perfect state that can not be accomplished in Earth's gravity.

  4. Mercury removal at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's New Waste Calcining Facility

    SciTech Connect

    S. C. Ashworth

    2000-02-27

    Technologies were investigated to determine viable processes for removing mercury from the calciner (NWCF) offgas system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Technologies for gas phase and aqueous phase treatment were evaluated. The technologies determined are intended to meet EPA Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements under the Clean Air Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Currently, mercury accumulation in the calciner off-gas scrubbing system is transferred to the tank farm. These transfers lead to accumulation in the liquid heels of the tanks. The principal objective for aqueous phase mercury removal is heel mercury reduction. The system presents a challenge to traditional methods because of the presence of nitrogen oxides in the gas phase and high nitric acid in the aqueous scrubbing solution. Many old and new technologies were evaluated including sorbents and absorption in the gas phase and ion exchange, membranes/sorption, galvanic methods, and UV reduction in the aqueous phase. Process modifications and feed pre-treatment were also evaluated. Various properties of mercury and its compounds were summarized and speciation was predicted based on thermodynamics. Three systems (process modification, NOxidizer combustor, and electrochemical aqueous phase treatment) and additional technology testing were recommended.

  5. Mercury Removal at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's New Waste Calcining Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, Samuel Clay; Wood, R. A.; Taylor, D. D.; Sieme, D. D.

    2000-03-01

    Technologies were investigated to determine viable processes for removing mercury from the calciner (NWCF) offgas system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Technologies for gas phase and aqueous phase treatment were evaluated. The technologies determined are intended to meet EPA Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements under the Clean Air Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Currently, mercury accumulation in the calciner off-gas scrubbing system is transferred to the tank farm. These transfers lead to accumulation in the liquid heels of the tanks. The principal objective for aqueous phase mercury removal is heel mercury reduction. The system presents a challenge to traditional methods because of the presence of nitrogen oxides in the gas phase and high nitric acid in the aqueous scrubbing solution. Many old and new technologies were evaluated including sorbents and absorption in the gas phase and ion exchange, membranes/sorption, galvanic methods, and UV reduction in the aqueous phase. Process modifications and feed pre-treatment were also evaluated. Various properties of mercury and its compounds were summarized and speciation was predicted based on thermodynamics. Three systems (process modification, NOxidizer combustor, and electrochemical aqueous phase treatment) and additional technology testing were recommended.

  6. Experimental evaluation of a breadboard heat and product-water removal system for a space-power fuel cell designed with static water removal and evaporative cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, N. H.; Prokipius, P. R.

    1977-01-01

    A test program was conducted to evaluate the design of a heat and product-water removal system to be used with fuel cell having static water removal and evaporative cooling. The program, which was conducted on a breadboard version of the system, provided a general assessment of the design in terms of operational integrity and transient stability. This assessment showed that, on the whole, the concept appears to be inherently sound but that in refining this design, several facets will require additional study. These involve interactions between pressure regulators in the pumping loop that occur when they are not correctly matched and the question of whether an ejector is necessary in the system.

  7. Removing hydrogen sulfide from wastewater treatment facilities` air process streams with a biotrickling filter

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, R.L.; Caballero, R.C.

    1997-12-31

    Control of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and odor emissions has been a major consideration for many wastewater treatment plants. Many different methods have been and are currently being used for H{sub 2}S and odor control. Most of the current methods involve absorption of H{sub 2}S and odors into a liquid solution or adsorption onto a solid matrix. These methods are either expensive or if not operated correctly can be inefficient. The Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts have developed a biological method to remove odors and H{sub 2}S from different off-gas streams at its main wastewater treatment plant, the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant (JWPCP). This treatment method, which is known as a biotrickling filter, uses a packed contactor device in which the air to be treated is blown through the packing. The H{sub 2}S and odor is removed by a scrubbing solution containing bacteria that is trickled down from the top of the contactor. Different types of column packing media were tested, with a rock-based media being the most effective. The rock media allowed the biotrickling filter to get over 98 percent removal of inlet H{sub 2}S, as long as H{sub 2}S loadings did not exceed 39 g-H{sub 2}S/m{sup 3}-hr (1.1 g-H{sub 2}S/ft{sup 3}-hr). Odor panel analyses indicated that inlet odors were reduced by 99 percent by the biotrickling filter. Due to the success of the research work, a full scale biotrickling filter is being put into operation at the JWPCP. The unit will replace existing caustic scrubbers and will be much less expensive to operate. Current costs to operate a caustic scrubber at the JWPCP is about $1,150 per million m{sup 3} ($33.00 per million ft3) of air treated. The biotrickling filter operational costs would be about one-fifth or $240 per million m{sup 3} ($7.00 per million ft{sup 3}) of air treated.

  8. Removal of sulphur-containing odorants from fuel gases for fuel cell-based combined heat and power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wild, P. J.; Nyqvist, R. G.; de Bruijn, F. A.; Stobbe, E. R.

    Natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are important potential feedstocks for the production of hydrogen for fuel cell-based (e.g. proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) or solid oxide fuel Cells (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) applications. To prevent detrimental effects on the (electro)catalysts in fuel cell-based combined heat and power installations (FC-CHP), sulphur removal from the feedstock is mandatory. An experimental bench-marking study of adsorbents has identified several candidates for the removal of sulphur containing odorants at low temperature. Among these adsorbents a new material has been discovered that offers an economically attractive means to remove TetraHydroThiophene (THT), the main European odorant, from natural gas at ambient temperature. The material is environmentally benign, easy to use and possesses good activity (residual sulphur levels below 20 ppbv) and capacity for the common odorant THT in natural gas. When compared to state-of-the-art metal-promoted active carbon the new material has a THT uptake capacity that is up to 10 times larger, depending on temperature and pressure. Promoted versions of the new material have shown potential for the removal of THT at higher temperatures and/or for the removal of other odorants such as mercaptans from natural gas or from LPG.

  9. Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An expansion of medical data collection facilities was necessary to implement the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP). The primary objective of the EDOMP was to ensure the capability of crew members to reenter the Earth's atmosphere, land, and egress safely following a 16-day flight. Therefore, access to crew members as soon as possible after landing was crucial for most data collection activities. Also, with the advent of EDOMP, the quantity of investigations increased such that the landing day maximum data collection time increased accordingly from two hours to four hours. The preflight and postflight testing facilities at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) required only some additional testing equipment and minor modifications to the existing laboratories in order to fulfill EDOMP requirements. Necessary modifications at the landing sites were much more extensive.

  10. Synthesis and application of hydride silica composites for rapid and facile removal of aqueous mercury.

    PubMed

    Katok, Kseniia V; Whitby, Raymond L D; Fayon, Franck; Bonnamy, Sylvie; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V; Cundy, Andrew B

    2013-12-16

    The adsorption of ionic mercury(II) from aqueous solution on functionalized hydride silicon materials was investigated. The adsorbents were prepared by modification of mesoporous silica C-120 with triethoxysilane or by converting alkoxysilane into siloxanes by reaction with acetic acid. Mercury adsorption isotherms at 208C are reported, and maximum mercury loadings were determined by Langmuir fitting. Adsorbents exhibited efficient and rapid removal of ionic mercury from aqueous solution, with a maximum mercury loading of approximately 0.22 and 0.43 mmol of Hg g1 of silica C-120 and polyhedraloligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) xerogel, respectively. Adsorption efficiency remained almost constant from pH 2.7 to 7. These inexpensive adsorbents exhibiting rapid assembly, low pH sensitivity, and high reactivity and capacity, are potential candidates as effective materials for mercury decontamination in natural waters and industrial effluents.

  11. Design and performance of vacuum system for high heat flux test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy Kidambi, Rajamannar; Mokaria, Prakash; Khirwadkar, Samir; Belsare, Sunil; Khan, M. S.; Patel, Tushar; Krishnan, Deepu S.

    2017-04-01

    High heat flux test facility (HHFTF) at IPR is used for testing thermal performance of plasma facing materials or components. It consists of various subsystems like vacuum system, high power electron beam system, diagnostic and calibration system, data acquisition and control system and high pressure high temperature water circulation system. Vacuum system consists of large D-shaped chamber, target handling system, pumping systems and support structure. The net volume of vacuum chamber is 5 m3 was maintained at the base pressure of the order of 10-6 mbar for operation of electron gun with minimum beam diameter which is achieved with turbo-molecular pump (TMP) and cryo pump. A variable conductance gate valve is used for maintaining required vacuum in the chamber. Initial pumping of the chamber was carried out by using suitable rotary and root pumps. PXI and PLC based faster real time data acquisition and control system is implemented for performing the various operations like remote operation, online vacuum data measurements, display and status indication of all vacuum equipments. This paper describes in detail the design and implementation of various vacuum system for HHFTF.

  12. Stand alone computer system to aid the development of Mirror Fusion Test Facility rf heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) control system architecture requires the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) to communicate with a LSI-11 Local Control Computer (LCC) that in turn communicates via a fiber optic link to CAMAC based control hardware located near the machine. In many cases, the control hardware is very complex and requires a sizable development effort prior to being integrated into the overall MFTF-B system. One such effort was the development of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) system. It became clear that a stand alone computer system was needed to simulate the functions of SCDS. This paper describes the hardware and software necessary to implement the SCDS Simulation Computer (SSC). It consists of a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) LSI-11 computer and a Winchester/Floppy disk operating under the DEC RT-11 operating system. All application software for MFTF-B is programmed in PASCAL, which allowed us to adapt procedures originally written for SCDS to the SSC. This nearly identical software interface means that software written during the equipment development will be useful to the SCDS programmers in the integration phase.

  13. Sura heating facility transmissions to the CASSIOPE/e-POP satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, H. G.; Frolov, V. L.; Andreeva, E. S.; Padokhin, A. M.; Siefring, C. L.

    2017-02-01

    Throughout a nighttime pass of the CASSIOPE satellite at an altitude of about 1300 km above the Sura heating facility, transmission of O-mode radiation from Sura to the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) Radio Receiver Instrument on CASSIOPE was maintained. Also, during this pass, continuous VHF/UHF transmission from the e-POP Coherent Electromagnetic Radio Tomography radio beacon to three coordinated ground receivers in the Sura vicinity was achieved. Tomography of the VHF/UHF received wave data based on total electron content permitted the two-dimensional distribution of ionospheric ambient electron plasma frequency fpe to be determined in the latitude-altitude space between Sura and CASSIOPE. The foF2 values about 0.1 MHz above the Sura pump frequency of 4.3 MHz were measured by the tomography. We examine the question of whether the observations can be explained on the basis of classic propagation in a smooth ionosphere. Tracing of rays from Sura toward CASSIOPE orbital locations finds most rays reflected away from the topside by the patchy ionospheric structure in bottomside fpe. It is concluded that O-mode ducting in underdense field-aligned irregularities is responsible for maintaining the transionospheric transmission across the 2 min pass. O- to Z-mode "radio-window" conversion in the F region bottomside is not required to explain these data.

  14. Numerical simulation of the plasma thermal disturbances during ionospheric modification experiments at the SURA heating facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, Alexey; Huba, J. D.

    indent=1cm We present the results of numerical simulation of the near-Earth plasma disturbances produced by resonant heating of the ionospheric F-region by high-power HF radio emission from the SURA facility. The computational model is based on the modified version of the SAMI2 code (release 1.00). The model input parameters are appropriated to the conditions of the SURA-DEMETER experiment. In this work, we study the spatial structure and temporal characteristics of stimulated large-scale disturbances of the electron number density and temperature. It is shown that the stimulated disturbances are observed throughout the ionosphere. Disturbances are recorded both in the region below the pump wave reflection level and in the outer ionosphere (up to 3000 km). At the DEMETER altitude, an increase in the ion number density is stipulated by the oxygen ions O (+) , whereas the number density of lighter H (+) ions decreases. A typical time of the formation of large-scale plasma density disturbances in the outer ionosphere is 2-3 min. After the heater is turned off, the disturbances relaxation time is approximately 30 min. The simulation results are important for planning future promising experiments on the formation of ionospheric artificial density ducts. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 12-02-00747-a), and the Government of the Russian Federation (contract No. 14.B25.31.0008).

  15. Influence of condensation on heat flux and pressure measurements in a detonation-based short-duration facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, S.; Olivier, H.

    2017-10-01

    Detonation-based short-duration facilities provide hot gas with very high stagnation pressures and temperatures. Due to the short testing time, complex and expensive cooling techniques of the facility walls are not needed. Therefore, they are attractive for economical experimental investigations of high-enthalpy flows such as the flow in a rocket engine. However, cold walls can provoke condensation of the hot combustion gas at the walls. This has already been observed in detonation tubes close behind the detonation wave, resulting in a loss of tube performance. A potential influence of condensation at the wall on the experimental results, like wall heat fluxes and static pressures, has not been considered so far. Therefore, in this study the occurrence of condensation and its influence on local heat flux and pressure measurements has been investigated in the nozzle test section of a short-duration rocket-engine simulation facility. This facility provides hot water vapor with stagnation pressures up to 150 bar and stagnation temperatures up to 3800 K. A simple method has been developed to detect liquid water at the wall without direct optical access to the flow. It is shown experimentally and theoretically that condensation has a remarkable influence on local measurement values. The experimental results indicate that for the elimination of these influences the nozzle wall has to be heated to a certain temperature level, which exclusively depends on the local static pressure.

  16. Microbial indicators and pathogens: removal, relationships and predictive capabilities in water reclamation facilities.

    PubMed

    Costán-Longares, Ana; Montemayor, Michel; Payán, Andrey; Méndez, Javier; Jofre, Joan; Mujeriego, Rafael; Lucena, Francisco

    2008-11-01

    Four water reclamation facilities in north-eastern Spain were monitored over 2 years to determine the occurrence and concentrations of a set of microbial indicators (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, spores of sulphite reducing clostridia, somatic coliphages, F-specific RNA phages, phages infecting Bacteroides fragilis strain RYC2056 and phages infecting Bacteroides tethaiotaomicron strain GA-17), and two selected pathogens (cytopathogenic enteroviruses and viable Cryptosporidium oocysts). The indicator (survival) and index (presence) functions of the various indicators tested were evaluated through the wastewater treatments. The inactivation pattern of all groups of bacteriophages tested was closer to the inactivation of enteroviruses than to the inactivation of the conventional bacterial indicators tested. The inactivation of sulfite reducing clostridia spores and bacteriophages more closely approximates the reduction of viable Cryptosporidium than do the conventional bacterial indicators. We observed neither index functions nor a predictive relationship between any of microbial indicators and viable Cryptosporidium oocysts. In contrast, several regression models (r>0.6) and discriminant functions (67-88% well classified samples) based mostly on numbers of bacteriophages were able to predict both the presence and concentrations of enteroviruses. A combination of both bacterial and bacteriophage indicators seem to be the best choice for ensuring the microbial quality of reclaimed water.

  17. Dismantlement and removal of Old Hydrofracture Facility bulk storage bins and water tank, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF), located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solid storage, mixing, and grout injection facility. During its operation, OHF blended liquid low-level waste with grout and used a hydrofracture process to pump the waste into a deep low-permeable shale formation. Since the OHF Facility was taken out of service in 1980, the four bulk storage bins located adjacent to Building 7852 had deteriorated to the point that they were a serious safety hazard. The ORNL Surveillance and Maintenance Program requested and received permission from the US Department of Energy to dismantle the bins as a maintenance action and send the free-released metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. A 25,000-gal stainless steel water tank located at the OHF site was included in the scope. A fixed-price subcontract was signed with Allied Technology Group, Inc., to remove the four bulk storage bins and water tank to a staging area where certified Health Physics personnel could survey, segregate, package, and send the radiologically clean scrap metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. All radiologically contaminated metal and metal that could not be surveyed was packaged and staged for later disposal. Permissible personnel exposure limits were not exceeded, no injuries were incurred, and no health and safety violations occurred throughout the duration of the project. Upon completion of the dismantlement, the project had generated 53,660 lb of clean scrap metal (see Appendix D). This resulted in $3,410 of revenue generated and a cost avoidance of an estimated $100,000 in waste disposal fees.

  18. Characterization of the NASA Langley Arc Heated Scramjet Test Facility Using NO PLIF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, F. Gray, III; Narayanaswamy, Venkateswaran; Danehy, Paul M.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Bathel, Brett F.; Cabell, Karen F.; Hass, Neal E.; Capriotti, Diego P.; Drozda, Tomasz G.; Johansen, Criag T.

    2014-01-01

    The nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) imaging was used to characterize the air flow of the NASA Langley Arc Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF) configured with a Mach 6 nozzle. The arc raises the enthalpy of the test gas in AHSTF, producing nitric oxide. Nitric oxide persists as the temperature drops through the nozzle into the test section. NO PLIF was used to qualitatively visualize the flowfield at different experimental conditions, measure the temperature of the gas flow exiting the facility nozzle, and visualize the wave structure downstream of the nozzle at different operating conditions. Uniformity and repeatability of the nozzle flow were assessed. Expansion and compression waves on the free-jet shear layer as the nozzle flow expands into the test section were visualized. The main purpose of these experiments was to assess the uniformity of the NO in the freestream gas for planned experiments, in which NO PLIF will be used for qualitative fuel-mole-fraction sensitive imaging. The shot-to-shot fluctuations in the PLIF signal, caused by variations in the overall laser intensity as well as NO concentration and temperature variations in the flow was 20-25% of the mean signal, as determined by taking the standard deviation of a set of images obtained at constant conditions and dividing by the mean. The fluctuations within individual images, caused by laser sheet spatial variations as well as NO concentration and temperature variations in the flow, were about 28% of the mean in images, determined by taking standard deviation within individual images, dividing by the mean in the same image and averaged over the set of images. Applying an averaged laser sheet intensity correction reduced the within-image intensity fluctuations to about 10% suggesting that the NO concentration is uniform to within 10%. There was no significant difference in flow uniformity between the low and high enthalpy settings. While not strictly quantitative, the

  19. Geothermal heating retrofit at the Utah State Prison Minimum Security Facility. Final report, March 1979-January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This report is a summary of progress and results of the Utah State Prison Geothermal Space Heating Project. Initiated in 1978 by the Utah State Energy Office and developed with assistance from DOE's Division of Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies PON program, final construction was completed in 1984. The completed system provides space and water heating for the State Prison's Minimum Security Facility. It consists of an artesian flowing geothermal well, plate heat exchangers, and underground distribution pipeline that connects to the existing hydronic heating system in the State Prison's Minimum Security Facility. Geothermal water disposal consists of a gravity drain line carrying spent geothermal water to a cooling pond which discharges into the Jordan River, approximately one mile from the well site. The system has been in operation for two years with mixed results. Continuing operation and maintenance problems have reduced the expected seasonal operation from 9 months per year to 3 months. Problems with the Minimum Security heating system have reduced the expected energy contribution by approximately 60%. To date the system has saved the prison approximately $18,060. The total expenditure including resource assessment and development, design, construction, performance verification, and reporting is approximately $827,558.

  20. Results of tests of the SRB aft skirt heat shield curtain in the MSFC Hot Gas Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    During the first two space shuttle flights the aft skirt heat shield curtain performed well during ascent but failed during reentry. This exposed the inside of the skirt and its subsystems to reentry heating. The resulting exposure damaged various expensive systems items and therefore a curtain reassessment is required. As a part of this reassessment, tests were conducted in the MSFC Hot Gas Facility (HGF). The purposes of these tests were to determine if the curtain would fail in a manner similar to that in flight and to demonstrate that meaningful tests of the curtain can be conducted in the HGF.

  1. An analysis of water-to-air heat pump systems for use in government facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fretzs, R. G.

    1980-09-01

    Energy consumption is an important issue for government managers. Examined in this thesis is one source of potential energy savings: a method of heating and cooling buildings. Water-to-air heat pumps are analyzed and cost comparisons to conventional heating/cooling systems (gas, fuel oil, electric resistance, and air-to-air heat pumps) are made. The theory of heat pump technology is presented to show how water source heat pumps achieve improved efficiencies over conventional systems. Sources of and disposal of water to support the systems are discussed. Cost comparisons are presented based on computer simulations and fuel cost graphs. Twenty-one percent of U.S. energy consumption is used to heat and cool buildings. Water-to-air heat pumps provide a 30-50 percent savings over other systems. Therefore, a potential 10 percent savings in total energy consumption exists through the use of water source heat pumps.

  2. Coolability of stratified UO/sub 2/ debris in sodium with downward heat removal: The D13 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ottinger, C.A.; Mitchell, G.W.; Reed, A.W.; Meister, H.

    1987-03-01

    The LMFBR Debris Coolability Program at Sandia National Laboratories investigates the coolability of particle beds that may form following a severe accident involving core disassembly in a nuclear reactor. The D series experiments utilize fission heating of fully enriched UO/sub 2/ particles submerged in sodium to realistically simulate decay heating. The D13 experiment is the first in the series to study the effects of bottom cooling of stratified debris, which could be provided in an actual accident condition by structural materials onto which the debris might settle. Additionally, the D13 experiment was designed to achieve maximum temperatures in the debris approaching the melting point of UO/sub 2/. The experiment was operated for over 40 hours and investigated downward heat removal at specific powers of 0.22 to 2.58 W/g. Channeled dryout in the debris was achieved at powers from 0.94 to 2.58 W/g. Maximum temperatures approaching 2700/sup 0/C were attained. Bottom heat removal was up to 750 kW/m/sup 2/ as compared to 450 kW/m/sup 2/ in the D10 experiment.

