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Sample records for heat treatment studied

  1. Heat treatment study 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    The microstructural variations in nickel based superalloys that result from modifications in processing were examined. These superalloys include MAR-M246(HF) and PWA1480. Alternate heat treatments for equiaxed as-cast specimens were studied and a sample matrix of 42 variations in the heat treatments were processed, as well as different directional solidification parameters. Variation in temperature and times for both solution and aging were performed. Photomicrographs were made of the microstructure and volume fraction analysis of primary gamma-prime and aged gamma-prime precipitates were performed. The results of the heat treatment, cooling rate, and directional solidification experiments are discussed.

  2. A Study of Ballast Water Treatment Using Engine Waste Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Rajoo; Yaakob, Omar; Koh, Kho King; Adnan, Faizul Amri bin; Ismail, Nasrudin bin; Ahmad, Badruzzaman bin; Ismail, Mohd Arif bin

    2018-05-01

    Heat treatment of ballast water using engine waste heat can be an advantageous option complementing any proven technology. A treatment system was envisaged based on the ballast system of an existing, operational crude carrier. It was found that the available waste heat could raise the temperatures by 25 °C and voyage time requirements were found to be considerable between 7 and 12 days to heat the high volumes of ballast water. Further, a heat recovery of 14-33% of input energies from exhaust gases was recorded while using a test rig arrangement representing a shipboard arrangement. With laboratory level tests at temperature ranges of around 55-75 °C, almost complete species mortalities for representative phytoplankton, zooplankton and bacteria were observed while the time for exposure varied from 15 to 60 s. Based on the heat availability analyses for harvesting heat from the engine exhaust gases(vessel and test rig), heat exchanger designs were developed and optimized using Lagrangian method applying Bell-Delaware approaches. Heat exchanger designs were developed to suit test rig engines also. Based on these designs, heat exchanger and other equipment were procured and erected. The species' mortalities were tested in this mini-scale arrangement resembling the shipboard arrangement. The mortalities realized were > 95% with heat from jacket fresh water and exhaust gases alone. The viability of the system was thus validated.

  3. Experimental and Modelling Study of the Denaturation of Milk Protein by Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Fang; Sun, Jiayue; Cao, Di; Tuo, Yanfeng; Jiang, Shujuan; Mu, Guangqing

    2017-01-01

    Heat treatment of milk aims to inhibit the growth of microbes, extend the shelf-life of products and improve the quality of the products. Heat treatment also leads to denaturation of whey protein and the formation of whey protein-casein polymer, which has negative effects on milk product. Hence the milk heat treatment conditions should be controlled in milk processing. In this study, the denaturation degree of whey protein and the combination degree of whey protein and casein when undergoing heat treatment were also determined by using the Native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE analysis. The results showed that the denaturation degree of whey protein and the combination degree of whey protein with casein extended with the increase of the heat-treated temperature and time. The effects of the heat-treated temperature and heat-treated time on the denaturation degree of whey protein and on the combination degree of whey protein and casein were well described using the quadratic regression equation. The analysis strategy used in this study reveals an intuitive and effective measure of the denaturation degree of whey protein, and the changes of milk protein under different heat treatment conditions efficiently and accurately in the dairy industry. It can be of great significance for dairy product proteins following processing treatments applied for dairy product manufacturing. PMID:28316470

  4. Heat treatment furnace

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  5. A Study on Infrared Local Heat Treatment for AA5083 to Improve Formability and Automotive Part Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun-Ho; Yang, Dong-Yol; Ko, SeJin

    2017-10-01

    Automotive industries are increasingly employing aluminum alloys for auto parts to reduce vehicle weight. However, the low formability of aluminum alloys has been an obstacle to their application. To resolve the formability problem, some studies involving heat treatments under laboratory conditions have been reported. However, for industrial applications, the heat treatment sequence, heating energy efficiency, and a commercial part test should be studied. This work shows an infrared (IR) local heat treatment, heating only small areas where the heat treatment is required, for an aluminum alloy to improve the formability with a reduction of heating energy. The experiment shows that the formability drastically increases when the aluminum alloy is heat treated between two forming stages, referred to as intermediate heat treatment. The microstructures of the test pieces are evaluated to identify the cause of the increase in the formability. For an industrial application, an aluminum tailgate, which cannot be manufactured without heat treatment, was successfully manufactured by the IR local heat treatment with a reduction of energy. A simulation was also conducted with a stress-based forming limit diagram, which is not affected by the strain path and heat treatment histories. The simulation gives a good prediction of the formability improvement.

  6. Physical aspects of thermotherapy: A study of heat transport with a view to treatment optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsrud, Johan Karl Otto

    1998-12-01

    Local treatment with the aim to destruct tissue by heating (thermotherapy) may in some cases be an alternative or complement to surgical methods, and has gained increased interest during the last decade. The major advantage of these, often minimally-invasive methods, is that the disease can be controlled with reduced treatment trauma and complications. The extent of thermal damage is a complex function of the physical properties of tissue, which influence the temperature distribution, and of the biological response to heat. In this thesis, methods of obtaining a well-controlled treatment have been studied from a physical point of view, with emphasis on interstitial laser-induced heating of tumours in the liver and intracavitary heating as a treatment for menorrhagia. Hepatic inflow occlusion, in combination with temperature-feedback control of the output power of the laser, resulted in well defined damaged volumes during interstitial laser thermotherapy in normal porcine liver. In addition, phantom experiments showed that the use of multiple diffusing laser fibres allows heating of clinically relevant tissue volumes in a single session. Methods for numerical simulation of heat transport were used to calculate the temperature distribution and the results agreed well with experiments. It was also found from numerical simulation that the influence of light transport on the damaged volume may be negligible in interstitial laser thermotherapy in human liver. Finite element analysis, disregarding light transport, was therefore proposed as a suitable method for 3D treatment planning. Finite element simulation was also used to model intracavitary heating of the uterus, with the purpose of providing an increased understanding of the influence of various treatment parameters on blood flow and on the depth of tissue damage. The thermal conductivity of human uterine tissue, which was used in these simulations, was measured. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was

  7. Aesthetic value improvement of the ruby stone using heat treatment and its synergetic surface study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.; Singh, Saroj K.; Mishra, Barada K.

    2015-02-01

    The surface behavior of the natural ruby stones before and after heat treatment with metal oxide additives like: zinc oxide (ZnO) and lead oxide (PbO) have been studied. The surface appearance of the ruby stones processed with the metal oxides changed whereas the bulk densities of the stones remained within the range of 3.9-4.0 g/cm3. The cracks healing and pores filling by the metal oxides on the surface of the ruby have been examined using scanning electron microscopy. The chemical compositions based on the XPS survey scans are in good agreement with the expected composition. The phase and crystallinity of the ruby stones original and heat-treated were obtained from their X-ray diffraction patterns. The change in peak separation between R1 and R2 - peaks in photoluminescence spectra and the contrary binding energy shift of the Al 2p peaks in the X-ray photoelectron spectra have been explicated. Moreover, in this work we describe the change in surface chemical and physical characteristics of the ruby stone before and after heat treatment.

  8. Transformation of silicate gels during heat treatment in air and in argon - Spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, M.; Mozgawa, W.; Adamczyk, A.

    2014-07-01

    The sol-gel method offers the possibility of obtaining silicate materials with different chemical compositions. When using TEOS or other organic precursor to silica capable of hydrolysis and poly-condensation, it is possible to use inorganic or organic precursors to produce other ingredients. This paper presents results of studying two series of silicate sols with the addition of calcium, in which the molar ratio of calcium to silicon was Ca/Si = x/(100 - x), where x was, respectively, 0-40 (x = 0-control sample). The resulting gels were subjected to heat treatment, wherein the heating was carried out simultaneously in air or in argon. To study the various stages of transformation of the gels, IR spectroscopy was used as the main research method to observe gradual disappearance of bands associated with bonds typical of organic materials and formation of bands characteristic of Si-O-Si bridging bonds. Due to the amorphous or fine crystalline nature of the resulting material, as confirmed in XRD studies, the different bands on the IR spectra were characterized by large full width at half maximum, hence an attempt was made to decompose the spectra into component bands. The analytic parameters of the resulting bands warranted the conclusion that there had been structural changes caused by the varying synthesis parameters. A comparison of the sol spectra after heat treatment in air and in argon at different temperatures showed a clear decrease in the full width at half maximum in the case of bands of samples with calcium content x ⩾ 30. The resulting spectra were compared with spectra of crystalline tobermorite, quartz and pseudowollastonite, which suggested the possibility of existence of areas with quartz-like ordering in the case of materials with calcium content x ⩾ 20 for the samples heated in argon and areas with pseudowollastonite-like ordering in the case of materials with calcium content x ⩾ 10 for the samples heated in air atmosphere. The conclusions

  9. The heat treatment of duralumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, WM

    1927-01-01

    When certain light aluminum alloys are heat-treated, quenched and aged, there is considerable improvement in their tensile properties. This paper presents different methods of accomplishing these heat treatments.

  10. Study of the effects of heat-treatment of hydroxyapatite synthesized in gelatin matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaits, A. V.; Golovanova, O. A.; Kuimova, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    In the study, the isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of hydroxyapatite synthesized in gelatin matrix (HAG) has been performed. 3 wt.% HAG samples were synthesized from the solution simulating the human extracellular fluid (SBF). X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy were used to determine the composition. During the experiment, increase in the calcination temperature up to 200°C-800°C was found to cause weight loss. The study of phase composition revealed that heat treatment does not affect the phase composition of the solid phase, which is composed of hydroxylapatite (HA). The prepared HAG (3 wt.% gelatin) samples are shown to have low thermal stability; the degradation of the samples occurs at 400° C.

  11. Study of the effects of heat-treatment of hydroxyapatite synthesized in gelatin matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaits, A. V.; Golovanova, O. A.; Kuimova, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    In the study, the isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of hydroxyapatite synthesized in gelatin matrix (HAG) has been performed. 3 wt.% HAG samples were synthesized from the solution simulating the human extracellular fluid (SBF). X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy were used to determine the composition. During the experiment, increase in the calcination temperature up to 200°C-800°C was found to cause weight loss. The study of phase composition revealed that heat treatment does not affect the phase composition of the solid phase, which is composed of hydroxylapatite (HA). The prepared HAG (3 wt.% gelatin) samples are shown to have low thermal stability; the degradation of the samples occurs at 400°C.

  12. Studies on post weld heat treatment of dissimilar aluminum alloys by laser beam welding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, B.; Krishna, N. Murali; Cheepu, Muralimohan; Sivaprasad, K.; Muthupandi, V.

    2018-03-01

    The present study mainly focuses on post weld heat treatment (PWHT) of AA5083 and AA6061 alloys by joining these using laser beam welding at three different laser power and two different beam spot sizes and three different welding speeds. Effects of these parameters on microstructural and mechanical properties like hardness, tensile strength were studied at PWHT condition and significant changes had been observed. The PWHT used was artificial aging technique. The microstructural observations revealed that there was a appreciable changes were taken place in the grain size. The microhardness observations proven that the change in the hardness profile in AA6061 was appreciable than in the AA5083. The tensile strength of 246 MPa was recorded as highest. The fractured surfaces observed are predominantly ductile in nature.

  13. Effects of Two-stage Heat Treatment on Delayed Coke and Study of Their Surface Texture Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Ui-Su; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Seon Ho; Lee, Byung-Rok; Peck, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Doo-Hwan

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, surface texture features and chemical properties of two types of cokes, made from coal tar by either 1-stage heat treatment or 2-stage heat treatment, were researched. The relationship between surface texture characteristics and the chemical properties was identified through molecular weight distribution, insolubility of coal tar, weight loss with temperature increase, coking yield, and polarized light microscope analysis. Rapidly cleared anisotropy texture in cokes was observed in accordance with the coking temperature rise. Quinoline insolubility and toluene insolubility of coal tar increased with a corresponding increases in coking temperature. In particular, the cokes produced by the 2-stage heat treatment (2S-C) showed surface structure of needle cokes at a temperature approximately 50°C lower than the 1-stage heat treatment (1S-C). Additionally, the coking yield of 2S-C increased by approximately 14% in comparison with 1S-C.

  14. Organic amaranth starch: A study of its technological properties after heat-moisture treatment.

    PubMed

    Bet, Camila Delinski; de Oliveira, Cristina Soltovski; Colman, Tiago André Denck; Marinho, Marina Tolentino; Lacerda, Luiz Gustavo; Ramos, Augusto Pumacahua; Schnitzler, Egon

    2018-10-30

    Organic amaranth starch (Amaranthus caudatus) was studied after heat-moisture treatment (HMT) using different moisture contents and different times. The starch extracted by the aqueous method presented low lipid and protein content. After HMT, an increase in the thermal stability was identified. The onset and peak temperatures were higher with an increase in moisture content and the times used in the modification. The gelatinisation enthalpy varied due to the heterogeneity of the crystals formed after the structural reorganisation caused by HMT. The relative crystallinity was lower for the physically modified starches. An increase in the pasting temperature was accompanied by a decrease in the viscosity, setback and breakdown, which were proportional to the moisture and time used. The morphology of the HMT-modified samples was not altered; however, agglomerations were noted. Low levels of dispersion homogeneity and suspension stability were observed for the modified samples due to the strong presence of agglomerates. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. 2. SALEMBROSIUS CONTINUOUS GASFIRED HEAT TREATING LINE AT HEAT TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SALEM-BROSIUS CONTINUOUS GAS-FIRED HEAT TREATING LINE AT HEAT TREATMENT PLANT OF THE DUQUESNE WORKS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Heat Treatment Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  16. Treatment of cellulite with a bipolar radiofrequency, infrared heat, and pulsatile suction device: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Manuskiatti, Woraphong

    2006-12-01

    Very few therapeutic options have proven effective in the treatment of cellulite. To evaluate the effectiveness and adverse effects of a bipolar radiofrequency (RF), infrared (IR) heat and pulsatile suction device for the treatment of cellulite. Twelve subjects were treated with the RF-light-based device. All subjects were treated twice weekly for a total number of eight to nine treatments. Subjects were evaluated using standardized photographs, and measurements of body weight and circumference of treatment sites at baseline, immediately after the last treatment, and four weeks and one year after the last treatment. Clinical improvement scores of comparable photographs using a quartile grading scale (0 = <25%, 1 = 25-50%, 2 = 51-75%, 3 = >75% improvement) were judged independently by two non-treating dermatologists after the series of treatment. The average body weights at baseline, immediately after the last treatment, and four weeks and one year after the complete treatment were 56.30, 56.05, 56.23, and 56.53 kg, respectively. The average circumferential reductions of the abdomen and thigh at the last treatment visit were 5.17 +/- 1.04 cm (6.32%+/- 1.82%) and 3.50 +/- 2.16 cm (6.23 +/- 3.58%), respectively. At four weeks after the last treatment, the average circumferential reductions of the abdomen and thigh were sustained at 3.17 +/- 2.75 cm (4.04%+/- 3.69%) and 3.50 +/- 2.04 cm (6.26%+/- 3.52%), respectively. At one year follow-up visit, the average circumferential reductions of the abdomen and thigh were maintained at 3.83 +/- 0.76 cm (4.64%+/- 1.15%) and 3.13 +/- 3.54 (5.50%+/- 6.12%), respectively. Average clinical improvement scores of the abdomen and thigh after the series of treatments were 0.75 (corresponding to approximately 25% improvement), and 1.75 (corresponding to approximately 50% improvement), respectively. A bipolar RF, IR heat and pulsatile suction device provides a beneficial effect on reduction of abdomen and thigh circumference, and

  17. A study of the impact of moist-heat and dry-heat treatment processes on hazardous trace elements migration in food waste.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Jin, Yiying; Qiu, Xiaopeng; Chen, Xin

    2015-03-01

    Using laboratory experiments, the authors investigated the impact of dry-heat and moist-heat treatment processes on hazardous trace elements (As, Hg, Cd, Cr, and Pb) in food waste and explored their distribution patterns for three waste components: oil, aqueous, and solid components. The results indicated that an insignificant reduction of hazardous trace elements in heat-treated waste-0.61-14.29% after moist-heat treatment and 4.53-12.25% after dry-heat treatment-and a significant reduction in hazardous trace elements (except for Hg without external addition) after centrifugal dehydration (P < 0.5). Moreover, after heat treatment, over 90% of the hazardous trace elements in the waste were detected in the aqueous and solid components, whereas only a trace amount of hazardous trace elements was detected in the oil component (<0.01%). In addition, results indicated that heat treatment process did not significantly reduce the concentration of hazardous trace elements in food waste, but the separation process for solid and aqueous components, such as centrifugal dehydration, could reduce the risk considerably. Finally, combined with the separation technology for solid and liquid components, dry-heat treatment is superior to moist-heat treatment on the removal of external water-soluble ionic hazardous trace elements. An insignificant reduction of hazardous trace elements in heat-treated waste showed that heat treatment does not reduce trace elements contamination in food waste considerably, whereas the separation process for solid and aqueous components, such as centrifugal dehydration, could reduce the risk significantly. Moreover, combined with the separation technology for solid and liquid components, dry-heat treatment is superior to moist-heat treatment for the removal of external water-soluble ionic hazardous trace elements, by exploring distribution patterns of trace elements in three waste components: oil, aqueous, and solid components.

  18. Heat treatment versus properties studies associated with the Inconel 718 PBF acoustic filters

    SciTech Connect

    Smolik, G.R.; Reuter, W.G.

    PBF acoustic filter Unit No. 1 cracked when heat treatment was attempted. The effects of prior thermal cycling, solution anneal temperature, and cooling rate from solution anneals were investigated. The investigations concerned influences of the above variables upon both 1400$sup 0$F stress rupture solution- annealed properties and room temperature age-hardened properties. 1400$sup 0$F stress rupture properties were of interest to assist the prevention of cracking during heat treatments. Room temperature age-hardened properties were needed to ensure that design requirement would be provided. Prior thermal cycling was investigated to determine if extra thermal cycles would be detrimental to the repaired filter.more » Slow furnace cools were considered as a means of reducing thermal stresses. Effects of solution annealing at 2000 and 1900$sup 0$F were also determined. Test results showed that slow cooling rates would not only reduce thermal stresses but also improve 1400$sup 0$F ductility. A modified aging treatment was established which provided the required 145 ksi room temperature yield strength for the slowly cooled material. Prior cooling did not degrade final age-hardened room temperature tensile or impact properties. (auth)« less

  19. A numerical study on dual-phase-lag model of bio-heat transfer during hyperthermia treatment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Kumar, Dinesh; Rai, K N

    2015-01-01

    The success of hyperthermia in the treatment of cancer depends on the precise prediction and control of temperature. It was absolutely a necessity for hyperthermia treatment planning to understand the temperature distribution within living biological tissues. In this paper, dual-phase-lag model of bio-heat transfer has been studied using Gaussian distribution source term under most generalized boundary condition during hyperthermia treatment. An approximate analytical solution of the present problem has been done by Finite element wavelet Galerkin method which uses Legendre wavelet as a basis function. Multi-resolution analysis of Legendre wavelet in the present case localizes small scale variations of solution and fast switching of functional bases. The whole analysis is presented in dimensionless form. The dual-phase-lag model of bio-heat transfer has compared with Pennes and Thermal wave model of bio-heat transfer and it has been found that large differences in the temperature at the hyperthermia position and time to achieve the hyperthermia temperature exist, when we increase the value of τT. Particular cases when surface subjected to boundary condition of 1st, 2nd and 3rd kind are discussed in detail. The use of dual-phase-lag model of bio-heat transfer and finite element wavelet Galerkin method as a solution method helps in precise prediction of temperature. Gaussian distribution source term helps in control of temperature during hyperthermia treatment. So, it makes this study more useful for clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of heat-moisture treatment of potato starch granules by chemical surface gelatinization.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Josiane; da Rosa Zavareze, Elessandra; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2017-08-01

    Native potato starch was subjected to heat-moisture treatment (HMT) at 12%, 15%, 18%, 21%, and 24% of moisture content at 110 °C for 1 h, and the effects on morphology, structure, and thermal and physicochemical properties were investigated. To reveal the internal structure, 30% and 50% of the granular surface were removed by chemical surface gelatinization in concentrated LiCl solution. At moisture contents of 12% and 15%, HTM reduced the gelatinization temperatures and relative crystallinity of the starches, while at moisture contents of 21% and 24 % both increased. The alterations on morphology, X-ray pattern, physicochemical properties, and increase of amylose content were more intense with the increase of moisture content of HMT. The removal of granular layers showed that the changes promoted by HMT occur throughout the whole granule and were pronounced at the core or peripheral region, depending of the moisture content applied during HMT. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. 29 CFR 1919.36 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.36 Section 1919.36 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.36 Heat treatment. (a) The annealing of wrought iron gear required by this part shall be...

  2. 29 CFR 1919.36 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.36 Section 1919.36 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.36 Heat treatment. (a) The annealing of wrought iron gear required by this part shall be...

  3. 29 CFR 1919.80 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.80 Section 1919.80 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.80 Heat treatment. (a) Wherever heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, it shall be carried out in...

  4. 29 CFR 1919.36 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.36 Section 1919.36 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.36 Heat treatment. (a) The annealing of wrought iron gear required by this part shall be...

  5. 29 CFR 1919.80 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.80 Section 1919.80 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.80 Heat treatment. (a) Wherever heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, it shall be carried out in...

  6. 29 CFR 1919.80 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.80 Section 1919.80 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.80 Heat treatment. (a) Wherever heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, it shall be carried out in...

  7. 29 CFR 1919.36 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.36 Section 1919.36 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.36 Heat treatment. (a) The annealing of wrought iron gear required by this part shall be...

  8. 29 CFR 1919.80 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.80 Section 1919.80 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.80 Heat treatment. (a) Wherever heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, it shall be carried out in...

  9. 29 CFR 1919.80 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.80 Section 1919.80 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.80 Heat treatment. (a) Wherever heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, it shall be carried out in...

  10. 29 CFR 1919.36 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.36 Section 1919.36 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.36 Heat treatment. (a) The annealing of wrought iron gear required by this part shall be...

  11. 29 CFR 1919.16 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.16 Section 1919.16 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.16 Heat treatment. (a) All chains (other... material other than wrought iron or steel shall be heat treated when necessary in accordance with § 1919.36...

  12. 29 CFR 1919.16 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.16 Section 1919.16 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.16 Heat treatment. (a) All chains (other... material other than wrought iron or steel shall be heat treated when necessary in accordance with § 1919.36...

  13. 29 CFR 1919.16 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.16 Section 1919.16 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.16 Heat treatment. (a) All chains (other... material other than wrought iron or steel shall be heat treated when necessary in accordance with § 1919.36...

  14. 29 CFR 1919.16 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.16 Section 1919.16 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.16 Heat treatment. (a) All chains (other... material other than wrought iron or steel shall be heat treated when necessary in accordance with § 1919.36...

  15. The effect of nitrogen gas flow rate on heat treatment of AISI SS-430: Study of microstructure and hardness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebayang, Perdamean; Darmawan, Bobby Aditya; Simbolon, Silviana; Alfirano, Sudiro, Toto; Aryanto, Didik

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this research was to obtain the austenite phase from ferritic stainless steel through sample heat treatment. The AISI 430 ferritic steel with the thickness of about 0.4 mm was used. The heat treatment was conducted in a tube furnace at elevated temperature of 1150, 1200, 1250 °C and nitrogen gas flow rate of 0.57 and 0.73 l/s. The samples were then rapidly quenched in water bath. An optical microscope, XRD, SEM-EDS and micro vickers hardness tester were used to characterize the sample before and after het treatment. The presence of anneal twins indicated the formation of austenite phase in the sample. Its fraction was varied from 10.89 wt% to 35.10 wt%. In addition, the heat treatment temperature strongly affected the sample hardness. The optimum hardness obtained was about 542.69 HV. According to the results, this material can be considered for biomedical applications.

  16. Heat pipe manufacturing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1974-01-01

    Heat pipe manufacturing methods are examined with the goal of establishing cost effective procedures that will ultimately result in cheaper more reliable heat pipes. Those methods which are commonly used by all heat pipe manufacturers have been considered, including: (1) envelope and wick cleaning, (2) end closure and welding, (3) mechanical verification, (4) evacuation and charging, (5) working fluid purity, and (6) charge tube pinch off. The study is limited to moderate temperature aluminum and stainless steel heat pipes with ammonia, Freon-21 and methanol working fluids. Review and evaluation of available manufacturers techniques and procedures together with the results of specific manufacturing oriented tests have yielded a set of recommended cost-effective specifications which can be used by all manufacturers.

  17. HEAT TREATMENT OF ELECTROPLATED URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hoglund, P.F.

    1958-07-01

    A method is described for improving electroplated coatings on uranium. Such coatings are often porous, and in an effort to remedy this, the coatings are heat treated by immersing the coated specimen ln a bath of fused salt or molten methl. Since the hase metal, uranium, is an active metal, such a procedure often results in reactions between the base metal and the heating medium. This difficulty can be overcome by using liquid organopolysiloxanes as the heating medium.

  18. 29 CFR 1919.16 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.16 Section 1919.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.16 Heat treatment. (a) All chains (other...

  19. Mössbauer study of sediment alteration produced by heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labenski de Kanter, F.; Duhalde, S.; Saragovi, C.; March, R. J.

    1994-12-01

    Pincenvent (France) cooking-place silt-like sediments have been studied by using Mössbauer spectroscopy and characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The sediments were treated at 400, 600, 800 and 1000°C under oxidizing conditions. We discuss the results and we suggest a “Mössbauer thermometer” to be used to recognize the temperatures and atmosphere ancient people used in their cooking-places.

  20. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Physical Properties of Provisional Crowns during Polymerization: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mei, May L.; So, Sam Y. C.; Li, Hao; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2015-01-01

    This study concerned the effect of heat treatment during setting on the physical properties of four resin-based provisional restorative materials: Duralay (polymethyl methacrylate), Trim II (polyethyl methacrylate), Luxatemp (bis-acrylic composite), and Protemp 4 (bis-acrylic composite). Specimens were prepared at 23, 37, or 60 °C for evaluation of flexural strength, surface roughness, color change and marginal discrepancy. Flexural strength was determined by a three-point bending test. Surface profile was studied using atomic force microscopy. Color change was evaluated by comparing the color of the materials before and after placement in coffee. A travelling microscope helped prepare standardized crowns for assessment of marginal discrepancy. Flexural strength of all tested materials cured at 23 °C or 37 °C did not significantly change. The surface roughness and marginal discrepancy of the materials increased at 60 °C curing temperature. Marginal discrepancies, color stability, and other physical properties of materials cured at 23 °C or 37 °C did not significantly change. Flexural strength of certain provisional materials cured at 60 °C increased, but there was also an increase in surface roughness and marginal discrepancy. PMID:28788031

  1. Influence of Heat Treatment of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Endodontic Instruments on Apical Preparation: A Micro-Computed Tomographic Study.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Bernardo Corrêa; Ormiga, Fabíola; de Araújo, Marcos César Pimenta; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lima, Inayá Corrêa Barbosa; dos Santos, Bernardo Camargo; Gusman, Heloisa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to make a 3-dimensional comparison of the canal transportation and changes in apical geometry using micro-computed tomographic imaging after canal preparation with K3 (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and K3XF (SybronEndo) file systems. Twenty-eight mandibular molars were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the rotary system used in instrumentation: K3 or K3XF. The specimens were scanned by micro-computed tomographic imaging before and after instrumentation. Images before and after instrumentation from each group were compared with regard to canal volume, surface area, and structure model index (SMI) (paired t test, P < .05). After instrumentation, the canals from each group were compared regarding the changes in volume, surface area, SMI, and canal transportation in the last 4 apical mm (t test, P < .05). Instrumentation with the 2 rotary systems significantly changed the canal volume, surface area, and SMI (P < .05). There were no significant differences between instrument types concerning these parameters (P > .05). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to canal transportation in the last 4 apical mm (P > .05). Both rotary systems showed adequate canal preparations with reduced values of canal transportation. Heat treatment did not influence changes in root canal geometry in the apical region. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Heat Treatment of Tools in Light Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petukhov, V. A.

    2005-09-01

    Heat treatment processes for some tools (knitting needles, travelers for thimbles of spinning and doubling frames, thread-forming spinnerets) used for the production of cloths, hosiery, and other articles) in the knitting and textile industries are considered. Problems of the choice of steel and the kind and parameters of heat treatment are discussed in connection with the special features of tool design and operating conditions.

  3. 49 CFR 179.400-12 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.400-12 Section 179... and 107A) § 179.400-12 Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner tank is not... be attached before postweld heat treatment. Welds securing the following need not be postweld heat...

  4. Maraging superalloys and heat treatment processes

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.; Gelles, David S.; Thomas, Larry E.

    1986-01-01

    Described herein are nickel-chromium-iron maraging, gamma prime strengthened superalloys containing about 18 to 25 weight percent nickel, about 4 to 8 weight percent chromium, gamma prime forming elements such as aluminum and/or titanium, and a solid solution strengthening element, such as molybdenum. After heat treatment, which includes at least one ausaging treatment and at least one maraging treatment, a microstructure containing gamma prime phase and decomposed Fe-Ni-Cr type martensite is produced.

  5. 49 CFR 179.220-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.220-11 Section 179... Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner container is not a specification requirement. (b) Postweld heat treatment of the cylindrical portions of the outer shell to which the anchorage...

  6. Study of the structure and chemical composition of the protective coating of a fist stage gas turbine blade after regenerative heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidov, D. I.; Kazantseva, N. V.; Vinogradova, N. I.; Ezhov, I. V.

    2017-12-01

    Investigation of the structure and chemical composition of the protective coating of the first stage IN738 gas turbine blade after standard regenerative heat treatment was done. It was found the degradation of microstructure and chemical composition of both the blade feather and its protective coating. Redistribution of the chemical elements decreasing the corrosion resistance was observed inside the protective coating. Cracks on the boundary between the blade feather and the protective coating were found by scanning electron microscopy. The carbide transformation and sigma phase were found in the structure of the blade feather. Based upon the structural and chemical composition studies, it is concluded that the standard regenerative heat treatment of the IN738 operative gas turbine blade does not provide full structure regeneration.

  7. Heat Transfer Analysis of Localized Heat-Treatment for Grade 91 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Jacob D.

    Many of the projects utilizing Grade 91 steel are large in scale, therefore it is necessary to assemble on site. The assembly of the major pieces requires welding in the assembly; this drastically changes the superior mechanical properties of Grade 91 steel that it was specifically developed for. Therefore, because of the adverse effects of welding on the mechanical properties of Grade 91, it is necessary to do a localized post weld heat treatment. As with most metallic materials grade 91 steel requires a very specific heat treatment process. This process includes a specific temperature and duration at that temperature to achieve the heat treatment desired. Extensive research has been done to determine the proper temperatures and duration to provide the proper microstructure for the superior mechanical properties that are inherent to Grade 91 steel. The welded sections are typically large structures that require local heat treatments and cannot be placed in an oven. The locations of these structures vary from indoors in a controlled environment to outdoors with unpredictable environments. These environments can be controlled somewhat, however in large part the surrounding conditions are unchangeable. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods to accurately apply the surrounding conditions and geometries to a theoretical model in order to provide the proper requirements for the local heat treatment procedure. Within this requirement is the requirement to define unknowns used in the heat transfer equations so that accurate models can be produced and accurate results predicted. This study investigates experimentally and numerically the heat transfer and temperature fields of Grade 91 piping in a local heat treatment. The objective of this thesis research is to determine all of the needed heat transfer coefficients. The appropriate heat transfer coefficients are determined through the inverse heat conduction method utilizing a ceramic heat blanket. This will be done

  8. Study of the Impact of Heat Treatment Modes on Formation of Microstructure and a Given Set of Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Flat Products with Guaranteed Hardness (400 to 450 HB) from Low-Alloyed Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrosov, M. Yu; Martynov, P. G.; Goroshko, T. V.; Zvereva, M. I.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Barabash, K. Yu

    2017-12-01

    The results of the study of influence of heat treatment modes on microstructure, size and shape of grains, mechanical properties of high-strength flat products from low-alloyed C-Mn-Cr-Si-Mo steel microalloyed by boron are presented. Heat treatment modes, which provide a combination of high impact viscosity at negative temperatures and guaranteed hardness, are determined.

