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Sample records for heat solubilized human

  1. Solubilization of bovine gelatin using power ultrasound: gelation without heating.

    PubMed

    Farahnaky, Asgar; Zendeboodi, Fatemeh; Azizi, Rezvan; Mesbahi, Gholamreza; Majzoobi, Mahsa

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of power ultrasound without using any heating stage in solubilizeing gelatin dispersions, and to characterize the mechanical and microstructural properties of the resulting gels using texture analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Usually to prepare a gel from gelatin, a primary heating stage of at about 40C or above is required to solubilize gelatin macromolecules. In this study solubilizing gelatin dispersions using power ultrasound without any heating was successfully performed. For solubilising gelatin, an ultrasound equipment with a frequency of 20 kHz, amplitude of 100% and power range of 50-150 W was used. Aqueous gelatin dispersions (4% w/v) were subjected to ultrasound for different times (40-240 s) at a constant temperature of 13C. Applying ultrasound to gelatin dispersions caused increases in water absorption and water solubility of the hydrocolloid. The textural parameters of the resulting gelatin gels, increased with increasing time and power of ultrasound. Moreover, a generalized Maxwell model with three elements was used for calculating relaxation times of the gels. The microstructural observations by SEM showed that the structural cohesiveness of the gels increased by increasing ultrasonication time. Ultrasound-assisted solubilization of gelatin can have emerging implications for industrial uses in pharmaceuticals, food and non-food systems. Usually to prepare a gel from gelatin, a primary heating stage of at about 40C or above is required to solubilize gelatin macromolecules. Therefore, the use of gelatin as a hydrocolloid in food processings or pharmaceutical formulations which lack a heating step has been a technological and practical challenge. In this study solubilizing gelatin dispersions using power ultrasound without any heating was successfully performed. Ultrasound-assisted solubilisation of gelatin can have emerging implications for industrial uses in pharmaceuticals

  2. Solubilization and Humanization of Paraoxonase-1

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Mohosin; Harsch, Christina Keventzidis; Matic, George T.; Hoffman, Kathryn; Norris, Joseph R.; Otto, Tamara C.; Lenz, David E.; Cerasoli, Douglas M.; Magliery, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a serum protein, the activity of which is related to susceptibility to cardiovascular disease and intoxication by organophosphorus (OP) compounds. It may also be involved in innate immunity, and it is a possible lead molecule in the development of a catalytic bioscavenger of OP pesticides and nerve agents. Human PON1 expressed in E. coli is mostly found in the insoluble fraction, which motivated the engineering of soluble variants, such as G2E6, with more than 50 mutations from huPON1. We examined the effect on the solubility, activity, and stability of three sets of mutations designed to solubilize huPON1 with fewer overall changes: deletion of the N-terminal leader, polar mutations in the putative HDL binding site, and selection of the subset of residues that became more polar in going from huPON1 to G2E6. All three sets of mutations increase the solubility of huPON1; the HDL-binding mutant has the largest effect on solubility, but it also decreases the activity and stability the most. Based on the G2E6 polar mutations, we “humanized” an engineered variant of PON1 with high activity against cyclosarin (GF) and found that it was still very active against GF with much greater similarity to the human sequence. PMID:22720164

  3. Human erythrocytes inhibit complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes by human serum

    SciTech Connect

    Dorval, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an autologus human system to evaluate the effects of human erythrocytes on solubilization of immune complex precipitates (IC) by human serum. Incubation of IC with fresh human serum or guinea pig serum resulted in solubilization of IC. When packed erythrocytes were added to human serum or guinea pig serum binding of IC to the erythrocyte occurred and IC solubilization was inhibited significantly (p <.025). Sheep erythrocytes did not bind IC or inhibit IC solubilization. To evaluate the role of human erythrocyte complement receptor (CR1) on these findings, human erythrocytes were treated with trypsin or anti-CR1 antibodies. Both treatments abrogated IC binding to human erythrocytes but did not affect the ability of the human erythrocyte to inhibit IC solubilization. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure C3, C4 and C5 activation in human serum after incubation with IC, human erythrocytes, human erythrocytes plus IC, whole blood or in whole blood plus IC.

  4. Characterization of solubilized human and rat brain US -endorphin-receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Helmeste, D.M.; Li, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Opioid receptors have been solubilized from human striatal and rat whole-brain membranes by use of 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). Tritiated human US -endorphin (TH-US /sub h/-EP) binding revealed high-affinity competition by morphine, naloxone, and various US -EP analogues. Lack of high-affinity competition by (+/-)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl)benzeneacetamide methanesulfonate (U50-488, Upjohn) indicated that k sites were not labeled by TH-US -/sub h/-EP under these conditions. Affinities were similar in both soluble and membrane preparations except for (Met)enkephalin, which appears to be rapidly degraded by the solubilized extract. Size differences between human and rat solubilized TH-US /sub h/-EP-receptor complexes were revealed by exclusion chromatography.

  5. Importance of Heat and Pressure for Solubilization of Recombinant Spider Silk Proteins in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Jones, Justin A; Harris, Thomas I; Oliveira, Paula F; Bell, Brianne E; Alhabib, Abdulrahman; Lewis, Randolph V

    2016-11-23

    The production of recombinant spider silk proteins continues to be a key area of interest for a number of research groups. Several key obstacles exist in their production as well as in their formulation into useable products. The original reported method to solubilize recombinant spider silk proteins (rSSp) in an aqueous solution involved using microwaves to quickly generate heat and pressure inside of a sealed vial containing rSSp and water. Fibers produced from this system are remarkable in their mechanical ability and demonstrate the ability to be stretched and recover 100 times. The microwave method dissolves the rSSPs with dissolution time increasing with higher molecular weight constructs, increasing concentration of rSSPs, protein type, and salt concentration. It has proven successful in solvating a number of different rSSPs including native-like sequences (MaSp1, MaSp2, piriform, and aggregate) as well as chimeric sequences (FlAS) in varied concentrations that have been spun into fibers and formed into films, foams, sponges, gels, coatings, macro and micro spheres and adhesives. The system is effective but inherently unpredictable and difficult to control. Provided that the materials that can be generated from this method of dissolution are impressive, an alternative means of applying heat and pressure that is controllable and predictable has been developed. Results indicate that there are combinations of heat and pressure (135 °C and 140 psi) that result in maximal dissolution without degrading the recombinant MaSp2 protein tested, and that heat and pressure are the key elements to the method of dissolution.

  6. Importance of Heat and Pressure for Solubilization of Recombinant Spider Silk Proteins in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Justin A.; Harris, Thomas I.; Oliveira, Paula F.; Bell, Brianne E.; Alhabib, Abdulrahman; Lewis, Randolph V.

    2016-01-01

    The production of recombinant spider silk proteins continues to be a key area of interest for a number of research groups. Several key obstacles exist in their production as well as in their formulation into useable products. The original reported method to solubilize recombinant spider silk proteins (rSSp) in an aqueous solution involved using microwaves to quickly generate heat and pressure inside of a sealed vial containing rSSp and water. Fibers produced from this system are remarkable in their mechanical ability and demonstrate the ability to be stretched and recover 100 times. The microwave method dissolves the rSSPs with dissolution time increasing with higher molecular weight constructs, increasing concentration of rSSPs, protein type, and salt concentration. It has proven successful in solvating a number of different rSSPs including native-like sequences (MaSp1, MaSp2, piriform, and aggregate) as well as chimeric sequences (FlAS) in varied concentrations that have been spun into fibers and formed into films, foams, sponges, gels, coatings, macro and micro spheres and adhesives. The system is effective but inherently unpredictable and difficult to control. Provided that the materials that can be generated from this method of dissolution are impressive, an alternative means of applying heat and pressure that is controllable and predictable has been developed. Results indicate that there are combinations of heat and pressure (135 °C and 140 psi) that result in maximal dissolution without degrading the recombinant MaSp2 protein tested, and that heat and pressure are the key elements to the method of dissolution. PMID:27886066

  7. Optimization of inclusion body solubilization and renaturation of recombinant human growth hormone from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Patra, A K; Mukhopadhyay, R; Mukhija, R; Krishnan, A; Garg, L C; Panda, A K

    2000-03-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) was expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. In 10 h of fed-batch fermentation, 1.6 g/L of r-hGH was produced at a cell concentration of 25 g dry cell weight/L. Inclusion bodies from the cells were isolated and purified to homogeneity. Various buffers with and without reducing agents were used to solubilize r-hGH from the inclusion bodies and the extent of solubility was compared with that of 8 M urea as well as 6 M Gdn-HCl. Hydrophobic interactions as well as ionic interactions were found to be the dominant forces responsible for the formation of r-hGH inclusion bodies during its high-level expression in E. coli. Complete solubilization of r-hGH inclusion bodies was observed in 100 mM Tris buffer at pH 12.5 containing 2 M urea. Solubilization of r-hGH inclusion bodies in the presence of low concentrations of urea helped in retaining the existing native-like secondary structures of r-hGH, thus improving the yield of bioactive protein during refolding. Solubilized r-hGH in Tris buffer containing 2 M urea was found to be less susceptible to aggregation during buffer exchange and thus was refolded by simple dilution. The r-hGH was purified by use of DEAE-Sepharose ion-exchange chromatography and the pure monomeric r-hGH was finally obtained by using size-exclusion chromatography. The overall yield of the purified monomeric r-hGH was approximately 50% of the initial inclusion body proteins and was found to be biologically active in promoting growth of rat Nb2 lymphoma cell lines.

  8. Solubilization and characterization of the VIP receptor on a human lymphoblastic cell line

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dorisio, M.S.; Compolito, L.B.; Vassalo, L.M.

    1986-03-01

    The neuropeptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), has been shown to modulate several immune functions including lymphocyte trafficking, lymphoblastic transformation and natural killer cell activity. These actions of VIP appear to be mediated via specific, VIP preferring, receptors. Functional VIP receptors have been demonstrated on human T lymphocytes, pre B cell (CALLA+) leukemia cells and a Molt 4b lymphoblastic cell line. In this study, plasma membranes were prepared from Molt 4b lymphoblasts. The membrane fraction contained a function VIP receptor as determined by activation of adenylate cyclase which was potentiated by both guanine nucleotide and forskolin. /sup 125/I-VIP was covalently crosslinked to its receptor in membranes using the bifunctional reagent disuccinimidyl suberate. A 50,000 M/sub r/ protein comprising or associated with the VIP receptor was identified. Treatment of crosslinked membranes with endo-..beta..-N-acetylglucosaminidase F did not alter the mobility of the putative VIP receptor indicating no significant high mannose or complex glycosyl residues on the receptor molecule. Similarly, treatment of crosslinked membranes with neuroaminidase resulted in no change in mobility suggesting the absence of sialic acid residues on the putative receptor molecule. The VIP receptor was solubilized by treatment of membranes with 50 mM (3-((3-Cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propane sulfonate) CHAPS followed by centrifugation at 48,000 g. The crosslinked solubilized receptor again migrated at M/sur r/ = 50,000 indicating a 47K (50,000 - MW of VIP) protein. Further characterization of this receptor will allow for development of therapeutic modalities to modulate lymphocyte proliferation and function in vivo.

  9. High pH solubilization and chromatography-based renaturation and purification of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Fan, Hua; Liu, Jiahua; Wang, Minhong; Wang, Lili; Wang, Chaozhan

    2012-03-01

    Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) is a very efficient therapeutic protein drug which has been widely used in human clinics to treat cancer patients suffering from chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. In this study, rhG-CSF was solubilized from inclusion bodies by using a high-pH solution containing low concentration of urea. It was found that solubilization of the rhG-CSF inclusion bodies greatly depended on the buffer pH employed; alkalic pH significantly favored the solubilization. In addition, when small amount of urea was added to the solution at high pH, the solubilization was further enhanced. After solubilization, the rhG-CSF was renatured with simultaneous purification by using weak anion exchange, strong anion exchange, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, separately. The results indicated that the rhG-CSF solubilized by the high-pH solution containing low concentration of urea had much higher mass recovery than the one solubilized by 8 M urea when using anyone of the three refolding methods employed in this work. In the case of weak anion exchange chromatography, the high pH solubilized rhG-CSF could get a mass recovery of 73%. The strategy of combining solubilization of inclusion bodies at high pH with refolding of protein using liquid chromatography may become a routine method for protein production from inclusion bodies.

  10. Human heat adaptation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S

    2014-01-01

    In this overview, human morphological and functional adaptations during naturally and artificially induced heat adaptation are explored. Through discussions of adaptation theory and practice, a theoretical basis is constructed for evaluating heat adaptation. It will be argued that some adaptations are specific to the treatment used, while others are generalized. Regarding ethnic differences in heat tolerance, the case is put that reported differences in heat tolerance are not due to natural selection, but can be explained on the basis of variations in adaptation opportunity. These concepts are expanded to illustrate how traditional heat adaptation and acclimatization represent forms of habituation, and thermal clamping (controlled hyperthermia) is proposed as a superior model for mechanistic research. Indeed, this technique has led to questioning the perceived wisdom of body-fluid changes, such as the expansion and subsequent decay of plasma volume, and sudomotor function, including sweat habituation and redistribution. Throughout, this contribution was aimed at taking another step toward understanding the phenomenon of heat adaptation and stimulating future research. In this regard, research questions are posed concerning the influence that variations in morphological configuration may exert upon adaptation, the determinants of postexercise plasma volume recovery, and the physiological mechanisms that modify the cholinergic sensitivity of sweat glands, and changes in basal metabolic rate and body core temperature following adaptation. © 2014 American Physiological Society.

  11. Heat-induced solubilization of curcumin in kinetically stable pluronic P123 micelles and vesicles: An exploit of slow dynamics of the micellar restructuring processes in the aqueous pluronic system.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, R; Kunwar, A; Dutta, B; Kumar, S; Barick, K C; Ballal, A; Aswal, V K; Hassan, P A

    2017-04-01

    Wide therapeutic potential combined with low cost and negligible toxicity makes curcumin one of the most sought after drugs in recent times. Its poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability are often overcome by using micelles and vesicles as its carriers. The substances that are commonly used for this purpose are a class of nonionic surfactants called pluronics. Solubilization of curcumin in aqueous systems of these surfactants is carried out by thin film hydration method presumably because slow dynamics of micellar restructuring processes in them creates hindrance for direct solubilization. In this manuscript, we show that this problem can be overcome and curcumin can be solubilized directly in pluronic P123 micellar solutions by heating them to the phase separation temperature in the presence of curcumin. The obtained curcumin containing micellar solutions show cytotoxicity on human breast carcinoma (MCF7) cells with IC50 values similar to that shown by free curcumin solution. Addition of mucoadhesive polymer κ-Carrageenan into these solutions converts them to curcumin containing gels and patches with rheological properties suitable for topical application. These solutions also exhibit systematic spherical-to-worm like micellar-to-vesicular structural transitions in the presence of NaCl. The large curcumin containing aggregates thus formed show kinetic stability with respect to dilution, which is an important attribute for drug delivery application. Characterization of the micellar and vesicular systems and gels were carried out by SANS, DLS and rheological measurements. The obtained results represent first systematic study on solubilization of curcumin in pluronic aggregates of various shapes and size.

  12. Geochemical Controls on Natural Attenuation of Arsenic Solubilized by Human-Induced Alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, A.; Hering, J. G.; Harrington, J.; Horst, J.; Burris, D.; Reisinger, H. J.

    2005-12-01

    Naturally-occurring arsenic (As) in soils can be solubilized into groundwater as a result of anthropogenic changes in subsurface redox conditions. However, the presence of As in groundwater may not lead to human exposure if As is attenuated before intercepting a water source. Dissolved As can be attenuated by sorption and precipitation processes whose effectiveness may be strongly influenced by redox transformations. Anaerobic bioremediation has been employed at a site in the Northeastern U.S. to treat a tetrachloroethene (PCE) plume in groundwater. An organic carbon source is injected via a transect of wells oriented perpendicular to groundwater flow. The resulting anaerobic reducing zone extends 30 meters down gradient of the injection transect. At the down gradient edge of the reducing zone, dissolved As and Fe concentrations have been observed at over 0.7 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and 450 mg/L, respectively. However, 60 m down gradient (and outside of the reducing zone), As and Fe concentrations have been maintained at levels below their detection limits (0.005 mg/L and 1 mg/L) for over 900 days, demonstrating natural attenuation of As. The sorption of As onto Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides under changing geochemical conditions is investigated by using the reactive transport modeling program Geochemist's Work Bench (GWB). Down gradient conditions are simulated where reduced constituents of contaminated groundwater react with Fe(III) and Mn(III, IV) oxyhydroxides in the soil/aquifer matrix or with dissolved oxygen in uncontaminated groundwater at the periphery of the reducing zone. Dissolved Fe(II) and Mn(II) are re-oxidized and precipitate as oxyhydroxide coatings on the soil or aquifer sediments. These coatings then serve as sorbents for both As(III) and As(V). Simulations allow us to examine As sequestration as a function of groundwater composition (e.g., pH and competing sorbates such as phosphate) and of the rate and extent of the precipitation of Fe(III) and Mn

  13. Optimization of protein solubilization for the analysis of the CD14 human monocyte membrane proteome using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoying; Johann, Donald J; Hakami, Ramin M; Xiao, Zhen; Meng, Zhaojing; Ulrich, Robert G; Issaq, Haleem J; Veenstra, Timothy D; Blonder, Josip

    2009-11-02

    Proteomic profiling of membrane proteins is of vital importance in the search for disease biomarkers and drug development. However, the slow pace in this field has resulted mainly from the difficulty to analyze membrane proteins by mass spectrometry (MS). The objective of this investigation was to explore and optimize solubilization of membrane proteins for shotgun membrane proteomics of the CD14 human monocytes by examining different systems that rely on: i) an organic solvent (methanol) ii) an acid-labile detergent 3-[3-(1,1-bisalkyloxyethyl)pyridin-1-yl]propane-1-sulfonate (PPS), iii) a combination of both agents (methanol+PPS). Solubilization efficiency of different buffers was first compared using bacteriorhodopsin as a model membrane protein. Selected approaches were then applied on a membrane subproteome isolated from a highly enriched human monocyte population that was approximately 98% positive for CD14 expression as determined by FACS analysis. A methanol-based buffer yielded 194 proteins of which 93 (48%) were mapped as integral membrane proteins. The combination of methanol and acid-cleavable detergent gave similar results; 203 identified proteins of which 93 (46%) were mapped integral membrane proteins. However, employing PPS 216 proteins were identified of which 75 (35%) were mapped as integral membrane proteins. These results indicate that methanol alone or in combination with PPS yielded significantly higher membrane protein identification/enrichment than the PPS alone.

  14. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  15. How Humans Adapt To Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses adaptive responses of humans to hot environment. Describes thermoregulation by integrated responses of nervous system, vascular/fluid/electrolyte system, and endocrine system. Considers disorders resulting from failure of thermoregulation and less serious heat stress.

  16. How Humans Adapt To Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses adaptive responses of humans to hot environment. Describes thermoregulation by integrated responses of nervous system, vascular/fluid/electrolyte system, and endocrine system. Considers disorders resulting from failure of thermoregulation and less serious heat stress.

  17. Solubilization of the O2(-)-forming activity responsible for the respiratory burst in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G; Kipnes, R S; Babior, B M

    1978-10-10

    On exposure to suitable activating agents, neutrophils sharply alter their oxygen metabolism, showing large increases in oxygen uptake, O2 and H2O2 production, and glucose consumption via the hexose monophosphate shunt. These metabolic alterations, which together are designated the "respiratory burst," are due to the activation of a system which catalyzes the reaction: 2O2 + NADPH leads to 2O2(-) + NADP. This O2(-)-forming system is found in a particulate fraction isolated from neutrophils which had been activated with opsonized zymosan. When these particles were treated with detergent under suitable conditions, the O2(-)-forming activity was released in a form which passed through a membrane filter capable of retaining species of Mr greater than 3000,000. Soluble O2(-)-forming activity was obtained from normal activated neutrophils, but not from normal resting neutrophils or from activated neutrophils obtained from patients with chronic granulomatous disease, an inherited condition in which the respiratory burst is defective. O2(-)production by the soluble system required a reduced pyridine nucleotide as electron donor, and showed a quadratic dependence on the concentration of the solubilized preparation.

  18. Adherence of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to measles-virus infected cells: modulation by solubilized rhesus erythrocyte membranes and carbohydrates.

    PubMed Central

    Bankhurst, A D; Maki, D; Sanchez, M; McLaren, L

    1979-01-01

    The adherence of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to HeLa cells persistently infected with measles virus (HeLa-K11) was studied. The following data were observed. (i) The proportion of HeLa-K11 cells with adherent human peripheral blood lymphocytes of rhesus monkey erythrocytes was similar over a wide range of ratios of HeLa-K11 cells to lymphocytes or erythrocytes. (ii) The great majority of human peripheral blood lymphocytes and erythrocytes reacted with the same HeLa-K11 cell (iii). The adherence of lymphocytes or erythrocytes to HeLa-K11 cells was blocked by rabbit anti-measles virus antibody or solubilized monkey erythrocyte membranes. The pretreatment of erythrocytes or lymphocytes with receptor-destroying enzyme did not alter their adherence properties. (iv) The pattern of inhibition observed with several carbohydrates was similar in both the erythrocyte and the lymphocyte adherence assays. These data are consistent with the possibility that the receptor present on both rhesus monkey erythrocytes and human lymphocytes has similar specificities and biochemical composition. PMID:572346

  19. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Strandberg, Gerald W.; Lewis, Susan N.

    1990-01-01

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  20. Acclimatization to heat in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna

    1989-01-01

    The responses and mechanisms of both natural and artificial acclimatization to a hot environment in mammals are addressed with specific reference to humans. The purpose is to provide basic information for designers of thermal protection systems and countermeasures for astronauts during intra- and extravehicular activity. Areas covered are energy metabolism, thermal balance at rest and during exercise, water and electrolyte balance during exercise and immobilization, and heat diseases.

  1. Relating Surfactant Properties to Activity and Solubilization of the Human Adenosine A3 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Bryan W.; García, Roxana Y.; Lenhoff, Abraham M.; Kaler, Eric W.; Robinson, Clifford R.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of various surfactants on the activity and stability of the human adenosine A3 receptor (A3) were investigated. The receptor was expressed using stably transfected HEK293 cells at a concentration of 44 pmol functional receptor per milligram membrane protein and purified using over 50 different nonionic surfactants. A strong correlation was observed between a surfactant's ability to remove A3 from the membrane and the ability of the surfactant to remove A3 selectively relative to other membrane proteins. The activity of A3 once purified also correlates well with the selectivity of the surfactant used. The effects of varying the surfactant were much stronger than those achieved by including A3 ligands in the purification scheme. Notably, all surfactants that gave high efficiency, selectivity and activity fall within a narrow range of hydrophile-lipophile balance values. This effect may reflect the ability of the surfactant to pack effectively at the hydrophobic transmembrane interface. These findings emphasize the importance of identifying appropriate surfactants for a particular membrane protein, and offer promise for the development of rapid, efficient, and systematic methods to facilitate membrane protein purification. PMID:15849244

  2. Quantification of Cholesterol Solubilized in Dietary Micelles: Dependence on Human Bile Salt Variability and the Presence of Dietary Food Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Coreta-Gomes, Filipe M; Vaz, Winchil L C; Wasielewski, Emeric; Geraldes, Carlos F G; Moreno, Maria João

    2016-05-10

    The solubility of cholesterol in bile salt (BS) micelles is important to understand the availability of cholesterol for absorption in the intestinal epithelium and to develop strategies to decrease cholesterol intake from the intestinal lumen. This has been the subject of intense investigation, due to the established relation between the development of diseases such as atherosclerosis and high levels of cholesterol in the blood. In this work we quantify the effect of BS variability on the amount of cholesterol solubilized. The effect of some known hypocholesterolemic agents usually found in the diet is also evaluated, as well as some insight regarding the mechanisms involved. The results show that, depending on the bile salt composition, the average value of sterol per micelle is equal to or lower than 1. The amount of cholesterol solubilized in the BS micelles is essentially equal to its total concentration until the solubility limit is reached. Altogether, this indicates that the maximum cholesterol solubility in the BS micellar solution is the result of saturation of the aqueous phase and depends on the partition coefficient of cholesterol between the aqueous phase and the micellar pseudophase. The effect on cholesterol maximum solubility for several food ingredients usually encountered in the diet was characterized using methodology developed recently by us. This method allows the simultaneous quantification of both cholesterol and food ingredient solubilized in the BS micelles even in the presence of larger aggregates, therefore avoiding their physical separation with possible impacts on the overall equilibrium. The phytosterols stigmasterol and stigmastanol significantly decreased cholesterol solubility with a concomitant reduction in the total amount of sterol solubilized, most pronounced for stigmasterol. Those results point toward coprecipitation being the major cause for the decrease in cholesterol solubilization by the BS micelles. The presence of

  3. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1993-10-26

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorus can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution. 6 figures.

  4. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Wolfram, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

  5. Use of a temporary "solubilizing" peptide tag for the Fmoc solid-phase synthesis of human insulin glargine via use of regioselective disulfide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammed Akhter; Belgi, Alessia; Lin, Feng; Zhang, Suode; Shabanpoor, Fazel; Chan, Linda; Belyea, Chris; Truong, Hue-Trung; Blair, Amy R; Andrikopoulos, Sof; Tregear, Geoffrey W; Wade, John D

    2009-07-01

    Solid-phase peptide synthesis has been refined to a stage where efficient preparation of long and complex peptides is now achievable. However, the postsynthesis handling of poorly soluble peptides often remains a significant hindrance to their purification and further use. Several synthetic schemes have been developed for the preparation of such peptides containing modifications to aid their solubility. However, these require the use of complex chemistry or yield non-native sequences. We describe a simple approach based on the use of penta-lysine "tags" that are linked to the C-terminus of the peptide of interest via a base-labile linker. After ready purification of the now freely solubilized peptide, the "tag" is removed by simple, brief base treatment giving the native sequence in much higher overall yield. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the novel preparation of insulin glargine via solid-phase synthesis of each of the two chains--including the notoriously poorly soluble A-chain--followed by their combination in solution via regioselective disulfide bond formation. At the conclusion of the chain combination, the solubilizing peptide tag was removed from the A-chain to provide synthetic human glargine in nearly 10% overall yield. This approach should facilitate the development of new insulin analogues as well as be widely applicable to the improved purification and acquisition of otherwise poorly soluble synthetic peptides.

  6. Extreme Heat and Human Health (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rood, R. B.; O'Neill, M.

    2010-12-01

    Climate projections tell us that there will be more heat waves in the future; that is, periods of sustained, extreme heat. Extreme heat is, presently, the greatest cause of human death of any weather-related human health threat. It is natural, therefore, to expect such threats to increase in the future. This straightforward logic is challenged, however, by the complex relationship between heat extremes and human health. For example, temperatures that are dangerous in Chicago, Paris, or Moscow, are often not of note in Houston or New Delhi. This suggests, perhaps, societal adaptation or human acclimatization. In this talk we explore current measures of extreme heat and how to best incorporate knowledge which informs the potential of increased danger to humans. The goal of this work is to improve the usefulness of climate projections for public health applications.

  7. Microbial solubilization of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; McCulloch, M.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.

    1988-11-01

    Microbial solubilization of coal may serve as a first step in a process to convert low-rank coals or coal-derived products to other fuels or products. For solubilization of coal to be an economically viable technology, a mechanistic understanding of the process is essential. Leonardite, a highly oxidized, low-rank coal, has been solubilized by the intact microorganism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of /ital Coriolus versicolor/. A spectrophotometric conversion assay was developed to quantify the amount of biosolubilized coal. In addition, a bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6, was solubilized by a species of /ital Penicillium/, but only after the coal had been preoxidized in air. Model compounds containing coal-related functionalities have been incubated with the leonardite-degrading fungus, its cell-free filtrate, and purified enzyme. The amount of degradation was determined by gas chromatography and the degradation products were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have also separated the cell-free filtrate of /ital C. versicolor/ into a <10,000 MW and >10,000 MW fraction by ultrafiltration techniques. Most of the coal biosolubilization activity is contained in the <10,000 MW fraction while the model compound degradation occurs in the >10,000 MW fraction. The >10,000 MW fraction appears to contain an enzyme with laccase-like activity. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. High-level production, solubilization and purification of synthetic human GPCR chemokine receptors CCR5, CCR3, CXCR4 and CX3CR1.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hui; Yu, Daoyong; Ge, Baosheng; Cook, Brian; Xu, Zhinan; Zhang, Shuguang

    2009-01-01

    Chemokine receptors belong to a class of integral membrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and are responsible for transmitting signals from the extracellular environment. However, the structural changes in the receptor, connecting ligand binding to G-protein activation, remain elusive for most GPCRs due to the difficulty to produce them for structural and functional studies. We here report high-level production in E.coli of 4 human GPCRs, namely chemokine receptors (hCRs) CCR5, CCR3, CXCR4 and CX3CR1 that are directly involved in HIV-1 infection, asthma and cancer metastasis. The synthetic genes of CCR5, CCR3, CXCR4 and CX3CR1 were synthesized using a two-step assembly/amplification PCR method and inserted into two different kinds of expression systems. After systematic screening of growth conditions and host strains, TB medium was selected for expression of pEXP-hCRs. The low copy number pBAD-DEST49 plasmid, with a moderately strong promoter tightly regulated by L-arabinose, proved helpful for reducing toxicity of expressed membrane proteins. The synthetic Trx-hCR fusion genes in the pBAD-DEST49 vector were expressed at high levels in the Top10 strain. After a systematic screen of 96 detergents, the zwitterionic detergents of the Fos-choline series (FC9-FC16) emerged as the most effective for isolation of the hCRs. The FC14 was selected both for solubilization from bacterial lysates and for stabilization of the Trx-hCRs during purification. Thus, the FC-14 solubilized Trx-hCRs could be purified using size exclusion chromatography as monomers and dimers with the correct apparent MW and their alpha-helical content determined by circular dichroism. The identity of two of the expressed hCRs (CCR3 and CCR5) was confirmed using immunoblots using specific monoclonal antibodies. After optimization of expression systems and detergent-mediated purification procedures, we achieved large-scale, high-level production of 4 human GPCR chemokine receptor in a two

  9. High-Level Production, Solubilization and Purification of Synthetic Human GPCR Chemokine Receptors CCR5, CCR3, CXCR4 and CX3CR1

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hui; Yu, Daoyong; Ge, Baosheng; Cook, Brian; Xu, Zhinan; Zhang, Shuguang

    2009-01-01

    Chemokine receptors belong to a class of integral membrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and are responsible for transmitting signals from the extracellular environment. However, the structural changes in the receptor, connecting ligand binding to G-protein activation, remain elusive for most GPCRs due to the difficulty to produce them for structural and functional studies. We here report high-level production in E.coli of 4 human GPCRs, namely chemokine receptors (hCRs) CCR5, CCR3, CXCR4 and CX3CR1 that are directly involved in HIV-1 infection, asthma and cancer metastasis. The synthetic genes of CCR5, CCR3, CXCR4 and CX3CR1 were synthesized using a two-step assembly/amplification PCR method and inserted into two different kinds of expression systems. After systematic screening of growth conditions and host strains, TB medium was selected for expression of pEXP-hCRs. The low copy number pBAD-DEST49 plasmid, with a moderately strong promoter tightly regulated by L-arabinose, proved helpful for reducing toxicity of expressed membrane proteins. The synthetic Trx-hCR fusion genes in the pBAD-DEST49 vector were expressed at high levels in the Top10 strain. After a systematic screen of 96 detergents, the zwitterionic detergents of the Fos-choline series (FC9-FC16) emerged as the most effective for isolation of the hCRs. The FC14 was selected both for solubilization from bacterial lysates and for stabilization of the Trx-hCRs during purification. Thus, the FC-14 solubilized Trx-hCRs could be purified using size exclusion chromatography as monomers and dimers with the correct apparent MW and their alpha-helical content determined by circular dichroism. The identity of two of the expressed hCRs (CCR3 and CCR5) was confirmed using immunoblots using specific monoclonal antibodies. After optimization of expression systems and detergent-mediated purification procedures, we achieved large-scale, high-level production of 4 human GPCR chemokine receptor in a two

  10. Human cardiovascular responses to passive heat stress.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Craig G; Wilson, Thad E

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress increases human morbidity and mortality compared to normothermic conditions. Many occupations, disease states, as well as stages of life are especially vulnerable to the stress imposed on the cardiovascular system during exposure to hot ambient conditions. This review focuses on the cardiovascular responses to heat stress that are necessary for heat dissipation. To accomplish this regulatory feat requires complex autonomic nervous system control of the heart and various vascular beds. For example, during heat stress cardiac output increases up to twofold, by increases in heart rate and an active maintenance of stroke volume via increases in inotropy in the presence of decreases in cardiac preload. Baroreflexes retain the ability to regulate blood pressure in many, but not all, heat stress conditions. Central hypovolemia is another cardiovascular challenge brought about by heat stress, which if added to a subsequent central volumetric stress, such as hemorrhage, can be problematic and potentially dangerous, as syncope and cardiovascular collapse may ensue. These combined stresses can compromise blood flow and oxygenation to important tissues such as the brain. It is notable that this compromised condition can occur at cardiac outputs that are adequate during normothermic conditions but are inadequate in heat because of the increased systemic vascular conductance associated with cutaneous vasodilation. Understanding the mechanisms within this complex regulatory system will allow for the development of treatment recommendations and countermeasures to reduce risks during the ever-increasing frequency of severe heat events that are predicted to occur. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  11. Human Cardiovascular Responses to Passive Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, Craig G.; Wilson, Thad E.

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress increases human morbidity and mortality compared to normothermic conditions. Many occupations, disease states, as well as stages of life are especially vulnerable to the stress imposed on the cardiovascular system during exposure to hot ambient conditions. This review focuses on the cardiovascular responses to heat stress that are necessary for heat dissipation. To accomplish this regulatory feat requires complex autonomic nervous system control of the heart and various vascular beds. For example, during heat stress cardiac output increases up to twofold, by increases in heart rate and an active maintenance of stroke volume via increases in inotropy in the presence of decreases in cardiac preload. Baroreflexes retain the ability to regulate blood pressure in many, but not all, heat stress conditions. Central hypovolemia is another cardiovascular challenge brought about by heat stress, which if added to a subsequent central volumetric stress, such as hemorrhage, can be problematic and potentially dangerous, as syncope and cardiovascular collapse may ensue. These combined stresses can compromise blood flow and oxygenation to important tissues such as the brain. It is notable that this compromised condition can occur at cardiac outputs that are adequate during normothermic conditions but are inadequate in heat because of the increased systemic vascular conductance associated with cutaneous vasodilation. Understanding the mechanisms within this complex regulatory system will allow for the development of treatment recommendations and countermeasures to reduce risks during the ever-increasing frequency of severe heat events that are predicted to occur. PMID:25589263

  12. Solubilization of proteins: the importance of lysis buffer choice.

    PubMed

    Peach, Mandy; Marsh, Noelle; Miskiewicz, Ewa I; MacPhee, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The efficient extraction of proteins of interest from cells and tissues is not always straightforward. Here we demonstrate the differences in extraction of the focal adhesion protein Kindlin-2 from choriocarcinoma cells using NP-40 and RIPA lysis buffer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a more denaturing urea/thiourea lysis buffer for solubilization, by comparing its effectiveness for solubilization of small heat-shock proteins from smooth muscle with the often utilized RIPA lysis buffer. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of establishing the optimal lysis buffer for specific protein solubilization within the experimental workflow.

  13. Cytochalasin B binding proteins in human erythrocyte membranes. Modulation of glucose sensitivity by site interaction and partial solubilization of binding activities.

    PubMed

    Pinkofsky, H B; Rampal, A L; Cowden, M A; Jung, C Y

    1978-07-25

    We have previously described three different cytochalasin B binding sites in human erythrocyte membranes, a D-glucose-sensitive site (Site I), a cytochalasin E-sensitive site (Site II), and a site (Site III) insensitive to both D-glucose and cytochalasin E. Ligand bindings to each of these sites were considered to be independent (Jung, C., and Rampal, A. (1977) J. Biol. Chem. 252, 5456-5463). However, we have obtained subsequently the following evidence which indicated that an interaction occurs between Sites II and III, and this modulates sensitivity of Site III to the sugar. The displacement of cytochalasin E greatly exceeds the sum of their independent displacements. This ghosts extracted with EDTA or 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride at low ionic strength lack Site II activity but retain Site I and III activities, and both of these activities are displaceable by D-glucose alone. This indicated that the removal of Site II from the membrane confers glucose sensitivity to Site III. These observations are consistent with a model that Sites II and III in the membrane exist in a close association through which unliganded Site II maintains the glucose insensitivity of Site III, and once site II is liganded or removed by extraction this association is disrupted and Site III becomes glucose-sensitive. The ghosts extracted with Triton X-100 retain a cytochalasin B binding activity similar to that of site II (Kd = 1.8 X 10(-7) M, cytochalasin E-sensitive, glucose-insensitive), whereas a binding activity similar to that of Site I (Kd = 4 X 10(-7) M, cytochalasin E-insensitive, glucose-sensitive) is recovered in the Triton extract. A cytochalasin B binding activity similar to that of Site II is solubilized by EDTA at low ionic strength.

  14. Solubilized xenon 133 lung scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.

    1988-11-01

    Lung scanning using solubilized xenon 133 can provide important information concerning both pulmonary perfusion and ventilation. This technique proved valuable in establishing the diagnosis of congenital lobar emphysema in a 7-month-old baby.

  15. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Iain D.; Kennedy, Chris A.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to <1% of anthropogenic heating in all cities. Heat flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai—the world's most densely populated megacity—at 6.5 W m-2, surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m-2) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m-2). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  16. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Iain D.; Kennedy, Chris A.

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to <1% of anthropogenic heating in all cities. Heat flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai—the world's most densely populated megacity—at 6.5 W m-2, surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m-2) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m-2). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  17. Solubilization of dibutyltin dichloride with surfactant solutions in single and mixed oil systems.

    PubMed

    Damrongsiri, S; Tongcumpou, C; Weschayanwiwat, P; Sabatini, D A

    2010-09-15

    The harmful effects of organometallic compounds and their metabolites on the environment and human health require the development of more effective remediation methods. Surfactant enhanced remediation has been considered as a potential method for the removal of organometallic compounds; however, additional understanding is needed about the solubilization processes of these compounds. The surfactant enhanced solubilization of dibutyltin dichloride (DBT), an organometallic compound, was the focus of this research. In addition, the synergistic effects of DBT solubilization in perchloroethylene (PCE) and decane mixtures were evaluated. The results indicate that PCE and decane were solubilized into the core of these surfactant micelles in both single and mixed oil systems. DBT solubilization was limited when DBT alone was present (single oil system), and the nature of the solubilization isotherm suggests that DBT solubilization tended to occur near the micelle surface in a single oil system. DBT solubilization was found to increase when present in the PCE and decane oil mixture. PCE and decane may have facilitated the solubilization of DBT because they were solubilized in the micelle core. From this study, it may be concluded that the DBT behaves like polar oil such as dodecanol, having properties of a polar organic compound.

  18. Biophysical aspects of human thermoregulation during heat stress.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Matthew N; Jay, Ollie

    2016-04-01

    Humans maintain a relatively constant core temperature through the dynamic balance between endogenous heat production and heat dissipation to the surrounding environment. In response to metabolic or environmental disturbances to heat balance, the autonomic nervous system initiates cutaneous vasodilation and eccrine sweating to facilitate higher rates of dry (primarily convection and radiation) and evaporative transfer from the body surface; however, absolute heat losses are ultimately governed by the properties of the skin and the environment. Over the duration of a heat exposure, the cumulative imbalance between heat production and heat dissipation leads to body heat storage, but the consequent change in core temperature, which has implications for health and safety in occupational and athletic settings particularly among certain clinical populations, involves a complex interaction between changes in body heat content and the body's morphological characteristics (mass, surface area, and tissue composition) that collectively determine the body's thermal inertia. The aim of this review is to highlight the biophysical aspects of human core temperature regulation by outlining the principles of human energy exchange and examining the influence of body morphology during exercise and environmental heat stress. An understanding of the biophysical factors influencing core temperature will enable researchers and practitioners to better identify and treat individuals/populations most vulnerable to heat illness and injury during exercise and extreme heat events. Further, appropriate guidelines may be developed to optimize health, safety, and work performance during heat stress.

  19. Strategy for large scale solubilization of coal - characterization of Neurospora protein and gene

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.; Chen, Y.P.; Mishra, N.C.

    1995-12-31

    Low grade coal placed on mycelial mat of Neurospora crassa growing on Petri plate was found to be solubilized by this fungus. A heat stable protein has been purified to near homogeneity which can solubilize low grade coal in in vitro. The biochemical properties of the Neurospora protein will be presented. The nature of the product obtained after solubilization of coal by Neurospora protein in vivo and in vitro will also be presented. The N-terminus sequence of the amino acids of this protein will be used to design primer for possible cloning of gene for Neurospora protein capable of solubilization of coal in order to develop methodology for coal solubilization on a large scale.

  20. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Iain D; Kennedy, Chris A

    2016-12-26

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to <1% of anthropogenic heating in all cities. Heat flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai-the world's most densely populated megacity-at 6.5 W m(-2), surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m(-2)) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m(-2)). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  1. Solubilization of a membrane protein by combinatorial supercharging.

    PubMed

    Hajduczki, Agnes; Majumdar, Sudipta; Fricke, Marie; Brown, Isola A M; Weiss, Gregory A

    2011-04-15

    Hydrophobic and aggregation-prone, membrane proteins often prove too insoluble for conventional in vitro biochemical studies. To engineer soluble variants of human caveolin-1, a phage-displayed library of caveolin variants targeted the hydrophobic intramembrane domain with substitutions to charged residues. Anti-selections for insolubility removed hydrophobic variants, and positive selections for binding to the known caveolin ligand HIV gp41 isolated functional, folded variants. Assays with several caveolin binding partners demonstrated the successful folding and functionality by a solubilized, full-length caveolin variant selected from the library. This caveolin variant allowed assay of the direct interaction between caveolin and cavin. Clustered along one face of a putative helix, the solubilizing mutations suggest a structural model for the intramembrane domain of caveolin. The approach provides a potentially general method for solubilization and engineering of membrane-associated proteins by phage display.

  2. Heat waves, aging, and human cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Kenney, W Larry; Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-10-01

    This brief review is based on a President's Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review was to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth's average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress resulting from prolonged elevations in ambient temperature and prolonged physical activity in hot environments creates a high demand on the left ventricle to pump blood to the skin to dissipate heat. Even healthy aging is accompanied by altered cardiovascular function, which limits the extent to which older individuals can maintain stroke volume, increase cardiac output, and increase skin blood flow when exposed to environmental extremes. In the elderly, the increased cardiovascular demand during heat waves is often fatal because of increased strain on an already compromised left ventricle. Not surprisingly, excess deaths during heat waves 1) occur predominantly in older individuals and 2) are overwhelmingly cardiovascular in origin. Increasing frequency and severity of heat waves coupled with a rapidly growing at-risk population dramatically increase the extent of future untoward health outcomes.

  3. [Mechanism of heat transfer in various regions of human body].

    PubMed

    Luchakov, Iu I; Nozdrachev, A D

    2009-01-01

    The processes of heat transfer in a human body were studied with the use of a mathematical model. It has been shown that only conductive or only convective heat transfer may occur in different body areas. The rate of blood-mediated heat transfer in the presence of blood circulation is many times higher than heat transfer due to temperature gradient; therefore, the convective process prevails over the conductive process. The body core contains a variety of blood vessels, and the bulk of blood concentrates there in the norm. Hence, heat transfer in it is mainly convective. In surface tissues, where the rate of blood circulation is lower and the vasculature has certain specific features, heat transfer is mainly conductive. Hence, the core and surface tissues are absolutely different body zones in terms of heat transfer.

  4. Effects of heat stress on baroreflex function in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, Craig G.; Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Heat stress significantly reduces orthostatic tolerance in humans. The mechanism(s) causing this response remain unknown. The purpose of this review article is to present data pertaining to the hypothesis that reduced orthostatic tolerance in heat stressed individuals is a result of heat stress induced alterations in baroflex function. METHODS: In both normothermic and heat stressed conditions baroreflex responsiveness was assessed via pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. In addition, the effects of heat stress on post-synaptic vasoconstrictor responsiveness were assessed. RESULTS: Generally, whole body heating did not alter baroreflex sensitivity defined as the gain of the linear portion of the baroreflex curve around the operating point. However, whole body heating shifted the baroreflex curve to the prevailing (i.e. elevated) heart rate and muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Finally, the heat stress impaired vasoconstrictor responses to exogenous administration of adrenergic agonists. CONCLUSION: Current data do not support the hypothesis that reduced orthostatic tolerance associated with heat stress in humans is due to impaired baroreflex responsiveness. This phenomenon may be partially due to the effects of heat stress on reducing vasoconstrictor responsiveness.

  5. Effects of heat stress on baroreflex function in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, Craig G.; Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Heat stress significantly reduces orthostatic tolerance in humans. The mechanism(s) causing this response remain unknown. The purpose of this review article is to present data pertaining to the hypothesis that reduced orthostatic tolerance in heat stressed individuals is a result of heat stress induced alterations in baroflex function. METHODS: In both normothermic and heat stressed conditions baroreflex responsiveness was assessed via pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. In addition, the effects of heat stress on post-synaptic vasoconstrictor responsiveness were assessed. RESULTS: Generally, whole body heating did not alter baroreflex sensitivity defined as the gain of the linear portion of the baroreflex curve around the operating point. However, whole body heating shifted the baroreflex curve to the prevailing (i.e. elevated) heart rate and muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Finally, the heat stress impaired vasoconstrictor responses to exogenous administration of adrenergic agonists. CONCLUSION: Current data do not support the hypothesis that reduced orthostatic tolerance associated with heat stress in humans is due to impaired baroreflex responsiveness. This phenomenon may be partially due to the effects of heat stress on reducing vasoconstrictor responsiveness.

  6. Human biometeorological evaluation of heat-related mortality in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Muthers, Stefan; Koch, Elisabeth

    2011-08-01

    The relationship between heat stress and mortality in the federal state of Vienna (Austria) was analyzed from 1970 to 2007. Long-term trends of mortality data and short-term adaptation to heat stress were considered by two complex approaches. The evaluation is based on the human biometeorological parameter, physiologically equivalent temperature. The results revealed a significant impact of heat stress on the human health, with a significantly higher sensitivity on women compared to men. Additionally, higher risks of deaths due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were found. During the long period of 38 years, some significant decreases of the sensitivity were found, especially in the medium heat stress levels. This could indicate active processes of long-term adaptation to the increasing heat stress.

  7. Human thermoregulation: separating thermal and nonthermal effects on heat loss.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Glen P; Journeay, W Shane

    2010-01-01

    Human thermoregulatory control during heat stress has been studied at rest, during exercise and more recently during exercise recovery. Heat balance in the body is maintained by changes in the rate of heat loss via adjustments in skin blood flow and sweating. Independent of thermal control, the actions of nonthermal factors have important consequences in the control of heat loss responses during and following exercise. While the effect of these nonthermal factors is largely considered to be an inhibitory or excitatory stimulus which displaces the set-point about which temperature is regulated, their effects on human thermoregulatory control are far reaching. Many factors can affect the relative contribution of thermal and nonthermal influences to heat balance including exercise intensity, hemodynamic status, and the level of hyperthermia imposed. This review will characterize the physiological responses associated with heat stress and discuss the thermal and nonthermal influences on sweating and skin blood flow in humans. Further, recent calorimetric evidence for the understanding of thermal and nonthermal contributions to human heat balance will also be discussed.

  8. Nonionic Microemulsions as Solubilizers of Hydrophobic Drugs: Solubilization of Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Jen-Ting; Lee, Tzer-Min; Chen, Bing-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The strategy using nonionic microemulsion as a solubilizer for hydrophobic drugs was studied and is demonstrated in this work. The aqueous phase behaviors of mixed nonionic surfactants with various oils at 37 °C are firstly constructed to give the optimal formulations of nonionic microemulsions with applications in the enhanced solubilization of the model hydrophobic drug, paclitaxel, at 37 °C. Briefly, the suitable oil phase with paclitaxel significantly dissolved is microemulsified with appropriate surfactants. Surfactants utilized include Tween 80, Cremophor EL, and polyethylene glycol (4.3) cocoyl ether, while various kinds of edible oils and fatty esters are used as the oil phase. On average, the apparent solubility of paclitaxel is increased to ca. 70–100 ppm in the prepared microemulsions at 37 °C using tributyrin or ethyl caproate as the oil phases. The sizes of the microemulsions attained are mostly from ca. 60 nm to ca. 200 nm. The cytotoxicity of the microemulsion formulations is assessed with the cellular viability of 3T3 cells. In general, the cell viability is above 55% after 24 h of cultivation in media containing these microemulsion formulations diluted to a concentration of total surfactants equal to 50 ppm and 200 ppm. PMID:28773882

  9. Nonionic Microemulsions as Solubilizers of Hydrophobic Drugs: Solubilization of Paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Lo, Jen-Ting; Lee, Tzer-Min; Chen, Bing-Hung

    2016-09-07

    The strategy using nonionic microemulsion as a solubilizer for hydrophobic drugs was studied and is demonstrated in this work. The aqueous phase behaviors of mixed nonionic surfactants with various oils at 37 °C are firstly constructed to give the optimal formulations of nonionic microemulsions with applications in the enhanced solubilization of the model hydrophobic drug, paclitaxel, at 37 °C. Briefly, the suitable oil phase with paclitaxel significantly dissolved is microemulsified with appropriate surfactants. Surfactants utilized include Tween 80, Cremophor EL, and polyethylene glycol (4.3) cocoyl ether, while various kinds of edible oils and fatty esters are used as the oil phase. On average, the apparent solubility of paclitaxel is increased to ca. 70-100 ppm in the prepared microemulsions at 37 °C using tributyrin or ethyl caproate as the oil phases. The sizes of the microemulsions attained are mostly from ca. 60 nm to ca. 200 nm. The cytotoxicity of the microemulsion formulations is assessed with the cellular viability of 3T3 cells. In general, the cell viability is above 55% after 24 h of cultivation in media containing these microemulsion formulations diluted to a concentration of total surfactants equal to 50 ppm and 200 ppm.

  10. Estimation of human heat loss in five Mediterranean regions.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, M; Simsek, E; Sahin, B; Yasar, A; Ozbek, A

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of seasonal weather differences on the human body's heat losses in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The provinces of Adana, Antakya, Osmaniye, Mersin and Antalya were chosen for the research, and monthly atmospheric temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed and atmospheric pressure data from 2007 were used. In all these provinces, radiative, convective and evaporative heat losses from the human body based on skin surface and respiration were analyzed from meteorological data by using the heat balance equation. According to the results, the rate of radiative, convective and evaporative heat losses from the human body varies considerably from season to season. In all the provinces, 90% of heat loss was caused by heat transfer from the skin, with the remaining 10% taking place through respiration. Furthermore, radiative and convective heat loss through the skin reached the highest values in the winter months at approximately between 110 and 140W/m(2), with the lowest values coming in the summer months at roughly 30-50W/m(2).

  11. Thermoelectric energy harvester on the heated human machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    Thermal properties of humans were studied in the case where a relatively small energy harvester is placed on the body. In such a case, the human body serves as a natural heat supply for wearable thermopiles. The study shows that relevant local body properties such as skin temperature and heat flow essentially change because of the thermal properties of the energy harvester. It is shown in the experiment that the thermal resistance of a human depends on heat flow, i.e. on the thermal properties of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) placed in contact with the skin. High thermal resistance of the human body, in turn, essentially affects the TEG design. The analysis of a wearable TEG, in particular the thin one, is performed. It shows that wearable energy harvesters could reach competitive performance characteristics for successfully replacing batteries in low-power wearable electronics. This paper was originally invited as part of the Power MEMS 2010 special issue.

  12. Human Adaptations to Heat and Cold Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    Heat and Cold Stress Michael N. Sawka, Ph.D. US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine 42 Kansas Street Natick, MA 01760-5007, USA John W...Castellani, Ph.D. US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine 42 Kansas Street Natick, MA 01760-5007, USA Kent B. Pandolf, Ph.D. US Army...Research Institute of Environmental Medicine 42 Kansas Street Natick, MA 01760-5007, USA Andrew J. Young, Ph.D. US Army Research Institute of Environmental

  13. [Fibril formation in solutions of solubilized collagen].

    PubMed

    Istranov, L P; Belova, L A; Shekhter, A B; Sychenikov, I A

    1975-01-01

    Influence of the preparations of bacterial proteinases, protorisine and prototerrisine, was studied on the stability of the mature collagen of beef skin. The chemical composition of the tissue has been shown to be changed by these enzymes inconsiderably. The tissue treated by orisine and terrisine is completely dissolved in 0.5 M acetic acid (solubilized collagen). When the solutions of such collagen are heated to 37 degrees within the pH range from 4 to 10 at the ionic strength of 0.25 fibrils are formed. Under electron microscope fibres are cross-striated that is typical of native collagen fibres with periodicity of about 640 A. After chilling to 4 degrees, a part of fibrils is dissolved again. Nephlometry was used to study the rate of fibril formation as a function of pH and temperature values. A conclusion has been drawn that the mature collagne dissolved after incubation with bacterial proteinases is close to the acid-soluble collagen fraction in the ability to produce fibres upon heating.

  14. Local heating, but not indirect whole body heating, increases human skeletal muscle blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Brothers, R. Matthew; Kemppainen, Jukka; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K.

    2011-01-01

    For decades it was believed that direct and indirect heating (the latter of which elevates blood and core temperatures without directly heating the area being evaluated) increases skin but not skeletal muscle blood flow. Recent results, however, suggest that passive heating of the leg may increase muscle blood flow. Using the technique of positron-emission tomography, the present study tested the hypothesis that both direct and indirect heating increases muscle blood flow. Calf muscle and skin blood flows were evaluated from eight subjects during normothermic baseline, during local heating of the right calf [only the right calf was exposed to the heating source (water-perfused suit)], and during indirect whole body heat stress in which the left calf was not exposed to the heating source. Local heating increased intramuscular temperature of the right calf from 33.4 ± 1.0°C to 37.4 ± 0.8°C, without changing intestinal temperature. This stimulus increased muscle blood flow from 1.4 ± 0.5 to 2.3 ± 1.2 ml·100 g−1·min−1 (P < 0.05), whereas skin blood flow under the heating source increased from 0.7 ± 0.3 to 5.5 ± 1.5 ml·100 g−1·min−1 (P < 0.01). While whole body heat stress increased intestinal temperature by ∼1°C, muscle blood flow in the calf that was not directly exposed to the water-perfused suit (i.e., indirect heating) did not increase during the whole body heat stress (normothermia: 1.6 ± 0.5 ml·100 g−1·min−1; heat stress: 1.7 ± 0.3 ml·100 g−1·min−1; P = 0.87). Whole body heating, however, reflexively increased calf skin blood flow (to 4.0 ± 1.5 ml·100 g−1·min−1) in the area not exposed to the water-perfused suit. These data show that local, but not indirect, heating increases calf skeletal muscle blood flow in humans. These results have important implications toward the reconsideration of previously accepted blood flow distribution during whole body heat stress. PMID:21680875

  15. Solubilization of high affinity corticotropin-releasing factor receptors from rat brain: Characterization of an active digitonin-solubilized receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriadis, D.E.; Zaczek, R.; Pearsall, D.M.; De Souza, E.B. )

    1989-12-01

    The binding characteristics of CRF receptors in rat frontal cerebral cortex membranes solubilized in 1% digitonin were determined. The binding of (125I)Tyro-ovine CRF ((125I)oCRF) to solubilized membrane proteins was dependent on incubation time, temperature, and protein concentration, was saturable and of high affinity, and was absent in boiled tissue. The solubilized receptors retained their high affinity for (125I) oCRF in the solubilized state, exhibiting a dissociation constant (KD) of approximately 200 pM, as determined by direct binding saturation isotherms. Solubilized CRF receptors maintained the rank order of potencies for various related and unrelated CRF peptides characteristic of the membrane CRF receptor: rat/human CRF congruent to ovine CRF congruent to Nle21,38-rat CRF greater than alpha-helical oCRF-(9-41) greater than oCRF-(7-41) much greater than vasoactive intestinal peptide, arginine vasopressin, or the substance-P antagonist. Furthermore, the absolute potencies (Ki values) for the various CRF-related peptides in solubilized receptors were almost identical to those observed in the membrane preparations, indicating that the CRF receptor retained its high affinity binding capacity in the digitonin-solubilized state. Chemical affinity cross-linking of digitonin-solubilized rat cortical membrane proteins revealed a specifically labeled protein with an apparent mol wt of 58,000 which was similar to the labeled protein in native membrane homogenates. Although solubilized CRF receptors retained their high affinity for agonists, their sensitivity for guanine nucleotide was lost. Size exclusion chromatography substantiated these results, demonstrating that in the presence or absence of guanine nucleotides, (125I)oCRF labeled the same size receptor complex.

  16. Detergent solubilization of the EGF receptor from A431 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayanidhi, R.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Functional reconstitution of purified preparations of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) requires dissociation of the protein from its plasma membrane lipid environment. Solubilization of membrane proteins in this manner requires the use of detergents, which are known to disrupt plasma membrane lipid/protein interactions. We have investigated the ability of three nonionic detergents to solubilize the human EGFR selectively, and have also analyzed the effect of these various treatments on the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the receptor. The nonionic detergent known as n-octyl glucoside (n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside) was found to give the best combination of selectivity, yield, and maintenance of enzymatic activity of the human EGFR.

  17. Detergent solubilization of the EGF receptor from A431 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayanidhi, R.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Functional reconstitution of purified preparations of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) requires dissociation of the protein from its plasma membrane lipid environment. Solubilization of membrane proteins in this manner requires the use of detergents, which are known to disrupt plasma membrane lipid/protein interactions. We have investigated the ability of three nonionic detergents to solubilize the human EGFR selectively, and have also analyzed the effect of these various treatments on the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the receptor. The nonionic detergent known as n-octyl glucoside (n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside) was found to give the best combination of selectivity, yield, and maintenance of enzymatic activity of the human EGFR.

  18. Heat Inactivation of Human Pathogens on Catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Food (NACMCF) determined that the cooking (time/temperature) for finfish would be different than for meat products and identified a need for time/temperature requirements to assure the thermal inactivation of the human pathogens: Sa...

  19. Biophysical approaches in the study of biomembrane solubilization: quantitative assessment and the role of lateral inhomogeneity.

    PubMed

    Riske, Karin A; Domingues, Cleyton C; Casadei, Bruna R; Mattei, Bruno; Caritá, Amanda C; Lira, Rafael B; Preté, Paulo S C; de Paula, Eneida

    2017-08-23

    Detergents are amphiphilic molecules widely used to solubilize biological membranes and/or extract their components. Nevertheless, because of the complex composition of biomembranes, their solubilization by detergents has not been systematically studied. In this review, we address the solubilization of erythrocytes, which provide a relatively simple, robust and easy to handle biomembrane, and of biomimetic models, to stress the role of the lipid composition on the solubilization process. First, results of a systematic study on the solubilization of human erythrocyte membranes by different series of non-ionic (Triton, CxEy, Brij, Renex, Tween), anionic (bile salts) and zwitterionic (ASB, CHAPS) detergents are shown. Such quantitative approach allowed us to propose Re(sat)-the effective detergent/lipid molar ratio in the membrane for the onset of hemolysis as a new parameter to classify the solubilization efficiency of detergents. Second, detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) obtained as a result of the partial solubilization of erythrocytes by TX-100, C12E8 and Brij detergents are examined. DRMs were characterized by their cholesterol, sphingolipid and specific proteins content, as well as lipid packing. Finally, lipid bilayers of tuned lipid composition forming liposomes were used to investigate the solubilization process of membranes of different compositions/phases induced by Triton X-100. Optical microscopy of giant unilamellar vesicles revealed that pure phospholipid membranes are fully solubilized, whereas the presence of cholesterol renders the mixture partially or even fully insoluble, depending on the composition. Additionally, Triton X-100 induced phase separation in raft-like mixtures, and selective solubilization of the fluid phase only.

  20. Cardiovascular adaptations supporting human exercise-heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Périard, Julien D; Travers, Gavin J S; Racinais, Sébastien; Sawka, Michael N

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the cardiovascular adaptations along with total body water and plasma volume adjustments that occur in parallel with improved heat loss responses during exercise-heat acclimation. The cardiovascular system is well recognized as an important contributor to exercise-heat acclimation that acts to minimize physiological strain, reduce the risk of serious heat illness and better sustain exercise capacity. The upright posture adopted by humans during most physical activities and the large skin surface area contribute to the circulatory and blood pressure regulation challenge of simultaneously supporting skeletal muscle blood flow and dissipating heat via increased skin blood flow and sweat secretion during exercise-heat stress. Although it was traditionally held that cardiac output increased during exercise-heat stress to primarily support elevated skin blood flow requirements, recent evidence suggests that temperature-sensitive mechanisms may also mediate an elevation in skeletal muscle blood flow. The cardiovascular adaptations supporting this challenge include an increase in total body water, plasma volume expansion, better sustainment and/or elevation of stroke volume, reduction in heart rate, improvement in ventricular filling and myocardial efficiency, and enhanced skin blood flow and sweating responses. The magnitude of these adaptations is variable and dependent on several factors such as exercise intensity, duration of exposure, frequency and total number of exposures, as well as the environmental conditions (i.e. dry or humid heat) in which acclimation occurs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recovery of bioactive protein from bacterial inclusion bodies using trifluoroethanol as solubilization agent.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Vaibhav; Singh, Anupam; Jha, Divya; Singh, Akansha; Panda, Amulya K

    2016-06-08

    Formation of inclusion bodies poses a major hurdle in recovery of bioactive recombinant protein from Escherichia coli. Urea and guanidine hydrochloride have routinely been used to solubilize inclusion body proteins, but many times result in poor recovery of bioactive protein. High pH buffers, detergents and organic solvents like n-propanol have been successfully used as mild solubilization agents for high throughput recovery of bioactive protein from bacterial inclusion bodies. These mild solubilization agents preserve native-like secondary structures of proteins in inclusion body aggregates and result in improved recovery of bioactive protein as compared to conventional solubilization agents. Here we demonstrate solubilization of human growth hormone inclusion body aggregates using 30% trifluoroethanol in presence of 3 M urea and its refolding into bioactive form. Human growth hormone was expressed in E. coli M15 (pREP) cells in the form of inclusion bodies. Different concentrations of trifluoroethanol with or without addition of low concentration (3 M) of urea were used for solubilization of inclusion body aggregates. Thirty percent trifluoroethanol in combination with 3 M urea was found to be suitable for efficient solubilization of human growth hormone inclusion bodies. Solubilized protein was refolded by dilution and purified by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Purified protein was analyzed for secondary and tertiary structure using different spectroscopic tools and was found to be bioactive by cell proliferation assay. To understand the mechanism of action of trifluoroethanol, secondary and tertiary structure of human growth hormone in trifluoroethanol was compared to that in presence of other denaturants like urea and guanidine hydrochloride. Trifluoroethanol was found to be stabilizing the secondary structure and destabilizing the tertiary structure of protein. Finally, it was observed that trifluoroethanol can be used to solubilize

  2. The Distribution of Solubilized Molecules among Micelles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dennis J.

    1978-01-01

    Conflicting views have been put forward on the derivation of the distribution of solubilized molecules among micelles. This stems from failure to consider the arrangement of the solubilized molecules in the micelles. In the treatment presented enthalpy effects are ignored as they are not amenable to a simple general theory. (Author/BB)

  3. The Distribution of Solubilized Molecules among Micelles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dennis J.

    1978-01-01

    Conflicting views have been put forward on the derivation of the distribution of solubilized molecules among micelles. This stems from failure to consider the arrangement of the solubilized molecules in the micelles. In the treatment presented enthalpy effects are ignored as they are not amenable to a simple general theory. (Author/BB)

  4. Empigen BB: a useful detergent for solubilization and biochemical analysis of keratins.

    PubMed

    Lowthert, L A; Ku, N O; Liao, J; Coulombe, P A; Omary, M B

    1995-01-05

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins make up some of the most insoluble proteins known, and within the IF protein family, keratins are the least soluble. We compared the efficiency of nonionic, cationic, mixed nonionic and anionic, and zwitterionic detergents in solubilizing keratins from insect cells that express recombinant human keratins and from human colonic cell lines and normal keratinocytes. The cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was similar to the zwitterionic detergent Empigen BB in its ability to efficiently solubilize keratins, but the latter detergent was superior in that it maintained antibody reactivity and allowed for immunoprecipitation of the keratins. Although Nonidet-P40 partially solubilizes keratins, Empigen BB solubilizes a significant amount of keratins not solubilized by Nonidet-P40. In the case of vimentin, differences in solubilization efficiency among the detergents was not as dramatic as with keratins. Our results show that Empigen BB solubilizes a significant amount of epidermal and glandular keratins while preserving antigenicity. This detergent should prove useful for carrying out biochemical and molecular studies on these proteins and may be similarly beneficial for other IF proteins.

  5. Maize endophytic bacteria as mineral phosphate solubilizers.

    PubMed

    de Abreu, C S; Figueiredo, J E F; Oliveira, C A; Dos Santos, V L; Gomes, E A; Ribeiro, V P; Barros, B A; Lana, U G P; Marriel, I E

    2017-02-16

    In the present study, we demonstrated the in vitro activity of endophytic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). Fifty-five endophytic PSB that were isolated from sap, leaves, and roots of maize were tested for their ability to solubilize tricalcium phosphate and produce organic acid. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA-encoding gene showed that the isolates were from the genus Bacillus and different species of Enterobacteriaceae. The phosphate solubilization index on solid medium and phosphate solubilization in liquid medium varied significantly among the isolates. There was a statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) for both, the values of phosphate-solubilizing activity and pH of the growth medium, among the isolates. Pearson correlation was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) between P-solubilization and pH (R = -0.38), and between the gluconic acid production and the lowering of the pH of the liquid medium at 6 (R = 0.28) and 9 days (R = 0.39). Gluconic acid production was prevalent in all the PSB studied, and Bacillus species were most efficient in solubilizing phosphate. This is the first report on the characterization of bacterial endophytes from maize and their use as potential biofertilizers. In addition, this may provide an alternative strategy for improving the phosphorus acquisition efficiency of crop plants in tropical soils.

  6. Effects of aqueous humor hydrodynamics on human eye heat transfer under external heat sources.

    PubMed

    Tiang, Kor L; Ooi, Ean H

    2016-08-01

    The majority of the eye models developed in the late 90s and early 00s considers only heat conduction inside the eye. This assumption is not entirely correct, since the anterior and posterior chambers are filled aqueous humor (AH) that is constantly in motion due to thermally-induced buoyancy. In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the human eye is developed to investigate the effects AH hydrodynamics have on the human eye temperature under exposure to external heat sources. If the effects of AH flow are negligible, then future models can be developed without taking them into account, thus simplifying the modeling process. Two types of external thermal loads are considered; volumetric and surface irradiation. Results showed that heat convection due to AH flow contributes to nearly 95% of the total heat flow inside the anterior chamber. Moreover, the circulation inside the anterior chamber can cause an upward shift of the location of hotspot. This can have significant consequences to our understanding of heat-induced cataractogenesis. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Carotid baroreflex responsiveness in heat-stressed humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of whole body heating on human baroreflex function are relatively unknown. The purpose of this project was to identify whether whole body heating reduces the maximal slope of the carotid baroreflex. In 12 subjects, carotid-vasomotor and carotid-cardiac baroreflex responsiveness were assessed in normothermia and during whole body heating. Whole body heating increased sublingual temperature (from 36.4 +/- 0.1 to 37.4 +/- 0.1 degrees C, P < 0.01) and increased heart rate (from 59 +/- 3 to 83 +/- 3 beats/min, P < 0. 01), whereas mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was slightly decreased (from 88 +/- 2 to 83 +/- 2 mmHg, P < 0.01). Carotid-vasomotor and carotid-cardiac responsiveness were assessed by identifying the maximal gain of MAP and heart rate to R wave-triggered changes in carotid sinus transmural pressure. Whole body heating significantly decreased the responsiveness of the carotid-vasomotor baroreflex (from -0.20 +/- 0.02 to -0.13 +/- 0.02 mmHg/mmHg, P < 0.01) without altering the responsiveness of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex (from -0.40 +/- 0.05 to -0.36 +/- 0.02 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1), P = 0.21). Carotid-vasomotor and carotid-cardiac baroreflex curves were shifted downward and upward, respectively, to accommodate the decrease in blood pressure and increase in heart rate that accompanied the heat stress. Moreover, the operating point of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex was shifted closer to threshold (P = 0.02) by the heat stress. Reduced carotid-vasomotor baroreflex responsiveness, coupled with a reduction in the functional reserve for the carotid baroreflex to increase heart rate during a hypotensive challenge, may contribute to increased susceptibility to orthostatic intolerance during a heat stress.