  3. Evaluation of Cooling Conditions for a High Heat Flux Testing Facility Based on Plasma-Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Charry, Carlos H.; Abdel-khalik, Said I.; Yoda, Minami; Sabau, Adrian S.; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-07-31

    The new Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS) facility for fusion materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses an infrared plasma-arc lamp (PAL) to deliver incident heat fluxes as high as 27 MW/m2. The facility is being used to test irradiated plasma-facing component materials as part of the joint US-Japan PHENIX program. The irradiated samples are to be mounted on molybdenum sample holders attached to a water-cooled copper rod. Depending on the size and geometry of samples, several sample holders and copper rod configurations have been fabricated and tested. As a part of the effort to design sample holders compatible with the high heat flux (HHF) testing to be conducted at the IMTS facility, numerical simulations have been performed for two different water-cooled sample holder designs using the ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The primary objective of this work is to evaluate the cooling capability of different sample holder designs, i.e. to estimate their maximum allowable incident heat flux values. 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations are performed using the realizable k-ε turbulence model and the RPI nucleate boiling model within ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The results of the numerical model were compared against the experimental data for two sample holder designs tested in the IMTS facility. The model has been used to parametrically evaluate the effect of various operational parameters on the predicted temperature distributions. The results were used to identify the limiting parameter for safe operation of the two sample holders and the associated peak heat flux limits. The results of this investigation will help guide the development of new sample holder designs.

  4. Evaluation of Cooling Conditions for a High Heat Flux Testing Facility Based on Plasma-Arc Lamps

    DOE PAGES

    Charry, Carlos H.; Abdel-khalik, Said I.; Yoda, Minami; ...

    2015-07-31

    The new Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS) facility for fusion materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses an infrared plasma-arc lamp (PAL) to deliver incident heat fluxes as high as 27 MW/m2. The facility is being used to test irradiated plasma-facing component materials as part of the joint US-Japan PHENIX program. The irradiated samples are to be mounted on molybdenum sample holders attached to a water-cooled copper rod. Depending on the size and geometry of samples, several sample holders and copper rod configurations have been fabricated and tested. As a part of the effort to design sample holders compatiblemore » with the high heat flux (HHF) testing to be conducted at the IMTS facility, numerical simulations have been performed for two different water-cooled sample holder designs using the ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The primary objective of this work is to evaluate the cooling capability of different sample holder designs, i.e. to estimate their maximum allowable incident heat flux values. 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations are performed using the realizable k-ε turbulence model and the RPI nucleate boiling model within ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The results of the numerical model were compared against the experimental data for two sample holder designs tested in the IMTS facility. The model has been used to parametrically evaluate the effect of various operational parameters on the predicted temperature distributions. The results were used to identify the limiting parameter for safe operation of the two sample holders and the associated peak heat flux limits. The results of this investigation will help guide the development of new sample holder designs.« less

  5. The spectral forms of the stimulated electromagnetic emission near the 3-rd electron gyroharmonic at the SPEAR heating facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurik, Roman; Tereshchenko, Evgeny; Baddeley, Lisa

    The results of the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) observations of the final heating campaign with the SPEAR (Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar) heating facility are reported. The presented observations were carried out in November 2013 on the Spitsbergen archipelago. The SEE observations were undertaken using the Polar Geophysical Institute (PGI) HF-interferometer, situated about 30~km from SPEAR at the geophysical observatory in Barensburg. The HF interferometer was modified such that it was possible to measure the polarization parameters of the received signal. The observatory also contains additional diagnostic equipment, such as magnetometers and receiving station of the RTU PGI KSC RAS, which were also utilized during the campaign. As a result of the observations the spectral forms of steady-state stimulated electromagnetic emission were obtained when the SPEAR heating facility operate in the frequency range from 4.14 MHz to 4.26 MHz (about 0.1 off the electron gyro frequency) under the day-time conditions. Lisa Baddeley’s research is supported by the Research Council of Norway/CoE under contract 223252/F50. SPEAR is supported by the Norwegian Research Council (grant 191628). The authors acknowledge Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant No. 13-05-12005-OFI-M) for financial support and participants of the heating campaign.

  6. Strengthening Critical Infrastructure: Combined Heat and Power at Wastewater Treatment Facilities (Webinar) – November 15, 2011

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webinar provides information about CHP at wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs), including advantages and challenges, financial incentives and funding programs, and technical and economic potential.

  7. Experimental investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients in heated Al and Ge on the Iskra-5 laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenko, S V; Garanin, Sergey G; Zhidkov, N V; Pinegin, A V; Suslov, N A

    2012-01-31

    We set forth the data of experimental investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients in the 1.1 - 1.6 keV photon energy range for Al and Ge specimens bulk heated by soft X-ray radiation. Two experimental techniques are described: with the use of one facility channel and the heating of specimens by the X-ray radiation from a plane burnthrough target, as well as with the use of four channels and the heating by the radiation from two cylindrical targets with internal input of laser radiation. The X-ray radiation absorption coefficients were studied by way of transmission absorption spectroscopy using backlighting X-ray radiation from a point source. The results of investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients on the 1s - 2p transitions in Al atoms and the 2p - 3d transitions in Ge atoms are presented.

  8. Removal of milk fat globules from whey protein concentrate 34% to prepare clear and heat-stable protein dispersions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-10-01

    Whey protein concentrates (WPC) are low-cost protein ingredients, but their application in transparent ready-to-drink beverages is limited due to turbidity caused by fat globules and heat instability. In this work, fat globules were removed from WPC 34% (WPC-34) to prepare heat-stable ingredients via the Maillard reaction. The removal of fat globules by acid precipitation and centrifugation was observed to be the most complete at pH 4.0, and the loss of protein was caused by micrometer-sized fat globules and protein aggregates. Spray-dried powder prepared from the transparent supernatant was glycated at 130°C for 20 and 30min or 60°C for 24 and 48h. The 2 groups of samples had comparable heat stability and degree of glycation, evaluated by free amino content and analytical ultracentrifugation, but high-temperature, short-time treatment reduced the color formation during glycation. Therefore, WPC-34 can be processed for application in transparent beverages.

  9. A New Facility for Measurements of Three-Dimensional, Local Subcooled Flow Boiling Heat Flux and Related Critical Heat Flux for PFCs

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Ronald D. Sr.; Cofie, Penrose; Li Qingyuan; Ekhlassi, Ali A

    2002-01-15

    In the development of plasma-facing components for fusion reactors and high-heat-flux heat sinks (or components) for electronic applications, the components are usually subjected to a peripherally nonuniform heat flux. Even if the applied heat flux is uniform in the axial direction (which is unlikely), both intuition and recent investigations have clearly shown that both the local heat flux and the eventual critical heat flux (CHF) in this three-dimensional (3-D) case will differ significantly from similar quantities found in the voluminous body of data for uniformly heated flow channels. Although this latter case has been used in the past as an estimate for the former case, more study has become necessary to examine the 3-D temperature and heat flux distributions and related CHF. Work thus far has shown that the nonuniform peripheral heat flux condition enhances CHF in some cases.To avoid the excess costs associated with using electron or ion beams to produce the nonuniform heat flux, a new facility was developed that will allow 3-D conjugate heat transfer measurements and two-dimensional, local subcooled flow boiling heat flux and related CHF measurements.The configurations under study for this work consist of (a) a nonuniformly heated cylinder-like test section with a circular coolant channel bored through the center and (b) a monoblock that is a square cross-section parallelepiped with a circular drilled flow channel along the channel centerline. The theoretical or ideal cylinder-like test section would be a circular cylinder with half (-90 to 90 deg) of its outside boundary subjected to a uniform heat flux and the remaining half insulated. For the monoblock, a uniform heat flux is applied to one of the outside surfaces, and the remaining surfaces are insulated. The outside diameter of the cylinder-like test section is 30.0 mm, and its length is 200.0 mm. The monoblock square is 30.0 mm long. The inside diameter of the flow channel for both types of test

  10. Facile and fast removal of oil through porous carbon spheres derived from the fruit of Liquidambar formosana.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi; Liu, Shichang; Liu, Guozhen; Yao, Jianfeng

    2017-03-01

    Porous carbon spheres with a diameter of 1-2 cm were prepared via a simple carbonization of the fruit of Liquidambar formosana. After carbonization, the spherical structure and inner finger-like pores were maintained with high resistance to impact. Due to the porous structure and the hydrophobic nature, the carbonized fruit of Liquidambar formosana can float on the water surface and show a super-fast oil or organic solvent sorption ability (sorption saturation can be achieved within 1-2 min). Moreover, about 99% of adsorbed oil can be easily removed from spheres via organic solvent such as ethanol or hexane, which shows good recyclability of samples. In general, considering the low-cost and abundance of raw material collected from nature and the facile synthetic process (only by carbonization), the centimeter-sized porous spheres via the carbonization of fruit of Liquidambar formosana are very promising to be used for the application of oil or organic solvent spill cleanup. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preliminary engineering report waste area grouping 5, Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks content removal project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA is January 1, 1992. One objective of the FFA is to ensure that liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that are removed from service are evaluated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Five inactive LLLW tanks, designated T-1, T-2, T-3, T-4, and T-9, located at the Old Hydrofracture (OHF) Facility in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been evaluated and are now entering the remediation phase. As a precursor to final remediation, this project will remove the current liquid and sludge contents of each of the five tanks (System Requirements Document, Appendix A). It was concluded in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis [EE/CA] for the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks (DOE 1996) that sluicing and pumping the contaminated liquid and sludge from the five OHF tanks was the preferred removal action. Evaluation indicated that this alternative meets the removal action objective and can be effective, implementable, and cost-effective. Sluicing and removing the tank contents was selected because this action uses (1) applicable experience, (2) the latest information about technologies and techniques for removing the wastes from the tanks, and (3) activities that are currently acceptable for storage of transuranic (TRU) mixed waste.

  12. RVACS/RACS (reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system/reactor air cooling system) shutdown heat removal in a modular sized LMR (liquid metal reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F.E.; Wigeland, R.A.; Lo, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Shutdown heat removal by a RVACS for an unprotected loss of flow case in a modular sized LMR has been analyzed with the SASSYS-1 LMR systems analysis code. For this case it was assumed that all power was lost to the primary and intermediate sodium pumps, and feedwater flow to the steam generators was lost. The control rods failed to scram, but reactivity feedback shut down the power to decay heat levels. The only heat removal was by sodium natural circulation from the core to the vessel wall and by cooling of the vessel wall by radiation and air natural circulation in the Reactor Air Cooling System. The case was run until the system temperatures peaked when the decay heat power level dropped below the heat removal rate.

  13. EPA Honors 2015 Energy Star Combined Heat and Power Winners / Facilities in Maine, N.J., Texas recognized for emission reductions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is recognizing three facilities with the Energy Star Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Award for superior performance of their CHP systems. High-efficiency CHP technology reduces emissions of c

  14. Evaluation of Heat Transfer to the Implant-Bone Interface During Removal of Metal Copings Cemented onto Titanium Abutments.

    PubMed

    Cakan, Umut; Cakan, Murat; Delilbasi, Cagri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to measure the temperature increase due to heat transferred to the implant-bone interface when the abutment screw channel is accessed or a metal-ceramic crown is sectioned buccally with diamond or tungsten carbide bur using an air rotor, with or without irrigation. Cobalt-chromium copings were cemented onto straight titanium abutments. The temperature changes during removal of the copings were recorded over a period of 1 minute. The sectioning of coping with diamond bur and without water irrigation generated the highest temperature change at the cervical part of the implant. Both crown removal methods resulted in an increase in temperature at the implant-bone interface. However, this temperature change did not exceed 47°C, the potentially damaging threshold for bone reported in the literature.

  15. High vacuum indirectly-heated rotary kiln for the removal and recovery of mercury from air pollution control scrubber waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, G.G.; Aulbaugh, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    SepraDyne corporation (Denton, TX, US) has conducted pilot-scale treatability studies of dewatered acid plant blowdown sludge generated by a copper smelter using its recently patented high temperature and high vacuum indirectly-heated rotary retort technology. This unique rotary kiln is capable of operating at internal temperatures up to 850 C with an internal pressure of 50 torr and eliminates the use of sweep gas to transport volatile substances out of the retort. By removing non-condensables such as oxygen and nitrogen at relatively low temperatures and coupling the process with a temperature ramp-up program and low temperature condensation, virtually all of the retort off-gases produced during processing can be condensed for recovery. The combination of rotation, heat and vacuum produce the ideal environment for the rapid volatilization of virtually all organic compounds, water and low-to-moderate boiling point metals such as arsenic, cadmium and mercury.

  16. Comparison of Tobacco Host Cell Protein Removal Methods by Blanching Intact Plants or by Heat Treatment of Extracts.

    PubMed

    Buyel, Johannes F; Hubbuch, Jürgen; Fischer, Rainer

    2016-08-08

    Plants not only provide food, feed and raw materials for humans, but have also been developed as an economical production system for biopharmaceutical proteins, such as antibodies, vaccine candidates and enzymes. These must be purified from the plant biomass but chromatography steps are hindered by the high concentrations of host cell proteins (HCPs) in plant extracts. However, most HCPs irreversibly aggregate at temperatures above 60 °C facilitating subsequent purification of the target protein. Here, three methods are presented to achieve the heat precipitation of tobacco HCPs in either intact leaves or extracts. The blanching of intact leaves can easily be incorporated into existing processes but may have a negative impact on subsequent filtration steps. The opposite is true for heat precipitation of leaf extracts in a stirred vessel, which can improve the performance of downstream operations albeit with major changes in process equipment design, such as homogenizer geometry. Finally, a heat exchanger setup is well characterized in terms of heat transfer conditions and easy to scale, but cleaning can be difficult and there may be a negative impact on filter capacity. The design-of-experiments approach can be used to identify the most relevant process parameters affecting HCP removal and product recovery. This facilitates the application of each method in other expression platforms and the identification of the most suitable method for a given purification strategy.

  17. Heat removal from the simulation electrode of a high power log pulse ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiike, H.; Kondoh, U.; Morita, H.; Tanaka, S.

    1980-10-01

    The cooling of a target that simulated an electrode of the ion source operating in a megawatt regime was investigated. A copper disk with thin parallel cooling tubes were bombarded by hydrogen beams of 1A to 4A at 30 KeV for up to 7.6 s. The average heat loading to the target surface and to the cooling surface was as high as 220 W/sq cm and 570 W/sq cm, respectively. The temperature of the target was measured by thermocouples and found to be suppressed below 2000 C owing to an increase of heat transfer coefficient by subcool boiling of the cooling water. On the basis of this result, the extraction electrode of an ion source for JT-60 can be designed to withstand the operation exceeding 35 A at 75 KeV for 10 s from the heat transfer point of view.

  18. Heat-Transfer Characteristics of an Insulation with Function of Removing Moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Hiroaki; Okagaki, Osamu; Fukusako, Shoichiro

    Experiments have been performed to investigate the effect of air-flow rate in clearance between the insulation and the wall on the temperature distribution, moisture accumulation, and heat flux. Glass-wool, whose thickness is 100mm and whose density is 16kg/m3, is adopted as a testing material, and the heating surface of the glass-wool and cooled-wall temperature are 25 and -15°C, respectively. The clearance between surface of glass-wool and cooling walls is 20mm, and inlet air velocity ranges from 0.2 to 1.0m/s. A s a result of the present investigation, it is observed that an increase in both air velocity and cooled-wall temperature causes the decrease in moisture accumulation and heat flux within the glass-wool and that inlet air temperature become very important for evaluating performance of insulation.

  19. Application of an electron beam facility for heat transfer measurements in capillary tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, A. R.; Kramer, T.

    1977-01-01

    A unique method was developed for the determination of heat transfer coefficients for water flowing through capillary tubes using a rastered electron beam heater. Heat flux levels of 150 and 500 watts/sq cm were provided on the top surface of four square tubes. Temperature gradient along the tube length and mass flow rates versus pressure drop were measured.

  20. COMBINED ACTIVE/PASSIVE DECAY HEAT REMOVAL APPROACH FOR THE 24 MWt GAS-COOLED FAST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    CHENG,L.Y.; LUDEWIG, H.

    2007-06-01

    Decay heat removal at depressurized shutdown conditions has been regarded as one of the key areas where significant improvement in passive response was targeted for the GEN IV GFR over the GCFR designs of thirty years ago. It has been recognized that the poor heat transfer characteristics of gas coolant at lower pressures needed to be accommodated in the GEN IV design. The design envelope has therefore been extended to include a station blackout sequence simultaneous with a small break/leak. After an exploratory phase of scoping analysis in this project, together with CEA of France, it was decided that natural convection would be selected as the passive decay heat removal approach of preference. Furthermore, a double vessel/containment option, similar to the double vessel/guard vessel approach of the SFR, was selected as the means of design implementation to reduce the PRA risks of the depressurization accident. However additional calculations in conjunction with CEA showed that there was an economic penalty in terms of decay heat removal system heat exchanger size, elevation heights for thermal centers, and most of all in guard containment back pressure for complete reliance on natural convection only. The back pressure ranges complicated the design requirements for the guard containment. Recognizing that the definition of a loss-of-coolant-accident in the GFR is a misnomer, since gas coolant will always be present, and the availability of some driven blower would reduce fuel temperature transients significantly; it was decided instead to aim for a hybrid active/passive combination approach to the selected BDBA. Complete natural convection only would still be relied on for decay heat removal but only after the first twenty four hours after the initiation of the accident. During the first twenty four hour period an actively powered blower would be relied on to provide the emergency decay power removal. However the power requirements of the active blower

  1. 30 CFR 285.912 - After I remove a facility, cable, or pipeline, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Decommissioning Report § 285... facility were consistent with those in the approved decommissioning application. Compliance With an Approved Decommissioning Application ...

  2. Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W. J. ,

    2003-01-01

    In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

  3. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low-temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Roy; Mccreight, Craig; Brennan, Patrick J.

    1992-01-01

    The Low Temperature Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (HEPP) is a fairly complicated thermal control experiment that was designed to evaluate the performance of two different low temperature ethane heat pipes and a n-Heptane Phase Change Material (PCM) canister. A total of 388 days of continuous operation with an axially grooved aluminum fixed conductance heat pipe of axially grooved stainless steel heat pipe diode was demonstrated before the EDS batteries lost power. The inability of the HEPP's radiator to cool below 190 K in flight prevented freezing of the PCM and the opportunity to conduct transport tests with the heat pipes. Post flight tests showed that the heat pipes and the PCM are still functioning. This paper presents a summary of the flight data analysis for the HEPP and its related support systems. Pre and post-flight thermal vacuum tests results are presented for the HEPP thermal control system along with individual heat pipe performance and PCM behavior. Appropriate SIG related systems data will also be included along with a 'lessons learned' summary.

  4. Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities--Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Donald L.

    2001-03-01

    This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided.

  5. Investigations on natural circulation in reactor models and shutdown heat removal systems for LMFBRs (liquid metal fast breeder reactors)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, H.; Weinberg, D.; Marten, K. ); Ieda, Yoshiaki )

    1989-11-01

    For sodium-cooled pool-type reactors, studies have been undertaken to remove the decay heat by natural convection alone, as in the case of failure of all power supplies. For this purpose, four immersion coolers (ICs), two each installed at a 180-deg circumferential position with respect to the others, are arranged within the reactor tank. They are connected with natural-drift air coolers through independent intermediate circuits. The primary sodium in the tank as well as the secondary sodium in the intermediate loop circulate by natural convection. The general functioning of this passive shutdown decay heat removal (DHR) system is demonstrated in 1:20 and 1:5 scale test models using water as a simulant fluid for sodium. The model design is based on the thermohydraulics similarity criteria. In the RAMONA three-dimensional 1:20 scale model, experiments were carried out to clarify the steady-state in-vessel thermohydraulics for different parameter combinations (core power, radial power distribution across the core, DHR by 2 or 4 ICs in operation, above-core structure geometry and position, different IC designs). For all mentioned parameters, temperatures and their fluctuations were measured and used to indicate isotherms and lines of identical temperature fluctuations. The flow patterns were observed visually. The experiments were recalculated by an updated version of the single-phase three-dimensional thermohydraulics code COMMIX.

  6. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Roy; Mccreight, Craig; Brennan, Patrick J.

    1993-01-01

    The Low Temperature Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (HEPP) is a fairly complicated thermal control experiment that was designed to evaluate the performance of two different low temperature ethane heat pipes and a low-temperature (182 K) phase change material. A total of 390 days of continuous operation with an axially grooved aluminum fixed conductance heat pipe and an axially grooved stainless steel heat pipe diode was demonstrated before the data acquisition system's batteries lost power. Each heat pipe had approximately 1 watt applied throughout this period. The HEPP was not able to cool below 188.6 K during the mission. As a result, the preprogrammed transport test sequence which initiates when the PCM temperature drops below 180 K was never exercised, and transport tests with both pipes and the diode reverse mode test could not be run in flight. Also, because the melt temperature of the n-heptane PCM is 182 K, its freeze/thaw behavior could not be tested. Post-flight thermal vacuum tests and thermal analyses have indicated that there was an apparent error in the original thermal analyses that led to this unfortunate result. Post-flight tests have demonstrated that the performance of both heat pipes and the PCM has not changed since being fabricated more than 14 years ago. A summary of HEPP's flight data and post-flight test results are presented.