  9. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Nguyen, Scott Vinh

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  10. Improved Heat Treatment Of Steel Alloy 4340

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lawrence B.

    1993-01-01

    New process takes significantly less time than prior heat-treatment processes. Involves placing steel plate directly in furnace and heat-treating. Plate then quenched in slowly moving oil to reduce stresses. Any deflection then pressed out. Possible uses of 4340 steel include new and improved bulletproof vests for military and police personnel and armor for bulletproof automobiles for military, police, diplomatic, and private users. Also used in other military land vehicles as tanks and in both military and civilian aircraft. Lighter armorplate enables land vehicles and aircraft to attain greater speed and maneuverability, consume less fuel, and afford better protection from snipers or terrorists.

  11. Very high-vacuum heat treatment facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Moody, M. V.; Richard, J.-P.

    1987-01-01

    A vacuum heat treatment facility, with hot zone dimensions of 12 x 19 x 19 cm, has been designed and constructed at a cost substantially below that of a commercial unit. The design incorporates efficient water cooling and a resistive heating element. A vacuum pressure of 1.5 x 10 to the -8th torr at room temperature has been obtained after baking. The temperature limit is approximately 1900 C. This limit results from the choice of niobium as the hot zone material.

  12. 7 CFR 305.29 - Vacuum heat treatment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacuum heat treatment schedule. 305.29 Section 305.29... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.29 Vacuum heat treatment... vacuum at 8 hours. Maintain the vacuum until the end of the treatment. Gradually increase the temperature...

  13. 9 CFR 590.575 - Heat treatment of dried whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Heat treatment of dried whites. 590..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.575 Heat treatment of dried whites. Heat treatment of dried... and at such temperatures as will result in salmonella negative product. (a) The product to be heat...

  14. 9 CFR 590.575 - Heat treatment of dried whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Heat treatment of dried whites. 590..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.575 Heat treatment of dried whites. Heat treatment of dried... and at such temperatures as will result in salmonella negative product. (a) The product to be heat...

  15. 49 CFR 179.400-12 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.400-12 Section 179...-12 Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner tank is not required. (b) The... postweld heat treated as prescribed in AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix W (IBR, see § 171.7 of...

  16. 49 CFR 179.400-12 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.400-12 Section 179...-12 Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner tank is not required. (b) The... postweld heat treated as prescribed in AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix W (IBR, see § 171.7 of...

  17. 49 CFR 179.400-12 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.400-12 Section 179...-12 Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner tank is not required. (b) The... postweld heat treated as prescribed in AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix W (IBR, see § 171.7 of...

  18. 9 CFR 590.575 - Heat treatment of dried whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heat treatment of dried whites. 590..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.575 Heat treatment of dried whites. Heat treatment of dried... and at such temperatures as will result in salmonella negative product. (a) The product to be heat...

  19. 49 CFR 179.400-12 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.400-12 Section 179...-12 Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner tank is not required. (b) The... postweld heat treated as prescribed in AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix W (IBR, see § 171.7 of...

  20. Heat treatment of wet wood fiber: A study of the effect of reaction conditions on the formation of furfurals

    Treesearch

    Mandla A. Tshabalala; James D. McSweeny; Roger M. Rowell

    2012-01-01

    Furan monomers are produced when wood is heated at high temperatures. To understand the process conditions for production of furfural (FF) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from wood, samples of milled aspen wood were subjected to autohydrolyzis by microwave heating in a sealed Teflon reactor. The experiments were designed to simulate temperature and pressure variables...

  1. Assessment of NASA Dual Microstructure Heat Treatment Method for Multiple Forging Batch Heat Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John (Technical Monitor); Lemsky, Joe

    2004-01-01

    NASA dual microstructure heat treatment technology previously demonstrated on single forging heat treat batches of a generic disk shape was successfully demonstrated on a multiple disk batch of a production shape component. A group of four Rolls-Royce Corporation 3rd Stage AE2100 forgings produced from alloy ME209 were successfully dual microstructure heat treated as a single heat treat batch. The forgings responded uniformly as evidenced by part-to-part consistent thermocouple recordings and resultant macrostructures, and from ultrasonic examination. Multiple disk DMHT processing offers a low cost alternative to other published dual microstructure processing techniques.

  2. A Comparative Study on the Static Recrystallization Behavior of Cold-Rolled Mg-3Al-1Zn Alloy Stimulated by Electropulse Treatment and Conventional Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaopei; Li, Xiaohui; Kure-Chu, Song-Zhu; Tang, Guoyi

    2017-12-01

    Cold-rolled AZ31 Mg alloy strips, with a reduction of 33 pct, were subjected to electropulse treatment (EPT) and conventional heat treatment (HT) to evaluate the respective influences of electropulses and temperature on the recrystallization behavior of AZ31. The highest measured temperature during the EPT (543 K) was used in HT. The electron backscattered diffraction results demonstrated that the EPT-stimulated recrystallization was completed within 8 seconds, whereas for HT, recrystallization was still far from completion even after 240 seconds. It was found that both the nucleation and grain growth of these two processes were totally different. In the EPT samples, nucleation tended to occur preferentially near extension twin boundaries and grain boundaries by continuous recrystallization, whereas in the HT samples, nucleation occurred mainly by grain boundaries bulging via discontinuous recrystallization. As grain growth proceeded, the texture intensities of the EPT samples decreased gradually and finally evolved into an obvious transverse-direction-split texture. This is likely attributable to the impact of electropulses on the boundary energy and the contribution of nonbasal dislocations; however, the basal-type textures of the HT samples were notably strengthened, which is associated with a 30 deg〈0001〉 orientation with respect to the deformed texture.

  3. A Comparative Study on the Static Recrystallization Behavior of Cold-Rolled Mg-3Al-1Zn Alloy Stimulated by Electropulse Treatment and Conventional Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaopei; Li, Xiaohui; Kure-Chu, Song-Zhu; Tang, Guoyi

    2018-02-01

    Cold-rolled AZ31 Mg alloy strips, with a reduction of 33 pct, were subjected to electropulse treatment (EPT) and conventional heat treatment (HT) to evaluate the respective influences of electropulses and temperature on the recrystallization behavior of AZ31. The highest measured temperature during the EPT (543 K) was used in HT. The electron backscattered diffraction results demonstrated that the EPT-stimulated recrystallization was completed within 8 seconds, whereas for HT, recrystallization was still far from completion even after 240 seconds. It was found that both the nucleation and grain growth of these two processes were totally different. In the EPT samples, nucleation tended to occur preferentially near extension twin boundaries and grain boundaries by continuous recrystallization, whereas in the HT samples, nucleation occurred mainly by grain boundaries bulging via discontinuous recrystallization. As grain growth proceeded, the texture intensities of the EPT samples decreased gradually and finally evolved into an obvious transverse-direction-split texture. This is likely attributable to the impact of electropulses on the boundary energy and the contribution of nonbasal dislocations; however, the basal-type textures of the HT samples were notably strengthened, which is associated with a 30 deg〈0001〉 orientation with respect to the deformed texture.

  4. 7 CFR 305.8 - Heat treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Heat treatment requirements. 305.8 Section 305.8... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.8 Heat treatment requirements. (a... operations conducted at the facility. In order to be certified, a heat treatment facility must: (1) Have...

  5. 7 CFR 305.8 - Heat treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heat treatment requirements. 305.8 Section 305.8... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.8 Heat treatment requirements. (a... operations conducted at the facility. In order to be certified, a heat treatment facility must: (1) Have...

  6. 7 CFR 305.8 - Heat treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heat treatment requirements. 305.8 Section 305.8... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.8 Heat treatment requirements. (a... operations conducted at the facility. In order to be certified, a heat treatment facility must: (1) Have...

  7. Effects of heat treatment on some physical properties of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) wood

    Treesearch

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Qunying Mou; Yiqiang Wu; Yuan Liu

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effect of heat treatment on some physical properties of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) was investigated. Wood specimens were subjected to heat treatment at 160, 180, 200 and 220°C for 1, 2, 3 and 4h. The results show that heat treatment resulted in a darkened color, decreased moisture performance and increased dimensional stability of...

  8. Comparative study of ageing, heat treatment and accelerated carbonation for stabilization of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in view of reducing regulated heavy metal/metalloid leaching.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rafael M; Mertens, Gilles; Salman, Muhammad; Cizer, Özlem; Van Gerven, Tom

    2013-10-15

    This study compared the performance of four different approaches for stabilization of regulated heavy metal and metalloid leaching from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI-BA): (i) short term (three months) heap ageing, (ii) heat treatment, (iii) accelerated moist carbonation, and (iv) accelerated pressurized slurry carbonation. Two distinct types of MSWI-BA were tested in this study: one originating from a moving-grate furnace incineration operation treating exclusively household refuse (sample B), and another originating from a fluid-bed furnace incineration operation that treats a mixture of household and light industrial wastes (sample F). The most abundant elements in the ashes were Si (20-27 wt.%) and Ca (16-19 wt.%), followed by significant quantities of Fe, Al, Na, S, K, Mg, Ti, and Cl. The main crystalline substances present in the fresh ashes were Quartz, Calcite, Apatite, Anhydrite and Gehlenite, while the amorphous fraction ranged from 56 to 73 wt.%. The leaching values of all samples were compared to the Flemish (NEN 7343) and the Walloon (DIN 38414) regulations from Belgium. Batch leaching of the fresh ashes at natural pH showed that seven elements exceeded at least one regulatory limit (Ba, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Se and Zn), and that both ashes had excess basicity (pH > 12). Accelerated carbonation achieved significant reduction in ash basicity (9.3-9.9); lower than ageing (10.5-12.2) and heat treatment (11.1-12.1). For sample B, there was little distinction between the leaching results of ageing and accelerated carbonation with respect to regulatory limits; however carbonation achieved comparatively lower leaching levels. Heat treatment was especially detrimental to the leaching of Cr. For sample F, ageing was ineffective and heat treatment had marginally better results, while accelerated carbonation delivered the most effective performance, with slurry carbonation meeting all DIN limits. Slurry carbonation was deemed the most

  9. Effect of heat treatment on stainless steel lingual arch appliances.

    PubMed

    Nagatani, S S; Fisher, J G; Hondrum, S O

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on 0.036" diameter stainless steel wire. Forty wires were bent into arch forms (20 experimental and 20 control). The arch width changes were measured and the forces generated were determined over an eight week period. Heat treatment resulted in immediate and significant expansion (p < 0.001) followed by stabilization of arch width. The control wires continued to expand throughout the study. The force generated by the control group and experimental group expansion was capable of producing tooth movement.

  10. 1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST INSIDE OF THE HEAT TREATMENT BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST INSIDE OF THE HEAT TREATMENT BUILDING AT BATCH FURNACES, QUENCHING PIT IN FOREGROUND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Heat Treatment Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 49 CFR 179.220-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.220-11 Section 179... Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-11 Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner container is not a specification requirement. (b) Postweld...

  12. 49 CFR 179.220-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.220-11 Section 179... Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-11 Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner container is not a specification requirement. (b) Postweld...

  13. 49 CFR 179.200-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.200-11 Section 179... Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-11 Postweld heat treatment. When specified in § 179.201-1, after welding is complete, postweld heat treatment must be in compliance...

  14. 49 CFR 179.220-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.220-11 Section 179... Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-11 Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner container is not a specification requirement. (b) Postweld...

  15. 49 CFR 179.200-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.200-11 Section 179.200-11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Postweld heat treatment. When specified in § 179.201-1, after welding is complete, postweld heat treatment...

  16. Laser heat treatment of welds for various stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dontu, O.; Ganatsios, S.; Alexandrescu, N.; Predescu, C.

    2008-03-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the post - weld heat treatment of a duplex stainless steel. Welded joint samples were surface - treated using the same laser source adopted during welding in order to counterbalance the excess of ferrite formed in the welding process.

  17. Effect of atmosphere on phase transformation in plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings during heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Tong, W; Cao, Y; Feng, J; Zhang, X

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of atmosphere on the phase transformation in hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings during heat treatment by varying the atmosphere in the furnace pipe. Heat treatment always increased the crystallinity of HA coatings regardless of the kind of atmosphere. Water molecules in atmosphere further promoted HA recrystallization during heat treatment. In a dry atmosphere, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) were more stable than HA, so heat treatment could not convert them into HA. However, in a humid atmosphere, heat treatment would transform TCP and TTCP into HA by hydrolytic reactions.

  18. Assessing the effects of severe heat treatment of milk on calcium bioavailability: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Seiquer, I; Delgado-Andrade, C; Haro, A; Navarro, M P

    2010-12-01

    Thermal processing of milk is a common practice. As milk is the main source of dietary calcium, this study aimed to assess the effects of overheating milk on calcium availability. Thus, thermally damaged milk (overheated, OH, milk; 3 cycles of sterilization at 116 °C, 16 min) was compared with UHT milk (150 °C, 6s) in 2 types of assays: in vitro and in vivo (rats). In addition, the greater Maillard reaction rate associated with thermal treatment in OH milk was confirmed by determining specific (furosine) and unspecific markers (CieLab color). A negative effect on calcium solubility was observed after in vitro digestion of OH milk compared with UHT milk. Feeding rats the diet containing OH milk as the protein source led to significantly lower values of apparent calcium absorption and retention than those found among animals fed the UHT milk diet. Whereas reducing the absorption appears to result mainly from the decreased food intake, the negative effect on retention seems to be due to factors derived from milk thermal damage, such as the formation of Maillard reaction products. It was concluded that milk-processing conditions warrant special attention to prevent impaired dietary calcium utilization. This may be especially important in situations where milk and dairy products are the main dietary components, such as in early infancy. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of ultrahigh-temperature continuous ohmic heating treatment on fresh orange juice.

    PubMed

    Leizerson, Shirly; Shimoni, Eyal

    2005-05-04

    The scope of this study is the effect of ohmic heating thermal treatment on liquid fruit juice made of oranges. Effects of ohmic heating on the quality of orange juice were examined and compared to those of heat pasteurization at 90 degrees C for 50 s. Orange juice was treated at temperatures of 90, 120, and 150 degrees C for 1.13, 0.85, and 0.68 s in an ohmic heating system. Microbial counts showed complete inactivation of bacteria, yeast, and mold during ohmic and conventional treatments. The ohmic heating treatment reduced pectin esterase activity by 98%. The reduction in vitamin C was 15%. Ohmic-heated orange juice maintained higher amounts of the five representative flavor compounds than did heat-pasteurized juice. Sensory evaluation tests showed no difference between fresh and ohmic-heated orange juice. Thus, high-temperature ohmic-heating treatment can be effectively used to pasteurize fresh orange juice with minimal sensory deterioration.

  20. 49 CFR 179.300-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.300-10 Section 179... Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.300-10 Postweld heat treatment. After welding is complete, steel tanks and all attachments welded thereto, must be postweld heat treated...

  1. 29 CFR 1919.17 - Exemptions from heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions from heat treatment. 1919.17 Section 1919.17... from heat treatment. Gear made of steel, or gear which contains (as in ball bearings swivels), or is permanently attached to (as with blocks) equipment made of materials which cannot be subjected to heat...

  2. 29 CFR 1919.17 - Exemptions from heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions from heat treatment. 1919.17 Section 1919.17... from heat treatment. Gear made of steel, or gear which contains (as in ball bearings swivels), or is permanently attached to (as with blocks) equipment made of materials which cannot be subjected to heat...

  3. 29 CFR 1919.17 - Exemptions from heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions from heat treatment. 1919.17 Section 1919.17... from heat treatment. Gear made of steel, or gear which contains (as in ball bearings swivels), or is permanently attached to (as with blocks) equipment made of materials which cannot be subjected to heat...

  4. 49 CFR 179.300-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.300-10 Section 179... Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.300-10 Postweld heat treatment. After welding is complete, steel tanks and all attachments welded thereto, must be postweld heat treated...

  5. 29 CFR 1919.17 - Exemptions from heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions from heat treatment. 1919.17 Section 1919.17... from heat treatment. Gear made of steel, or gear which contains (as in ball bearings swivels), or is permanently attached to (as with blocks) equipment made of materials which cannot be subjected to heat...

  6. 29 CFR 1919.17 - Exemptions from heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions from heat treatment. 1919.17 Section 1919.17... from heat treatment. Gear made of steel, or gear which contains (as in ball bearings swivels), or is permanently attached to (as with blocks) equipment made of materials which cannot be subjected to heat...

  7. Efficacy of heat treatment for disinfestation of concrete grain silos

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate heat treatment for disinfestations of empty concrete elevator silos. A Mobile Heat Treatment Unit was used to introduce heat into silos to attain target conditions of 50°C for at least 6 h. Ventilated plastic containers with a capacity of...

  8. Pressurized heat treatment of glass ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, D.P.

    1984-04-19

    A method of producing a glass-ceramic having a specified thermal expansion value is disclosed. The method includes the step of pressurizing the parent glass material to a predetermined pressure during heat treatment so that the glass-ceramic produced has a specified thermal expansion value. Preferably, the glass-ceramic material is isostatically pressed. A method for forming a strong glass-ceramic to metal seal is also disclosed in which the glass-ceramic is fabricated to have a thermal expansion value equal to that of the metal. The determination of the thermal expansion value of a parent glass material placed in a high-temperature environment is also used to determine the pressure in the environment.

  9. New Trends for the Evaluation of Heat Treatments of Milk

    PubMed Central

    Di Costanzo, Maria Gabriella; Mattera, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Milk is generally very rich in nutrients and this may lead it to be an ideal growth environment for many microorganisms, including pathogens, so effective measurements aiming to ensure total microbiological safety of milk and minimize the risk to human health are needed. Milk heat treatments are the most common practices carried out to inhibit the microbial growth; therefore it is necessary to have analytical procedures that are more and more up-to-date and capable of detecting the effectiveness of the heat treatments. Most of the reference and official methods to assess heat treatment in milk are based on the evaluation of the modifications of some milk components following the thermal process, such as the determination of enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase and lactoperoxidase), whey proteins, Maillard reaction compounds (generally furosine), and lactulose. Besides the most common techniques (liquid and gas chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, or spectroscopy) used for the detection of single thermal indicators, new approaches, such as chemometric studies or more recent techniques, including size-exclusion chromatography with online electrospray mass spectrometry or stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry, are discussed in this review in order to evaluate heat treatment in milk. PMID:29230345

  10. Study of fracture toughness and bend test morphologies of HVOF sprayed Cr3C2-25% NiCr coating after heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Sharad; Upadhyaya, Rohit

    2018-04-01

    Majority of the industrial components are subjected to high temperature exposure, where crack propagation occurs due to shear failure. The paper involves the study of the fracture toughness of heat treated Cr3C2-NiCr coating at three different service temperatures (750°C, 850°C, and 950°C for 1-hour aging) using indentation techniques to measure the crack resistance of the coating. At 750°C and 850°C, the coating cracked at the bend area, but not spalled. At 950°C, the coating spalled and delaminated from the substrate indicating poor adhesion after prolonged exposure. The influence of heat treatment on the fracture toughness and adhesion properties of the Cr3C2-25%NiCr coating were also investigated. The high temperature exposure at 950°C, resulted in a shear failure of the coating due to the presence of splat contraction. The increase in temperature increases the fracture toughness KIC of the coating, with the decrease in hardness. It was observed that the oxidation levels enhanced on the top layer of the coating, which acted like a core region for crack initiation at 950°C resulting in shear failure during bend test.

  11. The influence of storage and heat treatment on a magnesium-based implant material: an in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Bracht, Katja; Angrisani, Nina; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Eifler, Rainer; Weizbauer, Andreas; Reifenrath, Janin

    2015-10-19

    Magnesium alloys are recommended as a potential material for osteosynthesis. It is known that storage-induced property modifications can occur in materials like aluminum. Thus the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of storage durations of up to 48 weeks on the biomechanical, structural, and degradation properties of the degradable magnesium alloy LAE442. Extruded implants (n = 104; Ø 2.5 mm × 25 mm) were investigated after storage periods of 0, 12, 24, and 48 weeks in three different sub-studies: (I) immediately after the respective storage duration and after an additional (II) 56 days of in vitro corrosion in simulated body fluid (SFB), and (III) 48 weeks in vivo corrosion in a rabbit model, respectively. In addition, the influence of a T5-heat treatment (206 °C for 15 h in an argon atmosphere) was tested (n = 26; 0 week of storage). Evaluation was performed by three-point bending, scanning electron microscopy, radiography, µ-computed tomography, evaluation of the mean grain size, and contrast analysis of precipitations (such as aluminum or lithium). The heat treatment induced a significant reduction in initial stability, and enhanced the corrosion resistance. In vivo experiments showed a good biocompatibility for all implants. During the storage of up to 48 weeks, no significant changes occurred in the implant properties. LAE442 implants can be safely used after up to 48 weeks of storage.

  12. In-Line Heat Treatment and Hot Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raudensky, M.; Horsky, J.; Hnizdil, M. P.; Pohanka, Kotrbacek M.

    2011-01-01

    In-line heat treatment of rolled materials is becoming increasingly used at hot rolling plants. The advantage of this method is the achievement of required material structure without the necessity of reheating. This paper describes a design procedure for cooling sections for the purpose of obtaining the required structure and mechanical properties. The procedure is typically used for the cooling of tubes, rails, long products and plates. Microstructure and nature of grains, grain size and composition determine the overall mechanical behaviour of steel. Heat treatment provides an efficient way to manipulate the properties of steel by controlling the cooling rate. The rate of cooling is defined by a heat transfer coefficient (HTC). Good controllability of HTC can be reached using either air-water or water nozzles. Thus, an on-line heat treatment with the assistance of spray nozzles enables a manufacturing process that can improve product performance by increasing steel strength, hardness and other desirable characteristics. These techniques also allow selective hardening, such that selective areas of a single object can be subjected to different treatments. An experimental stand designed for the study of cooling steel samples has been built at the Brno University of Technology. The stand comprises a movable trolley containing a test sample which moves under the spray at a given velocity. Sensors indicate the temperature history of the tested material. This experimental stand enables simulation of a variety of cooling regimes and evaluates the final structure of tested samples. The same experimental stand is also a tool for use in the design of cooling sections in order to find the required heat treatment procedure and final structure. Examples of the cooling of rails and tubes are given in the paper.

  13. 7 CFR 305.8 - Heat treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Heat treatment requirements. 305.8 Section 305.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.8 Heat treatment requirements. (a...

  14. 49 CFR 179.100-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.100-10 Section 179...-10 Postweld heat treatment. (a) After welding is complete, steel tanks and all attachments welded... treatment is prohibited. (c) Tank and welded attachments, fabricated from ASTM A 240/A 240M (IBR, see § 171...

  15. A study on EMI shielding enhancement behaviors of Ni-plated CFs-reinforced polymer matrix composites by post heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwan-Woo; Han, Woong; Kim, Byoung-Suhk; Kim, Byung-Joo; An, Kay-Hyeok

    2017-09-01

    In order to develop the high quality electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency (EMI-SE) materials, Ni-plated carbon fiber fabrics (Ni-CFFs) were prepared by an electroless method. Effects of post heat-treatment conditions on EMI-SE and electrical conductivity of Ni-CFFs/epoxy composites were also investigated. The morphologies and structural properties of Ni-CFFs were measured by a SEM and a XRD. It was found that all the Ni peaks increased with increasing post-heat treatment temperature, indicating that some impurities were removed and nickel particle sharp crystalline peaks. Also, It was found that the EMI-SE of composites enhanced was increased after post heat-treatment. In the frequency range of electromagnetic wave occurred from appliances (3.0 × 107-6.0 × 108), EMI-SE of post-heat treatment Ni-CFs was increased. This result concludes that the EMI-SE of the composites can be enhanced according to the microstructure of Ni in the Ni-CFFs/epoxy composites.

  16. Gear distortion analysis due to heat treatment process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterres, Natalino F. D. S.; Rusnaldy, Widodo, Achmad

    2017-01-01

    One way to extend the life time of the gear is minimizing the distortion during the manufacturing process. One of the most important processes in manufacturing to produce gears is heat treatment process. The purpose of this study is to analyze the distortion of the gear after heat treatment process. The material of gear is AISI 1045, and it was designed with the module (m) 1.75, and a number of teeth (z) 29. Gear was heat-treated in the furnace at a temperature of 800°C, holding time of 30 minutes, and then quenched in water. Furthermore, surface hardening process was also performed on gear teeth at a temperature of 820°C and holding time of 35 seconds and the similar procedure of analysis was conducted. The hardness of gear after heat treatment average 63.2 HRC and the teeth surface hardness after gear to induction hardening was 64.9 HRC at the case depth 1 mm. The microstructure of tested gear are martensitic and pearlite. The highest distortion on tooth thickness to upper than 0.063 can cause high precision at the tooth contact is not appropriate. Besides the shrinkage of tooth thickness will also affect to contact angle because the size of gear tolerance was not standardized.

  17. Influence of Heat Treatments on Microstructure and Magnetic Domains in Duplex Stainless Steel S31803

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dille, Jean; Pacheco, Clara Johanna; Camerini, Cesar Giron; Malet, Loic Charles; Nysten, Bernard; Pereira, Gabriela Ribeiro; De Almeida, Luiz Henrique; Alcoforado Rebello, João Marcos

    2018-06-01

    The influence of heat treatments on microstructure and magnetic domains in duplex stainless steel S31803 is studied using an innovative structural characterization protocol. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) maps as well as magnetic force microscopy (MFM) images acquired on the same region of the sample, before and after heat treatment, are compared. The influence of heat treatments on the phase volumetric fractions is studied, and several structural modifications after heat treatment are highlighted. Three different mechanisms for the decomposition of ferrite into sigma phase and secondary austenite are observed during annealing at 800 °C. MFM analysis reveals that a variety of magnetic domain patterns can exist in one ferrite grain.

  18. 9 CFR 590.575 - Heat treatment of dried whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and at such temperatures as will result in salmonella negative product. (a) The product to be heat... less than 7 days and until it is salmonella negative. (2) Pan dried albumen shall be heated throughout... days and until it is salmonella negative. (3) Methods of heat treatment of spray dried or pan dried...

  19. 9 CFR 590.575 - Heat treatment of dried whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and at such temperatures as will result in salmonella negative product. (a) The product to be heat... less than 7 days and until it is salmonella negative. (2) Pan dried albumen shall be heated throughout... days and until it is salmonella negative. (3) Methods of heat treatment of spray dried or pan dried...

  20. 49 CFR 179.100-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.100-10 Section 179... Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100-10 Postweld heat... heat treated as a unit in compliance with the requirements of AAR Specifications for Tank Cars...

  1. 49 CFR 179.500-6 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-6 Heat treatment. (a... normalizing and tempering for Class I, Class II and Class III steel or oil quenching and tempering for Class III steel. Tempering temperatures shall not be less than 1000 °F. Heat treatment of alternate steels...

  2. 49 CFR 179.500-6 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-6 Heat treatment. (a... normalizing and tempering for Class I, Class II and Class III steel or oil quenching and tempering for Class III steel. Tempering temperatures shall not be less than 1000 °F. Heat treatment of alternate steels...

  3. 49 CFR 179.500-6 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-6 Heat treatment. (a... normalizing and tempering for Class I, Class II and Class III steel or oil quenching and tempering for Class III steel. Tempering temperatures shall not be less than 1000 °F. Heat treatment of alternate steels...

  4. 49 CFR 179.500-6 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-6 Heat treatment. (a... normalizing and tempering for Class I, Class II and Class III steel or oil quenching and tempering for Class III steel. Tempering temperatures shall not be less than 1000 °F. Heat treatment of alternate steels...

  5. 49 CFR 179.300-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.300-10 Section 179.300-10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Postweld heat treatment. After welding is complete, steel tanks and all attachments welded thereto, must be...

  6. Heat Treatment of Friction-Stir-Welded 7050 Aluminum Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petter, George E.; Figert, John D.; Rybicki, Daniel J.; Burns, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    A method of heat treatment has been developed to reverse some of the deleterious effects of friction stir welding of plates of aluminum alloy 7050. This alloy is considered unweldable by arc and high-energy-density beam fusion welding processes. The alloy can be friction stir welded, but as-welded workpieces exhibit low ductility, low tensile and yield strengths, and low resistance to stress corrosion cracking. Heat treatment according to the present method increases tensile and yield strengths, and minimizes or eliminates stress corrosion cracking. It also increases ductility. This method of heat treatment is a superior alternative to a specification-required heat treatment that caused the formation of large columnar grains, which are undesired. Workpieces subjected to the prior heat treatment exhibited elongations <2 percent, and standard three-point bend specimens shattered. The development of the present heat treatment method was guided partly by the principles that (1) by minimizing grain sizes and relieving deformation stresses, one can minimize or eliminate stress corrosion cracking and (2) the key to maximizing strength and eliminating residual stresses is to perform post-weld solution heating for as long a time as possible while incurring little or no development of large columnar grains in friction stir weld nuggets. It is necessary to perform some of the solution heat treatment (to soften the alloy and improve machine welding parameters) before welding. The following is an example of thickness- dependent pre- and post-weld heat treatments according to the present method: For plates 0.270 in. (approx.6.86 mm) thick milled from plates 4.5 in. (114.3 mm) thick, perform pre-weld solution heating at 890 F (477 C) for 1 hour, then cool in air. After friction stir welding, perform solution heating for 10 minutes, quench, hold at room temperature for 96 hours, then age at 250 F (121 C) for 5 hours followed by 325 F (163 C) for 27 hours.

  7. Numerical study of heat transfer characteristics in BOG heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Pfotenhauer, John M.; Miller, Franklin; Ni, Zhonghua; Zhi, Xiaoqin

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a numerical study of turbulent flow and the heat transfer process in a boil-off liquefied natural gas (BOG) heat exchanger was performed. Finite volume computational fluid dynamics and the k - ω based shear stress transport model were applied to simulate thermal flow of BOG and ethylene glycol in a full-sized 3D tubular heat exchanger. The simulation model has been validated and compared with the engineering specification data from its supplier. In order to investigate thermal characteristics of the heat exchanger, velocity, temperature, heat flux and thermal response were studied under different mass flowrates in the shell-side. The shell-side flow pattern is mostly determined by viscous forces, which lead to a small velocity and low temperature buffer area in the bottom-right corner of the heat exchanger. Changing the shell-side mass flowrate could result in different distributions of the shell-side flow. However, the distribution in the BOG will remain in a relatively stable pattern. Heat flux increases along with the shell-side mass flowrate, but the increase is not linear. The ratio of increased heat flux to the mass flow interval is superior at lower mass flow conditions, and the threshold mass flow for stable working conditions is defined as greater than 0.41 kg/s.

  8. Internally Heated Screw Pyrolysis Reactor (IHSPR) heat transfer performance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, S. H.; Gan, H. L.; Alias, A.; Gan, L. M.

    2018-04-01

    1.5 billion end-of-life tyres (ELT) were discarded globally each year and pyrolysis is considered the best solution to convert the ELT into valuable high energy-density products. Among all pyrolysis technologies, screw reactor is favourable. However, conventional screw reactor risks plugging issue due to its lacklustre heat transfer performance. An internally heated screw pyrolysis reactor (IHSPR) was developed by local renewable energy industry, which serves as the research subject for heat transfer performance study of this particular paper. Zero-load heating test (ZLHT) was first carried out to obtain the operational parameters of the reactor, followed by the one dimensional steady-state heat transfer analysis carried out using SolidWorks Flow Simulation 2016. Experiments with feed rate manipulations and pyrolysis products analyses were conducted last to conclude the study.