  8. Carotid baroreflex responsiveness in heat-stressed humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of whole body heating on human baroreflex function are relatively unknown. The purpose of this project was to identify whether whole body heating reduces the maximal slope of the carotid baroreflex. In 12 subjects, carotid-vasomotor and carotid-cardiac baroreflex responsiveness were assessed in normothermia and during whole body heating. Whole body heating increased sublingual temperature (from 36.4 +/- 0.1 to 37.4 +/- 0.1 degrees C, P < 0.01) and increased heart rate (from 59 +/- 3 to 83 +/- 3 beats/min, P < 0. 01), whereas mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was slightly decreased (from 88 +/- 2 to 83 +/- 2 mmHg, P < 0.01). Carotid-vasomotor and carotid-cardiac responsiveness were assessed by identifying the maximal gain of MAP and heart rate to R wave-triggered changes in carotid sinus transmural pressure. Whole body heating significantly decreased the responsiveness of the carotid-vasomotor baroreflex (from -0.20 +/- 0.02 to -0.13 +/- 0.02 mmHg/mmHg, P < 0.01) without altering the responsiveness of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex (from -0.40 +/- 0.05 to -0.36 +/- 0.02 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1), P = 0.21). Carotid-vasomotor and carotid-cardiac baroreflex curves were shifted downward and upward, respectively, to accommodate the decrease in blood pressure and increase in heart rate that accompanied the heat stress. Moreover, the operating point of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex was shifted closer to threshold (P = 0.02) by the heat stress. Reduced carotid-vasomotor baroreflex responsiveness, coupled with a reduction in the functional reserve for the carotid baroreflex to increase heart rate during a hypotensive challenge, may contribute to increased susceptibility to orthostatic intolerance during a heat stress.

  9. Intracellular distribution and mechanisms of actions of photosensitizer Zinc(II)-phthalocyanine solubilized in Cremophor EL against human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jingwei; Dai, Yongchao; Zhao, Wenna; Xie, Jingjing; Xue, Jinping; Ye, Jianhui; Jia, Lee

    2013-03-01

    Zinc(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) is a metal photosensitizer. In the present study, we formulated the poorly-soluble ZnPc in Cremophor EL solution to enhance its solubility and determined its intracellular distribution and mechanisms of action on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. ZnPc uptake by the cells reached a plateau by 8h. ZnPc primarily located in mitochondria, lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum. The concentration-growth inhibition curves of ZnPc on the cell lines were pharmacodynamically enhanced by 10-50 folds by irradiation. Once irradiated, ZnPc produced significant amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, arrested cell cycle mainly at G2/M stage, and decreased membrane potential (ΔΨm) of HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the present study first elucidated cellular and molecular mechanisms of ZnPc on HepG2 cells.

  10. Microwave-assisted protein solubilization for mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoxia; Li, Liang

    2012-07-17

    Protein solubilization is a key step in mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteome analysis. We describe a microwave-assisted protein solubilization (MAPS) method to dissolve proteins in reagents, such as NH(4)HCO(3) and urea, with high efficiency and with an added benefit that the solubilized proteins are denatured to become more susceptible to trypsin digestion, compared to other conventional protein solubilization techniques. In this method, a sample vial containing proteins suspended in a solubilization reagent is placed inside a domestic microwave oven and subjected to microwave irradiation for 30 s, followed by cooling the sample on ice to room temperature (~40 s) and then intermittent homogenization by vortex for 2 min. This cycle of microwave irradiation, cooling, and homogenization is repeated six times. In this way, sample overheating can be avoided, and a maximum amount of protein can be dissolved. It was shown that in the case of trypsin digestion of bovine serum albumen (BSA) more peptides and higher sequence coverage could be obtained from the protein dissolved by the MAPS method than the conventional heating, sonication, or vortex method. Compared to the most commonly used vortex-assisted protein solubilization method, MAPS reduces the solubilization time significantly, increases the amount of protein dissolvable in a reagent, and increases the number of proteins and peptides identified from a proteome sample. For example, in the proteome analysis of an Escherichia coli K-12 integral membrane protein extract, the MAPS method in combination with sequential protein solubilization and shotgun two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 1291 distinct proteins and 10363 peptides, compared to 1057 proteins and 6261 peptides identified using the vortex method. Because MAPS can be done using an inexpensive microwave oven, this method can be readily adopted.

  11. Cocrystal solubilization in biorelevant media and its prediction from drug solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Lipert, Maya P.; Roy, Lilly; Childs, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    This work examines cocrystal solubility in biorelevant media, (FeSSIF, fed state simulated intestinal fluid), and develops a theoretical framework that allows for the simple and quantitative prediction of cocrystal solubilization from drug solubilization. The solubilities of four hydrophobic drugs and seven cocrystals containing these drugs were measured in FeSSIF and in acetate buffer at pH 5.00. In all cases, the cocrystal solubility (Scocrystal) was higher than the drug solubility (Sdrug) in both buffer and FeSSIF; however, the solubilization ratio of drug, SRdrug = (SFeSSIF/Sbuffer)drug, was not the same as the solubilization ratio of cocrystal, SRcocrystal = (SFeSSIF/Sbuffer)cocrystal, meaning drug and cocrystal were not solubilized to the same extent in FeSSIF. This highlights the potential risk of anticipating cocrystal behavior in biorelevant media based on solubility studies in water. Predictions of SRcocrystal from simple equations based only on SRdrug were in excellent agreement with measured values. For 1:1 cocrystals, the cocrystal solubilization ratio can be obtained from the square root of the drug solubilization ratio. For 2:1 cocrystals, SRcocrystal is found from (SRdrug)2/3. The findings in FeSSIF can be generalized to describe cocrystal behavior in other systems involving preferential solubilization of a drug such as surfactants, lipids, and other drug solubilizing media. PMID:26390213

  12. Sympathetic activity during passive heat stress in healthy aged humans

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Daniel; Schlader, Zachary J; Crandall, Craig G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular adjustments during heat stress are generally attenuated in healthy aged humans, which could be due to lower increases in sympathetic activity compared to the young. We compared muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) between 11 young (Y: 28 ± 4 years) and 10 aged (A: 70 ± 5 years) subjects prior to and during passive heating. Furthermore, MSNA responses were compared when a cold pressor test (CPT) and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) were superimposed upon heating. Baseline MSNA burst frequency (Y: 15 ± 4 vs. A: 31 ± 3 bursts min−1, P ≤ 0.01) and burst incidence (Y: 26 ± 8 vs. A: 50 ± 7 bursts (100 cardiac cycles (CC))−1, P ≤ 0.01) were greater in the aged. Heat stress increased core temperature to a similar extent in both groups (Y: +1.2 ± 0.1 vs. A: +1.2 ± 0.0°C, P = 0.99). Absolute levels of MSNA remained greater in the aged during heat stress (burst frequency: Y: 47 ± 6 vs. A: 63 ± 11 bursts min−1, P ≤ 0.01; burst incidence: Y: 48 ± 8 vs. A: 67 ± 9 bursts (100 CC)−1, P ≤ 0.01); however, the increase in both variables was similar between groups (both P ≥ 0.1). The CPT and LBNP further increased MSNA burst frequency and burst incidence, although the magnitude of increase was similar between groups (both P ≥ 0.07). These results suggest that increases in sympathetic activity during heat stress are not attenuated in healthy aged humans. Key points Cardiovascular adjustments to heat stress are attenuated in healthy aged individuals, which could contribute to their greater prevalence of heat-related illnesses and deaths during heat waves. The attenuated cardiovascular adjustments in the aged could be due to lower increases in sympathetic nerve activity during heat stress. We examined muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and plasma catecholamine concentrations in healthy young and aged individuals during whole-body passive heat stress. The main finding

  13. Backshell Radiative Heating on Human-Scale Mars Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West,Thomas K., IV; Theisinger, John E.; Brune, Andrew J.; Johnston, Christopher O.

    2017-01-01

    This work quantifies the backshell radiative heating experienced by payloads on human- scale vehicles entering the Martian atmosphere. Three underlying configurations were studied: a generic sphere, a sphere-cone forebody with a cylindrical payload, and an ellipsled. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the flow field and radiation were performed using the LAURA and HARA codes, respectively. Results of this work indicated the primary contributor to radiative heating is emission from the CO2 IR band system. Furthermore, the backshell radiation component of heating can persist lower than 2 km/s during entry and descent. For the sphere-cone configuration a peak heat flux of about 3.5 W/cm(exp. 2) was observed at the payload juncture during entry. At similar conditions, the ellipsled geometry experienced about 1.25 W/cm(exp. 2) on the backshell, but as much as 8 W/cm(exp. 2) on the base at very high angle of attack. Overall, this study sheds light on the potential magnitudes of backshell radiative heating that various configurations may experience. These results may serve as a starting point for thermal protection system design or configuration changes necessary to accommodate thermal radiation levels.

  14. A study of the distribution of aluminum in human placental tissues based on alkaline solubilization with determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Pamela C.; Schell, Lawrence M.; Stark, Alice D.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Aluminum (Al) is a nonessential element known to induce neurotoxic effects, such as dialysis dementia, in patients on hemodialysis, with compromised kidney function. The role of Al in the progression of some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is controversial, and remains unclear. The effects of Al on other vulnerable populations, such as fetuses and infants, have been infrequently studied. In the present study, Al has been measured in human placenta samples, comprising ~160 each of placenta bodies, placenta membranes, and umbilical cords, using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) after atmospheric pressure digestion with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and ethylenediaminetetraacidic acid (EDTA). The sensitivity, or characteristic mass (m0), for Al at the 309.3-nm line was found to be 30 ± 4 pg. The instrumental detection limit (IDL) (3s) for Al in solution was calculated as 0.72 μg L-1, while the method detection limit (MDL) (3s) was 0.25 μg g-1. Accuracy was assessed through analysis of quality control (QC) materials, including certified reference materials (CRMs), in-house reference materials (RMs), and spike recovery experiments, of varying matrices. Placental tissue analyses revealed geometric mean concentrations of approximately 0.5 μg g-1 Al in placenta bodies (n=165) and membranes (n=155), while Al concentrations in the umbilical cord (n=154) were about 0.3 μg g-1. Al was detected in 95% of placenta bodies, and 81% of placenta membranes, but only in 46% of umbilical cords. PMID:21072353

  15. Effect of output power, target temperature, and solid concentration on the solubilization of waste activated sludge using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Park, Woon-Ji; Ahn, Johng-Hwa; Hwang, Seokhwan; Lee, Chan-Ki

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify the effect of heating pretreatment on the degree of solubilization of waste activated sludge. The pretreatment process was carried out using a lab-scale industrial microwave unit (2450 MHz frequency). Response surface analysis was applied to determine the combination of output power (400-1600 W), target temperature (60-120 degrees C), and total solid concentration (1-3% total solid (TS)). The power, temperature, and TS concentration significantly affected the solubilization degree of sludge. Within the design boundaries, the conditions predicted to maximize the solubilization degree of 17.9% were determined to be 400 W, 102 degrees C, and 2.3% TS.

  16. Urban heat island effects human heat-stress values in Portland (OR) during the July 2006 heat wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornstein, R. D.; Melford, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Heat Index (HI), a measure of the effective temperature felt by the human body, is based on both 2-m air temperature and relative humidity (RH) values. This NWS index, however, is generally calculated by use of only airport data. It thus cannot account for urban heat island (UHI) effects, which would raise the temperature values used in its calculation, create greater HI values, and thus more accurate estimates of the danger to human populations. The current study thus uses 12 mesoscale sites around Portland, Oregon to map the UHI and resulting HI fields during the heat wave of 20-24 July 2006. Past studies have observed UHIs in the area, but temperatures during this heat wave were unusually high due to a combination of synoptic influences, i.e., high temperatures aloft, nocturnal cloud cover, and a surface high pressure area. The associated surface southerly flow of moist air also produced high RH values during both daytime (which raised HI values) and nighttime (which kept min temperatures high). Results showed two separate Portland midday UHI centers (of up to 16 F), divided by the Willamette River that flows through the city. The UHI produced significant differences in the HI values across the city, with the highest variability during the 22nd of July. HI values from the airport NWS site were much lower (up to 20 F) than those from the center of the UHI. An urbanized HI needs to thus be considered (either from mesoscale observations, statistical extrapolation, or mesoscale modeling) when forecasting HI values in urban areas.

  17. Human thermal physiological and psychological responses under different heating environments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Ning, Haoran; Ji, Yuchen; Hou, Juan; He, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many residents of severely cold areas of China who use floor heating (FH) systems feel warmer but drier compared to those using radiant heating (RH) systems. However, this phenomenon has not been verified experimentally. In order to validate the empirical hypothesis, and research the differences of human physiological and psychological responses in these two asymmetrical heating environments, an experiment was designed to mimic FH and RH systems. The subjects participating in the experiment were volunteer college-students. During the experiment, the indoor air temperature, air speed, relative humidity, globe temperature, and inner surface temperatures were measured, and subjects' heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were recorded. The subjects were required to fill in questionnaires about their thermal responses during testing. The results showed that the subjects' skin temperatures, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly affected by the type of heating environment. Ankle temperature had greatest impact on overall thermal comfort relative to other body parts, and a slightly cool FH condition was the most pleasurable environment for sedentary subjects. The overall thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability of FH were higher than that of RH. However, the subjects of FH felt drier than that of RH, although the relative humidity in FH environments was higher than that of the RH environment. In future environmental design, the thermal comfort of the ankles should be scrutinized, and a FH cool condition is recommended as the most comfortable thermal environment for office workers. Consequently, large amounts of heating energy could be saved in this area in the winter. The results of this study may lead to more efficient energy use for office or home heating systems.

  18. Convective heat transfer area of the human body.

    PubMed

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2004-12-01

    In order to clarify the heat transfer area involved in convective heat exchange for the human body, the total body surface area of six healthy subjects was measured, and the non-convective heat transfer area and floor and chair contact areas for the following nine common body positions were measured: standing, sitting on a chair, sitting in the seiza position, sitting cross-legged, sitting sideways, sitting with both knees erect, sitting with a leg out, and the lateral and supine positions. The main non-convective heat transfer areas were: the armpits (contact between the upper arm and trunk regions), contact between the two legs, contacts between the fingers and toes, and contact between the hands and the body surface. Also, when sitting on the floor with some degree of leg contact (sitting in the seiza position, cross-legged, or sideways), there was a large non-convective heat transfer area on the thighs and legs. Even when standing or sitting in a chair, about 6-8% of the body surface did not transfer heat by convection. The results showed that the effective thermal convective area factor for the naked whole body in the standing position was 0.942. While sitting in a chair this factor was 0.860, while sitting in a chair but excluding the chair contact area it was 0.918, when sitting in the seiza position 0.818, when sitting cross-legged 0.843, in the sideways sitting position 0.855, when sitting with both knees erect 0.887, in the leg-out sitting position 0.906, while in the lateral position it was 0.877 and the supine position 0.844. For all body positions, the effective thermal convective area factor was greater than the effective thermal radiation area factor, but smaller than the total body surface area.

  19. Human cyclophilin 40 is a heat shock protein that exhibits altered intracellular localization following heat shock

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Peter J.; Ward, Bryan K.; Kumar, Premlata; Lahooti, Hooshang; Minchin, Rodney F.; Ratajczak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The unactivated steroid receptors are chaperoned into a conformation that is optimal for binding hormone by a number of heat shock proteins, including Hsp90, Hsp70, Hsp40, and the immunophilin, FKBP52 (Hsp56). Together with its partner cochaperones, cyclophilin 40 (CyP40) and FKBP51, FKBP52 belongs to a distinct group of structurally related immunophilins that modulate steroid receptor function through their association with Hsp90. Due to the structural similarity between the component immunophilins, FKBP52 and cyclophilin 40, we decided to investigate whether CyP40 is also a heat shock protein. Exposure of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to elevated temperatures (42°C for 3 hours) resulted in a 75-fold increase in CyP40 mRNA levels, but no corresponding increase in CyP40 protein expression, even after 7 hours of heat stress. The use of cycloheximide to inhibit protein synthesis revealed that in comparison to MCF-7 cells cultured at 37°C, those exposed to heat stress (42°C for 3 hours) displayed an elevated rate of degradation of both CyP40 and FKBP52 proteins. Concomitantly, the half-life of the CyP40 protein was reduced from more than 24 hours to just over 8 hours following heat shock. As no alteration in CyP40 protein levels occurred in cells exposed to heat shock, an elevated rate of degradation would imply that CyP40 protein was synthesized at an increased rate, hence the designation of human CyP40 as a heat shock protein. Application of heat stress elicited a marked redistribution of CyP40 protein in MCF-7 cells from a predominantly nucleolar localization, with some nuclear and cytoplasmic staining, to a pattern characterized by a pronounced nuclear accumulation of CyP40, with no distinguishable nucleolar staining. This increase in nuclear CyP40 possibly resulted from a redistribution of cytoplasmic and nucleolar CyP40, as no net increase in CyP40 expression levels occurred in response to stress. Exposure of MCF-7 cells to actinomycin D for 4 hours resulted in

  20. Binding of (/sup 3/H)forskolin to solubilized preparations of adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.A.; Seamon, K.B.

    1988-01-01

    The binding of (/sup 3/H)forskolin to proteins solubilized from bovine brain membranes was studied by precipitating proteins with polyethylene glycol and separating (/sup 3/H)forskolin bound to protein from free (/sup 3/H)forskolin by rapid filtration. The K/sub d/ for (/sup 3/H)forskolin binding to solubilized proteins was 14 nM which was similar to that for (/sup 3/H)forskolin binding sites in membranes from rat brain and human platelets. Forskolin analogs competed for (/sup 3/H)forskolin binding sites with the same rank potency in both brain membranes and in proteins solubilized from brain membranes. (/sup 3/H)forskolin bound to proteins solubilized from membranes with a Bmax of 38 fmolmg protein which increased to 94 fmolmg protein when GppNHp was included in the binding assay. In contrast, GppNHp had no effect on (/sup 3/H)forskolin binding to proteins solubilized from membranes preactivated with GppNHp. Solubilized adenylate cyclase from non-preactivated membranes had a basal activity of 130 pmolmgmin which was increased 7-fold by GppNHp. In contrast, adenylate cyclase from preactivated membranes had a basal activity of 850 pmolmgmin which was not stimulated by GppNHp or forskolin

  1. Effects of microwave and alkali induced pretreatment on sludge solubilization and subsequent aerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Jung; Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2011-09-01

    Individual and combined effects of microwave (MW) and alkali pretreatments on sludge disintegration and subsequent aerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) were studied. Pretreatments with MW (600W-85°C-2 min), conventional heating (520 W-80°C-12 min) and alkali (1.5 g NaOH/L - pH 12-30 min) achieved 8.5%, 7% and 18% COD solubilization, respectively. However, combined MW-alkali pretreatment synergistically enhanced sludge solubilization and achieved 46% COD solubilization, 20% greater than the additive value of MW alone and alkali alone (8.5+18%=26.5%). Moreover, the results of the batch aerobic digestion study on MW-alkali pretreated sludge showed 93% and 63% reductions in SCOD and VSS concentrations, respectively, at 16 days of SRT. The VSS reduction was 20% higher than that of WAS without pretreatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Leidel, James

    2014-12-22

    The grant objectives of the DOE grant funded project have been successfully completed. The Human Health Building (HHB) was constructed and opened for occupancy for the Fall 2012 semester of Oakland University. As with any large construction project, some issues arose which all were overcome to deliver the project on budget and on time. The facility design is a geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid building utilizing both desiccant dehumidification and variable refrigerant flow heat pumps. It is a cooling dominant building with a 400 ton cooling design day load, and 150 ton heating load on a design day. A 256 vertical borehole (320 ft depth) ground source heat pump array is located south of the building under the existing parking lot. The temperature swing and performance over 2013 through 2015 shows the ground loop is well sized, and may even have excess capacity for a future building to the north (planned lab facility). The HHB achieve a US Green Building Counsel LEED Platinum rating by collecting 52 of the total 69 available LEED points for the New Construction v.2 scoring checklist. Being Oakland's first geothermal project, we were very pleased with the building outcome and performance with the energy consumption approximately 1/2 of the campus average facility, on a square foot basis.

  3. Human behavioral thermoregulation during exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Flouris, A D; Schlader, Z J

    2015-06-01

    The human capacity to perform prolonged exercise is impaired in hot environments. To address this issue, a number of studies have investigated behavioral aspects of thermoregulation that are recognized as important factors in determining performance. In this review, we evaluated and interpreted the available knowledge regarding the voluntary control of exercise work rate in hot environments. Our analysis indicated that: (a) Voluntary reductions in exercise work rate in uncompensable heat aid thermoregulation and are, therefore, thermoregulatory behaviors. (b) Unlike thermal behavior during rest, the role of thermal comfort as the ultimate mediator of thermal behavior during exercise in the heat remains uncertain. By contrast, the rating of perceived exertion appears to be the key perceptual controller under such conditions, with thermal perception playing a more modulatory role. (c) Prior to increases in core temperature (when only skin temperature is elevated), reductions in self-selected exercise work rate in the heat are likely mediated by thermal perception (thermal comfort and sensation) and its influence on the rating of perceived exertion. (d) However, when both core and skin temperatures are elevated, factors associated with cardiovascular strain likely dictate the rate of perceived exertion response, thereby mediating such voluntary reductions in exercise work rate.

  4. Human brain stem structures respond differentially to noxious heat.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alexander; Franz, Marcel; Dietrich, Caroline; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Concerning the physiological correlates of pain, the brain stem is considered to be one core region that is activated by noxious input. In animal studies, different slopes of skin heating (SSH) with noxious heat led to activation in different columns of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present study aimed at finding a method for differentiating structures in PAG and other brain stem structures, which are associated with different qualities of pain in humans according to the structures that were associated with different behavioral significances to noxious thermal stimulation in animals. Brain activity was studied by functional MRI in healthy subjects in response to steep and shallow SSH with noxious heat. We found differential activation to different SSH in the PAG and the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). In a second experiment, we demonstrate that the different SSH were associated with different pain qualities. Our experiments provide evidence that brainstem structures, i.e., the PAG and the RVM, become differentially activated by different SSH. Therefore, different SSH can be utilized when brain stem structures are investigated and when it is aimed to activate these structures differentially. Moreover, percepts of first pain were elicited by shallow SSH whereas percepts of second pain were elicited by steep SSH. The stronger activation of these brain stem structures to SSH, eliciting percepts of second vs. first pain, might be of relevance for activating different coping strategies in response to the noxious input with the two types of SSH.

  5. Barcoding heat shock proteins to human diseases: looking beyond the heat shock response

    PubMed Central

    Kakkar, Vaishali; Meister-Broekema, Melanie; Minoia, Melania; Carra, Serena; Kampinga, Harm H.

    2014-01-01

    There are numerous human diseases that are associated with protein misfolding and the formation of toxic protein aggregates. Activating the heat shock response (HSR) – and thus generally restoring the disturbed protein homeostasis associated with such diseases – has often been suggested as a therapeutic strategy. However, most data on activating the HSR or its downstream targets in mouse models of diseases associated with aggregate formation have been rather disappointing. The human chaperonome consists of many more heat shock proteins (HSPs) that are not regulated by the HSR, however, and researchers are now focusing on these as potential therapeutic targets. In this Review, we summarize the existing literature on a set of aggregation diseases and propose that each of them can be characterized or ‘barcoded’ by a different set of HSPs that can rescue specific types of aggregation. Some of these ‘non-canonical’ HSPs have demonstrated effectiveness in vivo, in mouse models of protein-aggregation disease. Interestingly, several of these HSPs also cause diseases when mutated – so-called chaperonopathies – which are also discussed in this Review. PMID:24719117

  6. Passive heat acclimation improves skeletal muscle contractility in humans.

    PubMed

    Racinais, S; Wilson, M G; Périard, J D

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated passive heat exposure (i.e., acclimation) on muscle contractility in humans. Fourteen nonheat-acclimated males completed two trials including electrically evoked twitches and voluntary contractions in thermoneutral conditions [Cool: 24°C, 40% relative humidity (RH)] and hot ambient conditions in the hyperthermic state (Hot: 44-50°C, 50% RH) on consecutive days in a counterbalanced order. Rectal temperature was ~36.5°C in Cool and was maintained at ~39°C throughout Hot. Both trials were repeated after 11 days of passive heat acclimation (1 h per day, 48-50°C, 50% RH). Heat acclimation decreased core temperature in Cool (-0.2°C, P < 0.05), increased the time required to reach 39°C in Hot (+9 min, P < 0.05) and increased sweat rate in Hot (+0.7 liter/h, P < 0.05). Moreover, passive heat acclimation improved skeletal muscle contractility as evidenced by an increase in evoked peak twitch amplitude both in Cool (20.5 ± 3.6 vs. 22.0 ± 4.0 N·m) and Hot (20.5 ± 4.7 vs. 22.0 ± 4.0 N·m) (+9%, P < 0.05). Maximal voluntary torque production was also increased both in Cool (145 ± 42 vs. 161 ± 36 N·m) and Hot (125 ± 36 vs. 145 ± 30 N·m) (+17%, P < 0.05), despite voluntary activation remaining unchanged. Furthermore, the slope of the relative torque/electromyographic linear relationship was improved postacclimation (P < 0.05). These adjustments demonstrate that passive heat acclimation improves skeletal muscle contractile function during electrically evoked and voluntary muscle contractions of different intensities both in Cool and Hot. These results suggest that repeated heat exposure may have important implications to passively maintain or even improve muscle function in a variety of performance and clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Understanding heat facilitated drug transport across human epidermis.

    PubMed

    Wood, D G; Brown, M B; Jones, S A

    2012-08-01

    The application of moderate heat is a safe and effective means to increase drug transport across human skin. However, the cascade of events that follows the exposure of a topical skin formulation to a heating source is not well understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate how three potential rate limiting stages in the drug transport process; formulation release, drug partitioning and epidermal diffusion, responded to changes in local temperature using the model drug lidocaine. Release from the formulation measured using regenerated cellulose membrane was shown to be driven by drug diffusion in the vehicle; it responded linearly when the local temperature was changed (21.6 μg/cm(2)/h for every 1 °C rise) and displayed no measurable partitioning of lidocaine into RCM. Once the drug was within the human epidermis, the structural changes of the barrier controlled its transport. The apparent lidocaine diffusion coefficient through silicone membrane increased from 6.52 to 8.43 × 10(-4) over the 32-45 °C temperature range, but it increased from 7.74 × 10(-5)cm(2)h(-1) to 4.8 × 10(-4)cm(2)h(-1) in the human epidermis. In the absence of large increases in drug partitioning, fluidisation of the lipids in the upper layers of the epidermis at 37-45 °C was shown to facilitate lidocaine diffusion which for human skin transport was the rate limiting process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of heat stress proteins by human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Sauk, J J; Norris, K; Foster, R; Moehring, J; Somerman, M J

    1988-11-01

    The purpose of the present report was to document the stress response produced by physical and chemical abuses to human periodontal ligament cells, and to review some of the known functions of stress response proteins produced as a result of such treatments. For these studies human PDL cells were exposed to sublethal challenges of 43 degrees C heat, sodium arsenite and the amino acid analog L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (AZC). The cells were labelled with [35S]-methionine and the proteins produced were examined by autofluorography of SDS-PAGE gels. Heat challenges were shown to induce hsps with an apparent mol. wts. of 90K, 68-72K, 41-47K, and 36 K. Arsenite-treated cells produced similar hsps including a 30k protein not produced by other forms of stress. AZC treatment resulted in the production of apparent functionless hsps with apparent molecular weights of 90,000, 72,000, 68,000 and 36,000. The function of these proteins and their possible role in periodontal disease is discussed.

  9. Solubilization of coal in organic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahaye, P.; Decroocq, D.

    1977-01-01

    The use of solvent extraction to solubilize coal is discussed. Simple extractions are described which are conducted at moderate temperatures to exclude extraneous chemical reactions which would lead to uncontrolled changes in the components of the treated coal. Sample preparation, extraction apparatus, and the determination of extract yield for different experiments are also described.

  10. Biosurfactant-enhanced solubilization of NAPL mixtures.

    PubMed

    McCray, J E; Bai, G; Maier, R M; Brusseau, M L

    2001-03-01

    Remediation of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) by conventional pump-and-treat methods (i.e., water flushing) is generally considered to be ineffective due to low water solubilities of NAPLs and to mass-transfer constraints. Chemical flushing techniques, such as surfactant flushing, can greatly improve NAPL remediation primarily by increasing the apparent solubility of NAPL contaminants. NAPLs at hazardous waste sites are often complex mixtures. However, the equilibrium and nonequilibrium mass-transfer characteristics between NAPL mixtures and aqueous surfactant solutions are not well understood. This research investigates the equilibrium solubilization behavior of two- and three-component NAPL mixtures (containing akylbenzenes) in biosurfactant solutions. NAPL solubilization is found to be ideal in water (i.e., obeys Raoult's Law), while solubilization in biosurfactant solutions was observed to be nonideal. Specifically, the relatively hydrophobic compounds in the mixture experienced solubility enhancements that were greater than those predicted by ideal enhanced solubilization theory, while the solubility enhancements for the relatively hydrophilic compounds were less than predicted. The degree of nonideality is shown to be a nonlinear function of the NAPL-phase mole fraction. Empirical relationships based on the NAPL-phase mole fraction and/or micelle-aqueous partition coefficients measured in single-component NAPL systems are developed to estimate values for the multicomponent partition coefficients. Empirical relationships that incorporate both the NAPL-phase mole fraction and single-component partition coefficients yield much improved estimates for the multicomponent partition coefficient.

  11. Amphiphiles for protein solubilization and stabilization

    DOEpatents

    Gellman, Samuel Helmer; Chae, Pil Seok; Laible, Phillip D; Wander, Marc J

    2014-11-04

    The invention provides amphiphiles for manipulating membrane proteins. The amphiphiles can feature carbohydrate-derived hydrophilic groups and branchpoints in the hydrophilic moiety and/or in a lipophilic moiety. Such amphiphiles are useful as detergents for solubilization and stabilization of membrane proteins, including photosynthetic protein superassemblies obtained from bacterial membranes.

  12. Amphiphiles for protein solubilization and stabilization

    DOEpatents

    Gellman, Samuel Helmer; Chae, Pil Seok; Laible, Philip D.; Wander, Marc J.

    2012-09-11

    The invention provides amphiphiles for manipulating membrane proteins. The amphiphiles can feature carbohydrate-derived hydrophilic groups and branchpoints in the hydrophilic moiety and/or in a lipophilic moiety. Such amphiphiles are useful as detergents for solubilization and stabilization of membrane proteins, including photosynthetic protein superassemblies obtained from bacterial membranes.

  13. Citric acid mediates the iron absorption from low molecular weight human milk fractions.

    PubMed

    Palika, Ravindranadh; Mashurabad, Purna Chandra; Kilari, Sreenivasulu; Kasula, Sunanda; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Raghu, Pullakhandam

    2013-11-20

    Previously, we have demonstrated increased iron absorption from low molecular weight (LMW) human milk whey fractions. In the present study, we investigated the effect of heat denaturation, zinc (a competitor of iron), duodenal cytochrome b (DcytB) antibody neutralization and citrate lyase treatment on LMW human milk fraction (>5 kDa referred as 5kF) induced ferric iron reduction, solubilization, and uptake in Caco-2 cells. Heat denaturation and zinc inhibited the 5kF fraction induced ferric iron reduction. In contrast, zinc but not heat denaturation abrogated the ferric iron solubilization activity. Despite inhibition of ferric iron reduction, iron uptake in Caco-2 cells was similar from both native and heat denatured 5kF fractions. However, iron uptake was higher from native compared to heat denatured 5kF fractions in the cells preincubated with the DcytB antibody. Citrate lyase treatment inhibited the ferric iron reduction, solubilization, and uptake in Caco-2 cells. These findings demonstrate that citric acid present in human milk solubilizes the ferric iron which could be reduced by other heat labile components leading to increased uptake in intestinal cells.

  14. Regulation of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression by Heat: A Novel Aspect of Heat Shock Factor 1 Function in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Trotta, Edoardo; Angelini, Mara; Santoro, M. Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    The heat-shock response, a fundamental defense mechanism against proteotoxic stress, is regulated by a family of heat-shock transcription factors (HSF). In humans HSF1 is considered the central regulator of heat-induced transcriptional responses. The main targets for HSF1 are specific promoter elements (HSE) located upstream of heat-shock genes encoding cytoprotective heat-shock proteins (HSP) with chaperone function. In addition to its cytoprotective function, HSF1 was recently hypothesized to play a more complex role, regulating the expression of non-HSP genes; however, the non-canonical role of HSF1 is still poorly understood. Herein we report that heat-stress promotes the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key regulator of inflammation controlling prostanoid and thromboxane synthesis, resulting in the production of high levels of prostaglandin-E2 in human cells. We show that heat-induced COX-2 expression is regulated at the transcriptional level via HSF1-mediated signaling and identify, by in-vitro reporter gene activity assay and deletion-mutant constructs analysis, the COX-2 heat-responsive promoter region and a new distal cis-acting HSE located at position −2495 from the transcription start site. As shown by ChIP analysis, HSF1 is recruited to the COX-2 promoter rapidly after heat treatment; by using shRNA-mediated HSF1 suppression and HSE-deletion from the COX-2 promoter, we demonstrate that HSF1 plays a central role in the transcriptional control of COX-2 by heat. Finally, COX-2 transcription is also induced at febrile temperatures in endothelial cells, suggesting that HSF1-dependent COX-2 expression could contribute to increasing blood prostaglandin levels during fever. The results identify COX-2 as a human non-classical heat-responsive gene, unveiling a new aspect of HSF1 function. PMID:22347460

  15. Inverse modeling for heat conduction problem in human abdominal phantom.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive methods for deep body temperature measurement are based on the principle of heat equilibrium between the thermal sensor and the target location theoretically. However, the measurement position is not able to be definitely determined. In this study, a 2-dimensional mathematical model was built based upon some assumptions for the physiological condition of the human abdomen phantom. We evaluated the feasibility in estimating the internal organs temperature distribution from the readings of the temperature sensors arranged on the skin surface. It is a typical inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP), and is usually mathematically ill-posed. In this study, by integrating some physical and physiological a-priori information, we invoked the quasi-linear (QL) method to reconstruct the internal temperature distribution. The solutions of this method were improved by increasing the accuracy of the sensors and adjusting their arrangement on the outer surface, and eventually reached the state of converging at the best state accurately. This study suggests that QL method is able to reconstruct the internal temperature distribution in this phantom and might be worthy of a further study in an anatomical based model.

  16. The hexameric structures of human heat shock protein 90.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Ta-Wei; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Wang, Andrew H-J

    2011-01-01

    The human 90-kDa heat shock protein (HSP90) functions as a dimeric molecular chaperone. HSP90 identified on the cell surface has been found to play a crucial role in cancer invasion and metastasis, and has become a validated anti-cancer target for drug development. It has been shown to self-assemble into oligomers upon heat shock or divalent cations treatment, but the functional role of the oligomeric states in the chaperone cycle is not fully understood. Here we report the crystal structure of a truncated HSP90 that contains the middle segment and the carboxy-terminal domain, termed MC-HSP90. The structure reveals an architecture with triangular bipyramid geometry, in which the building block of the hexameric assembly is a dimer. In solution, MC-HSP90 exists in three major oligomer states, namely dimer, tetramer and hexamer, which were elucidated by size exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation. The newly discovered HSP90 isoform HSP90N that lacks the N-terminal ATPase domain also exhibited similar oligomerization states as did MC-HSP90. While lacking the ATPase domain, both MC-HSP90 and HSP90N can self-assemble into a hexameric structure, spontaneously. The crystal structure of MC-HSP90 reveals that, in addition to the C-terminal dimerization domain, the residue W320 in the M domain plays a critical role in its oligomerization. This study not only demonstrates how the human MC-HSP90 forms a hexamer, but also justifies the similar formation of HSP90N by using 3D modeling analysis.

  17. Solubilization and Interaction Studies of Bile Salts with Surfactants and Drugs: a Review.

    PubMed

    Malik, Nisar Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    In this review, bile salt, bile salt-surfactant, and bile salt-drug interactions and their solubilization studies are mainly focused. Usefulness of bile salts in digestion, absorption, and excretion of various compounds and their rare properties in ordering the shape and size of the micelles owing to the presence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces are taken into consideration while compiling this review. Bile salts as potential bio-surfactants to solubilize drugs of interest are also highlighted. This review will give an insight into the selection of drugs in different applications as their properties get modified by interaction with bile salts, thus influencing their solution behavior which, in turn, modifies the phase-forming behavior, microemulsion, and clouding phenomenon, besides solubilization. Finally, their future perspectives are taken into consideration to assess their possible uses as bio-surfactants without side effects to human beings.

  18. Human local and total heat losses in different temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Yin, Hui; Di, Yuhui; Liu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiaping

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of operative temperature on the local and total heat losses, and the relationship between the heat loss and thermal sensation. 10 local parts of head, neck, chest, abdomen, upper arm, forearm, hand, thigh, leg and foot are selected. In all these parts, convection, radiation, evaporation, respiration, conduction and diffusion heat losses are analyzed when operative temperature is 23, 28, 33 and 37 °C. The local heat losses show that the radiation and convection heat losses are mainly affected by the area of local body, and the heat loss of the thigh is the most in the ten parts. The evaporation heat loss is mainly affected by the distribution of sweat gland, and the heat loss of the chest is the most. The total heat loss of the local body shows that in low temperature, the thigh, leg and chest have much heat loss, while in high temperature, the chest, abdomen, thigh and head have great heat loss, which are useful for clothing design. The heat losses of the whole body show that as the operative temperature increases, the radiation and convection heat losses decrease, the heat losses of conduction, respiration, and diffusion are almost constant, and the evaporation heat loss increases. By comparison, the heat loss ratios of the radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, are in agreement with the previous researches. At last, the formula about the heat loss ratio of convection and radiation is derived. It's useful for thermal comfort evaluation and HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prediction of inclusion body solubilization from shaken to stirred reactors.

    PubMed

    Walther, Cornelia; Mayer, Sabrina; Trefilov, Alexandru; Sekot, Gerhard; Hahn, Rainer; Jungbauer, Alois; Dürauer, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion bodies (IBs) were solubilized in a µ-scale system using shaking microtiter plates or a stirred tank reactor in a laboratory setting. Characteristic dimensionless numbers for mixing, the Phase number Ph and Reynolds number Re did not correlate with the kinetics and equilibrium of protein solubilization. The solubilization kinetics was independent of the mixing system, stirring or shaking rate, shaking diameter, and energy input. Good agreement was observed between the solubilization kinetics and yield on the µ-scale and laboratory setting. We show that the IB solubilization process is controlled predominantly by pore diffusion. Thus, for the process it is sufficient to keep the IBs homogeneously suspended, and additional power input will not improve the process. The high-throughput system developed on the µ-scale can predict solubilization in stirred reactors up to a factor of 500 and can therefore be used to determine optimal solubilization conditions on laboratory and industrial scale.

  20. Gelation of protein recovered from whole Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) by isoelectric solubilization/precipitation as affected by functional additives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chen; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2007-03-07

    This study demonstrated that the novel isoelectric solubilization/precipitation can be applied to recover functional muscle protein in a continuous mode from whole Antarctic krill. Protein recovered from whole krill had a much lower ash content than whole krill, suggesting good removal of inedible impurities (shell, appendages, etc.). Lipids were retained to a higher degree with krill protein solubilized at acidic rather than basic pH. The viscoelastic modulus (G') showed that recovered krill protein failed to form heat-induced gel unless beef plasma protein (BPP) was added. Therefore, protease inhibitors are suggested for development of krill-derived products. Even with BPP, the G' decreased between 45 and 55 degrees C. However, krill protein solubilized at acidic pH had a higher decrease of the G' than the protein solubilized at basic pH, likely due to krill endogenous cathepsin L. Krill protein-based gels developed from protein solubilized at basic pH, especially pH 12.0, had better texture (torsion and Kramer tests and texture profile analysis) than acidic counterparts, possibly due to higher proteolysis and denaturation at acidic pH. Gels made from protein solubilized at acidic pH were brighter and whiter likely due to a higher lipid content.

  1. Solubilization of Australian lignites by microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J.; Cox, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Australia has substantial lignite deposits, particularly in the Latrobe Valley in Victoria where 4.10/sup 10/ tons are accessible with available technologies. The authors have investigated the susceptibility of these coal to solubilization by microorganisms, including species additional to those already identified as active on North American lignites. The data presented here show that acid oxidized lignites from the Latrobe Valley are solubilized by each of seven species of microorganisms previously found to be active on Leonardite and oxidized North American lignites. These are the wood rot fungi: Trametes versicolor, Poria placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the lignin degrading prokaryote Streptomyces viridosporus and three fungi isolated from lignite in Mississippi: Candida ML-13, Cunninghamelia YML-1 and Penicillium waksmanii.

  2. Differential Precipitation and Solubilization of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Barry J; Kinsella, Gemma K

    2017-01-01

    Differential protein precipitation is a rapid and economical step in protein purification and is based on exploiting the inherent physicochemical properties of the polypeptide. Precipitation of recombinant proteins, lysed from the host cell, is commonly used to concentrate the protein of choice before further polishing steps with more selective purification columns (e.g., His-Tag, Size Exclusion, etc.). Recombinant proteins can also precipitate naturally as inclusion bodies due to various influences during overexpression in the host cell. Although this phenomenon permits easier initial separation from native proteins, these inclusion bodies must carefully be differentially solubilized so as to reform functional, correctly folded proteins. Here, appropriate bioinformatics tools to aid in understanding a protein's propensity to aggregate and solubilize are explored as a backdrop for a typical protein extraction, precipitation, and selective resolubilization procedure, based on a recombinantly expressed protein.

  3. Genomic Heat Shock Element Sequences Drive Cooperative Human Heat Shock Factor 1 DNA Binding and Selectivity*

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Alex M.; Makley, Leah N.; Gestwicki, Jason E.; Thiele, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    The heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) activates expression of a variety of genes involved in cell survival, including protein chaperones, the protein degradation machinery, anti-apoptotic proteins, and transcription factors. Although HSF1 activation has been linked to amelioration of neurodegenerative disease, cancer cells exhibit a dependence on HSF1 for survival. Indeed, HSF1 drives a program of gene expression in cancer cells that is distinct from that activated in response to proteotoxic stress, and HSF1 DNA binding activity is elevated in cycling cells as compared with arrested cells. Active HSF1 homotrimerizes and binds to a DNA sequence consisting of inverted repeats of the pentameric sequence nGAAn, known as heat shock elements (HSEs). Recent comprehensive ChIP-seq experiments demonstrated that the architecture of HSEs is very diverse in the human genome, with deviations from the consensus sequence in the spacing, orientation, and extent of HSE repeats that could influence HSF1 DNA binding efficacy and the kinetics and magnitude of target gene expression. To understand the mechanisms that dictate binding specificity, HSF1 was purified as either a monomer or trimer and used to evaluate DNA-binding site preferences in vitro using fluorescence polarization and thermal denaturation profiling. These results were compared with quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in vivo. We demonstrate a role for specific orientations of extended HSE sequences in driving preferential HSF1 DNA binding to target loci in vivo. These studies provide a biochemical basis for understanding differential HSF1 target gene recognition and transcription in neurodegenerative disease and in cancer. PMID:25204655

  4. Stress-tolerant P-solubilizing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, N; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Vassileva, M

    2012-08-01

    Drought, high/low temperature, and salinity are abiotic stress factors accepted as the main reason for crop yield losses in a world with growing population and food price increases. Additional problems create nutrient limitations and particularly low P soil status. The problem of phosphate fertilizers, P plant nutrition, and existing phosphate bearing resources can also be related to the scarcity of rock phosphate. The modern agricultural systems are highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. Biotechnology offers a number of sustainable solutions that can mitigate these problems by using plant beneficial, including P-solubilizing, microorganisms. This short review paper summarizes the current and future trends in isolation, development, and application of P-solubilizing microorganisms in stress environmental conditions bearing also in mind the imbalanced cycling and unsustainable management of P. Special attention is devoted to the efforts on development of biotechnological strategies for formulation of P-solubilizing microorganisms in order to increase their protection against adverse abiotic factors.

  5. Localization and Solubilization of Colicin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sabet, Sohair Farid; Schnaitman, Carl A.

    1971-01-01

    Envelope fractions isolated from Escherichia coli K-12 C600 and from colicin-resistant and colicin-tolerant (Tol II) mutants derived from this strain were separated on sucrose gradients into cell wall-enriched and cytoplasmic membrane-enriched fractions. These fractions were tested for their ability to neutralize colicins of the E and K groups. Neutralization activity was found in the cell wall-enriched fraction from the parent and the Tol II mutant but was absent from all fractions from the resistant mutant. This was also tested with several other E. coli strains. In all cases, sensitive strains contained the neutralization activity, whereas resistant strains did not. The neutralization activity was solubilized from cell walls or cell envelopes of sensitive or Tol II strains by extraction at room temperature with Triton X-100 plus ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The solubilized activity was precipitated by 20% ammonium sulfate, 70% ethanol, or 10% trichloroacetic acid. The activity was destroyed by treatment of the solubilized preparation with trypsin or periodate. These results suggest that this colicin-neutralization activity is due to the presence of specific receptors localized in the cell wall and that intact protein and a carbohydrate are required for this receptor to bind colicin. PMID:4330740

  6. Neural correlates of heat-evoked pain memory in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Peng; Li, Lei; Ku, Yixuan; Bodner, Mark; Fan, Gaojie; Zhou, Yong-Di; Dong, Xiao-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The neural processes underlying pain memory are not well understood. To explore these processes, contact heat-evoked potentials (CHEPs) were recorded in humans with electroencephalography (EEG) technique during a delayed matching-to-sample task, a working memory task involving presentations of two successive painful heat stimuli (S-1 and S-2) with different intensities separated by a 2-s interval (the memorization period). At the end of the task, the subject was required to discriminate the stimuli by indicating which (S-1 or S-2) induced more pain. A control task was used, in which no active discrimination was required between stimuli. All event-related potential (ERP) analysis was aligned to the onset of S-1. EEG activity exhibited two successive CHEPs: an N2-P2 complex (∼400 ms after onset of S-1) and an ultralate component (ULC, ∼900 ms). The amplitude of the N2-P2 at vertex, but not the ULC, was significantly correlated with stimulus intensity in these two tasks, suggesting that the N2-P2 represents neural coding of pain intensity. A late negative component (LNC) in the frontal recording region was observed only in the memory task during a 500-ms period before onset of S-2. LNC amplitude differed between stimulus intensities and exhibited significant correlations with the N2-P2 complex. These indicate that the frontal LNC is involved in maintenance of intensity of pain in working memory. Furthermore, alpha-band oscillations observed in parietal recording regions during the late delay displayed significant power differences between tasks. This study provides in the temporal domain previously unidentified neural evidence showing the neural processes involved in working memory of painful stimuli. PMID:26740529

  7. Isolation of phosphate-solubilizing fungus and its application in solubilization of rock phosphates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingben; He, Yuelin; Yin, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Lijuan; Zhang, Aiqun

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms have been obtained to improve the agronomic value of rock phosphates (RPs), but the phosphorus solubilizing rate by these approaches is very slow. It is important to explore a high-efficient phosphate-solubilizing approach with a kind of microorganisms. This study aimed to isolate a high-efficient level of phosphate-solubilizing fungus from rhizosphere soil samples phosphate mines (Liuyang County, Hunan province, China) and apply it in solubilization of RPs. The experiments were carried out by the conventional methodology for morphological and biochemical fungus characterization and the analysis of 18s rRNA sequence. Then the effects of time, temperature, initial pH, phosphorus (P) sources, RPs concentration, shaking speed and silver ion on the content of soluble P released by this isolate were investigated. The results showed this isolate was identified as Galactomyces geotrichum P14 (P14) in GeneBank and the maximum amount of soluble P was 1252.13 mg L(-1) within 40 h in a modified phosphate growth agar's medium (without agar) where contained tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as sole phosphate source. At the same time, it could release phosphate and solubilize various rock phosphates. The isolated fungus can convert RPs from insoluble form into plant available form and therefore it hold great potential for biofertilizers to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth.

  8. Lung protection by inhalation of exogenous solubilized extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinglei; Ravikumar, Priya; Nguyen, Kytai T.; Hsia, Connie C. W.

    2017-01-01

    Decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) contains complex tissue-specific components that work in concert to promote tissue repair and constructive remodeling and has been used experimentally and clinically to accelerate epithelial wound repair, leading us to hypothesize that lung-derived ECM could mitigate acute lung injury. To explore the therapeutic potential of ECM for noninvasive delivery to the lung, we decellularized and solubilized porcine lung ECM, then characterized the composition, concentration, particle size and stability of the preparation. The ECM preparation at 3.2 mg/mL with average particle size <3 μm was tested in vitro on human A549 lung epithelial cells exposed to 95% O2 for 24 hours, and in vivo by tracheal instillation or nebulization into the lungs of rats exposed intermittently or continuously to 90% O2 for a cumulative 72 hours. Our results showed that the preparation was enriched in collagen, reduced in glycosaminoglycans, and contained various bioactive molecules. Particle size was concentration-dependent. Compared to the respective controls treated with cell culture medium in vitro or saline in vivo, ECM inhalation normalized cell survival and alveolar morphology, and reduced hyperoxia-induced apoptosis and oxidative damage. This proof-of-concept study established the methodology, feasibility and therapeutic potential of exogenous solubilized ECM for pulmonary cytoprotection, possibly as an adjunct or potentiator of conventional therapy. PMID:28151947

  9. Ozone solubilizes elastin and increases its susceptibility to elastase

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, R.S.; Johnson, D.A. )

    1991-03-11

    Ozone is a powerful oxidant gas that may contribute to lung diseases such as emphysema. Because the hallmark of emphysema is destruction of the elastin rich alveoli of the lung, ozonization of elastin was studied in vitro to examine the effects of ozone on elastin structure and susceptibility to proteolysis. Samples of bovine ligamentum nuchae elastin were suspended in 15 ml PBS and bubbled with 13.7 ppm ozone in argon at a flow rate of 3.5 ml/min. Ozone treatment resulted in the solubilization of elastin as evidenced by a visual decrease in turbidity and an increase in the 225 nm absorbance of the supernatant fraction after centrifugation to pellet the insoluble elastin. Insoluble elastin recovered from exposed suspensions was examined for proteolytic susceptibility with human neutrophil elastase (HNE), by incubating 600 {mu}g samples in 1 ml of 50 mM Tris-HCl, 200 mM NaCl, pH 8.0 with 3 {mu}g HNE for various times at room temp. Elastin proteolysis was followed by measuring the 225 nm absorbance of solubilized peptides in supernatant fractions. Ozone exposed elastin, which had been previously ozonized to 5% solubility was found to be approximately twice as susceptible to proteolysis as native elastin.

  10. Cytotoxic and antiangiogenic paclitaxel solubilized and permeation-enhanced by natural product nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijun; Zhang, Fang; Koh, Gar Yee; Dong, Xin; Hollingsworth, Javoris; Zhang, Jian; Russo, Paul S; Yang, Peiying; Stout, Rhett W

    2015-02-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most potent intravenous chemotherapeutic agents to date, yet an oral formulation has been problematic because of its low solubility and permeability. Using the recently discovered solubilizing properties of rubusoside (RUB), we investigated the unique PTX-RUB formulation. PTX was solubilized by RUB in water to levels of 1.6-6.3 mg/ml at 10-40% weight/volume. These nanomicellar PTX-RUB complexes were dried to a powder, which was subsequently reconstituted in physiologic solutions. After 2.5 h, 85-99% of PTX-RUB remained soluble in gastric fluid, whereas 79-96% remained soluble in intestinal fluid. The solubilization of PTX was mechanized by the formation of water-soluble spherical nanomicelles between PTX and RUB, with an average diameter of 6.6 nm. Compared with Taxol, PTX-RUB nanoparticles were nearly four times more permeable in Caco-2 cell monocultures. In a side-by-side comparison with dimethyl sulfoxide-solubilized PTX, PTX-RUB maintained the same level of cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 4 to 20 nmol/l. In addition, tubule formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were inhibited at levels as low as 5 nmol/l. These chemical and biological properties demonstrated by the PTX-RUB nanoparticles may improve oral bioavailability and enable further pharmacokinetic, toxicologic, and efficacy investigations.

  11. Transcriptional profiles of human epithelial cells in response to heat: computational evidence for novel heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Laramie, Jason M; Chung, T Philip; Brownstein, Buddy; Stormo, Gary D; Cobb, J Perren

    2008-05-01

    We hypothesized that broad-scale expression profiling would provide insight into the regulatory pathways that control gene expression in response to stress and potentially identify novel heat-responsive genes. HEp2 cells, a human malignant epithelial cell line, were heated at 37 degrees C to 43 degrees C for 60 min to gauge the heat shock response, using as a proxy inducible Hsp70 quantified by Western blot analysis. Based on these results, microarray experiments were conducted at 37 degrees C, 40 degrees C, 41 degrees C, 42 degrees C, and 43 degrees C. Using linear modeling, we compared the sets of microarrays at 40 degrees C, 41 degrees C, 42 degrees C, and 43 degrees C with the 37 degrees C baseline temperature and took the union of the genes exhibiting differential gene expression signal to create two sets of "heat shock response" genes, each set reflecting either increased or decreased RNA abundance. Leveraging human and mouse orthologous alignments, we used the two lists of coexpressed genes to predict transcription factor binding sites in silico, including those for heat shock factor (HSF) 1 and HSF2 transcription factors. We discovered HSF1 and HSF2 binding sites in 15 genes not previously associated with the heat shock response. We conclude that microarray experiments coupled with upstream promoter analysis can be used to identify novel genes that respond to heat shock. Additional experiments are required to validate these putative heat shock proteins and facilitate a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved during the stress response.

  12. Solubilization of microsomal-associated phosphatidylinositol synthase from germinating soybeans.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M L; Carman, G M

    1982-01-01

    CDP-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (CDP-diacylglycerol):myo-inositol phosphatidyltransferase (EC 2.7.8.11, phosphatidylinositol synthase) catalyzes the final step in the de novo synthesis of phosphatidylinositol in the endoplasmic reticulum fraction of germinating soybeans (Glycine max L. var Cutler 71). A variety of solubilization agents were examined for their ability to release phosphatidylinositol synthase activity from the microsome fraction. The most effective agent to solubilize the enzyme was the nonionic detergent Brij W-1. A 2.1-fold increase in specific activity was achieved using 1% Brij W-1 with 69% activity solubilized.Maximal solubilization of phosphatidylinositol synthase was completely dependent on Brij W-1 (1%), potassium ions (0.3 m), and manganese ions (0.5 mm). Solubilization of the enzyme was not affected by the protein concentration of microsomes between 3 to 20 milligrams per milliliter. Solubilization was not affected by the pH of solubilization buffer between 6.5 to 8.5. To our knowledge, this is the first phospholipid biosynthetic enzyme solubilized from plant membranes. The Brij W-1-solubilized phosphatidylinositol synthase remained at the top of a glycerol gradient, whereas the membrane-associated enzyme sedimented to the bottom of the gradient. Maximal activity of the Brij W-1-solubilized phosphatidylinositol synthase was dependent on manganese (5 mm) or magnesium (30 mm) ions, and Triton X-100 (3.6 mm) at pH 8.0 with Tris-HCl buffer. The apparent K(m) values for CDP-diacylglycerol and myo-inositol for the solubilized enzyme was 0.1 mm and 46 mum, respectively. Solubilized phosphatidylinositol synthase activity was thermally inactivated at temperatures above 30 degrees C.

  13. Biological solubilization of coal in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    Current investigations into the biological solubilization of coal with microorganisms focus on the production of solubilizing activity in fungi. Test organisms for this work include a species of the yeast Candida previously isolated from a lignite outcrop, and P. chrysosporium, a filamentous higher fungus which has played a major role in lignin biodegradation research. The studies described are primarily exploratory in nature, and are fundamental to the design of more sophisticated inquiries into the physiology of fungal coal solubilization.

  14. Expression of translationally controlled tumor protein in heat-stressed human dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Jirachotikoon, Canussanun; Tannukit, Sissada; Kedjarune-Leggat, Ureporn

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heat stress on cell viability, translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) expression, and the effects of recombinant TCTP on heat-stressed human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). HDPCs were isolated from human teeth and cultured at 37°C. For heat stress, HPDCs were incubated at 43°C for 45min. After heat stress, recombinant TCTP were added to HDPCs and cultured for various periods of time at 37°C. Heat-treated cells were then analyzed by DNA staining with Hoechst 33258, MTT, and caspase 3 activity assays. TCTP expression level was assessed by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Heat-treated cells displayed lower cell density and nuclear morphology resembling apoptotic body. Heat stress significantly decreased cell viability and induced activity of caspase 3. The effect of recombinant TCTP on pulp cell death from heat stress varied depending on each subject and TCTP concentration. Heat stress up-regulated TCTP mRNA expression level. In contrast, TCTP protein level remained unchanged. Recombinant TCTP did not affect TCTP mRNA expression but down-regulated TCTP protein in heat-treated cells. Heat stress induces caspase 3 activation and up-regulates TCTP mRNA expression in HDPCs. TCTP did not play a key role on pulp cell recovery from heat stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Heat Stress and Cardiovascular, Hormonal, and Heat Shock Proteins in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Masaki; Littmann, Andrew E.; Chang, Shuo-Hsiu; Wester, Lydia A.; Knipper, Jane S.; Shields, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Conditions such as osteoarthritis, obesity, and spinal cord injury limit the ability of patients to exercise, preventing them from experiencing many well-documented physiologic stressors. Recent evidence indicates that some of these stressors might derive from exercise-induced body temperature increases. Objective: To determine whether whole-body heat stress without exercise triggers cardiovascular, hormonal, and extra-cellular protein responses of exercise. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-five young, healthy adults (13 men, 12 women; age = 22.1 ± 2.4 years, height = 175.2 ± 11.6 cm, mass = 69.4 ± 14.8 kg, body mass index = 22.6 ± 4.0) volunteered. Intervention(s): Participants sat in a heat stress chamber with heat (73°C) and without heat (26°C) stress for 30 minutes on separate days. We obtained blood samples from a subset of 13 participants (7 men, 6 women) before and after exposure to heat stress. Main Outcome Measure(s): Extracellular heat shock protein (HSP72) and catecholamine plasma concentration, heart rate, blood pressure, and heat perception. Results: After 30 minutes of heat stress, body temperature measured via rectal sensor increased by 0.8°C. Heart rate increased linearly to 131.4 ± 22.4 beats per minute (F6,24 = 186, P < .001) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased by 16 mm Hg (F6,24 = 10.1, P < .001) and 5 mm Hg (F6,24 = 5.4, P < .001), respectively. Norepinephrine (F1,12 = 12.1, P = .004) and prolactin (F1,12 = 30.2, P < .001) increased in the plasma (58% and 285%, respectively) (P < .05). The HSP72 (F1,12 = 44.7, P < .001) level increased with heat stress by 48.7% ± 53.9%. No cardiovascular or blood variables showed changes during the control trials (quiet sitting in the heat chamber with no heat stress), resulting in differences between heat and control trials. Conclusions: We found that whole-body heat stress triggers some of the

  16. Heat stress and cardiovascular, hormonal, and heat shock proteins in humans.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Masaki; Littmann, Andrew E; Chang, Shuo-Hsiu; Wester, Lydia A; Knipper, Jane S; Shields, Richard K

    2012-01-01

    Conditions such as osteoarthritis, obesity, and spinal cord injury limit the ability of patients to exercise, preventing them from experiencing many well-documented physiologic stressors. Recent evidence indicates that some of these stressors might derive from exercise-induced body temperature increases. To determine whether whole-body heat stress without exercise triggers cardiovascular, hormonal, and extracellular protein responses of exercise. Randomized controlled trial. University research laboratory. Twenty-five young, healthy adults (13 men, 12 women; age = 22.1 ± 2.4 years, height = 175.2 ± 11.6 cm, mass = 69.4 ± 14.8 kg, body mass index = 22.6 ± 4.0) volunteered. Participants sat in a heat stress chamber with heat (73°C) and without heat (26°C) stress for 30 minutes on separate days. We obtained blood samples from a subset of 13 participants (7 men, 6 women) before and after exposure to heat stress. Extracellular heat shock protein (HSP72) and catecholamine plasma concentration, heart rate, blood pressure, and heat perception. After 30 minutes of heat stress, body temperature measured via rectal sensor increased by 0.8°C. Heart rate increased linearly to 131.4 ± 22.4 beats per minute (F₆,₂₄ = 186, P < .001) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased by 16 mm Hg (F₆,₂₄ = 10.1, P < .001) and 5 mm Hg (F₆,₂₄ = 5.4, P < .001), respectively. Norepinephrine (F₁,₁₂ = 12.1, P = .004) and prolactin (F₁,₁₂ = 30.2, P < .001) increased in the plasma (58% and 285%, respectively) (P < .05). The HSP72 (F₁,₁₂ = 44.7, P < .001) level increased with heat stress by 48.7% ± 53.9%. No cardiovascular or blood variables showed changes during the control trials (quiet sitting in the heat chamber with no heat stress), resulting in differences between heat and control trials. We found that whole-body heat stress triggers some of the physiologic responses observed with exercise. Future studies are necessary to investigate whether

  17. SOLUBILIZATION OF ACTINIDE METAL-CONTAINING SLAG

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, H.H. Jr.

    1959-08-01

    This patent relates to solubilization of the actinide rare earths valves contained in the slag materials resulting from the reduction of actinide salts, such as plutonium tetrafluoride. According to the invention the slag is subjected to a high temperature chloridizing roast, preferably from the reduction of actinide salts, such as plutonium tetrafluoride. According to the invention the slag is subjected to a high temperature chloridizing roast, preferably at about 700 deg C with gaseous hydrogen chloride, until the actinides within the slag are substantially convented to the chlorides. The resultant chlorinated actinides are then leached from the cooled roasted mass by treating with aqueous 0.01 M nitric acid.

  18. Preventing Heat Injuries by Predicting Individualized Human Core Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-14

    for the Armed Forces, especially during deployment to localities with very hot and humid climates . Early warning of a rising core body temperature (TC... climates . In fact, between 2009 and 2013 there were 12,907 heat injuries across the Services, including 1,757 cases of heat stroke [1, 2]. The primary

  19. Solubilization of herbicides by single and mixed commercial surfactants.

    PubMed

    Galán-Jiménez, M C; Gómez-Pantoja, E; Morillo, E; Undabeytia, T

    2015-12-15

    The solubilization capabilities of micellar solutions of three single surfactants, two alcohol alkoxylates B048 and B266, and the tallow alkyl ethoxylated amine ET15, and their equimolar mixed solutions toward the herbicides flurtamone (FL), metribuzin (MTZ) and mesotrione (MST) were investigated. The solubilization capacity was quantified in terms of the molar solubilization ratio (MSR), critical micellar concentration (CMC), micelle-water partition coefficient (Kmc), binding constant (K1), number of aggregation (Nagg) and Stern-Volmer constant (Ksv). The herbicides were greatly solubilized into different loci of the micelles: FL within the inner hydrophobic core, MST at the micelle/water interface and MTZ in the palisade region. Equimolar binary surfactant mixtures did not improve the solubilization of herbicides over those of single components, with the exception of MTZ by the B266/ET15 system which enhanced solubilization by 10-20%. This enhanced solubilization of MTZ was due to an increased number of micelles that arise from both the intermediate Nagg relative to that of the single surfactants and the lower CMC. The use of Ksv values was a better predictor of the solubilization of polar molecules within binary mixtures of these surfactants than the interaction parameter β(M) from regular solution theory (RST). The results herein suggest that the use of mixed surfactant systems for the solubilization of polar molecules in environmental remediation technologies may be very limited in scope, without clear advantages over the use of single surfactant systems.

  20. Purification of RNA by SDS solubilization and phenol extraction.

    PubMed

    Rio, Donald C; Ares, Manuel; Hannon, Gregory J; Nilsen, Timothy W

    2010-06-01

    This protocol describes a method for RNA purification by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solubilization and phenol extraction. It is of wide utility and is used routinely to deproteinize RNAs in biological material that has been solubilized in SDS, an ionic detergent that dissolves membranes, disrupts protein-nucleic acid interactions, and inactivates ribonucleases. Once solubilized, addition of phenol or phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (PCA) completely denatures the protein, and it becomes insoluble in aqueous solution. PCA extraction is the method of choice for preparing cytoplasmic RNA from tissue culture cells or in any other situation (e.g., enzyme reactions) where solubilization in SDS is easily achievable.

  1. A new definition of solubilization power of a cosolvent.

    PubMed

    Jouyban, A; Fakhree, M A A

    2008-04-01

    The solubilization power of a cosolvent is defined based on the maximum solubility of a solute in the water-cosolvent mixtures (X(m,max)) and the corresponding solvent composition (f(c,max)) predicted by trained versions of the Jouyban-Acree model. The applicability of the proposed definition was checked using solubility data of three cosolvent systems where the solubilization power was ordered as: dioxane > ethanol > polyethylene glycol 400. Using this definition, one could select the most appropriate cosolvent for solubilization of a poorly water soluble drug. There are linear relationships between the solubilization power of a cosolvent and the solute's logarithm of partition coefficients.

  2. The urban heat island and its impact on heat waves and human health in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jianguo; Zheng, Youfei; Tang, Xu; Guo, Changyi; Li, Liping; Song, Guixiang; Zhen, Xinrong; Yuan, Dong; Kalkstein, Adam J; Li, Furong

    2010-01-01

    With global warming forecast to continue into the foreseeable future, heat waves are very likely to increase in both frequency and intensity. In urban regions, these future heat waves will be exacerbated by the urban heat island effect, and will have the potential to negatively influence the health and welfare of urban residents. In order to investigate the health effects of the urban heat island (UHI) in Shanghai, China, 30 years of meteorological records (1975-2004) were examined for 11 first- and second-order weather stations in and around Shanghai. Additionally, automatic weather observation data recorded in recent years as well as daily all-cause summer mortality counts in 11 urban, suburban, and exurban regions (1998-2004) in Shanghai have been used. The results show that different sites (city center or surroundings) have experienced different degrees of warming as a result of increasing urbanization. In turn, this has resulted in a more extensive urban heat island effect, causing additional hot days and heat waves in urban regions compared to rural locales. An examination of summer mortality rates in and around Shanghai yields heightened heat-related mortality in urban regions, and we conclude that the UHI is directly responsible, acting to worsen the adverse health effects from exposure to extreme thermal conditions.

  3. Spatiotemporal trends in human vulnerability to the heat across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, S. C.; Dixon, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    While human vulnerability to excessive heat has been well documented, relatively few studies have examined long-term trends in vulnerability to heat events. In this research, we examine temporal trends in mortality associated with heat waves, defined using three different definitions of heat wave, for the largest 51 metropolitan areas of the US, over a 36-year period (1975-2010). Regardless of the definition of heat wave, an overall decline in heat vulnerability is seen over the period. While in the first years of the study, 18 to 26 metropolitan areas showed statistically significant increases in mortality on heat wave days, by the final decade of the study period, this had decreased to 6 to 7. Within this narrative, however, examining individual metropolitan areas shows greater variability within the downward trend. Several contributing factors to the variability were observed, including the occurrence of an extreme heat wave affecting the overall heat wave-mortality relationship, and the frequency of heat events over a given period. These broad decreases in heat vulnerability, while encouraging, should be viewed in a cautionary sense. With society aging, there will be a greater number of highly susceptible individuals in the future; further adaptation gains are difficult in many places as air conditioning is now available in most homes in the US. Further, increased use of air conditioning has been associated with a stronger heat island; which, moving forward, is likely to occur alongside a greater number of heat events.