  7. D9 experiment: heat removal from stratified UO/sub 2/ debris

    SciTech Connect

    Ottinger, C A; Mitchell, G W; Lipinski, R J; Kelly, J E

    1985-04-01

    The D9 experiment investigated the coolability of a shallow (77 mm), stratified urania bed in sodium. The bed was fission heated in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories to simulate the effects of radioactive decay heating. It was the first stratified debris bed experiment to use an extended UO/sub 2/ particle size distribution (0.038 to 4.0 mm). Dryout occurred at powers ranging from 0.10 to 0.58 W/g, which was close to the incipient boiling power and before channels penetrated the subcooled zone in the bed, even with subcoolings as low as 80/sup 0/C. Channel penetration was observed after dryout began, but the bed became only moderately more coolable. All these observations agree with current models.

  8. The experimental facility and results of removal of SO 2 and NO x in flue gases by the electron beam process at SINR Academia Sinica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gen-Li, Li; Yougan, Wang; Busheng, Li; Mingjuan, Xu; Lanping, Yang; Fugen, Bao; Qi, Zhang; Zhongqun, Sheng; Xingsheng, Ma; Yibo, Huang; Zhoulei, Mei; Yunlong, Qian

    An experimental facility for electron beam treatment of simulating flue gas has been constructed at SINR Academia Sinica. The process for removal of SO 2 and NO x in flue gas was investigated. In particular, several important parameters, such as the irradiating dose absorbed, temperature of reaction and stoichiometry of ammonia, were studied. A by-product, a compound of ammonium sulphate and ammonium sulphate-nitrate, that can be used as agricultural fertilizer was checked and measured. The removals of SO 2 and NO x were 92 and 77.5%, respectively, with an absorbed irradiating dose of 17 kGy.

  9. Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) Removal from Fractured Rock using Thermal Conductive Heating (TCH)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    or karst . As control of water inflow may be problematic in fractured media and karst , and capture of contaminants may be difficult, effectiveness is...fractured media and karst , and capture of contaminants may be difficult, effectiveness is expected to be limited in these settings. If water inflow...conductive heating below the water table… As control of water inflow may be problematic in fractured media and karst , and capture of contaminants may be

  10. Removal of Pb(II) from water by the activated carbon modified by nitric acid under microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuheng; Zhang, Jiajun; Shen, Dekui; Xiao, Rui; Gu, Sai; Zhao, Ming; Liang, Junyu

    2016-02-01

    The rice husk based activated carbon (RH-AC) was treated by nitric acid under microwave heating, in order to improve its capability for the removal of heavy metal ions from water. The optimal conditions for the modification of RH-AC (M-RH-AC) were determined by means of orthogonal array experimental design, giving those as the concentration of nitric acid of 8mol/L, modification time of 15min, modification temperature of 130°C and microwave power of 800W. The characteristics of the M-RH-AC and RH-AC were examined by BET, XRD, Raman spectrum, pH titration, zeta potential, Boehm titration and FTIR analysis. The M-RH-AC has lower pore surface area, smaller crystallite, lower pHIEP and more oxygen-containing functional groups than the RH-AC. Removal capacity of Pb(II) ions by the M-RH-AC and RH-AC from water solution was estimated concerning the influence of contact time, pH value, and initial concentration. The equilibrium time of Pb(II) removal was found to be around 90min after modification process. Two kinetic models are adopted to describe the possible Pb(II) adsorption mechanism, finding that the adsorption rate of Pb(II) ions by the M-RH-AC is larger than that of RH-AC.

  11. D10 experiment: coolability of UO/sub 2/ debris in sodium with downward heat removal. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G.W.; Ottinger, C.A.; Meister, H.

    1984-12-01

    The LMFBR Debris Coolability Program at Sandia National Laboratories investigates the coolability of particle beds which may form following a severe accident involving core disassembly in a nuclear reactor. The D series experiments utilize fission heating of fully enriched UO/sub 2/ particles submerged in sodium to realistically simulate decay heating. The D10 experiment is the first in the series to study the effects of bottom cooling of the debris that could be provided in an actual accident condition by structural materials onto which the debris might settle. Additionally, the D10 experiment was designed to achieve maximum temperatures in the debris approaching the melting point of UO/sub 2/. The experiment was successfully operated for over 50 hours and investigated downward heat removal in a packed bed at specific powers of 0.16 to 0.58 W/g. Dryout in the debris was achieved at powers from 0.42 to 0.58 W/g. Channels were induced in the bed and channeled bed dryout was achieved at powers of 1.06 to 1.77 W/g. Maximum temperatures in excess of 2500/sup 0/C were attained.

  12. CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FOR THE D&D OF THE 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    HOPKINS, A.M.; MINETTE, M.J.; KLOS, D.B.

    2007-01-25

    This paper describes the unique challenges encountered and subsequent resolutions to accomplish the deactivation and decontamination of a plutonium ash contaminated building. The 232-Z Contaminated Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant was used to recover plutonium from process wastes such as rags, gloves, containers and other items by incinerating the items and dissolving the resulting ash. The incineration process resulted in a light-weight plutonium ash residue that was highly mobile in air. This light-weight ash coated the incinerator's process equipment, which included gloveboxes, blowers, filters, furnaces, ducts, and filter boxes. Significant airborne contamination (over 1 million derived air concentration hours [DAC]) was found in the scrubber cell of the facility. Over 1300 grams of plutonium held up in the process equipment and attached to the walls had to be removed, packaged and disposed. This ash had to be removed before demolition of the building could take place.

  13. RADIOLOGICAL CONTROLS FOR PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FROM 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINSHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    MINETTE, M.J.

    2007-05-30

    The 232-Z facility at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant operated as a plutonium scrap incinerator for 11 years. Its mission was to recover residual plutonium through incinerating and/or leaching contaminated wastes and scrap material. Equipment failures, as well as spills, resulted in the release of radionuclides and other contamination to the building, along with small amounts to external soil. Based on the potential threat posed by the residual plutonium, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued an Action Memorandum to demolish Building 232-2, Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERC1.A) Non-Time Critical Removal Action Memorandum for Removal of the 232-2 Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (04-AMCP-0486).

  14. Who benefits from removing user fees for facility-based delivery services? Evidence on socioeconomic differences from Ghana, Senegal and Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Britt; Harper, Sam; Kaufman, Jay S

    2015-06-01

    Coverage of skilled delivery care has been increasing across most low-income countries; however, it remains far from universal and is very unequally distributed according to socioeconomic position. In an effort to increase coverage of skilled delivery care and reduce socioeconomic inequalities, governments of several countries in sub-Saharan Africa have recently adopted policies that remove user fees for facility-based delivery services. There is little rigorous evidence of the impact of these policies and few studies have examined effects on socioeconomic inequalities. This study investigates the impact of recent delivery fee exemption policies in Ghana, Senegal, and Sierra Leone on socioeconomic differences in the use of facility-based delivery services. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from nine sub-Saharan African countries, we evaluated the user fee policy changes using a difference-in-differences approach that accounts for underlying common secular trends and time invariant differences among countries, and allows for differential effects of the policy by socioeconomic position. Removing user fees was consistent with meaningful increases in facility deliveries across all categories of household wealth and maternal education. We found little evidence of differential effects of removing user fees across quartiles of household wealth, with increases of 5.4 facility deliveries per hundred live births (95% CI: 2.1, 8.8) among women in the poorest quartile and 6.8 per hundred live births (95% CI: 4.0, 9.7) for women in the richest quartile. However, our results suggest that educated women benefited more from removing user fees compared to women with no education. For women with at least some secondary education, the estimated effect was 8.6 facility deliveries per hundred live births (95% CI: 5.4, 11.9), but only 4.6 per hundred live births (95% CI: 2.2, 7.0) for women with no education (heterogeneity p-value = 0.04). Thus, while removing fees at the point

  15. LDEF transverse flat plate heat pipe experiment /S1005/. [Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, G. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the Transverse Flat Plate Heat Pipe Experiment. A transverse flat plate heat pipe is a thermal control device that serves the dual function of temperature control and mounting base for electronic equipment. In its ultimate application, the pipe would be a lightweight structure member that could be configured in a platform or enclosure and provide temperature control for large space structures, flight experiments, equipment, etc. The objective of the LDEF flight experiment is to evaluate the zero-g performance of a number of transverse flat plate heat pipe modules. Performance will include: (1) the pipes transport capability, (2) temperature drop, and (3) ability to maintain temperature over varying duty cycles and environments. Performance degradation, if any, will be monitored over the length of the LDEF mission. This information is necessary if heat pipes are to be considered for system designs where they offer benefits not available with other thermal control techniques, such as minimum weight penalty, long-life heat pipe/structural members.

  16. Demonstration of a high heat removal CVD diamond substrate edge-cooled multichip module

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.; Andaleon, D.D.; Renzi, R.F.; Johnson, D.R.

    1994-05-01

    A single substrate intended for a 3-dimensional (3D) edge-cooled multichip module (MCM) has been built and thermally tested. The substrate, with dimensions 1.9 in. by 2 in., is mounted in a fluid cooled block at one end. To test this cooling architecture and verify the accuracy of thermal models, the authors constructed thermal test modules using alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum nitride (AlN), and CVD diamond substrate materials. Each module was populated with an array of 16 Sandia ATC03 test chips with resistive heaters and temperature sensing diode thermometers. Comparative measurements of the 3 substrates were made in which the top row of 4 die were heated at 5 W each for a total of 20 W. The maximum temperature differences between the heated die and the interface with the cold chuck, {delta}T{sub js}, were 24, 126, and 265{degrees}C for diamond, AIN and alumina, respectively. Measurements on the diamond thermal test module, uniformly heated at a total power of 40 W, gave a measured junction-to-sink temperature of {delta}T{sub js} = 18{degrees}C. This result indicates that the diamond edge-cooled substrate could dissipate a total power {approximately}200 W for a maximum {delta}T{sub js} {approximately}100{degrees}C. If multiple substrates were mounted in the fluid cooled block, spaced 0.075 in. apart, the volumetric power density would be about 880 W/in.

  17. Research and demonstration facilities for energy conservation and solar heating in the home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. O.; Godbey, L. C.; Davis, M. A.; Ezell, D. O.; Allen, W. H.

    1981-10-01

    The design, testing and evaluation of two prototype solar holes are discussed. The first prototype is a greenhouse-residence designed with 6-in. wall cavities (to increase insulation thickness), a 381 sq. ft. solar collector used primarily for space heating, and a greenhouse that was utilized as a solar collector for growing vegetables. The house does feature a domestic hot water preheating system and an electrical resistance back-up heating system. The second prototype is an earth-insulated house designed primarily to study the physical features of the house in relation to the soil around it and the thermal interaction between the soil and the house environment. This house features a high temperature air collector that is used for domestic water heating. A special effort was made to have adequate daylight in the solar-earth house. A special study was conducted on the geometric configuration of the rock storage and the methods of admitting air to the rock storage.

  18. High Heat Flux Interactions and Tritium Removal from Plasma Facing Components by a Scanning Laser

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile; A. Hassanein

    2002-01-28

    A new technique for studying high heat flux interactions with plasma facing components is presented. The beam from a continuous wave 300 W neodymium laser was focused to 80 W/mm2 and scanned at high speed over the surface of carbon tiles. These tiles were previously used in the TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] inner limiter and have a surface layer of amorphous hydrogenated carbon that was codeposited during plasma operations. Laser scanning released up to 84% of the codeposited tritium. The temperature rise of the codeposit on the tiles was significantly higher than that of the manufactured material. In one experiment, the codeposit surface temperature rose to 1,770 C while for the same conditions, the manufactured surface increased to only 1,080 C. The peak temperature did not follow the usual square-root dependence on heat pulse duration. Durations of order 100 ms resulted in brittle destruction and material loss from the surface, while a duration of approximately 10 ms showed minimal change. A digital microscope imaged the codeposit before, during, and after the interaction with the laser and revealed hot spots on a 100-micron scale. These results will be compared to analytic modeling and are relevant to the response of plasma facing components to disruptions and vertical displacement events (VDEs) in next-step magnetic fusion devices.

  19. Case study comparison of two pellet heating facilities in southeastern Alaska

    Treesearch

    David Nicholls; Allen Brackley; Robert Deering; Daniel Parrent; Brian Kleinhenz; Craig. Moore

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, wood-energy use in Alaska has grown dramatically. Since 2000, several dozen new wood-energy installations have been established, with numerous others in the design or construction phase. This case study report compares two wood-pellet heating systems in Juneau, Alaska. The Tlingit-Haida Regional Housing Authority, a native housing authority that...

  20. Geothermal potential for heating and cooling facilities, San Bernardino Valley College, San Bernardino, California

    SciTech Connect

    Gemeinhardt, M.A.; Tharaldson, L.C.

    1981-07-01

    The potential for converting to geothermal heating at the campus of San Bernardino Valley College is considered. Also considered is the possibility of using well water for water cooled condenser cooling of air conditioning equipment. To provide water supply a production well, water distribution system and an injection well would be installed for each system.

  1. Radiotomography and HF ray tracing of the artificially disturbed ionosphere above the Sura heating facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, E. S.; Frolov, V. L.; Kunitsyn, V. E.; Kryukovskii, A. S.; Lukin, D. S.; Nazarenko, M. O.; Padokhin, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    We present the results of the radiotomographic imaging of the artificial ionospheric disturbances obtained in the recent experiments on the modification of the midlatitude ionosphere by powerful HF radiowaves carried out at the Sura heater. Radio transmissions from low orbital PARUS beacon satellites recorded at the specially installed network of three receiving sites were used for the remote sensing of the heated ionosphere. We discuss the possibility to generate acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) with special regimes of ionospheric heating (with the square wave modulation of the effective radiated power at the frequency lower than or of the order of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency of the neutral atmosphere at ionospheric heights during several hours) and present radiotomographic images of the spatial structure of the disturbed volume of the ionosphere corresponding to the directivity pattern of the heater, as well as the spatial structure of the wave-like disturbances, which are possibly heating-induced AGWs, diverging from the heated area of the ionosphere. We also studied the HF propagation of the pumping wave through the reconstructed disturbed ionosphere above the Sura heater, showing the presence of heater-created, field-aligned irregularities that effectively serve as "artificial radio windows."

  2. Oil removal of spent hydrotreating catalyst CoMo/Al2O3 via a facile method with enhanced metal recovery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Shengming; Li, Zhen; Wang, Jianlong; Zhao, Zhongwei; Xu, Zhenghe

    2016-11-15

    Deoiling process is a key issue for recovering metal values from spent hydrotreating catalysts. The oils can be removed with organic solvents, but the industrialized application of this method is greatly hampered by the high cost and complex processes. Despite the roasting method is simple and low-cost, it generates hardest-to-recycle impurities (CoMoO4 or NiMoO4) and enormous toxic gases. In this study, a novel and facile approach to remove oils from the spent hydrotreating catalysts is developed. Firstly, surface properties of spent catalysts are characterized to reveal the possibility of oil removal. And then, oils are removed with water solution under the conditions of 90°C, 0.1wt% SDS, 2.0wt% NaOH and 10ml/gL/S ratio for 4h. Finally, thermal treatment and leaching tests are carried out to further explore the advantages of oil removal. The results show that no hardest-to-recycle impurity CoMoO4 is found in XPS spectra of thermally treated samples after deoiling and molybdenum is leached completely with sodium carbonate solution. It means that the proposed deoiling method can not only remove oils simply and without enormous harmful gases generating, but also avoid the generation of detrimental impurity and promote recycling of valuable metals from spent hydrotreating catalysts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chlorella sorokiniana UTEX 2805, a heat and intense, sunlight-tolerant microalga with potential for removing ammonium from wastewater.

    PubMed

    de-Bashan, Luz E; Trejo, Adan; Huss, Volker A R; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav

    2008-07-01

    In the summer of 2003, a microalga strain was isolated from a massive green microalgae bloom in wastewater stabilization ponds at the treatment facility of La Paz, B.C.S., Mexico. Prevailing environmental conditions were air temperatures over 40 degrees C, water temperature of 37 degrees C, and insolation of up to 2400 micromol m2 s(-1) at midday for several hours at the water surface for four months. The microalga was identified as Chlorella sorokiniana Shih. et Krauss, based on sequencing its entire 18S rRNA gene. In a controlled photo-bioreactor, this strain can grow to high population densities in synthetic wastewater at temperatures of 40-42 degrees C and light intensity of 2500 micromol m2 s(-1) for 5h daily and efficiently remove ammonium from the wastewater under these conditions better than under normal lower temperature (28 degrees C) and lower light intensity (60 micromol m2 s(-1)). When co-immobilized with the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense that promotes growth of microalgae, the population of microalga grew faster and removed even more ammonium. Under exposure to extreme growth conditions, the quantity of four photosynthetic pigments increased in the co-immobilized cultures. This strain of microalga has potential as a wastewater treatment agent under extreme conditions of temperature and light intensity.

  4. Conceptual design of a solar cogeneration facility industrial process heat, category A. Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, P.; Brzeczek, M.; Seilestad, H.; Silverman, C.; Yenetchi, G.

    1981-07-01

    The conceptual design of a central receiver solar cogeneration facility at a California oil field is described. The process of selecting the final cogeneration system configuration is described and the various system level and subsystem level tradeoff studies are presented, including the system configuration study, technology options, and system sizing. The facility is described, and the functional aspects, requirements operational characteristics, and performance are discussed. Capital and operating costs, safety, environmental, regulatory issues and potential limiting considerations for the design are included. Each subsystem is described in detail including a discussion of the functional requirements, design, operating characteristics performance estimates and a top level cost estimate. An economic assessment is performed to determine the near-term economic viability of the project and to examine the impact of variations in major economic parameters such as capital and operating and maintenance costs on economic viability. Two measures of economic viability used are levelized energy cost and net present value.

  5. A Field Investigation and Facility Review of Eight Modular Starved-Air Heat Recovery Incinerator Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    90,000 cfd (about 3.75 million Btu/hr) total on high-fire. FACILITY DESCRIPTION: The incinerator is housed in a metal building across the railroad...Equipment Baghouse neump \\Instrumentation & Feedr r-VlfControl Panel Overhead Conveyor for Classified Documents Receiving Area& Baling Equipment__ Bale...Flue gases are cleaned up in a baghouse before being vented. They have found that if ash falls on a stationary conveyor chain, the chain tends to "hang

  6. Thermal-hydraulic processes involved in loss of residual heat removal during reduced inventory operation. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, C.D.; McHugh, P.R.; Naff, S.A.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1991-02-01

    This paper identifies the topics needed to understand pressurized water reactor response to an extended loss of residual heat removal event during refueling and maintenance outages. By identifying the possible plant conditions and cooling methods that would be used for each cooling mode, the controlling thermal-hydraulic processes and phenomena were identified. Controlling processes and phenomena include: gravity drain, core water boil-off, and reflux cooling processes. Important subcategories of the reflux cooling processes include: the initiation of reflux cooling from various plant conditions, the effects of air on reflux cooling, core level depression effects, issues regarding the steam generator secondaries, and the special case of boiler-condenser cooling with once-through steam generators. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Thermal hydraulic performance testing of printed circuit heat exchangers in a high-temperature helium test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sai K. Mylavarapu; Xiaodong Sun; Richard E. Glosup; Richard N. Christensen; Michael W. Patterson

    2014-04-01

    In high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, such as a very high temperature reactor (VHTR), an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to a secondary fluid for electricity generation with an indirect power cycle and/or process heat applications. Currently, there is no proven high-temperature (750–800 °C or higher) compact heat exchanger technology for high-temperature reactor design concepts. In this study, printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE), a potential IHX concept for high-temperature applications, has been investigated for their heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics under high operating temperatures and pressures. Two PCHEs, each having 10 hot and 10 cold plates with 12 channels (semicircular cross-section) in each plate are fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and tested for their performance in a high-temperature helium test facility (HTHF). The PCHE inlet temperature and pressure were varied from 85 to 390 °C/1.0–2.7 MPa for the cold side and 208–790 °C/1.0–2.7 MPa for the hot side, respectively, while the mass flow rate of helium was varied from 15 to 49 kg/h. This range of mass flow rates corresponds to PCHE channel Reynolds numbers of 950 to 4100 for the cold side and 900 to 3900 for the hot side (corresponding to the laminar and laminar-to-turbulent transition flow regimes). The obtained experimental data have been analyzed for the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of the heat transfer surface of the PCHEs and compared with the available models and correlations in the literature. In addition, a numerical treatment of hydrodynamically developing and hydrodynamically fully-developed laminar flow through a semicircular duct is presented. Relations developed for determining the hydrodynamic entrance length in a semicircular duct and the friction factor (or pressure drop) in the hydrodynamic entry length region for laminar flow through a semicircular duct are given. Various

  8. Task-5 Heat Pipe Life Test Study; Facilities Upgrading and Maintenance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Aero Propulsion and Power Laboratory PLEASE RETURN TO: Wright Laboratory Air Force Systems Command BMO...Power Division Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate FOR THE COMMANDER William U. Borger (/ Chief, Aerospace...Power Division Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate IF YOUR ADDRESS HAS CHANGED, IF YOU WISH TO BE REMOVED FROM OUR MAIUNG LIST, OR IF THE ADDRESSEE IS

  9. Heat treatment of nuclear reactor pump part in integrated furnace facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    A flexible heat treating system is meeting strict work specifications while accommodating the production flow pattern requirements and floor space needs of Advanced Metal Treating, Inc., Butler, Wis. Modular design and appropriate furnace configurations allow realization of the most efficient heat treat processing and energy use in a relatively small production area. The totally-integrated system (Pacemaker--manufactured by Lindberg, A Unit of General Signal, Chicago) consists of an electric integral-quench furnace with companion draw furnaces, washer unit and a material transfer car. With its one-side, inout configuration, the furnace operates with a minimum of drawing and washing equipment. The integral-quench furnace has a work chamber dimension of 30 by 48 by 30 inches (76.2 x 122 x 76.2 cm). The firm has two of these units, plus three in-out draw furnaces, one washer, one transfer car and two endothermic gas generators.