  9. Efficacy and safety of Gantong Granules in the treatment of common cold with wind-heat syndrome: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Min, Jie; Li, Xiao-qiang; She, Bin; Chen, Yan; Mao, Bing

    2015-05-19

    Although the common cold is generally mild and self-limiting, it is a leading cause of consultations with doctors and missed days from school and work. In light of its favorable effects of relieving symptoms and minimal side-effects, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been widely used to treat the common cold. However, there is a lack of robust evidence to support the clinical utility of such a treatment. This study is designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Gantong Granules compared with placebo in patients with the common cold with wind-heat syndrome (CCWHS). This is a multicenter, phase IIb, double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. A total of 240 patients will be recruited, from 5 centers across China and randomly assigned to the high-dose group, medium-dose group, low-dose group or placebo control group in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. All subjects will receive the treatment for 3 to 5 days, followed by a 7-day follow-up period. The primary outcome is the duration of all symptoms. Secondary outcomes include the duration of primary symptoms and each symptom, time to fever relief and time to fever clearance, change in TCM symptom score, and change in Symptom and Sign Score. This trial will provide high-quality evidence on the efficacy and safety of Gantong Granules in treating CCWHS, and help to optimize the dose selection for a phase III clinical trial. The registration number is ChiCTR-TRC-14004255 , which was assigned by the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry on 12 February 2014.

  10. New Nomenclatures for Heat Treatments of Additively Manufactured Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Andrew H.; Collins, Peter C.; Williams, James C.

    2017-07-01

    The heat-treatment designations and microstructure nomenclatures for many structural metallic alloys were established for traditional metals processing, such as casting, hot rolling or forging. These terms do not necessarily apply for additively manufactured (i.e., three-dimensionally printed or "3D printed") metallic structures. The heat-treatment terminology for titanium alloys generally implies the heat-treatment temperatures and their sequence relative to a thermomechanical processing step (e.g., forging, rolling). These designations include: β-processing, α + β-processing, β-annealing, duplex annealing and mill annealing. Owing to the absence of a thermomechanical processing step, these traditional designations can pose a problem when titanium alloys are first produced via additive manufacturing, and then heat-treated. This communication proposes new nomenclatures for heat treatments of additively manufactured titanium alloys, and uses the distinct microstructural features to provide a correlation between traditional nomenclature and the proposed nomenclature.

  11. Green Chemical Treatments for Heating and Cooling Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Legionella pneumophila bacterium, which causes Legion- naire’s Disease. 2.3 Steam Line Treatment The third and final product in the Green Chemistry...ER D C/ CE R L TR -0 6 -2 9 Green Chemical Treatments for Heating and Cooling Systems Susan A. Drozdz and Vincent F. Hock September...CERL TR-06-29 September 2006 Green Chemical Treatments for Heating and Cooling Systems Susan A. Drozdz and Vincent F. Hock Construction

  12. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-heat. The finished product shall not exceed 1.5 mg. undenatured whey protein nitrogen per gram of... “high-heat” and “low-heat” (1.51 to 5.99 mg.). (3) Low-heat. The finished product shall show not less... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurization and heat treatment. 58.236 Section 58...

  13. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-heat. The finished product shall not exceed 1.5 mg. undenatured whey protein nitrogen per gram of... “high-heat” and “low-heat” (1.51 to 5.99 mg.). (3) Low-heat. The finished product shall show not less... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurization and heat treatment. 58.236 Section 58...

  14. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-heat. The finished product shall not exceed 1.5 mg. undenatured whey protein nitrogen per gram of... “high-heat” and “low-heat” (1.51 to 5.99 mg.). (3) Low-heat. The finished product shall show not less... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurization and heat treatment. 58.236 Section 58...

  15. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-heat. The finished product shall not exceed 1.5 mg. undenatured whey protein nitrogen per gram of... “high-heat” and “low-heat” (1.51 to 5.99 mg.). (3) Low-heat. The finished product shall show not less... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurization and heat treatment. 58.236 Section 58...

  16. Characterization of polyparaphenylene subjected to different heat treatment temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.D.M.; Matthews, M.J.; Marucci, A.

    1998-07-01

    The authors investigated the structural and electronic properties of samples of polyparaphenylene (PPP), derived from two synthesis methods (the Kovacic and Yamamoto methods). These samples have been subjected to different heat-treatment temperatures (650 C {le} T{sub HT} {le} 2,000 C) and their properties are compared to the polymer prior to heat-treatment (T{sub HT} = 0 C). The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of heat-treated PPP based on the two synthesis methods reflects the differences in electronic structure of the starting polymers. The PL emission from the heat-treated Yamamoto polymer is quenched at much lower T{sub HT} than from the Kovacic material. However,more » Raman spectra taken of the material resulting from heat-treatment of the polymer (using both preparation methods) indicate the presence of phonon modes for PPP in samples at T{sub HT} up to 650 C.« less

  17. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment. PMID:21711877

  18. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Gopalan; Prabhu, Narayan Kotekar

    2011-04-14

    The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment.

  19. Evaluating the heat pump alternative for heating enclosed wastewater treatment facilities in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, C. J.; Phetteplace, G. E.

    1982-05-01

    This report presents a five-step procedure for evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of using heat pumps to recover heat from treatment plant effluent. The procedure is meant to be used at the facility planning level by engineers who are unfamiliar with this technology. An example of the use of the procedure and general design information are provided. Also, the report reviews the operational experience with heat pumps at wastewater plants located in Fairbanks, Alaska, Madison, Wisconsin, and Wilton, Maine.

  20. Effects of heat treatment on the mechanical properties of kenaf fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carada, Paulo Teodoro D. L.; Fujii, Toru; Okubo, Kazuya

    2016-05-01

    Natural fibers are utilized in various ways. One specific application of it, is in the field natural fiber composite (NFC). Considerable amount of researches are conducted in this field due to rising concerns in the harmful effects of synthetic materials to the environment. Additionally, these researches are done in order to overcome the drawbacks which limit the wide use of natural fiber. A way to improve NFC is to look into the reinforcing component (natural fiber). Treatments, which are classified as mechanical or chemical in nature, can be done in order to improve the performance of the natural fiber. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of heat treatment in the mechanical properties of kenaf fiber. In addition, the response of mechanical properties after exposure to high moisture environment of heat-treated kenaf fibers was observed. Heat treatment was done for one hour with the following heating temperatures: 140, 160, 180, and 200 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis was done to calculate the crystallinity index of kenaf fibers after heat treatment. The results showed that increase in tensile strength can be attained when kenaf fibers are heat treated at 140 °C. However, the tensile modulus showed inconsistency with respect to heat treatment temperature. The computed crystallinity index of the fiber matched the tensile strength observed in non-treated and heat-treated kenaf fibers. The results obtained in this study can be used for applications where heat treatment on kenaf fibers is needed.

  1. The Tensile Properties of Advanced Nickel-Base Disk Superalloys During Quenching Heat Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Gayda, John; Kantzos, Pete T.; Biles, Tiffany; Konkel, William

    2001-01-01

    There is a need to increase the temperature capabilities of superalloy turbine disks. This would allow full utilization of higher temperature combustor and airfoil concepts under development. One approach to meet this goal is to modify the processing and chemistry of advanced alloys, while preserving the ability to use rapid cooling supersolvus heat treatments to achieve coarse grain, fine gamma prime microstructures. An important step in this effort is to understand the key high temperature tensile properties of advanced alloys as they exist during supersolvus heat treatments. This could help in projecting cracking tendencies of disks during quenches from supersolvus heat treatments. The objective of this study was to examine the tensile properties of two advanced disk superalloys during simulated quenching heat treatments. Specimens were cooled from the solution heat treatment temperatures at controlled rates, interrupted, and immediately tensile tested at various temperatures. The responses and failure modes were compared and related to the quench cracking tendencies of disk forgings.

  2. Axially grooved heat pipe study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A technology evaluation study on axially grooved heat pipes is presented. The state-of-the-art is reviewed and present and future requirements are identified. Analytical models, the Groove Analysis Program (GAP) and a closed form solution, were developed to facilitate parametric performance evaluations. GAP provides a numerical solution of the differential equations which govern the hydrodynamic flow. The model accounts for liquid recession, liquid/vapor shear interaction, puddle flow as well as laminar and turbulent vapor flow conditions. The closed form solution was developed to reduce computation time and complexity in parametric evaluations. It is applicable to laminar and ideal charge conditions, liquid/vapor shear interaction, and an empirical liquid flow factor which accounts for groove geometry and liquid recession effects. The validity of the closed form solution is verified by comparison with GAP predictions and measured data.

  3. Heat Treatment Development for a Rapidly Solidified Heat Resistant Cast Al-Si Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, W.; Chen, D. L.; Shaha, S. K.

    2013-07-01

    Existing heat treatment standards do not properly define tempers for thin-walled castings that solidified with high solidification rates. Recently emerged casting processes such as vacuum high pressure die casting should not require long solution treatment times due to the fine microstructures arising from rapid solidification rates. The heat treatment studies involving rapidly solidified samples with secondary dendrite arm spacing between 10 and 35 μm were conducted for solution times between 30 min and 9 h and temperatures of 510 and 525 °C and for various aging parameters. The metallurgical analysis revealed that an increase in microstructure refinement could enable a reduction of solution time up to 88%. Solution treatment resulted in the dissolution of Al2Cu and Al5Mg8Si6Cu2, while Fe- and TiZrV-based phases remained partially in the microstructure. The highest strength of approximately 351 ± 9.7 and 309 ± 3.4 MPa for the UTS and YS, respectively, was achieved for a 2-step solution treatment at 510 and 525 °C in the T6 peak aging conditions, i.e., 150 °C for 100 h. The T6 temper did not yield dimensionally stable microstructure since exceeding 250 °C during in-service operation could result in phase transformation corresponding to the over-aging reaction. The microstructure refinement had a statistically stronger effect on the alloy strength than the increase in solutionizing time. Additionally, thermal analysis and dilatometer results were presented to assess the dissolution of phases during solution treatment, aging kinetics as well as dimensional stability.

  4. Intercritical heat treatments in ductile iron and steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristizabal, Ricardo E.

    Materials such as dual phase (DP) steels, transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels and dual phase ductile irons are produced by intercritical heat treatments. These materials can provide significant weight savings in the automotive industry. The goal of this dissertation is to study intercritical heat treatments in ductile iron and steel to optimize the production parameters. Three different aspects were addressed. First, common steels were intercritically austenitized and austempered (intercritically austempered) under a variety conditions. The results showed that common grade steels that were intercritically austempered exhibited tensile properties in the same range as DP and TRIP steels. The second study consisted of determining the effect of heat treatment conditions on the tensile properties of intercritically austenitized, quenched and tempered ductile iron (IAQ&TDI). The results showed that (1) ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield strength (YS) were determined by the volume fraction of martensite, (2) tempering improved the elongation 1.7-2.5 times with only a slight decrease in strength, (3) the carbon in austenite formed during the intercritical heat treatment of ductile iron with a ferritic-pearlitic matrix came from the carbon available in the matrix and that carbon diffusion from the graphite nodules was restricted, and (4) limited segregation of substitutional elements occurred during intercritical austenitizing. Finally, intercritically austempered ductile iron (IADI) alloyed with different amounts of manganese and nickel was produced. Tensile properties and microstructure were determined. Also, the stability of the austenite during deformation and the lattice strains of the ferrite and the austenite phases were determined using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and neutron diffraction. The results indicated that: 1) high manganese concentrations produced materials with large blocky, low carbon austenite particles at the intercellular boundaries

  5. Heat shock treatment improves Trametes versicolor laccase production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Guo, Chen; Wei, Tao; Zhang, Tian; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-09-01

    An efficient heat shock strategy has been developed to improve laccase production in submerged Trametes versicolor cultures. The optimized heat shock strategy consists of subjecting T. versicolor mycelial pellets to three heat shock treatments at 45 °C for 45 min, starting at culture day 0, with a 24-h interval between treatments. Laccase production increased by more than 1.6-fold relative to the control in both flasks and a 5-L bioreactor because the expression of the laccase gene was enhanced by heat shock induction. The present work demonstrates that heat shock induction is a promising method because it both improves fungal laccase production and has a good potential in industrial application.

  6. Heat Treatment. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filer, Herb; Broste, Dale

    This lesson was developed for a course in sludge treatment and disposal. The lesson describes the Porteous heat treatment method of sludge conditioning and compares that system to the Zimpro wet air oxidation process. The theory of heat treatment, system of components and functions, and concepts of operation are addressed in the lesson. The…

  7. Efficacy of heat treatment for disinfestation of concrete grain silos.

    PubMed

    Opit, G P; Arthur, F H; Bonjour, E L; Jones, C L; Phillips, T W

    2011-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate heat treatment for disinfestations of empty concrete elevator silos. A Mobile Heat Treatment Unit was used to introduce heat into silos to attain target conditions of 50 degrees C for at least 6 h. Ventilated plastic containers with a capacity of 100 g of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., held Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Polyvinyl chloride containers with a capacity of 300 g of wheat held adults of Liposcelis corrodens (Heymons) (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) and Liposcelis decolor (Pearman), which were contained in 35-mm Petri dishes within the grain. Containers were fastened to a rope suspended from the top of the silo at depths of 0 m (just under the top manhole), 10 m, 20 m, and 30 m (silo floor). When the highest temperature achieved was approximately 50 degrees C for 6 h, parental mortality ofR. dominica and T. castaneum, and both psocid species was 98-100%. Progeny production of R. dominica occurred when there was parental survival, but in general R. dominica seemed less impacted by the heat treatment than T. castaneum. There was 100% mortality of L. corrodens at all depths in the heat treatments but only 92.5% mortality for L. decolor, with most survivors located in the bioassay containers at the top of the silo. Results show wheat kernels may have an insulating effect and heat treatment might be more effective when used in conjunction with sanitation and cleaning procedures.

  8. Heat resistance study of basalt fiber material via mechanical tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y. Q.; Jia, C.; Meng, L.; Li, X. H.

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on the study of the relationship between the fracture strength of basalt rovings and temperature. Strong stretching performance of the rovings has been tested after the treatment at fixed temperatures but different heating time and then the fracture strength of the rovings exposed to the heating at different temperatures and cooled in different modes investigated. Finally, the fracture strength of the basalt material after the heat treatment was studied. The results showed that the room-temperature strength tends to decrease with an increase of the heat treatment time at 250 °C, but it has the local maximum after 2h heating. And the basalt rovings strength increased after the heat treatment up to 200 °C. It was 16.7 percent higher than the original strength. The strength depends not only on the temperature and duration of the heating, but also on the cooling mode. The value of the strength measured after cold water cooling was less by 6.3% compared with an ambient air cooling mode. The room-temperature breaking strength of the rovings heated at 200 °C and 100 °C for 2 hours each increased by about 14.6% with respect to unpretreated basalt rovings.

  9. Study of the combined effect of electro-activated solutions and heat treatment on the destruction of spores of Clostridium sporogenes and Geobacillus stearothermophilus in model solution and vegetable puree.

    PubMed

    Liato, Viacheslav; Labrie, Steve; Viel, Catherine; Benali, Marzouk; Aïder, Mohammed

    2015-10-01

    The combined effect of heat treatment and electro-activated solution (EAS) on the heat resistance of spores of Clostridium sporogenes and Geobacillus stearothermophilus was assessed under various heating and exposure time combinations. The acid and neutral EAS showed the highest inhibitory activity, indicating that these solutions may be considered as strong sporicidal disinfectants. These EAS were able to cause a reduction of ≥6 log of spores of C. sporogenes at 60 °C in only 1 min of exposition. For G. stearothermophilus spores, a reduction of 4.5 log was observed at 60 °C in 1 min, while in 5 min, ≥7 log CFU/ml reduction was observed. Inoculated puree of pea and corn were used as a food matrix for the determination of the heat resistance of these spores during the treatments in glass capillaries. The inactivation kinetics of the spores was studied in an oil bath. Combined treatment by EAS and temperature demonstrated a significant decrease in the heat resistance of C. sporogenes. The D100°C in pea puree with NaCl solution was 66.86 min while with acid and neutral EAS it was reduced down to 3.97 and 2.19 min, respectively. The spore of G. stearothermophilus displayed higher heat resistance as confirmed by other similar studies. Its D130°C in pea puree showed a decrease from 1.45 min in NaCl solution down to 1.30 and 0.93 min for acid and neutral EAS, respectively. The differences between the spores of these species are attributable to their different sensitivities with respect to pH, Redox potential and oxygen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Melt Superheating Treatment on the Latent Heat Release of Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junfeng; Dang, Bo; Fan, Dandan; Jian, Zengyun

    2017-03-01

    The accuracy of the baseline evaluation is of importance for calculating the transition enthalpy such as the latent heat of the crystallization. This study demonstrates the modified method of the equivalent non-latent heat baseline, by which the transition enthalpy can be measured accurately according to the transition peak in differential scanning calorimetric curve. With this method, the effect of melt superheating treatment time on the latent heat release upon the solidification of tin is investigated. The results show that the latent heat increases by increasing the treatment time, and is close to a constant when the treatment time is large enough, indicating the homogeneous system. And then, a simple model is established to describe the changes of the crystallization latent heat with the treatment time, which is confirmed by the experimental data of Sn.

  11. The effects of heat treatment on some technological properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Süleyman; Akgül, Mehmet; Dündar, Turker

    2008-04-01

    Heat treatment is often applied to wood species to improve their dimensional stability. This study examined the effect of heat treatment on certain mechanical properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens obtained from Bolu, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment under atmospheric pressure at varying temperatures (120, 150 and 180 degrees C) for varying durations (2, 6 and 10h). The test results of heat-treated Scots pine and control samples showed that technological properties including compression strength, bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, janka-hardness, impact bending strength and tension strength perpendicular to grain suffered with heat treatment, and increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens.

  12. Online Adaptive Hyperthermia Treatment Planning During Locoregional Heating to Suppress Treatment-Limiting Hot Spots.

    PubMed

    Kok, H Petra; Korshuize-van Straten, Linda; Bakker, Akke; de Kroon-Oldenhof, Rianne; Geijsen, Elisabeth D; Stalpers, Lukas J A; Crezee, Johannes

    2017-11-15

    Adequate tumor temperatures during hyperthermia are essential for good clinical response, but excessive heating of normal tissue should be avoided. This makes locoregional heating using phased array systems technically challenging. Online application of hyperthermia treatment planning could help to improve the heating quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefit of online treatment planning during treatment of pelvic tumors heated with the AMC-8 locoregional hyperthermia system. For online adaptive hyperthermia treatment planning, a graphical user interface was developed. Electric fields were calculated in a preprocessing step using our in-house-developed finite-difference-based treatment planning system. This allows instant calculation of the temperature distribution for user-selected phase-amplitude settings during treatment and projection onto the patient's computed tomographic scan for online visualization. Online treatment planning was used for 14 treatment sessions in 8 patients to reduce the patients' reports of hot spots while maintaining the same level of tumor heating. The predicted decrease in hot spot temperature should be at least 0.5°C, and the tumor temperature should decrease less than 0.2°C. These predictions were compared with clinical data: patient feedback about the hot spot and temperature measurements in the tumor region. In total, 17 hot spot reports occurred during the 14 sessions, and the alternative settings predicted the hot spot temperature to decrease by at least 0.5°C, which was confirmed by the disappearance of all 17 hot spot reports. At the same time, the average tumor temperature was predicted to change on average -0.01°C (range, -0.19°C to 0.34°C). The measured tumor temperature change was on average only -0.02°C (range, -0.26°C to 0.31°C). In only 2 cases the temperature decrease was slightly larger than 0.2°C, but at most it was 0.26°C. Online application of hyperthermia treatment planning is

  13. Post-cure heat treatments for composites: properties and fractography.

    PubMed

    Ferracane, J L; Condon, J R

    1992-09-01

    Two commercial and four experimental composites were subjected to post-cure heat treatments of 10 min and 3 h duration immediately after light-curing. Fracture toughness, flexural modulus, microhardness and degree of conversion (FTIR) were evaluated 24 h later. The results showed that post-cure heat treatments at 120 degrees C of short or long duration can be used to produce significant improvements in the degree of cure and the mechanical properties of dental composites used as inlays. A 10 min heat treatment was as effective as a 3 h treatment in enhancing properties and degree of cure. In addition, a 3 h heat treatment carried out 7 days after the initial light-curing was capable of improving properties and cure to almost the same extent as the immediate heat treatments. The improvement in properties, in conjunction with the fractography, indicate a toughening of the filled resin matrix and possibly an improved filler/matrix adhesion in the microfills. The changes appear to be predominantly the result of an increase in degree of cure.

  14. Heat Pre-Treatment of Beverages Wastewater on Hydrogen Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyub, S. Z.; Mohd, N. S.; Ibrahim, S.

    2017-06-01

    At present, a large variety of alternative fuels have been investigated and hydrogen gas is considered as the possible solution for the future due to its unique characteristics. Through dark fermentation process, several factors were found to have significant impact on the hydrogen production either through process enhancement or inhibition and degradation rates or influencing parameters. This work was initiated to investigate the optimum conditions for heat pre-treatment and initial pH for the dark fermentative process under mesophilic condition using a central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM). Different heat treatment conditions and pH were performed on the seed sludge collected from the anaerobic digester of beverage wastewater treatment plant. Heat treatment of inoculum was optimized at different exposure times (30, 90, 120 min), temperatures (80, 90 and 100°C) and pH (4.5, 5.5, 6.5) in order to maximize the biohydrogen production and methanogens activity inhibition. It was found that the optimum heat pre-treatment condition and pH occurred at 100°C for 50 min and the pH of 6.00. At this optimum condition the hydrogen yield was 63.0476 ml H2/mol glucose (H2 Yield) and the COD removal efficiency was 90.87%. In conclusion, it can be hypothesized that different heat treatment conditions led to differences in the initial microbial communities (hydrogen producing bacteria) which resulted in the different hydrogen yields.

  15. Effect of heat treatments on machinability of gold alloy with age-hardenability at intraoral temperature.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, I; Baba, N; Watanabe, E; Atsuta, M; Okabe, T

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of heat treatment on the machinability of heat-treated cast gold alloy with age-hardenability at intraoral temperature using a handpiece engine with SiC wheels and an air-turbine handpiece with carbide burs and diamond points. Cast gold alloy specimens underwent various heat treatments [As-cast (AC); Solution treatment (ST); High-temperature aging (HA), Intraoral aging (IA)] before machinability testing. The machinability test was conducted at a constant machining force of 0.784N. The three circumferential speeds used for the handpiece engine were 500, 1,000 and 1,500 m/min. The machinability index (M-index) was determined as the amount of metal removed by machining (volume loss, mm(3)). The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffé's test. When an air-turbine handpiece was used, there was no difference in the M-index of the gold alloy among the heat treatments. The air-turbine carbide burs showed significantly (p<0.05) higher M-indexes than the diamond points after any heat treatments. With the SiC wheels, increasing the circumferential speed increased the M-index values for each heat treatment. The specimens heat-treated with AC, HA and IA had similar M-indexes at the lower speeds (500 and 1,000 m/min). The ST specimens exhibited the lowest M-index at the lower speeds. However, at the highest speed (1,500 m/min), there were no significant differences in the M-indexes among the heat treatments except for HA, which showed the highest M-index. There was no effect of heat treatment on the machinability of the gold alloy using the air-turbine handpiece. The heat treatments had a small effect on the M-index of the gold alloy machined with a SiC wheel for a handpiece engine.

  16. Characterization of Aluminum Magnesium Alloy Reverse Sensitized via Heat Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    been on ships that had seen an unknown cycle of painting - stripping -repainting, so some variation was expected. 16 The exact age and range of...Figure 44. Effect of Temperature on Al-Mg Alloys. Adapted from [9]. d. Other heat treatment techniques – high power diode laser (HPDL) arrays Because...25] B. Baker et. al, "Use of High-Power diode Laser Arrays for Pre- and Post- Weld Heating During Friction Stir Welding of Steels," in Friction

  17. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Hunh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

    2013-05-28

    Methods for treating a subsurface formation and compositions produced therefrom are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  18. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX; Munsterman, Erwin Henh [Amsterdam, NL; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus [Amsterdam, NL; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

    2009-10-20

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  19. Field Heat Treatment Technician: Competency Profile. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 20908.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The graduate of the Field Heat Treatment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able: (1) use heat treatment equipment to apply heat to materials in order to change a material's properties; (2) Use their knowledge of the properties of heat, industry codes and specifications to determine how heat treatment will…

  20. Effect of heat treatment and storage conditions on mead composition.

    PubMed

    Kahoun, David; Řezková, Soňa; Královský, Josef

    2017-03-15

    The effects of heat treatment and storage conditions on the composition of pure mead (honey wine) made from only honey and water were investigated. Heat treatment experiments were performed at 7 different temperatures ranging from 40°C to100°C with 10°C increments for 60min. Storage condition experiments were performed at room temperature (20-25°C) in daylight without direct sunlight and in darkness in a refrigerator at 4°C for 1, 2, 4 and 12weeks. The parameters evaluated were phenolic compounds, peak area of unidentified compounds, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural content and antioxidant capacity. Significant changes in compound content were observed in the case of 6 identified compounds and 9 unidentified compounds. However, the antioxidant activity was not affected by the heat treatments or storage at room temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hemodialysis Catheter Heat Transfer for Biofilm Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ian P; Sturtevant, Rachael; Heung, Michael; Solomon, Michael J; Younger, John G; VanEpps, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are not easily treated, and many catheters (e.g., hemodialysis catheters) are not easily replaced. Biofilms (the source of infection) on catheter surfaces are notoriously difficult to eradicate. We have recently demonstrated that modest elevations of temperature lead to increased staphylococcal susceptibility to vancomycin and significantly soften the biofilm matrix. In this study, using a combination of microbiological, computational, and experimental studies, we demonstrate the efficacy, feasibility, and safety of using heat as an adjuvant treatment for infected hemodialysis catheters. Specifically, we show that treating with heat in the presence of antibiotics led to additive killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis with similar trends seen for Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The magnitude of temperature elevation required is relatively modest (45-50°C) and similar to that used as an adjuvant to traditional cancer therapy. Using a custom-designed benchtop model of a hemodialysis catheter, positioned with tip in the human vena cava as well as computational fluid dynamic simulations, we demonstrate that these temperature elevations are likely achievable in situ with minimal increased in overall blood temperature.

  2. A prospective clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cellulite treatment using the combination of optical and RF energies for subcutaneous tissue heating.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil S; Mulholland, R Stephen

    2004-12-01

    There have not been any published studies on the use of radiofrequency (RF)-light-based technologies for the treatment of cellulite. Only preliminary results have recently been reported (ASDS Proceedings, September 2004). This two-center study investigated the safety and effectiveness of combined energies for cellulite treatment using the VelaSmoothtrade mark system. Thirty-five female subjects with cellulite and/or skin irregularities on the thighs and/or buttocks were treated with the VelaSmooth device. Patients received from eight to 16 treatments twice weekly. All patients maintained their normal lifestyle, and diet and fluid consumption. The circumference of the right and left medial thighs was measured at both baseline and approximately 4 weeks after the last treatment. During the last follow-up visit, the physician graded the level of improvement in skin smoothing and/or cellulite improvement using pre- and post-treatment photographs. Three patients provided biopsy specimens for histological assessment. All study patients showed some level of reduction in thigh circumference after 8 weeks of treatment; indeed, 70% of all patients showed such a reduction after 4 weeks of treatment. Also, 100% of all patients showed some level of improvement in skin texture and cellulite. The mean decrease in circumference was 0.8 inches. Some patients demonstrated reductions of more than 2 inches. There were minimal complications associated with treatment. This preliminary study demonstrates that the VelaSmooth system can have a beneficial effect on cellulite appearance. Further studies are needed to better define the mechanisms by which RF and light energies affect subdermal tissues and develop a method of quantified cellulite analysis.

  3. Laser-heated rocket studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, N. H.; Root, R. G.; Wu., P. K. S.; Caledonia, G. E.; Pirri, A. N.

    1976-01-01

    CW laser heated rocket propulsion was investigated in both the flowing core and stationary core configurations. The laser radiation considered was 10.6 micrometers, and the working gas was unseeded hydrogen. The areas investigated included initiation of a hydrogen plasma capable of absorbing laser radiation, the radiation emission properties of hot, ionized hydrogen, the flow of hot hydrogen while absorbing and radiating, the heat losses from the gas and the rocket performance. The stationary core configuration was investigated qualitatively and semi-quantitatively. It was found that the flowing core rockets can have specific impulses between 1,500 and 3,300 sec. They are small devices, whose heating zone is only a millimeter to a few centimeters long, and millimeters to centimeters in radius, for laser power levels varying from 10 to 5,000 kW, and pressure levels of 3 to 10 atm. Heat protection of the walls is a vital necessity, though the fraction of laser power lost to the walls can be as low as 10% for larger powers, making the rockets thermally efficient.

  4. Conjugate Heat Transfer Study in Hypersonic Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Niranjan; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Peetala, Ravi Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Coupled and decoupled conjugate heat transfer (CHT) studies are carried out to imitate experimental studies for heat transfer measurement in hypersonic flow regime. The finite volume based solvers are used for analyzing the heat interaction between fluid and solid domains. Temperature and surface heat flux signals are predicted by both coupled and decoupled CHT analysis techniques for hypersonic Mach numbers. These two methodologies are also used to study the effect of different wall materials on surface parameters. Effectiveness of these CHT solvers has been verified for the inverse problem of wall heat flux recovery using various techniques reported in the literature. Both coupled and decoupled CHT techniques are seen to be equally useful for prediction of local temperature and heat flux signals prior to the experiments in hypersonic flows.

  5. Stone heat treatment in the Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany: Interpretation and identification

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli Sanchez, Océane; Kind, Claus-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany, the so-called Beuronian (9600–7100 BC), is a period of important transformations in the way people lived, in their subsistence and in the stone tools they produced. One of the perhaps most spectacular re-inventions of that time is heat treatment of stones prior to their manufacture into tools. Although heat treatment has been understood as one of the defining characteristics of the Beuronian of southwestern Germany, and although its existence has been known for almost 30 years now, relatively few systematic studies on it are available. In this paper, we present such a study, aiming to shed light on two questions: (1) what technique and heating parameters were used in the Beuronian and (2) how reliable are the macroscopic proxies traditionally used to identify heat treatment in this context? We investigate these questions using a non-destructive archaeometric technique for measuring past heating temperatures of heat-treated stones and a quantitative surface roughness analysis aiming to understand the relations between surface aspect and heat treatment. These methods are applied to 46 Jurassic chert artefacts from the site Helga-Abri located in the Swabian Alb region of southwestern Germany. Our results document that an opportunistic low-investment procedure was used to heat stone, probably relying on the use of the above-ground part of regular camp-fires. We also found that the traditionally used macroscopic criteria, such as colour and surface gloss, cannot be unambiguously used to identify heat treatment in assemblages made from Jurassic chert. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the Beuronian lithic chaîne opératoire in terms of the investment in time and resources necessary, and for the refinement of archaeological techniques used to identify heat treatment in the Mesolithic of the Swabian Alb. PMID:29211749

  6. Stone heat treatment in the Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany: Interpretation and identification.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Patrick; Spinelli Sanchez, Océane; Kind, Claus-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany, the so-called Beuronian (9600-7100 BC), is a period of important transformations in the way people lived, in their subsistence and in the stone tools they produced. One of the perhaps most spectacular re-inventions of that time is heat treatment of stones prior to their manufacture into tools. Although heat treatment has been understood as one of the defining characteristics of the Beuronian of southwestern Germany, and although its existence has been known for almost 30 years now, relatively few systematic studies on it are available. In this paper, we present such a study, aiming to shed light on two questions: (1) what technique and heating parameters were used in the Beuronian and (2) how reliable are the macroscopic proxies traditionally used to identify heat treatment in this context? We investigate these questions using a non-destructive archaeometric technique for measuring past heating temperatures of heat-treated stones and a quantitative surface roughness analysis aiming to understand the relations between surface aspect and heat treatment. These methods are applied to 46 Jurassic chert artefacts from the site Helga-Abri located in the Swabian Alb region of southwestern Germany. Our results document that an opportunistic low-investment procedure was used to heat stone, probably relying on the use of the above-ground part of regular camp-fires. We also found that the traditionally used macroscopic criteria, such as colour and surface gloss, cannot be unambiguously used to identify heat treatment in assemblages made from Jurassic chert. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the Beuronian lithic chaîne opératoire in terms of the investment in time and resources necessary, and for the refinement of archaeological techniques used to identify heat treatment in the Mesolithic of the Swabian Alb.