  4. Heat effects on drug delivery across human skin

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jinsong; Ghosh, Priyanka; Li, S. Kevin; Newman, Bryan; Kasting, Gerald B.; Raney, Sam G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to heat can impact the clinical efficacy and/or safety of transdermal and topical drug products. Understanding these heat effects and designing meaningful in vitro and in vivo methods to study them are of significant value to the development and evaluation of drug products dosed to the skin. Areas covered This review provides an overview of the underlying mechanisms and the observed effects of heat on the skin and on transdermal/topical drug delivery, thermoregulation and heat tolerability. The designs of several in vitro and in vivo heat effect studies and their results are reviewed. Expert opinion There is substantial evidence that elevated temperature can increase transdermal/topical drug delivery. However, in vitro and in vivo methods reported in the literature to study heat effects of transdermal/topical drug products have utilized inconsistent study conditions, and in vitro models require better characterization. Appropriate study designs and controls remain to be identified, and further research is warranted to evaluate in vitro-in vivo correlations and the ability of in vitro models to predict in vivo effects. The physicochemical and pharmacological properties of the drug(s) and the drug product, as well as dermal clearance and heat gradients may require careful consideration. PMID:26808472

  5. Human tolerance to heat strain during exercise: influence of hydration.

    PubMed

    Sawka, M N; Young, A J; Latzka, W A; Neufer, P D; Quigley, M D; Pandolf, K B

    1992-07-01

    This study determined whether 1) exhaustion from heat strain occurs at the same body temperatures during exercise in the heat when subjects are euhydrated as when they are hypohydrated, 2) aerobic fitness influences the body temperature at which exhaustion from heat strain occurs, and 3) curves could be developed to estimate exhaustion rates at a given level of physiological strain. Seventeen heat-acclimated men [maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) from 45 to 65 ml.kg-1.min-1] attempted two heat stress tests (HSTs): one when euhydrated and one when hypohydrated by 8% of total body water. The HSTs consisted of 180 min of rest and treadmill walking (45% VO2max) in a hot-dry (ambient temperature 49 degrees C, relative humidity 20%) environment. The required evaporative cooling (Ereq) exceeded the maximal evaporative cooling capacity of the environment (Emax); thus thermal equilibrium could not be achieved and 27 of 34 HSTs ended by exhaustion from heat strain. Our findings concerning exhaustion from heat strain are 1) hypohydration reduced the core temperature that could be tolerated; 2) aerobic fitness, per se, did not influence the magnitude of heat strain that could be tolerated; 3) curves can be developed to estimate exhaustion rates for a given level of physiological strain; and 4) exhaustion was rarely associated with a core temperature up to 38 degrees C, and it always occurred before a temperature of 40 degrees C was achieved. These findings are applicable to heat-acclimated individuals performing moderate-intensity exercise under conditions where Ereq approximates or exceeds Emax and who have high skin temperatures.

  6. Lignocarbohydrate Solubilization from Straw by Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Ball, A. S.; Godden, B.; Helvenstein, P.; Penninckx, M. J.; McCarthy, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    Actinomycetes grown on wheat straw solubilized a lignocarbohydrate fraction which could be recovered by acid precipitation. Further characterization of this product (APPL) during growth of Streptomyces sp. strain EC1 revealed an increase in carboxylic acid and phenolic hydroxyl content, suggesting progressive modification. This was also observed in dioxane-extracted lignin fractions of degraded straw, and some similarity was further suggested by comparative infrared spectroscopy. However, the molecular weight profile of APPL was relatively constant during growth of Streptomyces sp. strain EC1 on straw, while analysis of the dioxane-extracted lignin fractions appeared to show fragmentation followed by repolymerization. Lignocarbohydrate solubilization could be monitored in all cultures by routine assay of APPL-associated protein, which accounted for up to 20% of the extracellular culture protein in some cases. Interestingly, this protein fraction was found to include active hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulose, and specific enzyme activities were often increased in the acid-insoluble fractions of culture supernatants. This was particularly important for peroxidase and veratryl oxidase activities, which could be readily detected in the acid-precipitable lignocarbohydrate complex but were virtually undetectable in untreated culture supernatants. PMID:16348309

  7. Solubilizing excipients in oral and injectable formulations.

    PubMed

    Strickley, Robert G

    2004-02-01

    A review of commercially available oral and injectable solution formulations reveals that the solubilizing excipients include water-soluble organic solvents (polyethylene glycol 300, polyethylene glycol 400, ethanol, propylene glycol, glycerin, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, dimethylacetamide, and dimethylsulfoxide), non-ionic surfactants (Cremophor EL, Cremophor RH 40, Cremophor RH 60, d-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 80, Solutol HS 15, sorbitan monooleate, poloxamer 407, Labrafil M-1944CS, Labrafil M-2125CS, Labrasol, Gellucire 44/14, Softigen 767, and mono- and di-fatty acid esters of PEG 300, 400, or 1750), water-insoluble lipids (castor oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, peanut oil, peppermint oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, hydrogenated vegetable oils, hydrogenated soybean oil, and medium-chain triglycerides of coconut oil and palm seed oil), organic liquids/semi-solids (beeswax, d-alpha-tocopherol, oleic acid, medium-chain mono- and diglycerides), various cyclodextrins (alpha-cyclodextrin, beta-cyclodextrin, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, and sulfobutylether-beta-cyclodextrin), and phospholipids (hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine, distearoylphosphatidylglycerol, L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol). The chemical techniques to solubilize water-insoluble drugs for oral and injection administration include pH adjustment, cosolvents, complexation, microemulsions, self-emulsifying drug delivery systems, micelles, liposomes, and emulsions.

  8. Transcriptional Activation Domains of Human Heat Shock Factor 1 Recruit Human SWI/SNF

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, E. Kelly; Weirich, Christine S.; Guyon, Jeffrey R.; Sif, Saïd; Kingston, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling complexes such as SWI/SNF use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel nucleosomal DNA and increase transcription of nucleosomal templates. Human heat shock factor one (hHSF1) is a tightly regulated activator that stimulates transcriptional initiation and elongation using different portions of its activation domains. Here we demonstrate that hHSF1 associates with BRG1, the ATPase subunit of human SWI/SNF (hSWI/SNF) at endogenous protein concentrations. We also show that hHSF1 activation domains recruit hSWI/SNF to a chromatin template in a purified system. Mutation of hHSF1 residues responsible for activation of transcriptional elongation has the most severe effect on recruitment of SWI/SNF and association of hHSF1 with BRG1, suggesting that recruitment of chromatin remodeling activity might play a role in stimulation of elongation. PMID:11486022

  9. Molecular cloning and expression of a human heat shock factor, HSF1

    SciTech Connect

    Rabindran, S.K.; Giorgi, G.; Clos, J.; Wu, C. )

    1991-08-15

    Human cells respond to heat stress by inducing the binding of a preexisting transcriptional activator (heat shock factor, HSF) to DNA. The authors isolated recombinant DNA clones for a human cDNA fragment. The human HSF1 probe was produced by the PCR with primers deduced from conserved amino acids in the Drosophila and yeast HSF sequences. The human HSF1 mRNA is constitutively expressed in HeLa cells under nonshock conditions and encodes a protein with four conserved leucine zipper motifs. Like its counterpart in Drosophila, human HSF1 produced in Escherichia coli in the absence of heat shock is active as a DNA binding transcription factor, suggesting that the intrinsic activity of HSF is under negative control in human cells. Surprisingly, an independently isolated human HSF clone, HSF2, is related to but significantly different from HSF.

  10. Cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic paclitaxel solubilized and permeation-enhanced by natural product nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhijun; Zhang, Fang; Koh, Gar Yee; Dong, Xin; Hollingsworth, Javoris; Zhang, Jian; Russo, Paul S.; Yang, Peiying; Stout, Rhett W.

    2014-01-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most potent intravenous chemotherapeutic agents to date, yet an oral formulation has been problematic due to its low solubility and permeability. Using the recently discovered solubilizing properties of rubusoside (RUB), we investigated this unique PTX-RUB formulation. Paclitaxel was solubilized by RUB in water to levels of 1.6 to 6.3 mg/mL at 10 to 40% weight/volume. These, nanomicellar, PTX-RUB complexes were dried to a powder which was subsequently reconstituted in physiologic solutions. After 2.5 hrs in gastric fluid 85 to 99% of PTX-RUB remained soluble, while 79 to 96% remained soluble in intestinal fluid. The solubilization of PTX was mechanized by the formation of water-soluble spherical nanomicelles between PTX and RUB with an average diameter of 6.6 nm. Compared with Taxol®, PTX-RUB nanoparticles were nearly four times more permeable in Caco-2 cell monocultures. In a side-by-side comparison with DMSO-solubilized PTX, PTX-RUB maintained the same level of cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 4 nM to 20 nM. Additionally, tubular formation and migration of HUVECs were inhibited at levels as low as 5 nM. These chemical and biological properties demonstrated by the PTX-RUB nanoparticles may improve oral bioavailability and enable further pharmacokinetic, toxicologic, and efficacy investigations. PMID:25243454

  11. Novel systematic detergent screening method for membrane proteins solubilization.

    PubMed

    Desuzinges Mandon, Elodie; Agez, Morgane; Pellegrin, Rebecca; Igonet, Sébastien; Jawhari, Anass

    2017-01-15

    Membrane proteins play crucial role in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, cell-cell communication, signal transduction and transport. To better understand the molecular basis of such central biological machines and in order to specifically study their biological and medical role, it is necessary to extract them from their membrane environment. To do so, it is challenging to find the best solubilization condition. Here we describe, a systematic screening method called BMSS (Biotinylated Membranes Solubilization & Separation) that allow screening 96 conditions at once. Streptavidine magnetic beads are used to separate solubilized proteins from remaining biotinylated membranes after solubilization. Relative quantification of dot blots help to select the best conditions to be confirmed by classical ultra-centrifugation and western blot. Classical detergents with different physical-chemical characteristics, novel calixarene based detergents and combination of both, were used for solubilization trials to obtain broad spectrum of conditions. Here, we show the application of BMSS to discover solubilization conditions of a GPCR target (MP-A) and a transporter (MP-B). The selected conditions allowed the solubilization and purification of non-aggregated and homogenous native membrane proteins A and B. Taken together, BMSS represent a rapid, reproducible and high throughput assessment of solubilization toward biochemical/functional characterization, biophysical screening and structural investigations of membrane proteins of high biological and medical relevance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Haloarchaea Endowed with Phosphorus Solubilization Attribute Implicated in Phosphorus Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sharma, Divya; Gulati, Sneha; Singh, Surender; Dey, Rinku; Pal, Kamal Krishna; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Archaea are unique microorganisms that are present in ecological niches of high temperature, pH and salinity. A total of 157 archaea were obtained from thirteen sediment, water and rhizospheric soil samples collected from Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, India. With an aim to screen phosphate solubilizing archaea, a new medium was designed as Haloarchaea P Solubilization (HPS) medium. The medium supported the growth and P solubilization activity of archaea. Employing the HPS medium, twenty isolates showed the P-solubilization. Phosphate solubilizing archaea were identified as seventeen distinct species of eleven genera namely Haloarcula, Halobacterium, Halococcus, Haloferax, Halolamina, Halosarcina, Halostagnicola, Haloterrigena, Natrialba, Natrinema and Natronoarchaeum. Natrinema sp. strain IARI-WRAB2 was identified as the most efficient P-solubilizer (134.61 mg/L) followed by Halococcus hamelinensis strain IARI-SNS2 (112.56 mg/L). HPLC analysis detected seven different kinds of organic acids, namely: gluconic acid, citric acid, formic acid, fumaric acid succinic acid, propionic acid and tartaric acid from the cultures of these isolates. These phosphate solubilizing halophilic archaea may play a role in P nutrition to vegetation growing in these hypersaline soils. This is the first report for these haloarchaea to solubilize considerable amount of P by production of organic acids and lowering of pH. PMID:26216440

  13. Can intradermal administration of angiotensin II influence human heat loss responses during whole body heat stress?

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D; Paull, Gabrielle; McGinn, Ryan; Foudil-bey, Imane; Akbari, Pegah; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-05-01

    It is unclear if angiotensin II, which can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress), modulates heat loss responses of cutaneous blood flow and sweating. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II-induced increases in oxidative stress impair cutaneous perfusion and sweating during rest and exercise in the heat. Eleven young (24 ± 4 yr) healthy adults performed two 30-min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C). The first and second exercises were followed by a 20- and 40-min recovery. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for continuous administration of either: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 10 μM angiotensin II, 3) 10 mM ascorbate (an antioxidant), or 4) a combination of 10 μM angiotensin II + 10 mM ascorbate. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) and sweating (ventilated capsule) were evaluated at each skin site. Compared with control, angiotensin II reduced both CVC and sweating at baseline resting and during each recovery in the heat (all P < 0.05). However, during both exercise bouts, there were no differences in CVC or sweating between the treatment sites (all P > 0.05). When ascorbate was coinfused with angiotensin II, the effect of angiotensin II on sweating was abolished (all P > 0.05); however, its effect on CVC at baseline resting and during each recovery remained intact (all P < 0.05). We show angiotensin II impairs cutaneous perfusion independent of oxidative stress, while it impairs sweating through increasing oxidative stress during exposure to an ambient heat stress before and following exercise. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Can intradermal administration of angiotensin II influence human heat loss responses during whole body heat stress?

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D.; Paull, Gabrielle; McGinn, Ryan; Foudil-bey, Imane; Akbari, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear if angiotensin II, which can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress), modulates heat loss responses of cutaneous blood flow and sweating. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II-induced increases in oxidative stress impair cutaneous perfusion and sweating during rest and exercise in the heat. Eleven young (24 ± 4 yr) healthy adults performed two 30-min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C). The first and second exercises were followed by a 20- and 40-min recovery. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for continuous administration of either: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 10 μM angiotensin II, 3) 10 mM ascorbate (an antioxidant), or 4) a combination of 10 μM angiotensin II + 10 mM ascorbate. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) and sweating (ventilated capsule) were evaluated at each skin site. Compared with control, angiotensin II reduced both CVC and sweating at baseline resting and during each recovery in the heat (all P < 0.05). However, during both exercise bouts, there were no differences in CVC or sweating between the treatment sites (all P > 0.05). When ascorbate was coinfused with angiotensin II, the effect of angiotensin II on sweating was abolished (all P > 0.05); however, its effect on CVC at baseline resting and during each recovery remained intact (all P < 0.05). We show angiotensin II impairs cutaneous perfusion independent of oxidative stress, while it impairs sweating through increasing oxidative stress during exposure to an ambient heat stress before and following exercise. PMID:25767030

  15. Association of endogenous substrate with solubilized bovine brain sialidase.

    PubMed

    Schengrund, C L; Repman, M A

    1986-01-01

    Nonidet P40 solubilized up to 90% of the sialidase, active towards added ganglioside substrate, that was associated with the total membrane fraction prepared from gray matter of bovine brains. Solubilized sialidase acted upon endogenous substrate (sialic acid containing compounds solubilized with the enzyme), hydrolyzing approximately 50% of the readily available sialosyl residues within 20 min. During a 2-hr reaction time 80% of the polysialylated gangliosides solubilized with the enzyme were acted upon. A 20-min lag was observed before sialidase acted upon added ganglioside substrate. The lag could be reduced to less than 2 min when the enzyme was allowed to act on endogenous substrate prior to exposure to exogenous substrate, suggesting that the solubilized enzyme acted preferentially on endogenous substrate. A protease inhibitor prevented much of the 86% loss of activity towards added substrate that was seen when the enzyme was stored at 4 degrees C for 6 days; activity towards endogenous substrate decreased only 34%.

  16. Measuring the effects of heat wave episodes on the human body's thermal balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katavoutas, George; Theoharatos, George; Flocas, Helena A.; Asimakopoulos, Dimosthenis N.

    2009-03-01

    During the peak of an extensive heat wave episode on 23-25 July 2007, simultaneous thermophysiological measurements were made in two non-acclimated healthy adults of different sex in a suburban area of Greater Athens, Greece. Based on experimental measurements of mean skin temperature and metabolic heat production, heat fluxes to and from the human body were calculated, and the biometeorological index heat load (HL) produced was determined according to the heat balance equation. Comparing experimental values with those derived from theoretical estimates revealed a great heat stress for both individuals, especially the male, while theoretical values underestimated heat stress. The study also revealed that thermophysiological factors, such as mean skin temperature and metabolic heat production, play an important role in determining heat fluxes patterns in the heat balance equation. The theoretical values of mean skin temperature as derived from an empirical equation may not be appropriate to describe the changes that take place in a non-acclimated individual. Furthermore, the changes in metabolic heat production were significant even for standard activity.

  17. Solubilization of nutraceuticals into reverse hexagonal mesophases.

    PubMed

    Amar-Yuli, Idit; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2008-08-21

    The solubilization of four bioactive molecules with different polarities, in three reverse hexagonal (HII) systems has been investigated. The three HII systems were a typical reverse hexagonal composed of glycerol monooleate (GMO)/tricaprylin/water and two fluid hexagonal systems containing either 2.75 wt % Transcutol or ethanol as a fourth component. The phase behavior of the liquid crystalline phases in the presence of ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, D-alpha-tocopherol and D-alpha-tocopherol acetate were determined by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and optical microscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) techniques were utilized to follow modifications in the thermal behavior and in the vibrations of different functional groups upon solubilizing the bioactive molecules. The nature of each guest molecule (in both geometry and polarity) together with the different HII structures (typical and fluids) determined the corresponding phase behavior, swelling or structural transformations and its location in the HII structures. Ascorbic acid was found to act as a chaotropic guest molecule, localized in the water-rich core and at the interface. The AP was also a chaotropic guest molecule with its head located in the vicinity of the GMO headgroup while its tail embedded close to the surfactant tail. D-alpha-tocopherol and D-alpha-tocopherol acetate were incorporated between the GMO tails; however, the D-alpha-tocopherol was located closer to the interface. Once Transcutol or ethanol was present and upon guest molecule incorporation, partial migration was detected.

  18. Comparison in toxicity and solubilizing capacity of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin with different degree of substitution.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengyu; Song, Jia; Ni, Xiaomin; Guo, Qin; Wen, Hui; Zhou, Qiuyun; Shen, Yuanna; Huang, Yijun; Qiu, Pengxin; Lin, Suizhen; Hu, Haiyan

    2016-11-20

    Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) has been widely used as an effective solubilizing agent in pharmaceutical industry for many years. However, the effect of degree of substitution (D.S.) of HP-β-CD on solubilizing capacity and toxicity has not been concerned. In this study, solubilizing capacity of HP-β-CDs with three different D.S. (4.55, 6.16 and 7.76) for 16 drugs were measured and their toxicities were compared by a 7-day i.v. administration (q.d.) study in rats. Generally, HP-β-CD with high D.S. (7.76) showed weaker solubilizing capacity for steroids and BCS class II drugs, but lower hemolytic activity, compared with that of HP-β-CD with low (4.55) or medium (6.16) D.S. HP-β-CD with low D.S. resulted in more changes in hematological and biochemical parameters, but the effects were reversible after a 7-day recovery. Moreover, HP-β-CD with medium D.S. may have slightly greater nephrotoxicity than the other two HP-β-CDs. HP-β-CDs with different D.S. had similar urine excretion percentage after i.v. administration and none of them was found to affect glomerular filtration function of rats. The results suggest that HP-β-CD with low D.S. would be a better choice considering both the solubilizing capacity and toxicity. However, comparison in toxicity of HP-β-CDs with different D.S. should be carried out in human in view of its species-dependence property.

  19. [Frequency dependence of heating of human skin exposed to millimeter waves].

    PubMed

    Alekseev, S I; Ziskin, M S; Fesenko, E E

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we studied experimentally the frequency dependence of heating of human skin exposed to millimeter waves. Theoretical modeling of obtained data was performed using the hybrid bio-heat equation. It was found that the skin heating and SAR increased with increasing the exposure frequency. The frequency dependence of heating was entirely resulted from that of reflection from the skin. Unlike temperature, the frequency dependence of the SAR was due to the increased absorption of millimeter wave energy within the thin surface layer of the skin.

  20. Thermotolerance and Human Performance: Role of Heat Shock Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    and provide a mechanistic basis for the requirement of HSF1 in the regulation of life span and establish a role for SIRT1 in protein homeostasis and...Stress-Inducible Regulation of Heat Shock Factor 1 by the Deacetylase SIRT1 . Science. 2009; 323: 1063-1066. Wilson N, Gisolfi C, Farber J, Hinrichs D

  1. [Heat exchange between human body and environment (theoretical bases of physiological measurement and evaluation)].

    PubMed

    Pezzagno, G

    1999-01-01

    In the first part of this report the theory of the heat exchange between human body and external environment is developed. In particular, the problems concerning energy expenditure and heat production [metabolic heat] during physical activity, the heat exchange between internal organs and body surface, and its elimination are considered. Proposal of heat exchange equations (in case of conduction, convection, evaporation, radiation transport) are made, and the involved parameters and constants are indicated. Some pages are devoted to heat exchange through the lung and to "perspiratio insensibilis". In the second part the problems concerning the wellbeing and the thermal discomfort are discussed. A description of some widely employed indices of thermal stress, strain and comfort concludes the report [P4SR index, HSI index, ITS index, TTL index, HR index, WBGT index, TE indices]. In the end, the Fanger equations of thermal comfort are presented and discussed.

  2. Projections of heat waves with high impact on human health in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amengual, A.; Homar, V.; Romero, R.; Brooks, H. E.; Ramis, C.; Gordaliza, M.; Alonso, S.

    2014-08-01

    Climate change will result in more intense, more frequent and longer lasting heat waves. The most hazardous conditions emerge when extreme daytime temperatures combine with warm night-time temperatures, high humidities and light winds for several consecutive days. Here, we assess present and future heat wave impacts on human health in Europe. Present daily physiologically equivalent temperatures (PET) are derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. PET allows to specifically focus on heat-related risks on humans. Regarding projections, a suite of high-resolution regional climate models - run under SRES A1B scenario - has been used. A quantile-quantile adjustment is applied to the daily simulated PET to correct biases in individual model climatologies and a multimodel ensemble strategy is adopted to encompass model errors. Two types of heat waves differently impacting human health - strong and extreme stress - are defined according to specified thresholds of thermal stress and duration. Heat wave number, frequency, duration and amplitude are derived for each type. Results reveal relatively strong correlations between the spatial distribution of strong and extreme heat wave amplitudes and mortality excess for the 2003 European summer. Projections suggest a steady increase and a northward extent of heat wave attributes in Europe. Strong stress heat wave frequencies could increase more than 40 days, lasting over 20 days more by 2075-2094. Amplitudes might augment up to 7 °C per heat wave day. Important increases in extreme stress heat wave attributes are also expected: up to 40 days in frequency, 30 days in duration and 4 °C in amplitude. We believe that with this information at hand policy makers and stakeholders on vulnerable populations to heat stress can respond more effectively to the future challenges imposed by climate warming.

  3. Nonlinear solution for radiation boundary condition of heat transfer process in human eye.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, A; Moradi, A; Dehghani, M; Ahani, A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method based on finite element method for solving radiation boundary condition of heat equation inside the human eye and other applications. Using this method, we can solve heat equation inside human eye without need to model radiation boundary condition to a robin boundary condition. Using finite element method we can obtain a nonlinear equation, and finally we use nonlinear algorithm to solve it. The human eye is modeled as a composition of several homogeneous regions. The Ritz method in the finite element method is used for solving heat differential equation. Applying the boundary conditions, the heat radiation condition and the robin condition on the cornea surface of the eye and on the outer part of sclera are used, respectively. Simulation results of solving nonlinear boundary condition show the accuracy of the proposed method.

  4. Solubilization of leonardite by an extracellular fraction from Coriolus versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Pyne, J.W. Jr.; Stewart, D.L.; Fredrickson, J.; Wilson, B.W.

    1987-12-01

    Coriolus versicolor has previously been shown to degrade leonardite, an oxidized form of lignite. An extracellular fraction containing protein purified from a C. versicolor culture solubilized leonardite in vitro. Expression of the activity did not require the presence of leonardite and appeared during idiophase. During ion-exchange and gel filtration column chromatography, leonardite-biosolubilizing activity eluted with syringaldazine oxidase activity and with protein, as measured by A//sub 280/ and the biuret protein assay. Syringaldazine is a substrate of the polyphenol oxidase formed by C. versicolor. Comparison of leonardite-biosolubilizing activity with the effects of chelators and surface-active agents on leonardite showed that biosolubilization was not due to either surfactant or chelating ability. Heat treatment of the preparation at 60/sup 0/C for 30 min significantly reduced both syringaldazine oxidase and leonardite-biosolubilizing activities. Cyanide, azide, and thioglycolate, which are know inhibitors of syringaldazine oxidase activity of C. versicolor, also inhibited leonardite biosolubilization. From these data, we conclude that the purified protein fraction from C. versicolor contains a syringaldazine oxidase activity that participates in leonardite biosolubilization by enzymatic action.

  5. [Alterations in heat shock protein 70 kDa levels in human neutrophils under the heat shock conditions].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, A A; Vetchinin, S S; Sapozhnikov, A M; Kovalenko, E I

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular content of heat shock proteins of 70 kDa family (HSP70) possessing chaperone and cytoprotective functions depends on specialization and functional activity of the cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the dynamics of constitutive and inducible HSP70 levels evoked by heat shock in human neutrophils, the short-lived fraction of white blood cells providing non-specific defense against bacterial pathogens. Biphasic dynamics of the intracellular HSP70 level with an increase and following decrease in 15-30 min after the heat shock was revealed by flow cytometry. This dynamics was similar for constitutive and inducible forms of HSP70. Pre-incubation of neutrophils with cycloheximide, the inhibitor of protein synthesis, did not change the intracellular HSP70 dynamics registered by flow cytometry indicating that the increased HSP70 level detected immediately after the heat shock was not mediated by de novo protein synthesis. It was confirmed by Western blotting analysis of HSP70 intracellular content. It was suggested that the elevated HSP70 level was related to conformational HSP70 molecule changes and to increased availability of HSP70 epitopes for antibody binding. Using a panel of antibodies specific to the N-terminal ATP-binding or C-terminal substrate-binding domains of HSP70 it has been demonstrated by cell immunofluorescence and flow cytometry methods that the heat shock-associated increase of the intracellular HSP70 level was mediated by HSP70 interaction with antibodies recognizing HSP70 substrate-binding domain. It was demonstrated that the decrease of intracellular HSP70 level after heat treatment could be connected with a release of both inducible and constitutive HSP70 into extracellular space. Our data suggest that stress-induced release of HSP70 from neutrophils is regulated by ABC-transporters.

  6. Hydration Effects on Human Physiology and Exercise-Heat Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    Neufer , and Kent L. Pandoif 13a TYPE OF REPORT 1 3b TIMVE COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Doy S1 PAGE COUNT Technical Report FROM TO November 1989...Sawka, Andrew J. Young, William A. Latzka, P. Darrell Neufer and Kent B. Pandolf U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine Natick...exercise in the heat. Neufer ML.. (85) recently reported that hypohydration will reduce the gastric emptying rate of ingested fluids during exercise in

  7. Plasma Opioid Peptide Responses during Heat Acclimation in Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    W . J ., L . E . ARMSTRONG, L . J . MARCHITELLI, R. W . HUBBARD AND N. LEVA. Plasma opioid peptide...edited by 16. Kelso, T. B., W . G. Herbert, F . C . Gwazdauskas, F . L . Gross D. T. Krieger. M. J . Browstein and J . B. Martin. New York: and J . L . Hess... E . Dziados. Effects of heat exposure on 14. Holaday, J . W ., E . Wie, H. H. Loh and C . H. Li. Endorphins the

  8. Solubilization and purification of melatonin receptors from lizard brain

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkees, S.A.; Conron, R.W. Jr.; Reppert, S.M. )

    1990-09-01

    Melatonin receptors in lizard brain were identified and characterized using {sup 125}I-labeled melatonin (({sup 125}I)MEL) after solubilization with the detergent digitonin. Saturation studies of solubilized material revealed a high affinity binding site, with an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of 181 +/- 45 pM. Binding was reversible and inhibited by melatonin and closely related analogs, but not by serotonin or norepinephrine. Treatment of solubilized material with the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog, guanosine 5'-(3-O-thiotriphosphate) (GTP-gamma-S), significantly reduced receptor affinity. Gel filtration chromatography of solubilized melatonin receptors revealed a high affinity, large (Mr 400,000) peak of specific binding. Pretreatment with GTP-gamma-S before solubilization resulted in elution of a lower affinity, smaller (Mr 150,000) peak of specific binding. To purify solubilized receptors, a novel affinity chromatography resin was developed by coupling 6-hydroxymelatonin with Epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B. Using this resin, melatonin receptors were purified approximately 10,000-fold. Purified material retained the pharmacologic specificity of melatonin receptors. These results show that melatonin receptors that bind ligand after detergent treatment can be solubilized and substantially purified by affinity chromatography.

  9. Efficiency of airway heat and moisture exchangers in anesthetized humans.

    PubMed

    Bickler, P E; Sessler, D I

    1990-10-01

    The efficiencies of airway heat and moisture exchanging filters in reducing respiratory water losses and increasing airway temperatures during general anesthesia were studied in five tracheally intubated patients given isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and oxygen anesthesia during controlled ventilation. Filters (Humid-Vent Filter, Humid-Vent 1, Pall Conserve, Siemens 150, and ThermoVent 600) were placed between the Y-piece of the anesthesia circle system and the endotracheal tube for 40 min each. Airway temperature, esophageal temperature, and water loss (determined by weighing expired water collected in CaSO4) were measured every 10 min. All of the filters reached near-maximum efficiency in reducing water losses within 10 min. The Humid-Vent Filter and Siemens 150 filters were most efficient, the Pall Conserve and ThermoVent 600 less efficient. Airway temperature rapidly increased 2 degrees-8 degrees C during each trial. The more efficient the filter in conserving water, the greater the airway temperature. The respiratory heat conserved by these filters represents 5.5%-7.2% of the estimated total metabolic heat production during anesthesia in adults.

  10. Phosphate Solubilization Potentials of Rhizosphere Isolates from Central Anatolia (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogut, M.; Er, F.

    2009-04-01

    Plant available-phosphorus (P) is usually low in Anatolian soils due mainly to the precipitation as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) phosphates in alkaline conditions. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) can enhance plant P-availability by dissolving the hardly soluble-P within the rhizosphere, which is the zone that surrounds the plant roots. PSM's can be used as seed- or soil-inocula to increase plant P-uptake and the overall growth. A total of 162 PSM's were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat plants excavated from different fields located along a 75 km part of a highway in Turkey. The mean, the standart deviation, and the median for solubilized-P (ppm) in a 24 h culture in a tricalcium phosphate broth were 681, 427, and 400 for glucose; 358, 266, and 236 for sucrose; and 102, 117, and 50 for starch, respectively. There was not a linear relationship between the phosphate solubilized in the liquid cultures and the solubilization index obtained in the Pikovskaya's agar. Nine isolates representing both weak and strong solubilizers [Bacillus megaterium (5), Bacillus pumilis (1), Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica (1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (1), Arthrobacter aurescens (1) as determined by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis] were further studied in a five day incubation. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica solubilized statistically (P<0.05) higher phosphate (409 ppm) than all the other strains did. There was not a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference in solubilized-P among the Bacillus strains. The pH of the medium fell to the levels between 4 and 5 from the initial neutrality. The phosphate solubilizing strains variably produced gluconic, 2-keto-D-gluconic, glycolic, acetic and butyric acids. The organic acids produced by these microorganisms seem to be the major source of phosphate solubilization in vitro.

  11. Estimation and harvesting of human heat power for wearable electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziurdzia, P.; Brzozowski, I.; Bratek, P.; Gelmuda, W.; Kos, A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of self-powered wearable electronic devices that are capable of harvesting free available energy dissipated by the user in the form of human heat. The free energy source is intended to be used as a secondary power source supporting primary battery in a sensor bracelet. The main scope of the article is a presentation of the concept for a measuring setup used to quantitative estimation of heat power sources in different locations over the human body area. The crucial role in the measurements of the human heat plays a thermoelectric module working in the open circuit mode. The results obtained during practical tests are confronted with the requirements of the dedicated thermoelectric generator. A prototype design of a human warmth energy harvester with an ultra-low power DC-DC converter based on the LTC3108 circuit is analysed.

  12. Active cutaneous vasodilation in resting humans during mild heat stress.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Yoshi-Ichiro; Lee, Kichang; Mack, Gary W

    2005-03-01

    The role of skin temperature in reflex control of the active cutaneous vasodilator system was examined in six subjects during mild graded heat stress imposed by perfusing water at 34, 36, 38, and 40 degrees C through a tube-lined garment. Skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) was recorded from the peroneal nerve with microneurography. While monitoring esophageal, mean skin, and local skin temperatures, we recorded skin blood flow at bretylium-treated and untreated skin sites by using laser-Doppler velocimetry and local sweat rate by using capacitance hygrometry on the dorsal foot. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated by dividing skin blood flow by mean arterial pressure. Mild heat stress increased mean skin temperature by 0.2 or 0.3 degrees C every stage, but esophageal and local skin temperature did not change during the first three stages. CVC at the bretylium tosylate-treated site (CVC(BT)) and sweat expulsion number increased at 38 and 40 degrees C compared with 34 degrees C (P < 0.05); however, CVC at the untreated site did not change. SSNA increased at 40 degrees C (P < 0.05, different from 34 degrees C). However, SSNA burst amplitude increased (P < 0.05), whereas SSNA burst duration decreased (P < 0.05), at the same time as we observed the increase in CVC(BT) and sweat expulsion number. These data support the hypothesis that the active vasodilator system is activated by changes in mean skin temperature, even at normal core temperature, and illustrate the intricate competition between active vasodilator and the vasoconstrictor system for control of skin blood flow during mild heat stress.

  13. Interactions between solubilized polymer molecules and blood components.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zonghua; Jiao, Yanpeng; Wang, Tong; Zhang, Yuanming; Xue, Wei

    2012-05-30

    In biomedical field, a variety of natural or synthetic polymers are being exponentially developed and used in vivo to improve human health. In practical applications, these biopolymers would enter blood circulation directly or indirectly, positively or passively, rapidly or slowly. Blood is a special tissue of human body, which fulfills many important missions to sustain normal metabolism. The contact with blood of the biopolymers, which are seen as foreign substances by the body, would be harmful or even instantaneously lethal, depending on the nature and the dose of the biopolymers administered. Therefore, it is critical to clearly understand the potential influences of the foreign polymers on blood before the polymers are applied from the lab to bedside. In this review, we discuss the recent studies on the interactions of foreign, solubilized polymer molecules (excluding formed polymer materials) with blood constituents (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, plasma proteins, etc.), to gain insight into the potential in vivo applications of the biopolymers in the biomedical field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Regional brain responses in humans during body heating and cooling

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Functional brain imaging of responses to thermal challenge in humans provides a viable method to implicate widespread neuroanatomical regions in the processes of thermoregulation. Thus far, functional neuroimaging techniques have been used infrequently in humans to investigate thermoregulation, although preliminary outcomes have been informative and certainly encourage further forays into this field of enquiry. At this juncture, sustained regional brain activations in response to prolonged changes in body temperature are yet to be definitively characterized, but it would appear that thermoregulatory regions are widely distributed throughout the hemispheres of the human brain. Of those autonomic responses to thermal challenge investigated so far, the loci of associated brainstem responses in human are homologous with other species. However, human imaging studies have also implicated a wide range of forebrain regions in thermal sensations and autonomic responses that extend beyond outcomes reported in other species. There is considerable impetus to continue human functional neuroimaging of thermoregulatory responses because of the unique opportunities presented by the method to survey regions across the whole brain in compliant, conscious participants. PMID:27857952

  15. Heat shock response and thermal resistance in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Wakakura, M; Foulds, W S

    1993-01-01

    The heat shock response was examined in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) using indirect immunofluorescence. Mild head shock (39.5-40 degrees C for 1 hr) caused no changes in cell morphology and cells continued to produce the intermediate filament proteins, cytokeratin (keratin) and vimentin. In addition, cells subjected to mild heat shock demonstrated the presence of a heat shock protein (HSP-90). After severe heat shock (45.5-46 degrees C for 1 hr) most cells showed marked morphological changes and, in addition, HSP-90 and/or stress-induced 40 kDa protein production was significantly enhanced. The expression of vimentin was relatively well preserved whereas that of keratin was markedly reduced. When the more severe grade of heat shock was preceded by mild heat shock 20-24 hr earlier, the subsequent severe heat shock resulted in less marked morphological change than in cells not preconditioned and, in addition, the expression of both vimentin and keratin was relatively well preserved. Mildly heat shocked cells appeared to gain thermal resistance supporting the theory that the concomitant synthetic capacity for HSP and normal cellular proteins contributes to thermal resistance. In doubly heat shocked cells, however, HSP-90 expression was not enhanced. The discrepancy between the expression of HSP and thermal resistance is discussed.

  16. [Heat island effect and human body comfortable degree in Zhengzhou city].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinggang; Zhang, Jingguang; Li, You

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, the key factors of heat island effect in Zhengzhou city were monitored by grid method to study the diurnal and seasonal changes and the spatial distribution of the effect, and to evaluate the comfortable degree of human bodies at different sites of the city. The results showed that on the whole, the heat island effect had a unimodal diurnal change, while its intensity was distinctly different among seasons, being decreased in order of winter > spring > autumn > summer. The spatial distribution of heat island center was significantly related to its nearby industrial heat resources. As for the comfortable degree of human bodies, the People's Park was the best site because of its arbor virescence, while in the Xiliu Lake Park with lawn as its main greening type, its capability of improving microclimate was weaker. The railway station square still had 16% frequency of most comfortable degree, because of its open space and better air fluidity.

  17. Tumor necrosis factor alpha selectively sensitizes human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells to heat and radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, G.H.; McHugh, T.; Weber, R.; Goeddel, D.V. )

    1991-05-15

    We report here that infection of the human T-cell line HUT-78 with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases its sensitivity to heat and radiation toxicity. A possible explanation for this result may be the reduced expression of manganous superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in HIV-infected cells compared to uninfected cells. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) further sensitizes HIV-infected cells but not uninfected cells to heat and radiation. This is consistent with the ability of TNF-alpha to induce the expression of MnSOD in uninfected but not in HIV-infected cells. HIV-infected HUT-78 cell lines engineered to overexpress MnSOD are more resistant to heat and radiation than HIV-infected cells that do not overexpress MnSOD. However, treatment with TNF-alpha still sensitizes these cells to heat and radiation.

  18. Acute volume expansion preserves orthostatic tolerance during whole-body heat stress in humans

    PubMed Central

    Keller, David M; Low, David A; Wingo, Jonathan E; Brothers, R Matthew; Hastings, Jeff; Davis, Scott L; Crandall, Craig G

    2009-01-01

    Whole-body heat stress reduces orthostatic tolerance via a yet to be identified mechanism(s). The reduction in central blood volume that accompanies heat stress may contribute to this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute volume expansion prior to the application of an orthostatic challenge attenuates heat stress-induced reductions in orthostatic tolerance. In seven normotensive subjects (age, 40 ± 10 years: mean ±s.d.), orthostatic tolerance was assessed using graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) until the onset of symptoms associated with ensuing syncope. Orthostatic tolerance (expressed in cumulative stress index units, CSI) was determined on each of 3 days, with each day having a unique experimental condition: normothermia, whole-body heating, and whole-body heating + acute volume expansion. For the whole-body heating + acute volume expansion experimental day, dextran 40 was rapidly infused prior to LBNP sufficient to return central venous pressure to pre-heat stress values. Whole-body heat stress alone reduced orthostatic tolerance by ∼80% compared to normothermia (938 ± 152 versus 182 ± 57 CSI; mean ±s.e.m., P < 0.001). Acute volume expansion during whole-body heating completely ameliorated the heat stress-induced reduction in orthostatic tolerance (1110 ± 69 CSI, P < 0.001). Although heat stress results in many cardiovascular and neural responses that directionally challenge blood pressure regulation, reduced central blood volume appears to be an underlying mechanism responsible for impaired orthostatic tolerance in the heat-stressed human. PMID:19139044

  19. Effect of short-term exercise-heat acclimation on ventilatory and cerebral blood flow responses to passive heating at rest in humans.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Tsuji, Bun; Honda, Yasushi; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Hyperthermia induces hyperventilation and cerebral hypoperfusion in resting humans. We tested the hypothesis that short-term exercise-heat acclimation would alleviate those effects. Twenty healthy male subjects were divided into two groups that performed exercise training in the heat (TR-HEAT, n = 10) or cold (TR-COLD, n = 10). Before and after the training, the subjects in both groups participated in passive-heat tests at rest. Training was performed at 37°C (TR-HEAT) or 10°C (TR-COLD) and entailed four 20-min bouts of cycling at 50% peak oxygen uptake separated by 10-min recoveries daily for 6 consecutive days. After TR-HEAT, esophageal temperature was lowered when measured before and during passive heating, as was the esophageal temperature threshold for cutaneous active vasodilation, whereas plasma volume was increased (all P < 0.05). These traditional indices of successful heat acclimation were not all induced by TR-COLD (all P > 0.05). TR-HEAT had no significant effect on passive heating-induced increases in minute ventilation, even when evaluated as the esophageal temperature threshold for increases in minute ventilation and the slope relating minute ventilation to esophageal temperature (all P > 0.05). By contrast, TR-HEAT attenuated the passive heating-induced reduction in the cerebral vascular conductance index (middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity/mean arterial pressure) (all P < 0.05). TR-COLD did not attenuate the increase in minute ventilation or the decrease in the cerebral vascular conductance index observed during passive heating (all P > 0.05). These data suggest that in resting heated humans, short-term heat acclimation achieved through moderate-intensity exercise training (i.e., 50% peak oxygen uptake) in the heat does not influence hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation, but it does potentially attenuate cerebral hypoperfusion.

  20. Modulation of an innate immune response by soluble yeast β-glucan prepared by a heat degradation method.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Yuina; Ishibashi, Ken-Ichi; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Kanzaki, Ken; Okita, Kumiko; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Ohno, Naohito

    2017-11-01

    β-glucan is widely distributed in nature as water soluble and insoluble forms. Both forms of β-glucan are applied in several fields, especially for functional foods. Yeast β-glucan is a medically important insoluble particle. Solubilization of yeast β-glucan may be a valuable approach to increase functional foods and medicinal fields. We have applied a heat degradation method to solubilize yeast β-glucan and found that it was effectively solubilized by treatment with an aqueous suspension at 135°C for several hours. The solubilized yeast β-glucan (hd-sBBG) exhibited antagonistic activity to the reactive oxygen production of macrophages and to the cytokine synthesis of macrophages. hd-sBBG strongly reacted with the anti-β-glucan antibody in human sera and with dectin-1, the innate immune receptor of β-glucan. From these findings, the heat degradation method is an important procedure for making immune modulating soluble yeast β-glucan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gamma ray irradiation for sludge solubilization and biological nitrogen removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tak-Hyun; Lee, Myunjoo; Park, Chulhwan

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of gamma ray irradiation on the solubilization of waste sewage sludge. The recovery of an organic carbon source from sewage sludge by gamma ray irradiation was also studied. The gamma ray irradiation showed effective sludge solubilization efficiencies. Both soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5) increased by gamma ray irradiation. The feasibility of the solubilized sludge carbon source for a biological nitrogen removal was also investigated. A modified continuous bioreactor (MLE process) for a denitrification was operated for 20 days by using synthetic wastewater. It can be concluded that the gamma ray irradiation was useful for the solubilization of sludge and the recovery of carbon source from the waste sewage sludge for biological nitrogen removal.

  2. Characterization and subsequent utilization of microbially solubilized coal: Preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Nicklaus, D.M.; Woodward, C.A.; Lewis, S.N.; Faison, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    The solubilization of low-ranked coals by fungi, such as Paecilomyces and Candida, in defined submerged culture systems has been demonstrated. Current efforts focus on the characterization of the aqueous solubilized coal products and the development of technologies for their subsequent utilization. Solubilized coal products have been fractionated, and preliminary characterizations performed. Differences in product composition have been detected with respect to the organism used in culture duration. Prospects for the conversion of the aerobically-solubilized coal into less-oxidized products have been developed which can remain active and viable in the presence of the aqueous coal product or vanillin, a coal model compound. The results suggest that a methanogenic consortium was able to produce methane and carbon dioxide from the product of coal biosolubilization by Paecilomyces as a sole carbon source. Work continues on the development of cultures able to convert the aqueous coal product and its various fractions into methane or fuel alcohols. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Solubilization of 2-phenylethanol by dodecyldimethylamine oxide in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiyama, Hirotaka; Christian, S.D.; Scamehorn, J.F. ); Abe, Masahiko; Ogino, Keizo )

    1991-01-01

    The solubilization of 2-phenylethanol (PEA) was measured over a wide range of solute activities and pH values by using dodecyldimethylamine oxide (DDAO) as the surfactant. The DDAO in micellar form is all cationic (protonated) at low pH and all nonionic at high pH. At intermediate pH levels, the DDAO forms mixed micelles containing both the cationic and nonionic forms of surfactant. Thus, measurement of the solubilization of PEA as a function of pH produces solubilization data as a function of mixed micelle composition for this amphoteric surfactant. The solubilization equilibrium constant was found to decrease with increasing mole fraction of PEA in the micelle for all pH values and to be less in the mixed micelles than in either pure cationic or pure nonionic micelles. This latter effect could be due to the hydrophilic region of the mixed micelle being more compact than that of the single-component micelles.

  4. [Study on real-time wearable monitoring system for human heat and cold stresses].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuhong; Wang, Tianhao; Li, Chenming

    2013-02-01

    In order to study the way of evaluating human performance under heat and cold stresses, we developed a wearable physiological monitoring system-intelligent belt system, capable of providing real-time, continuous and dynamic monitoring of multiple physiological parameters. The system has following features: multiuser communication, high integration, strong environment adaptability, dynamic features and real time physiological monitoring ability. The system uses sensing belts and elastic belts to acquire physiological parameters, uses WIFI to build wireless network monitoring for multiuser, and uses Delphi to develop data processing software capable of real-time viewing, storagng, processing, and alerting. With four different intensity-activity trials on six subjects and compared with standard laboratory human physiological acquisition instruments, the system was proved to be able to acquire accu-rate physiological parameters such as ECG, respiration, multi-point body temperatures, and body movement. The system worked steadily and reliably. This wearable real-time monitoring system for human heat and cold stresses can solve the problem facing our country that human heat stress and cold stress monitoring technology is insufficient, provide new methods and new ways for monitoring and evaluation of human heat and cold stresses under real task or stress environment, and provide technical platform for the study on human ergonomics.

  5. Research and engineering assessment of biological solubilization of phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.D.; McIlwain, M.E.; Losinski, S.J.; Taylor, D.D.

    1993-03-01

    This research and engineering assessment examined a microbial phosphate solubilization process as a method of recovering phosphate from phosphorus containing ore compared to the existing wet acid and electric arc methods. A total of 860 microbial isolates, collected from a range of natural environments were tested for their ability to solubilize phosphate from rock phosphate. A bacterium (Pseudomonas cepacia) was selected for extensive characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of phosphate solubilization and of process engineering parameters necessary to recover phosphate from rock phosphate. These studies found that concentration of hydrogen ion and production of organic acids arising from oxidation of the carbon source facilitated microbial solubilization of both pure chemical insoluble phosphate compounds and phosphate rock. Genetic studies found that phosphate solubilization was linked to an enzyme system (glucose dehydrogenase). Process-related studies found that a critical solids density of 1% by weight (ore to liquid) was necessary for optimal solubilization. An engineering analysis evaluated the cost and energy requirements for a 2 million ton per year sized plant, whose size was selected to be comparable to existing wet acid plants.

  6. Phosphate solubilization characteristics of efficient nitrogen fixing soil Azotobacter strains.

    PubMed

    Nosrati, Rahim; Owlia, Parviz; Saderi, Horieh; Rasooli, Iraj; Ali Malboobi, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    Azotobacter is a diazotroph bacterium reported to possess various plant growth-promoting characteristics.The aim of this study was to isolate Azotobacter strains capable of fixing nitrogen and effectively hydrolyzing both organic and inorganic Pi compounds. In this study, soil samples collected from a diverse range of slightly alkaline soil types were screened for Azotobacter isolates. The inorganic and organic phosphate solubilization potentials of twenty competent phosphate solubilizing Azotobacter isolates were assessed.Variations were noted in the solubilization potentials. Three isolates, identified as Azotobacter vinelandii strains O2, O4 and O6, were able to fix atmospheric N2 effectively. The nitrogenase activity of these isolates ranged between 158.6 and 326.4 C2H4h(-1)vial(-1) (ethylene). Bacterial growth rates and phosphate solubilization activities were measured quantitatively under various environmental conditions. A close association was evident between phosphate solubilizing ability and growth rate as an indicator of active metabolism. All three phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) were able to withstand temperature as high as 45°C, high concentration of NaCl (upto 5%) and a wide range of initial pH from 5 to 10 while hydrolyzing phosphate compounds actively. Azotobacter vinelandii strains O2, O4 and O6 are superior candidates for biofertilizers that may result in the reduction of chemical nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers leading to increase crop production.

  7. Competitive solubilization of naphthalene and pyrene in various micellar systems.

    PubMed

    Masrat, Rohi; Maswal, Masrat; Dar, Aijaz Ahmad

    2013-01-15

    Cosolubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (naphthalene and pyrene) has been studied in surfactant systems of varying nature of their head-group viz. nonionic: Brij30 and Brij56, cationic: DDEAB and CTAB and anionic: SDS. Solubilization capacity of micelles was quantified in terms of molar solubilization ratio, the micelle-water partition coefficient, the first stepwise association constant and average number of solubilizate molecules per micelle determined by employing spectrophotometric and tensiometric techniques. Solubilization capacity of all the surfactant systems was generally higher for naphthalene than pyrene and followed the order: nonionics>cationics>anionic surfactant. Solubility of naphthalene decreased during cosolubilization in all surfactant systems studied while the solubility of pyrene decreased only in Brij30 and Brij56 surfactant systems due to competitive solubilization of PAHs for the same solubilization site. The solubility of pyrene, however, enhanced in presence of naphthalene in CTAB, DDEAB and SDS surfactant systems owing to increase in core volume of the micelles by the palisade layer solubilization of naphthalene. The results of this study can provide valuable information on the selection of particular surfactant systems for selective separation of naphthalene and pyrene from their mixture relevant to surfactant enhanced remediation (SER) technology at the contaminated sites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Heat production in human skeletal muscle at the onset of intense dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, J; Quistorff, B; Krustrup, P; Bangsbo, J; Saltin, B

    2000-04-15

    1. We hypothesised that heat production of human skeletal muscle at a given high power output would gradually increase as heat liberation per mole of ATP produced rises when energy is derived from oxidation compared to phosphocreatine (PCr) breakdown and glycogenolysis. 2. Five young volunteers performed 180 s of intense dynamic knee-extensor exercise ( approximately 80 W) while estimates of muscle heat production, power output, oxygen uptake, lactate release, lactate accumulation and ATP and PCr hydrolysis were made. Heat production was determined continuously by (i) measuring heat storage in the contracting muscles, (ii) measuring heat removal to the body core by the circulation, and (iii) estimating heat transfer to the skin by convection and conductance as well as to the body core by lymph drainage. 3. The rate of heat storage in knee-extensor muscles was highest during the first 45 s of exercise (70-80 J s-1) and declined gradually to 14 +/- 10 J s-1 at 180 s. 4. The rate of heat removal by blood was negligible during the first 10 s of exercise, rising gradually to 112 +/- 14 J s-1 at 180 s. The estimated rate of heat release to skin and heat removal via lymph flow was < 2 J s-1 during the first 5 s and increased progressively to 24 +/- 1 J s-1 at 180 s. The rate of heat production increased significantly throughout exercise, being 107 % higher at 180 s compared to the initial 5 s, with half of the increase occurring during the first 38 s, while power output remained essentially constant. 5. The contribution of muscle oxygen uptake and net lactate release to total energy turnover increased curvilinearly from 32 % and 2 %, respectively, during the first 30 s to 86 % and 8 %, respectively, during the last 30 s of exercise. The combined energy contribution from net ATP hydrolysis, net PCr hydrolysis and muscle lactate accumulation is estimated to decline from 37 % to 3 % comparing the same time intervals. 6. The magnitude and rate of elevation in heat production

  9. Human Monocyte Heat Shock Protein 72 Responses to Acute Hypoxic Exercise after 3 Days of Exercise Heat Acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ben J.; Mackenzie, Richard W. A.; Cox, Valerie; James, Rob S.; Thake, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term heat acclimation (STHA) could confer increased cellular tolerance to acute hypoxic exercise in humans as determined via monocyte HSP72 (mHSP72) expression. Sixteen males were separated into two matched groups. The STHA group completed 3 days of exercise heat acclimation; 60 minutes cycling at 50% V˙O2peak in 40°C 20% relative humidity (RH). The control group (CON) completed 3 days of exercise training in 20°C, 40% RH. Each group completed a hypoxic stress test (HST) one week before and 48 hours following the final day of CON or STHA. Percentage changes in HSP72 concentrations were similar between STHA and CON following HST1 (P = 0.97). STHA induced an increase in basal HSP72 (P = 0.03) with no change observed in CON (P = 0.218). Basal mHSP72 remained elevated before HST2 for the STHA group (P < 0.05) and was unchanged from HST1 in CON (P > 0.05). Percent change in mHSP72 was lower after HST2 in STHA compared to CON (P = 0.02). The mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise was attenuated following 3 days of heat acclimation. This is indicative of improved tolerance and ability to cope with the hypoxic insult, potentially mediated in part by increased basal reserves of HSP72. PMID:25874231

  10. Human monocyte heat shock protein 72 responses to acute hypoxic exercise after 3 days of exercise heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ben J; Mackenzie, Richard W A; Cox, Valerie; James, Rob S; Thake, Charles D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term heat acclimation (STHA) could confer increased cellular tolerance to acute hypoxic exercise in humans as determined via monocyte HSP72 (mHSP72) expression. Sixteen males were separated into two matched groups. The STHA group completed 3 days of exercise heat acclimation; 60 minutes cycling at 50% V̇O2peak in 40°C 20% relative humidity (RH). The control group (CON) completed 3 days of exercise training in 20°C, 40% RH. Each group completed a hypoxic stress test (HST) one week before and 48 hours following the final day of CON or STHA. Percentage changes in HSP72 concentrations were similar between STHA and CON following HST1 (P = 0.97). STHA induced an increase in basal HSP72 (P = 0.03) with no change observed in CON (P = 0.218). Basal mHSP72 remained elevated before HST2 for the STHA group (P < 0.05) and was unchanged from HST1 in CON (P > 0.05). Percent change in mHSP72 was lower after HST2 in STHA compared to CON (P = 0.02). The mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise was attenuated following 3 days of heat acclimation. This is indicative of improved tolerance and ability to cope with the hypoxic insult, potentially mediated in part by increased basal reserves of HSP72.

  11. Advanced oxidation process using hydrogen peroxide/microwave system for solubilization of phosphate.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ping Huang; Wong, Wayne T; Lo, Kwang Victor

    2005-01-01

    An advanced oxidation process (AOP) combining hydrogen peroxide and microwave heating was used for the solubilization of phosphate from secondary municipal sludge from an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. The microwave irradiation is used as a generator agent of oxidizing radicals as well as a heating source in the process. This AOP process could facilitate the release of a large amount of the sludge-bound phosphorus from the sewage sludge. More than 84% of the total phosphorous could be released at a microwave heating time of 5 min at 170 degrees C. This innovative process has the potential of being applied to simple sludge treatment processes in domestic wastewater treatment and to the recovery of phosphorus from the wastewater.

  12. Previous heat shock treatment inhibits Mayaro virus replication in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, P L; Godinho-Netto, M C; Carvalho Mda, G

    1997-01-01

    Human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) were submitted to mild or severe heat shock (42 degrees C or 44 degrees C) for 1 h, while another group of cells was double-heat-shocked (submitted to 42 degrees C for 1 h, returned to 37 degrees C for 3 h, then exposed to 44 degrees C for 1 h). After each heat treatment, the cells were infected with Mayaro virus for 24 h and incubated at 37 degrees C. The results showed that the double-heat-shocked thermotolerant cells exhibited a 10(4)-fold virus titre inhibition, despite the recovery of protein synthesis and original morphology 24 h post-infection. In contrast, cells submitted to mild or severe heat shock exhibited weaker inhibition of Mayaro virus titre (10(2)-fold). The mildly heat-shocked cells also presented a full recovery in protein synthesis, which was not observed in severely heat-shocked cells. These results indicate that exposure of A549 cells to a mild or to a double heat shock treatment before Mayaro virus infection induces an antiviral state.

  13. Human thermoregulatory responses during heat exposure after artificially induced sunburn.

    PubMed

    Pandolf, K B; Gange, R W; Latzka, W A; Blank, I H; Kraning, K K; Gonzalez, R R

    1992-04-01

    Thermoregulatory responses in the heat (ambient temperature 49 degrees C, 20% relative humidity, 1 m/s wind) were investigated in 10 unacclimated men during 50 min of cycle ergometer exercise (approximately 53% of maximal aerobic power) after a 10-min rest before as well as 24 h and 1 wk after twice the minimal erythemal dose of UV-B radiation that covered approximately 85% of the body surface area. In 7 subjects esophageal temperature (Tes) was recorded while in all 10 subjects five-site skin and rectal temperatures, heart rate, and back, left forearm, and shielded (12 cm2 area) right forearm sweating rates (msw) were recorded at 15-s intervals. Venous blood was collected before and after exercise-heat stress. Mean skin temperature, Tes, rectal temperature, heart rate, and total body sweating rate were not significantly (P greater than 0.05) affected by sunburn. Pre- and postexercise values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma protein, plasma volume, and plasma osmolality were also not affected (P greater than 0.05) by sunburn. Analysis of presunburn and post-sunburn data showed that the Tes intercept for sweating (degrees C) was unaffected (P greater than 0.05), but msw/Tes and final msw from the left forearm (msw/Tes 0.24 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.17 +/- 0.01 mg.cm-2.min-1. degrees C-1, P less than 0.05; msw 0.60 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.37 +/- 0.02, mg.cm-2.min-1, P less than 0.05) and back (msw/Tes 0.43 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.36 +/- 0.01 mg.cm-2.min-1. degrees C-1, P = 0.052; msw 1.08 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.74 +/- 0.05 mg.cm-2.min-1, P less than 0.05) were significantly reduced 24 h postsunburn.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Solubilized placental membrane protein inhibits insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Strout, H.V. Jr.; Slater, E.E.

    1987-05-01

    Regulation of insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase (TK) activity may be important in modulating insulin action. Utilizing an assay which measures IR phosphorylation of angiotensin II (AII), the authors investigated whether fractions of TX-100 solubilized human placental membranes inhibited IR dependent AII phosphorylation. Autophosphorylated IR was incubated with membrane fractions before the addition of AII, and kinase inhibition measured by the loss of TSP incorporated in AII. An inhibitory activity was detected which was dose, time, and temperature dependent. The inhibitor was purified 200-fold by sequential chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin, DEAE, and hydroxyapatite. This inhibitory activity was found to correlate with an 80 KD protein which was electroeluted from preparative slab gels and rabbit antiserum raised. Incubation of membrane fractions with antiserum before the IRTK assay immunoprecipitated the inhibitor. Protein immunoblots of crude or purified fractions revealed only the 80 KD protein. Since IR autophosphorylation is crucial to IRTK activity, the authors investigated the state of IR autophosphorylation after treatment with inhibitor; no change was detected by phosphoamino acid analysis.

  15. Both happy and sad melodies modulate tonic human heat pain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huixuan; Chen, Andrew C N

    2009-09-01

    The mechanism of music effects on pain perception remains to be elucidated. To determine which component (mood or valence) of music is more important in music-induced hypoalgesia, we compared the effects of 2 melodies with different moods (happy vs sad) but with the same degree of valence (pleasant vs unpleasant) to an affective neutral lecture and a control (baseline) on the objective and subjective responses to tonic heat pain. Our hypothesis was that if mood was the key component, the happy melody would reduce pain, whereas the sad one would exacerbate pain; and if valence is the key component, the 2 melodies would both alleviate pain. Twenty females participated in this study which consisted of 4 conditions (baseline, happy melody, sad melody, and lecture). Pain tolerance time (PTT), pain intensity, and distress dynamics and the characteristics of pain were measured. A newly devised multiple affective rating scale (MARS) was employed to assess the subjective experience of auditory perception. Both happy and sad melodies of equal valence resulted in significant lower pain ratings during the pain test and were in contrast to the mood prediction. These results indicate that the valence of music, rather than the mood it induced, appears to be the most likely mediator of the hypoalgesic effect of the different music. This article provides new evidence that the valence of music is more crucial than mood in affective pain modulation. This finding gives impetus for health professionals to manage pain more effectively in patients with proper music.

  16. Solubilization of a dendrimer into a microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Nir, Ido; Aserin, Abraham; Libster, Dima; Garti, Nissim

    2010-12-23

    The present work investigates, for the first time, a system comprising a dendrimer incorporated into the water core of water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion (ME). A second generation (G-2) poly(propyleneimine) dendrimer (PPI) was solubilized into W/O ME composed of AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate), heptane, and water. Such a model system possessing the benefits of both dendrimers and ME, can potentially offer superior control of drug administration. The localization of PPI within the system, its specific interactions with the components of the carrier, and its effect on the ME structure was explored by SAXS, DSC, ATR-FTIR, and electrical conductivity measurements. Considerable water binding by PPI, accompanied by partial dehydration of AOT polar heads, was detected by ATR-FTIR and DSC analysis, suggesting that PPI acted as a "water pump". In addition, SAXS measurements showed periodicity increase and disordering of the droplets. Hence, localization of PPI within the core and interfacial regions of the droplets was assumed. Direct electrostatic interactions between PPI and the sulfonate group were not noticed, since the dendrimer molecules were mostly not protonated in the current basic environment at pH 12. However, slight hydrogen bonding between PPI and the S=O groups allowed the dendrimer to behave as a "spacer" between sodium and sulfonate ions. This affected the electrical conductivity behavior of the system, revealing that PPI favored the percolation process. Most likely, PPI decreased the rigidity of the interfacial layer, facilitating the diffusion of sodium ions through the channels. The characterized model system can be advantageously utilized to design specific delivery vehicles, allowing administration of dendrimers as a therapeutic agent from host MEs.

  17. Solubilization and fractionation of paired helical filaments.

    PubMed

    González, P J; Correas, I; Avila, J

    1992-09-01

    Paired helical filaments isolated from brains of two different patients with Alzheimer's disease were extensively treated with the ionic detergent, sodium dodecyl sulphate. Filaments were solubilized at different extents, depending on the brain examined, thus suggesting the existence of two types of paired helical filaments: sodium dodecyl sulphate-soluble and insoluble filaments. In the first case, the number of structures resembling paired helical filaments greatly decreased after the detergent treatment, as observed by electron microscopy. Simultaneously, a decrease in the amount of sedimentable protein was also observed upon centrifugation of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-treated paired helical filaments. A sodium dodecyl sulphate-soluble fraction was isolated as a supernatant after low-speed centrifugation of the sodium dodecyl sulphate-treated paired helical filaments. The addition of the non-ionic detergent Nonidet-P40 to this fraction resulted in the formation of paired helical filament-like structures. When the sodium dodecyl sulphate-soluble fraction was further fractionated by high-speed centrifugation, three subfractions were observed: a supernatant, a pellet and a thin layer between these two subfractions. No paired helical filaments were observed in any of these subfractions, even after addition of Nonidet P-40. However, when they were mixed back together, the treatment with Nonidet P-40 resulted in the visualization of paired helical filament-like structures. These results suggest that at least two different components are needed for the reconstitution of paired helical filaments as determined by electron microscopy. The method described here may allow the study of the components involved in the formation of paired helical filaments and the identification of possible factors capable of blocking this process.

  18. Effect of whole-body and local heating on cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that alpha-adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction is compromised during whole-body heating. The purpose of this study was to identify whether whole-body heating and/or local surface heating reduce cutaneous alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in human skin. Protocol I: Six subjects were exposed to neutral skin temperature (i.e., 34 degrees C), whole-body heating, and local heating of forearm skin to increase skin blood flow to the same relative magnitude as that observed during whole-body heating. Protocol II: In eight subjects forearm skin was locally heated to 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C. During both protocols, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness was assessed by local delivery of norepinephrine (NE) via intradermal microdialysis. Skin blood flow was continuously monitored over each microdialysis membrane via laser-Doppler flowmetry. In protocol I, whole-body and local heating caused similar increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). The EC50 (log NE dose) of the dose-response curves for both whole body (-4.2 +/- 0.1 M) and local heating (-4.7 +/- 0.4 M) were significantly greater (i.e., high dose required to cause 50% reduction in CVC) relative to neutral skin temperature (- 5.6 +/- 0.0 M; P<0.05 for both). In both local and whole-body heated conditions CVC did not return to pre-heating values even at the highest dose of NE. In protocol II, calculated EC50 for 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C local heating was - 5.5 +/- 0.4, -4.6 +/- 0.3, -4.5 +/- 0.3, - 4.2 +/- 0.4 M, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that the EC50 for 37,40 and 42 degrees C were significantly greater than the EC50 for 34 degrees C. These results indicate that even during administration of high concentrations of NE, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction does not fully compensate for local heating and whole-body heating induced vasodilatation in young, healthy subjects. Moreover, these data suggest that elevated local temperatures, above 37

  19. Effect of whole-body and local heating on cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that alpha-adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction is compromised during whole-body heating. The purpose of this study was to identify whether whole-body heating and/or local surface heating reduce cutaneous alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in human skin. Protocol I: Six subjects were exposed to neutral skin temperature (i.e., 34 degrees C), whole-body heating, and local heating of forearm skin to increase skin blood flow to the same relative magnitude as that observed during whole-body heating. Protocol II: In eight subjects forearm skin was locally heated to 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C. During both protocols, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness was assessed by local delivery of norepinephrine (NE) via intradermal microdialysis. Skin blood flow was continuously monitored over each microdialysis membrane via laser-Doppler flowmetry. In protocol I, whole-body and local heating caused similar increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). The EC50 (log NE dose) of the dose-response curves for both whole body (-4.2 +/- 0.1 M) and local heating (-4.7 +/- 0.4 M) were significantly greater (i.e., high dose required to cause 50% reduction in CVC) relative to neutral skin temperature (- 5.6 +/- 0.0 M; P<0.05 for both). In both local and whole-body heated conditions CVC did not return to pre-heating values even at the highest dose of NE. In protocol II, calculated EC50 for 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C local heating was - 5.5 +/- 0.4, -4.6 +/- 0.3, -4.5 +/- 0.3, - 4.2 +/- 0.4 M, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that the EC50 for 37,40 and 42 degrees C were significantly greater than the EC50 for 34 degrees C. These results indicate that even during administration of high concentrations of NE, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction does not fully compensate for local heating and whole-body heating induced vasodilatation in young, healthy subjects. Moreover, these data suggest that elevated local temperatures, above 37

  20. Heat shock protein induction in rat pancreatic islets by recombinant human interleukin 1 beta.

    PubMed

    Helqvist, S; Polla, B S; Johannesen, J; Nerup, J

    1991-03-01

    Interleukin 1 beta, potentiated by tumour necrosis factor alpha, is cytotoxic to pancreatic Beta cells in vitro. We have hypothesized that interleukin 1 beta induces oxygen free radicals in Beta cells. Since cytotoxicity induced by free radicals and by heat may activate the same cellular repair mechanism (the heat shock response), the aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of protein synthesis in isolated islets after exposure to interleukin 1 beta (150 pg/ml, 24 h), tumour necrosis factor alpha (50 ng/ml, 24 h) heat shock (43 degrees C, 30 min) and H2O2 (0.1 mmol/l, 20 min). By polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, autoradiography, Western-blot analysis and partial peptide mapping of 35S-methionine labelled islets, interleukin 1 beta was found to induce a 73 kilodalton protein belonging to the heat shock protein family heat shock protein 70, a heat shock protein 90, and haem oxygenase. A minor induction of heat shock protein 73 and haem oxygenase was seen after H2O2. Interleukin 1 beta did not induce heat shock proteins in rat thyroid cells, rat mesangial cells or in human monocytes. Tumour necrosis factor alpha did not induce selective protein synthesis. Pre-exposure of islets to heat, tumour necrosis factor alpha, or H2O2 did not prevent the impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin release seen after 24 h of interleukin 1 beta exposure. The data are compatible with free radical induction by interleukin 1 beta. However, the heat shock response is not specific for oxidative injury, and previous studies have shown discrepant effects as to a protective effect of free radical scavengers against interleukin 1 beta-mediated beta-cytotoxicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Induction temperature of human heat shock factor is reprogrammed in a Drosophila cell environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clos, Joachim; Rabindran, Sridhar; Wisniewski, Jan; Wu, Carl

    1993-07-01

    HEAT shock factor (HSF)1,2, the transcriptional activator of eukaryotic heat shock genes, is induced to bind DNA by a monomer to trimer transition involving leucine zipper interactions3,4. Although this mode of regulation is shared among many eukaryotic species, there is variation in the temperature at which HSF binding activity is induced. We investigated the basis of this variation by analysing the response of a human HSF expressed in Drosophila cells and Drosophila HSF expressed in human cells. We report here that the temperature that induces DNA binding and trimerization of human HSF in Drosophila was decreased by ~10 °C to the induction temperature for the host cell, whereas Drosophila HSF expressed in human cells was constitutively active. The results indicate that the activity of HSF in vivo is not a simple function of the absolute environmental temperature.