  10. Geothermal-heating facilities for Carson Elementary School and Wind River Middle School

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    Carson Elementary School and Wind River Middle School are located in Carson, Washington, adjacent to the Wind River. Both schools are operated by the Stevenson-Carson School District. Carson Elementary, comprised of 49,000 square feet, was constructed in several phases beginning in 1951. The construction is variable, but is characterized by large expanses of single glass and uninsulated masonry areas. An oil fired steam boiler supplies a variety of terminal equipment. Wind River Middle School was built in 1972 and, as a result, exhibits much greater insulation levels. The 38,000 square foot structure is heated entirely by an electric resistance terminal reheat system. Carson Hot Springs Resort, located approximately one half mile from the schools, exhibits temperatures of 124/sup 0/F. In addition, geological work is in progress to better define the local geothermal resource. The feasibility of geothermal use at the school for space heating purposes is examined.

  11. Radiative Calibration of Heat-Flux Sensors at NIST: Facilities and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, A. V.; Tsai, B. K.; Saunders, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    We present an overview of the National Institute of Standards and Technology high temperature blackbodies, both in operation and in development, suitable for heat-flux sensor calibration. Typical results of calibrations using the transfer technique in the 25 mm Variable-Temperature Blackbody are presented to demonstrate the long-term repeatability of the calibration technique. A comparative study of the absolute and transfer calibrations of a Gardon gage in a spherical blackbody with a cooled enclosure surrounding the gage housing was conducted. Results of this study demonstrated the influence of convection associated with absolute calibration of sensors in a cooled enclosure. Plans for further development of the transfer technique to higher heat-flux levels and the associated technical issues are discussed. PMID:27551612

  12. Demonstration of the iodine and NO/sub x/ removal systems in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory integrated equipment test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, B.E.; Jubin, R.T.

    1987-03-01

    This report summarizes the findings from three sets of experiments on iodine and NO/sub x/ removal performance using dual downdraft condensers in the dissolver off-gas line. The initial experiments were conducted in the laboratory using glassware in proof-of-principle tests. Two additional sets of condenser experiments were conducted using equipment prototyical for a 0.5-t/d plant in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report also describes the NO/sub x/ removal performance of a packed scrubber in the IET during the dissolution of depleted uranium oxides. The overall iodine pass-through efficiency of the condensers in the IET was high as desired. Removal efficiencies ranged from only 0.35 to 6.29%, indicating that the bulk of the iodine in the off-gas will be transferred on through the condensers to the iodox process for final disposal rather than recycled to the dissolver. The optimum operating temperature for the first condenser was in the range of 50 to 70/sup 0/C, with the temperature of the second condenser held near 20/sup 0/C. The NO/sub x/ removal performance of the combined dual condensers and packed scrubber resulted in effluent off-gas stream NO/sub x/ compositions of approx.0.4 to 1.0%, which are acceptable levels for the iodox process. The NO/sub x/ removal efficiency of the condensers ranged from approx.5 to 58%, but was generally around 20%. The removal efficiency of the packed tower scrubber was observed to be in the range of 40 to 60%. The NO/sub x/ removal performance of the condensers tended to complement the performance of the scrubber in that the condenser removal afficiency was high when the scrubber efficiency was low and vice versa.

  13. Electromagnetic levitation facility incorporating electron beam. [for vacuum heating and melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wouch, G.; Okress, E. C.; Frost, R. T.; Rutecki, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    An electromagnetic levitation apparatus incorporating an electron beam for auxiliary heating and melting has been developed for experiments on containerless vacuum purification and undercooled solidification of high melting materials. Stable levitation of 10-g specimens of molten tungsten has been achieved and a variety of containerless solidification experiments is being performed, including pure polycrystalline castings and single tungsten crystals grown from the undercooled levitated melts.

  14. Preparation of regenerable granular carbon nanotubes by a simple heating-filtration method for efficient removal of typical pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Danna; Deng, Shubo; Zhao, Tianning; Yu, Gang; Winglee, Judith; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2017-04-01

    A simple and convenient method was used to prepare novel granular carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for enhanced adsorption of pharmaceuticals. By heating CNTs powder at 450 degree centigrade in air, followed by filtration, the obtained granular adsorbent exhibited high surface area and pore volume since the heating process produced some oxygen-containing functional groups on CNT surface, making CNTs more dispersible in the formation of granular cake. The porous granular CNTs not only had more available surfaces for adsorption but also were more easily separated from solution than pristine CNTs (p-CNTs) powder. This adsorbent exhibited relatively fast adsorption for carbamazepine (CBZ), tetracycline (TC) and diclofe- nac sodium (DS), and the maximum adsorption capacity on the granular CNTs was 369.5 μmol/g for CBZ, 284.2 μmol/g for TC and 203.1 μmol/g for DS according to the Langmuir fitting, increasing by 42.4%, 37.8% and 38.0% in comparison with the pristine CNTs powder. Moreover, the spent granular CNTs were successfully regenerated at 400 degree centigrade in air without decreasing the adsorption capacity in five regeneration cycles. The adsorbed CBZ and DS were completely degraded, while the adsorbed TC was partially oxidized and the residual was favorable for the subsequent adsorption. This research develops an easy method to prepare and regenerate granular CNT adsorbent for the enhanced removal of organic pollutants from water or wastewater.

  15. Project management plan for Waste Area Grouping 5 Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This revision (Rev. 1) updates the schedule and designation of responsibilities for the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) tanks contents removal project. Ongoing and planned future activities include: cold testing of the sluicing and pumping system; readiness assessment; equipment relocation and assembly; isotopic dilution of fissile radionuclides; sluicing and transfer of the tanks contents; and preparation of the Removal Action Completion Report. The most significant change is that the sluicing and pumping system has been configured by and will be operated by CDM Federal Programs Corporation. In addition, a new technical lead and a new project analyst have been designated within Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. The schedule for tanks contents removal has been accelerated, with transfer of the final batch of tank slurry now scheduled for March 31, 1998 (instead of November 10, 1998). The OHF sluicing and pumping project is proceeding as a non-time-critical removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The purpose of the project is to remove the contents from five inactive underground storage tanks, designated T-1, T-2, T-3, T-4, and T-9. The tanks contain an estimated 52,700 gal of liquid and sludge, together comprising a radioactive inventory of approximately 30,000 Ci.

  16. 78 FR 76389 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...--design. Master plan update completion/airport geographic information system. Brief Description of Project... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals...). Construction of snow removal equipment building (geothermal heat system). Hangar taxi lane improvements. Hangar...

  17. Enthalpy probe measurements in AEDC`s arc-heated test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carver, D.B.; Fryer, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    The Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) has recently demonstrated a new probe for measurement of enthalpy within the free jet of its arc-heated test units. The probe, developed under contract by SPARTA, Inc., is a steady-state device that uses the conservation of mass principle to define total enthalpy of the flow that enters the probe. Dual sonic orifices are used to meter the flow. A heat exchanger between the orifices reduces the energy so that the total temperature can be measured at the entrance to the second orifice. Plenum pressures are measured at the entrance to each orifice. Equating the flow rates through each orifice makes it possible to solve for the unknown - the total enthalpy entering the probe. Bonded foil technology is the innovation that permitted a steady-state probe to be developed; the probe`s intricate cooling passages provided protection from the harsh thermal environment. The probe has been successfully demonstrated at a stagnation pressure of 15 atm and total enthalpy of 2,700 Btu/lbm. The paper includes design concepts, operating principles, and a presentation of test results.

  18. Rain Garden Research at EPA’s Urban Watershed Research Facility: Promoting Nitrate Removal through Rain Garden Design

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rain gardens are designed to infiltrate stormwater, capture suspended solids, sorb heavy metals and phosphorus, and transform nutrients through biological processes. Most studies have found a low capacity for stormwater nitrate removal. Research at the Urban Watershed Managemen...

  19. Rain Garden Research at EPA’s Urban Watershed Research Facility: Promoting Nitrate Removal through Rain Garden Design

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rain gardens are designed to infiltrate stormwater, capture suspended solids, sorb heavy metals and phosphorus, and transform nutrients through biological processes. Most studies have found a low capacity for stormwater nitrate removal. Research at the Urban Watershed Managemen...

  20. Experiments on plasma heating by CO/sub 2/ laser radiation in the TIR-1 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Akimov, A.E.; Baranov, V.Y.; Boiko, V.A.; Borzenko, V.L.; Bryunetkin, B.A.; Kozochkin, S.M.; Makarov, K.N.; Malyuta, D.D.; Pis'mennyi, V.D.; Satov, Y.A.

    1983-08-01

    The results are given of experiments performed on the TIR-1 high-power laser facility, utilizing x-ray plasma diagnostic methods. The experiments were carried out at an energy of approx.50 J for a focal spot of approx.300 ..mu.. and a pulse duration of approx.2 nsec. The effective electron temperature in the energy cutoff range E/sub c//sub o/approx.3.5--5 keV was 7 keV. Photons with energies of 10--100 keV were detected. Spectra of the H-, He-, and Li-like fluorine ions were recorded and used to determine the plasma parameters: T/sub e/ = 220 eV, N/sub H//N/sub N/ = 13, N/sub H//sub e//N/sub H/ = 2.1, N/sub L//sub i//N/sub H//sub e/ = 0.06.

  1. Hazardous Waste Removal Operations Conducted in Support of the BZ Agent/Munitions Disposal Facility Remediation Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    americium were removed. Electronic equipment such as computer monitors from the Control Room was removed. All material was containerized and labeled as...provided to ECBC on December 16, 2009. The smoke detectors containing americium were shipped to Environmental Management and Controls, Incorporated...mercury switches, americium in smoke alarms, and hydraulic oils) as well as dissemble contaminated equipment (if necessary) prior to the mass

  2. 1998 Calibration of the Mach 4.7 and Mach 6 Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, David W.; Irby, Richard G.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Rock, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    A calibration of the Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF) Mach 4.7 and Mach 6 nozzles was performed in 1998. For each nozzle, three different typical facility operating test points were selected for calibration. Each survey consisted of measurements, at 340 separate locations across the 11 inch square nozzle exit plane, of pitot pressure, static pressure, and total temperature. Measurement density was higher (4/inch) in the boundary layer near the nozzle wall than in the core nozzle flow (1/inch). The results generated for each of these calibration surveys were contour plots at the nozzle exit plane of the measured and calculated flow properties which completely defined the thermodynamic state of the nozzle exit flow. An area integration of the mass flux at the nozzle exit for each survey was compared to the AHSTF mass flow meter results to provide an indication of the overall quality of the calibration performed. The percent difference between the integrated nozzle exit mass flow and the flow meter ranged from 0.0 to 1.3 percent for the six surveys. Finally, a comparison of this 1998 calibration was made with the 1986 calibration. Differences of less than 10 percent were found within the nozzle core flow while in the boundary layer differences on the order of 20 percent were quite common.

  3. Two-dimensional air exfiltration and heat transfer through fiberglass insulation. Part 1: Numerical model and experimental facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Besant, R.W.; Tao, Y.X.

    1998-10-01

    A numerical model, employing a local-averaging formulation, was developed for heat transfer and water vapor deposition within fiberglass insulation under air exfiltration and frosting conditions.Frost growth on the cold surface was modeled using special frost growth boundary conditions. Non-isotropic permeability effects that occur in fiberglass boards were included in the model for porous medium flow because tests showed that the permeability for flow parallel to the plane of the boards was 69% higher than perpendicular to the insulation boards. Transient heat and moisture transfer processes within a thick layer of fiberglass insulation were modeled for steady exfiltration of humid air (60--84% rh) with a two-dimensional airflow during winter temperature conditions. In order to validate the numerical model, laboratory apparatus was constructed with a test cell 135 mm high, 600 mm wide and 275 mm deep. This allowed a two-dimensional moist air exfiltration [0.5 to 1.5 L/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}s)] through a fiberglass insulation slab for a temperature range {minus}20 C to 21.5 C from the cold outside surface to the warm inside surface. Using this apparatus, the transient temperature profiles, moisture accumulation profiles, and heat-flux at the cold side of the fiberglass insulation were measured during the air exfiltration process. Part 1 outlines the theoretical/numerical model and describe the experimental test facilities and the properties of the fiberglass insulation tested. Part 2 of this paper presents the comparisons of experimental data and corresponding simulation results.

  4. Analysis of temperature rise and the use of coolants in the dissipation of ultrasonic heat buildup during post removal.

    PubMed

    Davis, Stephen; Gluskin, Alan H; Livingood, Philip M; Chambers, David W

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to calculate probabilities for tissue injury and to measure effectiveness of various coolant strategies in countering heat buildup produced by dry ultrasonic vibration during post removal. A simulated biological model was used to evaluate the cooling efficacy of a common refrigerant spray, water spray, and air spray in the recovery of post temperatures deep within the root canal space. The data set consisted of cervical and apical measures of temperature increase at 1-second intervals from baseline during continuous ultrasonic instrumentation until a 10 °C increase in temperature at the cervical site was registered, wherein instrumentation ceased, and the teeth were allowed to cool under ambient conditions or with the assistance of 4 coolant methods. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance by using the independent variables of time of ultrasonic application (10, 15, 20 seconds) and cooling method. In addition to the customary means, standard deviations, and analysis of variance tests, analyses were conducted to determine probabilities that procedures would reach or exceed the 10 °C threshold. Both instrumentation time and cooling agent effects were significant at P <.0001. Under the conditions of this study, it was shown that injurious heat transfer occurs in less than 1 minute during dry ultrasonic instrumentation of metallic posts. Cycles of short instrumentation times with active coolants were effective in reducing the probability of tissue damage when teeth were instrumented dry. With as little as 20 seconds of continuous dry ultrasonic instrumentation, the consequences of thermal buildup to an individual tooth might contribute to an injurious clinical outcome. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  5. Phosgene Poisoning Caused by the Use of Chemical Paint Removers Containing Methylene Chloride in Ill-Ventilated Rooms Heated by Kerosene Stoves

    PubMed Central

    Gerritsen, W. B.; Buschmann, C. H.

    1960-01-01

    Two cases resembling poisoning by phosgene following the use of a paint remover containing methylene chloride in ill-ventilated rooms heated by an oil stove are described. Experiments carried out under similar conditions demonstrated the production of phosgene in toxic concentrations. The potential hazards from non-inflammable solvents are discussed. PMID:13827592

  6. A facile one-pot solvothermal method to produce superparamagnetic graphene-Fe3O4 nanocomposite and its application in the removal of dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiuhua; Feng, Cheng; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    A superparamagnetic graphene-Fe(3)O(4) nanocomposite (G/Fe(3)O(4)) was synthesized by a facile one-pot solvothermal method. The nanocomposite G/Fe(3)O(4) prepared by the new method was firstly used as an adsorbent to remove dye for water pollution remediation. In comparison with G/Fe(3)O(4) prepared by the in situ chemical coprecipitation, the newly prepared G/Fe(3)O(4) had a higher adsorption efficiency for the dye. The adsorption characteristics of the nanocomposite adsorbent were examined using the organic dye pararosaniline as the adsorbate. The adsorption kinetics, adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, and the effect of the adsorbent dosage and solution pH on the removal efficiency of pararosaniline were investigated. The adsorption capacity of G/Fe(3)O(4) for pararosaniline was evaluated using the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. The G/Fe(3)O(4) hybrid composite can be easily manipulated in magnetic field for desired separation, leading to an easy removal of the dye from polluted water. The G/Fe(3)O(4) hybrid composite would have a great potential in removing organic dyes from polluted water.

  7. 76 FR 18347 - Removal of the List of Ports of Embarkation and Export Inspection Facilities From the Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). List of Subjects in 9 CFR Part 91 Animal diseases, Animal welfare, Exports... / Monday, April 4, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health... Inspection Facilities From the Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...

  8. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) for the Solid Waste Treatment Facility (T Plant) Fuel Removal Project

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    2000-11-16

    This NOC describes the activities to remove all spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies from the spent fuel pool in the T Plant Complex 221-T canyon for interim storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The unabated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) estimated for the public hypothetical maximally exposed individual (MEI) is 5.7 E-6 millirem (mrem) per year for this fuel removal NOC. The abated TEDE conservatively is estimated to account for 2.9 E-9 mrem per year to the MEI.

  9. Effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone on cerium oxide nanoparticle characteristics prepared by a facile heat treatment technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqer, Anwar Ali; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Al-Hada, Naif Mohammed; Shaari, Abdul Halim; Saion, Elias; Chyi, Josephine Liew Ying

    An aqueous medium composed of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and cerium nitrates at calcination temperature was utilised in the production of cerium oxide (CeO2) semiconductor nanoparticles. A variety of analytical approaches was utilized to examine the structural, morphological and optical characteristics of the resulting nanoparticles. Differential thermal (DTA) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses, indicated that the best calcination temperatures for achieving CeO2 nanoparticle production were more than 485 °C. The results from Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) verified the formation of a crystalline structure after calcination procedures were performed to remove residual organic compounds. Additionally, results from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the cubic fluorite structure of the CeO2 produced. Samples were also analysed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDXA) which indicated the existence of O and Ce in the samples. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used in the characterisation of nanoparticle morphological features. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed to estimate typical nanoparticle and distribution within sample. This analysis indicated that mean particle sizes were inversely correlated with PVP concentration, with nanoparticle sizes ranging between 12 ± 7 nm at 0.03 g/mL PVP and 6 ± 2 nm at 0.05 g/mL PVP. These results corroborated those obtained by XRD analysis. A UV-vis spectrophotometer was utilised in the demonstration of optical properties and to examine the band gap energy of samples. The potential UV-shielding properties of the nanoparticles were demonstrated by the observed blue shift of the estimated optical energy band, i.e. from 3.35 to 3.43 eV, whilst PL spectra results indicated that decreasing particle size was associated with diminishing photoluminescence intensity.

  10. Theoretical Design of a Thermosyphon for Efficient Process Heat Removal from Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) for Production of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Fred Gunnerson; Akira Tokuhiro; Vivek Utgiker; Kevan Weaver; Steven Sherman

    2007-10-01

    The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase Thermosyphon heat transfer performance with various alkali metals. Thermosyphon is a device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. Heat transport occurs via evaporation and condensation, and the heat transport fluid is re-circulated by gravitational force. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. For process heat, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) are required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant in the most efficient way possible. The production of power at higher efficiency using Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production requires both heat at higher temperatures (up to 1000oC) and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. The purpose for selecting a compact heat exchanger is to maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. The IHX design requirements are governed by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet of the NGNP (900oC, based on the current capabilities of NGNP), and the temperatures in the hydrogen production plant. Spiral Heat Exchangers (SHE’s) have superior heat transfer characteristics, and are less susceptible to fouling. Further, heat losses to surroundings are minimized because of its compact configuration. SHEs have never been examined for phase-change heat transfer applications. The research presented provides useful information for thermosyphon design and Spiral Heat Exchanger.