  7. Optimized postweld heat treatment procedures for 17-4 PH stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, A.K.; Sujith, S.; Srinivasan, G.

    1995-05-01

    The postweld heat treatment (PWHT) procedures for 17-4 PH stainless steel weldments of matching chemistry was optimized vis-a-vis its microstructure prior to welding based on microstructural studies and room-temperature mechanical properties. The 17-4 PH stainless steel was welded in two different prior microstructural conditions (condition A and condition H 1150) and then postweld heat treated to condition H900 or condition H1150, using different heat treatment procedures. Microstructural investigations and room-temperature tensile properties were determined to study the combined effects of prior microstructural and PWHT procedures.

  8. Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Pieterson, Roelof; Boyles, Joseph Michael; Diebold, Peter Ulrich

    2010-06-08

    Methods of using geothermal energy to treat subsurface formations are described herein. Methods for using geothermal energy to treat a subsurface treatment area containing or proximate to hydrocarbons may include producing geothermally heated fluid from at least one subsurface region. Heat from at least a portion of the geothermally heated fluid may be transferred to the subsurface treatment area to heat the subsurface treatment area. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  9. Impact Toughness and Heat Treatment for Cast Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for transforming a cast component made of modified aluminum alloy by increasing the impact toughness coefficient using minimal heat and energy. The aluminum alloy is modified to contain 0.55%-0.60% magnesium, 0.10%-0.15% titanium or zirconium, less than 0.07% iron, a silicon-tomagnesium product ratio of 4.0, and less than 0.15% total impurities. The shortened heat treatment requires an initial heating at 1,000deg F. for up to I hour followed by a water quench and a second heating at 350deg F. to 390deg F. for up to I hour. An optional short bake paint cycle or powder coating process further increase.

  10. Microstructure characterization and charpy toughness of P91 weldment for as-welded, post-weld heat treatment and normalizing & tempering heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Chandan; Mahapatra, M. M.; Kumar, Pradeep; Giri, A.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of weld groove design and heat treatment on microstructure evolution and Charpy toughness of P91 pipe weldments was studied. The P91 pipe weldments were subjected to subcritical post weld heat treatment (760 °C-2 h) and normalizing/tempering conditions (normalized-1040 °C/40 min, air cooled; tempered 760 °C/2 h, air cooled) were employed. The influence of subsequent PWHT and N&T treatment on the microstructure of various zone of P91 pipe weldments were also investigated. The present investigation also described the effect of PWHT and N&T treatment on hardness, grain size, precipitate size, inter-particle spacing and fraction area of precipitates present in each zone of P91 pipe weldments. The result indicated great impact of heat treatment on the Charpy toughness and microstructure evolution of P91 weldments. The N&T treatment was found to be more effective heat treatment compared to subsequent PWHT. Charpy toughness value was found to be higher for narrow-groove design as compared to conventional V-groove design.

  11. Heat Treatment of Tantalum and Niobium Powders Prepared by Magnesium-Thermic Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, V. M.; Prokhorova, T. Yu.

    2017-11-01

    Changes in the specific surface area and porous structure of tantalum and niobium powders, which were prepared by magnesium-thermic reduction of Ta2O5, Mg4Ta2O9, and Mg4Nb2O9 oxide compounds and subjected to heat treatments at temperatures of 600-1500°C, have been studied. It is noted that, owing to the mesoporous structure of the magnesium-thermic powders, the decrease in the surface area during heat treatment, first of all, is related to a decrease in the amount of pores less than 10 nm in size. The heat treatment of a reacting mass is shown to allow us to correct the specific surface area of the powder without any increase in the oxygen content in it. Data on the effect of heat treatment conditions on the specific charge of capacitor anodes are reported.

  12. [The influence of oil heat treatment on wood decay resistance by Fourier infrared spectrum analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Mei; Ma, Shu-Ling; Feng, Li-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Wood preservative treatment can improve defects of plantation wood such as easy to corrupt and moth eaten. Among them heat-treatment is not only environmental and no pollution, also can improve the corrosion resistance and dimension stability of wood. In this test Poplar and Mongolian Seoteh Pine was treated by soybean oil as heat-conducting medium, and the heat treatment wood was studied for indoor decay resistance; wood chemical components before and after treatment, the effect of heat treatment on wood decay resistance performance and main mechanism of action were analysed by Fourier infrared spectrometric. Results showed that the mass loss rate of poplar fell from 19.37% to 5% and Mongolian Seoteh Pine's fell from 8.23% to 3.15%, so oil heat treatment can effectively improve the decay resistance. Infrared spectrum analysis shows that the heat treatment made wood's hydrophilic groups such as hydroxyl groups in largely reduced, absorbing capacity decreased and the moisture of wood rotting fungi necessary was reduced; during the heat treatment wood chemical components such as cellulose, hemicellu lose were degraded, and the nutrient source of wood rotting fungi growth necessary was reduced. Wood decay fungi can grow in the wood to discredit wood is because of that wood can provide better living conditions for wood decay fungi, such as nutrients, water, oxygen, and so on. The cellulose and hemicellulose in wood is the main nutrition source of wood decay fungi. So the oil heat-treatment can reduce the cellulose, hemicellulose nutrition source of wood decay fungi so as to improve the decay resistance of wood.

  13. Research Findings on Heat Treatment of Pathogens and Indicator Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heat or thermal treatment has been used for many years for reducing the densities of pathogens in food and beverages. Its application for disinfection of municipal sludges has occurred only recently. One method for achieving Class A biosolids is to thermally treat sludges either ...

  14. 49 CFR 179.300-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.300-10 Postweld heat treatment... as a unit in compliance with the requirements of AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix W (IBR...

  15. 49 CFR 179.200-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-11 Postweld heat treatment... with the requirements of AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix W (IBR, see § 171.7 of this...

  16. 49 CFR 179.220-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-11 Postweld heat treatment... attached must comply with AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix W (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter...

  17. 49 CFR 179.300-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.300-10 Postweld heat treatment... as a unit in compliance with the requirements of AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix W (IBR...

  18. 49 CFR 179.200-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-11 Postweld heat treatment... with the requirements of AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix W (IBR, see § 171.7 of this...

  19. 49 CFR 179.200-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-11 Postweld heat treatment... with the requirements of AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix W (IBR, see § 171.7 of this...

  20. Pre-weld heat treatment improves welds in Rene 41

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prager, M.

    1968-01-01

    Cooling of Rene 41 prior to welding reduces the incidence of cracking during post-weld heat treatment. The microstructure formed during the slow cooling rate favors elevated temperature ductility. Some vestiges of this microstructure are apparently retained during welding and thus enhance strain-age crack resistance in air.

  1. Integrated modeling and heat treatment simulation of austempered ductile iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepp, E.; Hurevich, V.; Schäfer, W.

    2012-07-01

    The integrated modeling and simulation of the casting and heat treatment processes for producing austempered ductile iron (ADI) castings is presented. The focus is on describing different models to simulate the austenitization, quenching and austempering steps during ADI heat treatment. The starting point for the heat treatment simulation is the simulated microstructure after solidification and cooling. The austenitization model considers the transformation of the initial ferrite-pearlite matrix into austenite as well as the dissolution of graphite in austenite to attain a uniform carbon distribution. The quenching model is based on measured CCT diagrams. Measurements have been carried out to obtain these diagrams for different alloys with varying Cu, Ni and Mo contents. The austempering model includes nucleation and growth kinetics of the ADI matrix. The model of ADI nucleation is based on experimental measurements made for varied Cu, Ni, Mo contents and austempering temperatures. The ADI kinetic model uses a diffusion controlled approach to model the growth. The models have been integrated in a tool for casting process simulation. Results are shown for the optimization of the heat treatment process of a planetary carrier casting.

  2. Heat treatment stabilizes welded aluminum jigs and tool structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehnert, R. S.

    1966-01-01

    Heat treatment processes, applied after welding but before machining, imparts above normal stability to welded aluminum jigs and tool structures. Weight saving will not be realized in these tools if rigidity equal to that of a comparable steel tool is required.

  3. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: HEAT EMISSION INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), a heat emission inventory has been assembled. Heat emissions to the atmosphere originate, directly or indirectly, from the combustion of fossil fuels (there are no nuclear plants in the St. Louis AQCR). With the except...

  4. Heat treatment giving a stable high temperature micro-structure in cast austenitic stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Anton, Donald L.; Lemkey, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    A novel micro-structure developed in a cast austenitic stainless steel alloy and a heat treatment thereof are disclosed. The alloy is based on a multicomponent Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo-Si-Nb-C system consisting of an austenitic iron solid solution (.gamma.) matrix reinforced by finely dispersed carbide phases and a heat treatment to produce the micro-structure. The heat treatment includes a prebraze heat treatment followed by a three stage braze cycle heat treatment.

  5. Effects of heat treatment on the mechanical properties of kenaf fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Carada, Paulo Teodoro D. L.; Fujii, Toru; Okubo, Kazuya

    Natural fibers are utilized in various ways. One specific application of it, is in the field natural fiber composite (NFC). Considerable amount of researches are conducted in this field due to rising concerns in the harmful effects of synthetic materials to the environment. Additionally, these researches are done in order to overcome the drawbacks which limit the wide use of natural fiber. A way to improve NFC is to look into the reinforcing component (natural fiber). Treatments, which are classified as mechanical or chemical in nature, can be done in order to improve the performance of the natural fiber. Themore » aim of this study is to assess the effects of heat treatment in the mechanical properties of kenaf fiber. In addition, the response of mechanical properties after exposure to high moisture environment of heat-treated kenaf fibers was observed. Heat treatment was done for one hour with the following heating temperatures: 140, 160, 180, and 200 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis was done to calculate the crystallinity index of kenaf fibers after heat treatment. The results showed that increase in tensile strength can be attained when kenaf fibers are heat treated at 140 °C. However, the tensile modulus showed inconsistency with respect to heat treatment temperature. The computed crystallinity index of the fiber matched the tensile strength observed in non-treated and heat-treated kenaf fibers. The results obtained in this study can be used for applications where heat treatment on kenaf fibers is needed.« less

  6. Tool Steel Heat Treatment Optimization Using Neural Network Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgornik, Bojan; Belič, Igor; Leskovšek, Vojteh; Godec, Matjaz

    2016-11-01

    Optimization of tool steel properties and corresponding heat treatment is mainly based on trial and error approach, which requires tremendous experimental work and resources. Therefore, there is a huge need for tools allowing prediction of mechanical properties of tool steels as a function of composition and heat treatment process variables. The aim of the present work was to explore the potential and possibilities of artificial neural network-based modeling to select and optimize vacuum heat treatment conditions depending on the hot work tool steel composition and required properties. In the current case training of the feedforward neural network with error backpropagation training scheme and four layers of neurons (8-20-20-2) scheme was based on the experimentally obtained tempering diagrams for ten different hot work tool steel compositions and at least two austenitizing temperatures. Results show that this type of modeling can be successfully used for detailed and multifunctional analysis of different influential parameters as well as to optimize heat treatment process of hot work tool steels depending on the composition. In terms of composition, V was found as the most beneficial alloying element increasing hardness and fracture toughness of hot work tool steel; Si, Mn, and Cr increase hardness but lead to reduced fracture toughness, while Mo has the opposite effect. Optimum concentration providing high KIc/HRC ratios would include 0.75 pct Si, 0.4 pct Mn, 5.1 pct Cr, 1.5 pct Mo, and 0.5 pct V, with the optimum heat treatment performed at lower austenitizing and intermediate tempering temperatures.

  7. Induction hardening: Differences to a conventional heat treatment process and optimization of its parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieweg, A.; Ressel, G.; Prevedel, P.; Raninger, P.; Panzenböck, M.; Marsoner, S.; Ebner, R.

    2016-03-01

    The possibility of obtaining similar mechanical properties with faster heating processes than the conventional ones has been of interest for several years. In the present study, investigations were performed in terms of the influences of such fast heat-treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the material. This investigation compares an inductive with a conventional furnace heat treating process of a 50CrMo4 steel, however only the austenitizing treatment was changed and subsequent quenching and tempering was done in the same way. To this end experiments with a middle frequency generator, using different heating rates and austenitizing temperatures, were conducted and followed by oil quenching of the workpieces. The resulting structures were characterized regarding their microstructures and mechanical properties in order to gather a better understanding of the differences between the inductive and the conventional heat treating process. As a main result it was found, that the fast austenitized samples exhibited worse ductility than the conventional treated material.

  8. Effect of isothermal heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandravathi, K. S.; Sasmal, C. S.; Laha, K.; Parameswaran, P.; Nandagopal, M.; Vijayanand, V. D.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E.

    2013-04-01

    Hardness, tensile properties and microstructural changes in 9Cr-1W-0.06Ta-0.22V-0.08C Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic steel have been investigated after subjecting the steel with isothermal heat treatments for 5 min at temperatures in the range 973-1473 K (below Ac1 to above Ac3 transformation temperatures) followed by oil quenching and tempering at 1033 K for 1 h. These studies have been carried out in an effort to assess the strength of the steel at different microstructural conditions. Optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopic investigations have been carried out to assess the microstructural changes of the steel upon various heat treatments. The steel developed predominantly tempered martensitic structure after the heat treatments. The hardness, tensile strength and the prior austenitic grain size of the steel exhibited minimum values for soaking heat treatment in the intercritical temperature range (i.e.) between Ac1 and Ac3; whereas the ductility was maximum. With increase in isothermal heat treatment temperature above Ac3, hardness, tensile strength and grain size of the steel were found to increase with consequent decrease in tensile ductility. TEM investigations revealed that the coarsening of subgrain and precipitates at grain and sub-grain boundaries on heat treatment of the steel in the inter-critical temperature range. The tensile properties of the steel have been correlated with microstructure.

  9. Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, Thomas David [Houston, TX

    2009-11-03

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for providing acidic gas to a subsurface formation is described herein. The method may include providing heat from one or more heaters to a portion of a subsurface formation; producing fluids that include one or more acidic gases from the formation using a heat treatment process. At least a portion of one of the acidic gases may be introduced into the formation, or into another formation, through one or more wellbores at a pressure below a lithostatic pressure of the formation in which the acidic gas is introduced.

  10. Anodic Oxidative Modification of Egg White for Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masahito; Handa, Akihiro; Yamaguchi, Yusuke; Kodama, Risa; Chiba, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-31

    A new functionalization of egg white was achieved by an electrochemical reaction. The method involves electron transfer from thiol groups of egg white protein to form disulfide bonds. The oxidized egg white produced less hydrogen sulfide during heat treatment; with sufficient application of electricity, almost no hydrogen sulfide was produced. In addition, gels formed by heating electrochemically oxidized egg white exhibited unique properties, such as a lower gelation temperature and a softened texture, presumably due to protein aggregation and electrochemically mediated intramolecular disulfide bond formation.

  11. 46 CFR 54.25-7 - Requirement for postweld heat treatment (modifies UCS-56).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirement for postweld heat treatment (modifies UCS-56... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-7 Requirement for postweld heat treatment (modifies UCS-56). (a) Postweld heat treatment is required for all carbon...

  12. 46 CFR 54.25-7 - Requirement for postweld heat treatment (modifies UCS-56).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirement for postweld heat treatment (modifies UCS-56... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-7 Requirement for postweld heat treatment (modifies UCS-56). (a) Postweld heat treatment is required for all carbon...

  13. 46 CFR 54.25-7 - Requirement for postweld heat treatment (modifies UCS-56).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirement for postweld heat treatment (modifies UCS-56... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-7 Requirement for postweld heat treatment (modifies UCS-56). (a) Postweld heat treatment is required for all carbon...

  14. 46 CFR 54.25-7 - Requirement for postweld heat treatment (modifies UCS-56).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement for postweld heat treatment (modifies UCS-56... for postweld heat treatment (modifies UCS-56). (a) Postweld heat treatment is required for all carbon... the storage or transportation of liquefied compressed gases shall be postweld heat treated regardless...

  15. 46 CFR 54.25-7 - Requirement for postweld heat treatment (modifies UCS-56).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirement for postweld heat treatment (modifies UCS-56... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-7 Requirement for postweld heat treatment (modifies UCS-56). (a) Postweld heat treatment is required for all carbon...

  16. 46 CFR 56.80-15 - Heat treatment of bends and formed components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat treatment of bends and formed components. 56.80-15... PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Bending and Forming § 56.80-15 Heat treatment of bends and formed... forming requires no subsequent heat treatment. (b) Ferritic alloy steel piping which has been heated for...

  17. 46 CFR 56.80-15 - Heat treatment of bends and formed components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heat treatment of bends and formed components. 56.80-15... PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Bending and Forming § 56.80-15 Heat treatment of bends and formed... forming requires no subsequent heat treatment. (b) Ferritic alloy steel piping which has been heated for...

  18. 46 CFR 56.80-15 - Heat treatment of bends and formed components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heat treatment of bends and formed components. 56.80-15... PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Bending and Forming § 56.80-15 Heat treatment of bends and formed... forming requires no subsequent heat treatment. (b) Ferritic alloy steel piping which has been heated for...

  19. 46 CFR 56.80-15 - Heat treatment of bends and formed components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heat treatment of bends and formed components. 56.80-15... PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Bending and Forming § 56.80-15 Heat treatment of bends and formed... forming requires no subsequent heat treatment. (b) Ferritic alloy steel piping which has been heated for...

  20. 46 CFR 56.80-15 - Heat treatment of bends and formed components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heat treatment of bends and formed components. 56.80-15... PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Bending and Forming § 56.80-15 Heat treatment of bends and formed... forming requires no subsequent heat treatment. (b) Ferritic alloy steel piping which has been heated for...

  1. Factors influencing phase compositions and structure of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings during heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yu-Peng; Song, Yi-Zhong; Zhu, Rui-Fu; Li, Mu-Sen; Lei, Ting-Quan

    2003-02-01

    Heat treatment was expected to enhance the long-term reliability of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on metal substrates. In this study, factors influencing phase compositions and structure of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings during heat treatment were carefully analyzed. The phases were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), the OH - ion contents were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Of the involved factors, heating temperature is of more importance. The appropriate heat treatments is (600- 700 ° C)×2 h for coatings made from fine particles (10-20 μm) and 600 ° C×2 h for coatings made from coarse particles (50-80 μm). The excessive high temperatures and long holding times were unfavorable for the structural integrity of HA.

  2. Ploidy Manipulation of Zebrafish Embryos with Heat Shock 2 Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Baars, Destiny L.; Pelegri, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of ploidy allows for useful transformations, such as diploids to tetraploids, or haploids to diploids. In the zebrafish Danio rerio, specifically the generation of homozygous gynogenetic diploids is useful in genetic analysis because it allows the direct production of homozygotes from a single heterozygous mother. This article describes a modified protocol for ploidy duplication based on a heat pulse during the first cell cycle, Heat Shock 2 (HS2). Through inhibition of centriole duplication, this method results in a precise cell division stall during the second cell cycle. The precise one-cycle division stall, coupled to unaffected DNA duplication, results in whole genome duplication. Protocols associated with this method include egg and sperm collection, UV treatment of sperm, in vitro fertilization and heat pulse to cause a one-cell cycle division delay and ploidy duplication. A modified version of this protocol could be applied to induce ploidy changes in other animal species. PMID:28060351

  3. Genetic characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from food processing facilities before and after postcook chiller heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Eglezos, Sofroni; Dykes, Gary A; Huang, Bixing; Turner, Mark S; Seale, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Possible selection for and establishment of stress-resistant Listeria monocytogenes variants as a consequence of heating interventions is of concern to the food industry. Lineage analysis and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was performed on 20 L. monocytogenes isolates, of which 15 were obtained before and 5 were obtained after heat treatment of a postcook meat chiller. The ctsR gene (a class III heat shock gene regulator) from 14 isolates was amplified and sequenced because previous work has indicated that spontaneous mutations can occur in this gene during heat treatment. Heat treatment of the meat chiller did not significantly change the relative abundance of the various L. monocytogenes lineages; lineage II strains (less-heat-resistant isolates) dominated both before and after heat treatment. MLVA typing confirmed that some isolates of L. monocytogenes occur both before and after heat treatment of the chiller. No isolate of L. monocytogenes indicated any likely functionally significant mutations in ctsR. This study indicates the absence of any obvious difference in the profiles of L. monocytogenes strains obtained before and after heat treatment of a meat chiller, based on the characteristics examined. Although this finding supports the effectiveness of heat treatment, the limited number of strains used and characteristics examined mean that further study on a larger scale is required before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  4. Heat treatment induced bacterial changes in irrigation water and their implications for plant disease management.

    PubMed

    Hao, W; Hong, C X

    2014-05-01

    A new heat treatment for recycled irrigation water using 48 °C for 24 h to inactivate Phytophthora and bacterial plant pathogens is estimated to reduce fuel cost and environmental footprint by more than 50 % compared to current protocol (95 °C for 30 s). The objective of this study was to determine the impact of this new heat treatment temperature regime on bacterial community structure in water and its practical implications. Bacterial communities in irrigation water were analyzed before and after heat treatment using both culture-dependent and -independent strategies based on the 16S ribosomal DNA. A significant shift was observed in the bacterial community after heat treatment. Most importantly, bacteria with biological control potential--Bacillus and Paenibacillus, and Pseudomonas species became more abundant at both 48 and 42 °C. These findings imply that the new heat treatment procedure not only controls existing plant pathogens but also may make the heat-treated irrigation water a more antagonistic environment against plant pathogens, promoting sustainable disease management.

  5. Heat transfer studies. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, R.; Chen, Y.; Izzeldin, A.

    The experiments on determination of the wavelength corresponding to the equality of the refractive indices and how this varies with temperature have been completed. This was accomplished using the calibration setup of a 2-inch-long test cell filled with 2 mm diameter soda-lime glass beads. Some good images result, but these are not very clear. Therefore, a 1-inch long test cell has now been built. The modified test cell is shown. A 30-gauge type K thermocouple is placed at the center inside the test cell. A model 450 AET Omega thermocouple thermometer is used to indicate the temperature from the thermocouple.more » A polyurethane foam insulator covered the test cell circular wall to approximate an adiabatic condition. The organic chemical liquid and glass beads are heated up by the mica band heater. A variable transformer is used to the control power to the heater and, thus, the temperature in the cell. The temperature is slowly increased from ambient to try to maintain a generally homogeneous temperature inside the cell. If the indices of refraction of the glass beads and the organic liquid are the same, the image of glass beads then can be found. Chlorobenzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Cl) with a refractive index of about 1.52 at 25{degrees}C (boiling point of 131.6{degrees}C), has been used as the organic chemical liquid. A 5 W argon-ion laser has been used as the light source to visualize the image generated by the Christiansen effect. Two optical grade prisms are used to separate the three wavelengths (green, teal, and blue) of the beam. 80 {mu}m and 200 {mu}m apertures are used to select a single wavelength portion of the beam (either 488 nm blue or 514.5 nm green).« less

  6. Laboratory tests on heat treatment of ballast water using engine waste heat.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Rajoo; Lee Siang, Hing; Yaakob, Omar; Koh, Kho King; Adnan, Faizul Amri Bin; Ismail, Nasrudin Bin; Ahmad, Badruzzaman Bin; Ismail, Mohd Arif Bin; Wan Nik, W B

    2018-05-01

    Waste heat recovery from shipboard machineries could be a potential source for heat treatment of ballast water. Similar to a shipboard schematic arrangement, a laboratory-scale engine-heat exchanger set-up harvesting waste heat from jacket water and exhaust gases was erected to test the level of species' mortalities. Mortalities were also assessed under experimental conditions for cultured and natural plankton communities at laboratory level. Effect of pump impellers on species' mortalities were also tested. Exposures between 60°C and 70°C for 60 sec resulted in 80-100% mortalities. Mortalities due to pump impeller effects were observed in the range of 70-100% for zooplankton. On the laboratory-scale arrangement, >95% mortalities of phytoplankton, zooplankton and bacteria were recorded. It was demonstrated that the temperature of tropical sea waters used as secondary coolant can be raised to cause species' mortalities, employing engine exhaust gases. The results also indicated that pump impeller effects will enhance species' mortalities. The limitations of the shipboard application of this method would be the large ballast volumes, flow rates and time for treatment.

  7. Assessing heat treatment of chicken breast cuts by impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Franciny C; Fuentes, Ana; Masot, Rafael; Alcañiz, Miguel; Laurindo, João B; Barat, José M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a new system based on impedance spectroscopy to assess the heat treatment of previously cooked chicken meat by two experiments; in the first, samples were cooked at different temperatures (from 60 to 90 ℃) until core temperature of the meat reached the water bath temperature. In the second approach, temperature was 80 ℃ and the samples were cooked for different times (from 5 to 55 min). Impedance was measured once samples had cooled. The examined processing parameters were the maximum temperature reached in thermal centre of the samples, weight loss, moisture and the integral of the temperature profile during the cooking-cooling process. The correlation between the processing parameters and impedance was studied by partial least square regressions. The models were able to predict the studied parameters. Our results are essential for developing a new system to control the technological, sensory and safety aspects of cooked meat products on the whole meat processing line.

  8. Analysis of Structure Destroyed Metal after Diffusion Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apasov, A. M.; Kozlov, E. V.; Fedoseev, S. N.

    2016-08-01

    It was accomplished research of the structure steel which carbonitriding and subsequent heat treatment was exposed for its cause's destruction to discover. For measure quality field of metal were used methods optical, appearing electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Therefore one of the principal problems were research phase composition, grain and dislocation structure of a metal the gear teeth. Mechanism of rising hear cracks in the gear teeth on different stages her making and their trajectories of evolution were determined.

  9. Simulations of Precipitate Microstructure Evolution during Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kaisheng; Sterner, Gustaf; Chen, Qing; Jou, Herng-Jeng; Jeppsson, Johan; Bratberg, Johan; Engström, Anders; Mason, Paul

    Precipitation, a major solid state phase transformation during heat treatment processes, has for more than one century been intensively employed to improve the strength and toughness of various high performance alloys. Recently, sophisticated precipitation reaction models, in assistance with well-developed CALPHAD databases, provide an efficient and cost-effective way to tailor precipitate microstructures that maximize the strengthening effect via the optimization of alloy chemistries and heat treatment schedules. In this presentation, we focus on simulating precipitate microstructure evolution in Nickel-base superalloys under arbitrary heat treatment conditions. The newly-developed TC-PRISMA program has been used for these simulations, with models refined especially for non-isothermal conditions. The effect of different cooling profiles on the formation of multimodal microstructures has been thoroughly examined in order to understand the underlying thermodynamics and kinetics. Meanwhile, validations against several experimental results have been carried out. Practical issues that are critical to the accuracy and applicability of the current simulations, such as modifications that overcome mean-field approximations, compatibility between CALPHAD databases, selection of key parameters (particularly interfacial energy and nucleation site densities), etc., are also addressed.

  10. Cytotoxicity of denture base resins: effect of water bath and microwave postpolymerization heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Janaina Habib; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Machado, Ana Lúcia; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the effect of two postpolymerization heat treatments on the cytotoxicity of three denture base resins on L929 cells using 3H-thymidine incorporation and MTT assays. Sample disks of Lucitone 550, QC 20, and Acron MC resins were fabricated under aseptic conditions and stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 48 hours. Specimens were then divided into three groups: (1) heat treated in microwave oven for 3 minutes at 500 W; (2) heat treated in water bath at 55 degrees C for 60 minutes; and (3) no heat treatment. Eluates were prepared by placing three disks into a sterile glass vial with 9 mL of Eagle's medium and incubating at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. The cytotoxic effect from the eluates was evaluated using the 3H-thymidine incorporation and MTT assays, which reflect DNA synthesis levels and cell metabolism, respectively. The components leached from the resins were cytotoxic to L929 cells when 3H-thymidine incorporation assay was employed. In contrast, eluates from all resins revealed noncytotoxic effects as measured by MTT assay. For both MTT assay and 3H-thymidine incorporation, the heat treatments did not decrease the cytotoxicity of the materials tested. Resins were graded by 3H-thymidine incorporation assay as slightly cytotoxic and by MTT assay as noncytotoxic. Cytotoxicity of the denture base materials was not influenced by microwave or water bath heat treatment.

  11. The effects of heat treatment on technological properties in Red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Süleyman; Kök, M Samil; Korkut, Derya Sevim; Gürleyen, Tuğba

    2008-04-01

    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on technological properties of Red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Düzce Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures (120 degrees C, 150 degrees C and 180 degrees C) and for varying durations (2h, 6h and 10h). The technological properties of heat-treated wood samples and control samples were tested. Compression strength parallel to grain, bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, janka-hardness, impact bending strength, and tension strength perpendicular to grain were determined. The results showed that technological strength values decreased with increasing treatment temperature and treatment times. Red-bud maple wood could be utilized by using proper heat treatment techniques with minimal losses in strength values in areas where working, and stability such as in window frames, are important factors.

  12. Effect of foam on temperature prediction and heat recovery potential from biological wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Corbala-Robles, L; Volcke, E I P; Samijn, A; Ronsse, F; Pieters, J G

    2016-05-15

    Heat is an important resource in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which can be recovered. A prerequisite to determine the theoretical heat recovery potential is an accurate heat balance model for temperature prediction. The insulating effect of foam present on the basin surface and its influence on temperature prediction were assessed in this study. Experiments were carried out to characterize the foam layer and its insulating properties. A refined dynamic temperature prediction model, taking into account the effect of foam, was set up. Simulation studies for a WWTP treating highly concentrated (manure) wastewater revealed that the foam layer had a significant effect on temperature prediction (3.8 ± 0.7 K over the year) and thus on the theoretical heat recovery potential (30% reduction when foam is not considered). Seasonal effects on the individual heat losses and heat gains were assessed. Additionally, the effects of the critical basin temperature above which heat is recovered, foam thickness, surface evaporation rate reduction and the non-absorbed solar radiation on the theoretical heat recovery potential were evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of NSAID patch given as monotherapy and NSAID patch in combination with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation, a heating pad, or topical capsaicin in the treatment of patients with myofascial pain syndrome of the upper trapezius: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyeong; Yoon, Kyung Bong; Park, SangHa; Jin, Tae Eun; An, Yoo Jin; Schepis, Eric A; Yoon, Duck Mi

    2014-12-01

    This study compared the therapeutic effect of monotherapy with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) patch vs an NSAID patch combined with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS), a heating pad, or topical capsaicin in the treatment of patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) of the upper trapezius. A randomized, single-blind, controlled study of combination therapy for patients with MPS was performed. Ninety-nine patients were randomly assigned to one of four different self-management methods for treatment: NSAID patch (N = 25), NSAID patch + TENS (N = 24), NSAID patch + heating pad (N = 25), and NSAID patch + topical capsaicin (N = 25). The NSAID patch used in this study was a ketoprofen patch. All treatment groups were observed for 2 weeks, and the numeric rating scale (NRS) pain score, cervical active range of motion, pressure pain threshold, and Neck Disability Index were assessed. There was no significant difference between the NSAID patch alone group and the three combination therapy groups with respect to decrease in NRS score from baseline (day 0) to each period of observation. In covariate analysis, although there was no difference among the groups in most of the periods, the data at day 14 indicated a trend (P = 0.057). There were no significant differences in the other variables. We did not observe a statistical difference in improvements to the clinical variables among the four different methods. However, further studies regarding the effectiveness of a mixture of topical capsaicin and ketoprofen in patients with MPS should be considered. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Impact of Surface Potential on Apatite Formation in Ti Alloys Subjected to Acid and Heat Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Seiji; Hashimoto, Hideki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Takadama, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Titanium metal (Ti) and its alloys are widely used in orthopedic and dental fields. We have previously shown that acid and heat treatment was effective to introduce bone bonding, osteoconduction and osteoinduction on pure Ti. In the present study, acid and heat treatment with or without initial NaOH treatment was performed on typical Ti-based alloys used in orthopedic and dental fields. Dynamic movements of alloying elements were developed, which depended on the kind of treatment and type of alloy. It was found that the simple acid and heat treatment enriched/remained the alloying elements on Ti–6Al–4V, Ti–15Mo–5Zr–3Al and Ti–15Zr–4Nb–4Ta, resulting in neutral surface charges. Thus, the treated alloys did not form apatite in a simulated body fluid (SBF) within 3 days. In contrast, when the alloys were subjected to a NaOH treatment prior to an acid and heat treatment, alloying elements were selectively removed from the alloy surfaces. As a result, the treated alloys became positively charged, and formed apatite in SBF within 3 days. Thus, the treated alloys would be useful in orthopedic and dental fields since they form apatite even in a living body and bond to bone. PMID:28946646

  15. Thermal treatment of low permeability soils using electrical resistance heating

    SciTech Connect

    Udell, K.S.