  2. [Solubilization characteristics of licorice based on supramolecular "imprinted template" theory].

    PubMed

    Tao, Ye-Qin; Tang, Wen-Han; Liu, Jin-Ling; Deng, Kai-Wen; He, Fu-Yuan; Zhou, Yi-Qun

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effect of the ingredient group of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with different "imprinted template" on the supramolecular solubilization ability of licorice, in order to lay a theoretical foundation for explaining the solubilization phenomenon of the components of TCM. Based on the independent supramolecular "imprinted template" rules, molecular connectivity index (MCI) and the correlation of n-octanol-water partition coefficient (logP) were used to indicate hydrophilic lipophilic capacity of TCM, and the extractum rate was used to indicate the solubilization effect of licoriceon single TCM herbs or compounds. The solubilization ability of licorice was evaluated based on MCI, logP and the extractum rate. According to the results, the correlation coefficient between MCI and logP for single herbs was 0.942, and that for single herb adding licorice was 0.916. The extractum rate of most herbs was increased after adding licorice. The correlation coefficient among the extractum rate as well as MCI and logP change values before and after adding licorice were respectively 0.837, 0.405. The correlation coefficient between MCI and logP for eight compounds was 0.937. Meanwhile, licorice had a solubilization effect on the remaining 7 compound except for Huangqi decoction. Therefore, licorice shows the solubilization effect through the independent supramolecular "imprinted template", so as to improve the hydrophilic lipophilic ability. There was a high positive correlation between the MCI and logP in ingredients for TCM, which could be used as important parameters to indicate the "imprinted template" feature for components of TCM. The study on the solubilizing effect of TCM with the supramolecular "imprinted template" theory was feasible, and will lay a foundation for the reform of single-herb dosage form. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Selected human physiological responses during extreme heat: the Badwater Ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jacqueline S; Connolly, Declan A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine various physiological responses during an ultramarathon held in extreme heat. Our investigation was conducted at The Badwater Ultramarathon, a nonstop 217-km run across Death Valley, CA, USA. This study recruited 4 male athletes, average age of 43 (±SD) (±7.35), (range) 39-54 years. All 4 subjects successfully completed the race with a mean finish time of 36:20:23 hours (±SD) (±3:08:38) (range) 34:05:25-40:51:46 hours, and a mean running speed of 6.03 km·h(-1) (±SD) (±0.05), (range) 5.3-6.4 km·h(-1). The anthropometric variables measured were (mean, ±SD) mass 79.33 kg (±6.43), height 1.80 m (±0.09), body surface area 1.93 m2 (±0.16), body mass index 24.38 kg·m(-2) (±1.25), fat mass 13.88% (±2.29), and body water 62.08% (±1.56). Selected physiological variables measured were core body temperature, skin temperature, heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Rate of perceived intensity, rate of thermal sensation, and environmental factors were also monitored. Our study found (mean and ±SD) core body temperature 37.49° C (±0.88); skin temperature 31.13° C (±3.06); heart rate 106.79 b·min(-1) (±5.11); breathing rate 36.55 b·min(-1) (±0.60); blood pressure 128/86 mm Hg (±9.24/4.62); rate of perceived intensity 5.49 (±1.26); rate of thermal sensation 4.69 (±0.37); daytime high temperature of 46.6° C, and a mean temperature of 28.35° C. Our fastest finisher demonstrated a lower overall core body temperature (36.91° C) when compared with the group mean (37.49° C). In contrast to previous findings, our data show that the fastest finisher demonstrates a lower overall core body temperature. We conclude that it may be possible that a time threshold exists whereby success in longer duration events requires an ability to maintain a lower core body temperature vs. tolerating a higher core body temperature.

  4. The effects of external heating on the permeation of oxybutynin through human epidermal membrane.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Haruhi; Inoue, Kazuhiro; Ishizuka, Hitoshi

    2007-03-01

    The transdermal delivery system (TDS) of oxybutynin (OXY) is widely used for the treatment of overactive bladder patients. This report aimed to assess the effect of external heating on the pharmacokinetics of OXY after transdermal administration. Franz-type diffusion cell experiments at room temperature, 36 and 45 degrees C were performed to estimate the permeations of OXY through human epidermal membrane with an isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) formulation as a reference. The fluxes of OXY at 36 and 45 degrees C were only approximately 1.2-fold higher than that at room temperature, while those of ISDN with heating were more than 2.5 times as high as that without heating (p<0.001). These results indicate that the influence of heating on the permeation of OXY from the TDS of OXY may be minimal.

  5. Effects of whole body heating on dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Zhang, R.; Levine, B. D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify whether dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate (HR) is altered during whole body heating. In 14 subjects, dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR was assessed using transfer function analysis. In normothermic and heat-stressed conditions, each subject breathed at a fixed rate (0. 25 Hz) while beat-by-beat HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were obtained. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature, HR, and forearm skin blood flow. Spectral analysis of HR and SBP revealed that the heat stress significantly reduced HR and SBP variability within the high-frequency range (0.2-0.3 Hz), reduced SBP variability within the low-frequency range (0.03-0.15 Hz), and increased the ratio of low- to high-frequency HR variability (all P < 0.01). Transfer function gain analysis showed that the heat stress reduced dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR within the high-frequency range (from 1.04 +/- 0.06 to 0.54 +/- 0.6 beats. min(-1). mmHg(-1); P < 0.001) without significantly affecting the gain in the low-frequency range (P = 0.63). These data suggest that whole body heating reduced high-frequency dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR associated with spontaneous changes in blood pressure. Reduced vagal baroreflex regulation of HR may contribute to reduced orthostatic tolerance known to occur in humans during heat stress.

  6. Effects of whole body heating on dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Zhang, R.; Levine, B. D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify whether dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate (HR) is altered during whole body heating. In 14 subjects, dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR was assessed using transfer function analysis. In normothermic and heat-stressed conditions, each subject breathed at a fixed rate (0. 25 Hz) while beat-by-beat HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were obtained. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature, HR, and forearm skin blood flow. Spectral analysis of HR and SBP revealed that the heat stress significantly reduced HR and SBP variability within the high-frequency range (0.2-0.3 Hz), reduced SBP variability within the low-frequency range (0.03-0.15 Hz), and increased the ratio of low- to high-frequency HR variability (all P < 0.01). Transfer function gain analysis showed that the heat stress reduced dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR within the high-frequency range (from 1.04 +/- 0.06 to 0.54 +/- 0.6 beats. min(-1). mmHg(-1); P < 0.001) without significantly affecting the gain in the low-frequency range (P = 0.63). These data suggest that whole body heating reduced high-frequency dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR associated with spontaneous changes in blood pressure. Reduced vagal baroreflex regulation of HR may contribute to reduced orthostatic tolerance known to occur in humans during heat stress.

  7. Human TRPA1 is a heat sensor displaying intrinsic U-shaped thermosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Moparthi, Lavanya; Kichko, Tatjana I; Eberhardt, Mirjam; Högestätt, Edward D; Kjellbom, Per; Johanson, Urban; Reeh, Peter W; Leffler, Andreas; Filipovic, Milos R; Zygmunt, Peter M

    2016-06-28

    Thermosensitive Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are believed to respond to either cold or heat. In the case of TRP subtype A1 (TRPA1), there seems to be a species-dependent divergence in temperature sensation as non-mammalian TRPA1 is heat-sensitive whereas mammalian TRPA1 is sensitive to cold. It has been speculated but never experimentally proven that TRPA1 and other temperature-sensitive ion channels have the inherent capability of responding to both cold and heat. Here we show that redox modification and ligands affect human TRPA1 (hTRPA1) cold and heat sensing properties in lipid bilayer and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings as well as heat-evoked TRPA1-dependent calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from mouse trachea. Studies of purified hTRPA1 intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, in the absence of lipid bilayer, consolidate hTRPA1 as an intrinsic bidirectional thermosensor that is modified by the redox state and ligands. Thus, the heat sensing property of TRPA1 is conserved in mammalians, in which TRPA1 may contribute to sensing warmth and uncomfortable heat in addition to noxious cold.

  8. Calorimetric studies of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding to human hemoglobin. Sequential binding heats for oxygen.

    PubMed

    Parody-Morreale, A; Robert, C H; Bishop, G A; Gill, S J

    1987-08-15

    Two high precision techniques, titration microcalorimetry and thin-layer optical binding measurements, have made possible the evaluation of enthalpy changes for the overall oxygenation reactions for human hemoglobin (HbAo). Although the heat of adding three oxygen molecules could not be evaluated due to the indeterminate contribution of this species to the oxygen binding curve of the protein (Gill, S. J., Di Cera, E., Doyle, M. L., Bishop, G. A., and Robert, C. H. (1987) Biochemistry, 26, 3995-4002), the heats for binding two and four oxygen molecules were found to be simple multiples of the first binding heat. A direct consequence of equal stepwise heats is invariance of the shape of the binding curve with temperature, as pointed out by Wyman (Wyman, J. (1939) J. Biol. Chem. 127, 581-599). Titration microcalorimetry was also performed for the binding of carbon monoxide to hemoglobin. While the tight binding of CO precludes high-precision binding measurements, it does allow one to accurately determine the heat of ligation as a function of the CO bound. In these titrations a uniform heat of reaction is not observed, but the heat of binding increases markedly near the end point. This implies that the stepwise binding enthalpy for adding the third CO molecule is anomalously endothermic and for adding the fourth strongly exothermic. A similar phenomenon cannot be ruled out in the case of oxygen because of imprecision intrinsic in the analysis of the weaker ligand binding.

  9. Human TRPA1 is a heat sensor displaying intrinsic U-shaped thermosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Moparthi, Lavanya; Kichko, Tatjana I.; Eberhardt, Mirjam; Högestätt, Edward D.; Kjellbom, Per; Johanson, Urban; Reeh, Peter W.; Leffler, Andreas; Filipovic, Milos R.; Zygmunt, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Thermosensitive Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are believed to respond to either cold or heat. In the case of TRP subtype A1 (TRPA1), there seems to be a species-dependent divergence in temperature sensation as non-mammalian TRPA1 is heat-sensitive whereas mammalian TRPA1 is sensitive to cold. It has been speculated but never experimentally proven that TRPA1 and other temperature-sensitive ion channels have the inherent capability of responding to both cold and heat. Here we show that redox modification and ligands affect human TRPA1 (hTRPA1) cold and heat sensing properties in lipid bilayer and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings as well as heat-evoked TRPA1-dependent calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from mouse trachea. Studies of purified hTRPA1 intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, in the absence of lipid bilayer, consolidate hTRPA1 as an intrinsic bidirectional thermosensor that is modified by the redox state and ligands. Thus, the heat sensing property of TRPA1 is conserved in mammalians, in which TRPA1 may contribute to sensing warmth and uncomfortable heat in addition to noxious cold. PMID:27349477

  10. Exercise training-induced gender-specific heat shock protein adaptations in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Morton, James P; Holloway, Kathryn; Woods, Paul; Cable, Nigel T; Burniston, Jatin; Evans, Louise; Kayani, Anna C; McArdle, Anne

    2009-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of short-term endurance training on heat shock protein (HSP) adaptations of male and female human skeletal muscle. The data demonstrate that females did not respond to continuous or interval training in terms of increasing HSP content of the vastus lateralis muscle. In contrast, males displayed HSP adaptations to both training interventions. These data provide a platform for future human studies to examine a potential gender-specific stress response to exercise.

  11. Immediate induction of heat shock proteins is not protective against cryopreservation in normal human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Park, S J; Choi, H R; Nam, K M; Na, J I; Huh, C H; Park, K C

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were first identified as proteins whose synthesis was enhanced by stresses, such as increased temperature. HSPs can protect cells from various cytotoxic factors by stabilizing proteins. Thus, it could be hypothesized that heat induced HSPs can provide protective effects against cryopreservation-induced cell death. The aim of this study was to determine whether induction of HSPs can increase the cell viability of normal human fibroblasts after cryopreservation. Cytotoxic effects of heat treatment were tested and the induction of HSPs was assessed by examining time-dependent HSP expression. A cell counting method using fluorescence microscopy was used to determine the viability of cells. In addition, the effects of geranylgeranylacetone were evaluated in terms of HSP expression and cytoskeleton changes. The results of this study showed that immediate induction of HSPs does not protect normal human fibroblasts against cryopreservation-induced cell death possibly by inducing cytoskeleton changes.

  12. Wearable thermoelectric generator for harvesting human body heat energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Lee, Seok; Kim, Chulki; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the realization of a wearable thermoelectric generator (TEG) in fabric for use in clothing. A TEG was fabricated by dispenser printing of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 and Bi2Se0.3Te2.7 in a polymer-based fabric. The prototype consisted of 12 thermocouples connected by conductive thread over an area of 6 × 25 mm2. The device generated a power of 224 nW for a temperature difference of 15 K. When the TEG was used on the human body, the measured output power was 224 nW in an ambient temperature of 5 °C. The power of the TEG was affected by the movement of the wearer. A higher voltage was maintained while walking than in a stationary state. In addition, the device did not deform after it was bent and stretched several times. The prospect of using the TEG in clothing applications was confirmed under realistic conditions.

  13. Effect of Heat Preconditioning by Microwave Hyperthermia on Human Skeletal Muscle After Eccentric Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Saga, Norio; Katamoto, Shizuo; Naito, Hisashi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify whether heat preconditioning results in less eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and muscle soreness, and whether the repeated bout effect is enhanced by heat preconditioning prior to eccentric exercise. Nine untrained male volunteers aged 23 ± 3 years participated in this study. Heat preconditioning included treatment with a microwave hyperthermia unit (150 W, 20 min) that was randomly applied to one of the subject’s arms (MW); the other arm was used as a control (CON). One day after heat preconditioning, the subjects performed 24 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors at 30°·s-1 (ECC1). One week after ECC1, the subjects repeated the procedure (ECC2). After each bout of exercise, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), range of motion (ROM) of the elbow joint, upper arm circumference, blood creatine kinase (CK) activity and muscle soreness were measured. The subjects experienced both conditions at an interval of 3 weeks. MVC and ROM in the MW were significantly higher than those in the CON (p < 0.05) for ECC1; however, the heat preconditioning had no significant effect on upper arm circumference, blood CK activity, or muscle soreness following ECC1 and ECC2. Heat preconditioning may protect human skeletal muscle from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage after a single bout of eccentric exercise but does not appear to promote the repeated bout effect after a second bout of eccentric exercise. Key pointsThere have been few studies about the effects of heat preconditioning on muscle damage caused by eccentric exercise and the repeated bout effect after a second bout of eccentric exercise.Heat preconditioning with microwave hyperthermia may attenuate eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.Heat preconditioning does not enhance the repeated bout effect. PMID:24150151

  14. Regulatory effects of heat on normal human melanocyte growth and melanogenesis: comparative study with UVB.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, K; Sahuc, F; Damour, O; Collombel, C; Nakazawa, H

    1998-06-01

    Although energy-rich ultraviolet B (UVB) is considered to be primarily responsible for most of the effects associated with solar radiation, small energy recorded as heat appears to contribute to the biologic effects of solar radiation on the skin. We compared the effects of heat and UVB on normal human melanocyte functions. In monolayer culture the following was found. (i) Heat-treated melanocytes showed an increased dendricity and exhibited a larger cell body compared with nontreated melanocytes. (ii) After multiple treatments with UVB (20 mJ per cm2, 312 nm) or heat (42 degrees C for 1 h) for 3 d, melanocytes had a lower survival than nontreated melanocytes, but they resumed proliferation within 6 d in the same manner as seen in control. (iii) The expression levels of cell cycle regulators, p53 and p21 proteins, were increased after multiple treatments with UVB or heat. (iv) The tyrosinase (dopa-oxidase) activity per cell was increased after the multiple treatments with UVB or heat. (v) The number of dopa-positive melanocytes in coculture with keratinocytes in epithelial sheets was greatly increased by UVB or heat treatments. (vi) Similarly, the increased number of tyrosinase-related protein 1 positive melanocytes was seen in skin equivalents after UVB (100 mJ per cm2) or heat (42 degrees C for 1 h) treatments for 7 d. These results suggest that heat shares significant biologic activities with UVB in melanocyte functions. These results could be considered as one of the protective or adaptive responses of the skin pigmentary system to the environment.

  15. The effects of surfactant formulation on nonequilibrium NAPL solubilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lirong; Mayer, Alex S.; Pope, Gary A.

    2003-01-01

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) involves the injection of surfactant solutions into aquifers contaminated with nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL). Batch and column experiments were used to assess the effect of surfactant formulation on the rate of NAPL solubilization. The experimental variables were surfactant type, surfactant concentration, electrolyte concentration, and cosolvent concentration. Model equations were proposed and solved to describe solubilization under the conditions of each type of experiment. Using these models, a solubilization rate constant, kb, and an overall mass transfer rate coefficient, k, were estimated from the batch and column experiments, respectively. The solubilization rate constant was consistently sensitive to surfactant type, surfactant concentration, and electrolyte concentration. The estimated solubilization rate constants varied over two orders of magnitude. The results of the column experiments also were sensitive to the surfactant formulation. Variations in the fitted mass transfer rate coefficient parameter, β0, were related to variations in the surfactant formulations. A comparison between the results of the batch and column experiments yields an apparent relationship between β0 and kb. This relationship suggests that the mass transfer rate coefficient is directly related to the formulation of the surfactant solution.

  16. Plant growth promotion induced by phosphate solubilizing endophytic Pseudomonas isolates

    PubMed Central

    Oteino, Nicholas; Lally, Richard D.; Kiwanuka, Samuel; Lloyd, Andrew; Ryan, David; Germaine, Kieran J.; Dowling, David N.

    2015-01-01

    The use of plant growth promoting bacterial inoculants as live microbial biofertilizers provides a promising alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Inorganic phosphate solubilization is one of the major mechanisms of plant growth promotion by plant associated bacteria. This involves bacteria releasing organic acids into the soil which solubilize the phosphate complexes converting them into ortho-phosphate which is available for plant up-take and utilization. The study presented here describes the ability of endophytic bacteria to produce gluconic acid (GA), solubilize insoluble phosphate, and stimulate the growth of Pisum sativum L. plants. This study also describes the genetic systems within three of these endophyte strains thought to be responsible for their effective phosphate solubilizing abilities. The results showed that many of the endophytic strains produced GA (14–169 mM) and have moderate to high phosphate solubilization capacities (~400–1300 mg L−1). When inoculated into P. sativum L. plants grown in soil under soluble phosphate limiting conditions, the endophytes that produced medium-high levels of GA displayed beneficial plant growth promotion effects. PMID:26257721

  17. The effects of surfactant formulation on nonequilibrium NAPL solubilization.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lirong; Mayer, Alex S; Pope, Gary A

    2003-01-01

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) involves the injection of surfactant solutions into aquifers contaminated with nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL). Batch and column experiments were used to assess the effect of surfactant formulation on the rate of NAPL solubilization. The experimental variables were surfactant type, surfactant concentration, electrolyte concentration, and cosolvent concentration. Model equations were proposed and solved to describe solubilization under the conditions of each type of experiment. Using these models, a solubilization rate constant, kappa(b), and an overall mass transfer rate coefficient, kappa, were estimated from the batch and column experiments, respectively. The solubilization rate constant was consistently sensitive to surfactant type, surfactant concentration, and electrolyte concentration. The estimated solubilization rate constants varied over two orders of magnitude. The results of the column experiments also were sensitive to the surfactant formulation. Variations in the fitted mass transfer rate coefficient parameter, beta(0), were related to variations in the surfactant formulations. A comparison between the results of the batch and column experiments yields an apparent relationship between beta(0) and kappa(b). This relationship suggests that the mass transfer rate coefficient is directly related to the formulation of the surfactant solution.

  18. Attributing human mortality during extreme heat waves to anthropogenic climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Daniel; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Huntingford, Chris; Masato, Giacomo; Guillod, Benoit P.; Frumhoff, Peter; Bowery, Andy; Wallom, David; Allen, Myles

    2016-07-01

    It has been argued that climate change is the biggest global health threat of the 21st century. The extreme high temperatures of the summer of 2003 were associated with up to seventy thousand excess deaths across Europe. Previous studies have attributed the meteorological event to the human influence on climate, or examined the role of heat waves on human health. Here, for the first time, we explicitly quantify the role of human activity on climate and heat-related mortality in an event attribution framework, analysing both the Europe-wide temperature response in 2003, and localised responses over London and Paris. Using publicly-donated computing, we perform many thousands of climate simulations of a high-resolution regional climate model. This allows generation of a comprehensive statistical description of the 2003 event and the role of human influence within it, using the results as input to a health impact assessment model of human mortality. We find large-scale dynamical modes of atmospheric variability remain largely unchanged under anthropogenic climate change, and hence the direct thermodynamical response is mainly responsible for the increased mortality. In summer 2003, anthropogenic climate change increased the risk of heat-related mortality in Central Paris by ∼70% and by ∼20% in London, which experienced lower extreme heat. Out of the estimated ∼315 and ∼735 summer deaths attributed to the heatwave event in Greater London and Central Paris, respectively, 64 (±3) deaths were attributable to anthropogenic climate change in London, and 506 (±51) in Paris. Such an ability to robustly attribute specific damages to anthropogenic drivers of increased extreme heat can inform societal responses to, and responsibilities for, climate change.

  19. Skin cooling maintains cerebral blood flow velocity and orthostatic tolerance during tilting in heated humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Zhang, Rong; Witkowski, Sarah; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is reduced in the heat-stressed human. The purpose of this project was to identify whether skin-surface cooling improves orthostatic tolerance. Nine subjects were exposed to 10 min of 60 degrees head-up tilting in each of four conditions: normothermia (NT-tilt), heat stress (HT-tilt), normothermia plus skin-surface cooling 1 min before and throughout tilting (NT-tilt(cool)), and heat stress plus skin-surface cooling 1 min before and throughout tilting (HT-tilt(cool)). Heating and cooling were accomplished by perfusing 46 and 15 degrees C water, respectively, though a tube-lined suit worn by each subject. During HT-tilt, four of nine subjects developed presyncopal symptoms resulting in the termination of the tilt test. In contrast, no subject experienced presyncopal symptoms during NT-tilt, NT-tilt(cool), or HT-tilt(cool). During the HT-tilt procedure, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) decreased. However, during HT-tilt(cool), MAP, total peripheral resistance, and CBFV were significantly greater relative to HT-tilt (all P < 0.01). No differences were observed in calculated cerebral vascular resistance between the four conditions. These data suggest that skin-surface cooling prevents the fall in CBFV during upright tilting and improves orthostatic tolerance, presumably via maintenance of MAP. Hence, skin-surface cooling may be a potent countermeasure to protect against orthostatic intolerance observed in heat-stressed humans.

  20. Phenylephrine-induced elevations in arterial blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that phenylephrine-induced elevations in blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans, blood pressure was elevated via steady-state infusion of three doses of phenylephrine HCl in 10 healthy subjects in both normothermic and heat stress conditions. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature by 0.5 degrees C, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate, and cardiac output and decreased total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR; all P < 0.005) but did not change mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; P > 0.05). At the highest dose of phenylephrine, the increase in MAP and TPR from predrug baselines was significantly attenuated during the heat stress [DeltaMAP 8.4 +/- 1.2 mmHg; DeltaTPR 0.96 +/- 0.85 peripheral resistance units (PRU)] compared with normothermia (DeltaMAP 15.4 +/- 1.4 mmHg, DeltaTPR 7.13 +/- 1.18 PRU; all P < 0.001). The sensitivity of baroreflex control of MSNA and heart rate, expressed as the slope of the relationship between MSNA and diastolic blood pressure, as well as the slope of the relationship between heart rate and systolic blood pressure, respectively, was similar between thermal conditions (each P > 0.05). These data suggest that phenylephrine-induced elevations in MAP are attenuated in heat-stressed humans without affecting baroreflex control of MSNA or heart rate.

  1. Phenylephrine-induced elevations in arterial blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that phenylephrine-induced elevations in blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans, blood pressure was elevated via steady-state infusion of three doses of phenylephrine HCl in 10 healthy subjects in both normothermic and heat stress conditions. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature by 0.5 degrees C, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate, and cardiac output and decreased total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR; all P < 0.005) but did not change mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; P > 0.05). At the highest dose of phenylephrine, the increase in MAP and TPR from predrug baselines was significantly attenuated during the heat stress [DeltaMAP 8.4 +/- 1.2 mmHg; DeltaTPR 0.96 +/- 0.85 peripheral resistance units (PRU)] compared with normothermia (DeltaMAP 15.4 +/- 1.4 mmHg, DeltaTPR 7.13 +/- 1.18 PRU; all P < 0.001). The sensitivity of baroreflex control of MSNA and heart rate, expressed as the slope of the relationship between MSNA and diastolic blood pressure, as well as the slope of the relationship between heart rate and systolic blood pressure, respectively, was similar between thermal conditions (each P > 0.05). These data suggest that phenylephrine-induced elevations in MAP are attenuated in heat-stressed humans without affecting baroreflex control of MSNA or heart rate.

  2. UTCI-Fiala multi-node model of human heat transfer and temperature regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiala, Dusan; Havenith, George; Bröde, Peter; Kampmann, Bernhard; Jendritzky, Gerd

    2012-05-01

    The UTCI-Fiala mathematical model of human temperature regulation forms the basis of the new Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTC). Following extensive validation tests, adaptations and extensions, such as the inclusion of an adaptive clothing model, the model was used to predict human temperature and regulatory responses for combinations of the prevailing outdoor climate conditions. This paper provides an overview of the underlying algorithms and methods that constitute the multi-node dynamic UTCI-Fiala model of human thermal physiology and comfort. Treated topics include modelling heat and mass transfer within the body, numerical techniques, modelling environmental heat exchanges, thermoregulatory reactions of the central nervous system, and perceptual responses. Other contributions of this special issue describe the validation of the UTCI-Fiala model against measured data and the development of the adaptive clothing model for outdoor climates.

  3. Spatial Mathematical Model of Heat Transfer in Human Skin Influenced by Heated up to High Temperatures Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovskiy, Nikolay V.; Solodkin, Andrey S.; Stuparenko, Alexandr A.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical research results of heat transfer in system "air-heated particle-skin layer" presented. Skin was influenced by heated up to high temperatures particle. The problem is solved in tree-dimensional statement in Cartesian system of coordinates. The typical range of influence parameters of heated particle considered. Temperature distributions in different moments of time obtained. Condition of burn occurrence by heated particle is under consideration in this research.

  4. Transgenic mice expressing the human heat shock protein 70 have improved post-ischemic myocardial recovery.

    PubMed Central

    Plumier, J C; Ross, B M; Currie, R W; Angelidis, C E; Kazlaris, H; Kollias, G; Pagoulatos, G N

    1995-01-01

    Heat shock treatment induces expression of several heat shock proteins and subsequent post-ischemic myocardial protection. Correlations exist between the degree of stress used to induce the heat shock proteins, the amount of the inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the level of myocardial protection. The inducible HSP70 has also been shown to be protective in transfected myogenic cells. Here we examined the role of human inducible HSP70 in transgenic mouse hearts. Overexpression of the human HSP70 does not appear to affect normal protein synthesis or the stress response in transgenic mice compared with nontransgenic mice. After 30 min of ischemia, upon reperfusion, transgenic hearts versus nontransgenic hearts showed significantly improved recovery of contractile force (0.35 +/- 0.08 versus 0.16 +/- 0.05 g, respectively, P < 0.05), rate of contraction, and rate of relaxation. Creatine kinase, an indicator of cellular injury, was released at a high level (67.7 +/- 23.0 U/ml) upon reperfusion from nontransgenic hearts, but not transgenic hearts (1.6 +/- 0.8 U/ml). We conclude that high level constitutive expression of the human inducible HSP70 plays a direct role in the protection of the myocardium from ischemia and reperfusion injury. Images PMID:7706492

  5. Carrageenans solubilize asymmetric acetylcholinesterase from nicotinic cholinergic synapses.

    PubMed

    von Bernhardi, R; Ayal, H; Inestrosa, N C

    1990-01-01

    1. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses in both vertebrate and invertebrates organisms. 2. The asymmetric synaptic AChE is attached to the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the neuromuscular junction through heparin sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs). 3. It has been shown previously that heparin-like glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) can solubilize this enzyme from the cholinergic synapses. 4. The present paper describes the solubilization of asymmetric AChE by different marine macroalgal polysaccharides, called carrageenans. 5. Important differences were found among all the carrageenans tested; they released 15-50% of the total AChE activity normally solubilized by heparin. 6. Carrageenans extracted from tetrasporic stages of Iridaea ciliata and I. membranacea were always better extracting agents than those from the cystocarpic stages of these algae, suggesting that lambda-like carrageenans are involved. 7. This hypothesis was confirmed by extracting AChE with purified carrageenans.

  6. Expression, Solubilization, and Purification of Bacterial Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Constance J

    2016-02-02

    Bacterial integral membrane proteins play many important roles, including sensing changes in the environment, transporting molecules into and out of the cell, and in the case of commensal or pathogenic bacteria, interacting with the host organism. Working with membrane proteins in the lab can be more challenging than working with soluble proteins because of difficulties in their recombinant expression and purification. This protocol describes a standard method to express, solubilize, and purify bacterial integral membrane proteins. The recombinant protein of interest with a 6His affinity tag is expressed in E. coli. After harvesting the cultures and isolating cellular membranes, mild detergents are used to solubilize the membrane proteins. Protein-detergent complexes are then purified using IMAC column chromatography. Support protocols are included to help select a detergent for protein solubilization and for use of gel filtration chromatography for further purification.

  7. Solubilization and reconstitution of vesicular stomatitis virus envelope using octylglucoside.

    PubMed Central

    Paternostre, M; Viard, M; Meyer, O; Ghanam, M; Ollivon, M; Blumenthal, R

    1997-01-01

    Reconstituted vesicular stomatitis virus envelopes or virosomes are formed by detergent removal from solubilized intact virus. We have monitored the solubilization process of the intact vesicular stomatitis virus by the nonionic surfactant octylglucoside at various initial virus concentrations by employing turbidity measurements. This allowed us to determine the phase boundaries between the membrane and the mixed micelles domains. We have also characterized the lipid and protein content of the solubilized material and of the reconstituted envelope. Both G and M proteins and all of the lipids of the envelope were extracted by octylglucoside and recovered in the reconstituted envelope. Fusion activity of the virosomes tested either on Vero cells or on liposomes showed kinetics and pH dependence similar to those of the intact virus. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:9083672

  8. Solubilization and structural stability of bacteriorhodopsin with a mild nonionic detergent, n-Octyl-β-thioglucoside.

    PubMed

    Asada, Azusa; Sonoyama, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Solubilization and structural stability of a membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) with n-octyl-β-thioglucoside (OTG) was investigated in comparison with a previous study on bR solubilized with n-octyl-β-glucoside (OG). Highly efficient and stable solubilization of bR with OTG was accomplished above the OTG concentration of about 15 mM. In comparison with OG-solubilized bR, the structural stability of OTG-solubilized bR was high in the dark and under light illumination. These results indicate that OTG is a detergent superior to OG for solubilizing bR molecules.

  9. Combinatorial screening for specific drug solubilizers with switchable release profiles.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Sebastian; Vigne, Sara; Masini, Tiziana; Ponader, Daniela; Hartmann, Laura; Hirsch, Anna K H; Börner, Hans G

    2015-01-01

    Polymer-block-peptide conjugates are tailored to render hydrophobic small molecule drugs water soluble. The combinatorial strategy selects for bioconjugates that exhibit sequence-specific solubilization and switchable release profiles of the cargo through incorporation of a disulfide linker moiety into the peptide-library design. While the study focused on the photosensitizer m-THPC and reductive carrier cleavage, the approach is generic and might be expanded toward a broad range of poorly soluble small-molecule drugs and other selective cleavage mechanisms to disassemble a peptide binding domain of the bioconjugate-based solubilizer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. [Solubilization Specificities Interferon beta-1b from Inclusion Bodies].

    PubMed

    Zhuravko, A S; Kononova, N V; Bobruskin, A I

    2015-01-01

    A new solubilization method of recombinant interferon beta-1b (IFNβ-1b) from the inclusion bodies was developed. This method allows to extract the target protein selectively in the solutions of different alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol and isopropanol. It was shown that the more effective IFNβ-1b solubilization was achieved in the 55% propanol solution. This method allowed to extract the target protein from inclusion bodies around 85-90%, and significantly reduced Escherichia coli content in the solubilizate, in comparison with standard methods.

  11. Water-solubilization and functionalization of semiconductor quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Tyrakowski, Christina M; Isovic, Adela; Snee, Preston T

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are highly fluorescent nanocrystals that have abundant potential for uses in biological imaging and sensing. However, the best materials are synthesized in hydrophobic surfactants that prevent direct aqueous solubilization. While several methods have been developed to impart water-solubility, an aqueous QD dispersion has no inherent useful purpose and must be functionalized further. Due to the colloidal nature of QD dispersions, traditional methods of chemical conjugation in water either have low yields or cause irreversible precipitation of the sample. Here, we describe several methods to water-solubilize QDs and further functionalize the materials with chemical and/or biological vectors.

  12. Cosolvent-induced solubilization of hydrophobic compounds into water

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Yalkowsky, S.H.

    1988-10-01

    The solubilization of toluene into water by propylene glycol and methanol was measured by a novel liquid chromatographic procedure. The relationship between solubilization and cosolvent content is linear up to 10-20 vol % of cosolvent, beyond which conventional logarithmic behavior is observed. The point of departure from linearity is believed to signal the onset of interaction between the extended hydration shells of the cosolvent. For propylene glycol, the volume of this shell is about 500 mL/mol, and the solubility of toluene within the shell is about 1.3 times its solubility in pure water.

  13. Heat stress reduces cerebral blood velocity and markedly impairs orthostatic tolerance in humans

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Zhang, Rong; Crandall, Craig G.

    2008-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is reduced in the heat-stressed human. This study tested the following hypotheses: 1) whole body heat stress reduces cerebral blood velocity (CBV) and increases cerebral vascular resistance (CVR); and 2) reductions in CBV and increases in CVR in response to an orthostatic challenge will be greater while subjects are heat stressed. Fifteen subjects were instrumented for measurements of CBV (transcranial ultrasonography), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate, and internal temperature. Whole body heating increased both internal temperature (36.4 ± 0.1 to 37.3 ± 0.1° C) and heart rate (59 ± 3 to 90 ± 3 beats/min); P < 0.001. Whole body heating also reduced CBV (62 ± 3 to 53 ± 2 cm/s) primarily via an elevation in CVR (1.35 ± 0.06 to 1.63 ± 0.07 mmHg · cm-1 · s); P < 0.001. A subset of subjects (n = 8) were exposed to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP 10, 20, 30, 40 mmHg) in both normothermic and heat-stressed conditions. During normothermia, LBNP of 30 mmHg (highest level of LBNP achieved by the majority of subjects in both thermal conditions) did not significantly alter CBV, CVR, or MAP. During whole body heating, this LBNP decreased MAP (81 ± 2 to 75 ± 3 mmHg), decreased CBV (50 ± 4 to 39 ± 1 cm/s), and increased CVR (1.67 ± 0.17 to 1.92 ± 0.12 mmHg · cm-1 · s); P < 0.05. These data indicate that heat stress decreases CBV, and the reduction in CBV for a given orthostatic challenge is greater during heat stress. These outcomes reduce the reserve to buffer further decreases in cerebral perfusion before presyncope. Increases in CVR during whole body heating, coupled with even greater increases in CVR during orthostasis and heat stress, likely contribute to orthostatic intolerance. PMID:16763078

  14. Cutaneous interstitial nitric oxide concentration does not increase during heat stress in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; MacLean, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of cutaneous nitric oxide (NO) synthase reduces the magnitude of cutaneous vasodilation during whole body heating in humans. However, this observation is insufficient to conclude that NO concentration increases in the skin during a heat stress. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that whole body heating increases cutaneous interstitial NO concentration. This was accomplished by placing 2 microdialysis membranes in the forearm dermal space of 12 subjects. Both membranes were perfused with lactated Ringer solutions at a rate of 2 microl/min. In both normothermia and during whole body heating via a water perfused suit, dialysate from these membranes were obtained and analyzed for NO using the chemiluminescence technique. In six of these subjects, after the heat stress, the membranes were perfused with a 1 M solution of acetylcholine to stimulate NO release. Dialysate from these trials was also assayed to quantify cutaneous interstitial NO concentration. Whole body heating increased skin temperature from 34.6 +/- 0.2 to 38.8 +/- 0.2 degrees C (P < 0.05), which increased sublingual temperature (36.4 +/- 0.1 to 37.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C; P < 0.05), heart rate (63 +/- 5 to 93 +/- 5 beats/min; P < 0.05), and skin blood flow over the membranes (21 +/- 4 to 88 +/- 10 perfusion units; P < 0.05). NO concentration in the dialysate did not increase significantly during of the heat stress (7.6 +/- 0.7 to 8.6 +/- 0.8 microM; P > 0.05). After the heat stress, administration of acetylcholine in the perfusate significantly increased skin blood flow (128 +/- 6 perfusion units) relative to both normothermic and heat stress values and significantly increased NO concentration in the dialysate (15.8 +/- 2.4 microM). These data suggest that whole body heating does not increase cutaneous interstitial NO concentration in forearm skin. Rather, NO may serve in a permissive role in facilitating the effects of an unknown neurotransmitter, leading to cutaneous vasodilation

  15. Cutaneous interstitial nitric oxide concentration does not increase during heat stress in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; MacLean, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of cutaneous nitric oxide (NO) synthase reduces the magnitude of cutaneous vasodilation during whole body heating in humans. However, this observation is insufficient to conclude that NO concentration increases in the skin during a heat stress. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that whole body heating increases cutaneous interstitial NO concentration. This was accomplished by placing 2 microdialysis membranes in the forearm dermal space of 12 subjects. Both membranes were perfused with lactated Ringer solutions at a rate of 2 microl/min. In both normothermia and during whole body heating via a water perfused suit, dialysate from these membranes were obtained and analyzed for NO using the chemiluminescence technique. In six of these subjects, after the heat stress, the membranes were perfused with a 1 M solution of acetylcholine to stimulate NO release. Dialysate from these trials was also assayed to quantify cutaneous interstitial NO concentration. Whole body heating increased skin temperature from 34.6 +/- 0.2 to 38.8 +/- 0.2 degrees C (P < 0.05), which increased sublingual temperature (36.4 +/- 0.1 to 37.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C; P < 0.05), heart rate (63 +/- 5 to 93 +/- 5 beats/min; P < 0.05), and skin blood flow over the membranes (21 +/- 4 to 88 +/- 10 perfusion units; P < 0.05). NO concentration in the dialysate did not increase significantly during of the heat stress (7.6 +/- 0.7 to 8.6 +/- 0.8 microM; P > 0.05). After the heat stress, administration of acetylcholine in the perfusate significantly increased skin blood flow (128 +/- 6 perfusion units) relative to both normothermic and heat stress values and significantly increased NO concentration in the dialysate (15.8 +/- 2.4 microM). These data suggest that whole body heating does not increase cutaneous interstitial NO concentration in forearm skin. Rather, NO may serve in a permissive role in facilitating the effects of an unknown neurotransmitter, leading to cutaneous vasodilation

  16. Bilirubin chemistry, ionization and solubilization by bile salts.

    PubMed

    Ostrow, J D; Celic, L

    1984-01-01

    Bilirubin is a linear tetrapyrrole whose conformation is affected by internal hydrogen bonds formed between the carboxyl side chains and dipyrromethenone rings. Structural variations include: constitutional isomerism of the vinyl or carboxyethyl side chains, geometric isomerism of the methene bridges, tautomerism of the lactam groups, conformational rotations about the central methylene bridge and ionization of one or both carboxyl groups. Aggregation of the dianion into dimers and multimers may occur. The pKa' values of the two carboxyl groups are affected greatly by the environment and may differ widely in micellar solutions like bile. Solubility of bilirubin in water is less than 1 nM at pH = 7 and about 0.1 microM at pH = 8. Nonetheless, it dissolves poorly in most lipid solvents, except for asymmetrical chloroalkanes. Hydrogen bond-breaking solvents, especially dimethyl sulfoxide, are most effective in solubilizing bilirubin. In bile salt solutions, solubility of bilirubin is well above the concentrations of unconjugated bilirubin found in normal human gallbladder bile, and is impaired by lecithin but unaffected by cholesterol. At physiological pH in bile salt solutions, bilirubin is predominantly in its monoanion form that binds readily to the micelles. In such solutions, addition of physiological concentrations of calcium precipitates calcium bilirubinate, leaving residual bilirubin concentrations of up to 15 microM in 50 mM taurocholate or close to the maximum bilirubin concentrations in normal bile. Studies in which disodium bilirubinate is dissolved in bile salt solutions and pH is adjusted to the physiological range reveal that metastable supersaturation with bilirubin may occur and that a mesophase may also form in the presence of lecithin, akin to that seen with cholesterol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Combined facial heating and inhalation of hot air do not alter thermoeffector responses in humans.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Jonathan E; Low, David A; Keller, David M; Kimura, Kenichi; Crandall, Craig G

    2015-09-01

    The influence of thermoreceptors in human facial skin on thermoeffector responses is equivocal; furthermore, the presence of thermoreceptors in the respiratory tract and their involvement in thermal homeostasis has not been elucidated. This study tested the hypothesis that hot air directed on the face and inhaled during whole body passive heat stress elicits an earlier onset and greater sensitivity of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating than that directed on an equal skin surface area away from the face. Six men and two women completed two trials separated by ∼1 wk. Participants were passively heated (water-perfused suit; core temperature increase ∼0.9°C) while hot air was directed on either the face or on the lower leg (counterbalanced). Skin blood flux (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and local sweat rate (capacitance hygrometry) were measured at the chest and one forearm. During hot-air heating, local temperatures of the cheek and leg were 38.4 ± 0.8°C and 38.8 ± 0.6°C, respectively (P = 0.18). Breathing hot air combined with facial heating did not affect mean body temperature onsets (P = 0.97 and 0.27 for arm and chest sites, respectively) or slopes of cutaneous vasodilation (P = 0.49 and 0.43 for arm and chest sites, respectively), or the onsets (P = 0.89 and 0.94 for arm and chest sites, respectively), or slopes of sweating (P = 0.48 and 0.65 for arm and chest sites, respectively). Based on these findings, respiratory tract thermoreceptors, if present in humans, and selective facial skin heating do not modulate thermoeffector responses during passive heat stress.

  18. Plasma hyperosmolality improves tolerance to combined heat stress and central hypovolemia in humans.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Daniel; Romero, Steven A; Ngo, Hai; Poh, Paula Y S; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-03-01

    Heat stress profoundly impairs tolerance to central hypovolemia in humans via a number of mechanisms including heat-induced hypovolemia. However, heat stress also elevates plasma osmolality; the effects of which on tolerance to central hypovolemia remain unknown. This study examined the effect of plasma hyperosmolality on tolerance to central hypovolemia in heat-stressed humans. With the use of a counterbalanced and crossover design, 12 subjects (1 female) received intravenous infusion of either 0.9% iso-osmotic (ISO) or 3.0% hyperosmotic (HYPER) saline. Subjects were subsequently heated until core temperature increased ~1.4°C, after which all subjects underwent progressive lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope. Plasma hyperosmolality improved LBNP tolerance (ISO: 288 ± 193 vs. 382 ± 145 mmHg × min, P = 0.04). However, no differences in mean arterial pressure (P = 0.10), heart rate (P = 0.09), or muscle sympathetic nerve activity (P = 0.60, n = 6) were observed between conditions. When individual data were assessed, LBNP tolerance improved ≥25% in eight subjects but remained unchanged in the remaining four subjects. In subjects who exhibited improved LBNP tolerance, plasma hyperosmolality resulted in elevated mean arterial pressure (ISO: 62 ± 10 vs. 72 ± 9 mmHg, P < 0.01) and a greater increase in heart rate (ISO: +12 ± 24 vs. HYPER: +23 ± 17 beats/min, P = 0.05) before presyncope. No differences in these variables were observed between conditions in subjects that did not improve LBNP tolerance (all P ≥ 0.55). These results suggest that plasma hyperosmolality improves tolerance to central hypovolemia during heat stress in most, but not all, individuals. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Combined facial heating and inhalation of hot air do not alter thermoeffector responses in humans

    PubMed Central

    Wingo, Jonathan E.; Low, David A.; Keller, David M.; Kimura, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    The influence of thermoreceptors in human facial skin on thermoeffector responses is equivocal; furthermore, the presence of thermoreceptors in the respiratory tract and their involvement in thermal homeostasis has not been elucidated. This study tested the hypothesis that hot air directed on the face and inhaled during whole body passive heat stress elicits an earlier onset and greater sensitivity of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating than that directed on an equal skin surface area away from the face. Six men and two women completed two trials separated by ∼1 wk. Participants were passively heated (water-perfused suit; core temperature increase ∼0.9°C) while hot air was directed on either the face or on the lower leg (counterbalanced). Skin blood flux (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and local sweat rate (capacitance hygrometry) were measured at the chest and one forearm. During hot-air heating, local temperatures of the cheek and leg were 38.4 ± 0.8°C and 38.8 ± 0.6°C, respectively (P = 0.18). Breathing hot air combined with facial heating did not affect mean body temperature onsets (P = 0.97 and 0.27 for arm and chest sites, respectively) or slopes of cutaneous vasodilation (P = 0.49 and 0.43 for arm and chest sites, respectively), or the onsets (P = 0.89 and 0.94 for arm and chest sites, respectively), or slopes of sweating (P = 0.48 and 0.65 for arm and chest sites, respectively). Based on these findings, respiratory tract thermoreceptors, if present in humans, and selective facial skin heating do not modulate thermoeffector responses during passive heat stress. PMID:26157054

  20. Volume analysis of heat-induced cracks in human molars: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Sandholzer, Michael A.; Baron, Katharina; Heimel, Patrick; Metscher, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Only a few methods have been published dealing with the visualization of heat-induced cracks inside bones and teeth. Aims: As a novel approach this study used nondestructive X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) for volume analysis of heat-induced cracks to observe the reaction of human molars to various levels of thermal stress. Materials and Methods: Eighteen clinically extracted third molars were rehydrated and burned under controlled temperatures (400, 650, and 800°C) using an electric furnace adjusted with a 25°C increase/min. The subsequent high-resolution scans (voxel-size 17.7 μm) were made with a compact micro-CT scanner (SkyScan 1174). In total, 14 scans were automatically segmented with Definiens XD Developer 1.2 and three-dimensional (3D) models were computed with Visage Imaging Amira 5.2.2. The results of the automated segmentation were analyzed with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and uncorrected post hoc least significant difference (LSD) tests using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 17. A probability level of P < 0.05 was used as an index of statistical significance. Results: A temperature-dependent increase of heat-induced cracks was observed between the three temperature groups (P < 0.05, ANOVA post hoc LSD). In addition, the distributions and shape of the heat-induced changes could be classified using the computed 3D models. Conclusion: The macroscopic heat-induced changes observed in this preliminary study correspond with previous observations of unrestored human teeth, yet the current observations also take into account the entire microscopic 3D expansions of heat-induced cracks within the dental hard tissues. Using the same experimental conditions proposed in the literature, this study confirms previous results, adds new observations, and offers new perspectives in the investigation of forensic evidence. PMID:25125923

  1. A heterogeneous human tissue mimicking phantom for RF heating and MRI thermal monitoring verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yu; Wyatt, Cory; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul; Craciunescu, Oana; MacFall, James; Dewhirst, Mark; Das, Shiva K.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes a heterogeneous phantom that mimics a human thigh with a deep-seated tumor, for the purpose of studying the performance of radiofrequency (RF) heating equipment and non-invasive temperature monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The heterogeneous cylindrical phantom was constructed with an outer fat layer surrounding an inner core of phantom material mimicking muscle, tumor and marrow-filled bone. The component materials were formulated to have dielectric and thermal properties similar to human tissues. The dielectric properties of the tissue mimicking phantom materials were measured with a microwave vector network analyzer and impedance probe over the frequency range of 80-500 MHz and at temperatures of 24, 37 and 45 °C. The specific heat values of the component materials were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter over the temperature range of 15-55 °C. The thermal conductivity value was obtained from fitting the curves obtained from one-dimensional heat transfer measurement. The phantom was used to verify the operation of a cylindrical four-antenna annular phased array extremity applicator (140 MHz) by examining the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermal imaging patterns for various magnitude/phase settings (including settings to focus heating in tumors). For muscle and tumor materials, MRI was also used to measure T1/T2* values (1.5 T) and to obtain the slope of the PRFS phase change versus temperature change curve. The dielectric and thermal properties of the phantom materials were in close agreement to well-accepted published results for human tissues. The phantom was able to successfully demonstrate satisfactory operation of the tested heating equipment. The MRI-measured thermal distributions matched the expected patterns for various magnitude/phase settings of the applicator, allowing the phantom to be used as a quality assurance tool. Importantly, the material formulations for the various tissue types

  2. A heterogeneous human tissue mimicking phantom for RF heating and MRI thermal monitoring verification.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yu; Wyatt, Cory; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul; Craciunescu, Oana; Macfall, James; Dewhirst, Mark; Das, Shiva K

    2012-04-07

    This paper describes a heterogeneous phantom that mimics a human thigh with a deep-seated tumor, for the purpose of studying the performance of radiofrequency (RF) heating equipment and non-invasive temperature monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The heterogeneous cylindrical phantom was constructed with an outer fat layer surrounding an inner core of phantom material mimicking muscle, tumor and marrow-filled bone. The component materials were formulated to have dielectric and thermal properties similar to human tissues. The dielectric properties of the tissue mimicking phantom materials were measured with a microwave vector network analyzer and impedance probe over the frequency range of 80-500 MHz and at temperatures of 24, 37 and 45 °C. The specific heat values of the component materials were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter over the temperature range of 15-55 °C. The thermal conductivity value was obtained from fitting the curves obtained from one-dimensional heat transfer measurement. The phantom was used to verify the operation of a cylindrical four-antenna annular phased array extremity applicator (140 MHz) by examining the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermal imaging patterns for various magnitude/phase settings (including settings to focus heating in tumors). For muscle and tumor materials, MRI was also used to measure T1/T2* values (1.5 T) and to obtain the slope of the PRFS phase change versus temperature change curve. The dielectric and thermal properties of the phantom materials were in close agreement to well-accepted published results for human tissues. The phantom was able to successfully demonstrate satisfactory operation of the tested heating equipment. The MRI-measured thermal distributions matched the expected patterns for various magnitude/phase settings of the applicator, allowing the phantom to be used as a quality assurance tool. Importantly, the material formulations for the various tissue types

  3. Calorimetry Minisensor for the Localised Measurement of Surface Heat Dissipated from the Human Body

    PubMed Central

    Socorro, Fabiola; Rodríguez de Rivera, Pedro Jesús; Rodríguez de Rivera, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a calorimetry sensor that can perform a local measurement of the surface heat dissipated from the human body. The operating principle is based on the law of conductive heat transfer: heat dissipated by the human body passes across a thermopile located between the individual and a thermostat. Body heat power is calculated from the signals measured by the thermopile and the amount of power dissipated across the thermostat in order to maintain a constant temperature. The first prototype we built had a detection area measuring 6 × 6 cm2, while the second prototype, which is described herein, had a 2 × 2 cm2 detection area. This new design offers three advantages over the initial one: (1) greater resolution and three times greater thermal sensitivity; (2) a twice as fast response; and (3) it can take measurements from smaller areas of the body. The sensor has a 5 mW resolution, but the uncertainty is greater, up to 15 mW, due to the measurement and calculation procedure. The order of magnitude of measurements made in healthy subjects ranged from 60 to 300 mW at a thermostat temperature of 28 °C and an ambient room temperature of 21 °C. The values measured by the sensor depend on the ambient temperature and the thermostat’s temperature, while the power dissipated depends on the individual’s metabolism and any physical and/or emotional activity. PMID:27827977

  4. Calorimetry Minisensor for the Localised Measurement of Surface Heat Dissipated from the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Socorro, Fabiola; Rodríguez de Rivera, Pedro Jesús; Rodríguez de Rivera, Manuel

    2016-11-06

    We have developed a calorimetry sensor that can perform a local measurement of the surface heat dissipated from the human body. The operating principle is based on the law of conductive heat transfer: heat dissipated by the human body passes across a thermopile located between the individual and a thermostat. Body heat power is calculated from the signals measured by the thermopile and the amount of power dissipated across the thermostat in order to maintain a constant temperature. The first prototype we built had a detection area measuring 6 × 6 cm², while the second prototype, which is described herein, had a 2 × 2 cm² detection area. This new design offers three advantages over the initial one: (1) greater resolution and three times greater thermal sensitivity; (2) a twice as fast response; and (3) it can take measurements from smaller areas of the body. The sensor has a 5 mW resolution, but the uncertainty is greater, up to 15 mW, due to the measurement and calculation procedure. The order of magnitude of measurements made in healthy subjects ranged from 60 to 300 mW at a thermostat temperature of 28 °C and an ambient room temperature of 21 °C. The values measured by the sensor depend on the ambient temperature and the thermostat's temperature, while the power dissipated depends on the individual's metabolism and any physical and/or emotional activity.

  5. Heat Transfer Behavior across the Dentino-Enamel Junction in the Human Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lin; Dong, Shao-Jie; Kong, Ting-Ting; Wang, Rong; Zou, Rui; Liu, Qi-Da

    2016-01-01

    During eating, the teeth usually endure the sharply temperature changes because of different foods. It is of importance to investigate the heat transfer and heat dissipation behavior of the dentino–enamel junction (DEJ) of human tooth since dentine and enamel have different thermophysical properties. The spatial and temporal temperature distributions on the enamel, dentine, and pulpal chamber of both the human tooth and its discontinuous boundaries, were measured using infrared thermography using a stepped temperature increase on the outer boundary of enamel crowns. The thermal diffusivities for enamel and dentine were deduced from the time dependent temperature change at the enamel and dentine layers. The thermal conductivities for enamel and dentine were calculated to be 0.81 Wm-1K-1 and 0.48 Wm-1K-1 respectively. The observed temperature discontinuities across the interfaces between enamel, dentine and pulp-chamber layers were due to the difference of thermal conductivities at interfaces rather than to the phase transformation. The temperature gradient distributes continuously across the enamel and dentine layers and their junction below a temperature of 42°C, whilst a negative thermal resistance is observed at interfaces above 42°C. These results suggest that the microstructure of the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) junction play an important role in tooth heat transfer and protects the pulp from heat damage. PMID:27662186

  6. Effect of a patent foramen ovale in humans on thermal responses to passive cooling and heating.

    PubMed

    Davis, James T; Hay, Madeline W; Hardin, Alyssa M; White, Matthew D; Lovering, Andrew T

    2017-08-17

    Humans with a patent foramen ovale (PFO) have a higher esophageal temperature (Tesoph) than humans without a PFO (PFO-) . Thus, the presence of a PFO might also be associated with differences in thermal responsiveness to passive cooling and heating, such as shivering and hyperpnea, respectively. The purpose of this study was to determine if thermal responses to passive cooling and heating are different between PFO- subjects and subjects with a PFO (PFO+). We hypothesized that compared to PFO- subjects, PFO+ subjects would cool down more rapidly and heat up slower, and PFO+ subjects that experienced thermal hyperpnea would have a blunted increase in ventilation. Twenty-seven males (13 PFO+) completed two trials separated by >48 hours: 1) 60 minutes of cold water immersion (19.5 ± 0.9°C), and 2) 30 minutes of hot water immersion (40.5 ± 0.2°C). PFO+ subjects had a greater Tesoph prior to and during cold water and hot water immersion (p < .05). However, the rate of temperature change was similar between groups for each condition. Within a subset of 18 subjects (8 PFO+) that experienced thermal hyperpnea, PFO+ subjects experienced thermal hyperpnea at a higher absolute Tesoph but with a blunted magnitude compared to PFO- subjects. These data suggest that PFO+ subjects have a higher Tesoph at rest, and have blunted thermal hyperpnea during passive heating. Copyright © 2016, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  7. Periodic heat shock accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in pellet culture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Li, Chenghai; Wang, Sihong

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of diseases that seriously affect elderly people's quality of life. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) offer a potential promise for the joint repair in OA patients. However, chondrogenic differentiation from hMSCs in vitro takes a long time (∼ 6 weeks) and differentiated cells are still not as functionally mature as primary isolated chondrocytes, though chemical stimulations and mechanical loading have been intensively studied to enhance the hMSC differentiation. On the other hand, thermal stimulations of hMSC chondrogenesis have not been well explored. In this study, the direct effects of mild heat shock (HS) on the differentiation of hMSCs into chondrocytes in 3D pellet culture were investigated. Periodic HS at 41 °C for 1 hr significantly increased sulfated glycosaminoglycan in 3D pellet culture at Day 10 of chondrogenesis. Immunohistochemical and Western Blot analyses revealed an increased expression of collagen type II and aggrecan in heat-shocked pellets than non heat-shocked pellets on Day 17 of chondrogenesis. In addition, HS also upregulated the expression of collagen type I and X as well as heat shock protein 70 on Day 17 and 24 of differentiation. These results demonstrate that HS accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs and induced an early maturation of chondrocytes differentiated from hMSCs. The results of this study will guide the design of future protocols using thermal treatments to facilitate cartilage regeneration with human mesenchymal stem cells.

  8. Inadequate heat release from the human brain during prolonged exercise with hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Nybo, Lars; Secher, Niels H; Nielsen, Bodil

    2002-01-01

    Brain temperature appears to be an important factor affecting motor activity, but it is not known to what extent brain temperature increases during prolonged exercise in humans. Cerebral heat exchange was therefore evaluated in seven males during exercise with and without hyperthermia. Middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean) was continuously monitored while global cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral energy turnover were determined at the end of the two exercise trials in three subjects. The arterial to venous temperature difference across the brain (v-aDtemp) was determined via thermocouples placed in the internal jugular vein and in the aorta. The jugular venous blood temperature was always higher than that of the arterial blood, demonstrating that heat was released via the CBF during the normothermic as well as the hyperthermic exercise condition. However, heat removal via the jugular venous blood was 30 ± 6 % lower during hyperthermia compared to the control trial. The reduced heat removal from the brain was mainly a result of a 20 ± 6 % lower CBF (22 ± 9 % reduction in MCA Vmean), because the v-aDtemp was not significantly different in the hyperthermic (0.20 ± 0.05 °C) compared to the control trial (0.22 ± 0.05 °C). During hyperthermia, the impaired heat removal via the blood was combined with a 7 ± 2 % higher heat production in the brain and heat was consequently stored in the brain at a rate of 0.20 ± 0.06 J g−1 min−1. The present results indicate that the average brain temperature is at least 0.2 °C higher than that of the body core during exercise with or without hyperthermia. PMID:12456844

  9. Local heating of human skin by millimeter waves: a kinetics study.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, S I; Ziskin, M C

    2003-12-01

    Heating rates of human skin exposed locally to 42.25 GHz mm waves, coming from a waveguide (WG) opening or a YAV device designed for therapeutic application, were studied in vivo using infrared (IR) thermography. For both radiators, the power density distribution was described by a circularly symmetrical Gaussian type function on the exposed skin surface. Insertion of a small thermocouple (d = 0.1 mm) in the exposed area did not produce any significant artifact, either in the power density distribution or kinetics measurement, providing it was perpendicular to the E vector. The heating kinetics in the skin exposed with either the WG opening or the YAV device were well fitted to solutions of the 2-D bio-heat transfer equation for homogeneous tissue. Changes in irradiating beam size (1-8 mm) had no detectable effect on the initial (0.3-3.0 s) phase of the heating kinetics. However, the amplitude of the kinetics decreased substantially with decreasing the beam size. As the temperature rise in the time interval necessary for reliable measurement of the initial temperature rise rate was very small, an accurate experimental determination of specific absorption rate (SAR) becomes practically impossible at the low intensities normally used in our experiments. The correct SAR values may be found from fitting of the model to the heating kinetics. Bioelectromagnetics 24:571-581, 2003.

  10. Responses of plasma human atrial natriuretic factor to high intensity submaximal exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, W J; Armstrong, L E; Hubbard, R W; Marchitelli, L J; Leva, N; Rock, P B; Dziados, J E

    1988-01-01

    No data exists regarding responses of human atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) to exercise in the heat. The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of plasma ANF to high intensity submaximal (71% +/- 0.9 VO2max) exercise in the heat over an eight day acclimation period. Fourteen healthy males volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects performed intermittent exercises on a treadmill (0% grade) during 50 min of each 100 min trial in an environmental chamber maintained at 41.2 +/- 0.5 degrees C, 39.0 +/- 1.7% relative humidity. Blood was obtained from an antecubital vein after standing 20 min in the heat prior to exercise, and immediately after exercise. Measures were compared on days 1, 4 and 8. ANF did not change pre- to post-exercise nor did it change over the eight day heat acclimation period despite other heat acclimation adaptations. Conversely, plasma aldosterone (ALDO), renin activity (PRA) and cortisol (COR) all increased (p less than 0.05) pre- to post-exercise on each day but again no changes were observed over the eight day period. These data support that ANF may not increase when ALDO and PRA increases are observed.

  11. Cholate-solubilized erythrocyte glucose transporters exist as a mixture of homodimers and homotetramers.

    PubMed

    Hebert, D N; Carruthers, A

    1991-05-14

    The molecular size of purified, human erythrocyte glucose transport protein (GLUT1) solubilized in cholic acid was determined by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. GLUT1 purified in the presence of dithiothreitol (GLUT1 + DTT) is resolved as a complex of average Stokes' radius 5.74 nm by SEC. This complex displays D-glucose-inhibitable cytochalasin B binding and, upon reconstitution into proteoliposomes, catalyzes cytochalasin B inhibitable D-glucose transport. GLUT1 purified in the absence of dithiothreitol (GLUT1-DTT) is resolved by SEC as at least two particles of average Stokes' radii 5.74 (minor component) and 7.48 nm (major component). Solubilization of GLUT1-DTT in the presence of dithiothreitol reduces the amount of 7.48-nm complex and increases the amount of 5.74-nm complex resolved by SEC. GLUT1-DTT displays D-glucose-inhibitable cytochalasin B binding and, upon reconstitution into proteoliposomes, catalyzes cytochalasin B inhibitable D-glucose transport. Sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation of GLUT1 + DTT in cholate resolves GLUT1 into two components of 4.8 and 7.6 S. The 4.8S complex is the major component of GLUT1 + DTT. The reverse profile is observed upon sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation of GLUT1-DTT. SEC of human erythrocyte membrane proteins resolves GLUT1 as a major broad peak of average Stokes' radius 7.48 nm and a minor component of 5.74 nm. Both components are characterized by D-glucose-inhibitable cytochalasin B binding. Purified GLUT1 is associated with approximately 26 tightly bound lipid molecules per monomer of transport protein. These data suggest that purified GLUT1 exists as a mixture of homodimers and homotetramers in cholate-lipid micelles and that the presence of reductant during solubilization favors dimer formation.

  12. [Inverse problem identification of parameters in heat transfer processes of human body].

    PubMed

    Yu, K; Ji, Z; Xie, T; Li, X

    1999-06-01

    In order that the distortion of the relative skin temperatures which is accompanied with the physiological destruction of an organ in the abdominal cavity and its physical-physiological mechanism may be investigated, we adopt in this paper the mathematical model for heat transfer problems in human layered tissues and a perfect parametric identification approach-inverse problem method. By utilizing the extremum method and integrating with the experimental data of an artificial thermo-focus, this difficult biophysical problem is solved.

  13. Food volatile compounds facilitating HII mesophase formation: solubilization and stability.

    PubMed

    Amar-Zrihen, Natali; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2011-05-25

    Four lipophilic food volatile molecules of different chemical characteristics, phenylacetaldehyde, 2,6-dimethyl-5-heptenal, linalool, and trans-4-decenal, were solubilized into binary mixtures of monoolein/water, facilitating the formation of reverse hexagonal (H(II)) mesophases at room temperature without the need of solvents or triglycerides. Some of the flavor compounds are important building blocks of the hexagonal mesostructure, preventing phase transition with aging. The solubilization loads were relatively high: 12.6, 10.0, 12.6, and 10.0 wt % for phenylacetaldehyde, 2,6-dimethyl-5-heptenal, linalool, and trans-4-decenal, respectively. Phenylacetaldehyde formed mixtures of lamellar and cubic phases. Linalool, 2,6-dimethyl-5-heptenal, and trans-4-decenal induced structural shift from lamellar directly to H(II) mesophase, remaining stable at room temperature. Lattice parameters were found to increase with water content and to decrease with temperature and/or food volatile content. trans-4-Decenal produces more stable H(II) mesophase compared to linalool-loaded mesophase. At 40-60 °C, depending on the chemical structure and on the solubilization location of the food volatile compounds, the H(II) mesophase transforms to isotropic micellar phase, facilitating the release of the food volatile compounds. Molecular interactions suggest the existence of two consecutive stages in the solubilization process.

  14. Solubilized cytochrome c oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans is a monomer.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, B; Grabo, M; Gregor, I; Lustig, A; Regenass, M; Rosenbusch, J P

    1982-05-25

    Cytochrome c oxidase purified from the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans was analyzed by analytical ultracentrifugation. In the detergent octyltetra/pentaoxyethylene (C8E45), the isolated enzyme exhibits a molecular weight of 79,000 to 84,000. The detergent-solubilized enzyme is thus a monomer which contains one copy of each of the two subunits.

  15. Design of wearable hybrid generator for harvesting heat energy from human body depending on physiological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Kyongtae; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    We developed a prototype of a wearable hybrid generator (WHG) that is used for harvesting the heat energy of the human body. This WHG is constructed by integrating a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in a circular mesh polyester knit fabric, circular-shaped pyroelectric generator (PEG), and quick sweat-pickup/dry-fabric. The fabric packaging enables the TEG part of the WHG to generate energy steadily while maintaining a temperature difference in extreme temperature environments. Moreover, when the body sweats, the evaporation heat of the sweat leads to thermal fluctuations in the WHG. This phenomenon further leads to an increase in the output power of the WHG. These characteristics of the WHG make it possible to produce electrical energy steadily without reduction in the conversion efficiency, as both TEG and PEG use the same energy source of the human skin and the ambient temperature. Under a temperature difference of ˜6.5 °C and temperature change rate of ˜0.62 °C s-1, the output power and output power density of the WHG, respectively, are ˜4.5 nW and ˜1.5 μW m-2. Our hybrid approach will provide a framework to enhance the output power of the wearable generators that harvest heat energy from human body in various environments.