  11. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Grit Removal Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the grit removal process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. A description of the equipment used in the process is given. Some theoretical material is presented. (BB)

  12. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Grit Removal Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the grit removal process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. A description of the equipment used in the process is given. Some theoretical material is presented. (BB)

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-LOOP FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER FACILITY FOR ADVANCED NUCLEAR REACTOR THERMAL HYDRAULIC AND HYBRID ENERGY SYSTEM STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Piyush Sabharwall; SuJong Yoon

    2001-09-01

    A new high-temperature multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility for advanced nuclear applications is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory. The facility will include three flow loops: high-temperature helium, molten salt, and steam/water. Molten salts have been identified as excellent candidate heat transport fluids for primary or secondary coolant loops, supporting advanced high temperature and small modular reactors (SMRs). Details of some of the design aspects and challenges of this facility, which is currently in the conceptual design phase, are discussed. A preliminary design configuration will be presented, with the required characteristics of the various components. The loop will utilize advanced high-temperature compact printed-circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) operating at prototypic intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) conditions. The initial configuration will include a high-temperature (750°C), high-pressure (7 MPa) helium loop thermally integrated with a molten fluoride salt (KF-ZrF4) flow loop operating at low pressure (0.2 MPa) at a temperature of ~450°C. Experiment design challenges include identification of suitable materials and components that will withstand the required loop operating conditions. Corrosion and high temperature creep behavior are major considerations. The facility will include a thermal energy storage capability designed to support scaled process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will also provide important data for code ve

  14. Generation of a homozygous fertilization-defective gcs1 mutant by heat-inducible removal of a rescue gene.

    PubMed

    Nagahara, Shiori; Takeuchi, Hidenori; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Key message: New gametic homozygous mutants. In angiosperms, a haploid male gamete (sperm cell) fuses with a haploid female gamete (egg cell) during fertilization to form a zygote carrying paternally and maternally derived chromosomes. Several fertilization-defective mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana, including a generative cell-specific 1 (gcs1)/hapless 2 mutant, the sperm cells of which are unable to fuse with female gametes, can only be maintained as heterozygous lines due to the infertile male or female gametes. Here, we report successful generation of a gcs1 homozygous mutant by heat-inducible removal of the GCS1 transgene. Using the gcs1 homozygous mutant as male, the defect in gamete fusion was observed with great frequency; in our direct observation by semi-in vivo fertilization assay using ovules, 100 % of discharged sperm cells in culture failed to show gamete fusion. More than 70 % of ovules in the pistil received a second pollen tube as attempted fertilization recovery. Moreover, gcs1 mutant sperm cells could fertilize female gametes at a low frequency in the pistil. This strategy to generate homozygous fertilization-defective mutants will facilitate novel approaches in plant reproduction research.

  15. Facile fabrication of visible light induced Bi2O3 nanorod using conventional heat treatment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Waseem; Khan, Azam; Alam, Umair; Muneer, M.; Bahnemann, D.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a new Bi2O3 based photocatalyst doped with varying concentration of Nb and Mn metal ion was fabricated by conventional heat treatment method and their photocatalytic activity was investigated. The prepared material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) techniques. The XRD analysis of synthesized photocatalyst was found to exhibit characteristic peaks of well crystallized monoclinic α-Bi2O3. The XRD pattern of pure and metal doped Bi2O3 were found to more or less similar. The crystallite size of doped materials were smaller than pure Bi2O3 and size decreases with increasing dopant concentration from 0.5 to 2.0% for Nb & 1.0-3.0% for Mn and remains almost constant at higher dopant concentration. The SEM analysis clearly indicate the formation of nanorod like morphologies. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of synthesized nanorods revealed that the absorption edge shift towards longer wavelength on doping with Nb and Mn metal ions which is beneficial for absorbing more visible light in the solar spectrum. The prepared doped Bi2O3 nanorod showed the excellent photocatalytic activity for degradation of selected organic pollutants, such as Methylene Blue (MB) and Rodaamime B (RhB) under visible light source. The higher activity of doped Bi2O3 nanorod may be attributed to absorption of more visible light leading to generation of higher photogenerated electron hole pairs and efficient separation of photoinduced charge carrier to inhibit the recombination rate.

  16. Effectiveness of decanter modifications on organic removal

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.P.

    1992-08-20

    A series of runs were planned in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF) at the Savannah River Plant to determine the effectiveness of equipment and process modifications on the PHEF decanter organic removal efficiency. Runs 54-59 were planned to test the effectiveness of spray recirculation, a new decanter, heated organic recirculation and aqueous drawoff on organic removal efficiency in the revised HAN flowsheet. Runs 60-63 were planned to provide a comparison of the original and new decanter designs on organic removal efficiency in the late wash flowsheet without organic recirculation. Operational problems were experienced in both the PHEF and IDMS pilot facilities because of the production of high boiling organics and the low organic removal efficiency of the PHEF decanters. To prevent these problems in the DWPF Salt and Chemical Cells, modifications were proposed to the decanter and flowsheet to maximize the organic removal efficiency and minimize production of high boiling organics.

  17. Facile and highly efficient removal of trace Gd(III) by adsorption of colloidal graphene oxide suspensions sealed in dialysis bag.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weifan; Wang, Linlin; Zhuo, Mingpeng; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yiping; Li, Yongxiu

    2014-08-30

    A facile, highly efficient and second-pollution-free strategy to remove trace Gd(III) from aqueous solutions by adsorption of colloidal graphene oxide (GO) suspensions in dialysis bag has been developed. The effects of pH, ionic strength and temperature on Gd(III) adsorption, and the pH-dependent desorption were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of Gd(III)on GO at pH=5.9±0.1 and T=303K was 286.86mgg(-1), higher than any other currently reported. The Gd(III)-saturated GO suspension could resume colloidal state in 0.1M HNO3 with desorption rate of 85.00% in the fifth adsorption-desorption cycle. Gd(III) adsorption rate on GO was dependent more on pH and ionic strength than on temperature. The abundant oxygen-containing functional groups such as carboxyl and hydroxyl played a vital role on adsorption. The thermodynamics and kinetics investigations revealed that the adsorption of Gd(III) on GO was an endothermic, spontaneous and monolayer absorption process, which well fitted the pseudo-second-order model. GO could be a promising adsorbent applied in the enrichment and removal of lanthanides from aqueous solutions. More significantly, the combination of colloidal GO suspension with dialysis membrane facilely solves the re-pollution of the treated solutions due to the great difficulties in separation and recovery of GO.

  18. Removal Efficiency and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Typical Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facility in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhineng; Li, Qing; Wu, Qihang; Chen, Shejun; Hu, Xiaodong; Deng, Mingjun; Zhang, Haozhi; Luo, Min

    2017-01-01

    The loading and removal efficiency of 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in an inverted A2/O wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in an urban area in China. The total PAH concentrations were 554.3 to 723.2 ng/L in the influent and 189.6 to 262.7 ng/L in the effluent. The removal efficiencies of ∑PAHs in the dissolved phase ranged from 63 to 69%, with the highest observed in naphthalene (80% removal). Concentration and distribution of PAHs revealed that the higher molecular weight PAHs became more concentrated with treatment in both the dissolved phase and the dewatered sludge. The sharpest reduction was observed during the pretreatment and the biological phase. Noncarcinogenic risk, carcinogenic risk, and total health risk of PAHs found in the effluent and sewage sludge were also assessed. The effluent BaP toxic equivalent quantities (TEQBaP) were above, or far above, standards in countries. The potential toxicities of PAHs in sewage effluent were approximately 10 to 15 times higher than the acceptable risk level in China. The health risk associated with the sewage sludge also exceeded international recommended levels and was mainly contributed from seven carcinogenic PAHs. Given that WWTP effluent is a major PAH contributor to surface water bodies in China and better reduction efficiencies are achievable, the present study highlights the possibility of utilizing WWTPs for restoring water quality in riverine and coastal regions heavily impacted by PAHs contamination. PMID:28763031

  19. Removal Efficiency and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Typical Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facility in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhineng; Li, Qing; Wu, Qihang; Kuo, Dave T F; Chen, Shejun; Hu, Xiaodong; Deng, Mingjun; Zhang, Haozhi; Luo, Min

    2017-08-01

    The loading and removal efficiency of 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in an inverted A²/O wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in an urban area in China. The total PAH concentrations were 554.3 to 723.2 ng/L in the influent and 189.6 to 262.7 ng/L in the effluent. The removal efficiencies of ∑PAHs in the dissolved phase ranged from 63 to 69%, with the highest observed in naphthalene (80% removal). Concentration and distribution of PAHs revealed that the higher molecular weight PAHs became more concentrated with treatment in both the dissolved phase and the dewatered sludge. The sharpest reduction was observed during the pretreatment and the biological phase. Noncarcinogenic risk, carcinogenic risk, and total health risk of PAHs found in the effluent and sewage sludge were also assessed. The effluent BaP toxic equivalent quantities (TEQBaP) were above, or far above, standards in countries. The potential toxicities of PAHs in sewage effluent were approximately 10 to 15 times higher than the acceptable risk level in China. The health risk associated with the sewage sludge also exceeded international recommended levels and was mainly contributed from seven carcinogenic PAHs. Given that WWTP effluent is a major PAH contributor to surface water bodies in China and better reduction efficiencies are achievable, the present study highlights the possibility of utilizing WWTPs for restoring water quality in riverine and coastal regions heavily impacted by PAHs contamination.

  20. Protection against cold in prehospital care: evaporative heat loss reduction by wet clothing removal or the addition of a vapor barrier--a thermal manikin study.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Otto; Lundgren, Peter; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar; Naredi, Peter; Bjornstig, Ulf

    2012-02-01

    In the prehospital care of a cold and wet person, early application of adequate insulation is of utmost importance to reduce cold stress, limit body core cooling, and prevent deterioration of the patient's condition. Most prehospital guidelines on protection against cold recommend the removal of wet clothing prior to insulation, and some also recommend the use of a waterproof vapor barrier to reduce evaporative heat loss. However, there is little scientific evidence of the effectiveness of these measures. Using a thermal manikin with wet clothing, this study was conducted to determine the effect of wet clothing removal or the addition of a vapor barrier on thermal insulation and evaporative heat loss using different amounts of insulation in both warm and cold ambient conditions. A thermal manikin dressed in wet clothing was set up in accordance with the European Standard for assessing requirements of sleeping bags, modified for wet heat loss determination, and the climatic chamber was set to -15 degrees Celsius (°C) for cold conditions and +10°C for warm conditions. Three different insulation ensembles, one, two or seven woollen blankets, were chosen to provide different levels of insulation. Five different test conditions were evaluated for all three levels of insulation ensembles: (1) dry underwear; (2) dry underwear with a vapor barrier; (3) wet underwear; (4) wet underwear with a vapor barrier; and (5) no underwear. Dry and wet heat loss and thermal resistance were determined from continuous monitoring of ambient air temperature, manikin surface temperature, heat flux and evaporative mass loss rate. Independent of insulation thickness or ambient temperature, the removal of wet clothing or the addition of a vapor barrier resulted in a reduction in total heat loss of 19-42%. The absolute heat loss reduction was greater, however, and thus clinically more important in cold environments when little insulation is available. A similar reduction in total heat loss

  1. Simulation of decay heat removal by natural convection in a pool type fast reactor model-ramona-with coupled 1D/2D thermal hydraulic code system

    SciTech Connect

    Kasinathan, N.; Rajakumar, A.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    Post shutdown decay heat removal is an important safety requirement in any nuclear system. In order to improve the reliability of this function, Liquid metal (sodium) cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) are equipped with redundant hot pool dipped immersion coolers connected to natural draught air cooled heat exchangers through intermediate sodium circuits. During decay heat removal, flow through the core, immersion cooler primary side and in the intermediate sodium circuits are also through natural convection. In order to establish the viability and validate computer codes used in making predictions, a 1:20 scale experimental model called RAMONA with water as coolant has been built and experimental simulation of decay heat removal situation has been performed at KfK Karlsruhe. Results of two such experiments have been compiled and published as benchmarks. This paper brings out the results of the numerical simulation of one of the benchmark case through a 1D/2D coupled code system, DHDYN-1D/THYC-2D and the salient features of the comparisons. Brief description of the formulations of the codes are also included.

  2. Application of a Bimetallic Treatment System (BTS) for PCB Removal from Older Structures on DoD Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-05

    asphaltic-based adhesives that were subsequently applied to DoD structures. DoD facilities constructed as early as 1930 utilized PCB-containing binders or...solvent based paints such as urethanes, epoxides, and enamels (performed better than the latex paint, but not effective in maintaining the moisture level...truck bed TABLE 3-1 PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES Ease and versatility of application of BTS Adhering to object in a 0.25 to 0.50 inch layer Measuring layer

  3. High-frequency Propagation through the Ionosphere from the Sura Heating Facility to the Orbiting CASSIOPE/e-POP Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, H. G.; Frolov, V. L.; Padokhin, A. M.; Siefring, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    High-frequency pump waves have been transmitted from the Russian heating facility Sura to the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) in the e-POP payload on the Canadian small satellite CASSIOPE. This experiment has been carried out 24 times, under a variety of circumstances. In some cases, the ePOP VHF-UHF beacon CERTO was on, and ground receivers near Sura recorded total electron content. Subsequent tomographic processing has allowed the two-dimensional electron density distribution to be determined in the altitude-latitude space between Sura and CASSIOPE. We present some details from a night-time pass on 9 Sept. 2014 when the fixed pump frequency 4.3 MHz was slightly smaller than foF2 above Sura. This was an instance in which conversion between the O and Z cold plasma modes may have been required to achieve transmission. Explanation could be elaborated in terms of underdense, heater-created, field-aligned irregularities that are "artificial radio windows". The Sura heater radiation pattern maximum was tilted 12° south of the vertical, toward the terrestrial magnetic field axis, potentially enhancing the power transmitted through radio windows. The observations are interpreted in the light of competing concepts of transmission.

  4. Inertial Confinement Fusion alpha-heating signatures in prompt gamma-ray measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Jennifer; Herrmann, Hans; Cerjan, Charlie; Sayre, Daniel; Carpenter, Arthur; Liebman, Judy; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Kim, Yongho

    2015-11-01

    Prompt gamma-rays measured at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with the Gamma-ray Reaction History detector (GRH) supply vital diagnostic information, such as the peak burn time, burn width, and total neutron yield, from prompt DT-fusion gamma-ray emission during high convergence implosion experiments. Additionally, the stagnated cold shell density distribution may be inferred from the time-integrated, calibrated 12C (n,n' γ) signal, thus providing estimates of remaining ablator carbon areal density. Furthermore, simulations suggest that alpha heating signatures might be accessible using more highly resolved temporal gamma-ray emission. Correlation of these signatures with time-dependent neutron emission will constrain the implosion dynamics immediately prior to thermonuclear burn. Measurement of these gamma-ray signatures will be discussed along with updates on our work toward inferred total DT yield and 12C areal density. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07-NA27344, LLNL-ABS-670282.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, workers remove the overhead crane from the nose cap that was removed from Atlantis. The reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) nose cap is being sent to the original manufacturing company, Vought in Ft. Worth, Texas, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, to undergo non-destructive testing such as CAT scan and thermography.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-29

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, workers remove the overhead crane from the nose cap that was removed from Atlantis. The reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) nose cap is being sent to the original manufacturing company, Vought in Ft. Worth, Texas, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, to undergo non-destructive testing such as CAT scan and thermography.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Les Hanks, with United Space Alliance, prepares a window on Atlantis for removal. The windows are being removed to inspect them for contaminants in the thermal seal. Atlantis has been undergoing routine maintenance in the Orbiter Processing Facility for Return to Flight, on mission STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-01-23

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Les Hanks, with United Space Alliance, prepares a window on Atlantis for removal. The windows are being removed to inspect them for contaminants in the thermal seal. Atlantis has been undergoing routine maintenance in the Orbiter Processing Facility for Return to Flight, on mission STS-114.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Les Hanks (foreground) and Darlene Beville (background), with United Space Alliance, prepare a window on Atlantis for removal. The windows are being removed to inspect them for contaminants in the thermal seal. Atlantis has been undergoing routine maintenance in the Orbiter Processing Facility for Return to Flight, on mission STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-01-23

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Les Hanks (foreground) and Darlene Beville (background), with United Space Alliance, prepare a window on Atlantis for removal. The windows are being removed to inspect them for contaminants in the thermal seal. Atlantis has been undergoing routine maintenance in the Orbiter Processing Facility for Return to Flight, on mission STS-114.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At right, Mike Young and Les Hanks, with United Space Alliance, prepare a window on Atlantis for removal. The windows are being removed to inspect them for contaminants in the thermal seal. Atlantis has been undergoing routine maintenance in the Orbiter Processing Facility for Return to Flight, on mission STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-01-23

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At right, Mike Young and Les Hanks, with United Space Alliance, prepare a window on Atlantis for removal. The windows are being removed to inspect them for contaminants in the thermal seal. Atlantis has been undergoing routine maintenance in the Orbiter Processing Facility for Return to Flight, on mission STS-114.

  9. Facile preparation of acid-resistant magnetite particles for removal of Sb(Ⅲ) from strong acidic solution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Guan, Kaiwen; Bai, Zhiping; Liu, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new facile coating strategy based on the hydrophobicity of methyl groups was developed to prevent nano-sized magnetite particles from strong acid corrosion. In this method, three steps of hydrolysis led to three layers of protection shell coating Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Filled with hydrophobic methyl groups, the middle layer mainly prevented the magnetic core from strong acid corrosion. These magnetite particles managed to resist 1 M HCl solution and 2.5 M H2SO4 solution. The acid resistant ability was higher than those reported previously. After further modification with amino-methylene-phosphonic groups, these magnetite particles successfully adsorbed Sb(III) in strong acid solution. This new strategy can also be applied to protect other materials from strong acid corrosion. PMID:27877860

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, STS-115 Mission Specialist Joseph Tanner looks at the Exposed Facility Berthing Mechanism (EFBM) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), after removing its cover. Equipment familiarization is a routine part of astronaut training and launch preparations.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, STS-115 Mission Specialist Joseph Tanner looks at the Exposed Facility Berthing Mechanism (EFBM) on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), after removing its cover. Equipment familiarization is a routine part of astronaut training and launch preparations.

  11. Facile synthesis of Cu(II) impregnated biochar with enhanced adsorption activity for the removal of doxycycline hydrochloride from water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Xu, Wei-Hua; Liu, Yun-Guo; Tan, Xiao-Fei; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Li, Xin; Liang, Jie; Zhou, Zan; Yan, Zhi-Li; Cai, Xiao-Xi

    2017-03-16

    In this study, the effect factors and mechanisms of doxycycline hydrochloride (DOX) adsorption on copper nitrate modified biochar (Cu-BC) was investigated. Cu-BC absorbent was synthesized through calcination of peanut shells biomass at 450°C and then impregnation with copper nitrate. The Cu-BC has exhibited excellent sorption efficiency about 93.22% of doxycycline hydrochloride from aqueous solution, which was double higher than that of the unmodified biochar. The experimental results suggest that the adsorption efficiency of DOX on the Cu-BC is dominated by the strong complexation, electrostatic interactions between DOX molecules and the Cu-BC samples. Comprehensively considering the cost, efficiency and the application to realistic water, the Cu-BC hold the significant potential for enhancing the effectiveness to remove DOX from water.

  12. Facile preparation of a cobalt hybrid/graphene nanocomposite by in situ chemical reduction: high lithium storage capacity and highly efficient removal of Congo red.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lixia; Li, Jianchen; Mao, Chunsheng; Zhang, Lishu; Zhao, Lijun; Jiang, Qing

    2013-06-14

    We report a facile approach to prepare a cobalt hybrid/graphene (Co/G) nanocomposite via a general one-pot hydrothermal synthesis. NaBH4 is used as the reducing agent. Co/G nanocomposite possesses narrow size-distribution and good dispersion, providing tremendous potential for energy and environment applications. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate the use of the Co/G nanocomposite in a lithium-ion battery and an adsorbent for Congo red (CR), respectively. More importantly, more than 97% of capacity retention (605 mAh g(-1)) is retained after 50 cycles, indicative of high charge/discharge reversibility of the Co/G nanocomposite electrode. Furthermore the CR removal ability of the Co/G nanocomposite can reach 934.9 mg g(-1).

  13. Position paper -- Tank heat loading. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Groth, B.D.

    1995-01-11

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update to Project W-236A, Multi-function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF), Project File documentation on the selection of the heat removal capability that MWTF Tank Ventilation Systems will be designed to remove. Further scale model mixing tests, as well as greater understanding of the mission of the tanks and the radionuclide heat load, have shown the current heat removal capabilities to be over-designed. Using the latest available information will decrease the amount of conservatism currently in the design. It is important to note that this paper is not for defining the tank mixer pump requirements, but is to be only used for defining and defending the nominal and extreme case heat generation rate that the ventilation system and other heat removal systems will be designed to remove. There are three main heat loads in the tanks of which two can be controlled to a certain extent through operational considerations. These two are mixing pump heat and heat of chemical addition. The third heat source is radionuclide content which can only be controlled by what wastes are pumped to the tank and whether it is diluted prior to pumping. Other heat loads such as transfer pumps were considered to be negligible. In addition, chemical addition is considered a transient situation that is rarely performed and will be treated as such.

  14. Evaluation of catalyzed and electrically heated filters for removal of particulate emissions from diesel-A- and JP-8-fueled engines.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry E; Wagner, David A; Lighty, JoAnn S; Sarofim, Adel F; Bretecher, Brad; Holden, Bruce; Helgeson, Norm; Sahay, Keshav; Nardi, Zack

    2004-01-01

    In-service diesel engines are a significant source of particulate matter (PM) emissions, and they have been subjected to increasingly strict emissions standards. Consequently, the wide-scale use of some type of particulate filter is expected. This study evaluated the effect of an Engelhard catalyzed soot filter (CSF) and a Rypos electrically heated soot filter on the emissions from in-service diesel engines in terms of PM mass, black carbon concentration, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration, and size distribution. Both filters capture PM. The CSF relies on the engine's exhaust to reach the catalyst regeneration temperature and oxidize soot, whereas the electrically heated filter contains a heating element to oxidize soot. The filters were installed on several military diesel engines. Particle concentrations and compositions were measured before and after installation of the filter and again after several months of operation. Generally, the CSF removed at least 90% of total PM, and the removal efficiency improved or remained constant after several months of operation. In contrast, the electrical filters removed 44-69% of PM mass. In addition to evaluating the soot filters, the sampling team also compared the results of several real-time particle measurement instruments to traditional filter measurements of total mass.