    1996-08-01

    The acceleration of recovery rates of second phase liquid contaminants from the subsurface during gas or water pumping operations is realized by increasing the soil and ground water temperature. Electrical heating with AC current is one method of increasing the soil and groundwater temperature and has particular applicability to low permeability soils. Several mechanisms have been identified that account for the enhanced removal of the contaminants during electrical heating. These are vaporization of liquid contaminants with low boiling points, temperature-enhanced evaporation rates of semi-volatile components, and removal of residual contaminants by the boiling of residual water. Field scale studies ofmore » electrical heating and fluid extraction show the effectiveness of this technique and its applicability to contaminants found both above and below the water table and within low permeability soils. 10 refs., 8 figs.« less

  16. Decreased survival of prostate cancer cells in vitro by combined treatment of heat and an antioxidant inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC).

    PubMed

    Moriyama-Gonda, Nobuko; Igawa, Mikio; Shiina, Hiroaki; Urakami, Shinji; Terashima, Masaharu

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine a modulation of thermotolerance by treatment with combination of heat and the antioxidant inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) of the PC-3 prostate cancer cells. To determine thermotolerance, cells were heated once or twice. Two 1 h exposures at 43 degrees C, with a recovery period in between, revealed better survival/recovery of cells after the second exposure than after the first (fig. 1A + 1B). Additional experiments were performed, heating cells twice (fig. 1B + 1C). First, cells were heated at 43 degrees C for 1 h and, after various recovery times (intervals) at 37 degree C, subsequently reheated at 44 degrees C for 1 h. To ensure effective cell killing, efficiency of the combined treatments of 1 mM DDC and heating at 43 or 44 degrees C for 1 h was estimated by measuring cell survival, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and heat shock protein 70 (hsp 70) expression. To obtain a more effective method for subsequent heat exposure, cells were heated twice after a 24 h interval in the presence or absence of 1 mM DDC. ROS generation and SOD activity immediately increased correlating with duration of heating, but their levels gently decreased with time after discontinuation of heating. On the other hand, hsp 70 levels slowly increased, also correlating with duration of heating but continued to increase with time after discontinuation of heating for a certain period. DDC administration coupled with heating at 43 or 44 degrees C significantly decreased cell survival compared to heating alone (p < 0.05). Furthermore, significant decreases in numbers of viable cells were observed for cells after the first heat exposure when combined with DDC as compared to heat alone at 43 and 44 degrees C (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that heat combined with DDC could have potential benefits in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  17. Fundamental studies on a heat driven lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed theoretical study of a heat-driven lamp has been performed. This lamp uses a plasma produced in a thermionic diode. The light is produced by the resonance transition of cesium. An important result of this study is that up to 30% of the input heat is predicted to be converted to light in this device. This is a major improvement over ordinary thermionic energy converters in which only approx. 1% is converted to resonance radiation. Efficiencies and optimum inter-electrode spacings have been found as a function of cathode temperature and the radiative escape factor. The theory developed explains the operating limits of the device.

  18. Decrease in the acrylamide content in canned coffee by heat treatment with the addition of cysteine.

    PubMed

    Narita, Yusaku; Inouye, Kuniyo

    2014-12-17

    Acrylamide (AA) is classified as a Group 2A carcinogen according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Although coffee contains a small amount of AA, it is a popular beverage worldwide. Approximately 10 billion canned coffees are consumed each year in Japan. In this study, we investigated how to decrease AA contained in canned coffee by modifying the heat treatment used for sterilization during the manufacturing process. The AA content of both types of canned coffee (black and milk) was decreased by approximately 95% by heat treatment with adding cysteine at 121 °C for 6 min. The content was also decreased by heat treatment with dithiothreitol, although that with cystine had no effect. Therefore, it is shown that thiol groups in cysteine and dithiothreitol might play an important role in decreasing the AA content.

  19. Effects of heat treatment on crystallographic and magnetic properties of magnetic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistini, L.; Benasciutti, R.; Tassi, A.

    1994-05-01

    The keeper and the head of a modern electrovalve for electronic injection can be succesfully realized using AISI 430 ferromagnetic steel. Important improvements in the performance of the device, mainly in terms of its regularity and energy savings, are possible by means of a better comprehension of the origins of the steel's magnetic properties. The magnetic behaviour of the AISI 430 steel upon different heat treatments was investigated, looking for the best compromise between time saving in the heat treatments and the ensuing magnetic properties of the material. In particular, the relationships between the structural effects of the heat treatments and the magnetic behaviour of the samples were studied. Values of the coercive force Hc, residual induction Br, maximum permeability μ max and the approach to saturation values for H and B were determined by mean of a computerized permeameter, based on a Sanford-Bennet closed yoke for differently shaped samples.

  20. Artificial crystals with 3d metal and palladium particles subjected to high-temperature heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkevich, A. B.; Nemytova, O. V.; Perov, D. V.; Samoylovich, M. I.; Kuznetsov, E. A.

    2018-04-01

    High-temperature heat treatment has valuable impact on the structure and physical properties of artificial crystals with 3d metal and palladium particles. Artificial crystals are obtained by means of introduction of particles into the interspherical voids of opal matrices. The magnetic properties are studied at the temperatures ranging from 2 to 300 K and in fields up to 350 kOe. Microwave properties are investigated in the millimeter frequency range. The complex dielectric permittivity of several nanocomposites is measured. The influence of heat treatment up to 960 °C on the structure of artificial crystals is clarified.

  1. Implantable polymer/metal thin film structures for the localized treatment of cancer by Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan-Dapaah, Kwabena; Rahbar, Nima; Theriault, Christian; Soboyejo, Wole

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an implantable polymer/metal alloy thin film structure for localized post-operative treatment of breast cancer. A combination of experiments and models is used to study the temperature changes due to Joule heating by patterned metallic thin films embedded in poly-dimethylsiloxane. The heat conduction within the device and the surrounding normal/cancerous breast tissue is modeled with three-dimensional finite element method (FEM). The FEM simulations are used to explore the potential effects of device geometry and Joule heating on the temperature distribution and lesion (thermal dose). The FEM model is validated using a gel model that mimics biological media. The predictions are also compared to prior results from in vitro studies and relevant in vivo studies in the literature. The implications of the results are discussed for the potential application of polymer/metal thin film structures in hyperthermic treatment of cancer.

  2. Effect of heat treatment on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of citrus peel extract.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guihua; Ye, Xingqian; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong

    2007-01-24

    This paper reports the effects of heat treatment on huyou (Citrus paradisi Changshanhuyou) peel in terms of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array (PDA) detector was used in this study for the analysis of phenolic acids (divided into four fractions: free, ester, glycoside, and ester-bound) and flavanone glycosides (FGs) in huyou peel (HP) before and after heat treatment. The results showed that after heat treatment, the free fraction of phenolic acids increased, whereas ester, glycoside, and ester-bound fractions decreased and the content of total FGs declined (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of methanol extract of HP increased (P < 0.05), which was evaluated by total phenolics contents (TPC) assay, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS*+) method, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The correlation coefficients among TPC, ABTS, FRAP assay, and total cinnamics and benzoics (TCB) in the free fraction were significantly high (P < 0.05), which meant that the increase of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of HP extract was due at least in part to the increase of TCB in free fraction. In addition, FGs may be destroyed when heated at higher temperature for a long time (for example, 120 degrees C for 90 min or 150 degrees C for 30 min). Therefore, it is suggested that a proper and reasonable heat treatment could be used to enhance the antioxidant capacity of citrus peel.

  3. Effect of heat treatment On Microstructure of steel AISI 01 Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyanasari Sebayang, Melya; Yudo, Sesmaro Max; Silitonga, Charlie

    2018-03-01

    This study discusses the influence of quenching, normalizing, and annealing to changes in hardness, tensile, and microstructure of materials tool steel AISI 01 after the material undergo heat treatment process. This heat treatment process includes an initial warming of 600° C and a 5-minute detention time, followed by heating to an austenisation temperature of 850°C. After that a different cooling process, including annealing process, normalizing and quenching oil SAE 40. Tests performed include tensile, hard, and microstructure with shooting using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). This is done to see the effect of different heat treatment and cooling process. The result of this research is difference of tensile test value, hard, and micro structure from influence of difference of each process. The quenching process obtains the highest tensile and hard values followed by the normalizing process, annealing, and the lowest is in the starting material, this is because the initial material does not undergo heat treatment process. The resulting microstructure is pearlit and cementite, the difference seen from the shape and size of the grains. The larger the grain size, the greater the hardness.

  4. Impact of heat treatment on miscibility of proteins and disaccharides in frozen solutions.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, Ken-ichi; Yomota, Chikako; Okuda, Haruhiro; Kawanishi, Toru; Randolph, Theodore W; Carpenter, John F

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of heat treatment (annealing) on the miscibility of concentrated protein and disaccharide mixtures in the freezing segment of lyophilization. Frozen solutions containing a protein (e.g., recombinant human albumin, chicken egg lysozyme, bovine plasma immunoglobulin G, or a humanized IgG1k monoclonal antibody) and a non-reducing disaccharide (e.g., sucrose or trehalose) showed single thermal transitions of the solute mixtures (glass transition temperature of maximally freeze-concentrated solutes: T(g)(')) in their first heating scans. Heat treatment (e.g., -5 °C, 30 min) of some disaccharide-rich mixture frozen solutions at temperatures far above their T(g)(') induced two-step T(g)(') transitions in the subsequent scans, suggesting the separation of the solutes into concentrated protein-disaccharide mixture phase and disaccharide phase. Other frozen solutions showed a single transition of the concentrated solute mixture both before and after heat treatment. The apparent effects of the heat treatment temperature and time on the changes in thermal properties suggest molecular reordering of the concentrated solutes from a kinetically fixed mixture state to a more thermodynamically favorable state as a result of increased mobility. The implications of these phenomena on the quality of protein formulations are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies of heat source driven natural convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulacki, F. A.; Nagle, M. E.; Cassen, P.

    1974-01-01

    Natural convection energy transport in a horizontal layer of internally heated fluid with a zero heat flux lower boundary, and an isothermal upper boundary, has been studied. Quantitative information on the time-mean temperature distribution and the fluctuating component of temperature about the mean temperature in steady turbulent convection are obtained from a small thermocouple inserted into the layer through the upper bounding plate. Data are also presented on the development of temperature at several vertical positions when the layer is subject to both a sudden increase and to a sudden decrease in power input. For changes of power input from zero to a value corresponding to a Rayleigh number much greater than the critical linear stability theory value, a slight hysteresis in temperature profiles near the upper boundary is observed between the heat-up and cool-down modes.

  6. Effect of heat treatment of wood on the morphology, surface roughness and penetration of simulated and human blood.

    PubMed

    Rekola, J; Lassila, L V J; Nganga, S; Ylä-Soininmäki, A; Fleming, G J P; Grenman, R; Aho, A J; Vallittu, P K

    2014-01-01

    Wood has been used as a model material for the development of novel fiber-reinforced composite bone substitute biomaterials. In previous studies heat treatment of wood was perceived to significantly increase the osteoconductivity of implanted wood material. The objective of this study was to examine some of the changing attributes of wood materials that may contribute to improved biological responses gained with heat treatment. Untreated and 140°C and 200°C heat-treated downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were used as the wood materials. Surface roughness and the effect of pre-measurement grinding were measured with contact and non-contact profilometry. Liquid interaction was assessed with a dipping test using two manufactured liquids (simulated blood) as well as human blood. SEM was used to visualize possible heat treatment-induced changes in the hierarchical structure of wood. The surface roughness was observed to significantly decrease with heat treatment. Grinding methods had more influence on the surface contour and roughness than heat treatment. The penetration of the human blood in the 200°C heat-treated exceeded that in the untreated and 140°C heat-treated materials. SEM showed no significant change due to heat treatment in the dry-state morphology of the wood. The results of the liquid penetration test support previous findings in literature concerning the effects of heat treatment on the biological response to implanted wood. Heat-treatment has only a marginal effect on the surface contour of wood. The highly specialized liquid conveyance system of wood may serve as a biomimetic model for the further development of tailored fiber-composite materials.

  7. Effects of heat treatment on antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of orange by-products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the changes in functional components, antioxidative activities, antibacterial activities, anti-inflammatory activities of orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by-products (OBP) by heat treatment at 50 and 100 degrees C (hereafter, 50D and 100D extracts, respectively). Optimal...

  8. Hierarchical Cu precipitation in lamellated steel after multistage heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingdong; Gu, Jianfeng

    2017-09-01

    The hierarchical distribution of Cu-rich precipitates (CRPs) and related partitioning and segregation behaviours of solute atoms were investigated in a 1.54 Cu-3.51 Ni (wt.%) low-carbon high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel after multistage heat treatment by using the combination of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT). Intercritical tempering at 725 °C of as-quenched lathlike martensitic structure leads to the coprecipitation of CRPs at the periphery of a carbide precipitate which is possibly in its paraequilibrium state due to distinct solute segregation at the interface. The alloyed carbide and CRPs provide constituent elements for each other and make the coprecipitation thermodynamically favourable. Meanwhile, austenite reversion occurs to form fresh secondary martensite (FSM) zone where is rich in Cu and pertinent Ni and Mn atoms, which gives rise to a different distributional morphology of CRPs with large size and high density. In addition, conventional tempering at 500 °C leads to the formation of nanoscale Cu-rich clusters in α-Fe matrix. As a consequence, three populations of CRPs are hierarchically formed around carbide precipitate, at FSM zone and in α-Fe matrix. The formation of different precipitated features can be turned by controlling diffusion pathways of related solute atoms and further to tailor mechanical properties via proper multistage heat treatments.

  9. Heat Treatment Improves Glucose Tolerance and Prevents Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Gupte, Anisha A.; Bomhoff, Gregory L.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Geiger, Paige C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Heat treatment and overexpression of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) have been shown to protect against high-fat diet–induced insulin resistance, but little is known about the underlying mechanism or the target tissue of HSP action. The purpose of this study is to determine whether in vivo heat treatment can prevent skeletal muscle insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet (60% calories from fat) for 12 weeks and received a lower-body heat treatment (41°C for 20 min) once per week. RESULTS—Our results show that heat treatment shifts the metabolic characteristics of rats on a high-fat diet toward those on a standard diet. Heat treatment improved glucose tolerance, restored insulin-stimulated glucose transport, and increased insulin signaling in soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from rats fed a high-fat diet. Heat treatment resulted in decreased activation of Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK-β), stress kinases implicated in insulin resistance, and upregulation of HSP72 and HSP25, proteins previously shown to inhibit JNK and IKK-β activation, respectively. Mitochondrial citrate synthase and cytochrome oxidase activity decreased slightly with the high-fat diet, but heat treatment restored these activities. Data from L6 cells suggest that one bout of heat treatment increases mitochondrial oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation. CONCLUSIONS—Our results indicate that heat treatment protects skeletal muscle from high-fat diet–induced insulin resistance and provide strong evidence that HSP induction in skeletal muscle could be a potential therapeutic treatment for obesity-induced insulin resistance. PMID:19073766

  10. The Effects of Heat Treatment and Microstructure Variations on Disk Superalloy Properties at High Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Gayda, John; Telesman, Jack; Garg, Anita

    2008-01-01

    The effects of heat treatment and resulting microstructure variations on high temperature mechanical properties were assessed for a powder metallurgy disk superalloy LSHR. Blanks were consistently supersolvus solution heat treated and quenched at two cooling rates, than aged at varying temperatures and times. Tensile, creep, and dwell fatigue crack growth tests were then performed at 704 C. Gamma' precipitate microstructures were quantified. Relationships between heat treatment-microstructure, heat treatment-mechanical properties, and microstructure-mechanical properties were assessed.

  11. Heat treatment effect on the mechanical properties of industrial drawn copper wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beribeche, Abdellatif; Boumerzoug, Zakaria; Ji, Vincent

    2013-12-01

    In this present investigation, the mechanical properties of industrial drawn copper wires have been studied by tensile tests. The effect of prior heat treatments at 500°C on the drawn wires behavior was the main goal of this investigation. We have found that the mechanical behavior of drawn wires depends strongly on those treatments. SEM observations of the wire cross section after tensile tests have shown that the mechanism of rupture was mainly controlled by the void formation.

  12. On post-weld heat treatment cracking in tig welded superalloy ATI 718Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asala, G.; Ojo, O. A.

    The susceptibility of heat affected zone (HAZ) to cracking in Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welded Allvac 718Plus superalloy during post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) was studied. Contrary to the previously reported case of low heat input electron beam welded Allvac 718Plus, where HAZ cracking occurred during PWHT, the TIG welded alloy is crack-free after PWHT, notwithstanding the presence of similar micro-constituents that caused cracking in the low input weld. Accordingly, the formation of brittle HAZ intergranular micro-constituents may not be a sufficient factor to determine cracking propensity, the extent of heat input during welding may be another major factor that influences HAZ cracking during PWHT of the aerospace superalloy Allvac 718Plus.

  13. Technoeconomic Optimization of Waste Heat Driven Forward Osmosis for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Bartholomew, Timothy V; Mauter, Meagan S

    With the Environmental Protection Agency’s recent Effluent Limitation Guidelines for Steam Electric Generators, power plants are having to install and operate new wastewater technologies. Many plants are evaluating desalination technologies as possible compliance options. However, the desalination technologies under review that can reduce wastewater volume or treat to a zero-liquid discharges standard have a significant energy penalty to the plant. Waste heat, available from the exhaust gas or cooling water from coal-fired power plants, offers an opportunity to drive wastewater treatment using thermal desalination technologies. One such technology is forward osmosis (FO). Forward osmosis utilizes an osmotic pressure gradient tomore » passively pull water from a saline or wastewater stream across a semi-permeable membrane and into a more concentrated draw solution. This diluted draw solution is then fed into a distillation column, where the addition of low temperature waste heat can drive the separation to produce a reconcentrated draw solution and treated water for internal plant reuse. The use of low-temperature waste heat decouples water treatment from electricity production and eliminates the link between reducing water pollution and increasing air emissions from auxiliary electricity generation. In order to evaluate the feasibility of waste heat driven FO, we first build a model of an FO system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatment at coal-fired power plants. This model includes the FO membrane module, the distillation column for draw solution recovery, and waste heat recovery from the exhaust gas. We then add a costing model to account for capital and operating costs of the forward osmosis system. We use this techno-economic model to optimize waste heat driven FO for the treatment of FGD wastewater. We apply this model to three case studies: the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) 550 MW model coal fired power plant without

  14. Proteomic Profiling Comparing the Effects of Different Heat Treatments on Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk Whey Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Masood, Afshan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O.; Alzahrani, Dunia A.; Alrabiah, Deema K.; AlYahya, Sami A.; Alfadda, Assim A.

    2017-01-01

    Camel milk is consumed in the Middle East because of its high nutritional value. Traditional heating methods and the duration of heating affect the protein content and nutritional quality of the milk. We examined the denaturation of whey proteins in camel milk by assessing the effects of temperature on the whey protein profile at room temperature (RT), moderate heating at 63 °C, and at 98 °C, for 1 h. The qualitative and quantitative variations in the whey proteins before and after heat treatments were determined using quantitative 2D-difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE)-mass spectrometry. Qualitative gel image analysis revealed a similar spot distribution between samples at RT and those heated at 63 °C, while the spot distribution between RT and samples heated at 98 °C differed. One hundred sixteen protein spots were determined to be significantly different (p < 0.05 and a fold change of ≥1.2) between the non-heated and heated milk samples. Eighty protein spots were decreased in common in both the heat-treated samples and an additional 25 spots were further decreased in the 98 °C sample. The proteins with decreased abundance included serum albumin, lactadherin, fibrinogen β and γ chain, lactotransferrin, active receptor type-2A, arginase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1 and, thiopurine S, etc. Eight protein spots were increased in common to both the samples when compared to RT and included α-lactalbumin, a glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule. Whey proteins present in camel milk were less affected by heating at 63 °C than at 98 °C. This experimental study showed that denaturation increased significantly as the temperature increased from 63 to 98 °C. PMID:28350354

  15. Effect of Heat Treatment Parameters on the Microstructure and Properties of Inconel-625 Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukumaran, Arjun; Gupta, R. K.; Anil Kumar, V.

    2017-07-01

    Inconel-625 is a solid solution-strengthened alloy used for long-duration applications at high temperatures and moderate stresses. Different heat treatment cycles (temperatures of 625-1025 °C and time of 2-6 h) have been studied to obtain optimum mechanical properties suitable for a specific application. It has been observed that room temperature strength and, hardness decreased and ductility increased with increase in heat treatment temperature. The rate of change of these properties is found to be moderate for the samples heat-treated up to 850 °C, and thereafter, it increases rapidly. It is attributed to the microstructural changes like dissolution of carbides, recrystallization and grain growth. Microstructures are found to be predominantly single-phase austenitic with the presence of fine alloy carbides. The presence of twins is observed in samples heat-treated at lower temperature, which act as nucleation sites for recrystallization at 775 °C. Beyond 850 °C, the role of carbides present in the matrix is subsided by the coarsening of recrystallized grains and finally at 1025 °C, significant dissolution of carbide results in substantial reduction in strength and increase in ductility. Elongation to an extent of >71% has been obtained in sample heat-treated at 1025 °C indicating excellent tendency for cold workability. Failure of heat-treated specimens is found to be mainly due to carbide particle-matrix decohesion which acts as locations for crack initiation.

  16. Effect of heat treatment duration on tribological behavior of electroless Ni-(high)P coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, A.; Das, S. K.; Sahoo, P.

    2016-09-01

    Electroless nickel coating occurs through an autocatalytic chemical reaction and without the aid of electricity. From tribological perspective, it is recommended due to its high hardness, wear resistance, lubricity and corrosion resistance properties. In this paper electroless Ni-P coatings with high phosphorous weight percentages are developed on mild steel (AISI 1040) substrates. The coatings are subjected to heat treatment at 300°C and 500°C for time durations up to 4 hours. The effect of heat treatment duration on the hardness as well as tribological properties is discussed in detail. Hardness is measured in a micro hardness tester while the tribological tests are carried out on a pin-on-disc tribotester. Wear is reported in the form of wear rates of the sample subjected to the test. As expected, heat treatment of electroless Ni-P coating results in enhancement in its hardness which in turn increases its wear resistance. The present study also finds that duration of heat treatment has quite an effect on the properties of the coating. Increase in heat treatment time in general results in increase in the hardness of the coating. Coefficient of friction is also found to be lesser for the samples heat treated for longer durations (4 hour). However, in case of wear, similar trend is not observed. Instead samples heat treated for 2 to 3 hour display better wear resistance compared to the same heat treated for 4 hour duration. The microstructure of the coating is also carried out to ensure about its proper development. From scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the coating is found to possess the conventional nodular structure while energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) shows that the phosphorous content in the coating to be greater than 9%. This means that the current coating belongs to the high phosphorous category. From X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), it is found that coating is amorphous in as-deposited condition but transforms into a crystalline structure with

  17. The effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Derya Sevim; Guller, Bilgin

    2008-05-01

    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Düzce Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and durations. The physical properties of heat-treated samples were compared against controls in order to determine their; oven-dry density, air-dry density, and swelling properties. A stylus method was employed to evaluate the surface characteristics of the samples. Roughness measurements, using the stylus method, were made in the direction perpendicular to the fiber. Three main roughness parameters; mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), and maximum roughness (Rmax) obtained from the surface of wood, were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of the specimens. Significant differences were determined (p>0.05) between surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Rmax) at three different temperatures and three periods of heat treatment. The results showed that the values of density, swelling and surface roughness decreased with increasing temperature treatment and treatment times. Red-bud maple wood could be utilized successfully by applying proper heat treatment techniques without any losses in investigated parameters. This is vital in areas, such as window frames, where working stability and surface smoothness are important factors.

  18. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the fullmore » FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.« less

  19. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the fullmore » FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.« less

  20. The influence of distal-end heat treatment on deflection of nickel-titanium archwire.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcelo Faria da; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maia; Gurgel, Júlio de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the deflection-force behavior of nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wires adjacent to the portion submitted to heat treatment. A total of 106 segments of NiTi wires (0.019 x 0.025-in) and heat-activated NiTi wires (0.016 x 0.022-in) from four commercial brands were tested. The segments were obtained from 80 archwires. For the experimental group, the distal portion of each segmented archwire was subjected to heat treatment (n = 40), while the other distal portion of the same archwire was used as a heating-free control group (n = 40). Deflection tests were performed in a temperature-controlled universal testing machine. Unpaired Student's t-tests were applied to determine if there were differences between the experimental and control groups for each commercial brand and size of wire. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences between the tested groups with the same size and brand of wire. Heat treatment applied to the distal ends of rectangular NiTi archwires does not permanently change the elastic properties of the adjacent portions.

  1. The influence of distal-end heat treatment on deflection of nickel-titanium archwire

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Marcelo Faria; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maia; Gurgel, Júlio de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the deflection-force behavior of nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wires adjacent to the portion submitted to heat treatment. Material and Methods: A total of 106 segments of NiTi wires (0.019 x 0.025-in) and heat-activated NiTi wires (0.016 x 0.022-in) from four commercial brands were tested. The segments were obtained from 80 archwires. For the experimental group, the distal portion of each segmented archwire was subjected to heat treatment (n = 40), while the other distal portion of the same archwire was used as a heating-free control group (n = 40). Deflection tests were performed in a temperature-controlled universal testing machine. Unpaired Student's t-tests were applied to determine if there were differences between the experimental and control groups for each commercial brand and size of wire. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the tested groups with the same size and brand of wire. Conclusions: Heat treatment applied to the distal ends of rectangular NiTi archwires does not permanently change the elastic properties of the adjacent portions. PMID:27007766

  2. Aluminum alloy AA-6061 and RSA-6061 heat treatment for large mirror applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newswander, T.; Crowther, B.; Gubbels, G.; Senden, R.

    2013-09-01

    Aluminum mirrors and telescopes can be built to perform well if the material is processed correctly and can be relatively low cost and short schedule. However, the difficulty of making high quality aluminum telescopes increases as the size increases, starting with uniform heat treatment through the thickness of large mirror substrates. A risk reduction effort was started to build and test a ½ meter diameter super polished aluminum mirror. Material selection, the heat treatment process and stabilization are the first critical steps to building a successful mirror. In this study, large aluminum blanks of both conventional AA-6061 per AMS-A-22771 and RSA AA-6061 were built, heat treated and stress relieved. Both blanks were destructively tested with a cut through the thickness. Hardness measurements and tensile tests were completed. We present our results in this paper and make suggestions for modification of procedures and future work.

  3. Impact of heat treatment on the physical properties of noncrystalline multisolute systems concentrated in frozen aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, Ken-ichi; Yomota, Chikako; Kawanishi, Toru

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of heat treatment on the miscibility of multiple concentrated solutes that mimic biopharmaceutical formulations in frozen solutions. The first heating thermal analysis of frozen solutions containing either a low-molecular-weight saccharide (e.g., sucrose, trehalose, and glucose) or a polymer (e.g., polyvinylpyrrolidone and dextran) and their mixtures from -70°C showed a single transition at glass transition temperature of maximally freeze-concentrated solution (T(g) ') that indicated mixing of the freeze-concentrated multiple solutes. The heat treatment of single-solute and various polymer-rich mixture frozen solutions at temperatures far above their T(g) ' induced additional ice crystallization that shifted the transitions upward in the following scan. Contrarily, the heat treatment of frozen disaccharide-rich solutions induced two-step heat flow changes (T(g) ' splitting) that suggested separation of the solutes into multiple concentrated noncrystalline phases, different in the solute compositions. The extent of the T(g) ' splitting depended on the heat treatment temperature and time. Two-step glass transition was observed in some sucrose and dextran mixture solids, lyophilized after the heat treatment. Increasing mobility of solute molecules during the heat treatment should allow spatial reordering of some concentrated solute mixtures into thermodynamically favorable multiple phases. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Evaluation of focused ultrasound algorithms: Issues for reducing pre-focal heating and treatment time.

    PubMed

    Yiannakou, Marinos; Trimikliniotis, Michael; Yiallouras, Christos; Damianou, Christakis

    2016-02-01

    Due to the heating in the pre-focal field the delay between successive movements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are sometimes as long as 60s, resulting to treatment time in the order of 2-3h. Because there is generally a requirement to reduce treatment time, we were motivated to explore alternative transducer motion algorithms in order to reduce pre-focal heating and treatment time. A 1 MHz single element transducer with 4 cm diameter and 10 cm focal length was used. A simulation model was developed that estimates the temperature, thermal dose and lesion development in the pre-focal field. The simulated temperature history that was combined with the motion algorithms produced thermal maps in the pre-focal region. Polyacrylimde gel phantom was used to evaluate the induced pre-focal heating for each motion algorithm used, and also was used to assess the accuracy of the simulation model. Three out of the six algorithms having successive steps close to each other, exhibited severe heating in the pre-focal field. Minimal heating was produced with the algorithms having successive steps apart from each other (square, square spiral and random). The last three algorithms were improved further (with small cost in time), thus eliminating completely the pre-focal heating and reducing substantially the treatment time as compared to traditional algorithms. Out of the six algorithms, 3 were successful in eliminating the pre-focal heating completely. Because these 3 algorithms required no delay between successive movements (except in the last part of the motion), the treatment time was reduced by 93%. Therefore, it will be possible in the future, to achieve treatment time of focused ultrasound therapies shorter than 30 min. The rate of ablated volume achieved with one of the proposed algorithms was 71 cm(3)/h. The intention of this pilot study was to demonstrate that the navigation algorithms play the most important role in reducing pre-focal heating. By evaluating in

  5. Special Features of Structure Formation in an Explosion-Welded Magnesium-Aluminum Composite Under Deformation and Subsequent Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, L. M.; Arisova, V. N.; Trykov, Yu. P.; Ponomareva, I. A.; Trudov, A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of bending deformation and subsequent heat treatment on the variation of microhardness and structure of explosion-welded magnesium-aluminum layered composite material MA2-1 - AD1 is studied.

  6. Effect of Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties and Phase Composition of Magnesium-Aluminum Composite Prepared by Explosive Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arisova, V. N.; Trykov, Yu. P.; Slautin, O. V.; Ponomareva, I. A.; Kondakov, A. E.

    2015-09-01

    Results are given for a study of the effect of heat treatment regimes on the nature of change in micromechanical properties and phase composition of magnesium-aluminum composite material AD1-MA2-1 prepared by explosive welding.

  7. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Structure and Properties of Explosion Welded Bimetal Kh20N80 + AD1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmorgun, V. G.; Arisova, V. N.; Slautin, O. V.; Taube, A. O.; Bakuntseva, V. M.

    2017-05-01

    Results of a study of the effect of heat treatment on the microhardness, structure and phase composition of diffusion zone in explosion-welded `refractory nickel alloy Kh20N80 + aluminum alloy AD1' bimetal are presented.

  8. Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Kuhlman, Myron Ira; Vinegar; Harold J.; Baker, Ralph Sterman; Heron, Goren

    2010-11-30

    Methods of treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Methods for treating a subsurface treatment area in a formation may include introducing a fluid into the formation from a plurality of wells offset from a treatment area of an in situ heat treatment process to inhibit outward migration of formation fluid from the in situ heat treatment process.

  9. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drying, blending, packaging, and heat..., blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities. (a) General. Processing rooms shall be... vacuum cleaned daily. (c) The heat treatment room shall be of an approved construction and be maintained...

  10. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drying, blending, packaging, and heat..., blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities. (a) General. Processing rooms shall be... vacuum cleaned daily. (c) The heat treatment room shall be of an approved construction and be maintained...