  16. G-protein coupled receptor solubilization and purification for biophysical analysis and functional studies, in the total absence of detergent

    PubMed Central

    Jamshad, Mohammed; Charlton, Jack; Lin, Yu-Pin; Routledge, Sarah J.; Bawa, Zharain; Knowles, Timothy J.; Overduin, Michael; Dekker, Niek; Dafforn, Tim R.; Bill, Roslyn M.; Poyner, David R.; Wheatley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest class of membrane proteins and are a major drug target. A serious obstacle to studying GPCR structure/function characteristics is the requirement to extract the receptors from their native environment in the plasma membrane, coupled with the inherent instability of GPCRs in the detergents required for their solubilization. In the present study, we report the first solubilization and purification of a functional GPCR [human adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)], in the total absence of detergent at any stage, by exploiting spontaneous encapsulation by styrene maleic acid (SMA) co-polymer direct from the membrane into a nanoscale SMA lipid particle (SMALP). Furthermore, the A2AR–SMALP, generated from yeast (Pichia pastoris) or mammalian cells, exhibited increased thermostability (∼5°C) compared with detergent [DDM (n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside)]-solubilized A2AR controls. The A2AR–SMALP was also stable when stored for prolonged periods at 4°C and was resistant to multiple freeze-thaw cycles, in marked contrast with the detergent-solubilized receptor. These properties establish the potential for using GPCR–SMALP in receptor-based drug discovery assays. Moreover, in contrast with nanodiscs stabilized by scaffold proteins, the non-proteinaceous nature of the SMA polymer allowed unobscured biophysical characterization of the embedded receptor. Consequently, CD spectroscopy was used to relate changes in secondary structure to loss of ligand binding ([3H]ZM241385) capability. SMALP-solubilization of GPCRs, retaining the annular lipid environment, will enable a wide range of therapeutic targets to be prepared in native-like state to aid drug discovery and understanding of GPCR molecular mechanisms. PMID:25720391

  17. Human thermal sensation and comfort in a non-uniform environment with personalized heating.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qihong; Wang, Runhuai; Li, Yuguo; Miao, Yufeng; Zhao, Jinping

    2017-02-01

    Thermal comfort in traditionally uniform environment is apparent and can be improved by increasing energy expenses. To save energy, non-uniform environment implemented by personalized conditioning system attracts considerable attention, but human response in such environment is unclear. To investigate regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort in a cool environment with personalized heating. In total 36 subjects (17 males and 19 females) including children, adults and the elderly, were involved in our experiment. Each subject was first asked to sit on a seat in an 18°C chamber (uniform environment) for 40min and then sit on a heating seat in a 16°C chamber (non-uniform environment) for another 40min after 10min break. Subjects' regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort were surveyed by questionnaire and their skin temperatures were measured by wireless sensors. We statistically analyzed subjects' thermal sensation and comfort and their skin temperatures in different age and gender groups and compared them between the uniform and non-uniform environments. Overall thermal sensation and comfort votes were respectively neutral and just comfortable in 16°C chamber with personalized heating, which were significantly higher than those in 18°C chamber without heating (p<0.01). The effect of personalized heating on improving thermal sensation and comfort was consistent in subjects of different age and gender. However, adults and the females were more sensitive to the effect of personalized heating and felt cooler and less comfort than children/elderly and the males respectively. Variations of the regional thermal sensation/comfort across human body were consistent with those of skin temperature. Personalized heating significantly improved human thermal sensation and comfort in non-uniform cooler environment, probably due to the fact that it increased skin temperature. However, the link between thermal sensation/comfort and variations of skin

  18. Restitution of infectivity to spikeless vesicular stomatitis virus by solubilized viral components.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D H; Repik, P; Obijeski, J F; Moore, N F; Wagner, R R

    1975-07-01

    Noninfectious spikeless particles have been obtained from vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, Indiana serotype) by bromelain or Pronase treatment. They lack the viral glycoprotein (G) but contain all the other viral components (RNA, lipid, and other structural proteins). Triton-solubilized VSV-Indiana glycoprotein preparations, containing the viral G protein as well as lipids (including phospholipids), have been extracted from whole virus preparations, freed from the majority of the detergent, and used to restore infectivity to spikeless VSV. The infectivity of such particles has been found to be enhanced by poly-L-ornithine but inhibited by Trition or homologous antiserum pretreatment. Heat-denatured glycoprotein preparations were not effective in restoring the infectivity to spikeless VSV. Heterologous glycoprotein preparations from the serologically distinct VSV-New Jersey serotype were equally capable of making infectious entities with VSV-Indiana spikeless particles, and the infectivity of these structures was inhibited by VSV-New Jersey antiserum but not by VSV-Indiana antiserum. Purified, detergent-free glycoprotein selectively solubilized from VSV-Indiana by the dialyzable detergent, octylglucoside, also restored infectivity of spikeless virions of VSV-Indiana and VSV-New Jersey.

  19. Simultaneous pasteurization and homogenization of human milk by combining heat and ultrasound: effect on milk quality.

    PubMed

    Czank, Charles; Simmer, Karen; Hartmann, Peter E

    2010-05-01

    The combination of ultrasound and heat (thermoultrasound) is an emerging food preservation technique that retains higher quantities of bioactive components compared with current thermal pasteurization practice, but has not yet been assessed for pasteurizing human milk. Artificially contaminated human milk samples were treated with ultrasound (20 kHz, 150 watts) with and without heating. The retention of four human milk proteins was quantified by biochemical assay and laser scattering particle sizing was used to determine the extent of homogenization. While ultrasonic treatment was effective at inactivating Escherichia coli (D4 degrees C=5.94 min), Staphylococcus epidermidis exhibited resistance (D4 degrees C=16.01 min). Thermoultrasonic treatment was considerably more effective (Esch. coli D45 degrees C=1.74 min, D50 degrees C=0.89 min; Staph. epidermidis D45 degrees C=2.08 min, D50 degrees C=0.94 minutes) with a predicted retention (2.8 min treatment, 50 degrees C) of secretory IgA lysozyme, lactoferrin and bile salt stimulated lipase of 91, 80, 77, and 45%, respectively. Homogenization of the milk samples occurred after 5 min and 2 min of ultrasonic and thermoultrasonic treatment, respectively. Thermoultrasonic treatment is an effective method for pasteurizing donor human milk and retaining a greater proportion of bioactive components compared with current practices. However, further studies are required to assess the practicality of applying this technique routinely to donor human milk.

  20. Effect of human skin grafts on whole-body heat loss during exercise heat stress: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ganio, Matthew S; Gagnon, Daniel; Stapleton, Jill; Crandall, Craig G; Kenny, Glen P

    2013-01-01

    When exposed to heat stress, increases in cutaneous blood flow and sweating in well-healed grafted skin are severely attenuated, which could impair whole-body heat loss if skin grafts cover a large portion of total body surface area (TBSA). It is unknown to what extent whole-body heat loss is impaired when skin grafts cover a significant (eg, >50%) proportion of TBSA. The authors examined whole-body heat exchange during and after 60 min of cycling exercise in the heat (35°C; 25% relative humidity), at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (~400 W) in a woman (age, 36 years; mass, 78.2 kg) with well-healed (17+ years) skin grafts covering 75% of TBSA. Her responses were compared with two noninjured control subjects. Whole-body evaporative and dry heat exchange were measured by direct calorimetry. While exercising in the same ambient conditions and at the same rate of heat production, relative evaporative heat loss of nongrafted skin in the grafted subject (ie, evaporative heat loss per m) was nearly twice that of the control subjects. However, total rate of evaporative heat loss reached only 59% of the amount required for heat balance in the skin-grafted subject compared with 92 ± 3% in controls. Thus, the increase in core temperature was 2-fold greater for the grafted (1.22°C) vs control (0.61 ± 0.19°C) individuals. This case study demonstrates that a large area of grafted skin greatly diminishes maximum evaporative heat loss during exercise in the heat, making a compensable environment for control subjects uncompensable for skin-grafted individuals.

  1. Zinc solubilizing Bacillus spp. potential candidates for biofortification in maize.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Muhammad Zahid; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Jamil, Moazzam; Hussain, Tanveer

    2017-09-01

    Bioaugmentation of Zn solubilizing rhizobacteria could be a sustainable intervention to increase bioavailability of Zn in soil which can be helpful in mitigation of yield loss and malnutrition of zinc. In present study, a number of pure rhizobacterial colonies were isolated from maize rhizosphere and screened for their ability to solubilize zinc oxide. These isolates were screened on the basis of zinc and phosphate solubilization, IAA production, protease production, catalase activity and starch hydrolysis. All the selected isolates were also positive for oxidase activity (except ZM22), HCN production (except ZM27) and utilization of citrate. More than 70% of isolates produces ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, exopolysaccharides and cellulase. More than half of isolates also showed potential for urease activity and production of lipase. The ZM31 and S10 were the only isolates which showed the chitinase activity. All these isolates were evaluated in a jar trial for their ability to promote growth of maize under axenic conditions. Results revealed that inoculation of selected zinc solubilizing rhizobacterial isolates improved the growth of maize. In comparison, isolates ZM20, ZM31, ZM63 and S10 were best compared to other tested isolates in stimulating the growth attributes of maize like shoot length, root length, plant fresh and dry biomass. These strains were identified as Bacillus sp. (ZM20), Bacillus aryabhattai (ZM31 and S10) and Bacillus subtilis (ZM63) through 16S rRNA sequencing. This study indicated that inoculation of Zn solubilizing strains have potential to promote growth and can be the potential bio-inoculants for biofortification of maize to overcome the problems of malnutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Solubilization of simvastatin and phytosterols in a dilutable microemulsion system.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Sarah; Wachtel, Ellen J; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2013-07-01

    The usual treatment of hypercholesterolemia includes a class of drugs known as statins (simvastatin among them), which inhibit the production of cholesterol. Another way of reducing cholesterol levels is with the use of phytosterols, which reduce the transport of exogenic cholesterol from the intestine into the blood stream. The two treatments can be combined, achieving an additive effect. However, both simvastatin and phytosterols are practically insoluble in water, and therefore their absorption and activity are low. Nanosized self-assembled structured liquid systems are modified microemulsions that present an alternative pathway for improving the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. The goal of this study was to solubilize the maximal quantity of both simvastatin and phytosterols in a single, fully dilutable microemulsion system. We constructed a water-dilutable liquid drug delivery system that includes sucrose monolaurate, propylene glycol, and oleyl lactate. This system exhibits high solubilization capacity for both simvastatin (7.0 wt%) and phytosterols (3.5 wt%) when each is solubilized separately in a water-free concentrate. When simvastatin and phytosterols were solubilized together at a wt ratio of 2.5:1, maximum solubilization was obtained with 4.7 wt% simvastatin and 1.9 wt% phytosterols. Structural and analytical methods were applied including rheology, DSC, SD-NMR, SAXS, and cryo-TEM. The water-free "concentrate" consisted of direct micelles for which propylene glycol served as the hydrophilic phase. Upon water dilution, the direct micelles appear to form "lipophilic compounds dispersed in hydrophilic continuous phase". The solubilizates are located in the droplet core and/or at the interface.

  3. Unified concept of solubilization in water by hydrotropes and cosolvents.

    PubMed

    Bauduin, P; Renoncourt, A; Kopf, A; Touraud, D; Kunz, W

    2005-07-19

    In the present work hydrophobic dyes, i.e. disperse red 13 (DR-13; (2-[4-(2-chloro-4-nitrophenylazo)-N-ethylphenylamino]ethanol) and Jaune au gras W1201 (1H-indene-1,3(2H)-dione,2-(2-quinolinyl)), are solubilized in water with the help of different additives: acetone and 1-propanol as typical cosolvents, sodium xylene sulfonate (SXS) as a representative of a classical hydrotrope, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a typical surfactant, and finally some "solvosurfactants" [ propylene glycol monoalkyl ether derivatives (CiPOj: i = 1, j = 1 and 3; i = 3, j = 1 and 2; i = 4 and tertio-butyl, j = 1) and 1-propoxy-2-ethanol (C3EO1)]. These solvosurfactants are short amphiphiles that do not form well-defined structures in water such as micelles. For all additives an exponential increase in the solubilizations of the two studied hydrophobic dyes was observed when their concentrations in water were increased. Except for the SDS solution, no difference in the overall shapes of the solubilization curves (dye solubility against additive concentration) was found. All the studied molecules were classified according to their hydrotropic efficiencies, i.e., their abilities to solubilize a hydrophobic, sparingly soluble compound in water. The volume of the hydrophobic parts of the studied additives, roughly evaluated by simple calculations, was found to influence strongly the hydrotropic efficiency; i.e. the larger the hydrophobic part of the additive, the better the hydrotropic efficiency. By contrast, the hydrophilic part carrying a charge or not is of minor importance. Taking the hydrophobic part of the molecules as the key parameter, the water solubilization efficiency of cosolvents, hydrotropes, and solvosurfactants can be described in a coherent way.

  4. Convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients for individual human body segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Dear, R. J.; Arens, Edward; Hui, Zhang; Oguro, Masayuki

    Human thermal physiological and comfort models will soon be able to simulate both transient and spatial inhomogeneities in the thermal environment. With this increasing detail comes the need for anatomically specific convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients for the human body. The present study used an articulated thermal manikin with 16 body segments (head, chest, back, upper arms, forearms, hands, pelvis, upper legs, lower legs, feet) to generate radiative heat transfer coefficients as well as natural- and forced-mode convective coefficients. The tests were conducted across a range of wind speeds from still air to 5.0 m/s, representing atmospheric conditions typical of both indoors and outdoors. Both standing and seated postures were investigated, as were eight different wind azimuth angles. The radiative heat transfer coefficient measured for the whole-body was 4.5 W/m2 per K for both the seated and standing cases, closely matching the generally accepted whole-body value of 4.7 W/m2 per K. Similarly, the whole-body natural convection coefficient for the manikin fell within the mid-range of previously published values at 3.4 and 3.3 W/m2 per K when standing and seated respectively. In the forced convective regime, heat transfer coefficients were higher for hands, feet and peripheral limbs compared to the central torso region. Wind direction had little effect on convective heat transfers from individual body segments. A general-purpose forced convection equation suitable for application to both seated and standing postures indoors was hc=10.3v0.6 for the whole-body. Similar equations were generated for individual body segments in both seated and standing postures.

  5. Application of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and organic acids on phosphate solubilization from phosphate rock in aerobic rice.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Razi, Mohd Ismail

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg(-1)), plant P uptake (0.78 P pot(-1)), and plant biomass (33.26 mg). Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g(-1)) compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH.

  6. Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice

    PubMed Central

    Jusop, Shamshuddin; Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Razi, Mohd Ismail

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg−1), plant P uptake (0.78 P pot−1), and plant biomass (33.26 mg). Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g−1) compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH. PMID:24288473

  7. Heat and water rate transfer processes in the human respiratory tract at various altitudes.

    PubMed

    Kandjov, I M

    2001-02-01

    The process of the respiratory air conditioning as a process of heat and mass exchange at the interface inspired air-airways surface was studied. Using a model of airways (Olson et al., 1970) where the segments of the respiratory tract are like cylinders with a fixed length and diameter, the corresponding heat transfer equations, in the paper are founded basic rate exchange parameters-convective heat transfer coefficient h(c)(W m(-2) degrees C(-1)) and evaporative heat transfer coefficient h(e)(W m(-2)hPa(-1)). The rate transfer parameters assumed as sources with known heat power are connected to airflow rate in different airways segments. Relationships expressing warming rate of inspired air due to convection, warming rate of inspired air due to evaporation, water diffused in the inspired air from the airways wall, i.e. a system of air conditioning parameters, was composed. The altitude dynamics of the relations is studied. Every rate conditioning parameter is an increasing function of altitude. The process of diffusion in the peripheral bronchial generations as a basic transfer process is analysed. The following phenomenon is in effect: the diffusion coefficient increases with altitude and causes a compensation of simultaneous decreasing of O(2)and CO(2)densities in atmospheric air. Due to this compensation, the diffusion in the peripheral generations with altitude is approximately constant. The elements of the human anatomy optimality as well as the established dynamics are discussed and assumed. The square form of the airways after the trachea expressed in terms of transfer supposes (in view of maximum contact surface), that a maximum heat and water exchange is achieved, i.e. high degree of air condition at fixed environmental parameters and respiration regime.

  8. Nicotine increases initial blood flow responses to local heating of human non-glabrous skin.

    PubMed

    Warner, David O; Joyner, Michael J; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2004-09-15

    Nicotine affects the regulation of skin blood flow (SkBF), but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to nicotine inhibits both the initial neurally mediated component and the later sustained component of SkBF responses to local heating of non-glabrous skin in humans. SkBF (measured by laser-Doppler) responses to local heating of forearm skin from 32 to 42 degrees C were measured in 11 chronic smokers. Heating occurred at one site over 15 min (RAMP) and over 90 s (STEP) at another site, and was maintained for an additional 30 min. STEP heating was also applied to a site pretreated with bretylium via iontophoresis to inhibit noradrenergic neurotransmission. Responses were measured before and after acute administration of nicotine via cigarettes or nasal spray in two experimental sessions. Nicotine decreased resting skin blood flow (P < 0.05); this response was inhibited by bretylium. During RAMP, nicotine increased the initial SkBF at 42 degrees C (by approximately 12%, P < 0.05). For STEP, nicotine increased the initial peak response (by approximately 25%, P < 0.05), and decreased the sustained plateau value (by approximately 10%, P < 0.05). In skin pretreated with bretylium, the increase caused by nicotine in the initial peak value persisted, but the plateau value was not different from pre-nicotine. These data suggest that in abstinent cigarette smokers, nicotine augments initial responses to both gradual and rapid non-painful heating of non-glabrous skin by sensitizing the sensory nerves that mediate the axon reflex associated with rapid vasodilatation. In contrast, nicotine decreases SkBF responses to prolonged heating by activating noradrenergic nerves.

  9. [Operative evaluation of the components of heat exchange and the indicators of the heat comfort levels in humans].

    PubMed

    Malykhin, V M; Vasil'ev, A A; Pisanko, V L

    1991-01-01

    The article contains description of a microcomputer programme for express detection of all the constituent components of heat exchange and the generalized index for man's heat comfort levels. The proposed technique was intended for assessments of working zones related to industrial sites and technological equipment, and based on P. Fanger's methodology used in the ICO-7730 international standard. The technique included a series of the mathematical correlations in man's heat exchange indices and the integral characteristics of heat comfort, in combination with the overall parameters of the microclimate.

  10. Effect of salt on survival and P-solubilization potential of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms from salt affected soils.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Ramakrishnan; Yandigeri, Mahesh S; Kashyap, Sudhanshu; Alagawadi, Ajjanna R

    2012-10-01

    A total of 23 phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and 35 phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF) were isolated from 19 samples of salt affected soils. The ability of 12 selected PSB and PSF to grow and solubilize tricalcium phosphate in the presence of different concentrations of NaCl was examined. Among 12 PSB, Aerococcus sp. strain PSBCRG1-1 recorded the highest (12.15) log viable cell count at 0.4 M NaCl concentration after 7 days after incubation (DAI) and the lowest log cell count (1.39) was recorded by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PSBI3-1 at 2.0 M NaCl concentration after 24 h of incubation. Highest mycelial dry weight irrespective of NaCl concentrations was recorded by the Aspergillus terreus strain PSFCRG2-1 (0.567 g). The percent P i release, in general, was found to increase with increase in NaCl concentration up to 0.8 M for bacterial solubilization and declined thereafter. At 15 DAI, strain Aerococcus sp. strain PSBCRG1-1 irrespective of NaCl concentrations showed the maximum P-solubilization (12.12%) which was significantly superior over all other isolates. The amount of P i released in general among PSF was found to decrease with increase in NaCl concentration at all the incubation periods. Aspergillus sp. strain PSFNRH-2 (20.81%) recorded the maximum P i release irrespective of the NaCl concentrations and was significantly superior over all other PSF at 7 DAI.

  11. Effect of salt on survival and P-solubilization potential of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms from salt affected soils

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ramakrishnan; Yandigeri, Mahesh S.; Kashyap, Sudhanshu; Alagawadi, Ajjanna R.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 23 phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and 35 phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF) were isolated from 19 samples of salt affected soils. The ability of 12 selected PSB and PSF to grow and solubilize tricalcium phosphate in the presence of different concentrations of NaCl was examined. Among 12 PSB, Aerococcus sp. strain PSBCRG1-1 recorded the highest (12.15) log viable cell count at 0.4 M NaCl concentration after 7 days after incubation (DAI) and the lowest log cell count (1.39) was recorded by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PSBI3-1 at 2.0 M NaCl concentration after 24 h of incubation. Highest mycelial dry weight irrespective of NaCl concentrations was recorded by the Aspergillus terreus strain PSFCRG2-1 (0.567 g). The percent Pi release, in general, was found to increase with increase in NaCl concentration up to 0.8 M for bacterial solubilization and declined thereafter. At 15 DAI, strain Aerococcus sp. strain PSBCRG1-1 irrespective of NaCl concentrations showed the maximum P-solubilization (12.12%) which was significantly superior over all other isolates. The amount of Pi released in general among PSF was found to decrease with increase in NaCl concentration at all the incubation periods. Aspergillus sp. strain PSFNRH-2 (20.81%) recorded the maximum Pi release irrespective of the NaCl concentrations and was significantly superior over all other PSF at 7 DAI. PMID:24936136

  12. Human immune response directed against Plasmodium falciparum heat shock-related proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N; Zhao, Y; Graves, P; Perez Folgar, J; Maloy, L; Zheng, H

    1990-01-01

    Heat shock-related stress proteins present in all eucaryotes and procaryotes have been shown to be immune targets in a broad range of infections. We have analyzed sera from people exposed primarily to Plasmodium falciparum for specific antibodies against two heat shock-related proteins (proteins similar to the heat shock protein with a molecular weight of 75,000 [Pfhsp] and a glucose-regulated protein with a molecular weight of 72,000 [Pfgrp]). In an immunoprecipitation analysis with metabolically labeled parasites and synthetic peptides in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, specific antibodies against Pfhsp and Pfgrp were detected in the sera of these individuals. Sera from people exposed to a different human malarial parasite, Plasmodium vivax, did not react with the peptides in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Southern blot analysis with DNA isolated from P. falciparum from different geographical locations showed a conservation of genes for these stress proteins; thus, they are likely to be immune targets in various endemic areas. Lymphocytes from two tested immune donors responded in proliferation assays to purified Pfhsp and Pfgrp and purified recombinant proteins. However, a similar response was also seen in lymphocytes from nonimmune individuals and has raised questions pertaining to a generalized responsiveness of lymphocytes to some common determinants present in heat shock-related proteins in various pathogens. Images PMID:1691147

  13. Beneficial effect of Oligonol supplementation on sweating response under heat stress in humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Beom; Shin, Young Oh

    2014-10-01

    Oligonol is a low-molecular weight polyphenol that possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, nothing is known regarding the impact of Oligonol on sudomotor activity. This study investigated the effects of Oligonol supplementation on sudomotor activity during heat load in humans. Initially, we conducted a placebo-controlled, cross-over trial where participants took a daily dose of Oligonol 200 mg or placebo for one week. After a 2 week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. As a heat load, half-body immersion into hot water (42 ± 0.5 °C for 30 min) was performed in an automated climate chamber. Tympanic and skin temperatures were measured. Sudomotor activity, including onset time, sweat rate (SR) and volume (SV), active sweat gland density (ASGD), and sweat gland output (SGO), was tested in four or eight areas of skin. When compared with placebo, Oligonol attenuated increases in tympanic and skin temperatures after the heat load. There was an increasing trend in local sweat onset time, but there was a decrease in local SR, SV, ASGD, and SGO for Oligonol compared to placebo. The mean ASGD was significantly higher in the Oligonol group than in the placebo group for 10, 20, and 30 min. This study demonstrates that Oligonol appears to be worthy of consideration as a natural supplement to support more economical use of body fluids against heat stress.

  14. The effect of simulated flash heating pasteurisation and Holder pasteurisation on human milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Brodie; Coutsoudis, Anna; Autran, Chloe; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Bode, Lars

    2017-08-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important protective functions in human milk. A low-cost remote pasteurisation temperature-monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cell phone-based networked sensing system to monitor simulated flash heat pasteurisation. To compare the pasteurisation effect on HMOs of the FoneAstra FH method with the current Sterifeed Holder method used by human milk banks. Donor human milk samples (n = 48) were obtained from a human milk bank and pasteurised using the two pasteurisation methods. HMOs were purified from samples and labelled before separation using high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentrations of total HMOs, sialylated and fucosylated HMOs and individual HMOs using the two pasteurisation methods were compared using repeated-measures ANOVA. The study demonstrated no difference in total concentration of HMOs between the two pasteurisation methods and a small but significant increase in the total concentration of HMOs regardless of pasteurisation methods compared with controls (unpasteurised samples) (p<0.0001). The FoneAstra FH pasteurisation system does not negatively affect oligosaccharides in human milk and therefore is a possible alternative for providing safely sterilised human milk for low- and middle-income countries.

  15. Reconstitution of hormone-responsive detergent-solubilized follicle stimulating hormone receptors into liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, P.; Dattatreyamurty, B.; Reichert, L.E. Jr.

    1988-05-01

    An FSH receptor-enriched fraction that responds to exogenous FSH by activation of adenylate cyclase was prepared by ultrafiltration of sucrose density gradient-purified light membranes derived from bovine calf testes homogenates and solubilized with Triton X-100. To further confirm the functional nature of the detergent-solubilized FSH receptor, the extract was incorporated by lipid hydration into large multilamellar vesicles composed of dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, 2:1 molar ratio. Receptor incorporation was determined by measurement of specific binding of (125I) human FSH ((125I) hFSH). Substitution of dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine or increasing the cholesterol concentration of the vesicles reduced specific binding of (125I)hFSH. Under conditions favoring optimal incorporation of the receptor, specific binding of (125I)hFSH was time and temperature dependent and saturable when increasing concentrations of radioligand were added to a constant amount of proteoliposomes. Reconstituted proteoliposomes bound 1600 fmol FSH/mg protein with an affinity of 3.54 x 10(9) M-1. Inhibition of (125I) hFSH binding by hFSH was comparable to that seen with the membrane-bound receptor (ED50 = 10 ng). Equilibrium binding studies with (3H)Gpp(NH)p indicated that a single class of high affinity GTP binding sites with an association constant (Ka) of 3.33 x 10(7) m-1 which bound 2.19 fmol (3H)Gpp(NH)p/mg protein had also been incorporated into the proteoliposomes. Addition of FSH induced a 2-fold stimulation of (3H)Gpp(NH)p binding, supporting our earlier studies suggesting that the detergent-solubilized FSH receptor is complexed to the G protein. Of particular significance in the present study was the observation that both NaF and FSH stimulated cAMP production in the reconstituted system.

  16. Wearing graduated compression stockings augments cutaneous vasodilation in heat-stressed resting humans.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Nikawa, Toshiya; Tsuji, Bun; Kondo, Narihiko; Kenny, Glen P; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-05-01

    We investigated whether graduated compression induced by stockings enhances cutaneous vasodilation in passively heated resting humans. Nine habitually active young men were heated at rest using water-perfusable suits, resulting in a 1.0 °C increase in body core temperature. Heating was repeated twice on separate occasions while wearing either (1) stockings that cause graduated compression (pressures of 26.4 ± 5.3, 17.5 ± 4.4, and 6.1 ± 2.0 mmHg at the ankle, calf, and thigh, respectively), or (2) loose-fitting stockings without causing compression (Control). Forearm vascular conductance during heating was evaluated by forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) divided by mean arterial pressure to estimate heat-induced cutaneous vasodilation. Body core (esophageal), skin, and mean body temperatures were measured continuously. Compared to the Control, forearm vascular conductance during heating was higher with graduated compression stockings (e.g., 23.2 ± 5.5 vs. 28.6 ± 5.8 units at 45 min into heating, P = 0.001). In line with this, graduated compression stockings resulted in a greater sensitivity (27.5 ± 8.3 vs. 34.0 ± 9.4 units °C(-1), P = 0.02) and peak level (25.5 ± 5.8 vs. 29.7 ± 5.8 units, P = 0.004) of cutaneous vasodilation as evaluated from the relationship between forearm vascular conductance with mean body temperature. In contrast, the mean body temperature threshold for increases in forearm vascular conductance did not differ between the Control and graduated compression stockings (36.5 ± 0.1 vs. 36.5 ± 0.2 °C, P = 0.85). Our results show that graduated compression associated with the use of stockings augments cutaneous vasodilation by modulating sensitivity and peak level of cutaneous vasodilation in relation to mean body temperature. However, the effect of these changes on whole-body heat loss remains unclear.

  17. Response of mice to continuous 5-day passive hyperthermia resembles human heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Sareh, Houtan; Tulapurkar, Mohan E; Shah, Nirav G; Singh, Ishwar S; Hasday, Jeffrey D

    2011-05-01

    Chronic repeated exposure to hyperthermia in humans results in heat acclimation (HA), an adaptive process that is attained in humans by repeated exposure to hyperthermia and is characterized by improved heat elimination and increased exercise capacity, and acquired thermal tolerance (ATT), a cellular response characterized by increased baseline heat shock protein (HSP) expression and blunting of the acute increase in HSP expression stimulated by re-exposure to thermal stress. Epidemiologic studies in military personnel operating in hot environments and elite athletes suggest that repeated exposure to hyperthermia may also exert long-term health effects. Animal models demonstrate that coincident exposure to mild hyperthermia or prior exposure to severe hyperthermia can profoundly affect the course of experimental infection and injury, but these models do not represent HA. In this study, we demonstrate that CD-1 mice continuously exposed to mild hyperthermia (ambient temperature ~37°C causing ~2°C increase in core temperature) for 5 days and then exposed to a thermal stress (42°C ambient temperature for 40 min) exhibited some of the salient features of human HA, including (1) slower warming during thermal stress and more rapid cooling during recovery and (2) increased activity during thermal stress, as well as some of the features of ATT, including (1) increased baseline expression of HSP72 and HSP90 in lung, heart, spleen, liver, and brain; and (2) blunted incremental increase in HSP72 expression following acute thermal stress. This study suggests that continuous 5-day exposure of CD-1 mice to mild hyperthermia induces a state that resembles the physiologic and cellular responses of human HA. This model may be useful for analyzing the molecular mechanisms of HA and its consequences on host responsiveness to subsequent stresses.

  18. Inactivation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type III by heat, chemicals, and irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinnan, G.V. Jr.; Wells, M.A.; Wittek, A.E.; Phelan, M.A.; Mayner, R.E.; Feinstone, S.; Purcell, R.H.; Epstein, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    Infectivity of human T-cell lymphotropic virus, Type III (HTLV-III) was inactivated by heat more rapidly if in liquid medium than if lyophilized and more rapidly at 60 than 56/sup 0/C. When HTLV-III was added to factor VIII suspension, then lyophilized and heated at 60/sup 0/C for 2 hours or longer there was elimination of 1 X 10(6) in vitro infectious units (IVIU) of virus. Much of the viral inactivation appeared to result from lyophilization. The application of water-saturated chloroform to the lyophilized material containing virus also resulted in elimination of infectivity. HTLV-III was efficiently inactivated by formalin, beta-propiolactone, ethyl ether, detergent, and ultraviolet light plus psoralen. The results are reassuring regarding the potential safety of various biological products.

  19. Molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin.

    PubMed

    Akhalaya, M Ya; Maksimov, G V; Rubin, A B; Lademann, J; Darvin, M E

    2014-07-01

    The generation of ROS underlies all solar infrared-affected therapeutic and pathological cutaneous effects. The signaling pathway NF-kB is responsible for the induced therapeutic effects, while the AP-1 for the pathological effects. The different signaling pathways of infrared-induced ROS and infrared-induced heat shock ROS were shown to act independently multiplying the influence on each other by increasing the doses of irradiation and/or increasing the temperature. The molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin are summarized and discussed in detail in the present paper. The critical doses are determined. Protection strategies against infrared-induced skin damage are proposed.

  20. Activation of human heat shock genes is accompanied by oligomerization, modification, and rapid translocation of heat shock transcription factor HSF1.

    PubMed Central

    Baler, R; Dahl, G; Voellmy, R

    1993-01-01

    Transcriptional activity of heat shock (hsp) genes is controlled by a heat-activated, group-specific transcription factor(s) recognizing arrays of inverted repeats of the element NGAAN. To date genes for two human factors, HSF1 and HSF2, have been isolated. To define their properties as well as the changes they undergo during heat stress activation, we prepared polyclonal antibodies to these factors. Using these tools, we have shown that human HeLa cells constitutively synthesize HSF1, but we were unable to detect HSF2. In unstressed cells HSF1 is present mainly in complexes with an apparent molecular mass of about 200 kDa, unable to bind to DNA. Heat treatment induces a shift in the apparent molecular mass of HSF1 to about 700 kDa, concomitant with the acquisition of DNA-binding ability. Cross-linking experiments suggest that this change in complex size may reflect the trimerization of monomeric HSF1. Human HSF1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes does not bind DNA, but derepression of DNA-binding activity, as well as oligomerization of HSF1, occurs during heat treatment at the same temperature at which hsp gene expression is induced in this organism, suggesting that a conserved Xenopus protein(s) plays a role in this regulation. Inactive HSF1 resides in the cytoplasm of human cells; on activation it rapidly translocates to a soluble nuclear fraction, and shortly thereafter it becomes associated with the nuclear pellet. On heat shock, activatable HSF1, which might already have been posttranslationally modified in the unstressed cell, undergoes further modification. These different process provide multiple points of regulation of hsp gene expression. Images PMID:8455624

  1. Ascites fluid containing monoclonal antibody (EGFR1) to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation in solubilized placental membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Michiel, D.F.; Hollenberg, M.D.

    1986-03-05

    Ascites fluid containing EGFR1 antibody precipitated EGFR prelabelled by phosphorylating human placental membranes with EGF and (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP. The ascites fluid (at 1:100 dilution) was also found to stimulate phosphorylation of the solubilized placental membranes EGFR and the 35 kDa Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent substrate of the EGFR/kinase from placental membrane. In intact membranes, ascites fluid produced a small but noticeable stimulation of EGFR autophosphorylation. In solubilized membrane preparations, ascites fluid and EGF produced a comparable stimulation of phosphorylation both of the receptor and of pp35. The effect of EGF and ascites fluid appeared to be additive. Since EGFR1 does not inhibit the binding of EGF to the receptor, the data suggest that the antibody stimulates the receptor kinase activity by interacting with a site distinct from the EGF-binding site; the antibody effect is unmasked by receptor solubilization.

  2. Central command and the cutaneous vascular response to isometric exercise in heated humans

    PubMed Central

    Shibasaki, Manabu; Secher, Niels H; Johnson, John M; Crandall, Craig G

    2005-01-01

    Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) decreases during isometric handgrip exercise in heat stressed individuals, and we hypothesized that central command is involved in this response. Seven subjects performed 2 min of isometric handgrip exercise (35% of maximal voluntary contraction) followed by postexercise ischaemia in normothermia and during heat stress (increase in internal temperature ∼1°C). To augment the contribution of central command independent of force generation, on a separate day the protocol was repeated following partial neuromuscular blockade (PNB; i.v. cisatracurium). Forearm skin blood flow was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry, and CVC was the ratio of skin blood flow to mean arterial pressure. The PNB attenuated force production despite encouragement to attain the same workload. During the heat stress trials, isometric exercise decreased CVC by ∼12% for both conditions, but did not change CVC in either of the normothermic trials. During isometric exercise in the heat, the increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) was greater during the control trial relative to the PNB trial (31.0 ± 9.8 versus 18.6 ± 6.4 mmHg, P < 0.01), while the elevation of heart rate tended to be lower (19.4 ± 10.4 versus 27.4 ± 8.1 b.p.m., P = 0.15). During postexercise ischaemia, CVC and MAP returned to pre-exercise levels in the PNB trial but remained reduced in the control trial. These findings suggest that central command, as well as muscle metabo-sensitive afferent stimulation, contributes to forearm cutaneous vascular responses in heat stressed humans. PMID:15790665

  3. Responses to hyperthermia. Optimizing heat dissipation by convection and evaporation: Neural control of skin blood flow and sweating in humans.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline J; Johnson, John M

    2016-04-01

    Under normothermic, resting conditions, humans dissipate heat from the body at a rate approximately equal to heat production. Small discrepancies between heat production and heat elimination would, over time, lead to significant changes in heat storage and body temperature. When heat production or environmental temperature is high the challenge of maintaining heat balance is much greater. This matching of heat elimination with heat production is a function of the skin circulation facilitating heat transport to the body surface and sweating, enabling evaporative heat loss. These processes are manifestations of the autonomic control of cutaneous vasomotor and sudomotor functions and form the basis of this review. We focus on these systems in the responses to hyperthermia. In particular, the cutaneous vascular responses to heat stress and the current understanding of the neurovascular mechanisms involved. The available research regarding cutaneous active vasodilation and vasoconstriction is highlighted, with emphasis on active vasodilation as a major responder to heat stress. Involvement of the vasoconstrictor and active vasodilator controls of the skin circulation in the context of heat stress and nonthermoregulatory reflexes (blood pressure, exercise) are also considered. Autonomic involvement in the cutaneous vascular responses to direct heating and cooling of the skin are also discussed. We examine the autonomic control of sweating, including cholinergic and noncholinergic mechanisms, the local control of sweating, thermoregulatory and nonthermoregulatory reflex control and the possible relationship between sudomotor and cutaneous vasodilator function. Finally, we comment on the clinical relevance of these control schemes in conditions of autonomic dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of Aspergillus niger phosphate solubilization by fluoride released from rock phosphate.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Bonduki, Victor Hugo Araújo; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2013-08-01

    The simultaneous release of various chemical elements with inhibitory potential for phosphate solubilization from rock phosphate (RP) was studied in this work. Al, B, Ba, Ca, F, Fe, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Si, Sr, V, Zn, and Zr were released concomitantly with P during the solubilization of Araxá RP (Brazil), but only F showed inhibitory effects on the process at the concentrations detected in the growth medium. Besides P solubilization, fluoride decreased fungal growth, citric acid production, and medium acidification by Aspergillus niger. At the maximum concentration found during Araxá RP solubilization (22.9 mg F(-) per liter), fluoride decreased P solubilization by 55%. These findings show that fluoride negatively affects RP solubilization by A. niger through its inhibitory action on the fungal metabolism. Given that fluoride is a common component of RPs, the data presented here suggest that most of the microbial RP solubilization systems studied so far were probably operated under suboptimal conditions.

  5. Phosphate solubilization potential and stress tolerance of Eupenicillium parvum from tea soil.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Pratibha; Rahi, Praveen; Chauhan, Anjali; Gulati, Arvind

    2007-08-01

    Eupenicillium parvum was recorded for first time during isolation of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms from the tea rhizosphere. The fungus developed a phosphate solubilization zone on modified Pikovskaya agar, supplemented with tricalcium phosphate. Quantitative estimation of phosphate solubilization in Pikovskaya broth showed high solubilization of tricalcium phosphate and aluminium phosphate. The fungus also solubilized North Carolina rock phosphate and Mussoorie rock phosphate, and exhibited high levels of tolerance against desiccation, acidity, salinity, aluminium, and iron. Solubilization of inorganic phosphates by the fungus was also observed under high stress levels of aluminium, iron, and desiccation, though the significant decline in phosphate solubilization was marked in the presence of aluminium than iron. The fungal isolate showed 100% identity with E. parvum strain NRRL 2095 ITS 1, 5.8S rRNA gene and ITS 2, complete sequence; and 28S rRNA gene, partial sequence.

  6. A heterogeneous human tissue mimicking phantom for RF heating and MRI thermal monitoring verification

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yu; Wyatt, Cory; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul; Craciunescu, Oana; MacFall, James; Dewhirst, Mark; Das, Shiva K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a heterogeneous phantom that mimics a human thigh with a deep seated tumor, for the purpose of studying the performance of radiofrequency (RF) heating equipment and non-invasive temperature monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The heterogeneous cylindrical phantom was constructed with an outer fat layer surrounding an inner core of phantom material mimicking muscle, tumor and marrow-filled bone. The component materials were formulated to have dielectric and thermal properties similar to human tissues. The dielectric properties of the tissue-mimicking phantom materials were measured with a microwave vector network analyzer and impedance probe over the frequency range of 80 – 500 MHz and at temperatures of 24°C, 37°C, and 45°C. The specific heat values of the component materials were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter over the temperature range of 15 – 55°C. The thermal conductivity value was obtained from fitting the curves obtained from one-dimensional heat transfer measurement. The phantom was used to verify the operation of a cylindrical 4-antenna annular phased array extremity applicator (140 MHz), by examining the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermal imaging patterns for various magnitude/phase settings (including settings to focus heating in tumor). For muscle and tumor materials, MR imaging was also used to measure T1/T2* values (1.5 Tesla) and to obtain the slope of the PRFS phase change vs. temperature change curve. The dielectric and thermal properties of the phantom materials were in close agreement to well-accepted published results for human tissues. The phantom was able to successfully demonstrate satisfactory operation of the tested heating equipment. The MRI-measured thermal distributions matched the expected patterns for various magnitude/phase settings of the applicator, allowing the phantom to be used as a quality assurance tool. Importantly, the material formulations for the

  7. Levels of Antibodies against Human Heat Shock Protein (HSP) 60 in Patients with Glaucoma in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Grabska-Liberek, Iwona; Skonieczna, Katarzyna; Olesińska, Marzena; Terelak-Borys, Barbara; Kocięcki, Jarosandlstrokaw; Sikora, Mariusz; Jamrozy-Witkowska, Agnieszka; Tesla, Piotr; Czarnocka, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background Although elevated intraocular pressure is a major risk factor for the development of glaucoma, there is increasing evidence that the immune system may be involved in the development of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). The aim of this study was to determine if NTG is associated with elevated levels of antibodies against human heat shock protein (HSP) 60. Material/Methods The study was conducted in 139 subjects (35 subjects with NTG [Group 1], 34 subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma/POAG/[Group 2], 24 subjects with autoimmune rheumatic diseases [Group 3], and 36 healthy controls [Group 4]). All subjects had complete ophthalmologic examination (visual acuity, slit-lamp examination, tonometry, gonioscopy; visual-field examination, and optical coherence tomography/OCT/of the optic nerve head and the macula). Blood samples were collected for the measurements of serum levels of antibodies against human HSP60. Results The subjects with rheumatic diseases had the highest median serum level of antibodies against HSP60 – 20.49 ng/mL. The values in the subjects with NTG, POAG, and in controls were 18.79 ng/mL, 18.61 ng/mL and 17.61 ng/mL, respectively (p=0.96). Conclusions This study does not confirm the hypothesis that normal-tension glaucoma is associated with elevated blood levels of antibodies against human heat shock protein (HSP) 60. PMID:25786333

  8. Preparation and Cyclodextrin Solubilization of the Antibacterial Agent Benzoyl Metronidazole

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuo

    2013-01-01

    A one-pot method for the preparation of benzoyl metronidazole was achieved by using N,N′-carbonyldiimidazole as a coupling reagent. Moreover, it was found that the byproduct imidazole as the catalyst promoted the reaction. In addition, the β-cyclodextrin solubilization of benzoyl metronidazole was investigated by phase-solubility method. The phase-solubility studies indicated that the solubility of benzoyl metronidazole (S = 0.1435 g/L) was substantially increased 9.7-fold (S′ = 1.3881 g/L) by formation of 1 : 1 benzoyl metronidazole/β-cyclodextrin complexes in water, and the association constant K a value was determined to be 251 (±23) dm3/mol. Therefore, β-cyclodextrin can work as a pharmaceutical solubilizer for benzoyl metronidazole and may improve its oral bioavailability. PMID:23970831

  9. Recovery Act - Large Scale SWNT Purification and Solubilization

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Gemano; Dr. Linda B. McGown

    2010-10-07

    The goal of this Phase I project was to establish a quantitative foundation for development of binary G-gels for large-scale, commercial processing of SWNTs and to develop scientific insight into the underlying mechanisms of solubilization, selectivity and alignment. In order to accomplish this, we performed systematic studies to determine the effects of G-gel composition and experimental conditions that will enable us to achieve our goals that include (1) preparation of ultra-high purity SWNTs from low-quality, commercial SWNT starting materials, (2) separation of MWNTs from SWNTs, (3) bulk, non-destructive solubilization of individual SWNTs in aqueous solution at high concentrations (10-100 mg/mL) without sonication or centrifugation, (4) tunable enrichment of subpopulations of the SWNTs based on metallic vs. semiconductor properties, diameter, or chirality and (5) alignment of individual SWNTs.

  10. Effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant on solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Li, Shudong; Pi, Yongrui; Bao, Mutai; Zhang, Cong; Zhao, Dongwei; Li, Yiming; Sun, Peiyan; Lu, Jinren

    2015-12-15

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing bacteria, Bacillus Lz-2, was isolated from oil polluted water collected from Dongying Shengli oilfield, China. The factors that influence PAH solubilization such as biosurfactant concentration, pH, ionic strength and temperature were discussed. The results showed that the solubilities of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene increased linearly with the rise of rhamnolipid biosurfactant dose above the biosurfactant critical micelle concentration (CMC). Furthermore, the molar solubilization ratio (MSR) values decreased in the following order: naphthalene>phenanthrene>pyrene. However, the solubility percentage increased and followed the opposite order: pyrene>phenanthrene>naphthalene. The solubilities of PAHs in rhamnolipid biosurfactant solution increased with the rise of pH and ionic strength, and reached the maximum values under the conditions of pH11 and NaCl concentration 8 g · L(-1). The solubility of phenanthrene and pyrene increased with the rise of temperature.

  11. Photo-enhanced Aqueous Solubilization of an Azo-compound.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Minoru; Ohzono, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Takao; Norikane, Yasuo

    2017-07-31

    We previously showed that disruption of intermolecular interactions, e.g., by lowering the molecular planarity and/or introducing bent structures, improves the aqueous solubility of compounds, and based upon that work, we hypothesized that azobenzene trans-to-cis photoswitching could also be utilized to enhance the aqueous solubility of compounds. Here, we demonstrate that UV/visible light irradiation can reversibly switch the aqueous solubilization of an anti-cancer candidate drug, a low-molecular-weight kinase inhibitor bearing an azobenzene moiety. The increase of solubilization associated with UV-induced trans-to-cis conversion may have clinical relevance, because the time-scale of thermal cis-to-trans reversion at 37 °C is longer than that of oral absorption.

  12. Monitoring the simultaneous ostwald ripening and solubilization of emulsions.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thi Kieu Nguyen; Deriemaeker, Luc; La, Van Binh; Finsy, Robert

    2004-10-12

    The simultaneous Ostwald ripening of an emulsion and the solubilization of its oil droplets by added micellar surfactant solutions are monitored by measurements of time-averaged scattered intensities. A simple computer simulation model for the interpretation of the measurements is presented. Experimental data are analyzed with this model using one single parameter: an effective ratio of oil to surfactant molecules involved in the withdrawal of oil from the Ostwald ripening process by the added micelles. The fitted value of this parameter appears to be more than twice the one that can be predicted from the equilibrium solubilization of oil by the surfactant micelles, indicating that more oil is involved in the nonequilibrium exchange of oil and surfactant between micelles and droplets. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  13. Step-down heating of human melanoma xenografts: effects of the tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed Central

    Rofstad, E. K.

    1994-01-01

    Thermosensitisation by step-down heating (SDH) has previously been demonstrated in experimental rodent tumours. The purpose of the study reported here was to investigate whether the SDH effect in tumours in part may be attributed to heat-induced alterations in the capillary network and/or the microenvironment. Two human melanoma xenograft lines differing substantially in vascular parameters were selected for the study. A thermostatically regulated water bath was used for heat treatment. The conditioning treatment (44.5 degrees C or 45.5 degrees C for 15 min) was given in vivo, whereas the test treatment (42.0 degrees C for 45, 90, 135 or 180 min) was given either in vitro or in vivo. Treatment response was measured in vitro using a cell clonogenicity assay. Fraction of occluded vessels following heat treatment was assessed by examination of histological sections from tumours whose vascular network was filled with a contrast agent. Tumour bioenergetic status and tumour pH were measured by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The conditioning heat treatments caused significant vessel occlusion, decreased tumour bioenergetic status and decreased tumour pH in both tumour lines. The SDH effect measured when the test treatment was given in vivo was significantly increased relative to that measured when the test treatment was given in vitro. The magnitude of the increase showed a close relationship to fraction of occluded vessels, tumour bioenergetic status and tumour pH measured 90 min after treatment with 44.5 degrees C or 45.5 degrees C for 15 min. The increased SDH effect in vivo was probably attributable to tumour cells that were heat sensitive owing to the induction of low nutritional status and pH during the conditioning treatment. Consequently, the SDH effect in some tumours may in part be due to heat-induced alterations in the microenvironment. This suggests that SDH may be exploited clinically to achieve increased cell inactivation in tumours relative to the

  14. Phagocyte NADPH-oxidase. Studies with flavin analogues as active site probes in triton X-100-solubilized preparations.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, J F; Gabig, T G

    1988-06-25

    NADPH-oxidase of stimulated human neutrophil membranes was solubilized in Triton X-100 and activity reconstituted with FAD, 8-F-FAD, 8-phenyl-S-FAD, and 8-S-FAD. The enzyme had similar affinities for all the flavins with Km values in the 60-80 nM range. Vmax was found to increase 4-fold with increasing redox midpoint potential of the flavin. 8-F-FAD reconstituted with the enzyme was reactive toward thiophenol, suggesting exposure of the 8-position to solvent, a finding supported by unsuccessful attempts to label the enzyme with the photoaffinity probe 8-N3-[32P]FAD. Solubilized oxidase stabilized the red thiolate form of 8-S-FAD, a characteristic of flavoproteins of the dehydrogenase/electron transferase classes which stabilize the blue neutral form of the flavin semiquinone radical.

  15. The mechanism of detergent solubilization of lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Dov; Ahyayauch, Hasna; Goñi, Félix M

    2013-07-16

    Multiple data are available on the self-assembly of mixtures of bilayer-forming amphiphiles, particularly phospholipids and micelle-forming amphiphiles, commonly denoted detergents. The structure of such mixed assemblies has been thoroughly investigated, described in phase diagrams, and theoretically rationalized in terms of the balance between the large spontaneous curvature of the curvophilic detergent and the curvophobic phospholipids. In this critical review, we discuss the mechanism of this process and try to explain the actual mechanism involved in solubilization. Interestingly, membrane solubilization by some detergents is relatively slow and the common attribute of these detergents is that their trans-bilayer movement, commonly denoted flip-flop, is very slow. Only detergents that can flip into the inner monolayer cause relatively rapid solubilization of detergent-saturated bilayers. This occurs via the following sequence of events: 1), relatively rapid penetration of detergent monomers into the outer monolayer; 2), trans-membrane equilibration of detergent monomers between the two monolayers; 3), saturation of the bilayer by detergents and consequent permeabilization of the membrane; and 4), transition of the whole bilayer to thread-like mixed micelles. When the detergent cannot flip to the inner monolayer, the outer monolayer becomes unstable due to mass imbalance between the monolayers and inclusion of the curvophilic detergent molecules in a flat surface. Consequently, the outer monolayer forms mixed micellar structures within the outer monolayer. Shedding of these micelles into the aqueous solution results in partial solubilization. The consequent leakage of detergent into the liposome results in trans-membrane equilibration of detergent and subsequent micellization through the rapid bilayer-saturation mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mobilization and micellar solubilization of NAPL contaminants in aquifer rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javanbakht, Gina; Goual, Lamia

    2016-02-01

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation is often performed to overcome the capillary forces that keep residual NAPL phases trapped within contaminated aquifers. The surfactant selection and displacement mechanism usually depend on the nature of NAPL constituents. For example, micellar solubilization is often used to cleanup DNAPLs from aquifers whereas mobilization is desirable in aquifers contaminated by LNAPLs. Although the majority of crude oils are LNAPLs, they often contain heavy organic macromolecules such as asphaltenes that are classified as DNAPLs. Asphaltenes contain surface-active components that tend to adsorb on rocks, altering their wettability. Previous studies revealed that surfactants that formed Winsor type III microemulsions could promote both mobilization and solubilization. However the extent by which these two mechanisms occur is still unclear, particularly in oil-contaminated aquifers. In this study we investigated the remediation of oil-contaminated aquifers using an environmentally friendly surfactant such as n-Dodecyl β-D-maltoside. Focus was given on asphaltenes to better understand the mechanisms of surfactant cleanup. Through phase behavior, spontaneous imbibition, dynamic interfacial tension and contact angle measurements, we showed that microemulsions formed by this surfactant are able to mobilize bulk NAPL (containing 9 wt.% asphaltenes) in the porous rock and solubilize DNAPL (i.e., 4-6 wt.% adsorbed asphaltenes) from the rock surface. Spontaneous imbibition tests, in particular, indicated that the ratio of mobilized to solubilized NAPL is about 6:1. Furthermore, aging the cores in NAPL beyond 3 days allowed for more NAPL to be trapped in the large pores of the rock but did not alter the amount of asphaltenes adsorbed on the mineral surface.

  17. Fungal attack on rock: solubilization and altered infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Silverman, M P; Munoz, E F

    1970-09-04

    Penicillium simplicissimum, isolated from weathering basalt, produced citric acid when grown in a glucose-mineral salts medium with basalt, granite, granodiorite, rhyolite, andesite, peridotite, dunite, or quartzite. After 7 days' growth as much as 31 percent of the silicon, 11 percent of the aluminum, 64 percent of the iron, and 59 percent of the magnesium in some of the rocks were solubilized, and a number of rocks showed altered infrared absorption in the silicon-oxygen vibration region.

  18. Mobilization and micellar solubilization of NAPL contaminants in aquifer rocks.

    PubMed

    Javanbakht, Gina; Goual, Lamia

    2016-01-01

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation is often performed to overcome the capillary forces that keep residual NAPL phases trapped within contaminated aquifers. The surfactant selection and displacement mechanism usually depend on the nature of NAPL constituents. For example, micellar solubilization is often used to cleanup DNAPLs from aquifers whereas mobilization is desirable in aquifers contaminated by LNAPLs. Although the majority of crude oils are LNAPLs, they often contain heavy organic macromolecules such as asphaltenes that are classified as DNAPLs. Asphaltenes contain surface-active components that tend to adsorb on rocks, altering their wettability. Previous studies revealed that surfactants that formed Winsor type III microemulsions could promote both mobilization and solubilization. However the extent by which these two mechanisms occur is still unclear, particularly in oil-contaminated aquifers. In this study we investigated the remediation of oil-contaminated aquifers using an environmentally friendly surfactant such as n-Dodecyl β-D-maltoside. Focus was given on asphaltenes to better understand the mechanisms of surfactant cleanup. Through phase behavior, spontaneous imbibition, dynamic interfacial tension and contact angle measurements, we showed that microemulsions formed by this surfactant are able to mobilize bulk NAPL (containing 9wt.% asphaltenes) in the porous rock and solubilize DNAPL (i.e., 4-6wt.% adsorbed asphaltenes) from the rock surface. Spontaneous imbibition tests, in particular, indicated that the ratio of mobilized to solubilized NAPL is about 6:1. Furthermore, aging the cores in NAPL beyond 3days allowed for more NAPL to be trapped in the large pores of the rock but did not alter the amount of asphaltenes adsorbed on the mineral surface.

  19. The Mechanism of Detergent Solubilization of Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Dov; Ahyayauch, Hasna; Goñi, Félix M.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple data are available on the self-assembly of mixtures of bilayer-forming amphiphiles, particularly phospholipids and micelle-forming amphiphiles, commonly denoted detergents. The structure of such mixed assemblies has been thoroughly investigated, described in phase diagrams, and theoretically rationalized in terms of the balance between the large spontaneous curvature of the curvophilic detergent and the curvophobic phospholipids. In this critical review, we discuss the mechanism of this process and try to explain the actual mechanism involved in solubilization. Interestingly, membrane solubilization by some detergents is relatively slow and the common attribute of these detergents is that their trans-bilayer movement, commonly denoted flip-flop, is very slow. Only detergents that can flip into the inner monolayer cause relatively rapid solubilization of detergent-saturated bilayers. This occurs via the following sequence of events: 1), relatively rapid penetration of detergent monomers into the outer monolayer; 2), trans-membrane equilibration of detergent monomers between the two monolayers; 3), saturation of the bilayer by detergents and consequent permeabilization of the membrane; and 4), transition of the whole bilayer to thread-like mixed micelles. When the detergent cannot flip to the inner monolayer, the outer monolayer becomes unstable due to mass imbalance between the monolayers and inclusion of the curvophilic detergent molecules in a flat surface. Consequently, the outer monolayer forms mixed micellar structures within the outer monolayer. Shedding of these micelles into the aqueous solution results in partial solubilization. The consequent leakage of detergent into the liposome results in trans-membrane equilibration of detergent and subsequent micellization through the rapid bilayer-saturation mechanism. PMID:23870250

  20. Hydrotropic Solubilization by Urea Derivatives: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Hydrotropy is a phenomenon where the presence of a large quantity of one solute enhances the solubility of another solute. The mechanism of this phenomenon remains a topic of debate. This study employed molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the hydrotropic mechanism of a series of urea derivatives, that is, urea (UR), methylurea (MU), ethylurea (EU), and butylurea (BU). A poorly water-soluble compound, nifedipine (NF), was used as the model solute that was solubilized. Structural, dynamic, and energetic changes upon equilibration were analyzed to supply insights to the solubilization mechanism. The study demonstrated that NF and urea derivatives underwent significant nonstoichiometric molecular aggregation in the aqueous solution, a result consistent with the self-aggregation of urea derivatives under the same conditions. The analysis of hydrogen bonding and energy changes revealed that the aggregation was driven by the partial restoration of normal water structure. The energetic data also suggested that the promoted solubilization of NF is favored in the presence of urea derivatives. While the solutes aggregated to a varying degree, the systems were still in single-phase liquid state as attested by their active dynamics. PMID:26555993

  1. Heating properties of the needle type applicator made of shape memory alloy by 3-D anatomical human head model.

    PubMed

    Mimoto, N; Kato, K; Kanazawa, Y; Shindo, Y; Tsuchiya, K; Kubo, M; Uzuka, T; Takahashi, H; Fujii, Y

    2009-01-01

    Since the human brain is protected by the skull, it is not easy to non-invasively heat deep brain tumors with electromagnetic energy for hyperthermia treatments. Generally, needle type applicators were used in clinical practice to heat brain tumors. To expand the heating area of needle type applicators, we have developed a new type of needle made of a shape memory alloy (SMA). In this paper, heating properties of the proposed SMA needle type applicator were discussed. Here, in order to apply the SMA needle type applicator clinically. First, we constructed an anatomical 3-D FEM model from MRI and X-ray CT images using 3D-CAD software. Second, we estimated electric and temperature distributions to confirm the SMA needle type applicator using the FEM soft were JMAG-Studio. From these results, it was confirmed that the proposed method can expand the heating area and control the heating of various sizes of brain tumors.

  2. Association of eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2B with fully solubilized CXCR4.

    PubMed

    Palmesino, Elena; Apuzzo, Tiziana; Thelen, Sylvia; Mueller, Bernd; Langen, Hanno; Thelen, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    Chemokine receptors are key regulators of leukocyte trafficking but also have an important role in development, tumor growth, and metastasis. Among the chemokine receptors, CXCR4 is the only one that leads to perinatal death when genetically ablated in mice, indicating a more-widespread function in development. To identify pathways that are activated downstream of CXCR4, a solubilization protocol was elaborated, which allows for the isolation of the endogenous receptor from human cells in its near-native conformation. Solubilized CXCR4 is recognized by the conformation-sensitive monoclonal antibody 12G5 and retains the ability to bind CXCL12 in solution, which was abolished in the presence of receptor antagonists. Mass spectrometry of CXCR4 immunoprecipitates revealed a specific interaction with the pentameric eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B. The observation that the addition of CXCL12 leads to the dissociation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B from CXCR4 suggests that stimulation of the receptor may trigger the local protein synthesis required for efficient cell movement. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  3. Climate extremes in urban area and their impact on human health: the summer heat waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Shanghai, which is particularly prone to heat waves, recorded the hottest summer in over 50 years. During the event, the maximum number of daily deaths was 317, 42% above the non-heat day average, even though an heat warning system in operation. In this study results from the analysis of heat waves events in Italian cities is presented. Indices representative of extremely hot conditions have been taken into account and results of the analysis of indices such as the number of summer days (SU), number of tropical nights (TR), maxima and minima of daily maximum and minimum temperatures (TXx, TXn, TNx, TNn, respectively), exceedances over fixed thresholds is presented. Results show a clear increase in the past decades of the numbers of days affected by heat events. Some considerations are also presented about the impact on human health of the longest events occurred in the Country.

  4. Simulation of SAR in the Human Body to Determine Effects of RF Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michiyama, Tetsuyuki; Nikawa, Yoshio

    The body area network (BAN) has attracted attention because of its potential for high-grade wireless communication technology and its safety and high durability. Also, human area transmission of a BAN propagating at an ultra-wide band (UWB) has been demonstrated recently. When considering the efficiency of electromagnetic (EM) propagation inside the human body for BAN and hyperthermia treatment using RF, it is important to determine the mechanism of EM dissipation in the human body. A body heating system for hyperthermia must deposit EM energy deep inside the body. Also, it is important that the EM field generated by the implant system is sufficiently strong. In this study, the specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution is simulated using an EM simulator to consider the biological transmission mechanism and its effects. To utilize the EM field distribution using an implant system for hyperthermia treatment, the SAR distribution inside the human body is simulated. As a result, the SAR distribution is concentrated on the surface of human tissue, the muscle-bolus interface, the pancreas, the stomach, the spleen and the regions around bones. It can also be concentrated in bone marrow and cartilage. From these results, the appropriate location for the implant system is revealed on the basis of the current distribution and differences in the wave impedance of interfacing tissues. The possibility of accurate data transmission and suitable treatment planning is confirmed.

  5. Heat-induced changes in optical properties of human whole blood in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Vladimir Y.; Chekhov, Dmitriy I.; Leonov, Alexei G.; Leonov, Pavel G.; Ryaboshapka, Olga M.; Semenov, S. Y.; Splinter, Robert; Svenson, Robert H.; Tatsis, George P.

    1999-05-01

    The effect of anomalous optical behavior of biological tissue at high-intensity laser irradiation can be caused by heat- induced changes in optical properties of consisting components, mainly muscle tissue and blood. We registered the spectral transmission of fresh human whole blood and serum samples in the wavelength range of 300 - 700 nm at the heating of samples in the temperature range of 35 - 65 degrees Celsius. The results showed an increase of 10 - 15% in the transmission of blood serum at the temperature rising up to 50 - 60 degrees Celsius. In the case of diluted whole blood a sharply enhanced transmission was observed at the temperature of 56 - 60 degrees Celsius, while further heating resulted in a decreased transmission down to the initial level. The significant changes (of a three orders of magnitude) in the transmission of whole blood at the wavelength of Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) were observed. The obtained results can be considered as one of the possible explanations of the anomalous light distribution in certain tissues.

  6. A numerical study of heat and water vapor transfer in MDCT-based human airway models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Tawhai, Merryn H; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2014-10-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) thermo-fluid model is developed to study regional distributions of temperature and water vapor in three multi-detector row computed-tomography-based human airways with minute ventilations of 6, 15 and 30 L/min. A one-dimensional (1D) model is also solved to provide necessary initial and boundary conditions for the 3D model. Both 3D and 1D predicted temperature distributions agree well with available in vivo measurement data. On inspiration, the 3D cold high-speed air stream is split at the bifurcation to form secondary flows, with its cold regions biased toward the inner wall. The cold air flowing along the wall is warmed up more rapidly than the air in the lumen center. The repeated splitting pattern of air streams caused by bifurcations acts as an effective mechanism for rapid heat and mass transfer in 3D. This provides a key difference from the 1D model, where heating relies largely on diffusion in the radial direction, thus significantly affecting gradient-dependent variables, such as energy flux and water loss rate. We then propose the correlations for respective heat and mass transfer in the airways of up to 6 generations: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], where Nu is the Nusselt number, Sh is the Sherwood number, Re is the branch Reynolds number, D a is the airway equivalent diameter, and [Formula: see text] is the tracheal equivalent diameter.

  7. Heavy metals chromium and neodymium reduced phosphorylation level of heat shock protein 27 in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qihao; Zhang, Lei; Xiao, Xue; Su, Zhijian; Zou, Ping; Hu, Hao; Huang, Yadong; He, Qing-Yu

    2010-06-01

    Heavy metals may exert their acute and chronic effects on the human skin through stress signals. In the present study, 2DE-based proteomics was used to analyze the protein expression in human keratinocytes exposed to heavy metals, chromium and neodymium, and 10 proteins with altered expression were identified. Among these proteins, small heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) was up-regulated significantly and the up-regulation was validated by Western blot and immunofluorescence. In addition, the mRNA expression level of HSP27 markedly increased as detected by quantitative PCR. More interestingly, the ratio of phosphorylated HSP27 and total HSP27 significantly decreased in keratinocytes treated with the heavy metals. These findings suggested that heavy metals reduced the phosphorylation level of HSP27, and that the ratio of p-HSP27 and HSP27 may represent a potential marker or additional endpoint for the hazard assessment of skin irritation caused by chemical products.

  8. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miyagawa, Ryu; Mizuno, Rie; Watanabe, Kazunori; Ijiri, Kenichi

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA{sup Met} (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA{sup Met} was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

  9. Local heating of human skin causes hyperemia without mediation by muscarinic cholinergic receptors or prostanoids.

    PubMed

    Golay, Sandrine; Haeberli, Christian; Delachaux, Anne; Liaudet, Lucas; Kucera, Paul; Waeber, Bernard; Feihl, François

    2004-11-01

    Local changes in surface temperature have a powerful influence on the perfusion of human skin. Heating increases local skin blood flow, but the mechanisms and mediators of this response (thermal hyperemia response) are incompletely elucidated. In the present study, we examined the possible dependence of the thermal hyperemia response on stimulation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors and on production of vasodilator prostanoids. In 13 male healthy subjects aged 20-30 yr, a temperature-controlled chamber was positioned on the volar face of one forearm and used to raise surface temperature from 34 to 41 degrees C. The time course of the resulting thermal hyperemia response was recorded with a laser-Doppler imager. In one experiment, each of eight subjects received an intravenous bolus of the antimuscarinic agent glycopyrrolate (4 microg/kg) on one visit and saline on the other. The thermal hyperemia response was determined within the hour after the injections. Glycopyrrolate effectively inhibited the skin vasodilation induced by iontophoresis of acetylcholine but did not influence the thermal hyperemia response. In a second experiment, conducted in five other subjects, 1 g of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor aspirin administered orally totally abolished the vasodilation induced in the skin by anodal current but also failed to modify the thermal hyperemia response. The present study excludes the stimulation of muscarinic receptors and the production of vasodilator prostaglandins as essential and nonredundant mechanisms for the vasodilation induced by local heating in human forearm skin.

  10. Metabolic effects of microwave radiation and convection heating on human mononuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kiel, J.L.; Wong, L.S.; Erwin, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of microwave radiation (2450 MHz, continuous wave, mean specific absorption rate of 103.5 +/- 4.2 W/kg) and convection heating on the nonphosphorylating oxidative metabolism of human peripheral mononuclear leukocytes (96% lymphocytes, 4% monocytes) at 37 degrees C were investigated. Metabolic activity, determined by chemiluminescence (CL) of cells challenged with luminol (5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione) linked to bovine serum albumin, was detected with a brightness photometer. A significant stimulation after microwave exposure (p less than 0.005) over total CL of matched 37 degrees C incubator controls was observed. A similar degree of stimulation compared to incubator controls was also detected after sham treatment. There was no significant difference between changes in total CL or stimulation indices of the microwave and sham exposed groups. It appears that exposure to microwave radiation, under normothermic (37 +/- 0.03 degrees C) conditions, has no effect on the oxidative metabolic activity of human peripheral mononuclear leukocytes. However, the significant differences between microwave or sham exposed cells and their respective incubator controls occurred because the temperature of the incubator controls did not exceed 35.9 degrees C and this temperature required 39 minutes to reach from 22 degrees C. Slow heating of incubator controls must be accounted for in thermal and radiofrequency radiation studies in vitro.