  15. Facile preparation of highly hydrophilic, recyclable high-performance polyimide adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jieyang; Zheng, Yaxin; Luo, Longbo; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Chaoliang; Wang, Xu; Liu, Xiangyang

    2016-04-05

    To obtain high-performance adsorbents that combine excellent adsorption ability, thermal stability, service life and recycling ability, polyimide (PI)/silica powders were prepared via a facile one-pot coprecipitation process. A benzimidazole unit was introduced into the PI backbone as the adsorption site. The benzimidazole unit induced more hydroxyls onto the silica, which provided hydrophilic sites for access by heavy metal ions. By comprehensively analyzing the effect of hydrophilcity, agglomeration, silica polycondensation, specific surface area and PI crystallinity, 10% was demonstrated to be the most proper feed silica content. The equilibrium adsorption amount (Qe) for Cu(2+) of PI/silica adsorbents was 77 times higher than that of pure PI. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) was used as a desorbent for heavy metal ions and could be decomplexed with benzimidazole unit at around 300°C, which was lower than the glass transition temperature of PI. The complexation and decomplexation process of HCl made PI/silica adsorbents recyclable, and the adsorption ability remained steady for more than 50 recycling processes. As PI/silica adsorbents possess excellent thermal stability, chemical resistance and radiation resistance and hydrophilicity, they have potential as superior recyclable adsorbents for collecting heavy metal ions from waste water in extreme environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Natural Circulation in the Blanket Heat Removal System During a Loss-of-Pumping Accident (LOFA) Based on Initial Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    A transient natural convection model of the APT blanket primary heat removal (HR) system was developed to demonstrate that the blanket could be cooled for a sufficient period of time for long term cooling to be established following a loss-of-flow accident (LOFA). The particular case of interest in this report is a complete loss-of-pumping accident. For the accident scenario in which pumps are lost in both the target and blanket HR systems, natural convection provides effective cooling of the blanket for approximately 68 hours, and, if only the blanket HR systems are involved, natural convection is effective for approximately 210 hours. The heat sink for both of these accident scenarios is the assumed stagnant fluid and metal on the secondary sides of the heat exchangers.

  17. Evaluation of SimpleTreat 4.0: Simulations of pharmaceutical removal in wastewater treatment plant facilities.

    PubMed

    Lautz, L S; Struijs, J; Nolte, T M; Breure, A M; van der Grinten, E; van de Meent, D; van Zelm, R

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater as predicted by SimpleTreat 4.0 was evaluated. Field data obtained from literature of 43 pharmaceuticals, measured in 51 different activated sludge WWTPs were used. Based on reported influent concentrations, the effluent concentrations were calculated with SimpleTreat 4.0 and compared to measured effluent concentrations. The model predicts effluent concentrations mostly within a factor of 10, using the specific WWTP parameters as well as SimpleTreat default parameters, while it systematically underestimates concentrations in secondary sludge. This may be caused by unexpected sorption, resulting from variability in WWTP operating conditions, and/or QSAR applicability domain mismatch and background concentrations prior to measurements. Moreover, variability in detection techniques and sampling methods can cause uncertainty in measured concentration levels. To find possible structural improvements, we also evaluated SimpleTreat 4.0 using several specific datasets with different degrees of uncertainty and variability. This evaluation verified that the most influencing parameters for water effluent predictions were biodegradation and the hydraulic retention time. Results showed that model performance is highly dependent on the nature and quality, i.e. degree of uncertainty, of the data. The default values for reactor settings in SimpleTreat result in realistic predictions.

  18. Spinel type CoFe oxide porous nanosheets as magnetic adsorbents with fast removal ability and facile separation.

    PubMed

    Ge, X; Gu, C D; Wang, X L; Tu, J P

    2015-09-15

    Adsorption is often time consuming due to slow diffusion kinetic. Sizing he adsorbent down might help to accelerate adsorption. For CoFe spinel oxide, a magnetically separable adsorbent, the preparation of nanosheets faces many challenges including phase separation, grain growth and difficulty in preparing two-dimensional materials. In this work, we prepared porous CoFe oxide nanosheet with chemical formula of Co2.698Fe0.302O4 through topochemical transformation of a CoFe precursor, which has a layered double hydroxide (LDH) analogue structure and a large interlayer spacing. The LDH precursor was synthesized from a cheap deep eutectic solvent (DES) system. The calcined Co2.698Fe0.302O4 has small grain size (10-20nm), nanosheet morphology, and porous structure, which contribute to a large specific surface area of 79.5m(2)g(-1). The Co2.698Fe0.302O4 nanosheets show fast removal ability and good adsorption capacity for both organic waste (305mgg(-1) in 5min for Congo red) and toxic heavy metal ion (5.27mgg(-1) in 30min for Cr (VI)). Furthermore, the Co2.698Fe0.302O4 can be separated magnetically. Considering the precursor can be prepared through a fast, simple, surfactant-free and high-yield synthetic strategy, this work should have practical significance in fabricating adsorbents.

  19. Facile synthesis of pectin-stabilized magnetic graphene oxide Prussian blue nanocomposites for selective cesium removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Avinash A; Jang, Jiseon; Lee, Dae Sung

    2016-09-01

    This work focused on the development of pectin-stabilized magnetic graphene oxide Prussian blue (PSMGPB) nanocomposites for removal of cesium from wastewater. The PSMGPB nanocomposite showed an improved adsorption capacity of 1.609mmol/g for cesium, compared with magnetic graphene oxide Prussian blue, magnetic pectin Prussian blue, and magnetic Prussian blue nanocomposites, which exhibited adsorption capacities of 1.230, 0.901, and 0.330mmol/g, respectively. Increased adsorption capacity of PSMGPB nanocomposites was attributed to the pectin-stabilized separation of graphene oxide sheets and enhanced distribution of magnetites on the graphene oxide surface. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the effective separation of graphene oxide sheets due to the incorporation of pectin. The optimum temperature and pH for adsorption were 30°C and 7.0, respectively. A thermodynamic study indicated the spontaneous and the exothermic nature of cesium adsorption. Based on non-linear regression, the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experimental data better than the Freundlich and Tempkin models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of Sandia's Central Receiver Test Facility as a high-intensity heat source for testing missile nose-cone (Radome) radar systems

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D.R.

    1981-09-01

    A series of tests at Sandia's Central Receiver Test Facility in support of the US Navy's SM-2 Blk 2 Radome Improvement Program is described. The CRTF was the source of high-intensity solar radiation for testing onboard radar-tracking systems under heating conditions intended to simulate those that occur in supersonic flight. Also discussed are the hardware used and the software developed at the CRTF.

  1. Facile synthesis of yeast cross-linked Fe3O4 nanoadsorbents for efficient removal of aquatic environment contaminated with As(V).

    PubMed

    Rajesh Kumar, S; Jayavignesh, V; Selvakumar, R; Swaminathan, K; Ponpandian, N

    2016-12-15

    A facile solvothermal method was adopted to prepare monodispersed surface functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles via self assembly process. The pure yeast, diethylamine functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (DMNPs) and yeast cross-linked Fe3O4 nanoparticles (YcMNPs) were used for the efficient removal of arsenate from aqueous solution. The crystal structure, morphology and magnetic properties of these nanoparticles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The observed physico-chemical properties confirms the metal binding nature of prepared samples. The adsorption of As(V) on the functionalized magnetite nanoparticles was tested under different operating conditions like contact time, adsorbate dosage, adsorbate concentration and pH. The faster removal of As(V) was obtained using YcMNPs (99%) than DMNPs and pure yeast. The adsorption equilibrium data obeys Langmuir isotherm than Freundlich model and the kinetics data well depicts the pseudo-second-order model. The batch column experiment confirms the adequate desorption as well as reusability without significant loss of efficiency. The results reveal the technical feasibility of the prepared nanoparticles for their easy synthesis, recovery, cost effective, eco-friendly and a promising advanced adsorbent for environmental pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Data Sharing Report for the Quantification of Removable Activity in Various Surveillance and Maintenance Facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

    SciTech Connect

    King, David A.

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OR-EM) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. Specifically, DOE OR-EM requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting potential removable radiological contamination that may be transferrable to future personal protective equipment (PPE) and contamination control materials—collectively referred to as PPE throughout the remainder of this report—used in certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Project facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Routine surveys in Bldgs. 3001, 3005, 3010, 3028, 3029, 3038, 3042, 3517, 4507, and 7500 continuously generate PPE. The waste is comprised of Tyvek coveralls, gloves, booties, Herculite, and other materials used to prevent worker exposure or the spread of contamination during routine maintenance and monitoring activities. This report describes the effort to collect and quantify removable activity that may be used by the ORNL S&M Project team to develop radiation instrumentation “screening criteria.” Material potentially containing removable activity was collected on smears, including both masselin large-area wipes (LAWs) and standard paper smears, and analyzed for site-related constituents (SRCs) in an analytical laboratory. The screening criteria, if approved, may be used to expedite waste disposition of relatively clean PPE. The ultimate objectives of this effort were to: 1) determine whether screening criteria can be developed for these facilities, and 2) provide process knowledge information for future site planners. The screening criteria, if calculated, must be formally approved by Federal Facility Agreement parties prior to use for

  3. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, Scott L.

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  4. Experimental study of the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and scale formation in limestone FGD process with lab and pilot test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Baek, J.J.; Kim, B.H.

    1997-12-31

    There are several tens of processes applied to Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) process in the world, which can be classified as wet, semi-dry and dry type. Among them, the wet type FGD is the most widely applied process for the large scale plant, such as power plant. The fundamental reasons of the preference for the wet type process are its high reliability and economic aspects. About 90% of the wet type process applied to actual plants is using the limestone -based gypsum process. Even though the limestone-based FGD process has simple construction and reliable SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, it has some problems in long-period continuous operation. Among these, the most serious one is the scaling. Scale is the solid mixture of reaction intermediate and by-product formed during various chemical reaction steps of FGD process. There are three types of scale in FGD absorber: calcium sulfite, gypsum, and CSS (Coprecipitated Calcium Sulfate and Sulfite). They have the tendency to precipitate on the absorber internals, such as packing, spray nozzles, mist eliminator, and surface of absorber itself, causing plugging, thus reducing the operation reliability. The major factor responsible for such problem is the lack of understanding for calcium sulfur salts chemistry, which occurred during the reaction steps of FGD process. In this study, the effect of operating conditions--gas velocity, gas temperature, SO{sub 2} concentration, L/G ratio, slurry concentration, etc.--on the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and scale formation will be investigated. The scale formation mechanism will be studied to verify in a lab-scale test and the control method of scale for reliable operation will be established by the application of the lab-scale test result to pilot-scale facility test.

  5. Localized corrosion studies on materials proposed for a safety-grade sodium-to- air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamachi Mudali, U.; Khatak, H. S.; Dayal, R. K.; Gnanamoorthy, J. B.

    1993-02-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the localized corrosion resistance of materials proposed for the construction of the safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors. The materials, such as Alloy 800,9Cr-lMo steel, and type 316LN stainless steel, in different microstructural conditions were assessed for pitting and stress-corrosion cracking resistances in a chloride medium. The results indicated that 9Cr-lMo steel in the normalized and tempered condition can be considered for the above application from the standpoint of corrosion resistance.

  6. Localized corrosion studies on materials proposed for a safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mudali, U.K.; Khatak, H.S.; Dayal, R.K.; Gnanamoorthy, J.B. )

    1993-02-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the localized corrosion resistance of materials proposed for the construction of the safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors. The materials, such as Alloy 800, 9Cr-1 Mo steel, and type 316LN stainless steel, in different microstructural conditions were assessed for pitting and stress-corrosion cracking resistances in a chloride medium. The results indicated that 9Cr-1Mo steel in the normalized and tempered condition can be considered for the above application from the standpoint of corrosion resistance.

  7. 41 CFR 102-74.185 - What heating and cooling policy must Federal agencies follow in Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the building systems, Federal agencies must— (a) Operate heating and cooling systems in the most... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What heating and cooling... and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL...

  8. 41 CFR 102-74.185 - What heating and cooling policy must Federal agencies follow in Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the building systems, Federal agencies must— (a) Operate heating and cooling systems in the most... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What heating and cooling... and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL...

  9. 41 CFR 102-74.185 - What heating and cooling policy must Federal agencies follow in Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the building systems, Federal agencies must— (a) Operate heating and cooling systems in the most... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What heating and cooling... and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL...

  10. 41 CFR 102-74.185 - What heating and cooling policy must Federal agencies follow in Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the building systems, Federal agencies must— (a) Operate heating and cooling systems in the most... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What heating and cooling... and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL...

  11. 41 CFR 102-74.185 - What heating and cooling policy must Federal agencies follow in Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the building systems, Federal agencies must— (a) Operate heating and cooling systems in the most... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What heating and cooling... and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL...

  12. Definition of a facility for experimental studies of two-phase flows and heat transfer in porous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, D.C.; Eaton, R.R.

    1981-12-31

    A facility-development effort is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in order to create an experimental capability for the study of two-phase, steam/water flows through a variety of porous media. The facility definition phase of this project is described. Equations are derived for the steady, adiabatic, macroscopically-linear two-phase flow of a single-component fluid through a porous medium, including energy transfer both by convection and conduction. These equations are then solved to give relative permeabilities for the steam and water phases as functions of known and/or measurable quantities. A viable experimental approach was thereby formulated, leading to the definition of facility components and instrumentation requirements, including the application of gamma-beam densitometry for the measurement of liquid-saturation distributions in porous media. Finally, a state-of-the-art computer code was utilized to numerically simulate the proposed experiments, providing an estimate of the facility operating envelope.

  13. Enhancement of n-butanol production by in situ butanol removal using permeating-heating-gas stripping in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Ren, Hengfei; Liu, Dong; Zhao, Ting; Shi, Xinchi; Cheng, Hao; Zhao, Nan; Li, Zhenjian; Li, Bingbing; Niu, Huanqing; Zhuang, Wei; Xie, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaochun; Wu, Jinglan; Ying, Hanjie

    2014-07-01

    Butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fed-batch fermentation using permeating-heating-gas was determined in this study. Fermentation was performed with Clostridium acetobutylicum B3 in a fibrous bed bioreactor and permeating-heating-gas stripping was used to eliminate substrate and product inhibition, which normally restrict ABE production and sugar utilization to below 20 g/L and 60 g/L, respectively. In batch fermentation (without permeating-heating-gas stripping), C. acetobutylicum B3 utilized 60 g/L glucose and produced 19.9 g/L ABE and 12 g/L butanol, while in the integrated process 290 g/L glucose was utilized and 106.27 g/L ABE and 66.09 g/L butanol were produced. The intermittent gas stripping process generated a highly concentrated condensate containing approximately 15% (w/v) butanol, 4% (w/v) acetone, a small amount of ethanol (<1%), and almost no acids, resulting in a highly concentrated butanol solution [∼ 70% (w/v)] after phase separation. Butanol removal by permeating-heating-gas stripping has potential for commercial ABE production.

  14. Facile synthesis of Fe3O4-graphene@mesoporous SiO2 nanocomposites for efficient removal of Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xi-Lin; Shi, Yanpeng; Zhong, Shuxian; Lin, Hongjun; Chen, Jian-Rong

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we have developed a facile and low-cost method for the synthesis of novel graphene based nanosorbents. Firstly, well-defined Fe3O4 nanoparticles were decorated onto graphene sheets, and then a layer of mesoporous SiO2 were deposited on the surface of the Fe3O4-graphene composites. The obtained Fe3O4-graphene@mesoporous SiO2 nanocomposites (denoted as MG@m-SiO2) were characterized by scanning electron microscopic (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The adsorptive property was investigated by using MG@m-SiO2 as sorbents and Methylene Blue (MB), a common dye, as model of the organic pollutants. Adsorption kinetics, isotherms, thermodynamics as well as effects of pH and adsorbent dose on the adsorption were studied. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics are better described by Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. Thermodynamic studies suggest that the adsorption of MB onto the MG@m-SiO2 is endothermic and spontaneous process. The results imply that the MG@m-SiO2 can be served as a cost-effective adsorbent for the removal of organic pollutants from aqueous solutions.

  15. Thiol-functionalization of metal-organic framework by a facile coordination-based postsynthetic strategy and enhanced removal of Hg2+ from water.

    PubMed

    Ke, Fei; Qiu, Ling-Guang; Yuan, Yu-Peng; Peng, Fu-Min; Jiang, Xia; Xie, An-Jian; Shen, Yu-Hua; Zhu, Jun-Fa

    2011-11-30

    The presence of coordinatively unsaturated metal centers in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) provides an accessible way to selectively functionalize MOFs through coordination bonds. In this work, we describe thiol-functionalization of MOFs by choosing a well known three-dimensional (3D) Cu-based MOF, i.e. [Cu(3)(BTC)(2)(H(2)O)(3)](n) (HKUST-1, BTC=benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate), by a facile coordination-based postsynthetic strategy, and demonstrate their application for removal of heavy metal ion from water. A series of [Cu(3)(BTC)(2)](n) samples stoichiometrically decorated with thiol groups has been prepared through coordination bonding of coordinatively unsaturated metal centers in HKUST-1 with -SH group in dithioglycol. The obtained thiol-functionalized samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and N(2) sorption-desorption isothermal. Significantly, the thiol-functionalized [Cu(3)(BTC)(2)](n) exhibited remarkably high adsorption affinity (K(d)=4.73 × 10(5)mL g(-1)) and high adsorption capacity (714.29 mg g(-1)) for Hg(2+) adsorption from water, while the unfunctionalized HKUST-1 showed no adsorption of Hg(2+) under the same condition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Plum Brook facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozar, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Research Facility (B-2); the Hydrogen Heat Transfer Facility (HHTF); the Rocket Dynamics and Control Facility (B-3); the Cryogenic Propellant Tank Site (K-Site); and the Space Power Facility (SPF).

  17. Portable breathing system. [a breathing apparatus using a rebreathing system of heat exchangers for carbon dioxide removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, J. S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A semiclosed-loop rebreathing system is discussed for use in a hostile environment. A packed bed regenerative heat exchanger providing two distinct temperature humidity zones of breathing gas with one zone providing cool, relatively dry air and the second zone providing hot, moist air is described.

  18. Heat transfer tests of the NASA-MSC space shuttle configuration at the Langley Research Center Mach 8 Variable Density Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connor, L. E.; Sparks, V. W.; Bhadsavle, A. G.

    1971-01-01

    The experimental investigations performed on the NASA-Manned Spacecraft Center Space Shuttle orbiter and booster configurations at a Mach 8 variable density facility are presented. The test program was a series of aerothermodynamic wind tunnel tests that were run over a range of angles of attack, yaw angles, and Reynolds numbers. Objectives of the test program were to obtain heat transfer data over the NASA-Manned Spacecraft Center Space Shuttle orbiter, booster, and launch configurations for a range of angles of attack from - 20 to + 30 deg, yaw angles of 0 and + or - 6 deg, and Reynolds numbers of 0.6, 2.0, and 3.7 x one million. The phase-change coating technique was used to obtain heat transfer data. Information received from these tests will be instrumental in performing thermal protection systems studies and vehicle aerodynamic design.

  19. A Quantitative Study of the Viability of Greywater Heat Recovery (GWHR): GWHR Implemented in Barracks and Dining Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    30 B4 Greywater heat recovery cooling modes (reference 2) ........................................................... 32 ERDC...Cubic meter pints (US liquid) 0.473176 Liters cubic feet 0.02831685 cubic meters ERDC/CERL TR-11-20 x ERDC/CERL TR-11-20 1 1 Introduction...energy to preheat domestic hot water, it is also possible to use the recovered energy (or alternatively, the tech- nology) for space heating or cooling

  20. Heat deposition rate measurements using a graphite quasi-adiabatic calorimeter and thermoluminescent dosimeters in a fusion environment of the LOTUS facility

    SciTech Connect

    Joneja, O.P.; Rosselet, M.; Luethi, A.; Ligou, J.; Anand, R.P.; Buchillier, T.

    1995-11-01

    Heat deposition rate measurements are made by an extremely sensitive quasi-adiabatic graphite calorimeter and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in the fusion environment of the LOTUS facility. The reproducibility of these measurements is found to be better than 1% for a dose rate more than 60 cGy/min and better than 3.8% for dose rates in the range of 6 to 60 cGy/min. The heating rates are found to vary linearly with neutron source strength. The calculation to experiment (C/E) for the bare calorimeter is found to be 1.05, whereas inside the graphite block, C/E varies from 1.11 to 1.32. These measurements are analyzed by the MCNP Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code using the BMCCS2, PHOTXS2, and EL2 cross-section libraries. The influence of wall-returned neutrons and gammas is found to be negligible. A detailed data treatment is done with the TLD outputs to arrive at the gamma heating component at different locations in the graphite by employing the Burlin theory. The gamma production is found to be well represented in the calculations. On the other hand, measured and calculated net nuclear heating in the graphite differ considerably. A downward revision of the neutron kerma factor would be desirable. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Annual Performance of a Two-Speed, Dedicated Dehumidification Heat Pump in the NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility.