  11. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drying, blending, packaging, and heat..., blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities. (a) General. Processing rooms shall be... vacuum cleaned daily. (c) The heat treatment room shall be of an approved construction and be maintained...

  12. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drying, blending, packaging, and heat..., blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities. (a) General. Processing rooms shall be... vacuum cleaned daily. (c) The heat treatment room shall be of an approved construction and be maintained...

  13. 49 CFR 179.201-5 - Postweld heat treatment and corrosion resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment and corrosion resistance....201-5 Postweld heat treatment and corrosion resistance. (a) Tanks and attachments welded directly thereto must be postweld heat treated as a unit at the proper temperature except as indicated below. Tanks...

  14. Low-temperature synthesis of allyl dimethylamine by selective heating under microwave irradiation used for water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Binghui; Luan, Zhaokun; Li, Mingming

    2005-08-01

    Low-temperature synthesis of allyl dimethylamine (ADA) by selective heating under microwave irradiation (MI) used for water treatment is investigated. The effect of MI, ultrasound irradiation (UI) and conventional heating on yield of ADA, reaction time and the flocculation efficiency of polydiallyl dimethylammunion chloride (PDADMAC) prepared form ADA were studied. The results show that by selective heating at low temperature, MI not only increases yield of ADA and reduces reaction time, but also greatly enhances the flocculation efficiency of PDADMAC.

  15. Evaluation of Subsequent Heat Treatment Routes for Near-β Forged TA15 Ti-Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhichao; Wu, Huili; Yang, He

    2016-01-01

    TA15 Ti-alloy is widely used to form key load-bearing components in the aerospace field, where excellent service performance is needed. Near-β forging technology provides an attractive way to form these complicated Ti-alloy components but subsequent heat treatment has a great impact on the final microstructure and mechanical properties. Therefore evaluation and determination of the heat treatment route is of particular significance. In this paper, for the near-β forged TA15 alloy, the formation and evolution of microstructures under different subsequent heat treatment routes (annealing, solution and aging, toughening and strengthening) were studied and the cooling mode after forging was also considered. Then, the type and characteristics of the obtained microstructures were discussed through quantitative metallographic analysis. The corresponding mechanical properties (tensile, impact toughness, and fracture toughness) and effects of microstructural characteristics were investigated. Finally, for a required microstructure and performance a reasonable heat treatment route was recommended. The work is of importance for the application and development of near-β forging technology. PMID:28773994

  16. Effect of Cold Rolling and Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-4Al-1Mn Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, Rishi; Gupta, R. K.; AnilKumar, V.; Banwait, S. S.

    2018-05-01

    Mechanical behavior of Ti-4Al-1Mn titanium alloy has been studied in annealed, cold-rolled and heat-treated conditions. Room temperature tensile strength as well as % elongation has been found to be low with increasing amount of cold rolling. Lowering of strength in cold worked condition is attributed to premature failure. However, the same has been mitigated after heat treatment. Significant effect of cooling media (air and water) from heat treatment temperature on microstructure was not found except for the degree of fineness of α plates. Optimum properties (strength as well as ductility) were exhibited by samples subjected to 15% cold rolling and heat treatment below β transus temperature, which can be attributed to presence of recrystallized microstructure. In cold worked condition, the microstructure shows fine fragmented α plates/Widmanstätten morphology with high dislocation density along with a large amount of strain fields and twinning, which gets transformed to recrystallized equiaxed microstructure and with plate-like morphology after near β heat treatment. Prior cold work is found to have a significant effect on mechanical properties supported by evolution of microstructure. Twinning is found to be assisting in deformation as well as in recrystallization through the formation of deformation and annealing twins during cold working and heat treatment. Fracture analysis of the tested sample with prior cold work and heat-treated condition revealed quasi-ductile failure as compared to only ductile failure features seen for samples heat treated without prior cold work.

  17. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Hardness and Wear of Grinding Balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissat, Sahraoui; Sadeddine, Abdelhamid; Bradai, Mohand Amokrane; Younes, Rassim; Bilek, Ali; Benabbas, Abderrahim

    2017-09-01

    The effect quenching and tempering by different regimes on Rockwell hardness and wear processes of grinding balls 50 and 70 mm in diameter made of two melts of chromium-molybdenum cast iron is studied. The heating temperature for quenching is 850, 950, and 1050°C; the tempering temperature is 250, 400, and 600°C. Iron is analyzed in an electron microscope. Diffraction patterns are obtained. A model of cast iron wear is suggested and compared to the Davis model and to experimental results. An optimum heat treatment regime is proposed.

  18. Heart rate variability during exertional heat stress: effects of heat production and treatment.

    PubMed

    Flouris, Andreas D; Bravi, Andrea; Wright-Beatty, Heather E; Green, Geoffrey; Seely, Andrew J; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the efficacy of different treatments (i.e., treatment with ice water immersion vs. natural recovery) and the effect of exercise intensities (i.e., low vs. high) for restoring heart rate variability (HRV) indices during recovery from exertional heat stress (EHS). Nine healthy adults (26 ± 3 years, 174.2 ± 3.8 cm, 74.6 ± 4.3 kg, 17.9 ± 2.8 % body fat, 57 ± 2 mL·kg·(-1) min(-1) peak oxygen uptake) completed four EHS sessions incorporating either walking (4.0-4.5 km·h(-1), 2 % incline) or jogging (~7.0 km·h(-1), 2 % incline) on a treadmill in a hot-dry environment (40 °C, 20-30 % relative humidity) while wearing a non-permeable rain poncho for a slow or fast rate of rectal temperature (T re) increase, respectively. Upon reaching a T re of 39.5 °C, participants recovered until T re returned to 38 °C either passively or with whole-body immersion in 2 °C water. A comprehensive panel of 93 HRV measures were computed from the time, frequency, time-frequency, scale-invariant, entropy and non-linear domains. Exertional heat stress significantly affected 60/93 HRV measures analysed. Analyses during recovery demonstrated that there were no significant differences between HRV measures that had been influenced by EHS at the end of passive recovery vs. whole-body cooling treatment (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, the cooling treatment required statistically significantly less time to reduce T re (p < 0.001). While EHS has a marked effect on autonomic nervous system modulation and whole-body immersion in 2 °C water results in faster cooling, there were no observed differences in restoration of autonomic heart rate modulation as measured by HRV indices with whole-body cold-water immersion compared to passive recovery in thermoneutral conditions.

  19. Quality of mango nectar processed by high-pressure homogenization with optimized heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Tribst, Alline Artigiani Lima; Franchi, Mark Alexandrow; de Massaguer, Pilar Rodriguez; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2011-03-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) with heat shock on Aspergillus niger, vitamin C, and color of mango nectar. The nectar was processed at 200 MPa followed by heat shock, which was optimized by response surface methodology by using mango nectar ratio (45 to 70), heat time (10 to 20), and temperature (60 to 85 °C) as variables. The color of mango nectar and vitamin C retention were evaluated at the optimized treatments, that is, 200 MPa + 61.5 °C/20 min or 73.5 °C/10 min. The mathematical model indicates that heat shock time and temperature showed a positive effect in the mould inactivation, whereas increasing ratio resulted in a protective effect on A. niger. The optimized treatments did not increase the retention of vitamin C, but had positive effect for the nectar color, in particular for samples treated at 200 MPa + 61.5 °C/20 min. The results obtained in this study show that the conidia can be inactivated by applying HPH with heat shock, particularly to apply HPH as an option to pasteurize fruit nectar for industries.

  20. Effects of annealing heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of Zn/Mg/Zn multilayer coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, KiTae; La, JoungHyun; Lee, InGyu; Lee, SangYul; Nam, KyungHoon

    2017-05-01

    Zn coatings alloyed with magnesium offer superior corrosion resistance compared to pure Zn or other Zn-based alloy coatings. In this study, Zn/Mg/Zn multilayer coatings with various Mg layer thicknesses were synthesized using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering process and were annealed to form Zn-Mg intermetallic phases. The effects of the annealing heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of the Zn/Mg/Zn multilayer coatings were evaluated using electrochemical measurements. The extensive diffusion of magnesium species into the upper and lower zinc layer from the magnesium layer in the middle of the coating was observed after the heat treatment. This phenomenon caused (a) the porous microstructure to transition into a dense structure and (b) the formation of a MgZn2 intermetallic phase. The results of the electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the heat treated Zn/Mg/Zn multilayer coatings possessed higher levels of corrosion resistance than the non-heat treated coatings. A Zn/Mg/Zn multilayer coating with MgZn2 and (Zn) phases showed the best corrosion resistance among the heat treated coatings, which could be attributed to the reduced galvanic corrosion effects due to a small potential gradient between the MgZn2 and zinc.

  1. Effect of heat treatment on mechanical properties of age-hardenable gold alloy at intraoral temperature.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, I; Watanabe, E; Cai, Z; Okabe, T; Atsuta, M

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various heat treatments on the mechanical properties of gold alloys capable of age-hardening at intraoral temperature. Dumbbell-shaped patterns (ISO 6871) were cast with three gold alloys (Sofard; NC Type-IV; Aurum Cast, NihombashiTokuriki Co.). The Sofard alloy is age-hardenable at intraoral temperature. The castings underwent various heat treatments [as-cast (AC); solution treatment (ST); high-temperature aging (HA); intraoral aging (IA)]. After these heat treatments, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), 0.2% offset yield strength (YS), and elongation (EL) were measured at a strain rate of 1.7x10(-4)/s. Fracture surfaces of the specimens after tensile testing were observed using SEM. Vickers hardness was also measured after heat treating. After IA, the hardness values of the Sofard alloy increased and reached values similar to the hardness of the Sofard specimens aged at high temperature (HA). The hardness values of the NC Type-IV and Aurum Cast specimens slightly increased after IA, but did not reach the values of the specimens after HA. All the Sofard, NC Type-IV and Aurum Cast specimens showed significantly (P<0.05) greater hardness values after HA, compared with the values after any other heat treatments (AC, ST and IA). The UTS and YS of the specimens indicated a tendency similar to the results obtained for hardness. The Sofard specimens with ST showed the greatest elongation compared to the corresponding NC Type-IV and Aurum Cast specimens. However, the elongation of the Sofard specimens was abruptly reduced after intraoral aging. Intraoral aging significantly improved the mechanical properties and hardness of the Sofard alloy.

  2. Durable polyorganosiloxane superhydrophobic films with a hierarchical structure by sol-gel and heat treatment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenlin; Fang, Shuying; Wang, Chaosheng; Wang, Huaping; Ji, Chengchang

    2016-12-01

    For a surface to be superhydrophobic a combination of surface roughness and low surface energy is required. In this study, polyorganosiloxane superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated using a sol-gel and heat treatment process followed by coating with a nanosilica (SiO2) sol and organosiloxane 1, 1, 1, 3, 5, 5, 5-heptamethyl-3-[2-(trimethoxysilyl)ethyl]-trisiloxane (β-HPEOs). The nano-structure was superimposed using self-assembled, surface-modified silica nanoparticles, forming two-dimensional hierarchical structures. The water contact angle (WCA) of polyorganosiloxane superhydrophobic surface was 143.7 ± 0.6°, which was further increased to 156.7 ± 1.1° with water angle hysteresis of 2.5 ± 0.6° by superimposing nanoparticles using a heat treatment process. An analytical characterization of the surface revealed that the nano-silica and polyorganosiloxane formed a micro/nano structure on the films and the wetting behaviour of the films changed from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic. The WCA of these films were 143.7 ± 0.6° and at heat treatment temperatures of less than 400 °C, the WCA increased from 144.5 ± 0.7° to 156.7 ± 1.1°. The prepared superhydrophobic films were stable even after heat treatment at 430 °C for 30 min and their superhydrophobicity was durable for more than 120 days. The effects of heat treatment process on the surface chemistry structure, wettability and morphology of the polyorganosiloxane superhydrophobic films were investigated in detail. The results indicated that the stability of the chemical structure was required to yield a thermally-stable superhydrophobic surface.

  3. Study of fuel cell powerplant with heat recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. M.; Grasso, A. P.; Clausi, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    It was shown that heat can be recovered from fuel cell power plants by replacing the air-cooled heat exchangers in present designs with units which transfer the heat to the integrated utility system. Energy availability for a 40-kW power plant was studied and showed that the total usable energy at rated power represents 84 percent of the fuel lower heating value. The effects of design variables on heat availability proved to be small. Design requirements were established for the heat recovery heat exchangers, including measurement of the characteristics of two candidate fuel cell coolants after exposure to fuel cell operating conditions. A heat exchanger test program was defined to assess fouling and other characteristics of fuel cell heat exchangers needed to confirm heat exchanger designs for heat recovery.

  4. Apparatus for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    DOEpatents

    Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC

    2008-04-15

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  5. Methods for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2010-08-03

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  6. Influence of prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment on biologically-active human milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jih-Chin; Chen, Chao-Huei; Fang, Li-Jung; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Wang, Teh-Ming

    2013-12-01

    The bioactive proteins in human milk may be influenced by prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of these procedures. Three forms of human milk - freshly expressed, frozen at -20°C for a prolonged duration, and pasteurized milk - were collected from 14 healthy lactating mothers and a milk bank. The concentrations of major bioactive proteins (secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and leptin) were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Changes in these proteins by heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C for 30 minutes were further evaluated. The mean concentrations of lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A were significantly reduced by 66% and 25.9%, respectively, in pasteurized milk compared with those in freshly-expressed milk. Heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C did not cause significant changes in lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A, but there was an apparent increase in lysozyme (p = 0.016). There were no significant differences in leptin level among these three forms of milk prior to (p = 0.153) or after heat treatment (p = 0.053). Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Developing a two-step heat treatment for inactivating desiccation-adapted Salmonella spp. in aged chicken litter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao; Wang, Hongye; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of a two-step heat treatment for eliminating desiccation-adapted Salmonella spp. in aged chicken litter was evaluated. The aged chicken litter with 20, 30, 40, and 50% moisture contents was inoculated with a mixture of four Salmonella serotypes for a 24-h adaptation. Afterwards, the inoculated chicken litter was added into the chicken litter with the adjusted moisture content for a 1-h moist-heat treatment at 65 °C and 100% relative humidity inside a water bath, followed by a dry-heat treatment in a convection oven at 85 °C for 1 h to the desired moisture level (<10-12%). After moist-heat treatment, the populations of Salmonella in aged chicken litter at 20 and 30% moisture contents declined from ≈6.70 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g to 3.31 and 3.00 log CFU/g, respectively. After subsequent 1-h dry-heat treatment, the populations further decreased to 2.97 and 2.57 log CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella cells in chicken litter with 40% and 50% moisture contents were only detectable by enrichment after 40 and 20 min of moist-heat treatment, respectively. Moisture contents in all samples were reduced to <10% after a 1-h dry-heat process. Our results demonstrated that the two-step heat treatment was effective in reducing >5.5 logs of desiccation-adapted Salmonella in aged chicken litter with moisture content at or above 40%. Clearly, the findings from this study may provide the chicken litter processing industry with an effective heat treatment method for producing Salmonella-free chicken litter.

  8. Effects of alloy heat treatment on oxidation kinetics and scale morphology for Crofer 22 APU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdefrau, Neal J.; Chen, Lei; Sun, Ellen Y.; Aindow, Mark

    2013-11-01

    The effect of alloy heat treatment on the oxidation kinetics and oxide scale microstructure of Crofer 22 APU has been studied. Parabolic oxidation rate constants were measured for the as-received alloy and after pre-oxidation heat treatment in argon at 1050 °C for 1 and 4 h. The oxide scale microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam milling and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the alloy forms a two-layer scale with a continuous chromia layer and a discontinuous MnCr2O4 overlayer. Two forms of internal oxides were also formed: subscale pockets of spinel and isolated TiOx precipitates in the underlying alloy. The pre-oxidation heat treatment had a profound effect on the grain size and morphology of the Cr2O3 and MnCr2O4 layers in the scale. The heat-treated samples exhibit a 3.5× lower parabolic oxidation rate constant than the as-received Crofer 22 APU. This improvement in oxidation resistance is attributed to the dramatic differences in the morphology of the oxide scale that forms during the earliest stages of oxidation (<5 h). The implications of these findings for oxidation mechanisms and long-term SOFC performance are discussed.

  9. Influence of different heat treatment methods of titania film on performance of DSSCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Venumadhav; Mokurala, Krishna; Bhargava, Parag

    2018-04-01

    Titania mesoporous film is a key component of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as it transfers electrons from dye molecule to external circuit through the transparent conducting oxide (TCO). Interparticle connectivity, porosity and cracks in the titania films play an important role in determining the performance of DSSCs. The heating schedule with respect to the repetitive coating to build up titania film thickness impacts the titania film characteristics. In the present study, experiments were designed to carry out heat treatments with expectation of improving connectivity and healing cracks. Repetitive screen printing was carried out with either heat treatment after each print step (multiple sintering) or the heat treatment was carried out just once after the desired thickness had been attained (single-step sintering). Interconnectivity of the titania particles in the sintered titania film was analyzed by impedance spectroscopy and nanoindentation. Titania films sintered by MS showed better performance in terms of higher efficiency for the corresponding DSSCs than those prepared using titania films sintered by SS.

  10. Heat pipe life and processing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniuk, D.; Luedke, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    The merit of adding water to the reflux charge in chemically and solvent cleaned aluminum/slab wick/ammonia heat pipes was evaluated. The effect of gas in the performance of three heat pipe thermal control systems was found significant in simple heat pipes, less significant in a modified simple heat pipe model with a short wickless pipe section. Use of gas data for the worst and best heat pipes of the matrix in a variable conductance heat pipe model showed a 3 C increase in the source temperature at full on condition after 20 and 246 years, respectively.

  11. Heat transfer from an oxidized large copper surface to liquid helium: Dependence on surface orientation and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamoto, A.; Mito, T.; Takahata, K.

    Heat transfer of large copper plates (18 x 76 mm) in liquid helium has been measured as a function of orientation and treatment of the heat transfer surface. The results relate to applications of large scale superconductors. In order to clarify the influence of the area where the surface treatment peels off, the authors studied five types of heat transfer surface areas including: (a) 100% polished copper sample, (b) and (c) two 50% oxidized copper samples having different patterns of oxidation, (d) 75% oxidized copper sample, (e) 90% oxidized copper sample, and (f) 100% oxidized copper sample. They observed thatmore » the critical heat flux depends on the heat transfer surface orientation. The critical heat flux is a maximum at angles of 0{degrees} - 30{degrees} and decreases monotonically with increasing angles above 30{degrees}, where the angle is taken in reference to the horizontal axis. On the other hand, the minimum heat flux is less dependent on the surface orientation. More than 75% oxidation on the surface makes the critical heat flux increase. The minimum heat fluxes of the 50 and 90% oxidized Cu samples approximately agree with that of the 100% oxidized Cu sample. Experiments and calculations show that the critical and the minimum heat fluxes are a bilinear function of the fraction of oxidized surface area.« less

  12. The influence of heat treatments on several types of base-metal removable partial denture alloys.

    PubMed

    Morris, H F; Asgar, K; Rowe, A P; Nasjleti, C E

    1979-04-01

    Four removable partial denture alloys, Vitallium (Co-Cr alloy), Dentillium P.D. (Fe-Cr alloy), Durallium L.G. (Co-Cr-Ni alloy), and Ticonium 100 (Ni-Cr alloy), were evaluated in the as-cast condition and after heat treatment for 15 minutes at 1,300 degrees, 1,600 degrees, 1,900 degrees, and 2,200 degrees F followed by quenching in water. The following properties were determined and compared for each alloy at each heat treatment condition: the yield strengths at 0.01%, 0.1%, and 0.2% offsets, the ultimate tensile strength, the percent elongation, the modulus of elasticity, and the Knoop microhardness. The results were statistically analyzed. Photomicrographs were examined for each alloy and test condition. The following conclusions were made: 1. The "highest values" were exhibited by the as-cast alloy. 2. Heat treatment of the partial denture alloys tested resulted in reductions in strength, while the elongations varied. This study demonstrates that, in practice, one should avoid (a) prolonged "heat-soaking" while soldering and (b) grinding or polishing of the casting until the alloy is "red hot". 3. Durallium L.G. was the least affected by the various heat treatment conditions. 4. Conventional reporting of the yield strength at 0.2% offset, the ultimate tensile strength, and percent elongation are not adequate to completely describe and compare the mechanical behavior of alloys. The reporting of the yield strength at 0.01% offset, in addition to the other reported properties, will provide a more complete description of the behavior of the dental alloys.

  13. Corrosion performance of 7075 alloy under laser heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong; Su, Ruiming; Qu, Yingdong; Li, Rongde

    2018-05-01

    Microstructure, exfoliation corrosion (EXCO), intergranular corrosion (IGC) and potentidynamic polarization test of the 7075 aluminum alloy after retrogression and re-aging (RRA) treatment, and laser retrogression and re-aging (LRRA), respectively, were studied by using scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that after pre-aging, laser treatment (650 W, 2 mm s‑1) and re-aging a lot of matrix precipitates of alloy were precipitated again. The semi-continuous grain boundary precipitates and the wider precipitate-free zones (PFZ) improve the corrosion resistance of the alloy. The corrosion properties of the alloy after LRRA (650 W, 2 mm s‑1) treatment are better than that after RRA treatment.

  14. Heat source reentry vehicle design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    The design details are presented of a flight-type heat source reentry vehicle and heat exchanger compatible with the isotope Brayton power conversion system. The reference reentry vehicle and heat exchanger were modified, orbital and superorbital capability was assessed, and a complete set of detail design layout drawings were provided.

  15. Combined heat transfer and kinetic models to predict cooking loss during heat treatment of beef meat.

    PubMed

    Kondjoyan, Alain; Oillic, Samuel; Portanguen, Stéphane; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    2013-10-01

    A heat transfer model was used to simulate the temperature in 3 dimensions inside the meat. This model was combined with a first-order kinetic models to predict cooking losses. Identification of the parameters of the kinetic models and first validations were performed in a water bath. Afterwards, the performance of the combined model was determined in a fan-assisted oven under different air/steam conditions. Accurate knowledge of the heat transfer coefficient values and consideration of the retraction of the meat pieces are needed for the prediction of meat temperature. This is important since the temperature at the center of the product is often used to determine the cooking time. The combined model was also able to predict cooking losses from meat pieces of different sizes and subjected to different air/steam conditions. It was found that under the studied conditions, most of the water loss comes from the juice expelled by protein denaturation and contraction and not from evaporation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of heat treatment on the resistivity of polycrystalline silicon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fripp, A. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The resistivity of doped polycrystalline silicon films has been studied as a function of post deposition heat treatments in an oxidizing atmosphere. It was found that a short oxidation cycle may produce a resistivity increase as large as three orders of magnitude in the polycrystalline films. The extent of change was dependent on the initial resistivity and the films' doping level and was independent of the total oxidation time.

  17. Effect of Heat Treatment on Chemical Segregation in CMSX-4 Nickel-Base Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczotok, A.; Chmiela, B.

    2014-08-01

    Superalloys display a strong tendency toward chemical segregation during solidification. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop appropriate techniques for the melting and casting of superalloys. Elements partitioning between the γ and γ' phases in single crystal superalloys have been investigated by several authors using electron probe microanalysis (Hemmersmeier and Feller-Kniepmeier Mater Sci Eng A 248:87-97, 1998; Kearsey et al. Intermetallics 12:903-910, 2004; Kearsey et al. Superalloys 2004, pp 801-810, 2004; D'Souza et al. Mater Sci Eng A 490:258-265, 2008). We examined the effect of the particular stages of standard heat treatment (solution treatment and ageing) applied to CMSX-4 single crystal superalloy on chemical segregation that occurs between dendrites and interdendritic areas. Dendritic structures were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Analyses of the chemical composition were performed using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The obtained qualitative and quantitative results for the concentrations of elements enabled us to confirm the dendritic segregation in as-cast CMSX-4 superalloy. The concentrations of some refractory elements (tungsten, rhenium) were much greater in dendrites than in interdendritic areas. However, these differences in chemical composition gradually decreased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study warrant further examination of the diffusion processes of elements during heat treatment of the investigated superalloy, and of the kinetics of diffusion.

  18. Effect of Heat Treatment Process on Microstructure and Fatigue Behavior of a Nickel-Base Superalloy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Qiang; Chen, Gang; Qin, Heyong; Wang, Chuanjie

    2015-01-01

    The study of fatigue behaviors for nickel-base superalloys is very significant because fatigue damage results in serious consequences. In this paper, two kinds of heat treatment procedures (Pro.I and Pro.II) were taken to investigate the effect of heat treatment on microstructures and fatigue behaviors of a nickel-base superalloy. Fatigue behaviors were studied through total strain controlled mode at 650 °C. Manson-Coffin relationship and three-parameter power function were used to predict fatigue life. A good link between the cyclic/fatigue behavior and microscopic studies was established. The cyclic deformation mechanism and fatigue mechanism were discussed. The results show that the fatigue resistance significantly drops with the increase of total strain amplitudes. Manson-Coffin relationship can well predict the fatigue life for total strain amplitude from 0.5% to 0.8%. The fatigue resistance is related with heat treatment procedures. The fatigue resistance performance of Pro.I is better than that of Pro.II. The cyclic stress response behaviors are closely related to the changes of the strain amplitudes. The peak stress of the alloy gradually increases with the increase of total strain amplitudes. The main fracture mechanism is inhomogeneous deformation and the different interactions between dislocations and γ′ precipitates. PMID:28793559

  19. Modified heat treatment for lower temperature improvement of the mechanical properties of two ultrahigh strength low alloy steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Yoshiyuki; Okabayashi, Kunio

    1985-01-01

    In the previous papers, a new heat treatment for improving the lower temperature mechanical propertise of the ultrahigh strength low alloy steels was suggested by the authors which produces a mixed structure of 25 vol pct lower bainite and 75 vol pct martensite through isothermal transformation at 593 K for a short time followed by water quenching (after austenitization at 1133 K). In this paper, two commercial Japanese ultrahigh strength steels, 0.40 pct C-Ni-Cr-Mo (AISI 4340 type) and 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo (AISI 4140 type), have been studied to determine the effect of the modified heat treatment, coupled above new heat treatment with γ ⇆ α' repctitive heat treatment, on the mechanical properties from ambient temperature (287 K) to 123 K. The results obtained for various test temperatures have been compared with those for the new heat treatment reported previously and the conventional 1133 K direct water quenching treatment. The incorporation of intermediate four cyclic γ ⇆ α' repctitive heat treatment steps (after the initial austenitization at 1133 K and oil quenching) into the new heat treatment reported previously, as compared with the conventional 1133 K direct water quenching treatment, significantly improved 0.2 pct proof stress as well as notch toughness of the 0.40 pct C-Ni-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel at similar fracture ductility levels from 287 to 123 K. Also, this heat treatment, as compared with the conventional 1133 K direct water quenching treatment, significantly improved both 0.2 pct proof stress and notch toughness of the 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel with increased fracture ductility at 203 K and above. The microstructure consists of mixed areas of ultrafine grained martensite, within which is the refined blocky, highly dislocated structure, and the second phase lower bainite (about 15 vol pct), which appears in acicular form and partitions prior austenite grains. This newly developed heat treatment makes it possible to modify

  20. Heat treatment's effects on hydroxyapatite powders in water vapor and air atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, A.; Baştan, F. E.; Erdoǧan, G.; Üstel, F.

    2015-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA; Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is the main chemical constituent of bone tissue (~70%) as well as HA which is a calcium phosphate based ceramic material forms inorganic tissue of bone and tooth as hard tissues is used in production of prosthesis for synthetic bone, fractured and broken bone restoration, coating of metallic biomaterials and dental applications because of its bio compatibility. It is known that Hydroxyapatite decomposes with high heat energy after heat treatment. Therefore hydroxyapatite powders that heated in water vapor will less decomposed phases and lower amorphous phase content than in air atmosphere. In this study high purity hydroxyapatite powders were heat treated with open atmosphere furnace and water vapor atmosphere with 900, 1000, 1200 °C. Morphology of same powder size used in this process by SEM analyzed. Chemical structures of synthesized coatings have been examined by XRD. The determination of particle size and morphological structure of has been characterized by Particle Sizer, and SEM analysis, respectively. Weight change of sample was recorded by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) during heating and cooling.

  1. Heat treatment condition of EN AW-7075 influencing the anodic oxidation process and coating properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, R.; Scharf, I.; Lampke, T.

    2018-06-01

    The age-hardenable aluminium alloy EN AW-7075 exhibits outstanding specific mechanical properties and therefore offers a high potential for lightweight construction. Anodising in aqueous oxalic acid solutions is suitable to produce a protective oxide ceramic conversion layer on this alloy. This study examines the influence of the precipitation state of the substrate alloy on microstructure and properties of anodic oxide layers. Therefore, EN AW-7075 sheets in the heat treatment conditions T4, T6 and T73 were anodized in 0.8 M oxalic acid solution at constant voltage. The current efficiency was determined on the basis of the electrical charge quantity, coating thickness and coating mass. Instrumented indentation tests were applied in order to evaluate the coating hardness. The microstructure of the anodic oxide layer was illustrated using field emission electron microscopy. It was shown that the current efficiency strongly depends on the heat treatment condition.

  2. Enhancement of methane gas sensing characteristics of graphene oxide sensor by heat treatment and laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Assar, Mohammadreza; Karimzadeh, Rouhollah

    2016-12-01

    The present study uses a rapid, easy and practical method for cost-effective fabrication of a methane gas sensor. The sensor was made by drop-casting a graphene oxide suspension onto an interdigital circuit surface. The electrical conductivity and gas-sensing characteristics of the sensor were determined and then heat treatment and in situ laser irradiation were applied to improve the device conductivity and gas sensitivity. Real-time monitoring of the evolution of the device current as a function of heat treatment time revealed significant changes in the conductance of the graphene oxide sensor. The use of low power laser irradiation enhanced both the electrical conductivity and sensing response of the graphene oxide sensor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of phase transformations in Inconel 738C alloy after regenerative heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantseva, N.; Davidov, D.; Vinogradova, N.; Ezhov, I.; Stepanova, N.

    2018-03-01

    Study is based on the characterization of the chemical composition the phase transformations in Inconel 738C gas turbine blade after standard regenerative heat treatment. The microstructure and chemical composition were examined by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. It was found the degradation of microstructure of the blade feather. Redistribution of the chemical elements decreasing the corrosion resistance was observed inside the blade feather. The carbide transformation and sigma phase were found in the structure of the blade feather. It is found that the standard regenerative heat treatment of the IN738 operative gas turbine blade does not effect on carbides transformation, TCP σ-phase dissolution, and thus do not guarantee the full recovery of the IN738 gas turbine blade.

  4. [Efficacy of using rivaroxaban for treatment of heat-induced thrombosis after endovenous laser ablation].

    PubMed

    Fokin, A A; Borsuk, D A; Kazachkov, E L

    The study was aimed at assessing efficacy of using rivaroxaban for treatment of endothermal heat-induced thrombosis (EHIT) after endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) of saphenous veins. Our prospective study included a total of 1,326 patients subjected to 1,514 EVLAs. In 1,091 (72.1%) cases the great saphenous vein (GSV) was ablated, in 124 (8.2%) cases the anterior accessory vein (AAV) was treated and in 299 (19.7%) cases the small saphenous vein (SSV) was treated. Heat-induced thrombosis developed in 21 (1.4%) cases: in 19 cases in the basin of the great saphenous vein and in 2 cases in the anterior accessory saphenous vein. No heat-induced thromboses in the basin of the small saphenous vein were observed. In 9 (0.6%) cases there was class 1 EHIT (according to the Kabnick classification), class 2 EHIT was noted in 10 (0.7%) cases and class 3 EHIT was observed in 2 (0.1%) cases. All patients with EHIT were given rivaroxaban: patients with class 1 EHIT received it at a single daily dose of 20 mg, patients with class 2 and 3 EHIT - at a dose of 15 mg twice daily. In one (4.8%) case the drug had to be discontinued on day two due to the development of dyspeptic events. All patients were found to have complete regression of the heat-induced thrombus within 6-25 days. No cases of clinical manifestations of pulmonary artery thromboembolism were observed. A conclusion was drawn that in clinical practice EHIT is an important and insufficiently studied problem. Rivaroxaban may be used as an oral agent for treatment of heat-induced thromboses after EVLA. Further studies are required to examine its efficacy and safety profile.