  11. Effect of voluntary hypocapnic hyperventilation on cutaneous circulation in resting heated humans.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Honda, Yasushi; Delliaux, Stephane; Tsuji, Bun; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Sugihara, Akira; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2012-11-01

    Hypocapnia attenuates the sweat response normally seen in hyperthermic resting subjects, but its effect on the blood flow response in their nonglabrous skin under the same hyperthermic conditions remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether hypocapnia induced by voluntary hyperventilation affects the blood flow response to heat stress in the nonglabrous skin of resting humans. Nine healthy male subjects were passively heated using legs-only hot water immersion and a water-perfused suit, which caused esophageal temperature (T(es)) to increase by as much as 1.0°C. During normothermia and at +0.6°C T(es) and +1.0°C T(es), the subjects performed two voluntary 7-min hyperventilation (minute ventilation = 40 l/min) trials (hypocapnic and eucapnic) in random order. End-tidal CO(2) pressure was reduced by 23-25 torr during hypocapnic hyperventilation, but it was maintained at the spontaneous breathing level during eucapnic hyperventilation. Cutaneous blood flow was evaluated as the cutaneous red blood cell flux in the forearm (CBF(forearm)) or forehead (CBF(forehead)) and was normalized to the normothermic spontaneous breathing value. Hypocapnic hyperventilation at +0.6°C T(es) was associated with significantly reduced CBF(forearm), compared with eucapnic hyperventilation, after 5-7 min of hyperventilation (395 to 429 vs. 487 to 525% baseline, P < 0.05). No significant difference in CBF(forehead) was seen during hypocapnic hyperventilation compared with eucapnic hyperventilation at +0.6°C T(es) or +1.0°C T(es). These results suggest that in resting humans, hypocapnia achieved through voluntary hyperventilation attenuates the increase in cutaneous blood flow elicited by moderate heat stress in the nonglabrous skin of the forearm, but not the forehead.

  12. VIP/PACAP receptor mediation of cutaneous active vasodilation during heat stress in humans.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Dean L; Zhao, Joan L; Wu, Yubo; Johnson, John M

    2010-07-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is implicated in cutaneous active vasodilation in humans. VIP and the closely related pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) act through several receptor types: VIP through VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors and PACAP through VPAC1, VPAC2, and PAC1 receptors. We examined participation of VPAC2 and/or PAC1 receptors in cutaneous vasodilation during heat stress by testing the effects of their specific blockade with PACAP6-38. PACAP6-38 dissolved in Ringer's was administered by intradermal microdialysis at one forearm site while a control site received Ringer's solution. Skin blood flow was monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Blood pressure was monitored noninvasively and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) calculated. A 5- to 10-min baseline period was followed by approximately 70 min of PACAP6-38 (100 microM) perfusion at one site in normothermia and a 3-min period of body cooling. Whole body heating was then performed to engage cutaneous active vasodilation and was maintained until CVC had plateaued at an elevated level at all sites for 5-10 min. Finally, 58 mM sodium nitroprusside was perfused through both microdialysis sites to effect maximal vasodilation. No CVC differences were found between control and PACAP6-38-treated sites during normothermia (19 +/- 3%max untreated vs. 20 +/- 3%max, PACAP6-38 treated; P > 0.05 between sites) or cold stress (11 +/- 2%max untreated vs. 10 +/- 2%max, PACAP6-38 treated, P > 0.05 between sites). PACAP6-38 attenuated the increase in CVC during whole body heating when compared with untreated sites (59 +/- 3%max untreated vs. 46 +/- 3%max, PACAP6-38 treated, P < 0.05). We conclude that VPAC2 and/or PAC1 receptor activation is involved in cutaneous active vasodilation in humans.

  13. Attributing Human Mortality During Extreme Heat Waves to Anthropogenic Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D.; Heaviside, C.; Vardoulakis, S.; Huntingford, C.; Masato, G.; Guillod, B. P.; Frumhoff, P. C.; Bowery, A.; Allen, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is the biggest global health threat of the 21st century (Costello et al, 2009; Watts et al, 2015). Perhaps one of the clearest examples of this is the summer heat wave of 2003, which saw up to seventy thousand excess deaths across Europe (Robine et al, 2007). The extreme temperatures are now thought to be significantly enhanced due to anthropogenic climate change (Stott et al, 2004; Christidis et al, 2015). Here, we consider not only the Europe-wide temperature response of the heat wave, but the localised response using a high-resolution regional model simulating 2003 climate conditions thousands of times. For the first time, by employing end-to-end attribution, we attribute changes in mortality to the increased radiative forcing from climate change, with a specific focus on London and Paris. We show that in both cities, a sizable proportion of the excess mortality can be attributed to human emissions. With European heat waves projected to increase into the future, these results provide a worrying reality for what may lie ahead. Christidis, Nikolaos, Gareth S. Jones, and Peter A. Stott. "Dramatically increasing chance of extremely hot summers since the 2003 European heatwave." Nature Climate Change (2014). Costello, Anthony, et al. "Managing the health effects of climate change: lancet and University College London Institute for Global Health Commission." The Lancet 373.9676 (2009): 1693-1733. Stott, Peter A., Dáithí A. Stone, and Myles R. Allen. "Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003." Nature 432.7017 (2004): 610-614 Watts, N., et al. "Health and climate change: policy responses to protect public health." Lancet. 2015.

  14. Passive heat therapy improves endothelial function, arterial stiffness and blood pressure in sedentary humans.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Vienna E; Howard, Matthew J; Francisco, Michael A; Ely, Brett R; Minson, Christopher T

    2016-09-15

    A recent 30 year prospective study showed that lifelong sauna use reduces cardiovascular-related and all-cause mortality; however, the specific cardiovascular adaptations that cause this chronic protection are currently unknown. We investigated the effects of 8 weeks of repeated hot water immersion ('heat therapy') on various biomarkers of cardiovascular health in young, sedentary humans. We showed that, relative to a sham group which participated in thermoneutral water immersion, heat therapy increased flow-mediated dilatation, reduced arterial stiffness, reduced mean arterial and diastolic blood pressure, and reduced carotid intima media thickness, with changes all on par or greater than what is typically observed in sedentary subjects with exercise training. Our results show for the first time that heat therapy has widespread and robust effects on vascular function, and as such, could be a viable treatment option for improving cardiovascular health in a variety of patient populations, particularly those with limited exercise tolerance and/or capabilities. The majority of cardiovascular diseases are characterized by disorders of the arteries, predominantly caused by endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening. Intermittent hot water immersion ('heat therapy') results in elevations in core temperature and changes in cardiovascular haemodynamics, such as cardiac output and vascular shear stress, that are similar to exercise, and thus may provide an alternative means of improving health which could be utilized by patients with low exercise tolerance and/or capabilities. We sought to comprehensively assess the effects of 8 weeks of heat therapy on biomarkers of vascular function in young, sedentary subjects. Twenty young, sedentary subjects were assigned to participate in 8 weeks (4-5 times per week) of heat therapy (n = 10; immersion in a 40.5°C bath sufficient to maintain rectal temperature ≥ 38.5°C for 60 min per session) or thermoneutral water

  15. Novel Mitochondria-Targeted Heat-Soluble Proteins Identified in the Anhydrobiotic Tardigrade Improve Osmotic Tolerance of Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Sae; Tanaka, Junko; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Horikawa, Daiki D.; Katayama, Toshiaki; Arakawa, Kazuharu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called “anhydrobiosis”. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble) and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble) proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble), as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments. PMID:25675104

  16. Novel mitochondria-targeted heat-soluble proteins identified in the anhydrobiotic Tardigrade improve osmotic tolerance of human cells.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sae; Tanaka, Junko; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Horikawa, Daiki D; Katayama, Toshiaki; Arakawa, Kazuharu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called "anhydrobiosis". Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble) and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble) proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble), as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments.

  17. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Brodie; Schmidt, Stefan; King, Tracy; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2017-02-22

    A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples (N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student's t-test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity (p < 0.0001), and both methods showed a decrease in lactoferrin activity (71.1% Holder vs. 38.6% F-FH; p < 0.0001) and a decrease in the retention of total IgA (78.9% Holder vs. 25.2% F-FH; p < 0.0001). Despite increased destruction of immune components compared to Holder pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants' lives.

  18. Epitopes of Microbial and Human Heat Shock Protein 60 and Their Recognition in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Elfaitouri, Amal; Herrmann, Björn; Bölin-Wiener, Agnes; Wang, Yilin; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard; Zachrisson, Olof; Pipkorn, Rϋdiger; Rönnblom, Lars; Blomberg, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called Chronic Fatigue Syndrome), a common disease with chronic fatigability, cognitive dysfunction and myalgia of unknown etiology, often starts with an infection. The chaperonin human heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) occurs in mitochondria and in bacteria, is highly conserved, antigenic and a major autoantigen. The anti-HSP60 humoral (IgG and IgM) immune response was studied in 69 ME patients and 76 blood donors (BD) (the Training set) with recombinant human and E coli HSP60, and 136 30-mer overlapping and targeted peptides from HSP60 of humans, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma and 26 other species in a multiplex suspension array. Peptides from HSP60 helix I had a chaperonin-like activity, but these and other HSP60 peptides also bound IgG and IgM with an ME preference, theoretically indicating a competition between HSP60 function and antibody binding. A HSP60-based panel of 25 antigens was selected. When evaluated with 61 other ME and 399 non-ME samples (331 BD, 20 Multiple Sclerosis and 48 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients), a peptide from Chlamydia pneumoniae HSP60 detected IgM in 15 of 61 (24%) of ME, and in 1 of 399 non-ME at a high cutoff (p<0.0001). IgM to specific cross-reactive epitopes of human and microbial HSP60 occurs in a subset of ME, compatible with infection-induced autoimmunity. PMID:24312270

  19. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Brodie; Schmidt, Stefan; King, Tracy; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2017-01-01

    A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples (N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student’s t-test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity (p < 0.0001), and both methods showed a decrease in lactoferrin activity (71.1% Holder vs. 38.6% F-FH; p < 0.0001) and a decrease in the retention of total IgA (78.9% Holder vs. 25.2% F-FH; p < 0.0001). Despite increased destruction of immune components compared to Holder pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants’ lives. PMID:28241418

  20. Small Heat Shock Proteins Potentiate Amyloid Dissolution by Protein Disaggregases from Yeast and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Duennwald, Martin L.; Echeverria, AnaLisa; Shorter, James

    2012-01-01

    How small heat shock proteins (sHsps) might empower proteostasis networks to control beneficial prions or disassemble pathological amyloid is unknown. Here, we establish that yeast sHsps, Hsp26 and Hsp42, inhibit prionogenesis by the [PSI +] prion protein, Sup35, via distinct and synergistic mechanisms. Hsp42 prevents conformational rearrangements within molten oligomers that enable de novo prionogenesis and collaborates with Hsp70 to attenuate self-templating. By contrast, Hsp26 inhibits self-templating upon binding assembled prions. sHsp binding destabilizes Sup35 prions and promotes their disaggregation by Hsp104, Hsp70, and Hsp40. In yeast, Hsp26 or Hsp42 overexpression prevents [PSI+] induction, cures [PSI+], and potentiates [PSI+]-curing by Hsp104 overexpression. In vitro, sHsps enhance Hsp104-catalyzed disaggregation of pathological amyloid forms of α-synuclein and polyglutamine. Unexpectedly, in the absence of Hsp104, sHsps promote an unprecedented, gradual depolymerization of Sup35 prions by Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40. This unanticipated amyloid-depolymerase activity is conserved from yeast to humans, which lack Hsp104 orthologues. A human sHsp, HspB5, stimulates depolymerization of α-synuclein amyloid by human Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40. Thus, we elucidate a heretofore-unrecognized human amyloid-depolymerase system that could have applications in various neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22723742

  1. Dynamic Simulation of Human Thermoregulation and Heat Transfer for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas R.; Nelson, David A.; Bue, Grant; Kuznetz, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Models of human thermoregulation and heat transfer date from the early 1970s and have been developed for applications ranging from evaluating thermal comfort in spacecraft and aircraft cabin environments to predicting heat stress during EVAs. Most lumped or compartment models represent the body as an assemblage cylindrical and spherical elements which may be subdivided into layers to describe tissue heterogeneity. Many existing models are of limited usefulness in asymmetric thermal environments, such as may be encountered during an EVA. Conventional whole-body clothing models also limit the ability to describe local surface thermal and evaporation effects in sufficient detail. A further limitation is that models based on a standard man model are not readily scalable to represent large or small subjects. This work describes development of a new human thermal model derived from the 41-node man model. Each segment is divided into four concentric, constant thickness cylinders made up of a central core surrounded by muscle, fat, and skin, respectively. These cylinders are connected by the flow of blood from a central blood pool to each part. The central blood pool is updated at each time step, based on a whole-body energy balance. Results show the model simulates core and surface temperature histories, sweat evaporation and metabolic rates which generally are consistent with controlled exposures of human subjects. Scaling rules are developed to enable simulation of small and large subjects (5th percentile and 95th percentile). Future refinements will include a clothing model that addresses local surface insulation and permeation effects and developing control equations to describe thermoregulatory effects such as may occur with prolonged weightlessness or with aging.

  2. Changes in dermal interstitial ATP levels during local heating of human skin

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Jayson R; Heal, Cory; Bridges, Jarom; Goldthorpe, Scott; Mack, Gary W

    2012-01-01

    Heating skin is believed to activate vanilloid type III and IV transient receptor potential ion channels (TRPV3, TRPV4, respectively), resulting in the release of ATP into the interstitial fluid. We examined the hypothesis that local skin heating would result in an accumulation of ATP in the interstitial fluid that would be related with a rise in skin blood flow (SkBF) and temperature sensation. Two microdialysis probes were inserted into the dermis on the dorsal aspect of the forearm in 15 young, healthy subjects. The probed skin was maintained at 31°C, 35°C, 39°C and 43°C for 8 min periods, during which SkBF was monitored as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). Dialysate was collected and analysed for ATP ([ATP]d) using a luciferase-based assay, and ratings of perceived warmth were taken at each temperature. At a skin temperature of 31°C, [ATP]d averaged 18.93 ± 4.06 nm and CVC averaged 12.57 ± 1.59% peak. Heating skin to 35°C resulted in an increase in CVC (17.63 ± 1.27% peak; P < 0.05), but no change in [ATP]d. Heating skin to 39°C and 43°C resulted in a decreased [ATP]d (5.88 ± 1.68 nm and 8.75 ± 3.44 nm, respectively; P < 0.05), which was accompanied by significant elevations in CVC (38.90 ± 1.37% peak and 60.32 ± 1.95% peak, respectively; P < 0.05). Ratings of perceived warmth increased in proportion to the increase in skin temperature (r2 = 0.75, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicate that an accumulation of interstitial ATP does not occur during local heating, and therefore does not have a role in temperature sensation or the dilator response in human skin. Nevertheless, the low threshold of dilatation (35°C) indicates a possible role for the TRPV3, TRPV4 channels or the sensitization of other ion channels in mediating the dilator response. PMID:23045344

  3. Heat, Human Performance, and Occupational Health: A Key Issue for the Assessment of Global Climate Change Impacts.

    PubMed

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Briggs, David; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Hyatt, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Heat exhaustion and reduced human performance are often overlooked in climate change health impact analysis. Later this century, many among the four billion people who live in hot areas worldwide will experience significantly reduced work capacity owing to climate change. In some areas, 30-40% of annual daylight hours will become too hot for work to be carried out. The social and economic impacts will be considerable, with global gross domestic product (GDP) losses greater than 20% by 2100. The analysis to date is piecemeal. More analysis of climate change-related occupational health impact assessments is greatly needed.

  4. Specific Genomic Fingerprints of Phosphate Solubilizing Pseudomonas Strains Generated by Box Elements

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Nobandegani, Mohammad Bagher; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Yun, Wong Mui

    2014-01-01

    Primers corresponding to conserved bacterial repetitive of BOX elements were used to show that BOX-DNA sequences are widely distributed in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains. Phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas was isolated from oil palm fields (tropical soil) in Malaysia. BOX elements were used to generate genomic fingerprints of a variety of Pseudomonas isolates to identify strains that were not distinguishable by other classification methods. BOX-PCR, that derived genomic fingerprints, was generated from whole purified genomic DNA by liquid culture of phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas. BOX-PCR generated the phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas specific fingerprints to identify the relationship between these strains. This suggests that distribution of BOX elements' sequences in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains is the mirror image of their genomic structure. Therefore, this method appears to be a rapid, simple, and reproducible method to identify and classify phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains and it may be useful tool for fast identification of potential biofertilizer strains. PMID:25580434

  5. Actions of taurine on the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex solubilized from rat brain.

    PubMed

    Malminen, O; Kontro, P

    1987-01-01

    The actions of taurine on the solubilized GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex were investigated, and the results compared to those obtained with detergent-treated membrane-bound receptors. The receptor complex of adult rat brain was solubilized with Triton X-100 or CHAPS (3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulphonate). The properties of the solubilized GABA and flunitrazepam binding sites were similar to those in washed brain membranes. Taurine displaced GABA from its receptor sites and inhibited GABA stimulation of flunitrazepam binding to receptor complexes solubilized with Triton X-100. Thus the modulatory action of taurine on the receptor complex in washed membrane preparations was well preserved after this solubilization. No specific taurine binding to either Triton- or CHAPS-solubilized sample could be demonstrated.

  6. Dielectric properties of solutions of oil materials solubilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, M.; Shimizu, A.; Ogino, K.

    1982-08-01

    One of the most important properties of micellar systems is their ability to solubilize a variety of species. For aqueous micelles, solubilization is related closely to the hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties of the solubilizate. Different sites of solubilization and orientations may be involved, depending on the structure of the solubilizate. A number of studies on solubilization have been performed experimentally and theoretically. Dielectric constant measurement has proved to be a powerful tool for the investigation of permanent dipole moments of various molecules and of the behavior in solution of various substances, and has been applied in various fields. This technique has been used to determine the chemical structure of surfactants, but not to investigate the solubilization of oily materials in aqueous solution. The dielectric constants and ac electric conductivities observed when a solubilizate is added to an aqueous solution of an anionic surfactant and the differences in the solubilizing behavior due to different kinds of polar groups are discussed. 30 references.

  7. Fixed-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fixed-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fixed-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the large scale production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fixed-bed bioreactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor. 2 figs.

  9. Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubilization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1989-07-11

    This patent describes a fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

  10. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

  11. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  12. Evaluation of the ultrasonic method for solubilizing Daphnia magna before liquid scintillation counting

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Hanf, R.W. Jr.; Carlile, D.W.

    1984-11-01

    Adult Daphnia magna were exposed to /sup 14/C-labeled phenol and tissues analyzed for /sup 14/C uptake by three methods: (1) tissue solubilizer, (2) tissue solubilizer plus sonication, and (3) sonication alone. Analysis by liquid scintillation counting revealed that measurements of total activity among treatments were not significantly different (..cap alpha.. less than or equal to 0.10) at two count levels. Sonicated samples showed less variation than tissue samples that were solubilized. 5 references, 1 table.

  13. Alterations of calf venous and arterial compliance following acclimation to heat administered at a fixed daily time in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Megumi; Hara, Toshiko; Hashimoto, Michio; Koga, Miki; Shido, Osamu

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the effects of heat acclimation on venous and arterial compliance in humans. Four male and four female volunteers were exposed to an ambient temperature of 40°C and relative humidity of 40% for 4 h (1330 1730 hours) per day for 9 10 consecutive days. The calf venous compliance (CV) was estimated using venous occlusion plethysmography with a mercury-in-silastic strain gauge placed around the right calf at its maximum girth. The compliance of the small (CSA) and large (CLA) arteries were assessed by reflective and capacitance compliance by analyzing the radial artery blood pressure waveforms, basing on the use of a modified Windkessel model. The calf CV, CSA, CLA, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate and core temperature were determined twice a day, 0930 1100 hours (AM test) and 1500 1630 hours (PM test), in both heat-acclimated and non-heat-acclimated (control) conditions. Heat acclimation appeared to decrease blood pressures, heart rate and significantly lowered core temperature only in the PM test. In the control condition, the calf CV was not affected by the time of day and the CSA was significantly depressed in the PM test. After acclimation to heat, the calf CV significantly increased and the CSA did not decrease in the PM test. The results presented suggest that repeated heat exposure in humans, for 4 h at a fixed time daily, increases the calf CV and the CSA particularly during the period when the subjects were previously exposed to heat.

  14. Human mutation in the anti-apoptotic heat shock protein 20 abrogates its cardioprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, Persoulla; Knöll, Ralph; Haghighi, Kobra; Fan, Guo-Chang; Dorn, Gerald W; Hasenfub, Gerd; Kranias, Evangelia G

    2008-11-28

    The small heat shock protein Hsp20 protects cardiomyocytes against apoptosis, and phosphorylation at its Ser16 site enhances its cardioprotection. To determine whether genetic variants exist in human Hsp20, which may modify these beneficial effects, we sequenced the coding region of the Hsp20 gene in 1347 patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy and 744 subjects with no heart disease. We identified a C59T substitution in the human Hsp20 gene in one patient and three individuals without heart disease. All subjects were heterozygous for this mutation, which changes a fully conserved proline residue into leucine at position 20 (P20L), resulting in secondary structural alterations. To examine the potential functional significance of the P20L-Hsp20 human variant, adult rat cardiomyocytes were infected with Ad.GFP (where Ad is adenovirus and GFP is green fluorescent protein), Ad.WT-Hsp20 (where WT is wild-type), and Ad.P20L-Hsp20 and subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury. Expression of WT-Hsp20 resulted in significant attenuation of apoptosis compared with the GFP control. However, the P20L-Hsp20 mutant showed no protection against apoptosis, assessed by Hoechst staining and DNA fragmentation. The loss of cardioprotection by the mutant Hsp20 was associated with its diminished phosphorylation at Ser16 compared with WT-Hsp20. Furthermore, maximal stimulation of cardiomyocytes with isoproterenol or protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation in vitro confirmed the impaired ability of the mutant Hsp20 to become phosphorylated at Ser16. In conclusion, we have identified a P20L substitution in human Hsp20, which is associated with diminished phosphorylation at Ser16 and complete abrogation of the Hsp20 cardioprotective effects which may adversely affect the ability of human carriers to cope with cellular stress.

  15. Facial convective heat exchange coefficients in cold and windy environments estimated from human experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Shabat, Yael; Shitzer, Avraham

    2012-07-01

    Facial heat exchange convection coefficients were estimated from experimental data in cold and windy ambient conditions applicable to wind chill calculations. Measured facial temperature datasets, that were made available to this study, originated from 3 separate studies involving 18 male and 6 female subjects. Most of these data were for a -10°C ambient environment and wind speeds in the range of 0.2 to 6 m s-1. Additional single experiments were for -5°C, 0°C and 10°C environments and wind speeds in the same range. Convection coefficients were estimated for all these conditions by means of a numerical facial heat exchange model, applying properties of biological tissues and a typical facial diameter of 0.18 m. Estimation was performed by adjusting the guessed convection coefficients in the computed facial temperatures, while comparing them to measured data, to obtain a satisfactory fit ( r 2 > 0.98, in most cases). In one of the studies, heat flux meters were additionally used. Convection coefficients derived from these meters closely approached the estimated values for only the male subjects. They differed significantly, by about 50%, when compared to the estimated female subjects' data. Regression analysis was performed for just the -10°C ambient temperature, and the range of experimental wind speeds, due to the limited availability of data for other ambient temperatures. The regressed equation was assumed in the form of the equation underlying the "new" wind chill chart. Regressed convection coefficients, which closely duplicated the measured data, were consistently higher than those calculated by this equation, except for one single case. The estimated and currently used convection coefficients are shown to diverge exponentially from each other, as wind speed increases. This finding casts considerable doubts on the validity of the convection coefficients that are used in the computation of the "new" wind chill chart and their applicability to humans in

  16. Facial convective heat exchange coefficients in cold and windy environments estimated from human experiments.

    PubMed

    Ben Shabat, Yael; Shitzer, Avraham

    2012-07-01

    Facial heat exchange convection coefficients were estimated from experimental data in cold and windy ambient conditions applicable to wind chill calculations. Measured facial temperature datasets, that were made available to this study, originated from 3 separate studies involving 18 male and 6 female subjects. Most of these data were for a -10°C ambient environment and wind speeds in the range of 0.2 to 6 m s(-1). Additional single experiments were for -5°C, 0°C and 10°C environments and wind speeds in the same range. Convection coefficients were estimated for all these conditions by means of a numerical facial heat exchange model, applying properties of biological tissues and a typical facial diameter of 0.18 m. Estimation was performed by adjusting the guessed convection coefficients in the computed facial temperatures, while comparing them to measured data, to obtain a satisfactory fit (r(2) > 0.98, in most cases). In one of the studies, heat flux meters were additionally used. Convection coefficients derived from these meters closely approached the estimated values for only the male subjects. They differed significantly, by about 50%, when compared to the estimated female subjects' data. Regression analysis was performed for just the -10°C ambient temperature, and the range of experimental wind speeds, due to the limited availability of data for other ambient temperatures. The regressed equation was assumed in the form of the equation underlying the "new" wind chill chart. Regressed convection coefficients, which closely duplicated the measured data, were consistently higher than those calculated by this equation, except for one single case. The estimated and currently used convection coefficients are shown to diverge exponentially from each other, as wind speed increases. This finding casts considerable doubts on the validity of the convection coefficients that are used in the computation of the "new" wind chill chart and their applicability to humans in

  17. A novel DNA replication origin identified in the human heat shock protein 70 gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Taira, T; Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Ariga, H

    1994-01-01

    A general and sensitive method for the mapping of initiation sites of DNA replication in vivo, developed by Vassilev and Johnson, has revealed replication origins in the region of simian virus 40 ori, in the regions upstream from the human c-myc gene and downstream from the Chinese hamster dihydrofolate reductase gene, and in the enhancer region of the mouse immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene. Here we report that the region containing the promoter of the human heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene was identified as a DNA replication origin in HeLa cells by this method. Several segments of the region were cloned into pUC19 and examined for autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) activity. The plasmids carrying the segments replicated episomally and semiconservatively when transfected into HeLa cells. The segments of ARS activity contained the sequences previously identified as binding sequences for a c-myc protein complex (T. Taira, Y. Negishi, F. Kihara, S. M. M. Iguchi-Ariga, and H. Ariga, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1130:166-174, 1992). Mutations introduced within the c-myc protein complex binding sequences abolished the ARS activity. Moreover, the ARS plasmids stably replicated at episomal state for a long time in established cell lines. The results suggest that the promoter region of the human hsp70 gene plays a role in DNA replication as well as in transcription. Images PMID:8065368

  18. Cryoenzymology in aqueous media: Micellar solubilized water clusters.

    PubMed

    Douzou, P; Keh, E; Balny, C

    1979-02-01

    Amphiphilic compounds dissolved in nonpolar organic solvents form inverted micelles whose aqueous centers can solubilize relatively large amounts of enzymes. The solutions are homogeneous and optically transparent and have low viscosity and freezing points; they provide unique and favorable systems to perform the main cryoenzymologic studies previously carried out in mixed solvents. The preparation and properties of such micelles are described. The absorbance spectra of cytochrome c at various temperatures from -38 degrees C to 20 degrees C are given. The pH dependence of trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of benzoylarginine ethyl ester in inverted micelles, as well as kinetic properties and activation energy, is described. Some problems are analyzed.

  19. Biodegradation kinetics of phenanthrene solubilized in surfactant micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Grimberg, S.J.; Aitken, M.D.

    1995-12-31

    The biodegradation of phenanthrene solubilized in surfactant micelles was studied using a simple, well-defined laboratory system. The system was designed to evaluate whether phenanthrene present in micelles of the nonionic surfactant Tergitol NP-10 was available to a phenanthrene-degrading bacterium. Results indicate that micellized phenanthrene is essentially unavailable to the microorganism, so that only the phenanthrene present in the aqueous phase is degraded. A modified Michaelis-Menten equation was developed to quantify the effects of surfactant concentration on phenanthrene uptake rates. Experimental data were described well with this equation.

  20. Solubilization of insoluble inorganic phosphate by Burkholderia cepacia DA23 isolated from cultivated soil

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ok-Ryul; Lee, Seung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Keun-Ki; Choi, Yong-Lark

    2008-01-01

    A mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia DA23 has been isolated from cultivated soils. Phosphate-solubilizing activities of the strain against three types of insoluble phosphate were quantitatively determined. When 3% of glucose concentration was used for carbon source, the strain had a marked mineral phosphate-solubilizing activity. Mineral phosphate solubilization was directly related to the pH drop by the strain. Analysis of the culture medium by high pressure liquid chromatography identified gluconic acid as the main organic acid released by Burkholderia cepacia DA23. Gluconic acid production was apparently the result of the glucose dehydrogenase activity and glucose dehydrogenase was affected by phosphate regulation. PMID:24031195

  1. Effect of mild heat stress on the proliferative and differentiative ability of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Choudhery, Mahmood S; Badowski, Michael; Muise, Angela; Harris, David T

    2015-04-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are an attractive candidate for autologous cell therapy, but regenerative potential can be compromised with extensive in vitro cell passaging. Development of viable cell therapies must address the effect of in vitro passaging to maintain overall functionality of expanded MSCs. We examined the effect of repeated mild heat shock on the proliferation and differentiation capability of human adipose-derived MSCs. Adipose tissue MSCs were characterized by means of fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis for expression of CD3, CD14, CD19, CD34, CD44, CD45, CD73, CD90 and CD105. Similarly, the expression of SIRT-1, p16(INK4a) and p21 was determined by means of polymerase chain reaction. Measurements of population doubling, doubling time and superoxide dismutase activity were also determined. Differentiation of expanded MSCs into bone and adipose were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The strategy led to an increase in expression of SIRT-1 concomitant with enhanced viability, proliferation and delayed senescence. The stressed MSCs showed better differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes. The results indicate that mild heat shock could be used to maintain MSC proliferative and differentiation potential. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic predictors for acute experimental cold and heat pain sensitivity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H; Mittal, D P; Iadarola, M J; Dionne, R A

    2006-01-01

    Background The genetic contribution to pain sensitivity underlies a complex composite of parallel pain pathways, multiple mechanisms, and diverse inter‐individual pain experiences and expectations. Methods Variations for genes encoding receptors related to cold and heat sensation, such as transient receptor potential A subtype 1 (TRPA1), M subtype 8 (TRPM8), V subtype 1 (TRPV1), δ opioid receptor subtype 1 (OPRD1), catechol O‐methyltransferase (COMT), and fatty acid amide hydrolyase (FAAH), were investigated in four major ethnic populations. Results We defined 13 haplotype blocks in European Americans, seven blocks in African Americans, seven blocks in Hispanic subjects, and 11 blocks in Asian Americans. Further study in European American subjects found significant associations between short duration cold pain sensitivity and variations in TRPA1, COMT, and FAAH in a gender dependent manner. Our observations demonstrate that genetic variations in TRPA1, COMT, and FAAH contribute gender specifically to individual variations in short duration cold pain sensitivity in a European American cohort. Conclusions The effects of TRPA1 variations on experimental short duration heat pain sensitivity may contribute to inter‐individual variation in pain sensitivity in humans. PMID:16882734

  3. Heat shock protein-based therapeutic strategies against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, B G; Wainberg, M A

    1999-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (hsps) and cyclophilins (CypA) are intracellular chaperone molecules that facilitate protein folding and assembly. These proteins are selectively expressed in cells following exposure to a range of stress stimuli, including viral infection. Hsp species are highly immunogenic, eliciting humoral, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), and natural killer (NK) cell responses against viruses, tumours, and infectious diseases. This review discusses the roles of stress proteins in immunity and viral life cycles, vis-à-vis the development of Hsp-based therapeutic strategies against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Cumulative findings are cited implicating the requirement of CypA in HIV-1 replication and formation of infectious virions. Studies by our group show the upregulated expression of hsp27 and hsp70 during single-cycle HIV infections. These species redistribute to the cell surface following HIV-infection and heat stress, serving as targets for NK and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot studies show that hsp27, hsp70, and hsp78 complex with HIV-1 viral proteins intracellularly. Hsp70, hsp56, and CypA are assembled into HIV-1 virions. The ability of hsps to interact with HIV-1 viral proteins, combined with their inherent adjuvant and immunogenic properties, indicates that hsps may serve as vehicles for antigen delivery and the design of vaccines against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. PMID:10231014

  4. Total Human-Caused Global Ocean Heat Uptake Nearly Doubles During Recent Surface Warming Hiatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleckler, P. J.; Durack, P. J.; Stouffer, R. J.; Johnson, G. C.; Forest, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Formal detection and attribution studies have used observations and climate models to identify an anthropogenic warming signature in the upper (0­-700 m) ocean. Recently, as a result of the so-called surface warming hiatus, there has been considerable interest in global ocean heat content (OHC) changes in the deeper ocean, including natural and anthropogenically forced changes evidenced in observational, modelling, and data re-analysis studies. We rely on OHC change estimates from a diverse collection of measurement systems including data from the 19th Century Challenger expedition, a multi-decadal record of ship-based in-situ mostly upper ocean measurements, the more recent near-global Argo floats profiling to intermediate (2000m) depths, and full-depth repeated transoceanic sections. By diagnosing simulated global OHC changes in historically-forced climate models in three depth layers, we show that the current generation of climate models is broadly consistent with multi-decadal estimates of upper, intermediate (700­-2000m) and deep (2000m - ­bottom) global OHC changes as well as with Argo-based estimates over the most recent period. Our results suggest that nearly half of the 1860-­present human-caused increases in global ocean heat content may have occurred since 1998.

  5. Heat stress increases long-term human migration in rural Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, V.; Gray, C.; Kosec, K.

    2014-03-01

    Human migration attributable to climate events has recently received significant attention from the academic and policy communities . Quantitative evidence on the relationship between individual, permanent migration and natural disasters is limited . A 21-year longitudinal survey conducted in rural Pakistan (1991-2012) provides a unique opportunity to understand the relationship between weather and long-term migration. We link individual-level information from this survey to satellite-derived measures of climate variability and control for potential confounders using a multivariate approach. We find that flooding--a climate shock associated with large relief efforts--has modest to insignificant impacts on migration. Heat stress, however--which has attracted relatively little relief--consistently increases the long-term migration of men, driven by a negative effect on farm and non-farm income. Addressing weather-related displacement will require policies that both enhance resilience to climate shocks and lower barriers to welfare-enhancing population movements.

  6. Balloon angioplasty induces heat shock protein 70 in human blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Kirby, L B; Mondy, J S; Brophy, C M

    1999-09-01

    Balloon angioplasty produces a mechanically induced injury to the blood vessel wall. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is a molecular chaperone whose expression can be induced by chemical or thermal stress. Thus, we hypothesized that the mechanical injury associated with balloon angioplasty would lead to increases in the expression of HSP70 in vascular smooth muscle. Segments of popliteal and trifurcation vessels from above-the-knee amputations were subject to transluminal balloon angioplasty, excised, and placed in organ cultures. Neighboring vessel that was not subjected to balloon angioplasty served as controls. Some vessels were treated with sodium arsenite (positive control, known to induce HSP70 expression). The vessels were homogenized and the proteins were separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to Immobilon. Western blots with an antibody specific for the inducible form of HSP70 were analyzed by densitometry. Our results showed that HSP70 expression can be induced by the mechanical injury associated with balloon angioplasty in human atherosclerotic vessels.

  7. Isolation of a cDNA for HSF 2: Evidence for two heat shock factor genes in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetz, T.J.; Gallo, G.J.; Sheldon, L.; Kingston, R.E. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA ); Tempst, P. )

    1991-08-15

    The heat shock response is transcriptionally regulated by an evolutionarily conserved protein termed heat shock factor (HSF). The authors report the purification to homogeneity and the partial peptide sequence of HSF from HeLa cells. The peptide sequence was used to isolate a human cDNA with a predicted open reading frame that has homology to the DNA binding domains of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila HSFs. The cDNA directs the synthesis of a protein that binds to the heat shock element with specificity identical to HeLa HSF and stimulates transcription from a heat shock promoter. The expressed protein cross-reacts with anti-HSF antibodies. Surprisingly, however, this cDNA does not encode all of the peptides obtained from purified HeLa HSF. These peptides are encoded by a distinct human cDNA. HSF1. It therefore appears that there is a human heat shock factor gene family and that at least two separate but related HSF proteins regulate the stress response in humans.

  8. Modulation of heat shock protein 90 affects TGF-β-induced collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sae Bin; Lim, A-Ram; Rah, Dong Kyun; Kim, Kyung Soo; Min, Hyun Jin

    2016-12-01

    Heat shock protein 90 is a chaperone molecule that aids in proper folding of target proteins. Recently, heat shock protein 90 was found to play a role in would healing through regulation of fibroblast functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of heat shock protein 90 in collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. The effects of transforming growth factor-β, 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, and transfection of heat shock protein 90 were evaluated by real-time PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence assays. The Smad 2/3 and Akt pathways were evaluated to identify the signaling pathways involved in collagen synthesis. Heat shock protein 90 and collagen levels were compared in keloid and control tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. The expression of collagen was significantly increased after treatment with transforming growth factor-β, while 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin inhibited transforming growth factor-β-induced collagen synthesis. Overexpression of heat shock protein 90 itself with or without transforming growth factor-β increased collagen synthesis. These effects were dependent on Smad 2/3 pathway signaling. Finally, expression of heat shock protein 90 was increased in keloid tissue compared with control tissues. Taken together, these results demonstrate that modulation of heat shock protein 90 influences transforming growth factor-β-induced collagen synthesis via regulation of Smad 2/3 phosphorylation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trained humans can exercise safely in extreme dry heat when drinking water ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Noakes, Timothy D; Van Vuuren, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Guidelines to establish safe environmental exercise conditions are partly based on thermal prescriptive zones. Yet there are reports of self-paced human athletic performances in extreme heat. Eighteen participants undertook a 25-km route march in a dry bulb temperature reaching 44.3°C. The mean (± s) age of the participants was 26.0 ± 3.7 years. Their mean ad libitum water intake was 1264 ± 229 mL · h(-1). Predicted sweat rate was 1789 ± 267 mL · h(-1). Despite an average body mass loss of 2.73 ± 0.98 kg, plasma osmolality and serum sodium concentration did not change significantly during exercise. Total body water fell 1.47 kg during exercise. However, change in body mass did not accurately predict changes in total body water as a 1:1 ratio. There was a significant relationship (negative slope) between post-exercise serum sodium concentration and changes in both body mass and percent total body water. There was no relationship between percent body mass loss and peak exercise core temperature (39 ± 0.9°C) or exercise time. We conclude that participants maintained plasma osmolality, serum sodium concentration, and safe core temperatures by (1) adopting a pacing strategy, (2) high rates of ad libitum water intake, and (3) by a small reduction in total body water to maintain serum sodium concentration. Our findings support the hypothesis that humans are the mammals with the greatest capacity for exercising in extreme heat.

  10. Influence of hyperoxia on skin vasomotor control in normothermic and heat-stressed humans.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Takahara, Kazuo; Sone, Ryoko; Johnson, John M

    2007-12-01

    Hyperoxia induces skin vasoconstriction in humans, but the mechanism is still unclear. In the present study we examined whether the vasoconstrictor response to hyperoxia is through activated adrenergic function (protocol 1) or through inhibitory effects on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and/or cyclooxygenase (COX) (protocol 2). We also tested whether any such vasoconstrictor effect is altered by body heating. In protocol 1 (n = 11 male subjects), release of norepinephrine from adrenergic terminals in the forearm skin was blocked locally by iontophoresis of bretylium (BT). In protocol 2, the NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and the nonselective COX antagonist ketorolac (Keto) were separately administered by intradermal microdialysis in 11 male subjects. In the two protocols, subjects breathed 21% (room air) or 100% O(2) in both normothermia and hyperthermia. Skin blood flow (SkBF) was monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as the ratio of SkBF to blood pressure measured by Finapres. In protocol 1, breathing 100% O(2) decreased (P < 0.05) CVC at the BT-treated and at untreated sites from the levels of CVC during 21% O(2) breathing both in normothermia and hyperthermia. In protocol 2, the administration of l-NAME inhibited (P < 0.05) the reduction of CVC during 100% O(2) breathing in both thermal conditions. The administration of Keto inhibited (P < 0.05) the reduction of CVC during 100% O(2) breathing in hyperthermia but not in normothermia. These results suggest that skin vasoconstriction with hyperoxia is partly due to the decreased activity of functional NOS in normothermia and hyperthermia. We found no significant role for adrenergic mechanisms in hyperoxic vasoconstriction. Decreased production of vasodilator prostaglandins may play a role in hyperoxia-induced cutaneous vasoconstriction in heat-stressed humans.

  11. Carotid baroreceptor stimulation alters cutaneous vascular conductance during whole-body heating in humans

    PubMed Central

    Keller, David M; Davis, Scott L; Low, David A; Shibasaki, Manabu; Raven, Peter B; Crandall, Craig G

    2006-01-01

    Prior studies investigating carotid baroreflex control of the cutaneous vasculature have yielded mixed findings. However, previously used methodological and analytical techniques may limit the ability to detect carotid baroreflex-mediated changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dynamic carotid baroreceptor stimulation (i.e. 5 s trials) using neck pressure (NP, simulated carotid hypotension) and neck suction (NS, simulated carotid hypertension) will decrease and increase CVC, respectively, during normothermic and whole-body heating conditions in resting humans. Data were obtained from nine subjects (age, 31 ± 2 year). The ratio of forearm skin blood flux (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and arterial blood pressure (Finapres) was used as an index of CVC. Multiple 5 s trials of NP (+40Torr) and NS (−60Torr), as well as breath-hold/airflow control trials, were applied during end-expiratory breath-holds while subjects were normotheric and heat stressed (change in core temperature ∼0.75°C). CVC responses to each NP and NS trial were averaged into 1 s intervals during the following periods: 3 s prestimulus, 5 s during stimulus, and 5 s poststimulus. Peak CVC responses (3 s average) to NP and NS were compared to prestimulus values using paired t test. During normothermia, NP decreased CVC by 0.032 ± 0.007 arbitrary units (a.u.) mmHg−1; (P < 0.05); however, breath-hold/airflow control trials resulted in similar decreases in CVC. NS did not change CVC (Δ = 0.002 ± 0.005 a.u. mmHg−1; P = 0.63). During whole-body heating, NP decreased CVC (by 0.16 ± 0.04 a.u. mmHg−1; (P < 0.05), whereas NS increased CVC by 0.07 ± 0.03 a.u. mmHg−1; (P < 0.05). Furthermore, these changes were greater than, or directionally different from, the breath-hold/airflow control trials. These findings indicate that carotid baroreceptor stimulation elicits dynamic changes in CVC and that these changes are more apparent during whole

  12. The Rapid-Heat LAMPellet Method: A Potential Diagnostic Method for Human Urogenital Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Vicente, Belén; López-Abán, Julio; Muro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Urogenital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium is a serious underestimated public health problem affecting 112 million people - particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Microscopic examination of urine samples to detect parasite eggs still remains as definitive diagnosis. This work was focussed on developing a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in human urine samples as a high-throughput, simple, accurate and affordable diagnostic tool to use in diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis. Methodology/Principal Findings A LAMP assay targeting a species specific sequence of S. haematobium ribosomal intergenic spacer was designed. The effectiveness of our LAMP was assessed in a number of patients´ urine samples with microscopy confirmed S. haematobium infection. For potentially large-scale application in field conditions, different DNA extraction methods, including a commercial kit, a modified NaOH extraction method and a rapid heating method were tested using small volumes of urine fractions (whole urine, supernatants and pellets). The heating of pellets from clinical samples was the most efficient method to obtain good-quality DNA detectable by LAMP. The detection limit of our LAMP was 1 fg/µL of S. haematobium DNA in urine samples. When testing all patients´ urine samples included in our study, diagnostic parameters for sensitivity and specificity were calculated for LAMP assay, 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 81.32%-100%) and 86.67% specificity (95% CI: 75.40%-94.05%), and also for microscopy detection of eggs in urine samples, 69.23% sensitivity (95% CI: 48.21% -85.63%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 93.08%-100%). Conclusions/Significance We have developed and evaluated, for the first time, a LAMP assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in heated pellets from patients´ urine samples using no complicated requirement procedure for DNA extraction. The procedure has been named the Rapid-Heat

  13. The role of Hsp27 and actin in the regulation of movement in human cancer cells responding to heat shock

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Bindi M.; Hightower, Lawrence E.

    2009-01-01

    Human heat shock 27-kDa protein 1 (HSPB1)/heat shock protein (Hsp) 27 is a small heat shock protein which is thought to have several roles within the cell. One of these roles includes regulating actin filament dynamics in cell movement, since Hsp27 has previously been found to inhibit actin polymerization in vitro. In this study, the role of Hsp27 in regulating actin filament dynamics is further investigated. Hsp27 protein levels were reduced using siRNA in SW480 cells, a human colon cancer cell line. An in vitro wound closure assay showed that cells with knocked down Hsp27 levels were unable to close wounds, indicating that this protein is involved in regulating cell motility. Immunoprecipitation pull down assays were done, to observe if and when Hsp27 and actin are in the same complex within the cell, before and after heat shock. At all time points tested, Hsp27 and actin were present in the same cell lysate fraction. Lastly, indirect immunostaining was done before and after heat shock to evaluate Hsp27 and actin interaction in cells. Hsp27 and actin showed colocalization before heat shock, little association 3 h after heat shock, and increased association 24 h after heat shock. Cytoprotection was observed as early as 3 h after heat shock, yet cells were still able to move. These results show that Hsp27 and actin are in the same complex in cells and that Hsp27 is important for cell motility. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12192-008-0098-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19224398

  14. Dry-heat treatment process for enhancing viral safety of an antihemophilic factor VIII concentrate prepared from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Seop; Choi, Yong Woon; Kang, Yong; Sung, Hark Mo; Shin, Jeong Sup

    2008-05-01

    Viral safety is a prerequisite for manufacturing clinical antihemophilic factor VIII concentrates from human plasma. With particular regard to the hepatitis A virus (HAV), a terminal dry-heat treatment (100 degrees for 30 min) process, following lyophilization, was developed to improve the virus safety of a solvent/detergent-treated antihemophilic factor VIII concentrate. The loss of factor VIII activity during dry-heat treatment was of about 5%. No substantial changes were observed in the physical and biochemical characteristics of the dry-heat-treated factor VIII compared with those of the factor VIII before dry-heat treatment. The dry-heat-treated factor VIII was stable for up to 24 months at 4oC. The dry-heat treatment after lyophilization was an effective process for inactivating viruses. The HAV, murine encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were completely inactivated to below detectable levels within 10 min of the dry-heat treatment. Bovine herpes virus (BHV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were potentially sensitive to the treatment. However porcine parvovirus (PPV) was slightly resistant to the treatment. The log reduction factors achieved during lyophilization and dry-heat treatment were > or =5.55 for HAV, > or =5.87 for EMCV, > or =5.15 for HIV, 6.13 for BHV, 4.46 for BVDV, and 1.90 for PPV. These results indicate that dry-heat treatment improves the virus safety of factor VIII concentrates, without destroying the activity. Moreover, the treatment represents an effective measure for the inactivation of non-lipid-enveloped viruses, in particular HAV, which is resistant to solvent/detergent treatment.

  15. Changes in relative fit of human heat stress indices to cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal hospitalizations across five Australian urban populations.

    PubMed

    Goldie, James; Alexander, Lisa; Lewis, Sophie C; Sherwood, Steven C; Bambrick, Hilary

    2017-09-30

    Various human heat stress indices have been developed to relate atmospheric measures of extreme heat to human health impacts, but the usefulness of different indices across various health impacts and in different populations is poorly understood. This paper determines which heat stress indices best fit hospital admissions for sets of cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal diseases across five Australian cities. We hypothesized that the best indices would be largely dependent on location. We fit parent models to these counts in the summers (November-March) between 2001 and 2013 using negative binomial regression. We then added 15 heat stress indices to these models, ranking their goodness of fit using the Akaike information criterion. Admissions for each health outcome were nearly always higher in hot or humid conditions. Contrary to our hypothesis that location would determine the best-fitting heat stress index, we found that the best indices were related largely by health outcome of interest, rather than location as hypothesized. In particular, heatwave and temperature indices had the best fit to cardiovascular admissions, humidity indices had the best fit to respiratory admissions, and combined heat-humidity indices had the best fit to renal admissions. With a few exceptions, the results were similar across all five cities. The best-fitting heat stress indices appear to be useful across several Australian cities with differing climates, but they may have varying usefulness depending on the outcome of interest. These findings suggest that future research on heat and health impacts, and in particular hospital demand modeling, could better reflect reality if it avoided "all-cause" health outcomes and used heat stress indices appropriate to specific diseases and disease groups.

  16. Solubilization and electrophoretic characterization of select edible nut seed proteins.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Sharma, Girdhari M; Kshirsagar, Harshal H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Roux, Kenneth H

    2009-09-09

    The solubility of almond, Brazil nut, cashew nut, hazelnut, macadamia, pecan, pine nut, pistachio, walnut, and peanut proteins in several aqueous solvents was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. In addition, the effects of extraction time and ionic strength on protein solubility were also investigated. Electrophoresis and protein determination (Lowry, Bradford, and micro-Kjeldahl) methods were used for qualitative and quantitative assessment of proteins, respectively. Depending on the seed, buffer type and ionic strength significantly affected protein solubility. The results suggest that buffered sodium borate (BSB; 0.1 M H(3)BO(3), 0.025 M Na(2)B(4)O(7), 0.075 M NaCl, pH 8.45) optimally solubilizes nut seed proteins. Qualitative differences in seed protein electrophoretic profiles were revealed. For a specific seed type, these differences were dependent on the solvent(s) used to solubilize the seed proteins. SDS-PAGE results suggest the polypeptide molecular mass range for the tree nut seed proteins to be 3-100 kDa. The results of native IEF suggested that the proteins were mainly acidic, with a pI range from >4.5 to <7.0. Western immunoblotting experiments indicated that rabbit polyclonal antibodies recognized substantially the same polypeptides as those recognized by the corresponding pooled patient sera IgE.

  17. Plant plasma membrane protein extraction and solubilization for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    The plasma membrane (PM) exists as the interface between the cytosol and the environment in all living cells and is one of the most complex and differentiated membrane. The identification and characterization of membrane proteins (either extrinsic or intrinsic) is a crucial challenge since many of these proteins are involved in essential cellular functions such as cell signaling, osmoregulation, nutrition, and metabolism. Methods to isolate PM fractions vary according to organisms, tissues, and cell type. This chapter emphasizes isolation, from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, of PM fractions from a microsomal membrane fraction by two-phase partitioning, a methodology that utilizes the different surface properties of membranes. PM proteins that do not span the lipid bilayer are generally well recovered after 2D gel electrophoresis. By contrast, the recovery of transmembrane proteins requires first the depletion of the PM fraction from soluble proteins, being either cytosolic contaminants or functionally associated proteins, and second, to the use of specific solubilization procedures. This chapter presents protocols to strip PM based on alkaline treatment of membranes and to solubilize hydrophobic proteins to increase their recovery on 2D gels. Aquaporins that are highly hydrophobic proteins are used to probe the relevance of the procedures.

  18. Transfer Specificity of Detergent-Solubilized Fenugreek Galactomannan Galactosyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Mary E.; Marshall, Elaine; Gidley, Michael J.; Reid, J.S. Grant

    2002-01-01

    The current experimental model for galactomannan biosynthesis in membrane-bound enzyme systems from developing legume-seed endosperms involves functional interaction between a GDP-mannose (Man) mannan synthase and a UDP-galactose (Gal) galactosyltransferase. The transfer specificity of the galactosyltransferase to the elongating mannan chain is critical in regulating the distribution and the degree of Gal substitution of the mannan backbone of the primary biosynthetic product. Detergent solubilization of the galactosyltransferase of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) with retention of activity permitted the partial purification of the enzyme and the cloning and sequencing of the corresponding cDNA with proof of functional identity. We now document the positional specificity of transfer of (14C)Gal from UDP-(14C)Gal to manno-oligosaccharide acceptors, chain lengths 5 to 8, catalyzed by the detergent-solubilized galactosyltransferase. Enzymatic fragmentation analyses of the labeled products showed that a single Gal residue was transferred per acceptor molecule, that the linkage was (1→6)-α, and that there was transfer to alternative Man residues within the acceptor molecules. Analysis of the relative frequencies of transfer to alternative Man residues within acceptor oligosaccharides of different chain length allowed the deduction of the substrate subsite recognition requirement of the galactosyltransferase. The enzyme has a principal recognition sequence of six Man residues, with transfer of Gal to the third Man residue from the nonreducing end of the sequence. These observations are incorporated into a refined model for enzyme interaction in galactomannan biosynthesis. PMID:12114592

  19. Adenosine receptor inhibition with theophylline attenuates the skin blood flow response to local heating in humans.

    PubMed

    Fieger, Sarah M; Wong, Brett J

    2010-09-01

    Mechanisms underlying the robust cutaneous vasodilatation in response to local heating of human skin remain unresolved. Adenosine receptor activation has been shown to induce vasodilatation via nitric oxide, and a substantial portion of the plateau phase to local heating of human skin has been shown to be dependent on nitric oxide. The purpose of this study was to investigate a potential role for adenosine receptor activation in cutaneous thermal hyperaemia in humans. Six subjects were equipped with four microdialysis fibres on the ventral forearm. Sites were randomly assigned to receive one of the following four treatments: (1) lactated Ringer solution to serve as a control; (2) 4 mM theophylline, a competitive, non-selective A(1)/A(2) adenosine receptor antagonist; (3) 10 mM Nomega(-)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) to inhibit NO synthase; or (4) combined 4 mm theophylline + 10 mM L-NAME. Following baseline measurements, each site was locally heated from a baseline temperature of 33 degrees C to 42 degrees C at a rate of 1 degrees C (10 s)(-1), and skin blood flow was monitored via laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as LDF divided by mean arterial pressure and normalized to maximal values (CVC(max)) via local heating to 43 degrees C and infusion of 28 mM sodium nitroprusside. The initial peak was significantly reduced in theophylline (68 +/- 2% CVC(max)) and L-NAME sites (54 +/- 5% CVC(max)) compared with control sites (81 +/- 2% CVC(max); P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Combined theophylline + L-NAME (52 +/- 5% CVC(max)) reduced the initial peak compared with control and theophylline sites, but was not significantly different compared with L-NAME sites. The secondary plateau was attenuated in theophylline (77 +/- 2% CVC(max)), L-NAME (60 +/- 2% CVC(max)) and theophylline + L-NAME (53 +/- 1% CVC(max)) compared with control sites (94 +/- 2% CVC(max); P < 0.001 for all conditions). The secondary plateau

  20. Impact of Gut Microbiota-Mediated Bile Acid Metabolism on the Solubilization Capacity of Bile Salt Micelles and Drug Solubility.

    PubMed

    Enright, Elaine F; Joyce, Susan A; Gahan, Cormac G M; Griffin, Brendan T

    2017-04-03

    In recent years, the gut microbiome has gained increasing appreciation as a determinant of the health status of the human host. Bile salts that are secreted into the intestine may be biotransformed by enzymes produced by the gut bacteria. To date, bile acid research at the host-microbe interface has primarily been directed toward effects on host metabolism. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of changes in gut microbial bile acid metabolism on the solubilization capacity of bile salt micelles and consequently intraluminal drug solubility. First, the impact of bile acid metabolism, mediated in vivo by the microbial enzymes bile salt hydrolase (BSH) and 7α-dehydroxylase, on drug solubility was assessed by comparing the solubilization capacity of (a) conjugated vs deconjugated and (b) primary vs secondary bile salts. A series of poorly water-soluble drugs (PWSDs) were selected as model solutes on the basis of an increased tendency to associate with bile micelles. Subsequently, PWSD solubility and dissolution was evaluated in conventional biorelevant simulated intestinal fluid containing host-derived bile acids, as well as in media modified to contain microbial bile acid metabolites. The findings suggest that deconjugation of the bile acid steroidal core, as dictated by BSH activity, influences micellar solubilization capacity for some PWSDs; however, these differences appear to be relatively minor. In contrast, the extent of bile acid hydroxylation, regulated by microbial 7α-dehydroxylase, was found to significantly affect the solubilization capacity of bile salt micelles for all nine drugs studied (p < 0.05). Subsequent investigations in biorelevant media containing either the trihydroxy bile salt sodium taurocholate (TCA) or the dihydroxy bile salt sodium taurodeoxycholate (TDCA) revealed altered drug solubility and dissolution. Observed differences in biorelevant media appeared to be both drug- and amphiphile (bile salt/lecithin) concentration

  1. Heat-Denatured Lysozyme Inactivates Murine Norovirus as a Surrogate Human Norovirus.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hajime; Nakazawa, Moemi; Ohshima, Chihiro; Sato, Miki; Tsuchiya, Tomoki; Takeuchi, Akira; Kunou, Masaaki; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2015-07-02

    Human norovirus infects humans through the consumption of contaminated food, contact with the excrement or vomit of an infected person, and through airborne droplets that scatter the virus through the air. Being highly infectious and highly viable in the environment, inactivation of the norovirus requires a highly effective inactivating agent. In this study, we have discovered the thermal denaturing capacity of a lysozyme with known antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, as well as its inactivating effect on murine norovirus. This study is the first report on the norovirus-inactivating effects of a thermally denatured lysozyme. We observed that lysozymes heat-treated for 40 min at 100 °C caused a 4.5 log reduction in infectivity of norovirus. Transmission electron microscope analysis showed that virus particles exposed to thermally denatured lysozymes were expanded, compared to the virus before exposure. The amino acid sequence of the lysozyme was divided into three sections and the peptides of each artificially synthesised, in order to determine the region responsible for the inactivating effect. These results suggest that thermal denaturation of the lysozyme changes the protein structure, activating the region responsible for imparting an inactivating effect against the virus.

  2. Antibacterial activity of recombinant human lactoferrin from rice: effect of heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Celia; Rota, Carmen; Castillo, Eduardo; Pérez, María-Dolores; Calvo, Miguel; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2009-06-01

    The antibacterial activity of recombinant human lactoferrin from rice (rhLF) compared with that of human milk lactoferrin (hLF) was evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes. The hydrolysates of rhLF and hLF were found to be more active than native proteins against E. coli O157:H7, and their activity was independent of their iron saturation. The effect of different heat treatments on the antibacterial activity of apo-rhLF was studied and compared with hLF. We observed that an HTST pasteurization treatment did not affect the antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin against the pathogens studied. Furthermore, the activity of apo-rhLF and hLF against E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes in UHT milk and whey was assayed, finding a decrease in the number of bacteria, although lower than that observed in a broth medium. This study shows the similar antibacterial activity of rhLF and hLF which is important in order to consider the addition of rhLF as a supplement in special products.

  3. Sequential hydrophile and lipophile solubilization as an efficient method for decellularization of porcine aortic valve leaflets: structure, mechanical property and biocompatibility study.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wei-Hua; Liu, Peng; Hu, Dan; Al Shirbini, Mahmoud; Zhou, Xian-Ming; Dong, Nian-Guo

    2016-12-13

    Antigenicity of xenogeneic tissues is the major obstacle to increased utilization of these materials in clinical medicine. Residual xenoantigens in decellularized tissue elicit the immune response after implantation, causing graft failure. With this in mind, we proposed the potential use of three protein solubilization-based protocols for porcine aortic valve leaflets decellularization. We demonstrated that hydrophile solubilization alone (HSA) achieved incomplete decellularization; lipophile solubilization alone (LSA) completely removed all cells and two most critical xenoantigens, galactose-α(1,3)-galactose (α-Gal) and major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I), but caused severe alterations of the structure and mechanical properties; sequential hydrophile and lipophile solubilization (SHLS) resulted in a complete removal of cells, α-Gal and MHC I, and a well preservation of the structure and mechanical properties; in contrast, a previously reported method using Triton X-100, sodium deoxycholate and IGEPAL CA-630 (TSI) resulted in a complete removal of all cells and MHC I, but with remaining α-Gal epitope. Moreover, LSA- and SHLS-treated leaflets showed significantly reduced leucocyte activation (polymorphonuclear elastase) upon interaction with human blood in vitro. When implanted subdermally in rats for 6 weeks, LSA- or SHLS-treated leaflets were presented with more biocompatible implants and all four decellularized leaflets were highly resistant to calcification. These findings illustrated that the SHLS protocol could be considered as a promising decellularization method for the decellularization of xenogeneic tissues in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  4. Effect of organic acids production and bacterial community on the possible mechanism of phosphorus solubilization during composting with enriched phosphate-solubilizing bacteria inoculation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Mingzi; Cao, Zhenyu; Lu, Qian; Yang, Tianxue; Fan, Yuying; Wei, Zimin

    2017-09-19

    Enriched phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) agent were acquired by domesticated cultivation, and inoculated into kitchen waste composting in different stages. The effect of different treatments on organic acids production, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilization and their relationship with bacterial community were investigated during composting. Our results pointed out that inoculation affected pH, total acidity and the production of oxalic, lactic, citric, succinic, acetic and formic acids. We also found a strong advantage in the solubilization of TCP and phosphorus (P) availability for PSB inoculation especially in the cooling stage. Redundancy analysis and structural equation models demonstrated inoculation by different methods changed the correlation of the bacterial community composition with P fractions as well as organic acids, and strengthened the cooperative function related to P transformation among species during composting. Finally, we proposed a possible mechanism of P solubilization with enriched PSB inoculation, which was induced by bacterial community and organic acids production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcriptional Activation of a Constitutive Heterochromatic Domain of the Human Genome in Response to Heat ShockD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Rizzi, Nicoletta; Denegri, Marco; Chiodi, Ilaria; Corioni, Margherita; Valgardsdottir, Rut; Cobianchi, Fabio; Riva, Silvano; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    Heat shock triggers the assembly of nuclear stress bodies that contain heat shock factor 1 and a subset of RNA processing factors. These structures are formed on the pericentromeric heterochromatic regions of specific human chromosomes, among which chromosome 9. In this article we show that these heterochromatic domains are characterized by an epigenetic status typical of euchromatic regions. Similarly to transcriptionally competent portions of the genome, stress bodies are, in fact, enriched in acetylated histone H4. Acetylation peaks at 6 h of recovery from heat shock. Moreover, heterochromatin markers, such as HP1 and histone H3 methylated on lysine 9, are excluded from these nuclear districts. In addition, heat shock triggers the transient accumulation of RNA molecules, heterogeneous in size, containing the subclass of satellite III sequences found in the pericentromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 9. This is the first report of a transcriptional activation of a constitutive heterochromatic portion of the genome in response to stress stimuli. PMID:14617804

  6. Immunolocalization of heat shock protein 27 in developing jaw bones and tooth germs of human fetuses.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, R; Barbato, E; Paganelli, C; Lo Muzio, L

    2004-12-01

    27 kDa Heat shock protein (Hsp27), which is also identified as p29 estrogen-receptor associated protein, plays a crucial role in specific growth stages. It also seems to be involved in the balance between differentiation and apoptosis. To determine whether Hsp27 is involved during craniofacial development and odontogenesis, its expression was studied through immunohistochemistry of developing jaw bone as well as the odontogenesis of heads from human fetuses. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of 7 human fetuses (3 female, 4 male), obtained from miscarriages occurring between the 9th and 16th weeks of pregnancy, were examined by using a monoclonal antibody against Hsp27. Staining intensity (weak, +; moderate, ++; strong, +++) was evaluated semiquantitatively. The sample slice was cut through a coronal plane, which included eyes, nasal cavities, tongue, and primitive dental lamina with tooth germs. A transient and spatially restricted expression of Hsp27 in developing human jaw bones and teeth was observed. Osteoblasts around the uncalcified bone matrix showed Hsp27 immunoreaction products (+++), whereas osteocytes were not immunolabeled. In mandibular condyle, immunolabeling was restricted to hypertrophic chondrocytes (++). In developing tooth germs, Hsp27 immunostaining was detected throughout the bud (+++). At the early cap stage, a strong immunolabeling for Hsp27 was seen in the dental lamina (+++), and a moderate staining was seen in the outer dental epithelium (++). At the late cap stage, Hsp27 expression was detected in the outer dental epithelium (++) as well as in the cells of the future stellate reticulum (++). The spatiotemporal-restricted expression of Hsp27 in craniofacial bones during development suggests that this protein could be involved in the balance between differentiation and apoptosis, by modulating the viability of osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The specific regional and temporal expression patterns of Hsp27 during tooth development

  7. Structure-mechanical function relations at nano-scale in heat-affected human dental tissue.

    PubMed

    Sui, Tan; Sandholzer, Michael A; Le Bourhis, Eric; Baimpas, Nikolaos; Landini, Gabriel; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2014-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanical properties of dental materials related to their hierarchical structure is essential for understanding and predicting the effect of microstructural alterations on the performance of dental tissues in the context of forensic and archaeological investigation as well as laser irradiation treatment of caries. So far, few studies have focused on the nano-scale structure-mechanical function relations of human teeth altered by chemical or thermal treatment. The response of dental tissues to thermal treatment is thought to be strongly affected by the mineral crystallite size, their spatial arrangement and preferred orientation. In this study, synchrotron-based small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques were used to investigate the micro-structural alterations (mean crystalline thickness, crystal perfection and degree of alignment) of heat-affected dentine and enamel in human dental teeth. Additionally, nanoindentation mapping was applied to detect the spatial and temperature-dependent nano-mechanical properties variation. The SAXS/WAXS results revealed that the mean crystalline thickness distribution in dentine was more uniform compared with that in enamel. Although in general the mean crystalline thickness increased both in dentine and enamel as the temperature increased, the local structural variations gradually reduced. Meanwhile, the hardness and reduced modulus in enamel decreased as the temperature increased, while for dentine, the tendency reversed at high temperature. The analysis of the correlation between the ultrastructure and mechanical properties coupled with the effect of temperature demonstrates the effect of mean thickness and orientation on the local variation of mechanical property. This structural-mechanical property alteration is likely to be due to changes of HAp crystallites, thus dentine and enamel exhibit different responses at different temperatures. Our results enable an improved understanding of

  8. Heat Capacity Changes for Transition-State Analogue Binding and Catalysis with Human 5'-Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Firestone, Ross S; Cameron, Scott A; Karp, Jerome M; Arcus, Vickery L; Schramm, Vern L

    2017-02-17

    Human 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) catalyzes the phosphorolysis of 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA). Its action regulates cellular MTA and links polyamine synthesis to S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) salvage. Transition state analogues with picomolar dissociation constants bind to MTAP in an entropically driven process at physiological temperatures, suggesting increased hydrophobic character or dynamic structure for the complexes. Inhibitor binding exhibits a negative heat capacity change (-ΔCp), and thus the changes in enthalpy and entropy upon binding are strongly temperature-dependent. The ΔCp of inhibitor binding by isothermal titration calorimetry does not follow conventional trends and is contrary to that expected from the hydrophobic effect. Thus, ligands of increasing hydrophobicity bind with increasing values of ΔCp. Crystal structures of MTAP complexed to transition-state analogues MT-DADMe-ImmA, BT-DADMe-ImmA, PrT-ImmA, and a substrate analogue, MT-tubercidin, reveal similar active site contacts and overall protein structural parameters, despite large differences in ΔCp for binding. In addition, ΔCp values are not correlated with Kd values. Temperature dependence of presteady state kinetics revealed the chemical step for the MTAP reaction to have a negative heat capacity for transition state formation (-ΔCp(‡)). A comparison of the ΔCp(‡) for MTAP presteady state chemistry and ΔCp for inhibitor binding revealed those transition-state analogues most structurally and thermodynamically similar to the transition state. Molecular dynamics simulations of MTAP apoenzyme and complexes with MT-DADMe-ImmA and MT-tubercidin show small, but increased dynamic motion in the inhibited complexes. Variable temperature CD spectroscopy studies for MTAP-inhibitor complexes indicate remarkable protein thermal stability (to Tm = 99 °C) in complexes with transition-state analogues.

  9. PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70-KILODALTON HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM
    IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70 kDa HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2

    * Gabor Huszar1, Kathryn Stone2, David Dix3 and Lynne Vigue1
    1The Sperm Physiology Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2 W.M. Keck Foundatio...