    PubMed

    Payne, W Vance

    2016-01-01

    A 2715 ft(2) (252 m(2)), two story, residential home of the style typical of the Gaithersburg, Maryland area was constructed in 2012 to demonstrate technologies for net-zero energy (NZE) homes (or ZEH). The NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) functions as a laboratory to support the development and adoption of cost-effective NZE designs, technologies, construction methods, and building codes. The primary design goal was to meet the comfort and functional needs of the simulated occupants. The first annual test period began on July 1, 2013 and ended June 30, 2014. During the first year of operation, the home's annual energy consumption was 13039 kWh (4.8 kWh ft(-2), 51.7 kWh m(-2)), and the 10.2 kW solar photovoltaic system generated an excess of 484 kWh. During this period the heating and air conditioning of the home was performed by a novel air-source heat pump that utilized a reheat heat exchanger to allow hot compressor discharge gas to reheat the supply air during a dedicated dehumidification mode. During dedicated dehumidification, room temperature air was supplied to the living space until the relative humidity setpoint of 50% was satisfied. The heat pump consumed a total of 6225 kWh (2.3 kWh ft(-2,) 24.7 kWh m(-2)) of electrical energy for cooling, heating, and dehumidification. Annual cooling efficiency was 10.1 Btu W(-1)h(-1) (2.95 W W(-1)), relative to the rated SEER of the heat pump of 15.8 Btu W(-1)h(-1) (4.63 W W(-1)). Annual heating efficiency was 7.10 Btu W(-1)h(-1) (2.09 W W(-1)), compared with the unit's rated HSPF of 9.05 Btu W(-1)h(-1) (2.65 W W(-1)). These field measured efficiency numbers include dedicated dehumidification operation and standby energy use for the year. Annual sensible heat ratio was approximately 70%. Standby energy consumption was 5.2 % and 3.5 % of the total electrical energy used for cooling and heating, respectively.

  2. Annual Performance of a Two-Speed, Dedicated Dehumidification Heat Pump in the NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility

    PubMed Central

    Payne, W. Vance

    2017-01-01

    A 2715 ft2 (252 m2), two story, residential home of the style typical of the Gaithersburg, Maryland area was constructed in 2012 to demonstrate technologies for net-zero energy (NZE) homes (or ZEH). The NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) functions as a laboratory to support the development and adoption of cost-effective NZE designs, technologies, construction methods, and building codes. The primary design goal was to meet the comfort and functional needs of the simulated occupants. The first annual test period began on July 1, 2013 and ended June 30, 2014. During the first year of operation, the home's annual energy consumption was 13039 kWh (4.8 kWh ft-2, 51.7 kWh m-2), and the 10.2 kW solar photovoltaic system generated an excess of 484 kWh. During this period the heating and air conditioning of the home was performed by a novel air-source heat pump that utilized a reheat heat exchanger to allow hot compressor discharge gas to reheat the supply air during a dedicated dehumidification mode. During dedicated dehumidification, room temperature air was supplied to the living space until the relative humidity setpoint of 50% was satisfied. The heat pump consumed a total of 6225 kWh (2.3 kWh ft-2, 24.7 kWh m-2) of electrical energy for cooling, heating, and dehumidification. Annual cooling efficiency was 10.1 Btu W-1h-1 (2.95 W W-1), relative to the rated SEER of the heat pump of 15.8 Btu W-1h-1 (4.63 W W-1). Annual heating efficiency was 7.10 Btu W-1h-1 (2.09 W W-1), compared with the unit's rated HSPF of 9.05 Btu W-1h-1 (2.65 W W-1). These field measured efficiency numbers include dedicated dehumidification operation and standby energy use for the year. Annual sensible heat ratio was approximately 70%. Standby energy consumption was 5.2 % and 3.5 % of the total electrical energy used for cooling and heating, respectively. PMID:28729740

  3. The effects of urea modification and heat treatment on the process of NO2 removal by wood-based activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Bashkova, Svetlana; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2009-05-01

    The removal of NO(2) on urea-modified and heat-treated wood-based activated carbons was studied. From the obtained results it was found that these modifications, especially when done at 950 degrees C, have a positive effect on NO(2) adsorption and on the retention of NO (the product of NO(2) reduction by carbon). The presence of moisture in the system enhances the removal of NO(2) but negatively affects the retention of NO. It is possible that the formation of active centers on the carbon surface and some increase in the volume of supermicropores during the high temperature treatment play a significant role in these removal processes. The surface of the carbons was analyzed in terms of the pK(a) distributions. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of the NO(2) adsorption products were carried out by means of FTIR and TA techniques, respectively. The main products found on the carbon surface were the NO(3) and NO(2) species.

  4. Full scale calcium bromide injection with subsequent mercury oxidation and removal within wet flue gas desulphurization system: Experience at a 700 MW coal-fired power facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Mark Simpson

    The Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule, which requires that existing power plants reduce mercury emissions to meet an emission rate of 1.2 lb/TBtu on a 30-day rolling average and that new plants meet a 0.0002 lb/GWHr emission rate. This translates to mercury removals greater than 90% for existing units and greater than 99% for new units. Current state-of-the-art technology for the control of mercury emissions uses activated carbon injected upstream of a fabric filter, a costly proposition. For example, a fabric filter, if not already available, would require a 200M capital investment for a 700 MW size unit. A lower-cost option involves the injection of activated carbon into an existing cold-side electrostatic precipitator. Both options would incur the cost of activated carbon, upwards of 3M per year. The combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors and wet flue gas desulphurization (wet FGD) systems have demonstrated the ability to substantially reduce mercury emissions, especially at units that burn coals containing sufficient halogens. Halogens are necessary for transforming elemental mercury to oxidized mercury, which is water-soluble. Plants burning halogen-deficient coals such as Power River Basin (PRB) coals currently have no alternative but to install activated carbon-based approaches to control mercury emissions. This research consisted of investigating calcium bromide addition onto PRB coal as a method of increasing flue gas halogen concentration. The treated coal was combusted in a 700 MW boiler and the subsequent treated flue gas was introduced into a wet FGD. Short-term parametric and an 83-day longer-term tests were completed to determine the ability of calcium bromine to oxidize mercury and to study the removal of the mercury in a wet FGD. The research goal was to show that calcium bromine addition to PRB coal was a viable approach for meeting the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule

  5. Efficiency of Artemia cysts removal as a model invasive spore using a continuous microwave system with heat recovery.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sundar; Ortego, Jeffrey; Rusch, Kelly A; Boldor, Dorin

    2008-12-15

    A continuous microwave system to treat ballast water inoculated with Artemia salina cysts as a model invasive spore was tested for its efficacy in inactivating the cysts present. The system was tested at two different flow rates (1 and 2 L x min(-1)) and two different power levels (2.5 and 4.5 kW). Temperature profiles indicate that the system could deliver heating loads in excess of 100 degrees C in a uniform and near-instantaneous manner when using a heat recovery system. Except for a power and flow rate combination of 2.5 kW and 2 L x min(-1), complete inactivation of the cysts was observed at all combinations at holding times below 100 s. The microwave treatment was better or equal to the control treatment in inactivating the cysts. Use of heat exchangers increased the power conversion efficiency and the overall efficiency of the treatment system. Cost economics analysis indicates that in the present form of development microwave treatment costs are higher than the existing ballast water treatment methods. Overall, tests results indicated that microwave treatment of ballast water is a promising method that can be used in conjunction with other methods to form an efficient treatment system that can prevent introduction of potentially invasive spore forming species in non-native waters.

  6. Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the heat flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.; Eddings, E.G.; Ring, T.; Thornock, J.; Draper, T.; Isaac, B.; Rezeai, D.; Toth, P.; Wu, Y.; Kelly, K.

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this task is to produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers. Validation data came from the Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF) for tangentially fired, oxy-coal operation. This task brings together experimental data collected under Alstom’s DOE project for measuring oxy-firing performance parameters in the BSF with this University of Utah project for large eddy simulation (LES) and validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ). The Utah work includes V/UQ with measurements in the single-burner facility where advanced strategies for O2 injection can be more easily controlled and data more easily obtained. Highlights of the work include: • Simulations of Alstom’s 15 megawatt (MW) BSF, exploring the uncertainty in thermal boundary conditions. A V/UQ analysis showed consistency between experimental results and simulation results, identifying uncertainty bounds on the quantities of interest for this system (Subtask 9.1) • A simulation study of the University of Utah’s oxy-fuel combustor (OFC) focused on heat flux (Subtask 9.2). A V/UQ analysis was used to show consistency between experimental and simulation results. • Measurement of heat flux and temperature with new optical diagnostic techniques and comparison with conventional measurements (Subtask 9.3). Various optical diagnostics systems were created to provide experimental data to the simulation team. The final configuration utilized a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) camera to measure heat flux and temperature, which was synchronized with a high-speed, visible camera to utilize two-color pyrometry to measure temperature and soot concentration. • Collection of heat flux and temperature measurements in the University of Utah’s OFC for use is subtasks 9.2 and 9.3 (Subtask 9.4). Several replicates were carried to better assess the experimental error. Experiments were specifically designed for the

  7. Retrofit experience on two major WTE facilities in the UK using heat recovery economizers and dry scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Heap, B.M.; Finnis, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    The paper examines the decision making philosophy in choosing dry scrubbing technology for the flue gas cleaning process for the 4 plants upgraded, particularly for the two largest facilities at Coventry and Edmonton, London. At both these facilities the additional energy recovery possible from the adoption of totally dry scrubbing technology in place of the recognized BATNEEC of spray tower with lime slurry scrubbing, became a major decision influencing factor. The extent of work involved in bringing an existing facility into conformity with the new emissions to air legislation is detailed, and clearly demonstrates that this work is not simply an end of pipe solution, but entails the integration of several different modern technologies. Difficulties encountered during 2 years installation on a continuously operating waste disposal facility, without disruption to waste processing, energy recovery, production or revenue are highlighted, and the importance of a true project partnership between the client and the supplier. Emissions testing results are documented, clearly demonstrating that totally dry scrubbing technology for the treatment of incineration flue gases is more than capable of attaining the necessary maximum emission limits and maximizing the potential energy recovery from the waste in a manner which corresponds to declared Governmental policy. The lessons learned in the UK can be directly applied to the North American retrofit market

  8. Heat transfer results and operational characteristics of the NASA Lewis Research Center Hot Section Cascade Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Yeh, F. C.; Fronek, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center gas turbine hot section test facility has been developed to provide a real-engine environment with well known boundary conditions for the aerothermal performance evaluation/verification of computer design codes. The initial aerothermal research data obtained are presented and the operational characteristics of the facility are discussed. This facility is capable of testing at temperatures and pressures up to 1600 K and 18 atm which corresponds to a vane exit Reynolds number range of 0.5x10(6) to 2.5x10(6) based on vane chord. The component cooling air temperature can be independently modulated between 330 and 700 K providing gas-to-coolant temperature ratios similar to current engine application. Research instrumentation of the test components provide conventional pressure and temperature measurements as well as metal temperatures measured by IR-photography. The primary data acquisition mode is steady state through a 704 channel multiplexer/digitizer. The test facility was configured as an annular cascade of full coverage filmcooled vanes for the initial series of research tests.

  9. Heat transfer results and operational characteristics of the NASA Lewis Research Center hot section cascade test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Yeh, F. C.; Fronek, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center gas turbine hot section test facility has been developed to provide a real-engine environment with well known boundary conditions for the aerothermal performance evaluation/verification of computer design codes. The initial aerothermal research data obtained are presented and the operational characteristics of the facility are discussed. This facility is capable of testing at temperatures and pressures up to 1600 K and 18 atm which corresponds to a vane exit Reynolds number range of 0.5 x 1 million to 2.5 x 1 million based on vane chord. The component cooling air temperature can be independently modulated between 330 and 700 K providing gas-to-coolant temperature ratios similar to current engine application. Research instrumentation of the test components provide conventional pressure and temperature measurements as well as metal temperatures measured by IR-photography. The primary data acquisition mode is steady state through a 704 channel multiplexer/digitizer. The test facility was configured as an annular cascade of full coverage film cooled vanes for the initial series of research tests.

  10. Heat transfer results and operational characteristics of the NASA Lewis Research Center hot section cascade test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Yeh, F. C.; Fronek, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center gas turbine hot section test facility has been developed to provide a real-engine environment with well known boundary conditions for the aerothermal performance evaluation/verification of computer design codes. The initial aerothermal research data obtained are presented and the operational characteristics of the facility are discussed. This facility is capable of testing at temperatures and pressures up to 1600 K and 18 atm which corresponds to a vane exit Reynolds number range of 0.5 x 1 million to 2.5 x 1 million based on vane chord. The component cooling air temperature can be independently modulated between 330 and 700 K providing gas-to-coolant temperature ratios similar to current engine application. Research instrumentation of the test components provide conventional pressure and temperature measurements as well as metal temperatures measured by IR-photography. The primary data acquisition mode is steady state through a 704 channel multiplexer/digitizer. The test facility was configured as an annular cascade of full coverage film cooled vanes for the initial series of research tests.

  11. Old hydrofracture facility tanks contents removal action operations plan at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Text. Volume 2: Checklists and work instructions

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This Operations Plan summarizes the operating activities for transferring contents of five low-level (radioactive) liquid waste storage tanks associated with the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) for secure storage. The transfer will be accomplished through sluicing and pumping operations which are designed to pump the slurry in a closed circuit system using a sluicing nozzle to resuspend the sludge. Once resuspended, the slurry will be transferred to the MVST. The report documenting the material transfer will be prepared after transfer of the tank materials has been completed. The OBF tanks contain approximately 52,600 gal (199,000 L) of low-level radioactive waste consisting of both sludge and supernatant. This material is residual from the now-abandoned grout injection operations conducted from 1964 to 1980. Total curie content is approximately 30,000 Ci. A sluicing and pumping system has been specifically designed for the OHF tanks contents transfer operations. This system is remotely operated and incorporates a sluicing nozzle and arm (Borehole Miner) originally designed for use in the mining industry. The Borehole Miner is an in-tank device designed to deliver a high pressure jet spray via an extendable nozzle. In addition to removing the waste from the tanks, the use of this equipment will demonstrate applicability for additional underground storage tank cleaning throughout the U.S. Department of Energy complex. Additional components of the complete sluicing and pumping system consist of a high pressure pumping system for transfer to the MVST, a low pressure pumping system for transfer to the recycle tank, a ventilation system for providing negative pressure on tanks, and instrumentation and control systems for remote operation and monitoring.

  12. Facile preparation of MoS2 based polymer composites via mussel inspired chemistry and their high efficiency for removal of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiang; Liu, Meiying; Chen, Junyu; Wan, Qing; Tian, Jianwen; Huang, Long; Jiang, Ruming; Wen, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-10-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a novel type of two-dimensional nanomaterial, which has attracted great research attention for its excellent physicochemical properties and possible applications. In this work, we prepared a novel MoS2 composite (MoS2-PDOPA) through the self-polymerization of levodopa (DOPA) on the surface of MoS2 under a weak alkaline solution. The obtained samples, including pure MoS2 and MoS2-PDOPA composite were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The potential environmental applications of MoS2-PDOPA were evaluated by using MoS2-PDOPA as adsorbent to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of various operational parameters such as contact time, initial MB concentration, solution pH and temperature on the adsorption of MB by MoS2-PDOPA. According to the adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics analysis, the MB adsorption onto MoS2-PDOPA follows the intraparticle diffusion model and Langmuir isotherm model, and the MB adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The maximum adsorption capacity of MoS2-PDOPA is calculated to be 244.03 mg/g at 298 K. As compared with unmodified MoS2, the adsorption capacity of MoS2-PDOPA is obviously improved. Taken together, we developed a facile method to prepare MoS2-PDOPA composites based on mussel inspired chemistry. The resultant composites could be utilized as efficient adsorbents with great potential for environmental adsorption applications.

  13. Lotus-like effect for metal filings recovery and particle removal on heated metal surfaces using Leidenfrost water droplets.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cher Lin Clara; Sapiha, Kostantyn; Leong, Yoke Fun Hannah; Choi, Siwon; Anariba, Franklin; Thio, Beng Joo Reginald

    2015-07-21

    A "lotus-like" effect is applied to demonstrate the ability of the Leidenfrost water droplets to recover Cu particles on a heated Al substrate. Cu particles on the heated surface adhere to the rim of the Leidenfrost droplets and eventually coat the droplets' surface to form an aggregation. When Fe filings are added to the Cu particles, the aggregated mixture can then be collected using a strong rare earth magnet (NdFeB) upon evaporation of the water. We also show that the Leidenfrost effect can be effectively utilized to recover both hydrophobic (dust and activated carbon) and hydrophilic (SiO2 and MgO) particles from heated Al surfaces without any topographical modification or surfactant addition. Our results show that hydrophobic and hydrophilic materials can be collected with >92% and >96% effectiveness on grooved and smooth Al surfaces, respectively. Furthermore, we observed no significant differences in the amount of material collected above the Leidenfrost point within the tested temperature range (240 °C vs. 340 °C) as well as when the Al sheet was replaced with a Cu sheet as the substrate. However, we did observe that the Leidenfrost droplets were able to collect a greater amount of material when the working liquid was water than when it was ethanol. Our findings show promise in the development of an effective precious coinage metal filings recovery technology for application in the mint industry, as well as the self-cleaning of metallic and semiconductor surfaces where manual cleaning is not amenable.

  14. Uncertainty analysis of thermocouple measurements used in normal and abnormal thermal environment experiments at Sandia's Radiant Heat Facility and Lurance Canyon Burn Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2004-04-01

    It would not be possible to confidently qualify weapon systems performance or validate computer codes without knowing the uncertainty of the experimental data used. This report provides uncertainty estimates associated with thermocouple data for temperature measurements from two of Sandia's large-scale thermal facilities. These two facilities (the Radiant Heat Facility (RHF) and the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS)) routinely gather data from normal and abnormal thermal environment experiments. They are managed by Fire Science & Technology Department 09132. Uncertainty analyses were performed for several thermocouple (TC) data acquisition systems (DASs) used at the RHF and LCBS. These analyses apply to Type K, chromel-alumel thermocouples of various types: fiberglass sheathed TC wire, mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed (MIMS) TC assemblies, and are easily extended to other TC materials (e.g., copper-constantan). Several DASs were analyzed: (1) A Hewlett-Packard (HP) 3852A system, and (2) several National Instrument (NI) systems. The uncertainty analyses were performed on the entire system from the TC to the DAS output file. Uncertainty sources include TC mounting errors, ANSI standard calibration uncertainty for Type K TC wire, potential errors due to temperature gradients inside connectors, extension wire uncertainty, DAS hardware uncertainties including noise, common mode rejection ratio, digital voltmeter accuracy, mV to temperature conversion, analog to digital conversion, and other possible sources. Typical results for 'normal' environments (e.g., maximum of 300-400 K) showed the total uncertainty to be about {+-}1% of the reading in absolute temperature. In high temperature or high heat flux ('abnormal') thermal environments, total uncertainties range up to {+-}2-3% of the reading (maximum of 1300 K). The higher uncertainties in abnormal thermal environments are caused by increased errors due to the effects of imperfect TC attachment to the test item. 'Best

  15. Summary of channel catfish and rainbow trout production at the Gallatin Waste Heat Aquaculture Facility, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, C.M.; Schweinforth, R.L.; Burton, G.L.

    1984-02-01

    These studies have indicated that channel catfish and rainbow trout can be intensively cultured in concrete raceways using waste heat effluent water from the Gallatin Steam Plant. Optimum production was attained, especially with channel catfish, when desirable water temperatures and proper environmental conditions occurred. High density culture is possible during the winter and early spring months.

  16. Preliminary conceptual design for geothermal space heating conversion of school district 50 joint facilities at Pagosa Springs, Colorado. GTA Report No. 6

    SciTech Connect

    Engen, I.A.

    1981-11-01

    This feasibility study and preliminary conceptual design effort assesses the conversion of Colorado School District 50 facilities - a high school and gym, and a middle school building - at Pagosa Springs, Colorado to geothermal space heating. A preliminary cost-benefit assessment made on the basis of estimated costs for conversion, system maintenance, debt service, resource development, electricity to power pumps, and savings from reduced natural gas consumption concluded that an economic conversion depended on development of an adequate geothermal resource (approximately 150/sup 0/F, 400 gpm). Material selection assumed that the geothermal water to the main supply system was isolated to minimize effects of corrosion and deposition, and that system-compatible components would be used for the building modifications. Asbestos-cement distribution pipe, a stainless steel heat exchanger, and stainless steel lined valves were recommended for the supply, heat transfer, and disposal mechanisms, respectively. A comparison of the calculated average gas consumption cost, escalated at 10% per year, with conversion project cost, both in 1977 dollars, showed that the project could be amortized over less than 20 years at current interest rates. In view of the favorable economics and the uncertain future availability and escalating cost of natural gas, the conversion appears economicaly feasible and desirable.