  5. Resistant starch improvement of rice starches under a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatments.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pham Van; Vien, Ngo Lam; Lan Phi, Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-15

    The effects of a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatment on formation of resistant starch (RS) and characteristics of high-amylose, normal and waxy rice starches were investigated in this study. The degrees of polymerization of the rice starches treated with citric acid, lactic acid or acetic acid were significantly reduced as compared to the native starches. The RS contents of acid and heat-moisture treated rice starches were in a range of 30.1-39.0%, significantly higher than those of native rice starches (6.3-10.2%) and those of heat-moisture treated rice starches (18.5-23.9%). The acid and heat-moisture treatments reduced swelling power and viscosity, but increased solubility of the starches, while the crystalline structure did not change. Among the organic acids used, citric acid had the most impact on starch characteristics and RS formation, followed by lactic acid and acetic acid. The results are useful in production of RS for functional food application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 49 CFR 179.100-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100-10 Postweld heat... heat treated as a unit in compliance with the requirements of AAR Specifications for Tank Cars...

  7. 49 CFR 179.100-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100-10 Postweld heat... heat treated as a unit in compliance with the requirements of AAR Specifications for Tank Cars...

  8. 49 CFR 179.100-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100-10 Postweld heat... heat treated as a unit in compliance with the requirements of AAR Specifications for Tank Cars...

  9. Simple Heat Treatment of Zirconia Ceramic Pre-Treated with Silane Primer to Improve Resin Bonding.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jung-Yun; Son, Jun Sik; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a strong resin bond to dental zirconia ceramic remains difficult. Previous studies have shown that the conventional application of silane does not work well with zirconia. This paper reports that a silane pre-treatment of dental zirconia ceramic combined with subsequent heat treatment has potential as an adhesive cementation protocol for improving zirconia-resin bonding. Among the various concentrations (0.1 to 16 vol%) of experimental γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPTS) primers assessed, the 1% solution was found to be the most effective in terms of the shear bond strength of the resin cement to dental zirconia ceramic. A high shear bond strength (approx. 30 MPa) was obtained when zirconia specimens were pre-treated with this primer and then heat-treated in a furnace for 60 min at 150 degrees C. Heat treatment appeared to remove the hydrophilic constituents from the silane film formed on the zirconia ceramic surface and accelerate the condensation reactions between the silanol groups of the hydrolyzed silane molecules at the zirconia/resin interface, finally making a more desirable surface for bonding with resin. This estimation was supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the silanes prepared in this study.

  10. Transformation of silver nanowires into nanoparticles by Rayleigh instability: Comparison between laser irradiation and heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Harim; Lee, Jeeyoung; Lee, Myeongkyu

    2018-01-01

    We comparatively study the morphological evolutions of silver nanowires under nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation and thermal treatment in ambient air. While single-crystalline, pure Ag nanospheres could be produced by laser-driven Rayleigh instability, the particles produced by heat treatment were subject to oxidation and exhibited polyhedron shapes. The different results are attributed to the significantly different time scales of the two processes. In this article, we also show that bimetallic Ag-Au nanospheres can be synthesized by irradiating Ag nanowires coated with a thin Au film using a pulsed laser beam. This may provide a facile route to tune the plasmonic behavior of metal nanoparticles.

  11. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of bacteria’s heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria’s heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample’s thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS’s performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria’s thermo-tolerances.

  12. Inter- and intra-species variability in heat resistance and the effect of heat treatment intensity on subsequent growth of Byssochlamys fulva and Byssochlamys nivea.

    PubMed

    Santos, Juliana L P; Samapundo, Simbarashe; Gülay, Sonay M; Van Impe, Jan; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Devlieghere, Frank

    2018-04-21

    The major aims of this study were to assess inter- and intra-species variability of heat resistant moulds (HRMs), Byssochlamys fulva and Byssochlamys nivea, with regards to (i) heat resistance and (ii) effect of heat treatment intensity on subsequent outgrowth. Four-week-old ascospores were suspended in buffered glucose solution (13° Brix, pH 3.5) and heat treated in a thermal cycler adjusted at 85 °C, 90 °C and 93 °C. Two variants of the Weibull model were fitted to the survival data and the following inactivation parameters estimated: b (inactivation rate, min -1 ), n (curve shape) and δ (the time taken for first decimal reduction, min). In addition to the assessment of heat resistance, outgrowth of Byssochlamys sp. from ascospores heated at 70 °C, 75 °C, 80 °C, 85 °C and 90 °C for 10 min and at 93 °C for 30 and 70 s was determined at 22 °C for up to 30 days. The Baranyi and Roberts model was fitted to the growth data to estimate the radial growth rates (μ max , mm.day -1 ) and lag times (λ, days). Inter-species variability and significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for both inactivation and growth estimated parameters among B. fulva and B. nivea strains. The effect of heat treatment intensity on outgrowth of B. fulva strains was more apparent at the most intense heat treatment evaluated (90 °C/10 min), which was also the condition in which greater dispersion of the estimated kinetic parameters was observed. On the other hand, B. nivea strains were more affected by heating, resulting in greater variability of growth parameters estimated at different heating intensities and in very long lag phases (up to 25 days). The results show that inter- and intra-species variability in the kinetic parameters of Byssochlamys sp. needs to be taken into account for more accurate spoilage prediction. Furthermore, the effect of thermal treatments on subsequent outgrowth from ascospores should be explored in

  13. Heat Treatment of Gas-Atomized Powders for Cold Spray Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, William A.; Brewer, Luke N.

    2018-02-01

    This communication demonstrates the efficacy of heat treatment on the improved deposition characteristics of aluminum alloy powders. A novel furnace was constructed for solutionizing of feedstock powders in an inert atmosphere while avoiding sintering. This furnace design achieved sufficiently high cooling rates to limit re-precipitation during powder cooling. Microscopy showed homogenization of the powder particle microstructures after heat treatment. Cold spray deposition efficiency with heat-treated powders substantially increased for the alloys AA2024, AA6061, and AA7075.

  14. Treatment and prevention of pediatric heat-related illnesses at mass gatherings and special events.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Crane, Patricia A; Veenema, Tener Goodwin

    2006-01-01

    Pediatric heat-related illnesses are likely to occur during mass gatherings and special events. Because critical care nurses may be called upon to provide care during such events, education in the recognition, treatment, and prevention of these illnesses is essential. This article describes the pathophysiology of heat-related illnesses and their recognition and treatment at mass gatherings and special events. Interventions to prevent heat-related illnesses at these events are discussed.

  15. Heat treatment of welded joints of steel 0.3С-1Cr-1Si produced by high-power fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuryntsev, S. V.; Gilmutdinov, A. Kh.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the welded joints of steel grade 0.3С-1Cr-1Si produced by 30 kW power fiber lasers was investigated in the paper. The speed of the welding process was 20 mm/s. Heat treatment was carried out on two levels, quenching with subsequent middle tempering and high tempering. The samples were examined before and after heat treatment, macro- and microstructure were studied using SEM, UTS, three points bent test, microhardness. The effect of heat treatment was significant: it allowed reduction of the weld hardness of considerably and enhancement of its ductility.

  16. 46 CFR 52.05-15 - Heat treatment (modifies PW-10).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat treatment (modifies PW-10). 52.05-15 Section 52.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Welding § 52.05-15 Heat treatment (modifies PW-10). (a) Vessels and...

  17. 46 CFR 52.05-15 - Heat treatment (modifies PW-10).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heat treatment (modifies PW-10). 52.05-15 Section 52.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Welding § 52.05-15 Heat treatment (modifies PW-10). (a) Vessels and...

  18. 46 CFR 52.05-15 - Heat treatment (modifies PW-10).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heat treatment (modifies PW-10). 52.05-15 Section 52.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Welding § 52.05-15 Heat treatment (modifies PW-10). (a) Vessels and...

  19. 46 CFR 52.05-15 - Heat treatment (modifies PW-10).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heat treatment (modifies PW-10). 52.05-15 Section 52.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Welding § 52.05-15 Heat treatment (modifies PW-10). (a) Vessels and...

  20. 46 CFR 52.05-15 - Heat treatment (modifies PW-10).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heat treatment (modifies PW-10). 52.05-15 Section 52.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Welding § 52.05-15 Heat treatment (modifies PW-10). (a) Vessels and...

  1. What do they know about Heat and Heat Conduction? A case study to excavate Pre-service Physics Teachers’ Mental Model in Heat and Heat Conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, I. M.

    2017-02-01

    Teacher plays a crucial role in Education. Helping students construct scientifically mental model is one of obligation of Physics Education Department of Teacher Education Institute that produce physics teacher. Excavating students’ mental model is necessary to be done in physics education. This research was first to identify 23 physics students’ mental model of heat and heat conduction. A series of semi-structured interviews was conducted to excavate the students’ understanding of heat and mental models on heat conduction. The students who involved in this study come from different level from sophomore to master degree in Physics Education Department. This study adopted a constant comparison method to obtain the patterns of the participants’ responses through the students’ writing, drawing and verbal utterances. The framework for assessing mental model and the instruments were adopted and adapted from Chiou and Anderson (2010). We also compared the students’ understanding of heat and mental models on heat conduction. The result shows that Heat is treated as Intrinsic property, material substances, and caloric flow. None of students expressed heat as transfer of thermal energy. Moreover, there are two kinds of students’ fundamental component of mental model in heat conduction were found: medium and molecules. Students understanding of heat and fundamental components of mental model in heat conduction are not resulted from running mental model.

  2. Effects of Various Heat Treatments on the Ballistic Impact Properties of Inconel 718 Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2000-01-01

    Uncontained failures of aircraft engine fan blades are serious events that can cause equipment damage and loss of life. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification requires that all engines demonstrate the ability to contain a released fan blade with the engine running at full power. However, increased protection generally comes at the expense of weight. Proper choice of materials is therefore imperative to an optimized design. The process of choosing a good casing material is done primarily through trial and error. This costly procedure could be minimized if there was a better understanding of the relationships among static material properties, impact properties, and failure mechanisms. This work is part of a program being conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to study these relationships. Ballistic impact tests were conducted on flat, square sheets of Inconel 718 that had been subjected to different heat treatments. Two heat treatments and the as-received condition were studied. In addition, results were compared with those from an earlier study involving a fourth heat treatment. The heat treatments were selected on the basis of their effects on the static tensile properties of the material. The impact specimens used in this study were 17.8-cm square panels that were centered and clamped over a 15.2-cm square hole in a 1.27-cm-thick steel plate. Three nominal plate thickness dimensions were studied, 1.0, 1.8, and 2.0 mm. For each thickness, all the specimens were taken from the same sheet of material. The projectile was a Ti-6Al-4V cylinder with a length of 25.4 mm, a diameter of 12.7 mm, and a mass ranging from 14.05 to 14.20 g. The projectiles were accelerated toward the specimens at normal incidence using a gas gun with a 2-m-long, 12.7-mm inner-diameter barrel. The ballistic limit for each heat treatment condition and thickness was determined by conducting a number of impact tests that bracketed as closely as possible the velocity

  3. Development and study of a heat pipe with dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semena, M. G.; Gershuni, A. N.; Chepurnoi, A. B.

    Requirements for the structural elements of heat pipes with dielectric properties are examined. To obtain information necessary for the thermal analysis of heat pipes, a study is made of the capillary-transport characteristics of a dielectric capillary structure consisting of quartz fibers; the capillary pressure and the liquid penetration coefficient are determined. The results of the study are used to develop dielectric heat pipes for the cooling of a vacuum electronic instrument. Experimentally determined characteristics of the heat pipes are presented.

  4. XRD and FTIR studies the effect of heat treatment and doping the transition metal oxide on LiNbO3 and LiNb3O8 nano-crystallite phases in lithium borate glass system.

    PubMed

    Kashif, Ismail; Soliman, Ashia A; Sakr, Elham M; Ratep, Asmaa

    2013-09-01

    Glasses of various compositions in the system 90 Li2B4O7-10 Nb2O5 mixed with T.M ions (where T.M is the transition metal) were prepared by quenching technique. Heat-treatment of the parent glasses was performed at 540, 570 and 620 °C, for 5 and 16 h. The glass structure evolution during the controlled crystallization was examined by XRD and FT-IR spectroscopy analysis. The crystalline phases present in the glass ceramics were identified via X-ray diffraction as a function of heat treatment. The FT-IR data propose for these glasses and heat-treated glass network structures mainly built by: di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-and ortho-borate groups. It was found that the quantitative evolution of these various borate species in the glass structures is influenced by the transition metal. A detailed discussion relating to the N4 evolution with the T.M content was made. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies on corrosion resistance and bio-activity of plasma spray deposited hydroxylapatite (HA) based TiO2 and ZrO2 dispersed composite coatings on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) and the same after post spray heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Renu; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of plasma spray deposited hydroxylapatite (HA) based TiO2 dispersed (HA + 50 wt.% TiO2), coating and post spray heat treatment to be referred as HA-TiO2 (heat treated at 650 °C for 2 h) and ZrO2 dispersed (HA + 10 wt.% ZrO2), to be referred as HA-ZrO2 coating (heat treated at 750 °C for 2 h) on corrosion resistance and bioactivity of Ti-6Al-4V substrate has been undertaken. There is partial decomposition of HA to tri-calcium-phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) and formation of CaTiO3 phase in HA-TiO2 coating and CaZrO3 phase in the HA-ZrO2 coating. Corrosion study in Hank's solution shows that there is shifting of corrosion potential (Ecorr) towards active potential (-1.1 V(SCE) for as-sprayed and post spray heat treated HA-TiO2 coating, -1.1 V(SCE) for as-sprayed HA-ZrO2 coating and -1 V(SCE) for HA-ZO2 coating after post spray heat treatment), and deterioration in pitting corrosion (Epit) resistance in as-sprayed coatings and the same after heat treatment (-0.7 V(SCE) for both HA-TiO2 and HA-ZrO2 coating as compared to as received substrate (-0.3 V(SCE)). The corrosion rate was increased for both the coatings with a maximum increase in HA-ZrO2 coating. Bioactivity test shows a higher degree of apatite deposition in as-sprayed coating and the same after heat treatment as compared to as received Ti-6Al-4V though the as-sprayed one showed a superior behavior.

  6. Feasibility study for retrofitting biogas cogeneration systems to district heating in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mo; Park, Hwa-Choon

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study was performed to assess the technical and economic merits of retrofitting biogas-based cogeneration systems to district heating networks. Three district heating plants were selected as candidates for accommodating heat recovery from nearby waste treatment stations, where a massive amount of biogas can be produced on a regular basis. The scenario involves constructing cogeneration systems in each waste treatment station and producing electricity and heat. The amounts of biogas production for each station are estimated based on the monthly treatment capacities surveyed over the most recent years. Heat produced by the cogeneration system is first consumed on site by the waste treatment system to keep the operating temperature at a proper level. If surplus heat is available, it will be transported to the nearest district heating plant. The year-round operation of the cogeneration system was simulated to estimate the electricity and heat production. We considered cost associated with the installation of the cogeneration system and piping as initial investments. Profits from selling electricity and recovering heat are counted as income, while costs associated with buying biogas are expenses. Simple payback periods of 2-10 years were projected under the current economic conditions of South Korea. We found that most of the proposed scenarios can contribute to both energy savings and environmental protection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Heat Treatments of ZnSe Starting Materials for Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Palosz, W.; Feth, S.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of different heat treatments on stoichiometry and residual gas pressure in ZnSe physical vapor transport system was investigated. The dependence of the amount and composition of the residual gas on various heat treatment procedures is reported. Heat treatment of ZnSe starting materials by baking under the condition of dynamic vacuum to adjust its stoichiometry was performed and the effectiveness of the treatment was confirmed by the measurements of the partial pressure of Se2, P(sub Se2), in equilibrium with the heat treated samples. Optimum heat treatment procedures on the ZnSe starting material for the physical vapor transport process are discussed and verified experimentally.

  8. Heat Treatments of ZnSe Starting Materials for Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Palosz, W.; Feth, S.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of different heat treatments on stoichiometry and residual gas pressure in ZnSe physical vapor transport system was investigated. The dependence of the amount and composition of the residual gas on various heat treatment procedures is reported. Heat treatment of ZnSe starting materials by baking under the condition of dynamic vacuum to adjust its stoichiometry was performed and the effectiveness of the treatment was confirmed by the measurements of the partial pressure of Se2, P(sub Se2), in equilibrium with the heat treated samples. Optimum heat treatment procedures on the ZnSe starting material for the physical vapor transport process are discussed and verified experimentally.

  9. Endotoxin inactivation via steam-heat treatment in dilute simethicone emulsions used in biopharmaceutical processes.

    PubMed

    Britt, Keith A; Galvin, Jeffrey; Gammell, Patrick; Nti-Gyabaah, Joseph; Boras, George; Kolwyck, David; Ramirez, José G; Presente, Esther; Naugle, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Simethicone emulsion is used to regulate foaming in cell culture operations in biopharmaceutical processes. It is also a potential source of endotoxin contamination. The inactivation of endotoxins in dilute simethicone emulsions was assessed as a function of time at different steam temperatures using a Limulus amebocyte lysate kinetic chromogenic technique. Endotoxin inactivation from steam-heat treatment was fit to a four-parameter double exponential decay model, which indicated that endotoxin inactivation was biphasic, consisting of fast and slow regimes. In the fast regime, temperature-related effects were dominant. Transitioning into the slow regime, the observed temperature dependence diminished, and concentration-related effects became increasingly significant. The change in the Gibbs free energy moving through the transition state indicated that a large energy barrier must be overcome for endotoxin inactivation to occur. The corresponding Arrhenius pre-exponential factor was >10(12) s(-1) suggesting that endotoxins in aqueous solution exist as aggregates. The disorder associated with the endotoxin inactivation reaction pathway was assessed via the change in entropy moving through the transition state. This quantity was positive indicating that endotoxin inactivation may result from hydrolysis of individual endotoxin molecules, which perturbs the conformation of endotoxin aggregates, thereby modulating the biological activity observed. Steam-heat treatment decreased endotoxin levels by 1-2 logarithm (log) reduction (LRV), which may be practically relevant depending on incoming raw material endotoxin levels. Antifoam efficiency and cell culture performance were negligibly impacted following steam-heat treatment. The results from this study show that steam-heat treatment is a viable endotoxin control strategy that can be implemented to support large-scale biopharmaceutical manufacturing. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  10. Numerical simulation of thermal disposition with induction heating used for oncological hyperthermic treatment.

    PubMed

    Dughiero, F; Corazza, S

    2005-01-01

    Hyperthermia plays an important role in oncological therapies, most often being used in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. The success of this therapy is strongly dependent on the precision and control of thermal deposition. Hyperthermia based on induction heating, with thermally self-regulating thermoseeds inserted into the tumorous mass, is used for interstitial treatment. The technique was the subject of the numerical study presented in the paper. The analysis was carried out using coupled electromagnetic heating and thermo-fluid dynamic FEM simulations. During thermal deposition by induction heating of inserted seeds, the simulations estimated the thermal field inside and outside the tumour, as well as the sensitivity of the thermal field to variations regarding seed temperature, configuration and proximity to vessels. The method, for which accurate anatomical patient's information is essential, is suitable for providing useful qualitative and quantitative information about thermal transients and power density distribution for hyperthermic treatment. Several grid steps were analysed and compared. A 1 cm seed grid was resulted in good homogeneity and effectiveness of the thermal deposition. The cold spot effect caused by large vessels was demonstrated and quantified. Simulations of the heating of a tumorous mass in the liver showed that an indcutor generator operating at 200 kHz frequency and 500 A current, producing a pulsating magnetic field of H = 60 A cm(-1), was adequate for the treatment. The seeds that perform best among those tested (Nicu (28% Cu), PdNi (27.2% Ni), PdCo (6.15% Co) and ferrite core) were the PdNi (1 mm radius, 10 mm length), as they have a low Curie temperature (52 degrees C), which is the closest to the desired treatment temperature and thus reduces the risk of hot spots.

  11. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Properties of CoCrMo Alloy Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoqing, Zhang; Junxin, Li; Xiaoyu, Zhou; Jin, Li; Anmin, Wang

    2018-04-01

    To obtain medical implants with better mechanical properties, it is necessary to conduct studies on the heat treatment process of the selective laser melting (SLM) manufacturing parts. The differential scanning calorimetry method was used to study the heat treatment process of the phase transition of SLM CoCrMo alloy parts. The tensile properties were tested with a tensile test machine, the quantity of carbide precipitated after heat treatment was measured by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and the tensile fracture morphology of the parts was investigated using SEM. The obtained results were: Mechanical properties in terms of elongation and tensile strength of CoCrMo alloy manufactured by SLM that had been heat-treated at 1200 °C for 2 h followed by cooling with water were not only higher than the national standard but also higher than the experimental results of the same batch of castings. The mechanism of fracture of parts manufactured by SLM without heat treatment was brittle fracture, whereas parts which had been heat-treated at 1200 °C for 2 h combined with water cooling and at 1200 °C for 1 h with furnace cooling suffered ductile fracture. This study provides the basis for defining the applications for which CoCrMo alloys manufactured by SLM are suitable within the field of medical implants.

  12. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Properties of CoCrMo Alloy Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoqing, Zhang; Junxin, Li; Xiaoyu, Zhou; Jin, Li; Anmin, Wang

    2018-05-01

    To obtain medical implants with better mechanical properties, it is necessary to conduct studies on the heat treatment process of the selective laser melting (SLM) manufacturing parts. The differential scanning calorimetry method was used to study the heat treatment process of the phase transition of SLM CoCrMo alloy parts. The tensile properties were tested with a tensile test machine, the quantity of carbide precipitated after heat treatment was measured by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and the tensile fracture morphology of the parts was investigated using SEM. The obtained results were: Mechanical properties in terms of elongation and tensile strength of CoCrMo alloy manufactured by SLM that had been heat-treated at 1200 °C for 2 h followed by cooling with water were not only higher than the national standard but also higher than the experimental results of the same batch of castings. The mechanism of fracture of parts manufactured by SLM without heat treatment was brittle fracture, whereas parts which had been heat-treated at 1200 °C for 2 h combined with water cooling and at 1200 °C for 1 h with furnace cooling suffered ductile fracture. This study provides the basis for defining the applications for which CoCrMo alloys manufactured by SLM are suitable within the field of medical implants.

  13. Sensitivity of Austempering Heat Treatment of Ductile Irons to Changes in Process Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccardo, A. D.; Dardati, P. M.; Godoy, L. A.; Celentano, D. J.

    2018-06-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is frequently obtained by means of a three-step austempering heat treatment. The parameters of this process play a crucial role on the microstructure of the final product. This paper considers the influence of some process parameters ( i.e., the initial microstructure of ductile iron and the thermal cycle) on key features of the heat treatment (such as minimum required time for austenitization and austempering and microstructure of the final product). A computational simulation of the austempering heat treatment is reported in this work, which accounts for a coupled thermo-metallurgical behavior in terms of the evolution of temperature at the scale of the part being investigated (the macroscale) and the evolution of phases at the scale of microconstituents (the microscale). The paper focuses on the sensitivity of the process by looking at a sensitivity index and scatter plots. The sensitivity indices are determined by using a technique based on the variance of the output. The results of this study indicate that both the initial microstructure and the thermal cycle parameters play a key role in the production of ADI. This work also provides a guideline to help selecting values of the appropriate process parameters to obtain parts with a required microstructural characteristic.

  14. Effects of Heat Treatment on SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauf, Michael W.

    Residual stresses resulting from the manufacturing process found within a silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) ceramic matrix composite were thoroughly investigated through the use of high-energy X-ray diffraction and Raman microspectroscopy. The material system studied was a Rolls-Royce composite produced with Hi-Nicalon fibers woven into a five harness satin weave, coated with boron nitride and silicon carbide interphases, and subsequently infiltrated with silicon carbide particles and a silicon matrix. Constituent stress states were measured before, during, and after heat treatments ranging from 900 °C to 1300 °C for varying times between one and sixty minutes. Stress determination methods developed through these analyses can be utilized in the development of ceramic matrix composites and other materials employing boron-doped silicon. X-ray diffraction experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Photon Source to investigate the evolution of constituent stresses through heat treatment, and determine how stress states are affected at high temperature through in situ measurements during heat treatments up to 1250 °C for 30 minutes. Silicon carbide particles in the as-received condition exhibited a nearly isotropic stress state with average tensile stresses of approximately 300 MPa. The silicon matrix exhibited a complimentary average compressive stress of approximately 300 MPa. Strong X-ray diffraction evidence is presented demonstrating solid state boron diffusion and increased boron solubility found in silicon throughout heat treatment. While the constituent stress states did evolve through the heat treatment cycles, including approaching nearly stress-free conditions at temperatures close to the manufacturing temperature, no permanent relaxation of stress was observed. Raman spectroscopy was utilized to investigate stresses found within silicon carbide particles embedded within the matrix and the silicon matrix as an alternate

  15. Bioactive Titanate Layers Formed on Titanium and Its Alloys by Simple Chemical and Heat Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Kokubo, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    To reveal general principles for obtaining bone-bonding bioactive metallic titanium, Ti metal was heat-treated after exposure to a solution with different pH. The material formed an apatite layer at its surface in simulated body fluid when heat-treated after exposure to a strong acid or alkali solution, because it formed a positively charged titanium oxide and negatively charged sodium titanate film on its surface, respectively. Such treated these Ti metals tightly bonded to living bone. Porous Ti metal heat-treated after exposure to an acidic solution exhibited not only osteoconductive, but also osteoinductive behavior. Porous Ti metal exposed to an alkaline solution also exhibits osteoconductivity as well as osteoinductivity, if it was subsequently subjected to acid and heat treatments. These acid and heat treatments were not effective for most Ti-based alloys. However, even those alloys exhibited apatite formation when they were subjected to acid and heat treatment after a NaOH treatment, since the alloying elements were removed from the surface by the latter. The NaOH and heat treatments were also not effective for Ti-Zr-Nb-Ta alloys. These alloys displayed apatite formation when subjected to CaCl2 treatment after NaOH treatment, forming Ca-deficient calcium titanate at their surfaces after subsequent heat and hot water treatments. The bioactive Ti metal subjected to NaOH and heat treatments has been clinically used as an artificial hip joint material in Japan since 2007. A porous Ti metal subjected to NaOH, HCl and heat treatments has successfully undergone clinical trials as a spinal fusion device. PMID:25893014

  16. 49 CFR 179.500-6 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500... quenching and tempering for Class III steel. Tempering temperatures shall not be less than 1000 °F. Heat...

  17. STUDY OF THE SUBARCTIC HEAT ISLAND AT FAIRBANKS, ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The heat island associated with the City of Fairbanks, Alaska was studied as a means of isolating the effects of self-heating modified radiative transfer from other causes of heat islands. Minimal winter insolation virtually eliminated the effects of variable albedo and the daily...

  18. The effect of veneering and heat treatment on the flexural strength of Empress 2 ceramics.

    PubMed

    Cattell, M J; Palumbo, R P; Knowles, J C; Clarke, R L; Samarawickrama, D Y D

    2002-05-01

    The aims of the study were to test and compare the biaxial flexural strength and reliability of Empress 2 ceramics after heat treatment and the addition of the veneering material and to characterise their microstructures. Forty disc specimens (2 x 14 mm) and forty disc specimens (1 x 14 mm) were produced by heat pressing in the EP 500 press furnace. Group 1 (2 x 14 mm Empress 2 core) was as heat pressed and group 2 (2 x 14 mm Empress 2 core) was subjected to the recommended firing cycles. Groups 3 and 4 (1 x 14 mm Empress 2 core) were veneered with the dentine material and heat-treated as per group 2. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were lapped to 800 grit silicon carbide paper on the compressive surface only and group 4 on both the compressive and tensile test surfaces. Twenty disc specimens per group were tested using the biaxial flexure test at a crosshead speed of 0.15 mm/min. Specimens were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary electron imaging (SEM). Mean biaxial flexural strengths (MPa+/-SD) were group 1: 265.5+/-25.7; group 2: 251.3+/-30.2; group 3: 258.6+/-21.4 and group 4: 308.6+/-37.7. There was no statistical difference between groups 1, 2 and 3 (p>0.05), but differences for group 4 (p<0.05). XRD and SEM revealed lithium disilicate and lithium orthophosphate in the Empress 2 core material and an amorphous glass and some evidence of a crystalline phase in the dentine material. CONCLUSIONS; Veneering or heat treatment of Empress 2 ceramics did not significantly affect the mean biaxial flexural strength (p>0.05) or reliability. Surface modification of the Empress 2 core material increased the mean biaxial flexural strength (p<0.05).

  19. Gas Furnace with Pulsed Feeding of the Heating Agent for Volume Precision Heat Treatment of CCM Rolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, V. I.; Egorova, V. M.; Gusev, S. V.

    2001-05-01

    A standard chamber batch furnace of the Severstal' plant has been modified for precision heat treatment of CCM rolls. The certification tests of a charge of rolls from steel 24KhM1F have shown the technical and economical advantages of the new design.

  20. Effect of sputtering condition and heat treatment in Co/Cu/Co/FeMn spin valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hong Jin; Bae, Jun Soo; Lee, Taek Dong; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2002-03-01

    The exchange field of Cu(50 Å)/FeMn(50 Å)/Co(50 Å) sputtered on Si substrate was studied in terms of surface roughness and phase formation of γ-FeMn under a variety of Ar pressures and powers in sputtering. It was found that the exchange field is stronger when the surface is smoother and the FeMn layer forms better. The exchange bias field increased by more than three times after heat treatment. The effect of heat treament on magnetoresistance (MR) and resistance of the top spin valve, substrate/Co(30 Å)/Cu(30 Å)/Co(30 Å)/FeMn(150 Å), was studied. It was observed that the MR started to increase with annealing temperature and the effect was significant at 150°C. The heat treatment led to the disappearance of the intermixed layer between Co and Cu, and the concentration profile of Cu became flat and smooth at this temperature.

  1. Integration of Heat Treatment with Shot Peening of 17-4 Stainless Steel Fabricated by Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlMangour, Bandar; Yang, Jenn-Ming

    2017-11-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a promising powder-based additive manufacturing process for fabrication of near-net-shape parts. However, the typically poor fatigue performance of DMLS parts must be addressed for use in demanding industrial applications. Post-treatment can be applied to enhance the performance of such components. Earlier attempts at inducing grain refinement through severe plastic deformation of part surfaces using shot peening improved the physical and mechanical properties of metals without chemical alteration. However, heat treatment can modify the surface-hardening effects attained by shot peening. Hence, we examined the feasibility of applying shot peening combined with heat treatment to improve the performance of DMLS-fabricated 17-4 stainless steel parts through microstructural evolution studies and hardness measurements. Compared to a specimen treated only by shot peening, the sample exposed to additional heat treatment showed increased hardness due to aging of the dominant phase.

  2. The Effect of Heat Treatment on the chemical and color change of Black Locust (Robinia Pseudoacacia) wood flour

    Treesearch

    Yao Chen; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao; Nicole M. Stark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen and moisture content (MC) on the chemical and color changes of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood during heat treatment. The wood flour was conditioned to different initial MCs and heated for 24 h at a constant temperature of 120°C in either oxygen or nitrogen atmosphere. The pH values and...

  3. Comparison of the effects of different heat treatment processes on rheological properties of cake and bread wheat flours.

    PubMed

    Bucsella, Blanka; Takács, Ágnes; Vizer, Viktoria; Schwendener, Urs; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Dry and hydrothermal heat treatments are efficient for modifying the technological-functional and shelf-life properties of wheat milling products. Dry heat treatment process is commonly used to enhance the volume of cakes. Hydrothermal heat treatment makes wheat flours suitable as thickener agents. In this study, cake and bread wheat flours that differed in baking properties were exposed to dry (100 °C, 12 min) and hydrothermal (95 °C, 5 min, 5-20 l/h water) heat treatments. Rheological differences caused by the treatments were investigated in a diluted slurry and in a dough matrix. Dry heat treatment resulted in enhanced dough stability. This effect was significantly higher in the cake flour than the bread flour. Altered viscosity properties of the bread flour in the slurry matrix were also observed. The characteristics of hydrothermally treated samples showed matrix dependency: their viscosity increases in the slurry and decreases in the dough matrix. These results can support us to produce flour products with specific techno-functional properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of different heat treatments and disinfectants on the survival of Prototheca zopfii.