  10. PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70-KILODALTON HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM
    IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70 kDa HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2

    * Gabor Huszar1, Kathryn Stone2, David Dix3 and Lynne Vigue1
    1The Sperm Physiology Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2 W.M. Keck Foundatio...

  11. New inhibitor targeting human transcription factor HSF1: effects on the heat shock response and tumor cell survival.

    PubMed

    Vilaboa, Nuria; Boré, Alba; Martin-Saavedra, Francisco; Bayford, Melanie; Winfield, Natalie; Firth-Clark, Stuart; Kirton, Stewart B; Voellmy, Richard

    2017-03-21

    Comparative modeling of the DNA-binding domain of human HSF1 facilitated the prediction of possible binding pockets for small molecules and definition of corresponding pharmacophores. In silico screening of a large library of lead-like compounds identified a set of compounds that satisfied the pharmacophoric criteria, a selection of which compounds was purchased to populate a biased sublibrary. A discriminating cell-based screening assay identified compound 001, which was subjected to systematic analysis of structure-activity relationships, resulting in the development of compound 115 (IHSF115). IHSF115 bound to an isolated HSF1 DNA-binding domain fragment. The compound did not affect heat-induced oligomerization, nuclear localization and specific DNA binding but inhibited the transcriptional activity of human HSF1, interfering with the assembly of ATF1-containing transcription complexes. IHSF115 was employed to probe the human heat shock response at the transcriptome level. In contrast to earlier studies of differential regulation in HSF1-naïve and -depleted cells, our results suggest that a large majority of heat-induced genes is positively regulated by HSF1. That IHSF115 effectively countermanded repression in a significant fraction of heat-repressed genes suggests that repression of these genes is mediated by transcriptionally active HSF1. IHSF115 is cytotoxic for a variety of human cancer cell lines, multiple myeloma lines consistently exhibiting high sensitivity.

  12. Improved Solubilization of Surface Proteins from Listeria monocytogenes for Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solubilization of bacterial surface (cell wall and membrane-associated) proteins for 2-DE is challenging, particularly in the case of Gram-positive bacteria. This is primarily due to strong protein association with the cell wall peptidoglycan and protein hydrophobicity. We solubilized surface protei...

  13. Effect of an organophosphate pesticide, monocrotophos, on phosphate-solubilizing efficiency of soil fungal isolates.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rachna; Garg, Veena; Saxena, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    Soil is a sink of pesticide residues as well as microorganisms. Fungi are well known for solubilization of inorganic phosphates, and this activity of fungal isolates may be affected by the presence of pesticide residues in the soil. In the present study, five generically different fungal isolates, viz. Aspergillus niger JQ660373, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium aculeatum JQ660374, Fusarium pallidoroseum and Macrophomina sp., were tested and compared for their phosphate-solubilizing ability in the absence and presence of monocrotophos (500 mg L(-1)). After 168 h of incubation, four times high amount of tricalcium phosphate was solubilized by isolates in the growth medium containing monocrotophos in comparison to control (without monocrotophos). Concurrently, 78 % of the applied monocrotophos was degraded by these fungal isolates. Kinetics of phosphate solubilization shifted from logarithmic to power model in the presence of monocrotophos. Similarly, the phosphatase activity was also found significantly high in the presence of monocrotophos. The combined order of phosphate solubilization as well as monocrotophos degradation was found to be A. niger JQ660373 > P. aculeatum JQ660374 > A. flavus > F. pallidoroseum > Macrophomina sp. On the contrary, phosphate solubilization negatively correlated with the pH of the growth medium. Hence, it could be concluded that these fungal species efficiently solubilize inorganic phosphates and monocrotophos poses a positive effect on their ability and in turn degraded by them. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on P solubilization by Macrophomina sp. and F. pallidoroseum.

  14. Solubilization of benomyl for xylem injection in vascular wilt disease control

    Treesearch

    Percy McWain; Garold F. Gregory; Garold F. Gregory

    1971-01-01

    Benomyl, in varying amounts, was solubilized in several solvents, thus allowing injection into trees for fungus disease prevention and therapy. A large amount of benomyl can be solubilized in diluted lactic acid. The resulting solution can be infinitely diluted with water without pre-cipitation. These characteristics make it the current solution of choice for our tree...

  15. The mechanism of detergent solubilization of liposomes and protein-containing membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Kragh-Hansen, U; le Maire, M; Møller, J V

    1998-01-01

    The present study explores intermediate stages in detergent solubilization of liposomes and Ca2+-ATPase membranes by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and medium-sized ( approximately C12) nonionic detergents. In all cases detergent partitioning in the membranes precedes cooperative binding and solubilization, which is facilitated by exposure to detergent micelles. Nonionic detergents predominantly interact with the lipid component of Ca2+-ATPase membranes below the CMC (critical micellar concentration), whereas SDS extracts Ca2+-ATPase before solubilization of lipid. At the transition to cooperative binding, n-dodecyl octaethylene glycol monoether (C12E8), Triton X-100, and dodecyldimethylamine oxide induce fusion of small unilamellar liposomes to larger vesicles before solubilization. Solubilization of Ca2+-ATPase membranes is accompanied by membrane fragmentation and aggregation rather than vesicle fusion. Detergents with strongly hydrophilic heads (SDS and beta-D-dodecylmaltoside) only very slowly solubilize liposomal membranes and do not cause liposome fusion. These properties are correlated with a slow bilayer flip-flop. Our data suggest that detergent solubilization proceeds by a combination of 1) a transbilayer attack, following flip-flop of detergent molecules across the lipid bilayer, and 2) extraction of membrane components directly by detergent micelles. The present study should help in the design of efficient solubilization protocols, accomplishing the often delicate balance between preserving functional properties of detergent sensitive membrane proteins and minimizing secondary aggregation and lipid content. PMID:9826614

  16. Improving the aqueous solubility of triclosan by solubilization, complexation, and in situ salt formation.

    PubMed

    Grove, Christine; Liebenberg, Wilna; du Preez, Jan L; Yang, Wenzhan; de Villiers, Melgardt M

    2003-01-01

    Triclosan, an antimicrobial, although widely incorporated into many skin care products, toothpastes, and liquid soaps, presents formulation difficulties because it is practically insoluble in water. The objective of this study was to improve the aqueous solubility of triclosan through solubilization, complexation, and salt formation. The solubility of triclosan in distilled water and in phosphate buffers (pH 7.4) was determined at 30 degrees C. The order of solubilizing performance of the solubilizers was: N-methylglucamine> or =L-arginine>sodium lauryl sulfate>beta-cyclodextrin> or =hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin>ethanolamine>sodium benzoate>sodium methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate>triethanolamine> or =diethanolamine. These solubilizers increased the solubility of triclosan from 80- to 6000-fold. Micellar solubilization and the formation of either salts or complexes are postulated as possible mechanisms for the increase in the solubility of triclosan by the surfactant sodium lauryl sulphate, the cyclic sugar derivatives beta-cyclodextrin and 2-hydropropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, the amino acid L-arginine, and the amino sugar alcohol N-methylglucamine. Furthermore, although the bacteriostatic efficacy of triclosan was significantly increased when solubilized with N-methylglucamine, L-arginine, and ethanolamine, increased solubilization did not increase the effectiveness of triclosan for all solubilizers tested.

  17. Carbon and Nitrogen Sources Influence Tricalcium Phosphate Solubilization and Extracellular Phosphatase Activity by Talaromyces flavus.

    PubMed

    Stefanoni Rubio, P J; Godoy, M S; Della Mónica, I F; Pettinari, M J; Godeas, A M; Scervino, J M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study phosphate (P) solubilization (and the processes involved in this event) by Talaromyces flavus (BAFC 3125) as a function of carbon and/or nitrogen sources. P solubilization was evaluated in NBRIP media supplemented with different carbon (glucose, sorbitol, sucrose, and fructose) and nitrogen (L-asparagine, urea, ammonium sulfate (AS), and ammonium nitrate (AN) combinations. The highest P solubilization was related to the highest organic acid production (especially gluconic acid) and pH drop for those treatments where glucose was present. Also P solubilization was higher when an inorganic nitrogen source was supplemented to the media when compared to an organic one. Although not being present an organic P source, phosphatase activity was observed. This shows that P mineralization and P solubilization can occur simultaneously, and that P mineralization is not induced by the enzyme substrate. The combination that showed highest P solubilization was for AN-glucose. The highest acid phosphatase activity was for AS-fructose, while for alkaline phosphatase were for AS-fructose and AN-fructose. Acid phosphatase activity was higher than alkaline. P solubilization and phosphatase activity (acid and alkaline) were influenced by the different carbon-nitrogen combinations. A better understanding of phosphate-solubilizing fungi could bring a better use of soil P.

  18. Partitioning of ethoxylated nonionic surfactants into nonaqueous-phase organic liquids: Influence on solubilization behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, J.B.; Kibbey, T.C.G.; Cowell, M.A.; Hayes, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of surfactants to enhance the apparent aqueous solubilities of nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants has increased interest in surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) applications. This study examines the effect of surfactant partitioning on surfactant solubilization efficiency by analyzing the solubilization of several chlorinated NAPLs by a homologous series of linear alcohol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants. In general, it is found that the partitioning of surfactants can, especially in the cases of polar NAPLs, lead to substantial losses of surfactant, leaving little surfactant remaining in aqueous solution for solubilization. More importantly, it is found that neglecting surfactant partitioning can produce artifacts in the measured solubilization capacities of surfactants for NAPLs. For example, when surfactant partitioning is neglected, measurements of the solubilization capacity for homologous series of surfactants are often observed to produce a maximum solubilization capacity as a function of the surfactant hydrophile--lipophile balance number (HLB). The work described here demonstrates that the observed maximum solubilization capacity can result from neglecting partitioning of the surfactant into the NAPL. When solubilization capacity is calculated based on the amount of aqueous surfactant present after partitioning losses, no maximum is observed. The implications of this work for aquifer remediation are discussed.

  19. Biochar enhances Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization by increasing organic acid production and alleviating fluoride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2014-05-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F(-)) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F(-) adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F(-) released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F(-) while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F(-) measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F(-) per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter(-1) to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F(-) sink during RP solubilization and led to an F(-) concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F(-) and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F(-), the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP.

  20. Direct solubilization of enzyme aggregates with enhanced activity in nonaqueous media.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Umar; Aschenbrenner, Carl D; Harper, Michael R; Johnson, Harvey R; Dordick, Jonathan S; Clark, Douglas S

    2007-04-15

    A protein solubilization method has been developed to directly solubilize protein clusters into organic solvents containing small quantities of surfactant and trace amounts of water. Termed "direct solubilization," this technique was shown to solubilize three distinct proteins - subtilisin Carlsberg, lipase B from Candida antarctica, and soybean peroxidase - with much greater efficiencies than extraction of the protein from aqueous solution into surfactant-containing organic solvents (referred to as extraction). More significant, however, was the dramatic increase in directly solubilized enzyme activity relative to extracted enzyme activity, particularly for subtilisin and lipase in polar organic solvents. For example, in THF the initial rate towards bergenin transesterification was ca. 70 times higher for directly solubilized subtilisin than for the extracted enzyme. Furthermore, unlike their extracted counterparts, the directly solubilized enzymes yielded high product conversions across a spectrum of non-polar and polar solvents. Structural characterization of the solubilized enzymes via light scattering and atomic force microscopy revealed soluble proteins consisting of active enzyme aggregates containing approximately 60 and 100 protein molecules, respectively, for subtilisin and lipase. Formation of such clusters appears to provide a microenvironment conducive to catalysis and, in polar organic solvents at least, may protect the enzyme from solvent-induced inactivation.

  1. Fluoride-tolerant mutants of Aspergillus niger show enhanced phosphate solubilization capacity.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ubiana de Cássia; Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Silva, Nina Morena R M; Duarte, Josiane Leal; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2014-01-01

    P-solubilizing microorganisms are a promising alternative for a sustainable use of P against a backdrop of depletion of high-grade rock phosphates (RPs). Nevertheless, toxic elements present in RPs, such as fluorine, can negatively affect microbial solubilization. Thus, this study aimed at selecting Aspergillus niger mutants efficient at P solubilization in the presence of fluoride (F-). The mutants were obtained by exposition of conidia to UV light followed by screening in a medium supplemented with Ca3(PO4)2 and F-. The mutant FS1-555 showed the highest solubilization in the presence of F-, releasing approximately 70% of the P contained in Ca3(PO4)2, a value 1.7 times higher than that obtained for the wild type (WT). The mutant FS1-331 showed improved ability of solubilizing fluorapatites, increasing the solubilization of Araxá, Catalão, and Patos RPs by 1.7, 1.6, and 2.5 times that of the WT, respectively. These mutants also grew better in the presence of F-, indicating that mutagenesis allowed the acquisition of F- tolerance. Higher production of oxalic acid by FS1-331 correlated with its improved capacity for RP solubilization. This mutant represents a significant improvement and possess a high potential for application in solubilization systems with fluoride-rich phosphate sources.

  2. Behavior of inorganic elements during sludge ozonation and their effects on sludge solubilization.

    PubMed

    Sui, Pengzhe; Nishimura, Fumitake; Nagare, Hideaki; Hidaka, Taira; Nakagawa, Yuko; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    The behavior of inorganic elements (including phosphorus, nitrogen, and metals) during sludge ozonation was investigated using batch tests and the effects of metals on sludge solubilization were elucidated. A decrease of ∼ 50% in the ratio of sludge solubilization was found to relate to a high iron content 80-120 mgFe/gSS than that of 4.7-7.4 mgFe/gSS. During sludge ozonation, the pH decreased from 7 to 5, which resulted in the dissolution of chemically precipitated metals and phosphorus. Based on experimental results and thermodynamic calculation, phosphate precipitated by iron and aluminum was more difficult to release while that by calcium released with decrease in pH. The release of barium, manganese, and chrome did not exceed 10% and was much lower than COD solubilization; however, that of nickel, copper, and zinc was similar to COD solubilization. The ratio of nitrogen solubilization was 1.2 times higher than that of COD solubilization (R(2)=0.85). Of the total nitrogen solubilized, 80% was organic nitrogen. Because of their high accumulation potential and negative effect on sludge solubilization, high levels of iron and aluminum in both sewage and sludge should be considered carefully for the application of the advanced sewage treatment process with sludge ozonation and phosphorus crystallization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fluoride-Tolerant Mutants of Aspergillus niger Show Enhanced Phosphate Solubilization Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ubiana de Cássia; Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Silva, Nina Morena R. M.; Duarte, Josiane Leal; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2014-01-01

    P-solubilizing microorganisms are a promising alternative for a sustainable use of P against a backdrop of depletion of high-grade rock phosphates (RPs). Nevertheless, toxic elements present in RPs, such as fluorine, can negatively affect microbial solubilization. Thus, this study aimed at selecting Aspergillus niger mutants efficient at P solubilization in the presence of fluoride (F−). The mutants were obtained by exposition of conidia to UV light followed by screening in a medium supplemented with Ca3(PO4)2 and F−. The mutant FS1-555 showed the highest solubilization in the presence of F−, releasing approximately 70% of the P contained in Ca3(PO4)2, a value 1.7 times higher than that obtained for the wild type (WT). The mutant FS1-331 showed improved ability of solubilizing fluorapatites, increasing the solubilization of Araxá, Catalão, and Patos RPs by 1.7, 1.6, and 2.5 times that of the WT, respectively. These mutants also grew better in the presence of F−, indicating that mutagenesis allowed the acquisition of F− tolerance. Higher production of oxalic acid by FS1-331 correlated with its improved capacity for RP solubilization. This mutant represents a significant improvement and possess a high potential for application in solubilization systems with fluoride-rich phosphate sources. PMID:25310310

  4. The mechanism of detergent solubilization of liposomes and protein-containing membranes.

    PubMed

    Kragh-Hansen, U; le Maire, M; Møller, J V

    1998-12-01

    The present study explores intermediate stages in detergent solubilization of liposomes and Ca2+-ATPase membranes by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and medium-sized ( approximately C12) nonionic detergents. In all cases detergent partitioning in the membranes precedes cooperative binding and solubilization, which is facilitated by exposure to detergent micelles. Nonionic detergents predominantly interact with the lipid component of Ca2+-ATPase membranes below the CMC (critical micellar concentration), whereas SDS extracts Ca2+-ATPase before solubilization of lipid. At the transition to cooperative binding, n-dodecyl octaethylene glycol monoether (C12E8), Triton X-100, and dodecyldimethylamine oxide induce fusion of small unilamellar liposomes to larger vesicles before solubilization. Solubilization of Ca2+-ATPase membranes is accompanied by membrane fragmentation and aggregation rather than vesicle fusion. Detergents with strongly hydrophilic heads (SDS and beta-D-dodecylmaltoside) only very slowly solubilize liposomal membranes and do not cause liposome fusion. These properties are correlated with a slow bilayer flip-flop. Our data suggest that detergent solubilization proceeds by a combination of 1) a transbilayer attack, following flip-flop of detergent molecules across the lipid bilayer, and 2) extraction of membrane components directly by detergent micelles. The present study should help in the design of efficient solubilization protocols, accomplishing the often delicate balance between preserving functional properties of detergent sensitive membrane proteins and minimizing secondary aggregation and lipid content.

  5. Cocrystal Transition Points: Role of Cocrystal Solubility, Drug Solubility, and Solubilizing Agents.

    PubMed

    Lipert, Maya P; Rodríguez-Hornedo, Naír

    2015-10-05

    In this manuscript we bring together concepts that are relevant to the solubilization and thermodynamic stability of cocrystals in the presence of drug solubilizing agents. Simple equations are derived that allow calculation of cocrystal solubilization and transition point solubility. Analysis of 10 cocrystals in 6 different solubilizing agents shows that cocrystal solubilization is quantitatively predicted from drug solubilization. Drug solubilizing agents such as surfactants and lipid-based media are also shown to induce cocrystal transition points, where drug and cocrystal solubilities are equal, and above which the cocrystal solubility advantage over drug is eliminated. We have discovered that cocrystal solubility at the transition point (S*) is independent of solubilizing agent, and can be predicted from knowledge of only the aqueous solubilities of drug and cocrystal. For 1:1 cocrystals, S* = (Scocrystal,aq)(2)/Sdrug,aq. S* is a key indicator of cocrystal thermodynamic stability and establishes the upper solubility limit below which cocrystal is more soluble than the constituent drug. These findings have important implications to tailor cocrystal solubility and stability in pharmaceutical formulations from commonly available drug solubility descriptors.

  6. Thermotolerance and heat acclimation may share a common mechanism in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gillum, Trevor; Dokladny, Karol; Bedrick, Edward; Schneider, Suzanne; Moseley, Pope

    2011-01-01

    Thermotolerance and heat acclimation are key adaptation processes that have been hitherto viewed as separate phenomena. Here, we provide evidence that these processes may share a common basis, as both may potentially be governed by the heat shock response. We evaluated the effects of a heat shock response-inhibitor (quercetin; 2,000 mg/day) on established markers of thermotolerance [gastrointestinal barrier permeability, plasma TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations, and leukocyte heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) content]. Heat acclimation reduced body temperatures, heart rate, and physiological strain during exercise/heat stress) in male subjects (n = 8) completing a 7-day heat acclimation protocol. These same subjects completed an identical protocol under placebo supplementation (placebo). Gastrointestinal barrier permeability and TNF-α were increased on the 1st day of exercise/heat stress in quercetin; no differences in these variables were reported in placebo. Exercise HSP70 responses were increased, and plasma cytokines (IL-6, IL-10) were decreased on the 7th day of heat acclimation in placebo; with concomitant reductions in exercise body temperatures, heart rate, and physiological strain. In contrast, gastrointestinal barrier permeability remained elevated, HSP70 was not increased, and IL-6, IL-10, and exercise body temperatures were not reduced on the 7th day of heat acclimation in quercetin. While exercise heart rate and physiological strain were reduced in quercetin, this occurred later in exercise than with placebo. Consistent with the concept that thermotolerance and heat acclimation are related through the heat shock response, repeated exercise/heat stress increases cytoprotective HSP70 and reduces circulating cytokines, contributing to reductions in cellular and systemic markers of heat strain. Exercising under a heat shock response-inhibitor prevents both cellular and systemic heat adaptations. PMID:21613575

  7. The formulation of Halofantrine as either non-solubilizing PEG 6000 or solubilizing lipid based solid dispersions: physical stability and absolute bioavailability assessment.

    PubMed

    Khoo, S M; Porter, C J; Charman, W N

    2000-09-15

    A non-solubilizing solid dispersion formulation (polyethylene glycol 6000) and two solubilizing solid dispersions (Vitamin E TPGS and a Gelucire 44/14/Vitamin E TPGS blend) containing the antimalarial, Halofantrine (Hf), were formulated for bioavailability assessment in fasted beagles to determine if the oral absorption of Hf can be enhanced by these delivery systems. Solid dispersions comprising varying proportions of drug to carrier were prepared by the fusion method. Whilst the non-solubilizing formulation was assessed according to its dispersion characteristics, the solubilizing solid dispersions were assessed by their ability to form microemulsions upon dispersion. Studies in fasted beagles showed that the solid dispersions afforded a five- to seven-fold improvement in absolute oral bioavailability when compared with the commercially available tablet formulation. The delivery of Hf in either a solubilizing or non-solubilizing solid dispersion did not result in significant differences in oral bioavailability. The physical stability of the solid dispersions was studied using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction.

  8. [Study on the solubilization of O/W microemulsion for volatile oil].

    PubMed

    Yi, Hong; Yang, Hua; Deng, Mao

    2008-06-01

    To study the solubilization of O/W microemulsion system for volatile oil. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were prepared by using the method of titration, then investigating the solubilization of microemulsion system for different kind of volatile oil was investigated with the diagrams, and the effect of the formulation of microemulsion on the solubilization of Citrus sinensis oil were studied. Kinds of volatile oil have an accelerated solubility in the microemulsion system. The species and dosage of oil phase and surfactant could influence the solubilization of microemulsion on Citrus sinensis oil. It is recommended to select a new method to solve the stabilization of volatile oil in the liquid preparation by the solubilization of suitable formulation of microemulsion.

  9. Visualization of surfactant enhanced NAPL mobilization and solubilization in a two-dimensional micromodel

    SciTech Connect

    ZHONG,LIRONG; MAYER,ALEX; GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.

    2000-03-08

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation is an emerging technology for aquifers contaminated with nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). A two-dimensional micromodel and image capture system were applied to observe NAPL mobilization and solubilization phenomena. In each experiment, a common residual NAPL field was established, followed by a series of mobilization and solubilization experiments. Mobilization floods included pure water floods with variable flow rates and surfactant floods with variations in surfactant formulations. At relatively low capillary numbers (N{sub ca}<10{sup {minus}3}), the surfactant mobilization floods resulted in higher NAPL saturations than for the pure water flood, for similar N{sub ca}.These differences in macroscopic saturations are explained by differences in micro-scale mobilization processes. Solubilization of the residual NAPL remaining after the mobilization stage was dominated by the formation of dissolution fingers, which produced nonequilibrium NAPL solubilization. A macroemulsion phase also as observed to form spontaneously and persist during the solubilization stage of the experiments.

  10. Food-grade microemulsions based on nonionic emulsifiers: media to enhance lycopene solubilization.

    PubMed

    Spernath, Aviram; Yaghmur, Anan; Aserin, Abraham; Hoffman, Roy E; Garti, Nissim

    2002-11-06

    Water-dilutable food-grade microemulsions consisting of ethoxylated sorbitan esters, and in some cases blended with other emulsifiers, water, (R)-(+)-limonene, ethanol, and propylene glycol, have been prepared. These microemulsions are of growing interest to the food industry as vehicles for delivering and enhancing solubilization of natural food supplements with nutritional and health benefits. Lycopene, an active natural lipophilic antioxidant from tomato, has solubilized in water-in-oil, bicontinuous, and oil-in-water types of microemulsions up to 10 times the oil [(R)-(+)-limonene] dissolution capacity. The effects of aqueous-phase dilution, nature of surfactant (hydrophilic-lypophilic balance), and mixed surfactant on solubilization capacity and solubilization efficiency were studied. Structural aspects studied by self-diffusion NMR were correlated to the solubilization capacity, and transformational structural changes were identified.

  11. Marine actinobacteria showing phosphate-solubilizing efficiency in Chorao Island, Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Dastager, Syed G; Damare, Samir

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence and distribution of an actinobacteria group of bacteria capable of dissolving insoluble phosphates were investigated in this study in marine environments, especially in sediments of Chorao Island, Goa Province, India. A total of 200 bacterial isolates of actinobacteria was isolated. All isolates were screened for phosphate-solubilizing activity on Pikovskaya's agar. Thirteen different isolates exhibiting maximum formation of halos (zone of solubilization) around the bacterial colonies were selected for quantitative estimations of P-solubilization. Quantitative estimations for P-solubilization were analyzed for up to 10 days at intervals of 24 h. Maximum solubilization from 89.3 ± 3.1 to 164.1 ± 4.1 μg ml(-1) was observed after 6 days of incubation in six of all isolates, while the isolate NII-1020 showed maximum P-solubilization. The increase in solubilization coincided with the drop in pH. Many of these species showed wide range of tolerance to temperature, pH, and salt concentrations. Further, 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses were carried to identify the bacterial groups which are actively solubilized phosphate in vitro. Gene sequencing results reveal that all isolates were clustered into six different actinobacterial genera: Streptomyces, Microbacterium, Angustibacter, Kocuria, Isoptericola, and Agromyces. The presence of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms and their ability to solubilize phosphate were indicative of the important role played by bacteria in the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus and the plant growth in coastal ecosystems.

  12. Isolation of Plant Photosystem II Complexes by Fractional Solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Haniewicz, Patrycja; Floris, Davide; Farci, Domenica; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Loi, Maria C.; Büchel, Claudia; Bochtler, Matthias; Piano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) occurs in different forms and supercomplexes in thylakoid membranes. Using a transplastomic strain of Nicotiana tabacum histidine tagged on the subunit PsbE, we have previously shown that a mild extraction protocol with β-dodecylmaltoside enriches PSII characteristic of lamellae and grana margins. Here, we characterize residual granal PSII that is not extracted by this first solubilization step. Using affinity purification, we demonstrate that this PSII fraction consists of PSII-LHCII mega- and supercomplexes, PSII dimers, and PSII monomers, which were separated by gel filtration and functionally characterized. Our findings represent an alternative demonstration of different PSII populations in thylakoid membranes, and they make it possible to prepare PSII-LHCII supercomplexes in high yield. PMID:26697050

  13. Solubilization of glycoproteins of envelope viruses by detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Berezin, V.E.; Zaides, V.M.; Artamsnov, A.F.; Isaeva, E.S.; Zhdanov, V.M.

    1986-11-20

    The action of a number of known ionic and nonionic detergents, as well as the new nonionic detergent MESK, on envelope viruses was investigated. It was shown that the nonionic detergents MESK, Triton X-100, and octyl-..beta..-D-glucopyranoside selectively solubilize the outer glycoproteins of the virus particles. The nonionic detergent MESK has the mildest action. Using MESK, purified glycoproteins of influenza, parainfluenza, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, rabies, and herpes viruses were obtained. The procedure for obtaining glycoproteins includes incubation of the virus suspension with the detergent MESK, removal of subvirus structures by centrifuging, and purification of glycoproteins from detergents by dialysis. Isolated glycoproteins retain a native structure and biological activity and possess high immunogenicity. The detergent MESK is promising for laboratory tests and with respect to the production of subunit vaccines.

  14. Isolation of Plant Photosystem II Complexes by Fractional Solubilization.

    PubMed

    Haniewicz, Patrycja; Floris, Davide; Farci, Domenica; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Loi, Maria C; Büchel, Claudia; Bochtler, Matthias; Piano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) occurs in different forms and supercomplexes in thylakoid membranes. Using a transplastomic strain of Nicotiana tabacum histidine tagged on the subunit PsbE, we have previously shown that a mild extraction protocol with β-dodecylmaltoside enriches PSII characteristic of lamellae and grana margins. Here, we characterize residual granal PSII that is not extracted by this first solubilization step. Using affinity purification, we demonstrate that this PSII fraction consists of PSII-LHCII mega- and supercomplexes, PSII dimers, and PSII monomers, which were separated by gel filtration and functionally characterized. Our findings represent an alternative demonstration of different PSII populations in thylakoid membranes, and they make it possible to prepare PSII-LHCII supercomplexes in high yield.

  15. Solubilization of Iron-Containing Minerals by Soil Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, Luis; Grez, Renato

    1971-01-01

    Eighty-eight strains of microorganisms were isolated from soils collected in northern and southern Chile, and 10 fungi which showed the highest solubilizing action upon the iron in granodiorite were then selected. These fungi were incubated with the following iron-containing minerals: augite, hornblende, biotite, magnetite, hematite, and the igneous rock granodiorite. The solubility of iron in these minerals depended on their nature, crystalline structure, the concentration of metabolic products, or all three. Complex formation could be the mechanism involved, as a strong cation-exchange resin was not able to extract Fe from culture solutions. This conclusion is also confirmed by the RF values obtained by thin-layer chromatography of iron-containing culture solutions. PMID:5167095

  16. Solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs using solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thao T-D; Tran, Phuong H-L; Khanh, Tran N; Van, Toi V; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Many new drugs have been discovered in pharmaceutical industry and exposed their surprised potential therapeutic effects. Unfortunately, these drugs possess low absorption and bioavailability since their solubility limitation in water. Solid dispersion (SD) is the current technique gaining so many attractions from scientists due to its effect on improving solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. A number of patents including the most recent inventions have been undertaken in this review to address various respects of this strategy in solubilization of poorly watersoluble drugs including type of carriers, preparation methods and view of technologies used to detect SD properties and mechanisms with the aim to accomplish a SD not only effective on enhanced bioavailability but also overcome difficulties associated with stability and production. Future prospects are as well discussed with an only hope that many developments and researches in this field will be successfully reached and contributed to commercial use for treatment as much as possible.

  17. Solubilization and refolding of inclusion body proteins in reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Alexei A; Kudryashova, Elena V; Levashov, Andrei V; van Dongen, Walter M A M

    2003-09-15

    Today, many valuable proteins can be obtained in sufficient amounts using recombinant DNA techniques. However, frequently the expression of recombinant proteins results in the accumulation of the product in dense amorphous deposits inside the cells, called inclusion bodies. The challenge then is to transform these inactive and misfolded protein aggregates into soluble bioactive forms. Although a number of general guidelines have been proposed, the search for proper reconstitution conditions can be very laborious and time consuming. Here, we suggest a new versatile approach for solubilization and refolding of inclusion body proteins using a water-sodium bis-2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate-isooctane reverse micellar system. Instead of amorphous aggregates, a transparent solution is obtained, where refolded protein is entrapped inside the micelles. The entrapped enzyme has native-like secondary structure and catalytic activity. This approach has been implemented with Fusarium galactose oxidase and Stigmatella aurantiaca putative galactose oxidase.

  18. Cryoenzymology in aqueous media: Micellar solubilized water clusters

    PubMed Central

    Douzou, Pierre; Keh, Erlend; Balny, Claude

    1979-01-01

    Amphiphilic compounds dissolved in nonpolar organic solvents form inverted micelles whose aqueous centers can solubilize relatively large amounts of enzymes. The solutions are homogeneous and optically transparent and have low viscosity and freezing points; they provide unique and favorable systems to perform the main cryoenzymologic studies previously carried out in mixed solvents. The preparation and properties of such micelles are described. The absorbance spectra of cytochrome c at various temperatures from -38°C to 20°C are given. The pH dependence of trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of benzoylarginine ethyl ester in inverted micelles, as well as kinetic properties and activation energy, is described. Some problems are analyzed. PMID:16592619

  19. Enhanced solubilization of curcumin in mixed surfactant vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kansal, S K; Chaudhary, Ganga Ram; Mehta, S K

    2016-05-15

    Self-assemblies of equimolar double and single chain mixed ionic surfactants, with increasing numbers of carbon atoms of double chain surfactant, were analyzed on the basis of fluorescence and conductivity results. Attempts were also made to enhance the solubilization of curcumin in aqueous equimolar mixed surfactant systems. Mixed surfactant assembly was successful in retarding the degradation of curcumin in alkaline media (only 25-28 40% degraded in 10h at pH 13). Fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching methods were employed to predict the binding position and mechanism of curcumin with self-assemblies. Results indicate that the interactions take place according to both dynamic and static quenching mechanisms and curcumin was distributed in a palisade layer of mixed aggregates. Antioxidant activity (using DPPH radical) and biocompatibility (using calf-thymus DNA) of curcumin-loaded mixed surfactant formulations were also evaluated. The prepared systems improved the stability, solubility and antioxidant activity of curcumin and additionally are biocompatible.

  20. Whole body heat stress increases motor cortical excitability and skill acquisition in humans.

    PubMed

    Littmann, Andrew E; Shields, Richard K

    2016-02-01

    Vigorous systemic exercise stimulates a cascade of molecular and cellular processes that enhance central nervous system (CNS) plasticity and performance. The influence of heat stress on CNS performance and learning is novel. We designed two experiments to determine whether passive heat stress (1) facilitated motor cortex excitability and (2) improved motor task acquisition compared to no heat stress. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) were collected before and after 30 min of heat stress at 73 °C. A second cohort of subjects performed a motor learning task using the FDI either following heat or the no heat condition. Heat stress increased heart rate to 65% of age-predicted maximum. After heat, mean resting MEP amplitude increased 48% (p<0.05). MEP stimulus-response amplitudes did not differ according to stimulus intensity. In the second experiment, heat stress caused a significant decrease in absolute and variable error (p<0.05) during a novel movement task using the FDI. Passive environmental heat stress (1) increases motor cortical excitability, and (2) enhances performance in a motor skill acquisition task. Controlled heat stress may prime the CNS to enhance motor skill acquisition during rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Whole body heat stress increases motor cortical excitability and skill acquisition in humans

    PubMed Central

    Littmann, Andrew E.; Shields, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vigorous systemic exercise stimulates a cascade of molecular and cellular processes that enhance central nervous system (CNS) plasticity and performance. The influence of heat stress on CNS performance and learning is novel. We designed two experiments to determine whether passive heat stress 1) facilitated motor cortex excitability and 2) improved motor task acquisition compared to no heat stress. Methods Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) were collected before and after 30 minutes of heat stress at 73° C. A second cohort of subjects performed a motor learning task using the FDI either following heat or the no heat condition. Results Heat stress increased heart rate to 65% of age-predicted maximum. After heat, mean resting MEP amplitude increased 48% (P < 0.05). MEP stimulus-response amplitudes did not differ according to stimulus intensity. In the second experiment, heat stress caused a significant decrease in absolute and variable error (p < 0.05) during a novel movement task using the FDI. Conclusions Passive environmental heat stress 1) increases motor cortical excitability, and 2) enhances performance in a motor skill acquisition task. Significance Controlled heat stress may prime the CNS to enhance motor skill acquisition during rehabilitation. PMID:26616546

  2. Geochemical hosts of solubilized radionuclides in uranium mill tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Bush, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The solubilization and subsequent resorption of radionuclides by ore components or by reaction products during the milling of uranium ores may have both economic and environmental consequences. Particle-size redistribution of radium during milling has been demonstrated by previous investigators; however, the identification of sorbing components in the tailings has received little experimental attention. In this study, uranium-bearing sandstone ore was milled, on a laboratory scale, with sulfuric acid. At regular intervals, filtrate from this suspension was placed in contact with mixtures of quartz sand and various potential sorbents which occur as gangue in uranium ores; the potential sorbents included clay minerals, iron and aluminum oxides, feldspar, fluorspar, barite, jarosite, coal, and volcanic glass. After equilibration, the quartz sand-sorbent mixtures were separated from the filtrate and radioassayed by gamma-spectrometry to determine the quantities of 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb sorbed, and the radon emanation coefficients. Sorption of 238U was low in all cases, with maximal sorptions of 1-2% by the bentonite- and coal-bearing samples. 230Th sorption also was generally less than 1%; maximal sorption here was observed in the fluorspar-bearing sample and appears to be associated with the formation of gypsum during milling. 226Ra and 210 Pb generally showed higher sorption than the other nuclides - more than 60% of the 26Ra solubilized from the ore was sorbed on the barite-bearing sample. The mechanism (s) for this sorption by a wide variety of substrates is not yet understood. Radon emanation coefficients of the samples ranged from about 5 to 30%, with the coal-bearing samples clearly demonstrating an emanating power higher than any of the other materials. ?? 1990.

  3. Human recombinant factor VIIa may improve heat intolerance in mice by attenuating hypothalamic neuronal apoptosis and damage.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Yung, Ming-Chi

    2014-10-01

    Intolerance to heat exposure is believed to be associated with hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis impairment [reflected by decreases in blood concentrations of both adrenocorticotrophic-hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone]. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of human recombinant factor VIIa (rfVIIa) on heat intolerance, HPA axis impairment, and hypothalamic inflammation, ischemic and oxidative damage, and apoptosis in mice under heat stress. Immediately after heat stress (41.2 °C for 1 h), mice were treated with vehicle (1 mL/kg of body weight) or rfVIIa (65-270 µg/kg of body weight) and then returned to room temperature (26 °C). Mice still alive on day 4 of heat exposure were considered survivors. Cellular ischemia markers (e.g., glutamate, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio), oxidative damage markers (e.g., nitric oxide metabolite, hydroxyl radials), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α) in hypothalamus were determined. In addition, blood concentrations of both ACTH and corticosterone were measured. Hypothalamic cell damage was assessed by determing the neuronal damage scores, whereas the hypothalamic cell apoptosis was determined by assessing the numbers of cells stained with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated αUTP nick-end labeling, caspase-3-positive cells, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecula-1-positive cells in hypothalamus. Compared with vehicle-treated heated mice, rfVIIa-treated heated mice had significantly higher fractional survival (8/10 vs 1/10), lesser thermoregulatory deficit (34.1 vs 24.8 °C), lesser extents of ischemic, oxidative, and inflammatory markers in hypothalamus, lesser neuronal damage scores and apoptosis in hypothalamus, and lesser HPA axis impairment. Human recombinant factor VIIa appears to exert a protective effect against heatstroke by attenuating hypothalamic cell apoptosis (due to ischemic, inflammatory, and oxidative damage

  4. Toward establishment of temperature thresholds for immunological impact of heat exposure in humans.

    PubMed

    Beachy, Sarah H; Repasky, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    There is interest in understanding the health impact of thermal effects as a result of exposure of humans to radiofrequency/microwave (RF/MW) fields. Immune cells and responses are affected by modest changes in temperature and it is important to quantify these effects and establish safety thresholds similar to what has been done with other tissue targets. Since previous summaries of thresholds for thermal damage to normal tissues have not focused much attention to cells of the immune system, this summary highlights recent studies which demonstrate positive and some negative effects of temperature shifts on human immune cells. We emphasise literature reporting adverse immunological endpoints (such as cell damage, death and altered function) and provide the temperature at which these effects were noted. Whereas there have been many in vitro studies of adverse temperature effects on immune cells, there has been limited validation of these temperature effects in vivo. However, data from heat stress/stroke patients do provide some information regarding core temperatures (40°C) at which thermal damage to immunological processes can begin to occur. We conclude that there is considerable need for more quantitative time temperature assessments using relevant animal models, more complete kinetic analyses to determine how long immunological effects persist, and for analysis of whether frequency of exposure has impact on immune function. To date, no attempt to categorise effects by using cumulative thermal dose measurements (e.g. cumulative equivalent minutes at a given temperature) has been conducted for cells or tissues of the immune system, representing a major gap in this field.

  5. A mathematical model of endovascular heat transfer for human brain cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Lasheras, Juan Carlos; Yon, Steven; Magers, Mike; Dobak, John

    2000-11-01

    Selective cooling of the brain has been shown to exhibit protective effects in cerebral ischemia, trauma, and spinal injury/ischemia. A multi-compartment, unsteady thermal model of the response of the human brain to endovascular cooling is discussed and its results compared to recent experimental data conducted with sheep and other mammals. The model formulation is based on the extension of the bioheat equation, originally proposed by Pennes(1) and later modified by Wissler(2), Stolwijk(3) and Werner and Webb(4). The temporal response of the brain temperature and that of the various body compartments to the cooling of the blood flowing through the common carotid artery is calculated under various scenarios. The effect of the boundary conditions as well as the closure assumptions used in the model, i.e. perfusion rate, metabolism heat production, etc. on the cooling rate of the brain are systematically investigated. (1) Pennes H. H., “Analysis of tissue and arterial blood temperature in the resting forearm.” J. Appl. Physiol. 1: 93-122, 1948. (2) Wissler E. H., “Steady-state temperature distribution in man”, J. Appl. Physiol., 16: 764-740, 1961. (3) Stolwick J. A. J., “Mathematical model of thermoregulation” in “Physiological and behavioral temperature regulation”, edited by J. D. Hardy, A. P. Gagge and A. J. Stolwijk, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfiels, Ill., 703-721, 1971. (4) Werner J., Webb P., “A six-cylinder model of human thermoregulation for general use on personal computers”, Ann. Physiol. Anthrop., 12(3): 123-134, 1993.

  6. Toward establishment of temperature thresholds for immunological impact of heat exposure in humans

    PubMed Central

    BEACHY, SARAH H.; REPASKY, ELIZABETH A.

    2013-01-01

    There is interest in understanding the health impact of thermal effects as a result of exposure of humans to radiofrequency/microwave (RF/MW) fields. Immune cells and responses are affected by modest changes in temperature and it is important to quantify these effects and establish safety thresholds similar to what has been done with other tissue targets. Since previous summaries of thresholds for thermal damage to normal tissues have not focused much attention to cells of the immune system, this summary highlights recent studies which demonstrate positive and some negative effects of temperature shifts on human immune cells. We emphasise literature reporting adverse immunological endpoints (such as cell damage, death and altered function) and provide the temperature at which these effects were noted. Whereas there have been many in vitro studies of adverse temperature effects on immune cells, there has been limited validation of these temperature effects in vivo. However, data from heat stress/stroke patients do provide some information regarding core temperatures (40°C) at which thermal damage to immunological processes can begin to occur. We conclude that there is considerable need for more quantitative time temperature assessments using relevant animal models, more complete kinetic analyses to determine how long immunological effects persist, and for analysis of whether frequency of exposure has impact on immune function. To date, no attempt to categorise effects by using cumulative thermal dose measurements (e.g. cumulative equivalent minutes at a given temperature) has been conducted for cells or tissues of the immune system, representing a major gap in this field. PMID:21591898

  7. Heat Shock-Induced Three-Dimensional-Like Proliferation of Normal Human Fibroblasts Mediated by Pressed Silk

    PubMed Central

    Hiragami, Fukumi; Motoda, Hirotoshi; Takezawa, Toshiaki; Takabayashi, Chiyuki; Inoue, Shigeki; Wakatake, Yuji; Kano, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal heat treatment conditions for enhancement of pressed silk-mediated 3D-like proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts, as well as to determine the responses to heat shock of cells and intracellular signaling pathways. The beginning of 3D-like pattern formation of cells was observed in the second week after the start of the experiment. The mean rates of beginning of 3D-like pattern formation by cells heat-treated at 40 ºC and 43 ºC for 10 min were significantly higher (3.2- and 8.6-fold, respectively) than that of untreated cells. We found that apoptosis had occurred in 7.5% and 50.0% of the cells at one week after heat treatment for 10 min at 43 ºC and 45 ºC, respectively. Western blot analysis demonstrated that phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and that of Hsp27 were markedly increased by heat treatment at 43 ºC for 10 min. The results of an experiment using a p38 MAPK inhibitor and Hsp27 inhibitor suggest that activation of p38 MAPK by heat shock is associated with 3D-like cell proliferation and that Hsp27 contributes to the inhibition of apoptosis. The results of this study should be useful for further studies aimed at elucidation of the physiologic mechanisms underlying thermotherapy. PMID:20087471

  8. Effects of Nd:YAG laser-heated metal cap on human platelets in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xia; Guo, You-chi

    1993-03-01

    Human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was irradiated in vitro with a fiberoptic Nd:YAG laser-heated metal cap to study its effects on platelets. The energy of the laser was 5 and 10 watts with an irradiation time of 0, 3, 6, and 9 seconds and 14 watts with an irradiation time of 0, 3, 4, and 5 seconds, respectively. The irradiated PRPs were analyzed for platelet count, aggregation reaction, thromboxane (TX)B2 measurement and electron microscopy. Various degrees of decrease in platelet count were observed in all groups. Except the 5Wx3S group, the other groups showed an increase in the maximum aggregation rate of platelets, which corresponded to the enhancement of TXB2 formation. It was also demonstrated by a transmission electron microscopy in 10Wx3S, 10Wx6S, 10Wx9S, 14Wx3S, 14Wx4S, and 14Wx5S energy groups that alpha- and dense-particles in irradiated platelets became sparse in number or even disappeared, less electron density, irregularity in size and shape, and a tendency for these particles to cluster around platelet membranes and open canalicular systems, which dilated apparently. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy depicted the appearance of short and thick pseudopods on the surfaces of some irradiated platelets and an increase in the axis rate in most of the irradiated platelets.

  9. Human myocytes are protected from titin aggregation-induced stiffening by small heat shock proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kötter, Sebastian; Unger, Andreas; Hamdani, Nazha; Lang, Patrick; Vorgerd, Matthias; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard

    2014-01-01

    In myocytes, small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are preferentially translocated under stress to the sarcomeres. The functional implications of this translocation are poorly understood. We show here that HSP27 and αB-crystallin associated with immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domain-containing regions, but not the disordered PEVK domain (titin region rich in proline, glutamate, valine, and lysine), of the titin springs. In sarcomeres, sHSP binding to titin was actin filament independent and promoted by factors that increased titin Ig unfolding, including sarcomere stretch and the expression of stiff titin isoforms. Titin spring elements behaved predominantly as monomers in vitro. However, unfolded Ig segments aggregated, preferentially under acidic conditions, and αB-crystallin prevented this aggregation. Disordered regions did not aggregate. Promoting titin Ig unfolding in cardiomyocytes caused elevated stiffness under acidic stress, but HSP27 or αB-crystallin suppressed this stiffening. In diseased human muscle and heart, both sHSPs associated with the titin springs, in contrast to the cytosolic/Z-disk localization seen in healthy muscle/heart. We conclude that aggregation of unfolded titin Ig domains stiffens myocytes and that sHSPs translocate to these domains to prevent this aggregation. PMID:24421331

  10. Clonogenicity of human leukemic cells protected from cell-lethal agents by heat shock protein 70

    PubMed Central

    Bases, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Pretreatment of human leukemia THP-1 cells with heat shock protein Hsp70 (Hsp70) protected them from the cell-lethal effects of the topoisomerase II inhibitor, lucanthone and from ionizing radiation. Cell viability was scored in clonogenic assays of single cells grown in liquid medium containing 0.5% methyl cellulose. Colonies were observed and rapidly scored after staining with the tetrazolium salt, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide. The frequency of abasic sites in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of THP-1 cells was reduced when these cells were treated with Hsp70. Hsp70 is presumed to have protected the cells by promoting repair of cell DNA, in agreement with previous studies that showed that Hsp70 enhanced base excision repair by purified enzymes. The shoulders of radiation dose-response curves were enhanced by pretreatment of cells with Hsp70 and, importantly, were reduced when cells were transfected with ribonucleic acid designed to silence Hsp70. Hsp70 influenced repair of sublethal damage after radiation. PMID:15832946

  11. Human heat shock protein-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes display potent antitumour immunity in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong; Qian, Jianfei; Zhang, Wenhao; Fu, Weijun; Du, Juan; Jiang, Hua; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Chunyang; Xi, Hao; Yi, Qing; Hou, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Tumour cell–derived heat shock proteins (HSPs) are used as vaccines for immunotherapy of cancer patients. However, it is proposed that the peptide chaperoned on HSPs, not HSPs themselves, elicited a potent immune response. Given that HSPs are highly expressed by most myeloma cells and vital to myeloma cell survival, we reasoned that HSPs themselves might be an ideal myeloma antigen. In the present study, we explored the feasibility of targeting HSPs themselves for treating multiple myeloma. We identified and chose HLA-A*0201-binding peptides from human HSPB1 (HSP27) and HSP90AA1 (HSP90), and confirmed their immunogenicity in HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. Dendritic cells pulsed with HSPB1 and HSP90AA1 peptides were used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers and myeloma patients to generate HSP peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). HSP peptide-specific CTLs efficiently lysed HLA-A*0201+ myeloma cells (established cell lines and primary plasma cells) but not HLA-A*0201− myeloma cells in vitro, indicating that myeloma cells naturally express HSP peptides in the context of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. More importantly, HSP peptide-specific CTLs effectively reduced tumour burden in the xenograft mouse model of myeloma. Our study clearly demonstrated that HSPs might be novel tumour antigens for immunotherapy of myeloma. PMID:24824351

  12. Protein carbonylation and heat shock proteins in human skeletal muscle: relationships to age and sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Beltran Valls, Maria R; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Narici, Marco V; Smith, Kenneth; Phillips, Bethan E; Caporossi, Daniela; Atherton, Philip J

    2015-02-01

    Aging is associated with a gradual loss of muscle mass termed sarcopenia, which has significant impact on quality-of-life. Because oxidative stress is proposed to negatively impact upon musculoskeletal aging, we investigated links between human aging and markers of oxidative stress, and relationships to muscle mass and strength in young and old nonsarcopenic and sarcopenic adults. Sixteen young and 16 old males (further subdivided into "old" and "old sarcopenic") were studied. The abundance of protein carbonyl adducts within skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, and mitochondrial protein subfractions from musculus vastus lateralis biopsies were determined using Oxyblot immunoblotting techniques. In addition, concentrations of recognized cytoprotective proteins (eg, heat shock proteins [HSP], αβ-crystallin) were also assayed. Aging was associated with increased mitochondrial (but not myofibrillar or sarcoplasmic) protein carbonyl adducts, independently of (stage-I) sarcopenia. Correlation analyses of all subjects revealed that mitochondrial protein carbonyl abundance negatively correlated with muscle strength ([1-repetition maximum], p = .02, r (2) = -.16), but not muscle mass (p = .13, r (2) = -.08). Abundance of cytoprotective proteins, including various HSPs (HSP 27 and 70), were unaffected by aging/sarcopenia. To conclude, these data reveal that mitochondrial protein carbonylation increases moderately with age, and that this increase may impact upon skeletal muscle function, but is not a hallmark of (stage-I) sarcopenia, per se. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  13. Human cadaver retina model for retinal heating during corneal surgery with a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Yun, Jin; Zhao, Tianzhuo; Yan, Ying; Kurtz, Ron M.; Juhasz, Tibor

    2014-02-01

    Femtosecond lasers are widely used in everyday clinical procedures to perform minimally invasive corneal refractive surgery. The intralase femtosecond laser (AMO Corp. Santa Ana, CA) is a common example of such a laser. In the present study a numerical simulation was developed to quantify the temperature rise in the retina during femtosecond intracorneal surgery. Also, ex-vivo retinal heating due to laser irradiation was measured with an infrared thermal camera (Fluke Corp. Everett, WA) as a validation of the simulation. A computer simulation was developed using Comsol Multiphysics to calculate the temperature rise in the cadaver retina during femtosecond laser corneal surgery. The simulation showed a temperature rise of less than 0.3 degrees for realistic pulse energies for the various repetition rates. Human cadaver retinas were irradiated with a 150 kHz Intralase femtosecond laser and the temperature rise was measured withan infrared thermal camera. Thermal camera measurements are in agreement with the simulation. During routine femtosecond laser corneal surgery with normal clinical parameters, the temperature rise is well beneath the threshold for retina damage. The simulation predictions are in agreement with thermal measurements providing a level of experimental validation.

  14. Protein Carbonylation and Heat Shock Proteins in Human Skeletal Muscle: Relationships to Age and Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Beltran Valls, Maria R.; Wilkinson, Daniel J.; Narici, Marco V.; Smith, Kenneth; Phillips, Bethan E.; Caporossi, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a gradual loss of muscle mass termed sarcopenia, which has significant impact on quality-of-life. Because oxidative stress is proposed to negatively impact upon musculoskeletal aging, we investigated links between human aging and markers of oxidative stress, and relationships to muscle mass and strength in young and old nonsarcopenic and sarcopenic adults. Sixteen young and 16 old males (further subdivided into “old” and “old sarcopenic”) were studied. The abundance of protein carbonyl adducts within skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, and mitochondrial protein subfractions from musculus vastus lateralis biopsies were determined using Oxyblot immunoblotting techniques. In addition, concentrations of recognized cytoprotective proteins (eg, heat shock proteins [HSP], αβ-crystallin) were also assayed. Aging was associated with increased mitochondrial (but not myofibrillar or sarcoplasmic) protein carbonyl adducts, independently of (stage-I) sarcopenia. Correlation analyses of all subjects revealed that mitochondrial protein carbonyl abundance negatively correlated with muscle strength ([1-repetition maximum], p = .02, r 2 = −.16), but not muscle mass (p = .13, r 2 = −.08). Abundance of cytoprotective proteins, including various HSPs (HSP 27 and 70), were unaffected by aging/sarcopenia. To conclude, these data reveal that mitochondrial protein carbonylation increases moderately with age, and that this increase may impact upon skeletal muscle function, but is not a hallmark of (stage-I) sarcopenia, per se. PMID:24621945

  15. Immunohistochemical localization of heat shock protein 70 in the human medulla oblongata in forensic autopsies.

    PubMed

    Nogami, M; Takatsu, A; Endo, N; Ishiyama, I

    1999-12-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) can be induced under various stresses in experimental animals. We investigated hsp70 immunoreactivity in the human medulla oblongata in forensic autopsies. Hsp70 immunoreactivity was observed in the cytoplasm of some neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus (XII), the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve (X), the lateral cuneate nucleus (Cun), and the inferior olive (Oli). Neurons with positive hsp70 immunoreactivity were statistically significantly fewer in the Oli than in the XII, X, and Cun. There was no statistically significant correlation between the AMI (the antemortem interval between the onset of injury and death) or PMI (the postmortem interval between death and autopsy), and the percentage of positive cytoplasmic hsp70 immunoreactivity in any of the nuclei studied. Age had a statistically significant negative correlation with the percentage of positive hsp70 immunoreactivity in the Oli. The percentages of positive hsp70 immunoreactivity in the XII and Cun were statistically significantly lower in burn cases than in other cases. Therefore, the induction of hsp70 immunoreactivity in the medulla oblongata may not reflect the duration of stress in the AMI, but may reflect the regional (nuclei) and conditional (burns) differences in autopsy specimens.

  16. Heat-evoked vasodilatation in human hairy skin: axon reflexes due to low-level activity of nociceptive afferents.

    PubMed Central

    Magerl, W; Treede, R D

    1996-01-01

    1. Spreading vasodilatation of the axon reflex type was evoked by contact heat stimulation of the hairy skin in the human forearm (13.3 cm2 stimulus area) and was detected by laser Doppler flowmetry at 8, 19 and 30 mm distance. 2. From a base temperature of 35 degrees C, rapidly rising short heat stimuli (4 degrees C s-1, 2 s plateau) elicited vasodilatation at an average threshold of 39.4 degrees C. For slowly rising sustained heat stimuli (64 s duration) the average threshold was 39.6 degrees C (n.s.) Laser Doppler flowmetry revealed a rapid onset within about 4 s, a long duration of several minutes beyond the end of the stimulus, and a rapid spread of vasodilatation to remote skin areas. These characteristics are typical for vasodilatation by an axon reflex of nociceptive afferents. 3. Axon reflex thresholds matched the lower range of C fibre nociceptor heat thresholds. Thermal stimuli that were adjusted to elicit about half-maximal phasic responses in warm fibres (steps from 30 to 35 degrees C), but were below the range of C fibre nociceptor thresholds, did not cause any vasodilatation. 4. Pain thresholds were higher than axon reflex thresholds for both rapidly and slowly rising heat stimuli and strongly depended on the stimulus pattern (40.1 degrees C for rapidly rising stimuli and > 43 degrees C for slowly rising stimuli). This observation is consistent with recent reports that the phasic response of nociceptive afferents is essential to overcome the summation requirements at central synapses. 5. In conclusion, axon reflex vasodilatation in response to heat stimuli in the hairy skin of humans is elicited by activation of heat-sensitive nociceptors, even in the absence of a conscious perception of heat pain. The dissociation of pain and vasodilatation thresholds supports the concept of two operating ranges of primary nociceptive afferents. Warm fibres do not contribute to axon reflex vasodilatation in the hairy skin of the human forearm. Release of vasoactive

  17. Complete solubilization of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue may improve proteomic studies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shan-Rong; Taylor, Clive R; Fowler, Carol B; Mason, Jeffrey T

    2013-04-01

    Tissue-based proteomic approaches (tissue proteomics) are essential for discovering and evaluating biomarkers for personalized medicine. In any proteomics study, the most critical issue is sample extraction and preparation. This problem is especially difficult when recovering proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. However, improving and standardizing protein extraction from FFPE tissue is a critical need because of the millions of archival FFPE tissues available in tissue banks worldwide. Recent progress in the application of heat-induced antigen retrieval principles for protein extraction from FFPE tissue has resulted in a number of published FFPE tissue proteomics studies. However, there is currently no consensus on the optimal protocol for protein extraction from FFPE tissue or accepted standards for quantitative evaluation of the extracts. Standardization is critical to ensure the accurate evaluation of FFPE protein extracts by proteomic methods such as reverse phase protein arrays, which is now in clinical use. In our view, complete solubilization of FFPE tissue samples is the best way to achieve the goal of standardizing the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues. However, further studies are recommended to develop standardized protein extraction methods to ensure quantitative and qualitative reproducibility in the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues.

  18. Solubilization of blood meal to be used as a liquid fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Chan, Winnie I; Lo, Kwang V; Liao, Ping H

    2007-05-01

    The solubilization of blood meal by means of the microwave-hydrogen peroxide enhanced advanced-oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was studied. It was found that over the treatment temperature range of 60 to 120 degrees C, solids particle reduction, ammonia and orthophosphate production could be achieved by this process. Large protein molecules were broken down into intermediate compounds with low molecule weights, ammonia and nitrate. Intermediate compounds, such as peptides and amino acids, can also be easily converted to nitrogenous nutrients for plant growth by bacteria. Soluble nitrogen content increased with an increase in microwave heating temperature when acid was added; significant amounts of ammonia were obtained at higher temperatures. Nitrate decreased in concentration with an increase of treatment temperature. Orthophosphate concentrations increased after the advanced-oxidation process (AOP) treatments, with and without acid addition; but were more pronounced with acid addition. Maximum solubility of chemical oxygen demand (COD) occurred at 80 degrees C. Without the addition of acid, soluble COD decreased due to protein denaturation and coagulation out of the solution.

  19. Complete Solubilization of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue May Improve Proteomic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shan-Rong; Taylor, Clive R; Fowler, Carol B; Mason, Jeffrey T

    2013-01-01

    Tissue-based proteomic approaches (tissue proteomics) are essential for discovering and evaluating biomarkers for personalized medicine. In any proteomics study, the most critical issue is sample extraction and preparation. This problem is especially difficult when recovering proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. However, improving and standardizing protein extraction from FFPE tissue is a critical need because of the millions of archival FFPE tissues available in tissue banks worldwide. Recent progress in the application of heat-induced antigen retrieval (AR) principles for protein extraction from FFPE tissue has resulted in a number of published FFPE tissue proteomics studies. However, there is currently no consensus on the optimal protocol for protein extraction from FFPE tissue or accepted standards for quantitative evaluation of the extracts. Standardization is critical to ensure the accurate evaluation of FFPE protein extracts by proteomic methods such as reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA), which is now in clinical use. In our view, complete solubilization of FFPE tissue samples is the best way to achieve the goal of standardizing the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues. However, further studies are recommended to develop standardized protein extraction methods to ensure quantitative and qualitative reproducibility in the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues. PMID:23339100

  20. HPMA-based polymeric micelles for curcumin solubilization and inhibition of cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Naksuriya, Ornchuma; Shi, Yang; van Nostrum, Cornelus F; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Hennink, Wim E; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2015-08-01

    Curcumin (CM) has been reported as a potential anticancer agent. However, its pharmaceutical applications as therapeutic agent are hampered because of its poor aqueous solubility. The present study explores the advantages of polymeric micelles composed of block copolymers of methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) modified with monolactate, dilactate and benzoyl side groups to enhance CM solubility and inhibitory activity against cancer cells. Amphiphilic block copolymers, ω-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-b-(N-(2-benzoyloxypropyl) methacrylamide) (PEG-HPMA-Bz) were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR and GPC. One polymer with a molecular weight of 28,000Da was used to formulate CM and compared with other aromatic substituted polymers. CM was loaded by a fast heating method (PEG-HPMA-DL and PEG-HPMA-Bz-L) and a nanoprecipitation method (PEG-HPMA-Bz). Physicochemical characteristics and cytotoxicity/cytocompatibility of the CM loaded polymeric micelles were evaluated. It was found that HPMA-based polymeric micelles significantly enhanced the solubility of CM. The PEG-HPMA-Bz micelles showed the best solubilization properties. CM loaded polymeric micelles showed sustained release of the loading CM for more than 20days. All of CM loaded polymeric micelles formulations showed a significantly potent cytotoxic effect against three cancer cell lines. HPMA-based polymeric micelles are therefore promising nanodelivery systems of CM for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function in the leg of aged humans.

    PubMed

    Romero, Steven A; Gagnon, Daniel; Adams, Amy N; Cramer, Matthew N; Kouda, Ken; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-01-01

    Local heating of an extremity increases blood flow and vascular shear stress throughout the arterial tree. Local heating acutely improves macrovascular dilator function in the upper limbs of young healthy adults through a shear stress-dependent mechanism but has no such effect in the lower limbs of this age group. The effect of acute limb heating on dilator function within the atherosclerotic prone vasculature of the lower limbs of aged adults is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute lower limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function within the leg vasculature of aged adults. Nine young and nine aged adults immersed their lower limbs at a depth of ~33 cm into a heated (~42°C) circulated water bath for 45 min. Before and 30 min after heating, macro (flow-mediated dilation)- and microvascular (reactive hyperemia) dilator functions were assessed in the lower limb, following 5 min of arterial occlusion, via Doppler ultrasound. Compared with preheat, macrovascular dilator function was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.6) but was improved in aged adults (P = 0.04). Similarly, microvascular dilator function, as assessed by peak reactive hyperemia, was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.1) but was improved in aged adults (P < 0.01). Taken together, these data suggest that acute lower limb heating improves both macro- and microvascular dilator function in an age dependent manner.

  2. Phosphate Solubilization Potential of Rhizosphere Fungi Isolated from Plants in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Firew

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the major bioelements limiting agricultural production. Phosphate solubilizing fungi play a noteworthy role in increasing the bioavailability of soil phosphates for plants. The present study was aimed at isolating and characterizing phosphate solubilizing fungi from different rhizospheres using both solid and liquid Pikovskaya (PVK) medium. A total of 359 fungal isolates were obtained from 150 rhizosphere soil samples of haricot bean, faba bean, cabbage, tomato, and sugarcane. Among the isolates, 167 (46.52%) solubilized inorganic phosphate. The isolated phosphate solubilizing fungi belonged to genera of Aspergillus (55.69%), Penicillium spp. (23.35%), and Fusarium (9.58%). Solubilization index (SI) ranged from 1.10 to 3.05. Isolates designated as JUHbF95 (Aspergillus sp.) and JUFbF59 (Penicillium sp.) solubilized maximum amount of P 728.77 μg·mL−1 and 514.44 μg mL−1, respectively, from TCP (tricalcium phosphate) after 15 days of incubation. The highest (363 μg mL−1) soluble-P was released from RP with the inoculation of JUHbF95 in the PVK broth after 10 days of incubation. The present study indicated the presence of diverse plant associated P-solubilizing fungi that may serve as potential biofertilizers. PMID:27688771

  3. The effect of steroids and nucleotides on solubilized bilirubin uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Adlard, B. P. F.; Lathe, G. H.

    1970-01-01

    1. It was confirmed that bilirubin glucuronyltransferase can be obtained in solubilized form from rat liver microsomes. 2. Michaelis–Menten kinetics were not followed by the enzyme with bilirubin as substrate when the bilirubin/albumin ratio was varied. High concentrations of bilirubin were inhibitory. 3. The Km for UDP-glucuronic acid at the optimum bilirubin concentration was 0.46mm. 4. Low concentrations of Ca2+ were inhibitory in the absence of Mg2+ but stimulatory in its presence; the converse applied for EDTA. 5. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and UDP-glucose enhanced conjugation by untreated, but not by solubilized microsomes. 6. The apparent 9.5-fold increase in activity after solubilization was probably due to the absence of UDP-glucuronic acid pyrophosphatase activity in the solubilized preparation. 7. The activation of solubilized enzyme activity by ATP was considered to be a result of chelation of inhibitory metal ions. 8. The solubilized enzyme activity was inhibited by UMP and UDP. The effect of UMP was not competitive with respect to UDP-glucuronic acid. 9. A number of steroids inhibited the solubilized enzyme activity. The competitive effects of stilboestrol, oestrone sulphate and 3β-hydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one, with respect to UDP-glucuronic acid, may be explained on an allosteric basis. PMID:4251180

  4. Effects of L-arginine on solubilization and purification of plant membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Junji; Uegaki, Masamichi; Ishimizu, Takeshi

    2011-11-01

    Biochemical analysis of membrane proteins is problematic at the level of solubilization and/or purification because of their hydrophobic nature. Here, we developed methods for efficient solubilization and purification of membrane proteins using L-arginine. The addition of 100 mM of basic amino acids (L-arginine, L-lysine, and L-ornithine) to a detergent-containing solubilization buffer enhanced solubilization (by 2.6-4.3 fold) of a model membrane protein-polygalacturonic acid synthase. Of all the amino acids, arginine was the most effective additive for solubilization of this membrane protein. Arginine addition also resulted in the best solubilization of other plant membrane proteins. Next, we examined the effects of arginine on purification of a model membrane protein. In anion-exchange chromatography, the addition of arginine to the loading and elution buffers resulted in a greater recovery of a membrane protein. In ultrafiltration, the addition of arginine to a protein solution significantly improved the recovery of a membrane protein. These results were thought to be due to the properties of arginine that prevent aggregation of hydrophobic proteins. Taken together, the results of our study showed that arginine is useful for solubilization and purification of aggregate-prone membrane proteins.

  5. Physical characterization and antioxidant activity of thymol solubilized Tween 80 micelles

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ling-Li; Taxipalati, Maierhaba; Que, Fei; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Attempts were made to solubilize thymol in Tween 80 micelle to study the solubilization mechanism of thymol and the effect of solubilization on its antioxidant activity. The maximum solubilized concentration of thymol in a 2.0% (w/v) Tween 80 micelle solution is 0.2 wt%. There was no significant difference in Z-average diameter between the empty micelles and thymol solubilized micelles. 1H NMR spectra indicated that 3-H and 4-H on the benzene ring of thymol interacted with the ester group between the hydrophilic head group and the hydrophobic tail group of Tween 80 by Van der Waals’ force. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays showed that the reducing antioxidant activity of free thymol did not change after solubilized in Tween 80 micelles. Compared to free thymol, the solubilized thymol showed higher activities to scavenge DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radicals. The present study suggested a possible preparation of thymol-carrying micelles with enhanced antioxidant activities that could be applied in food beverages. PMID:27905567

  6. Physical characterization and antioxidant activity of thymol solubilized Tween 80 micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Ling-Li; Taxipalati, Maierhaba; Que, Fei; Zhang, Hui

    2016-12-01

    Attempts were made to solubilize thymol in Tween 80 micelle to study the solubilization mechanism of thymol and the effect of solubilization on its antioxidant activity. The maximum solubilized concentration of thymol in a 2.0% (w/v) Tween 80 micelle solution is 0.2 wt%. There was no significant difference in Z-average diameter between the empty micelles and thymol solubilized micelles. 1H NMR spectra indicated that 3-H and 4-H on the benzene ring of thymol interacted with the ester group between the hydrophilic head group and the hydrophobic tail group of Tween 80 by Van der Waals’ force. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays showed that the reducing antioxidant activity of free thymol did not change after solubilized in Tween 80 micelles. Compared to free thymol, the solubilized thymol showed higher activities to scavenge DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radicals. The present study suggested a possible preparation of thymol-carrying micelles with enhanced antioxidant activities that could be applied in food beverages.