  17. Plasma heating and generation of energetic ions with novel three-ion ICRF scenarios on Alcator C-Mod and JET tokamak facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, Yevgen

    2016-10-01

    This talk will report the first experimental results of novel three-ion ICRF scenarios (two or more majority ion species and one minority) for plasma heating and generating energetic ions in fusion facilities. The key feature of these scenarios is strong absorption of RF power possible at lower concentrations of minority ions than in two-ion plasmas. Effective plasma heating by injecting a small amount of 3He ions into H-D plasma mixtures with nH /ne 70 % has been successfully demonstrated in Alcator C-Mod and JET tokamaks. In C-Mod, efficient plasma heating was observed for 3He concentrations from 0.4-2%. During the discharges, a strong increase in Alfvén eigenmode activity was found to coincide with the addition of 3He to the H-D plasmas. Even lower 3He concentrations ( 0.2 %) were utilized in recent JET experiments. The potential of the D-(3He) -H scenario for plasma heating and generating MeV-range ions in JET plasmas was confirmed by a set of independent measurements, including stabilization of sawteeth, characteristic γ-ray emission, fast-ion loss detector. Furthermore, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes with a range of toroidal mode numbers n were detected, which is another indication for the presence of significant population of high-energy 3He ions in a plasma. The discussed mechanism of resonant wave-particle interaction opens up various unexplored opportunities for ICRF system, including new scenarios for plasma heating. Three-ion ICRF scenarios are also relevant for the experimental programme of ITER. The possibility of using intrinsic 9Be impurities as the minority (instead of 3He) was suggested for heating bulk ions in D-T plasmas of JET and ITER, as well as heating trace amounts of 3He and 4He ions in H majority plasmas of ITER. The latest results and simulation comparisons will be presented. On behalf of Alcator C-Mod Team (MIT-PSFC, US) and JET Contributors (Culham, UK). Work supported by the US DOE (C-Mod DE-FC02-99ER54512 and SciDAC DE-FC02-01ER54648

  18. Removal of cadmium(II) ion from aqueous system by dry biomass, immobilized live and heat-inactivated Oscillatoria sp. H1 isolated from freshwater (Mogan Lake).

    PubMed

    Katircioğlu, Hikmet; Aslim, Belma; Rehber Türker, Ali; Atici, Tahir; Beyatli, Yavuz

    2008-07-01

    Oscillatoria sp. H1 (Cyanobacteria, microalgae) isolated from Mogan Lake was used for the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions as its dry biomass, alive and heat-inactivated immobilized form on Ca-alginate. Particularly, the effect of physicochemical parameters like pH, initial concentration and contact time were investigated. The sorption of Cd(II) ions on the sorbent used was examined for the cadmium concentrations within the range of 25-250 mg/L. The biosorption of Cd(II) increased as the initial concentration of Cd(II) ions increased in the medium up to 100 mg/L. Maximum biosorption capacities for plain alginate beads, dry biomass, immobilized live Oscillatoria sp. H1 and immobilized heat-inactivated Oscillatoria sp. H1 were 21.2, 30.1, 32.2 and 27.5 mg/g, respectively. Biosorption equilibrium was established in about 1 h for the biosorption processes. The biosorption was well described by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Maximum adsorption was observed at pH 6.0. The alginate-algae beads could be regenerated using 50 mL of 0.1 mol/L HCl solution with about 85% recovery.

  19. Experimental investigation of egg ovalbumin scaling on heated stainless steel surface and scale-removal compared with that of whey protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Lv, Hui Ting; Deng, Ren Pan; Liao, Zhen Kai; Wu, Xue E; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2013-07-01

    Fouling and cleaning on a heat exchanger surface during milk processing have been studied extensively in the past due to their great importance in energy, product quality, and safety. However, little information is available for egg ovalbumin (OVA) fouling and cleaning behavior. In the present work, fouling and cleaning behaviors of OVA were investigated using a real-time monitoring system for heat transfer coefficient. A comparison was made between the behavior of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and that of OVA. WPC has been well studied which can be used as a benchmark. Ultrasonic cleaning was also applied to investigate the cleaning behavior of OVA fouling. Results have shown that OVA created more thermal resistance than WPC in the 2 h fouling process. It was also much more difficult to remove the OVA deposit than the WPC fouling. Different from what were observed from WPC deposit, there was no optimal cleaning rate for OVA deposit in the NaOH concentration range tested (0-2.0 wt%), while WPC fouling is known to have the highest cleaning rate around 0.5 wt% NaOH concentration at moderate temperatures.

  20. One-dimensional modeling of radial heat removal during depressurized heatup transients in modular pebble-bed and prismatic high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, M.G.

    1984-07-01

    A one-dimensional computational model was developed to evaluate the heat removal capabilities of both prismatic-core and pebble-bed modular HTGRs during depressurized heatup transients. A correlation was incorporated to calculate the temperature- and neutron-fluence-dependent thermal conductivity of graphite. The modified Zehner-Schluender model was used to determine the effective thermal conductivity of a pebble bed, accounting for both conduction and radiation. Studies were performed for prismatic-core and pebble-bed modular HTGRs, and the results were compared to analyses performed by GA and GR, respectively. For the particular modular reactor design studied, the prismatic HTGR peak temperature was 2152.2/sup 0/C at 38 hours following the transient initiation, and the pebble-bed peak temperature was 1647.8/sup 0/C at 26 hours. These results compared favorably with those of GA and GE, with only slight differences caused by neglecting axial heat transfer in a one-dimensional radial model. This study found that the magnitude of the initial power density had a greater effect on the temperature excursion than did the initial temperature.

  1. Exploring HF-induced ionospheric turbulence by Doppler sounding and stimulated electromagnetic emissions at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program heating facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Evgeny N.; Shindin, Alexey V.; Grach, Savely M.; Milikh, Gennady M.; Mishin, Evgeny V.; Bernhardt, Paul A.; Siefring, Carl L.; Briczinski, Stanley J.; McCarrick, Michael J.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the features of the F region plasma perturbations during HF heating experiments at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program facility in March-April 2011 and May-June 2014. The diagnostics included multifrequency Doppler (phase) sounding (MDS) and stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE). The results concern modification of the electron density profile near the reflection and upper hybrid heights, as well as correlation of the density modification with temporal behavior of narrow continuum, downshifted maximum, and broad continuum SEE spectral features. We reveal also a new SEE spectral feature which appears in the SEE spectra for the pump frequency f0 near the third and fourth electron gyroharmonics. It is located in the SEE spectrum well below the pump wave frequency, f - f0 -(40-220) kHz, occupies a wide frequency range till 100-150 kHz, and is termed the broad downshifted emission.

  2. The 8.4 MW Modulator/Regulator Power Systems for the Electron Cyclotron Heating Facility Upgrade at DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    S.G.E. Pronko; D.S. Baggest

    1999-12-01

    Over the next three years the DIII-D National Fusion Facility at General Atomics will upgrade its electron cyclotron heating (ECH) capability from the present 3 MW at 110 GHz to 10 MW of injected microwave power. There will be ten gyrotron tubes supplied by five 8.4 MW modulator/regulator (M/R) power systems. The project has gained considerable leverage from the acquisition of surplus hardware from the MFTF program that was conducted at LLNL in the early 1980s. One of these systems had been refurbished and converted for use as an ECH power supply earlier. The experience gained and the lessons learned from operating that system have proved valuable in guiding the engineering of the new systems. This paper provides an overview of the power system design and a report on the present status of the project.

  3. Nuclear Heating Measurement in Critical Facilities and Experimental Validation of Code and Libraries - An Application to Prompt and Delayed γ Nuclear Data Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaise, P.; Di Salvo, J.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Bernard, D.; Amharrak, H.; Lemaire, M.; Ravaux, S.

    Energy from prompt and delayed gammas in actual and future nuclear systems are more and more taken into account into design studies as they play an important role in the assessment of performance and safety concerns. Their incomplete knowledge (both prompt and delayed) require to take conservative design margins on local dimensioning parameters, thus reducing the awaited performances or flexibility of these facilities, with costs that are far from being negligible. The local energy photon deposit must be accurately known for Generation-III (Gen-III), Generation-IV (Gen-IV) or the new MTR Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). The last 2 decades has seen the realization, in Zero Power Reactors (ZPR), of several programs partially devoted to γ-heating measurements. Experimental programs were and are still conducted in different Cadarache facilities such as MASURCA (for SFR), and later in MINERVE and EOLE (for JHR and Gen-III reactors). The adequacy of the γ-heating calculation was compared to experimental data using thermo-luminescent (TL) detectors and γ-fission chambers. Inconsistencies in C/E and associated uncertainties led to improvement of both libraries and experimental techniques. For these last one, characterization for TL and optically stimulated (OSL) detectors (calibration, individual response), and Monte Carlo calculation of charge repartition in those detectors and their environment were carefully checked and optimized. This step enabled to reduce the associated experimental uncertainty by a factor of 2 (8% at 2σ). Nevertheless, interpretation of integral experiment with updated calculation schemes and improved experimental techniques still tend to prove that there are some nuclei for which there are missing or erroneous data, mainly in structural and absorbing materials. New integral and differential measurements are needed to guide new evaluation efforts, which could benefit from consolidated theoretical and experimental modeling techniques.

  4. Heat pipe methanator

    DOEpatents

    Ranken, William A.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1976-07-27

    A heat pipe methanator for converting coal gas to methane. Gravity return heat pipes are employed to remove the heat of reaction from the methanation promoting catalyst, transmitting a portion of this heat to an incoming gas pre-heat section and delivering the remainder to a steam generating heat exchanger.

  5. Experiments to investigate the effect of flight path on direct containment heating (DCH) in the Surtsey test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.; Griffith, R.O. ); Nichols, R.T. )

    1991-10-01

    The goal of the Limited Flight Path (LFP) test series was to investigate the effect of reactor subcompartment flight path length on direct containment heating (DCH). The test series consisted of eight experiments with nominal flight paths of 1, 2, or 8 m. A thermitically generated mixture of iron, chromium, and alumina simulated the corium melt of a severe reactor accident. After thermite ignition, superheated steam forcibly ejected the molten debris into a 1:10 linear scale the model of a dry reactor cavity. The blowdown steam entrained the molten debris and dispersed it into the Surtsey vessel. The vessel pressure, gas temperature, debris temperature, hydrogen produced by steam/metal reactions, debris velocity, mass dispersed into the Surtsey vessel, and debris particle size were measured for each experiment. The measured peak pressure for each experiment was normalized by the total amount of energy introduced into the Surtsey vessel; the normalized pressures increased with lengthened flight path. The debris temperature at the cavity exit was about 2320 K. Gas grab samples indicated that steam in the cavity reacted rapidly to form hydrogen, so the driving gas was a mixture of steam and hydrogen. These experiments indicate that debris may be trapped in reactor subcompartments and thus will not efficiently transfer heat to gas in the upper dome of a containment building. The effect of deentrainment by reactor subcompartments may significantly reduce the peak containment load in a severe reactor accident. 8 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) start-up antenna for the mirror fusion test facility (MFTF-B)

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T.M.; Romesser, T.E.

    1985-10-02

    The purpose of the ICRH start-up antenna on MFTF-B is to heat the plasma and control the ion distribution as the density increases during start-up. The antenna, consisting of two center fed half turn loops phased 180/sup 0/ apart, has been designed for 1 MW of input power, with a goal of coupling 400 kW into the ions. To vary the heating frequency relative to the local ion cyclotron frequency, the antenna is tunable over a range from 7.5 to 12.5 MHz. The thermal requirements common to low duty cycle ICRH antennas are especially severe for the MFTF-B antenna. The stress requirements are also unique, deriving from the possibility of seismic activity or JxB forces if the magnets unexpectedly quench. Considerable attention has been paid to contact control at high current bolt-up joints, and arranging geometries so as to minimize the possibility of voltage breakdown.

  7. Nonlinear sensitivity and uncertainty analysis in support of the blowdown heat transfer program. [Test 177 at Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ronen, Y.; Bjerke, M.A.; Cacuci, D.G.; Barhen, J.

    1980-11-01

    A nonlinear uncertainty analysis methodology based on the use of first and second order sensitivity coefficients is presented. As a practical demonstration, an uncertainty analysis of several responses of interest is performed for Test 177, which is part of a series of tests conducted at the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) of the ORNL Engineering Technology Division Pressurized Water Reactor-Blowdown Heat Transfer (PWR-BDHT) program. These space- and time-dependent responses are: mass flow rate, temperature, pressure, density, enthalpy, and water qualtiy - in several volumetric regions of the experimental facility. The analysis shows that, over parts of the transient, the responses behave as linear functions of the input parameters; in these cases, their standard deviations are of the same order of magnitude as those of the input parameters. Otherwise, the responses exhibit nonlinearities and their standard deviations are considerably larger. The analysis also shows that the degree of nonlinearity of the responses is highly dependent on their volumetric locations.

  8. THE PERFORMANCE OF THE 8.4 MW MODULATOR/REGULATOR POWE SYSTEMS FOR THE ELECTRON CYCLOTRON HEATING FACILITY UPGRADE AT DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    S.G.E. PRONKO; S.W. DELAWARE; T.E. HARRIS; D. HOYT; D.H. KELLMAN; R.A. LEGG; M. LONTOC; A. NEREM; J.R. VALENTINE

    2000-11-01

    The DIII-D National Fusion Facility at General Atomics is completing the upgrade of its electron cyclotron heating (ECH) capability from the previous 3 MW at 110 GHz to 6 MW of generated microwave power. An 8.4 MW modulator/regulator (M/R) power system has been designed and constructed. Surplus hardware that was acquired from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF program) was used as part of the design foundation. The power system, with a nominal output of -80 kV and 80 A, can supply a pair of gyrotrons with up to 10 second long pulses that may or may not be modulated. The modulator/regulator was designed about the BBC CKQ200-4 tetrode, which was the key component acquired from the LLNL program. In order to meet the performance goals of the program, substantial design modifications were needed to be made on the grid driver amplifier and the closed-loop feedback regulator circuits. Also, a newly designed crowbar switch system, featuring a high speed, thyratron-like triggered gas switch, was implemented. The modulator/regulator performance to date has been demonstrated as having <0.06% peak-to-peak ripple and square wave modulation of 50% amplitude at 2 kHz. The key features of the design of the power system and its performance will be presented in this paper.

  9. Facile synthesis of ternary Ag/AgBr-Ag(2)CO(3) hybrids with enhanced photocatalytic removal of elemental mercury driven by visible light.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anchao; Zhang, Lixiang; Lu, Hao; Chen, Guoyan; Liu, Zhichao; Xiang, Jun; Sun, Lushi

    2016-08-15

    A novel technique for photocatalytic removal of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) using visible-light-driven Ag/AgBr-Ag2CO3 hybrids was proposed. The ternary Ag/AgBr-Ag2CO3 hybrids were synthesized by a simple modified co-precipitation method and characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques. The effects of AgBr content, fluorescent lamp (FSL) irradiation, solution temperature, SO2 and NO on Hg(0) removal were investigated in detail. Furthermore, a possible reaction mechanism for higher Hg(0) removal was proposed, and the simultaneous removal of Hg(0), SO2 and NO was studied. The results showed that a high efficiency of Hg(0) removal was obtained by using Ag/AgBr-Ag2CO3 hybrids under fluorescent lamp irradiation. The AgBr content, FSL irradiation, solution temperature, and SO2 all exhibited significant effects on Hg(0) removal, while NO had slight effect on Hg(0) removal. The addition of Ca(OH)2 demonstrated a little impact on Hg(0) removal and could significantly improve the SO2-resistance performance of Ag/AgBr(0.7)-Ag2CO3 hybrid. The characterization results exhibited that hydroxyl radical (OH), superoxide radical (O2(-)), hole (h(+)), and Br(0), were reactive species responsible for removing Hg(0), and the h(+) played a key role in Hg(0) removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. EPA Policies regarding the role of corporate attitude, policies, practices, and procedures, in determining whether to remove a facility from the EPA list of violating facilities following a criminal conviction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Recordkeeping requirements for owners or operators of hazardous waste facilities include record maintenance ofall hazardous wastes handled; copies of waste disposal locations and quantities;operating methods; techniques and practices for treatment.

  11. Marangoni Inside (MI) Removal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-23

    ISS036-E-023083 (23 July 2013) --- NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy, Expedition 36 flight engineer, works to remove the Marangoni Inside (MI) from the Fluid Physics Experiment Facility (FPEF) in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  12. Marangoni Inside (MI) Removal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-23

    ISS036-E-023070 (23 July 2013) --- NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy, Expedition 36 flight engineer, works to remove the Marangoni Inside (MI) from the Fluid Physics Experiment Facility (FPEF) in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  13. Marangoni Inside (MI) Removal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-23

    ISS036-E-023061 (23 July 2013) --- NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy, Expedition 36 flight engineer, works to remove the Marangoni Inside (MI) from the Fluid Physics Experiment Facility (FPEF) in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  14. 10. VIEW OF CALCINER IN ROOM 146148. THE CALCINER HEATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF CALCINER IN ROOM 146-148. THE CALCINER HEATED PLUTONIUM PEROXIDE TO CONVERT IT TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE. THE PROCESS REMOVED RESIDUAL WATER AND NITRIC ACID LEAVING A DRY, POWDERED PRODUCT. (4/29/65) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. HEAT EXCHANGER

    DOEpatents

    Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

    1962-10-23

    A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

  16. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

  17. 30 CFR 250.1727 - What information must I include in my final application to remove a platform or other facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... devices to conduct a pre-removal survey to detect the presence of turtles and marine mammals, a... recent biological surveys conducted in the vicinity of the structure and recent observations of...

  18. Analysis and recent advances in gamma heating measurements in MINERVE facility by using TLD and OSLD techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Amharrak, H.; Di Salvo, J.; Lyoussi, A.; Roche, A.; Masson-Fauchier, M.; Bosq, J. C.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop nuclear heating measurement methods in Zero Power experimental reactors. This paper presents the analysis of Thermo-Luminescent Detector (TLD) and Optically Stimulated Luminescent Detectors (OSLD) experiments in the UO{sub 2} core of the MINERVE research reactor at the CEA Cadarache. The experimental sources of uncertainties on the gamma dose have been reduced by improving the conditions, as well as the repeatability, of the calibration step for each individual TLD. The interpretation of these measurements needs to take into account calculation of cavity correction factors, related to calibration and irradiation configurations, as well as neutron corrections calculations. These calculations are based on Monte Carlo simulations of neutron-gamma and gamma-electron transport coupled particles. TLD and OSLD are positioned inside aluminum pillboxes. The comparison between calculated and measured integral gamma-ray absorbed doses using TLD, shows that calculation slightly overestimates the measurement with a C/E value equal to 1.05 {+-} 5.3 % (k = 2). By using OSLD, the calculation slightly underestimates the measurement with a C/E value equal to 0.96 {+-} 7.0% (k = 2. (authors)

  19. [Observation on the air-borne bacteria and ammonia (NS3) gas in laboratory animal facility with rotary heat exchanger].

    PubMed

    Obara, T; Matsuyama, M; Fujita, S; Yamauchi, C

    1979-01-01

    The number of air-borne bacteria in air ducts and barrierred laboratory animal rooms with the so-called econovent rotary heat exchanger, were checked monthly during a year by the pin-hole sumpler method for air ducts and Koch method for animal rooms. Also, concentration of ammonia was checked with the same samples by gas impinger. No significantly difference in number of air-borne bacteria was seen between before and after passing the econovent. Those passing through HEPA filter was not detected. There were more air-borne bacteria in animal rooms, outside locker room and shower room than in the corridor, utensil storage, inside locker room and pass box. No ammonia were detected in the outdoor, but exhaust air duct after passing the econovent contained very small amount of ammonia. On the other hand, high concentration of ammonia were preserved in the supplying air duct, exhaust air duct and mice and rats rooms, about 86% of ammonia in exhaust air duct returned back into the supplying air duct. No influences on reproduction in mice and rats were recognized.

  20. Honey Lake Power Facility under construction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal energy and wood waste are primary energy sources for the 30 megawatt, net, Honey Lake Power Facility, a cogeneration power plant. The facility 60% completed in January 1989, will use 1,300 tons per day of fuel obtained from selective forest thinnings and from logging residue combined with mill wastes. The power plant will be the largest industrial facility to use some of Lassen County's geothermal resources. The facility will produce 236 million kilowatt-hours of electricity annually. The plant consists of a wood-fired traveling grate furnace with a utility-type high pressure boiler. Fluids from a geothermal well will pass through a heat exchange to preheat boiler feedwater. Used geothermal fluid will be disposed of in an injection well. Steam will be converted to electrical power through a 35.5-megawatt turbine generator and transmitted 22 miles to Susanville over company-owned and maintained transmission lines. The plant includes pollution control for particulate removal, ammonia injection for removal of nitrogen oxides, and computer-controlled combustion systems to control carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. The highly automated wood yard consists of systems to remove metal, handle oversized material, receive up to six truck loads of wood products per hour, and continuously deliver 58 tons per hour of fuel through redundant systems to ensure maximum on-line performance. The plant is scheduled to become operational in mid-1989.