  7. Phosphate Solubilization Potential of Rhizosphere Fungi Isolated from Plants in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Elias, Firew; Woyessa, Delelegn; Muleta, Diriba

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the major bioelements limiting agricultural production. Phosphate solubilizing fungi play a noteworthy role in increasing the bioavailability of soil phosphates for plants. The present study was aimed at isolating and characterizing phosphate solubilizing fungi from different rhizospheres using both solid and liquid Pikovskaya (PVK) medium. A total of 359 fungal isolates were obtained from 150 rhizosphere soil samples of haricot bean, faba bean, cabbage, tomato, and sugarcane. Among the isolates, 167 (46.52%) solubilized inorganic phosphate. The isolated phosphate solubilizing fungi belonged to genera of Aspergillus (55.69%), Penicillium spp. (23.35%), and Fusarium (9.58%). Solubilization index (SI) ranged from 1.10 to 3.05. Isolates designated as JUHbF95 (Aspergillus sp.) and JUFbF59 (Penicillium sp.) solubilized maximum amount of P 728.77 μg·mL(-1) and 514.44 μg mL(-1), respectively, from TCP (tricalcium phosphate) after 15 days of incubation. The highest (363 μg mL(-1)) soluble-P was released from RP with the inoculation of JUHbF95 in the PVK broth after 10 days of incubation. The present study indicated the presence of diverse plant associated P-solubilizing fungi that may serve as potential biofertilizers.

  8. Inhibition of Aspergillus niger Phosphate Solubilization by Fluoride Released from Rock Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Bonduki, Victor Hugo Araújo; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo

    2013-01-01

    The simultaneous release of various chemical elements with inhibitory potential for phosphate solubilization from rock phosphate (RP) was studied in this work. Al, B, Ba, Ca, F, Fe, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Si, Sr, V, Zn, and Zr were released concomitantly with P during the solubilization of Araxá RP (Brazil), but only F showed inhibitory effects on the process at the concentrations detected in the growth medium. Besides P solubilization, fluoride decreased fungal growth, citric acid production, and medium acidification by Aspergillus niger. At the maximum concentration found during Araxá RP solubilization (22.9 mg F− per liter), fluoride decreased P solubilization by 55%. These findings show that fluoride negatively affects RP solubilization by A. niger through its inhibitory action on the fungal metabolism. Given that fluoride is a common component of RPs, the data presented here suggest that most of the microbial RP solubilization systems studied so far were probably operated under suboptimal conditions. PMID:23770895

  9. A biomaterial composed of collagen and solubilized elastin enhances angiogenesis and elastic fiber formation without calcification.

    PubMed

    Daamen, Willeke F; Nillesen, Suzan T M; Wismans, Ronnie G; Reinhardt, Dieter P; Hafmans, Theo; Veerkamp, Jacques H; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

    2008-03-01

    Elastin is the prime protein in elastic tissues that contributes to elasticity of, for example, lung, aorta, and skin. Upon injury, elastic fibers are not readily replaced, which hampers tissue regeneration. Incorporation of solubilized elastin (hydrolyzed insoluble elastin fibers or elastin peptides) in biomaterials may improve regeneration, because solubilized elastin is able to promote proliferation as well as elastin synthesis. Porous biomaterials composed of highly purified collagen without and without elastin fibers or solubilized elastin were prepared by freezing and lyophilization. Solubilized elastin formed spherical structures that were incorporated in the collagenous part of the scaffolds and that persisted after chemical crosslinking of the scaffolds. Crosslinked scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted in young Sprague Dawley rats. Collagen-solubilized elastin and collagen scaffolds showed no calcification in this sensitive calcification model, in contrast to scaffolds containing elastin fibers. Collagen-solubilized elastin scaffolds also induced angiogenesis, as revealed by type IV collagen staining, and promoted elastic fiber synthesis, as shown with antibodies against rat elastin and fibrillin-1. It is concluded that scaffolds produced from collagen and solubilized elastin present a non-calcifying biomaterial with a capacity for soft-tissue regeneration, especially in relation to elastic fiber synthesis.

  10. Solubilization of lipids and lipid phases by the styrene-maleic acid copolymer.

    PubMed

    Dominguez Pardo, Juan J; Dörr, Jonas M; Iyer, Aditya; Cox, Ruud C; Scheidelaar, Stefan; Koorengevel, Martijn C; Subramaniam, Vinod; Killian, J Antoinette

    2017-01-01

    A promising tool in membrane research is the use of the styrene-maleic acid (SMA) copolymer to solubilize membranes in the form of nanodiscs. Since membranes are heterogeneous in composition, it is important to know whether SMA thereby has a preference for solubilization of either specific types of lipids or specific bilayer phases. Here, we investigated this by performing partial solubilization of model membranes and analyzing the lipid composition of the solubilized fraction. We found that SMA displays no significant lipid preference in homogeneous binary lipid mixtures in the fluid phase, even when using lipids that by themselves show very different solubilization kinetics. By contrast, in heterogeneous phase-separated bilayers, SMA was found to have a strong preference for solubilization of lipids in the fluid phase as compared to those in either a gel phase or a liquid-ordered phase. Together the results suggest that (1) SMA is a reliable tool to characterize native interactions between membrane constituents, (2) any solubilization preference of SMA is not due to properties of individual lipids but rather due to properties of the membrane or membrane domains in which these lipids reside and (3) exploiting SMA resistance rather than detergent resistance may be an attractive approach for the isolation of ordered domains from biological membranes.

  11. Physical characterization and antioxidant activity of thymol solubilized Tween 80 micelles.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ling-Li; Taxipalati, Maierhaba; Que, Fei; Zhang, Hui

    2016-12-01

    Attempts were made to solubilize thymol in Tween 80 micelle to study the solubilization mechanism of thymol and the effect of solubilization on its antioxidant activity. The maximum solubilized concentration of thymol in a 2.0% (w/v) Tween 80 micelle solution is 0.2 wt%. There was no significant difference in Z-average diameter between the empty micelles and thymol solubilized micelles. (1)H NMR spectra indicated that 3-H and 4-H on the benzene ring of thymol interacted with the ester group between the hydrophilic head group and the hydrophobic tail group of Tween 80 by Van der Waals' force. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays showed that the reducing antioxidant activity of free thymol did not change after solubilized in Tween 80 micelles. Compared to free thymol, the solubilized thymol showed higher activities to scavenge DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radicals. The present study suggested a possible preparation of thymol-carrying micelles with enhanced antioxidant activities that could be applied in food beverages.

  12. Derepression of Mineral Phosphate Solubilization Phenotype by Insertional Inactivation of iclR in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Mahendrapal Singh; Iyer, Bhagya; Pandya, Maharshi; Jog, Rahul; G, Naresh Kumar; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2015-01-01

    The mode of succinate mediated repression of mineral phosphate solubilization and the role of repressor in suppressing phosphate solubilization phenotype of two free-living nitrogen fixing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains was studied. Organic acid mediated mineral phosphate solubilization phenotype of oxalic acid producing Klebsiella pneumoniae SM6 and SM11 were transcriptionally repressed by IclR in presence of succinate as carbon source. Oxalic acid production and expression of genes of the glyoxylate shunt (aceBAK) was found only in glucose but not in succinate- and glucose+succinate-grown cells. IclR, repressor of aceBAK operon, was inactivated using an allelic exchange system resulting in derepressed mineral phosphate solubilization phenotype through constitutive expression of the glyoxylate shunt. Insertional inactivation of iclR resulted in increased activity of the glyoxylate shunt enzymes even in succinate-grown cells. An augmented phosphate solubilization up to 54 and 59% soluble phosphate release was attained in glucose+succinate-grown SM6Δ and SM11Δ strains respectively, compared to glucose-grown cells, whereas phosphate solubilization was absent or negligible in wildtype cells grown in glucose+succinate. Both wildtype and iclR deletion strains showed similar indole-3-acetic acid production. Wheat seeds inoculated with wildtype SM6 and SM11 improved both root and shoot length by 1.2 fold. However, iclR deletion SM6Δ and SM11Δ strains increased root and shoot length by 1.5 and 1.4 folds, respectively, compared to uninoculated controls. The repressor inactivated phosphate solubilizers better served the purpose of constitutive phosphate solubilization in pot experiments, where presence of other carbon sources (e.g., succinate) might repress mineral phosphate solubilization phenotype of wildtype strains.

  13. Derepression of Mineral Phosphate Solubilization Phenotype by Insertional Inactivation of iclR in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Maharshi; Jog, Rahul; G, Naresh Kumar; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2015-01-01

    The mode of succinate mediated repression of mineral phosphate solubilization and the role of repressor in suppressing phosphate solubilization phenotype of two free-living nitrogen fixing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains was studied. Organic acid mediated mineral phosphate solubilization phenotype of oxalic acid producing Klebsiella pneumoniae SM6 and SM11 were transcriptionally repressed by IclR in presence of succinate as carbon source. Oxalic acid production and expression of genes of the glyoxylate shunt (aceBAK) was found only in glucose but not in succinate- and glucose+succinate-grown cells. IclR, repressor of aceBAK operon, was inactivated using an allelic exchange system resulting in derepressed mineral phosphate solubilization phenotype through constitutive expression of the glyoxylate shunt. Insertional inactivation of iclR resulted in increased activity of the glyoxylate shunt enzymes even in succinate-grown cells. An augmented phosphate solubilization up to 54 and 59% soluble phosphate release was attained in glucose+succinate-grown SM6Δ and SM11Δ strains respectively, compared to glucose-grown cells, whereas phosphate solubilization was absent or negligible in wildtype cells grown in glucose+succinate. Both wildtype and iclR deletion strains showed similar indole-3-acetic acid production. Wheat seeds inoculated with wildtype SM6 and SM11 improved both root and shoot length by 1.2 fold. However, iclR deletion SM6Δ and SM11Δ strains increased root and shoot length by 1.5 and 1.4 folds, respectively, compared to uninoculated controls. The repressor inactivated phosphate solubilizers better served the purpose of constitutive phosphate solubilization in pot experiments, where presence of other carbon sources (e.g., succinate) might repress mineral phosphate solubilization phenotype of wildtype strains. PMID:26381651

  14. Definition and characterization of enzymes for maximal biocatalytic solubilization of prebiotic polysaccharides from potato pulp.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Lise V; Larsen, Dorte M; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Meyer, Anne S

    2011-08-10

    Potato pulp is a high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I polysaccharides, which are highly bifidogenic when solubilized. The objective of the present study was to characterize and compare four homogalacturonan degrading enzymes capable of catalyzing the required solubilization of these pectinaceous polysaccharides from potato pulp in a 1 min reaction. An additional purpose was to assess the influence of the pH and the potential buffer chelating effects on the release of these polysaccharides from the potato pulp. The pH and temperature optima of two selected pectin lyases from Emericella nidulans (formerly known as Aspergillus nidulans) and Aspergillus niger were determined to 8.6 and 4.0, respectively, at ≥100 °C within 1 min of reaction. The optima for the two selected polygalacturonases from E. nidulans and Aspergillus aculeatus were determined to pH 4.4 and 46 °C, and pH 3.7 and ≥80 °C, respectively. The polygalacturonase from A. aculeatus was 4-42 times more heat-resistant at 50 °C than the other enzymes. The difference in pH optima of the pectin lyases and the exceptional thermal stabilities of some of the enzymes are proposed to be related to specific amino acid substitutions, stabilizing hydrogen bonding and structural traits of the enzymes. The K(M) and V(max) values ranged from 0.3-0.6g/L and 0.5-250.5 U/mg protein, respectively. Phosphate buffer induced release of a higher amount of dry matter than Tris-acetate buffer at pH 6, indicating a chelating effect of the phosphate. Moreover, the phosphate had a higher chelating effect at pH 6 than at pH 4. The optimal conditions for a high yield of polysaccharides from potato pulp were therefore: 1% (w/w) potato pulp treated with 1% (w/w) enzyme/substrate (E/S) pectin lyase from E. nidulans and 1% (w/w) E/S polygalacturonase from A. aculeatus at pH 6.0 and 60 °C for

  15. Cardiopulmonary baroreceptor control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in heat-stressed humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Etzel, R. A.; Farr, D. B.

    1999-01-01

    Whole body heating decreases central venous pressure (CVP) while increasing muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). In normothermia, similar decreases in CVP elevate MSNA, presumably via cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading. The purpose of this project was to identify whether increases in MSNA during whole body heating could be attributed to cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading coincident with the thermal challenge. Seven subjects were exposed to whole body heating while sublingual temperature, skin blood flow, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and MSNA were monitored. During the heat stress, 15 ml/kg warmed saline was infused intravenously over 7-10 min to increase CVP and load the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors. We reported previously that this amount of saline was sufficient to return CVP to pre-heat stress levels. Whole body heating increased MSNA from 25 +/- 3 to 39 +/- 3 bursts/min (P < 0. 05). Central blood volume expansion via rapid saline infusion did not significantly decrease MSNA (44 +/- 4 bursts/min, P > 0.05 relative to heat stress period) and did not alter mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) or pulse pressure. To identify whether arterial baroreceptor loading decreases MSNA during heat stress, in a separate protocol MAP was elevated via steady-state infusion of phenylephrine during whole body heating. Increasing MAP from 82 +/- 3 to 93 +/- 4 mmHg (P < 0.05) caused MSNA to decrease from 36 +/- 3 to 15 +/- 4 bursts/min (P < 0.05). These data suggest that cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading during passive heating is not the primary mechanism resulting in elevations in MSNA. Moreover, arterial baroreceptors remain capable of modulating MSNA during heat stress.

  16. Effects of passive heating on central blood volume and ventricular dimensions in humans.

    PubMed

    Crandall, C G; Wilson, T E; Marving, J; Vogelsang, T W; Kjaer, A; Hesse, B; Secher, N H

    2008-01-01

    Mixed findings regarding the effects of whole-body heat stress on central blood volume have been reported. This study evaluated the hypothesis that heat stress reduces central blood volume and alters blood volume distribution. Ten healthy experimental and seven healthy time control (i.e. non-heat stressed) subjects participated in this protocol. Changes in regional blood volume during heat stress and time control were estimated using technetium-99m labelled autologous red blood cells and gamma camera imaging. Whole-body heating increased internal temperature (> 1.0 degrees C), cutaneous vascular conductance (approximately fivefold), and heart rate (52 +/- 2 to 93 +/- 4 beats min(-1)), while reducing central venous pressure (5.5 +/- 07 to 0.2 +/- 0.6 mmHg) accompanied by minor decreases in mean arterial pressure (all P < 0.05). The heat stress reduced the blood volume of the heart (18 +/- 2%), heart plus central vasculature (17 +/- 2%), thorax (14 +/- 2%), inferior vena cava (23 +/- 2%) and liver (23 +/- 2%) (all P heat stress did not significantly change left ventricular end-diastolic volume, while ventricular end-systolic volume was reduced by 24 +/- 6% of pre-heat stress levels (P < 0.001 relative to time control subjects). Thus, heat stress increased left ventricular ejection fraction from 60 +/- 1% to 68 +/- 2% (P = 0.02). We conclude that heat stress shifts blood volume from thoracic and splanchnic regions presumably to aid in heat dissipation, while simultaneously increasing heart rate and ejection fraction.

  17. Cardiopulmonary baroreceptor control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in heat-stressed humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Etzel, R. A.; Farr, D. B.

    1999-01-01

    Whole body heating decreases central venous pressure (CVP) while increasing muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). In normothermia, similar decreases in CVP elevate MSNA, presumably via cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading. The purpose of this project was to identify whether increases in MSNA during whole body heating could be attributed to cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading coincident with the thermal challenge. Seven subjects were exposed to whole body heating while sublingual temperature, skin blood flow, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and MSNA were monitored. During the heat stress, 15 ml/kg warmed saline was infused intravenously over 7-10 min to increase CVP and load the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors. We reported previously that this amount of saline was sufficient to return CVP to pre-heat stress levels. Whole body heating increased MSNA from 25 +/- 3 to 39 +/- 3 bursts/min (P < 0. 05). Central blood volume expansion via rapid saline infusion did not significantly decrease MSNA (44 +/- 4 bursts/min, P > 0.05 relative to heat stress period) and did not alter mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) or pulse pressure. To identify whether arterial baroreceptor loading decreases MSNA during heat stress, in a separate protocol MAP was elevated via steady-state infusion of phenylephrine during whole body heating. Increasing MAP from 82 +/- 3 to 93 +/- 4 mmHg (P < 0.05) caused MSNA to decrease from 36 +/- 3 to 15 +/- 4 bursts/min (P < 0.05). These data suggest that cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading during passive heating is not the primary mechanism resulting in elevations in MSNA. Moreover, arterial baroreceptors remain capable of modulating MSNA during heat stress.

  18. Effects of heat-killed Lactobacillus kunkeei YB38 on human intestinal environment and bowel movement: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Asama, T; Kimura, Y; Kono, T; Tatefuji, T; Hashimoto, K; Benno, Y

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that lactic acid bacteria supplementation is beneficial for intestinal conditions such as microbiota; however, the effects of killed-lactic acid bacteria on intestinal conditions are largely unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus kunkeei YB38 (YB38) at a dose of approximately 10 mg/day on human intestinal environment and bowel movement. This single-blind study enrolled 29 female subjects with a low defecation frequency who consumed heat-killed YB38 at four increasing dosage levels: 0 (placebo), 2, 10, and 50 mg. Each dose was consumed daily for two weeks, with a two-week baseline period preceding the dosing-period and a two-week washout period ending the study. Observed levels of Bacteroides fragilis group significantly decreased with intake of heat-killed YB38 at ≥10 mg/day compared with levels during placebo intake (P<0.01). Faecal pH significantly decreased with 10 and 50 mg/day intake (P<0.01 and 0.05, respectively). Acetic acid levels tended to increase in faeces at the 50 mg/day dose (P<0.1). Bowel movement tended to increase in all heat-killed YB38 intake periods (P<0.1). In conclusion, heat-killed YB38 altered human intestinal microbiota at doses of ≥10 mg/day and tended to increase bowel movement at ≥2 mg/day. This is the first study to show the intestinal microbiota-altering effect of L. kunkeei and to report the bowel movement-improving effect of heat-killed lactic acid bacteria.

  19. Significant differences in the activities of alpha-amylases in the absence and presence of polyethylene glycol assayed on eight starches solubilized by two methods.

    PubMed

    Mukerjea, Rupendra; Slocum, Giles; Mukerjea, Romila; Robyt, John F

    2006-09-04

    Starch is a reserve chemical source of the energy of the sun found in plants as a water-insoluble granule that differs in their chemical and physical properties, depending on the source. The granules can be solubilized by heating in water or by treatment with various reagents, such as 1M NaOH. alpha-Amylases are widely distributed enzymes that initiate the hydrolysis of starch into low molecular weight maltodextrins. We recently found that the activities of a single alpha-amylase on two different starches were significantly different. We then determined the activities of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and porcine pancreas alpha-amylases, using eight different starches, solubilized by two methods: autoclaving at 121 degrees C and 1M NaOH at 20 degrees C. There were significant differences in the activities of both of the amylases on all eight of the starches. Previously, it had been found that polyethylene glycol (PEG) stabilized and activated the activities of both enzymes, using a soluble amylose as the substrate. Addition of PEG to the enzymes greatly increased the activities on the eight starches, but the activities still differed significantly. The different activities with the starches were hypothesized as differences in the amounts of secondary and tertiary structures that are partially retained when the different starches are solubilized; the activities on addition of PEG is hypothesized as the formation of highly active species from a series of less active forms.

  20. Methodology for characterizing heat removal mechanism in human skin during cryogen spray cooling.

    PubMed

    Pikkula, Brian M; Tunnell, James W; Anvari, Bahman

    2003-05-01

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) reduces epidermal damage during laser treatment of various dermatoses. The goal of this study was to determine the heat removal mechanism in skin and quantify the amount in response to CSC. Thermocouples were imbedded in four model substrates with a range of thermal diffusivities, greater than three orders of magnitude in difference, to measure the temperature profiles in response to CSC and sapphire contact cooling, which removes heat completely by conduction. An algorithm solving an inverse heat conduction problem was subsequently used to quantify the amount of heat removal from the substrates using the measured temperatures. The interface thermal conductance and internal temperatures within the substrates were computed by a finite difference algorithm that solved the heat conduction equation. Results verify a marked increase in heat removal and interface thermal conductance with increasing thermal diffusivity. By estimation from the model substrate results, heat removal and interface thermal conductance values for skin were obtained. Data demonstrate that during CSC, evaporation is the dominant heat transfer mechanism in materials with higher thermal diffusivities; however, conductive cooling dominates in substrates with lower thermal diffusivities such as skin.

  1. Spectral characteristics of skin sympathetic nerve activity in heat-stressed humans.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Sathishkumar, Mithra; Wilson, Thad E; Shibasaki, Manabu; Davis, Scott L; Crandall, Craig G

    2006-04-01

    Skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) exhibits low- and high-frequency spectral components in normothermic subjects. However, spectral characteristics of SSNA in heat-stressed subjects are unknown. Because the main components of the integrated SSNA during heat stress (sudomotor/vasodilator activities) are different from those during normothermia and cooling (vasoconstrictor activity), we hypothesize that spectral characteristics of SSNA in heat-stressed subjects will be different from those in subjects subjected to normothermia or cooling. In 17 healthy subjects, SSNA, electrocardiogram, arterial blood pressure (via Finapres), respiratory activity, and skin blood flow were recorded during normothermia and heat stress. In 7 of the 17 subjects, these variables were also recorded during cooling. Spectral characteristics of integrated SSNA, R-R interval, beat-by-beat mean blood pressure, skin blood flow variability, and respiratory excursions were assessed. Heat stress and cooling significantly increased total SSNA. SSNA spectral power in the low-frequency (0.03-0.15 Hz), high-frequency (0.15-0.45 Hz), and very-high-frequency (0.45-2.5 Hz) regions was significantly elevated by heat stress and cooling. Interestingly, heat stress caused a greater relative increase of SSNA spectral power within the 0.45- to 2.5-Hz region than in the other spectral ranges; cooling did not show this effect. Differences in the SSNA spectral distribution between normothermia/cooling and heat stress may reflect different characteristics of central modulation of vasoconstrictor and sudomotor/vasodilator activities.

  2. Prediction modeling of physiological responses and human performance in the heat with application to space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandolf, Kent B.; Stroschein, Leander A.; Gonzalez, Richard R.; Sawka, Michael N.

    1994-01-01

    This institute has developed a comprehensive USARIEM heat strain model for predicting physiological responses and soldier performance in the heat which has been programmed for use by hand-held calculators, personal computers, and incorporated into the development of a heat strain decision aid. This model deals directly with five major inputs: the clothing worn, the physical work intensity, the state of heat acclimation, the ambient environment (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar load), and the accepted heat casualty level. In addition to predicting rectal temperature, heart rate, and sweat loss given the above inputs, our model predicts the expected physical work/rest cycle, the maximum safe physical work time, the estimated recovery time from maximal physical work, and the drinking water requirements associated with each of these situations. This model provides heat injury risk management guidance based on thermal strain predictions from the user specified environmental conditions, soldier characteristics, clothing worn, and the physical work intensity. If heat transfer values for space operations' clothing are known, NASA can use this prediction model to help avoid undue heat strain in astronauts during space flight.

  3. Modeling the biological solubilization of coal in a liquid fluidized-bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Petersen, J.N.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1995-12-31

    A fully predictive mathematical model has been developed to describe the behavior of liquid fluidized beds in which the biological solubilization of coal particles is occurring. This model is based on the particle mass-transport mechanisms of dispersion and convection, and accounts for the changes in the size of the particles as they are solubilized. Two different cases are compared: one in which the bed is replenished with large coal particles and one in which small particles are fed to the bed. The simulation results indicate that replenishment with small coal particles enhances the overall solubilization rate without significantly increasing the mass elutriated.

  4. Effects of temperature and glucose limitation on coal solubilization by Candida ML13

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B. )

    1991-04-01

    Biological processing has received considerable attention in recent years as a technology for the utilization of low-ranked coals. Several fungi and actinomycetes have been shown to liquefy highly oxidized coal in pure culture under aerobic conditions. This report describes the optimization of cultural conditions for coal solubilization by Candida sp. ML13, an organism originally isolated from a naturally weathered coal seam. Coal solubilization by surface cultures of Candida sp. has previously been demonstrated. The author describes here the elicitation of the activity in submerged cultures as well as the effect of carbohydrate concentration, carbon source, temperature, and agitation rate on coal solubilization by this organism.

  5. Binding to histo-blood group antigen-expressing bacteria protects human norovirus from acute heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Breiman, Adrien; le Pendu, Jacques; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate if histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) expressing bacteria have any protective role on human norovirus (NoV) from acute heat stress. Eleven bacterial strains were included, belonging to Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Clostridium difficile, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and B. longum. HBGA expression of the bacteria as well as binding of human NoV virus-like particles (VLPs, GI.1, and GII.4 strains) to the bacteria were detected by flow cytometry. NoV VLPs pre-incubated with HBGA expressing or non-HBGA expressing bacteria were heated and detected by both direct ELISA and porcine gastric mucin-binding assay. The NoV-binding abilities of the bacteria correlated well with their HBGA expression profiles. Two HBGA expressing E. coli (LMG8223 and LFMFP861, both GI.1 and GII.4 binders) and one non-HBGA expressing E. coli (ATCC8739, neither GI.1 nor GII.4 binder) were selected for the heat treatment test with NoV VLPs. Compared with the same cell numbers of non-HBGA expressing E. coli, the presence of HBGA-expressing E. coli could always maintain higher antigen integrity, as well as mucin-binding ability of NoV VLPs of both GI.1 and GII.4 after heat-treatment at 90°C for 2 min. These results indicate that HBGA-expressing bacteria may protect NoVs during the food processing treatments, thereby facilitating their transmission. PMID:26191052

  6. Zika virus is not thermostable: very effective virus inactivation during heat treatment (pasteurization) of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Farcet, Maria R; Kreil, Thomas R

    2017-03-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the Americas has also raised concerns around the potential for ZIKV transmission via blood products. Plasma-derived products are considered safe, because effective viral-inactivation and removal methods are implemented in their manufacturing processes. However, a recent study has indicated that ZIKV is "thermally stable" compared with the closely related Dengue virus, thus raising the question of whether heat treatments, as embedded in the manufacturing of plasma-derived products, are as effective against ZIKV as was previously shown for other Flaviviruses. Therefore, the sensitivity of ZIKV to heat inactivation was investigated using the pasteurization of human serum albumin (HSA) as an example. Heat treatment (58.0 ± 1.0°C for 590 ± 10 minutes) of HSA was investigated for the capacity to reduce ZIKV in two different protein concentrations (5% and 25% HSA). The results were compared with data obtained in identical set-ups for the closely related West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus. Heat treatment of HSA inactivated ZIKV to below the limit of detection already during the heating phase to 57.0°C, that is, even before the 10-hour incubation at 58.0 ± 1.0°C commenced. For West Nile virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus, incubations up to 180 minutes were required to achieve inactivation to below the limit of detection. ZIKV was more sensitive to heat treatment than other members of the Flaviviridae and thus does not pose a concern for plasma products that include a heat treatment in their manufacturing process. © 2016 AABB.

  7. Physiological responses to chronic heat exposure in an aging non-human primate species, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

    PubMed

    Terrien, J; Blanc, S; Zizzari, P; Epelbaum, J; Aujard, F

    2011-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence related to increased death from hyperthermia suggests higher frailty in the elderly when exposed to high ambient temperatures. Despite the recent awareness of such public health problems, integrative studies investigating the effects of age on the physiological responses to heat wave thermal conditions remain scarce. Daily rhythmicity of core temperature (T(c)) and locomotor activity (LA), as well as parameters representative of energy balance and IGF-1 levels which are involved in the aging process and stress resistance, were monitored in a non-human primate species, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Adult and aged animals, acclimated to long days (LD) or short days (SD), were monitored during 8-day periods of exposure to 25 ° C and 34 ° C. Adult animals displayed efficient coping with heat exposure, regardless of the photoperiod. Hence, efficient responses resulted in decrease of energy intake, energy expenditure, IGF-1 levels and LA levels, promoting hyperthermia avoidance. Positive energy balance was maintained and water turnover did not change significantly after heat exposure. In contrast, while aged animals acclimated to LD responded similarly to adults, aged mouse lemurs acclimated to SD showed great difficulties coping with heat exposure. Indeed, in this group, normothermia impairment was associated with increased T(c) levels, alterations in daily rhythmicity, negative energy balance and increased IGF-1 levels. Impaired responses to heat exposure were seen in aged mouse lemurs acclimated to SD only. The main effects were observed during diurnal resting periods, suggesting decreased capacities with age to dissipate excess body heat. Taken together, these data highlight daily rhythmicity and IGF-1 pathway as main targets in the impaired response to heat exposure in the elderly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Heat treatment of human esophageal tissues: Effect on esophageal cancer detection using oxygenated hemoglobin diffuse reflectance ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q. L.; Guo, Z. Y.; Si, J. L.; Wei, H. J.; Yang, H. Q.; Wu, G. Y.; Xie, S. S.; Guo, X.; Zhong, H. Q.; Li, L. Q.; Li, X. Y.

    2011-03-01

    The main objective of the present work is to study the influence of heat treatment on the esophageal cancer detection using the diffuse reflectance (DR) spectral intensity ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) absorption bands to distinguish the epithelial tissues of normal human esophagus and moderately differentiated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) at different heat treatment temperature of 20, 37, 42, 50, and 60°C, respectively. The DR spectra for the epithelial tissues of the normal esophagus and ESCC in vitro at different heat-treatment temperature in the wavelength range 400-650 nm were measured with a commercial optical fiber spectrometer. The results indicate that the average DR spectral intensity overall enhancement with concomitant increase of heat-treatment temperature for the epithelial tissues of normal esophagus and ESCC, but the average DR spectral intensity for the normal esophageal epithelial tissues is relatively higher than that for ESCC epithelial tissues at the same heat-treatment temperature. The mean R540/R575 ratios of ESCC epithelial tissues were always lower than that of normal esophageal epithelial tissues at the same temperature, and the mean R540/R575 ratios of the epithelial tissues of the normal esophagus and ESCC were decreasing with the increase of different heat-treatment temperatures. The differences in the mean R540/R575 ratios between the epithelial tissues of normal esophagus and ESCC were 13.33, 13.59, 11.76, and 11.11% at different heat-treatment temperature of 20, 37, 42, and 50°C, respectively. These results also indicate that the DR intensity ratio R540/R575 of the hemoglobin bands is a useful tool for discrimination between the epithelial tissues of normal esophagus and ESCC in the temperature range from room temperature to 50°C, but it was non-effective at 60°C or over 60°C.

  9. Expression of heat shock protein 27 and alpha-crystallins in human retinoblastoma after chemoreduction

    PubMed Central

    Kase, S; Parikh, J G; Rao, N A

    2010-01-01

    Aim Small heat shock proteins (sHSP) play an important role in the resistance to anticancer drugs. We examined the expression of the sHSP family, HSP27 and α-crystallins, in human retinoblastoma with and without preoperative chemotherapy. Methods Eighteen enucleated eyes from patients with retinoblastoma were used. Six patients had undergone chemotherapy before enucleation. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections were processed for H&E staining and examined by immunohistochemistry using anti-HSP27 and α-crystallins antibodies. Results Eleven of 12 cases with no history of preoperative chemotherapy showed weakly positive or negative staining for HSP27, whereas six and five cases were strongly positive for αA and αB-crystallin, respectively. In the six cases with a history of chemotherapy, several viable retinoblastoma cells remained. Immunoreactivity for HSP27 and αB-crystallin was strongly detected in the cytoplasm of viable retinoblastoma cells, while αA-crystallin immunoreactivity was less marked. Immunoreactivity for HSP27 was significantly higher in retinoblastoma cases with preoperative chemotherapy than in those without chemotherapy (p<0.0001). In contrast, immunoreactivity for αA-crystallin was significantly lower in cases with chemotherapy than in cases without chemotherapy (p<0.01). Conclusions HSP27 and αB-crystallin, but not αA-crystallin, were highly expressed in viable tumour cells after chemotherapy, suggesting that HSP27 and αB-crystallin may protect tumour cells from apoptotic signals produced by anticancer drugs in retinoblastoma. PMID:18812387

  10. A Mechanism of Subunit Recruitment in Human Small Heat Shock Protein Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Delbecq, Scott P; Rosenbaum, Joel C; Klevit, Rachel E

    2015-07-21

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) make up a class of molecular chaperones broadly observed across organisms. Many sHSPs form large oligomers that undergo dynamic subunit exchange that is thought to play a role in chaperone function. Though remarkably heterogeneous, sHSP oligomers share three types of intermolecular interactions that involve all three defined regions of a sHSP: the N-terminal region (NTR), the conserved α-crystallin domain (ACD), and a C-terminal region (CTR). Here we define the structural interactions involved in incorporation of a subunit into a sHSP oligomer. We demonstrate that a minimal ACD dimer of the human sHSP, HSPB5, interacts with an HSPB5 oligomer through two types of interactions: (1) interactions with CTRs in the oligomer and (2) via exchange into and out of the dimer interface composed of two ACDs. Unexpectedly, although dimers are thought to be the fundamental building block for sHSP oligomers, our results clearly indicate that subunit exchange into and out of oligomers occurs via monomers. Using structure-based mutants, we show that incorporation of a subunit into an oligomer is predicated on recruitment of the subunit via its interaction with CTRs on an oligomer. Both the rate and extent of subunit incorporation depend on the accessibility of CTRs within an HSPB5 oligomer. We show that this mechanism also applies to formation of heterooligomeric sHSP species composed of HSPB5 and HSPB6 and is likely general among sHSPs. Finally, our observations highlight the importance of NTRs in the thermodynamic stability of sHSP oligomers.

  11. The upregulation of heat shock protein 47 expression in human buccal fibroblasts stimulated with arecoline.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shun-Fa; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2008-04-01

    Heat shock protein (HSP) 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is involved in the processing and/or secretion of procollagen. HSP47 is consistently and dramatically upregulated in a variety of fibrotic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare HSP47 expression in normal human buccal mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) specimens and further to explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to induce HSP47 expression. The mRNA levels of HSP47 from fibroblasts cultured from 20 OSF and 10 normal buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs) were evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The effect of arecoline, the major areca nut alkaloid, was added to explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to induce HSP47 expression. Furthermore, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, p38 inhibitor SB203580, cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor NS-398, and glutathione precursor N-acetyl-l-cysteine were added to find the possible mechanisms. OSF demonstrated significantly higher HSP47 mRNA expression than BMFs (P < 0.001). Arecoline was also found to elevate HSP47 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The amount of HSP47 was about 3.7-fold at a concentration level of 80 microg/ml arecoline when compared with control (P < 0.05). In addition, pre-treatment with pharmacologic agents markedly inhibited the arecoline-induced HSP47 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Taken together, HSP47 is significantly upregulated in OSF from areca quid chewers and HSP47 expression induced by arecoline in fibroblasts may be mediated by MEK, PI3K, and COX-2 signal transduction pathways.

  12. Heat acclimation affects circulating levels of prostaglandin E2, COX-2 and orexin in humans.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Oh; Lee, Jeong Beom; Min, Young Ki; Yang, Hun Mo

    2013-05-10

    We examined serum levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and orexin before and after heat acclimation (HA) to test the hypothesis that decreased basal body temperature due to HA correlate with circulating levels of these key thermoregulatory molecules. Nine healthy human male volunteers were recruited (age, 21.9±2.7 years). The subjects were exposed to half-body immersion in hot water (42±0.5°C) at the same time of day (2-5p.m.) on alternate days for 3 weeks. The HA protocol included 10 bouts of 30min immersion. All experiments were performed in an automated climate chamber (temperature, 26.0±0.5°C; relative humidity, 60±3.0%; air velocity, <1m/s). Tympanic and skin temperatures were measured, and mean body temperature was calculated. The difference in body weight was used to estimate total sweat loss. Serum levels of PGE2, COX-2 and orexin were analyzed before and after HA. Body temperature decreased significantly (P<0.05) after HA, whereas sweat volume increased significantly (P<0.01). Serum PGE2, COX-2 and orexin concentrations decreased significantly compared to those at pre-acclimation (P<0.001, P<0.01, P<0.01, respectively). Our data suggest that decreased basal body temperature after HA is associated with decreases in thermoregulatory molecules, such as PGE2, COX-2 and orexin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heat shock protein 27 is spatially distributed in the human placenta and decreased during labor.

    PubMed

    Abdulsid, Akrem; Fletcher, Alexander; Lyall, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Placental oxidative stress is a feature of human labor. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play a key role in cellular stress. We hypothesized that placental expression of the small HSP 27 would be altered during labor and expression would vary in different regions of the placenta. Six women in labor who delivered vaginally and 6 women not in labor, who were delivered by Cesarean section, were recruited. Four equally spaced pieces were sampled from the inner, middle and outer regions of each placenta (total 12 samples per placenta). HSP 27 expression was investigated by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. For non-labor, there was less HSP 27 protein in the inner placenta region compared with both the middle region (p<0.05) and outer region (p<0.05). For labor, there was also less HSP 27 protein in the inner region compared with both the middle (p<0.02) and outer region (p<0.01). When the 3 regions of the placenta were compared for non-labor versus labor there was less HSP 27 in the labor group at both the inner (p<0.05) and middle regions (p<0.005) compared to non-labor. Similar to HSP 27 protein, there was less HSP 27 mRNA in the labor group in both the inner region (p<0.05) and middle region (p<0.02) compared to non-labor. This study suggests that placental HSP 27 may play a role in labor and is spatially controlled. The results have important implications for how data obtained from studies in the placenta can be influenced by sampling methods.

  14. Heat Shock Protein 27 Is Spatially Distributed in the Human Placenta and Decreased during Labor

    PubMed Central

    Abdulsid, Akrem; Fletcher, Alexander; Lyall, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Placental oxidative stress is a feature of human labor. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play a key role in cellular stress. We hypothesized that placental expression of the small HSP 27 would be altered during labor and expression would vary in different regions of the placenta. Six women in labor who delivered vaginally and 6 women not in labor, who were delivered by Cesarean section, were recruited. Four equally spaced pieces were sampled from the inner, middle and outer regions of each placenta (total 12 samples per placenta). HSP 27 expression was investigated by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. For non-labor, there was less HSP 27 protein in the inner placenta region compared with both the middle region (p<0.05) and outer region (p<0.05). For labor, there was also less HSP 27 protein in the inner region compared with both the middle (p<0.02) and outer region (p<0.01). When the 3 regions of the placenta were compared for non-labor versus labor there was less HSP 27 in the labor group at both the inner (p<0.05) and middle regions (p<0.005) compared to non-labor. Similar to HSP 27 protein, there was less HSP 27 mRNA in the labor group in both the inner region (p<0.05) and middle region (p<0.02) compared to non-labor. This study suggests that placental HSP 27 may play a role in labor and is spatially controlled. The results have important implications for how data obtained from studies in the placenta can be influenced by sampling methods. PMID:23990930

  15. Performance and Costs of Ductless Heat Pumps in Marine-Climate High-Performance Homes -- Habitat for Humanity The Woods

    SciTech Connect

    Lubliner, Michael; Howard, Luke; Hales, David; Kunkle, Rick; Gordon, Andy; Spencer, Melinda

    2016-02-18

    The Woods is a Habitat for Humanity (HFH) community of ENERGY STAR Homes Northwest (ESHNW)-certified homes located in the marine climate of Tacoma/Pierce County, Washington. This research report builds on an earlier preliminary draft 2014 BA report, and includes significant billing analysis and cost effectiveness research from a collaborative, ongoing Ductless Heat Pump (DHP)research effort for Tacoma Public Utilities (TPU) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This report focuses on the results of field testing, modeling, and monitoring of ductless mini-split heat pump hybrid heating systems in seven homes built and first occupied at various times between September 2013 and October 2014. The report also provides WSU documentation of high-performance home observations, lessons learned, and stakeholder recommendations for builders of affordable high-performance housing such as HFH. Tacoma Public Utilities (TPU) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This report focuses on the results of field testing, modeling, and monitoring of ductless mini-split heat pump hybrid heating systems in seven homes built and first occupied at various times between September 2013 and October 2014. The report also provides WSU documentation of high-performance home observations, lessons learned, and stakeholder recommendations for builders of affordable high-performance housing such as HFH.

  16. Effects of humid heat exposure in later sleep segments on sleep stages and body temperature in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Mizuno, Koh

    2005-03-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of humid heat exposure in later sleep segments on sleep stages and body temperature in humans. The subjects were eight healthy males, from whom informed consent had been obtained. The experiments were carried out under three different sets of conditions: a control climate [air temperature (Ta)=26°C, relative humidity (RH)=50%] (C); a humid heat climate (Ta=32°C, RH=80%) (H); and a humid heat exposure in later sleep segments (C for the first 3 h 45 min, followed by a 30-min transition to H, which was then maintained for the last 3 h 45 min) (C H). Electroencephalogram, EOG, and mental electromyogram, rectal temperature (Tre), and skin temperature (Tsk) were continuously measured. The total amount of wakefulness was significantly increased in H compared to C H or C. Compared to C, wakefulness in C H and H was significantly increased during later sleep segments. Tre and mean Tsk were significantly higher in H than in C H or C. In C H, Tsk and Tre increased to levels equal to those observed in H after Ta and RH increase. Whole body sweat loss was significantly lower in C H and C than in H. These results suggest that humid heat exposure in the later sleep segment reduces thermal load as compared to full-night humid heat exposure. In daily life, the use of air conditioning in the initial sleep hours can protect sleep and thermoregulation.

  17. Effects of humid heat exposure in later sleep segments on sleep stages and body temperature in humans.

    PubMed

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Mizuno, Koh

    2005-03-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of humid heat exposure in later sleep segments on sleep stages and body temperature in humans. The subjects were eight healthy males, from whom informed consent had been obtained. The experiments were carried out under three different sets of conditions: a control climate [air temperature (Ta)=26 degrees C, relative humidity (RH)=50%] (C); a humid heat climate (Ta=32 degrees C, RH=80%) (H); and a humid heat exposure in later sleep segments (C for the first 3 h 45 min, followed by a 30-min transition to H, which was then maintained for the last 3 h 45 min) (C-H). Electroencephalogram, EOG, and mental electromyogram, rectal temperature (Tre), and skin temperature (Tsk) were continuously measured. The total amount of wakefulness was significantly increased in H compared to C-H or C. Compared to C, wakefulness in C-H and H was significantly increased during later sleep segments. Tre and mean Tsk were significantly higher in H than in C-H or C. In C-H, Tsk and Tre increased to levels equal to those observed in H after Ta and RH increase. Whole body sweat loss was significantly lower in C-H and C than in H. These results suggest that humid heat exposure in the later sleep segment reduces thermal load as compared to full-night humid heat exposure. In daily life, the use of air conditioning in the initial sleep hours can protect sleep and thermoregulation.

  18. A novel G1-specific enhancer identified in the human heat shock protein 70 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Taira, T; Narita, T; Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Ariga, H

    1997-01-01

    Expression of the human heat shock protein 70 gene (hsp70) is induced by various kinds of stress and by oncogenes. In the absence of stress, hsp70 is mainly expressed in the G1and S phases of the cell cycle, but the elements contributing to cell cycle-dependent expression from the hsp70 promoter remain elusive. We have previously reported that two elements, named HSP-MYCA and HSP-MYCB, located approximately 200 bp upstream (-200) from the transcription start site (+1) of human hsp70, are important for initiation of DNA replication at the hsp70 locus. In this report we examine the effect of these two elements on transcriptional activity from the hsp70 promoter, especially in terms of cell cycle-dependent expression. Various segments of the hsp70 promoter region (up to -300) were linked to the luciferase gene and the constructs were transfected into mouse L cells to examine their transcriptional activity. A strong enhancer activity was defined in the HSP-MYCB element, but not in HSP-MYCA. Mutations introduced within HSP-MYCB abolished the transcriptional activation. In synchronized cells, pHB-Luc (a luciferase construct containing approximately 2.4 kb of the hsp70 promoter region) as well as endogenous hsp70 showed two peaks of expression; one in G1 and the other in the S phase. Site-directed mutagenesis of HSP-MYCB in pHB-Luc abolished the expression peak in G1, but not that in the S phase. To test promoter specificity, wild-type and mutant HSP-MYCB elements were then linked to the luciferase gene in combination with the hsp70 , the cyclin A or the PCNA promoter. Both in transient experiments and established cell lines, a strong peak of expression in mid-G1phase was observed with all the constructs containing wild-type HSP-MYCB, but not with the constructs containing the mutant sequence. These results suggest that the HSP-MYCB sequence is a G1-specific enhancer and is responsible for cell cycle-dependent expression of hsp70. PMID:9115365

  19. Temperature and blood flow distribution in the human leg during passive heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Chiesa, Scott T.; Trangmar, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the hemodynamic adjustments to direct passive heat stress within the leg's major arterial and venous vessels and compartments remains unclear. Fifteen healthy young males were tested during exposure to either passive whole body heat stress to levels approaching thermal tolerance [core temperature (Tc) + 2°C; study 1; n = 8] or single leg heat stress (Tc + 0°C; study 2; n = 7). Whole body heat stress increased perfusion and decreased oscillatory shear index in relation to the rise in leg temperature (Tleg) in all three major arteries supplying the leg, plateauing in the common and superficial femoral arteries before reaching severe heat stress levels. Isolated leg heat stress increased arterial blood flows and shear patterns to a level similar to that obtained during moderate core hyperthermia (Tc + 1°C). Despite modest increases in great saphenous venous (GSV) blood flow (0.2 l/min), the deep venous system accounted for the majority of returning flow (common femoral vein 0.7 l/min) during intense to severe levels of heat stress. Rapid cooling of a single leg during severe whole body heat stress resulted in an equivalent blood flow reduction in the major artery supplying the thigh deep tissues only, suggesting central temperature-sensitive mechanisms contribute to skin blood flow alone. These findings further our knowledge of leg hemodynamic responses during direct heat stress and provide evidence of potentially beneficial vascular alterations during isolated limb heat stress that are equivalent to those experienced during exposure to moderate levels of whole body hyperthermia. PMID:26823344

  20. Similar nociceptive afferents mediate psychophysical and electrophysiological responses to heat stimulation of glabrous and hairy skin in humans

    PubMed Central

    Iannetti, G D; Zambreanu, L; Tracey, I

    2006-01-01

    The ability to perceive and withdraw rapidly from noxious environmental stimuli is crucial for survival. When heat stimuli are applied to primate hairy skin, first pain sensation is mediated by type-II A-fibre nociceptors (II-AMHs). In contrast, the reported absence of first pain and II-AMH microneurographical responses when heat stimuli are applied to the hand palm has led to the notion that II-AMHs are lacking in this primate glabrous skin. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of hairy and glabrous skin stimulation on neural transmission of nociceptive inputs elicited by different kinds of thermal heating. We recorded psychophysical and EEG brain responses to radiant (laser-evoked potentials, LEPs) and contact heat stimuli (contact heat-evoked potentials, CHEPs) delivered to the dorsum and the palm of the hand in normal volunteers. Brain responses were analysed at a single-trial level, using an automated approach based on multiple linear regression. Laser stimulation of hairy and glabrous skin at the same energy elicited remarkably similar psychophysical ratings and LEPs. This finding provides strong evidence that first pain to heat does exist in glabrous skin, and suggests that similar nociceptive afferents, with the physiological properties of II-AMHs, mediate first pain to heat stimulation of glabrous and hairy skin in humans. In contrast, when contact heat stimuli were employed, a significantly higher nominal temperature had to be applied to glabrous skin in order to achieve psychophysical ratings similar to those obtained following hairy skin stimulation, and CHEPs following glabrous skin stimulation had significantly longer latencies (N2 wave, +25%; P2 wave, +24%) and smaller amplitudes (N2 wave, −40%; P2 wave, −44%) than CHEPs following hairy skin stimulation. Irrespective of the stimulated territory, CHEPs always had significantly longer latencies (hairy skin N2 wave, +75%; P2 wave, +56%) and smaller amplitudes (hairy skin N2 wave, −42%; P

  1. Potassium Solubilization in Fungal Degradation of Aluminosilicate Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, H.; Lian, B.

    2007-12-01

    Potassium is an essential soil nutrient that performs a multitude of important biological functions to maintain plant growth and health. However, plants cannot directly use mineralic potassium. Only those that are released by weathering or dissolved in soil water are available for plants' nutrient uptake. On the other hand, microorganisms and related biological activities often play critical roles in mineral weathering and hence participate heavily in the geochemical cycles of nutrient elements. Here, we study the microbial release of potassium from K-bearing minerals orthoclase and illite. A strain of thermophilic fungus A. fumigatus was cultured with a mixture of the minerals to determine if microbe-mineral interactions enhance the solubilization of mineralic potassium. Experiments were carried in two settings, one with the mineral grains and the fungal cells in direct contact, and the other employing a membrane (pore size 0.22 um) to separate the two. Measurements over a period of 30 days showed that, irrespective of the experimental setup, the concentration of free K in the culture was drastically higher than those in any of the control experiments where no living organism was present. Moreover, the occurrence of mineral-cell physical contact enhanced potassium release by an additional factor of 3 to 4 in comparison to the separation experiments. For contact experiments, Electron Probe Microanalysis revealed the formation of mycelium-mineral aggregates, and Atomic Force Microscopy imaging further indicated the possible ingestion of mineral particles by the fungus cells. Contrasting to what was observed and expected in control experiments, the potassium solubilization rate showed a positive dependence upon pH when fungi and minerals were mixed directly, and exhibited no correlations with solution acidity if cell-rock contact was restrained. These results appear to suggest that A. fumigatus promoted potassium release by means of at least three likely routes, one

  2. Oligonol Supplementation Affects Leukocyte and Immune Cell Counts after Heat Loading in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Beom; Shin, Young Oh

    2014-01-01

    Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight form of polyphenol and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, making it a potential promoter of immunity. This study investigates the effects of oligonol supplementation on leukocyte and immune cell counts after heat loading in 19 healthy male volunteers. The participants took a daily dose of 200 mg oligonol or a placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. After each supplement, half-body immersion into hot water was made, and blood was collected. Then, complete and differential blood counts were performed. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate and phenotype lymphocyte subsets. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in blood samples were analyzed. Lymphocyte subpopulation variables included counts of total T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Oligonol intake attenuated elevations in IL-1β (an 11.1-fold change vs. a 13.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 12.0-fold change vs. a 12.6-fold change 1h after heating) and IL-6 (an 8.6-fold change vs. a 9.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 9.1-fold change vs. a 10.5-fold change 1h after heating) immediately and 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the placebo group. Oligonol supplementation led to significantly higher numbers of leukocytes (a 30.0% change vs. a 21.5% change immediately after heating; a 13.5% change vs. a 3.5% change 1h after heating) and lymphocytes (a 47.3% change vs. a 39.3% change immediately after heating; a 19.08% change vs. a 2.1% change 1h after heating) relative to those in the placebo group. Oligonol intake led to larger increases in T cells, B cells, and NK cells at rest (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.001, respectively) and immediately after heating (p < 0.001) in comparison to those in the placebo group. In addition, levels of T cells (p < 0.001) and B cells (p < 0.001) were significantly higher 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the

  3. Heat Stress and Hormetin-Induced Hormesis in Human Cells: Effects on Aging, Wound Healing, Angiogenesis, and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Rattan, Suresh I. S.; Fernandes, Ricardo A.; Demirovic, Dino; Dymek, Barbara; Lima, Cristovao F.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation of molecular damage and increased molecular heterogeneity are hallmarks of cellular aging. Mild stress-induced hormesis can be an effective way for reducing the accumulation of molecular damage, and thus slowing down aging from within. We have shown that repeated mild heat stress (RMHS) has anti-aging effects on growth and various other cellular and biochemical characteristics of normal human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes undergoing aging in vitro. RMHS given to human cells increased the basal levels of various chaperones, reduced the accumulation of damaged proteins, stimulated proteasomal activities, increased the cellular resistance to other stresses, enhanced the levels of various antioxidant enzymes, enhanced the activity and amounts of sodium-potassium pump, and increased the phosphorylation-mediated activities of various stress kinases. We have now observed novel hormetic effects of mild heat stress on improving the wound healing capacity of skin fibroblasts and on enhancing the angiogenic ability of endothelial cells. We have also tested potential hormetins, such as curcumin and rosmarinic acid in bringing about their beneficial effects in human cells by inducing stress response pathways involving heat shock proteins and hemeoxygenase HO-1. These data further support the view that mild stress-induced hormesis can be applied for the modulation, intervention and prevention of aging and age-related impairments. PMID:19343114

  4. Baroreflex modulation of sympathetic nerve activity to muscle in heat-stressed humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    To identify whether whole body heating alters arterial baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), MSNA and beat-by-beat arterial blood pressure were recorded in seven healthy subjects during acute hypotensive and hypertensive stimuli in both normothermic and heat stress conditions. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature (P < 0.01), MSNA (P < 0.01), heart rate (P < 0.01), and skin blood flow (P < 0.001), whereas mean arterial blood pressure did not change significantly (P > 0.05). During both normothermic and heat stress conditions, MSNA increased and then decreased significantly when blood pressure was lowered and then raised via intravenous bolus infusions of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine HCl, respectively. The slope of the relationship between MSNA and diastolic blood pressure during heat stress (-128.3 +/- 13.9 U x beats(-1) x mmHg(-1)) was similar (P = 0.31) with normothermia (-140.6 +/- 21.1 U x beats(-1) x mmHg(-1)). Moreover, no significant change in the slope of the relationship between heart rate and systolic blood pressure was observed. These data suggest that arterial baroreflex modulation of MSNA and heart rate are not altered by whole body heating, with the exception of an upward shift of these baroreflex curves to accommodate changes in these variables that occur with whole body heating.

  5. Adaptations and mechanisms of human heat acclimation: Applications for competitive athletes and sports.

    PubMed

    Périard, J D; Racinais, S; Sawka, M N

    2015-06-01

    Exercise heat acclimation induces physiological adaptations that improve thermoregulation, attenuate physiological strain, reduce the risk of serious heat illness, and improve aerobic performance in warm-hot environments and potentially in temperate environments. The adaptations include improved sweating, improved skin blood flow, lowered body temperatures, reduced cardiovascular strain, improved fluid balance, altered metabolism, and enhanced cellular protection. The magnitudes of adaptations are determined by the intensity, duration, frequency, and number of heat exposures, as well as the environmental conditions (i.e., dry or humid heat). Evidence is emerging that controlled hyperthermia regimens where a target core temperature is maintained, enable more rapid and complete adaptations relative to the traditional constant work rate exercise heat acclimation regimens. Furthermore, inducing heat acclimation outdoors in a natural field setting may provide more specific adaptations based on direct exposure to the exact environmental and exercise conditions to be encountered during competition. This review initially examines the physiological adaptations associated with heat acclimation induction regimens, and subsequently emphasizes their application to competitive athletes and sports. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Task-specific ionic liquid for solubilizing metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Nockemann, Peter; Thijs, Ben; Pittois, Stijn; Thoen, Jan; Glorieux, Christ; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Kirchner, Barbara; Binnemans, Koen

    2006-10-26

    Protonated betaine bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide is an ionic liquid with the ability to dissolve large quantities of metal oxides. This metal-solubilizing power is selective. Soluble are oxides of the trivalent rare earths, uranium(VI) oxide, zinc(II) oxide, cadmium(II) oxide, mercury(II) oxide, nickel(II) oxide, copper(II) oxide, palladium(II) oxide, lead(II) oxide, manganese(II) oxide, and silver(I) oxide. Insoluble or very poorly soluble are iron(III), manganese(IV), and cobalt oxides, as well as aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide. The metals can be stripped from the ionic liquid by treatment of the ionic liquid with an acidic aqueous solution. After transfer of the metal ions to the aqueous phase, the ionic liquid can be recycled for reuse. Betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide forms one phase with water at high temperatures, whereas phase separation occurs below 55.5 degrees C (temperature switch behavior). The mixtures of the ionic liquid with water also show a pH-dependent phase behavior: two phases occur at low pH, whereas one phase is present under neutral or alkaline conditions. The structures, the energetics, and the charge distribution of the betaine cation and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion, as well as the cation-anion pairs, were studied by density functional theory calculations.

  7. [Phosphate solubilization of Aureobasidium pullulan F4 and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Zhan, Jing; Sun, Qing-Ye

    2014-07-01

    The Aureobasidium pullulans F4 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippochaete ramosissimum in Tongguanshan mine wasteland in Tongling City, Anhui Province. Liquid culture was conducted with four kinds of phosphorus sources, calcium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, ferric phosphate and rock phosphate to determine the pH, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus in the bacteria and organic acid in the solution. The results showed that the phosphate solubilization by A. pullulans F4 varied with phosphorus sources, which decreased in order of aluminum phosphate > ferric phosphate, calcium phosphate > rock phosphate. The amounts of dissolved phosphorus in the different treatments were all higher than 200 mg x L(-1). The pH of the medium dropped immediately in 48 h, and the aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate treatments showed a greater decrease in pH than the calcium phosphate and rock phosphate treatments. The organic acid synthesized by A. pullulans F4 included oxalic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid, and oxalic acid, among which oxalic acid was the dominated component. The phosphate dissolving capacity of A. pullulans F4 showed no significant correlation with organic acid, but significantly correlated with the pH. The available phosphorus was significantly improved with the combined application of A. pullulans F4 and glucose, suggesting A. pullulans F4 was a potent candidate for remediation of copper mine wastelands.

  8. Production of humic substances through coal-solubilizing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Nelson; Gómez, Liliana; Pantoja, Manuel; Ramírez, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the production of humic substances (HS) through the bacterial solubilization of low rank coal (LRC) was evaluated. The evaluation was carried out by 19 bacterial strains isolated in microenvironments with high contents of coal wastes. The biotransformed LRC and the HS produced were quantified in vitro in a liquid growth medium. The humic acids (HA) obtained from the most active bacterial strain were characterized via elemental composition (C, H, N, O), IR analyses, and the E4/E6 ratio; they were then compared with the HA extracted chemically using NaOH. There was LRC biotransformation ranged from 25 to 37%, and HS production ranged from 127 to 3100 mg.L−1. More activity was detected in the isolated strains of Bacillus mycoides, Microbacterium sp, Acinetobacter sp, and Enterobacter aerogenes. The HA produced by B. mycoides had an IR spectrum and an E4/E6 ratio similar to those of the HA extracted with NAOH, but their elemental composition and their degree of aromatic condensation was different. Results suggest that these bacteria can be used to exploit the LRC resulting from coal mining activities and thus produce HS in order to improve the content of humified organic matter in soils. PMID:25477925

  9. Solubilization, Solution Equilibria, and Biodegradation of PAH's under Thermophilic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Viamajala, S.; Peyton, B. M.; Richards, L. A.; Petersen, J. N.

    2007-01-01

    Biodegradation rates of PAHs are typically low at mesophilic conditions and it is believed that the kinetics of degradation is controlled by PAH solubility and mass transfer rates. Solubility tests were performed on phenanthrene, fluorene and fluoranthene at 20 C, 40 C and 60 C and, as expected, a significant increase in the equilibrium solubility concentration and of the rate of dissolution of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed with increasing temperature. A first-order model was used to describe the PAH dissolution kinetics and the thermodynamic property changes associated with the dissolution process (enthalpy, entropy and Gibb's free energy of solution) were evaluated. Further, other relevant thermodynamic properties for these PAHs, including the activity coefficients at infinite dilution, Henry's law constants and octanol-water partition coefficients, were calculated in the temperature range 20-60 C. In parallel with the dissolution studies, three thermophilic Geobacilli were isolated from compost that grew on phenanthrene at 60 C and degraded the PAH more rapidly than other reported mesophiles. Our results show that while solubilization rates of PAHs are significantly enhanced at elevated temperatures, the biodegradation of PAHs under thermophilic conditions is likely mass transfer limited due to enhanced degradation rates.

  10. The cellular proteins which can associate specifically with polyomavirus middle T antigen in human 293 cells include the major human 70-kilodalton heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Pallas, D C; Morgan, W; Roberts, T M

    1989-11-01

    We compared the proteins which associate with middle T antigen (MT) of polyomavirus in human cells infected with Ad5(pymT), a recombinant adenovirus which directs the overexpression of MT, with the MT-associated proteins (MTAPs) previously identified in murine fibroblasts expressing MT. MTAPs of 27, 29, 36, and 63 kilodaltons (kDa) appeared to be fairly well conserved between the two species, as judged by comigration on two-dimensional gels. Several 61-kDa MTAP species detected in MT immunoprecipitates from both cell sources also comigrated on these gels. However, no protein comigrating precisely with the murine 85-kDa MTAP could be detected in the human cells. Furthermore, two proteins of 72 and 74 kDa associated with wild-type MT in the infected human cells but not in murine fibroblasts expressing MT. It had been previously reported for murine cells that the 70-kDa heat shock protein associates with a particular mutant MT but not with wild-type MT (G. Walter, A. Carbone, and W.J. Welch, J. Virol. 61:405-410, 1987). By the criteria of comigration on two-dimensional gels, tryptic peptide mapping, and immunoblotting, we showed that the 72- and 74-kDa proteins that associate with wild-type MT in human cells are the major human 70-kDa heat shock proteins.

  11. Isolation and characterization of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from seagrass rhizosphere soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Upasana; Subhashini, Ponnambalam; Dilipan, Elangovan; Raja, Subramanian; Thangaradjou, Thirunavukarassu; Kannan, Lakshmanan

    2012-03-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strains (6 Nos.) were isolated from the rhizosphere soils of two seagrasses ( Halophila ovalis (R. Br.) Hook and Halodule pinifolia (Miki) Hartog) in the Vellar estuary. Experimental studies found that the strain PSSG6 was effective in phosphate solubilization with Phosphate Solubilization efficiency index E = 375 ± 8.54, followed by the strain PSSG5 with Phosphate Solubilization efficiency index E = 275 ± 27.3. Of the 6 strains isolated, the strains PSSG4 and PSSG5 belonged to the genus Bacillus, and PSSG1, PSSG2 and PSSG3 were identified as Citrobacter sp., Shigella sp., and Klebsiella sp., respectively, by conventional method, and PSSG6 was identified as Bacillus circulans using conventional and molecular methods.

  12. SOLUBILIZATION OF DODECANE, TETRACHLOROETHYLENE, AND 1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE IN MICELLAR SOLUTIONS OF ETHOXYLATED NONIONIC SURFACTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although surfactants have received considerable attention as a potential means for enhancing the recovery of organic compounds from the subsurface, only limited information is available regarding the micellar solubilization of common groundwater contaminants by nonionic surfactan...

  13. SOLUBILIZATION OF DODECANE, TETRACHLOROETHYLENE, AND 1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE IN MICELLAR SOLUTIONS OF ETHOXYLATED NONIONIC SURFACTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although surfactants have received considerable attention as a potential means for enhancing the recovery of organic compounds from the subsurface, only limited information is available regarding the micellar solubilization of common groundwater contaminants by nonionic surfactan...

  14. SURFACTANT-ENHANCED SOLUBILIZATION OF RESIDUAL DODECANE IN SOIL COLUMNS - 1. EXPERIMANTAL INVESTIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The solubilization of dodecane by polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate, a nonionic surfactant, was investigated as a potential means of recoveringnonaqueous-phase liquids from contaminated aquifers. Residual saturations of dodecane were established by injecting 14C...

  15. Sex difference in the heat shock response to high external load resistance training in older humans.

    PubMed

    Njemini, Rose; Forti, Louis Nuvagah; Mets, Tony; Van Roie, Evelien; Coudyzer, Walter; Beyer, Ingo; Delecluse, Christophe; Bautmans, Ivan

    2017-07-01

    Literature reports on the effects of resistance training on heat shock protein70 (Hsp70) adaptation in older subjects are scarce. Moreover, the optimum training load required to obtain a beneficial adaptation profile is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training at various external loads on extracellular Hsp70 (eHsp70) resting levels in older humans. Fifty-six community-dwelling older (68±5years) volunteers were randomized to 12weeks of resistance training (3×/week) at either high-resistance (HIGH, 8 males, 10 females, 2×10-15 repetitions at 80% 1RM), low resistance (LOW, 9 Males, 10 Females, 1×80-100 repetitions at 20% 1RM), or mixed low resistance (LOW+, 9 Males, 10 Females, 1×60 repetitions at 20% 1RM followed by 1×10-20 repetitions at 40% 1RM). Serum was available from 48 out of the 56 participants at baseline and after 12weeks for determination of eHsp70. Mid-thigh muscle volume (computed tomography), muscle strength (1RM & Biodex dynamometer) and physical functioning (including 6min walk distance [6MWD]) were assessed. There was a sex-related dichotomy in the heat shock response to high external load training. We observed a significant decrease in eHsp70 concentration in the HIGH group for female, but not male, subjects. At baseline, men had a larger muscle volume, leg press and leg extension 1RM compared to women (all p<0.001). Also, the 6MWD was significantly higher in men compared to women at baseline. However, this difference disappeared when correcting for height. Moreover, the overall functional performance and physical activity scores were similar in men and women. None of the participants' characteristics nor any of the outcome variables differed between groups at baseline. There was a significant increase in the strength and physical performance parameters in both men and women post-exercise (all p<0.05). Females in the HIGH group clearly demonstrated a larger gain in leg press 1RM and the

  16. Expression of the constitutive and inducible forms of heat shock protein 70 in human proximal tubule cells exposed to heat, sodium arsenite, and CdCl(2).

    PubMed Central

    Somji, S; Todd, J H; Sens, M A; Garrett, S H; Sens, D A

    1999-01-01

    We determined the expression of the constitutive (hsc 70) and inducible (hsp 70) forms of heat shock protein 70 mRNA and protein in human proximal tubule (HPT) cells exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Cd(+2) under both acute and extended conditions of exposure. The HPT cells exhibited the classic heat shock response when subjected to a physical (heat) or chemical stress (sodium arsenite); hsc 70 mRNA and protein levels were constant or slightly increased, whereas hsp 70 mRNA and protein were greatly elevated. Acute exposure to 53.4 microM CdCl(2) for 4 hr failed to increase either hsc 70 mRNA or protein, a finding similar to that observed under classic conditions of stress. However, under identical conditions of acute exposure to Cd(2+), the expected increase in hsp 70 protein level was suppressed as compared to that found under classic conditions of physical or chemical stress. The decrease in hsp 70 protein level correlated to the reduced expression of mRNA from the hsp 70B gene. The expression of mRNA from the hsp 70A and hsp 70C genes was similar to that found when the cells were treated with heat shock or sodium arsenite. We modeled an extended exposure to Cd(2+) by treating the cells continuously with Cd(2+) at both lethal and sublethal levels over a 16-day time course. Chronic exposure to Cd(2+) failed to increase either hsc 70 mRNA or protein levels in the HPT cells at a nonlethal dosage level and decreased hsc 70 mRNA and protein levels late in the time course of lethal exposure. Under identical conditions, the expression of hsp 70 protein remained at basal levels that were only marginally detectable throughout the time course. Hsp 70A and hsp 70C mRNA levels were unaltered by extended exposure to Cd(2+), and hsp 70B mRNA was not detected during the 16-day time course. Cd(2+) is a poor inducer of hsc 70 and hsp 70 in the proximal tubule under both acute and long-term exposure. These results reinforce the fact that the expression of hsp 70

  17. Determination of equivalent amounts of kinetic energy, work, and heat energy in the human body.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Yildirim

    2002-07-01

    The goal of this study is determine the mechanical equivalent of heat and the functional capacity of metabolism of walking at a slow pace (velocity = 4022m/hour, length of a step=75cm, energy utilization of a 70 kg person is 200kcal/hour). 50 healthy physicians were chosen randomly, and up and down motion of the body were determined as 6cm while stepping. Based on these, the heat equivalent is 37.5kcal/hour for horizontal motion and 52.7kcal/hour for 6cm up-and-down bobbing motions of body, and the functional capacity of metabolism is at least 45% ([37.5+52.7]/200=45%) for slow walking state, that this capacity is tw