    PubMed

    Lassa, Henryka; Jagielski, Tomasz; Malinowski, Edward

    2011-03-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by the yeast-like alga Prototheca zopfii represents a serious veterinary problem and may result in heavy economic losses to particular dairy farms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survival of 50 isolates of P. zopfii in milk subjected to different heat treatments and the survival of further 106 P. zopfii isolates after exposure to three classes of teat disinfectants: iodine (Dipal), quaternary ammonium compounds (Teat), and dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid (Blu-gard). Of the 50 isolates tested for thermal tolerance, 29 (58%) survived heat treatment at 62 °C for 30 s and 13 (26% of all isolates) of those survived after heat treatment at 72 °C for 15 s. None of the 106 isolates were able to withstand the in-use concentrations of the three disinfectants tested. The highest disinfectant concentrations that permitted survival of at least one isolate were dilutions: 1:1,000 for Dipal (survival rate of 52.8-57.5%), 1:100 for Teat (88.7-90.6%), and 1:10 for Blu-gard (100%). No differences in the survival rates of P. zopfii were observed with respect to the duration of exposure to disinfectant. The results of this study support the previous findings that P. zopfii may resist high-temperature treatments, including that applied in the high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization process. The obtained data also demonstrate the efficacy of the three classes of teat disinfectants against P. zopfii, with the efficacy of iodine being most pronounced. The study emphasizes the necessity of using higher temperatures in the pasteurization of raw milk to kill the Prototheca algae, as well as the particular suitability of the iodine for the control procedures of protothecal mastitis.

  5. Advanced heat receiver conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James; Saunders, Roger; Batchelder, Gary

    1988-01-01

    Solar Dynamic space power systems are candidate electrical power generating systems for future NASA missions. One of the key components of the solar dynamic power system is the solar receiver/thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem. Receiver development was conducted by NASA in the late 1960's and since then a very limited amount of work has been done in this area. Consequently the state of the art (SOA) receivers designed for the IOC space station are large and massive. The objective of the Advanced Heat Receiver Conceptual Design Study is to conceive and analyze advanced high temperature solar dynamic Brayton and Stirling receivers. The goal is to generate innovative receiver concepts that are half of the mass, smaller, and more efficient than the SOA. It is also necessary that these innovative receivers offer ease of manufacturing, less structural complexity and fewer thermal stress problems. Advanced Brayton and Stirling receiver storage units are proposed and analyzed in this study which can potentially meet these goals.

  6. Heat treatment of human esophageal tissues: Effect on esophageal cancer detection using oxygenated hemoglobin diffuse reflectance ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q. L.; Guo, Z. Y.; Si, J. L.; Wei, H. J.; Yang, H. Q.; Wu, G. Y.; Xie, S. S.; Guo, X.; Zhong, H. Q.; Li, L. Q.; Li, X. Y.

    2011-03-01

    The main objective of the present work is to study the influence of heat treatment on the esophageal cancer detection using the diffuse reflectance (DR) spectral intensity ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) absorption bands to distinguish the epithelial tissues of normal human esophagus and moderately differentiated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) at different heat treatment temperature of 20, 37, 42, 50, and 60°C, respectively. The DR spectra for the epithelial tissues of the normal esophagus and ESCC in vitro at different heat-treatment temperature in the wavelength range 400-650 nm were measured with a commercial optical fiber spectrometer. The results indicate that the average DR spectral intensity overall enhancement with concomitant increase of heat-treatment temperature for the epithelial tissues of normal esophagus and ESCC, but the average DR spectral intensity for the normal esophageal epithelial tissues is relatively higher than that for ESCC epithelial tissues at the same heat-treatment temperature. The mean R540/R575 ratios of ESCC epithelial tissues were always lower than that of normal esophageal epithelial tissues at the same temperature, and the mean R540/R575 ratios of the epithelial tissues of the normal esophagus and ESCC were decreasing with the increase of different heat-treatment temperatures. The differences in the mean R540/R575 ratios between the epithelial tissues of normal esophagus and ESCC were 13.33, 13.59, 11.76, and 11.11% at different heat-treatment temperature of 20, 37, 42, and 50°C, respectively. These results also indicate that the DR intensity ratio R540/R575 of the hemoglobin bands is a useful tool for discrimination between the epithelial tissues of normal esophagus and ESCC in the temperature range from room temperature to 50°C, but it was non-effective at 60°C or over 60°C.

  7. Influence of lactic acid and post-treatment recovery time on the heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yasuo; Miake, Kiyotaka; Nakamura, Hiromi; Kage-Nakadai, Eriko; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-09-18

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lactic acid (LA) with and without organic material at various post-treatment recovery times on the heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). LA decreased Lm numbers; however, the effect was remarkably attenuated by the presence of organic matter. Five strains of Lm were treated with LA and the listericidal effects were compared. The effect of LA varied depending on the strain, with ≥3.0% (w/w) LA required to kill the Lm strains in a short time. The heat resistance of Lm treated with LA was examined with respect to the time interval between the acid treatment and the subsequent manufacturing step. The heat resistance of Lm was shown to significantly increase during the post-treatment period. Heat tolerance (D value) increased up to 3.4-fold compared with the non-treated control bacteria. RNA sequencing and RT-PCR analyses suggested that several stress chaperones, proteins controlled by RecA and associated with high-temperature survival, were involved in the mechanism of enhanced heat resistance. These results are applicable to manufacturers when LA and heat treatment methods are utilized for the effective control of Lm in foods. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Daily heat stress treatment rescues denervation-activated mitochondrial clearance and atrophy in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Yuki; Kitaoka, Yu; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Hoshino, Daisuke; Hatta, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic nerve injury or motor neuron disease leads to denervation and severe muscle atrophy. Recent evidence indicates that loss of mitochondria and the related reduction in oxidative capacity could be key mediators of skeletal muscle atrophy. As our previous study showed that heat stress increased the numbers of mitochondria in skeletal muscle, we evaluated whether heat stress treatment could have a beneficial impact on denervation-induced loss of mitochondria and subsequent muscle atrophy. Here, we report that daily heat stress treatment (mice placed in a chamber with a hot environment; 40°C, 30 min day−1, for 7 days) rescues the following parameters: (i) muscle atrophy (decreased gastrocnemius muscle mass); (ii) loss of mitochondrial content (decreased levels of ubiquinol–cytochrome c reductase core protein II, cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and IV and voltage-dependent anion channel protein); and (iii) reduction in oxidative capacity (reduced maximal activities of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) in denervated muscle (produced by unilateral sciatic nerve transection). In order to gain a better understanding of the above mitochondrial adaptations, we also examined the effects of heat stress on autophagy-dependent mitochondrial clearance (mitophagy). Daily heat stress normalized denervation-activated induction of mitophagy (increased mitochondrial microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain3-II (LC3-II) with and without blocker of autophagosome clearance). The molecular basis of this observation was explained by the results that heat stress attenuated the denervation-induced increase in key proteins that regulate the following steps: (i) the tagging step of mitochondrial clearance (increased mitochondrial Parkin, ubiquitin-conjugated, P62/sequestosome 1 (P62/SQSTM1)); and (ii) the elongation step of autophagosome formation (increased Atg5–Atg12 conjugate and Atg16L). Overall, our results contribute to the better

  9. Effects of Heat Treatment on Tribological Behavior of Electroless Ni-B Coating at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Arkadeb; Barman, Tapan Kumar; Sahoo, Prasanta

    The present work investigates the effects of heat treatment on friction and wear behavior of electroless Ni-B coatings at elevated temperatures. Coating is deposited on AISI 1040 steel specimens and subjected to heat treatments at 350∘C, 400∘C and 450∘C. Coating characterization is done using scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-Ray analysis and X-Ray diffraction analysis. Improvement in microhardness is observed for the heat treated deposits. Further, the effect of heat treatment on the tribological behavior of the coatings at room temperature, 100∘C, 300∘C and 500∘C are analyzed on a pin-on-disc setup. Heat treatment at 350∘C causes a significant improvement in the tribological behavior at elevated temperatures. Higher heat treatment temperatures cause deterioration in the wear resistance and coefficient of friction. The wear mechanism at 100∘C is observed to be predominantly adhesive along with abrasion. While at 300∘C, abrasive wear is seen to be the governing wear phenomenon. Formation of mechanically mixed layers is noticed at both the test temperatures of 100∘C and 300∘C for the coatings heat treated at 400∘C and 450∘C test temperature. The predominant wear mechanisms at 500∘C are abrasive and fatigue for as-deposited and heat treated coatings, respectively.

  10. Evaluation of dry heat treatment of soft wheat flour for the production of high ratio cakes.

    PubMed

    Keppler, S; Bakalis, S; Leadley, C E; Sahi, S S; Fryer, P J

    2018-05-01

    An accurate method to heat treat flour samples has been used to quantify the effects of heat treatment on flour functionality. A variety of analytical methods has been used such as oscillatory rheology, rheomixer, solvent retention capacity tests, and Rapid Visco Analysis (RVA) in water and in aqueous solutions of sucrose, lactic acid, and sodium carbonate. This work supports the hypothesis that heat treatment facilitates the swelling of starch granules at elevated temperature. Results furthermore indicated improved swelling ability and increased interactions of flour polymers (in particular arabinoxylans) of heat treated flour at ambient conditions. The significant denaturation of the proteins was indicated by a lack of gluten network formation after severe heat treatments as shown by rheomixer traces. Results of these analyses were used to develop a possible cake flour specification. A method was developed using response surfaces of heat treated flour samples in the RVA using i) water and ii) 50% sucrose solution. This can uniquely characterise the heat treatment a flour sample has received and to establish a cake flour specification. This approach might be useful for the characterisation of processed samples, rather than by baking cakes. Hence, it may no longer be needed to bake a cake after flour heat treatment to assess the suitability of the flour for high ratio cake production, but 2 types of RVA tests suffice. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploiting heat treatment effects on SMAs macro and microscopic properties in developing fire protection devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlacu, L.; Cimpoeşu, N.; Bujoreanu, L. G.; Lohan, N. M.

    2017-08-01

    Ni-Ti shape memory alloys (SMAs) are intelligent alloys which demonstrate unique properties, such as shape memory effect, two-way shape memory effect, super-elasticity and vibration damping which, accompanied by good processability, excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility as well as fair wear resistance and cyclic stability, enabled the development of important industrial applications (such as sensors, actuators, fasteners, couplings and valves), medical applications (such as stents, bone implants, orthodontic archwires, minimal invasive surgical equipment) as well as environmental health and safety devices (anti-seismic dampers, fire safety devices). The phase transitions in Ni-Ti SMAs are strongly influenced by processing methods, chemical compositions and thermomechanical history. This paper presents a study of the effects of heat treatment on the mechanical and thermal properties of commercial Ni-Ti shape memory alloy (SMA). The experimental work involved subjecting a SMA rod to heat-treatment consisting in heating up to 500°C, 10 minutes-maintaining and water quenching. Mechanical properties were highlighted by microhardness tests while thermal characteristics were emphasized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The presence of chemical composition fluctuations was checked by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy performed with an EDAX Bruker analyzer.

  12. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... condensing at a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for at least 15 seconds or its equivalent in bacterial.... for 15 seconds or its equivalent in bacterial destruction. (2) All buttermilk to be used in the... temperature of 161 °F for 15 seconds or its equivalent in bacterial destruction. (b) Heat treatment—(1) High...

  13. 7 CFR 305.25 - Dry heat treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... minutes. Spread soil in layers 0.5 inches in depth to ensure uniform heat penetration. T412-a 248 15... Spread the ears of corn in single layers on slats or wire shelves. T303-c-1 212 1 hour. T303-d-1 180-200...

  14. Effects of heat-moisture treatment reaction conditions on the physicochemical and structural properties of maize starch: moisture and length of heating.

    PubMed

    Sui, Zhongquan; Yao, Tianming; Zhao, Yue; Ye, Xiaoting; Kong, Xiangli; Ai, Lianzhong

    2015-04-15

    Changes in the properties of normal maize starch (NMS) and waxy maize starch (WMS) after heat-moisture treatment (HMT) under various reaction conditions were investigated. NMS and WMS were adjusted to moisture levels of 20%, 25% and 30% and heated at 100 °C for 2, 4, 8 and 16 h. The results showed that moisture content was the most important factor in determining pasting properties for NMS, whereas the heating length was more important for WMS. Swelling power decreased in NMS but increased in WMS, and while the solubility index decreased for both samples, the changes were largely determined by moisture content. The gelatinisation temperatures of both samples increased with increasing moisture content but remained unchanged with increasing heating length. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance ratio was affected to different extents by the moisture levels but remained constant with increasing the heating length. The X-ray intensities increased but relative crystallinity decreased to a greater extent with increasing moisture content. This study showed that the levels of moisture content and length of heating had significant impacts on the structural and physicochemical properties of normal and waxy maize starches but to different extents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stator hub treatment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.; Hilvers, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an experimental research program to investigate the potential of improving compressor stall margin by the application of hub treatment are presented. Extensive tuft probing showed that the two-stage, 0.5 radius ratio compressor selected for the test was indeed hub critical. Circumferential groove and baffled wide blade angle slot hub treatments under the stators were tested. Performance measurements were made with total and static pressure probes, wall static pressure taps, flow angle measuring instrumentation and hot film anemometers. Stator hub treatment was not found to be effective in improving compressor stall margin by delaying the point of onset of rotating stall or in modifying compressor performance for any of the configurations tested. Extensive regions of separated flow were observed on the suction surface of the stators near the hub. However, the treatment did not delay the point where flow separation in the stator hub region becomes apparent.

  16. Effects of Heat Treatment on Interface Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Explosively Welded Ck60/St37 Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, Majid; Toroghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Hashemi, Seyyed Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    This study explores the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of explosively welded Ck60 steel/St37 steel. The objective is to find an economical way for manufacturing bimetallic plates that can be used in the rolling stand of hot rolling mill units. The explosive ratio and stand-off distance are set at 1.7 and 1.5 t ( t = flyer thickness), respectively. Since explosive welding is accompanied by such undesirable metallurgical effects as remarkable hardening, severe plastic deformation, and even formation of local melted zones near the interface, heat treatment is required to overcome or alleviate these adverse effects. For this purpose, the composites are subjected to heat treatment in a temperature range of 600-700 °C at a rate of 90 °C/h for 1 h. Results demonstrate well-bonded composite plates with a wavy interface. In the as-welded case, vortex zones are formed along the interface; however, they are transformed into fine grains upon heat treatment. Microhardness is also observed to be maximum near the interface in the welded case before it decreases with increasing temperature. Shear strength is the highest in the as-welded specimen, which later decreases as a result of heat treatment. Moreover, the energy absorbed by the heat-treated specimens is observed to increase with increasing temperature so that the lowest value of absorbed energy belongs to the as-welded specimen. Finally, fractography is carried out using the scanning electron microscope to examine the specimens subjected to shear and impact tests. As a result of heat treatment, fracture surfaces exhibit dimpled ruptures and fail in the mixed mode, while failure in the as-welded specimens predominantly occurs in the brittle mode.

  17. Targeting Heat Shock Protein 90 for the Treatment of Malignant Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Giubellino, Alessio; Sourbier, Carole; Lee, Min-Jung; Scroggins, Brad; Bullova, Petra; Landau, Michael; Ying, Weiwen; Neckers, Len

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic pheochromocytoma represents one of the major clinical challenges in the field of neuroendocrine oncology. Recent molecular characterization of pheochromocytoma suggests new treatment options with targeted therapies. In this study we investigated the 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) as a potential therapeutic target for advanced pheochromocytoma. Both the first generation, natural product Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG, tanespimycin), and the second-generation synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor STA-9090 (ganetespib) demonstrated potent inhibition of proliferation and migration of pheochromocytoma cell lines and induced degradation of key Hsp90 clients. Furthermore, ganetespib induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in primary pheochromocytoma cells. Using metastatic models of pheochromocytoma, we demonstrate the efficacy of 17-AAG and ganetespib in reducing metastatic burden and increasing survival. Levels of Hsp70 in plasma from the xenograft studies served as a proximal biomarker of drug treatment. Our study suggests that targeting Hsp90 may benefit patients with advanced pheochromocytoma. PMID:23457505

  18. Radio Frequency Heat Treatments to Disinfest Dried Pulses of Cowpea Weevil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To explore the potential of radio frequency (RF) heat treatments as an alternative to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of dried pulses, the relative heat tolerance and dielectric properties of different stages of the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) was determined. Among the immature st...

  19. Dry heat and hot water treatments for disinfesting cottonseed of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential of low- and high-temperature dry heat, and hot water treatments, for disinfesting cottonseed of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum was investigated. Naturally infected seeds from Louisiana were air-heated in incubators set at temperatures of 30, 35, and 40 degrees C for up to 24 we...

  20. Laboratory studies of the coronal heating problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, Daniel Wolf; Bose, Sayak; Hahn, Michael; Vincena, Steve; Gekelman, Walter; Carter, Troy; Tripathi, Shreekrishna

    2018-06-01

    The solar corona, the outer atmosphere of the Sun at 106 K, is ~ 200 times hotter than the underlying visible surface. Incompressible Alfvén waves excited by convective motions at the surface of the Sun are posited to transport energy to the corona. Strong gradients in Alfvén speed at low heights in the corona are believed to be responsible for wave-driven heating of the plasma. These gradients may cause reflection of the incident waves, enabling the generation of turbulence due to nonlinear interaction between the counter propagating waves and subsequent dissipation of the wave energy at smaller length scales. We are studying propagation of Alfvén waves in the laboratory using scaled plasma parameters to approximate the solar corona. The experiments are conducted using the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at the University of California, Los Angeles. We have explored the effectiveness of the longitudinal gradients in the Alfvén speed at reducing the energy of the Alfvén waves propagating through it in the linear regime. Our results show that the energy of the transmitted Alfvén waves decreases as the inhomogeneity parameter λA/LA increases. Here, λA is the wavelength of the Alfvén wave and LA is the Alfvén speed scale length. The inhomogeneity parameter is changed in two ways. In the first set of the experiments, it is changed by varying λA, while holding LA constant. In the second set, λA/LA is changed by varying LA, while holding λA constant. The decrease in transmittance of the wave energy with increase in λA/LA, for both the above cases, are found to be agreement with each other.

  1. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.

    PubMed

    Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium

  2. Effect of heat treatment and enzymatic digestion on the B cell epitopes of cow's milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Y; Kitamura, A; Ujihara, T; Zushi, N; Kuzume, K; Shimanouchi, Y; Tamura, S; Wakiguchi, H; Saito, H; Matsumoto, K

    2009-06-01

    Processing milk leads to changes in clinical allergenicity. However, the mechanism by which heat treatment affects the allergenicity of milk proteins is not fully understood. We investigated the effect of heat treatment and enzymatic digestion on the allergenicity of B cell epitopes of milk proteins using a histamine release assay. Human basophils were passively sensitized using sera from 10 patients with allergies to cow's milk. All the patients experienced symptoms immediately after ingesting milk. The human basophils were obtained from umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells after culturing the mononuclear cells for 3-4 weeks in the presence of IL-3. After sensitization with 10% patient sera for 48 h, the cells were stimulated with untreated, heat-treated, or heat-treated and pepsin-and-trypsin-digested beta-lactoglobulin or alpha-casein for 1 h. The histamine concentrations in the supernatants were then measured by radioimmunoassay. Heat treatment alone did not alter the molecular weight of beta-lactoglobulin or alpha-casein. Heat treatment of beta-lactoglobulin significantly increased its susceptibility to enzymatic digestion in a time- and temperature-dependent manner and reduced its ability to induce histamine release from sensitized basophils. Similar findings were not observed for alpha-casein. The combination of heat treatment and enzymatic digestion reduced the abilities of both beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-casein to induce histamine release from passively sensitized basophils. Heat treatment reduced the allergenicity of beta-lactoglobulin by inducing conformational changes and by increasing its susceptibility to enzymatic digestion, both of which disrupted B cell epitopes, whereas heat treatment alone did not alter the allergenicity of alpha-casein.

  3. Effect of Flash-heat Treatment on Immunoglobulins in Breastmilk

    PubMed Central

    Chantry, Caroline J.; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Moldoveanu, Zina; Peerson, Jan; Coutsoudis, Anna; Sibeko, Lindiwe; Abrams, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background Heat-treated expressed breastmilk is recommended by WHO as an option to reduce vertical HIV transmission in resource poor regions. Flash-heat (FH) is a low technology pasteurization method developed for home use, but its effect on quantity and quality of breastmilk immunoglobulins is unknown. Objective To evaluate FH's effect on breastmilk immunoglobulin levels and antigen binding capacity. Design/Methods Fifty HIV+ mothers in South Africa provided breastmilk. Part of each sample served as an unheated (UH) control; the remainder was Flash-heated. Total and antigen-specific IgA and IgG were measured by ELISA. Paired t-test was performed on log transformed data. Results FH significantly decreased total IgA and IgG concentrations [geometric mean (geometric sd) 318.0 (1.9) vs. 398.2 (1.9) mcg/mL and 89.1 (2.7) vs. 133.3 (2.5) mcg/mL, p<0.001 each]. Similar decreases in anti-HIV-1 gp120 IgG, anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide and anti-poliovirus IgA occurred (p<0.001 each). Although the latter was most affected, FH retained 66% of the antigen binding ability. In contrast, binding capacity of IgA and IgG to influenza increased after FH (p=0.029 and 0.025 respectively). Conclusions Most breastmilk immunoglobulin activity survives FH, suggesting Flash-heated breastmilk is immunologically superior to breastmilk substitutes. Clinical significance of this decreased immunoglobulin activity needs evaluation in prospective trials. PMID:19421069

  4. On board short-time high temperature heat treatment of ballast water: a field trial under operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Quilez-Badia, Gemma; McCollin, Tracy; Josefsen, Kjell D; Vourdachas, Anthony; Gill, Margaret E; Mesbahi, Ehsan; Frid, Chris L J

    2008-01-01

    A ballast water short-time high temperature heat treatment technique was applied on board a car-carrier during a voyage from Egypt to Belgium. Ballast water from three tanks was subjected for a few seconds to temperatures ranging from 55 degrees C to 80 degrees C. The water was heated using the vessel's heat exchanger steam and a second heat exchanger was used to pre-heat and cool down the water. The treatment was effective at causing mortality of bacteria, phytoplankton and zooplankton. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) standard was not agreed before this study was carried out, but comparing our results gives a broad indication that the IMO standard would have been met in some of the tests for the zooplankton, in all the tests for the phytoplankton; and probably on most occasions for the bacteria. Passing the water through the pump increased the kill rate but increasing the temperature above 55 degrees C did not improve the heat treatment's efficacy.

  5. Recovering hydrogen production performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR) fed with galactose via repeated heat treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Anburajan, Parthiban; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Park, Jong-Hun; Kim, Sang-Hyoun

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of repeated heat treatment towards the enhancement of hydrogen fermentation from galactose in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor with the hydraulic retention time of 6h and the operation temperature of 37°C. The hydrogen production rate (HPR) and hydrogen yield (HY) gradually increased up to 9.1L/L/d and 1.1mol/mol galactose, respectively, until the 33rd day of operation. When heat treatment at 80°C for 30min was applied, hydrogen production performance was enhanced by 37% with the enrichment of hydrogen producing bacteria population. The HPR and HY were achieved at 12.5L/L/d and 1.5mol/mol hexose, respectively, during further 30 cycles of reactor operation. The repeated heat treatment would be a viable strategy to warrant reliable continuous hydrogen production using mixed culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Heat Treatment on Fracture Toughness and Wear Resistance of Nicral-Zro2 Multilayered Thermal Barrier Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zibo; Wang, Guanghong

    2018-04-01

    The chemical composition and fracture toughness of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) before and after heat treatment were characterized, and the cracks around the interface between the coating and the substrate could be successfully eliminated and meanwhile the porosity of the coatings tended to reduce. The XRD analysis revealed the coatings were composed of non-transformable tetragonal t' phase of ZrO2 and γ -(Ni, Cr) with minor Ni3Al (γ') precipitates. Additionally, the relationship between the heat treatment and wear resistance was systematically studied. The results indicated that both the hardness and fracture toughness increased after quenching process. The oxidation wear became more prominent after heat treatment, which probably resulted from the better bonding strength of coatings. Dense and homogeneous microstructure introduced by vacuum oil-quenching improved stabilization of the weight gain during thermal cycle test.

  7. Development of the heat treatment system for the 40 T hybrid magnet superconducting outsert.

    PubMed

    Chen, W G; Chen, Z M; Chen, Z Y; Huang, P C; He, P; Zhu, J W

    2011-10-01

    The heat treatment of Nb(3)Sn coil with the glass fabric insulation is one of the key and critical processes for the outsert solenoids of the 40 T hybrid magnet, which could be wound with cable-in-conduit conductors using the insulation-wind-and-react technique. The manufacturing of the large vertical type vacuum/Ar atmosphere-protection heat treatment system has been completed and recently installed in the High Magnetic Filed Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The heat treatment system composed mainly the furnace, the purging gas supply system, the control system, the gas impurities monitoring system, and so on. At present, the regulation and testing of the heat treatment system has been successfully finished, and all of technical parameters meet or exceed specifications.

  8. Heat Treatment Devices and Method of Operation Thereof to Produce Dual Microstructure Superalloys Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John (Inventor); Gabb, Timothy P. (Inventor); Kantzos, Peter T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A heat treatment assembly and heat treatment methods are disclosed for producing different microstructures in the bore and rim portions of nickel-based superalloy disks, particu- larly suited for gas turbine applications. The heat treatment assembly is capable of being removed from the furnace and disassembled to allow rapid fan or oil quenching of the disk. For solutioning heat treatments of the disk, temperatures higher than that of this solvus temperature of the disk are used to produce coarse grains in the rim of each disk so as to give maximum creep and dwell crack resistance at the rim service temperature. At the same time, solution temperature lower than the solvus temperature of the disk are provided to produce fine grain in the bore of the disk so as to give maximum strength and low cycle fatigue resistance.

  9. Effects of Mead Wort Heat Treatment on the Mead Fermentation Process and Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Czabaj, Sławomir; Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Kliks, Jarosław

    2017-05-14

    The effects of mead wort heat treatment on the mead fermentation process and antioxidant activity were tested. The experiment was conducted with the use of two different honeys (multiflorous and honeydew) collected from the Lower Silesia region (Poland). Heat treatment was performed with the use of a traditional technique (gently boiling), the more commonly used pasteurization, and without heat treatment (control). During the experiment fermentation dynamics were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection (HPLC-RID). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were estimated for worts and meads using UV/Vis spectrophotometric analysis. The formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was monitored by HPLC analyses. Heat treatment had a great impact on the final antioxidant capacity of meads.

  10. Development of the heat treatment system for the 40 T hybrid magnet superconducting outsert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. G.; Chen, Z. M.; Chen, Z. Y.; Huang, P. C.; He, P.; Zhu, J. W.

    2011-10-01

    The heat treatment of Nb3Sn coil with the glass fabric insulation is one of the key and critical processes for the outsert solenoids of the 40 T hybrid magnet, which could be wound with cable-in-conduit conductors using the insulation-wind-and-react technique. The manufacturing of the large vertical type vacuum/Ar atmosphere-protection heat treatment system has been completed and recently installed in the High Magnetic Filed Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The heat treatment system composed mainly the furnace, the purging gas supply system, the control system, the gas impurities monitoring system, and so on. At present, the regulation and testing of the heat treatment system has been successfully finished, and all of technical parameters meet or exceed specifications.

  11. Experimental heat treatment of silcrete implies analogical reasoning in the Middle Stone Age.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Lyn; Prinsloo, Linda C

    2014-05-01

    Siliceous rocks that were not heated to high temperatures during their geological formation display improved knapping qualities when they are subjected to controlled heating. Experimental heat treatment of South African silcrete, using open fires of the kind used during the Middle Stone Age, shows that the process needed careful management, notwithstanding recent arguments to the contrary. Silcrete blocks fractured when heated on the surface of open fires or on coal beds, but were heated without mishap when buried in sand below a fire. Three silcrete samples, a control, a block heated underground with maximum temperature between 400 and 500 °C and a block heated in an open fire with maximum temperature between 700 and 800 °C, were analysed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), optical microscopy, and both Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the volume expansion during the thermally induced α- to β-quartz phase transformation and the volume contraction during cooling play a major role in the heat treatment of silcrete. Rapid heating or cooling through the phase transformation at 573 °C will cause fracture of the silcrete. Successful heat treatment requires controlling surface fire temperatures in order to obtain the appropriate underground temperatures to stay below the quartz inversion temperature. Heat treatment of rocks is a transformative technology that requires skilled use of fire. This process involves analogical reasoning, which is an attribute of complex cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Post-weld Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Supermartensitic Stainless Steel Deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, Sebastián; Svoboda, Hernán; Surian, Estela

    2017-02-01

    Supermartensitic stainless steels have good weldability and adequate tensile property, toughness and corrosion resistance. They have been developed as an alternative technology, mainly for oil and gas industries. The final properties of a supermartensitic stainless steel deposit depend on its chemical composition and microstructure: martensite, tempered martensite, ferrite, retained austenite and carbides and/or nitrides. In these steels, the post-weld heat treatments (PWHTs) are usually double tempering ones, to ensure both complete tempering of martensite and high austenite content, to increase toughness and decrease hardness. The aim of this work was to study the effect of post-weld heat treatments (solution treatment with single and double tempering) on the mechanical properties of a supermartensitic stainless steel deposit. An all-weld metal test coupon was welded according to standard ANSI/AWS A5.22-95 using a GMAW supermartensitic stainless steel metal cored wire, under gas shielding. PWHTs were carried out varying the temperature of the first tempering treatment with and without a second tempering one, after solution treatment. All-weld metal chemical composition analysis, metallurgical characterization, hardness and tensile property measurements and Charpy-V tests were carried out. There are several factors which can be affected by the PWHTs, among them austenite content is a significant one. Different austenite contents (0-42%) were found. Microhardness, tensile property and toughness were affected with up to 15% of austenite content, by martensite tempering and carbide precipitation. The second tempering treatment seemed not to have had an important effect on the mechanical properties measured in this work.

  13. Effect of heat treatment on corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel in orthodontic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabea Hammood, Ali; Faraj Noor, Ahmed; Talib Alkhafagy, Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    Heat treatment is necessary for duplex stainless steel (DSS) to remove or dissolve intermetallic phases, to remove segregation and to relieve any residual thermal stress in DSS, which may be formed during production processes. In the present study, the corrosion resistance of a DSS in artificial saliva was studied by potentiodynamic measurements. The microstructure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vickers hardness (HV). The properties were tested in as-received and in thermally treated conditions (800-900 °C, 2-8 min). The research aims to evaluate the capability of DSS for orthodontic applications, in order to substitute the austenitic grades. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance is mainly affected by the ferrite/austenite ratio. The best result was obtained with a treatment at 900 °C for 2 min.

  14. Structural transformations and properties of titanium-aluminum composite during heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervukhin, L. B.; Kryukov, D. B.; Krivenkov, A. O.; Chugunov, S. N.

    2017-08-01

    The link between the parameters of heat treatment of a layered titanium-aluminum composite material obtained by explosive welding with the formation of intermetallic compounds in it has been analyzed. The results of measurements of the microhardness of the composite and the thickness of the interlayer of the intermetallic phase obtained using different regimes of heat treatment have been discussed. Special attention has been paid to estimating the composition of the intermetallic phase in the composite prepared by explosive welding.

  15. Heat treatment of pre-hydrolyzed silane increases adhesion of phosphate monomer-based resin cement to glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado; Cotes, Caroline; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; Leite, Fabíola Pessoa Pereira; Özcan, Mutlu

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different forms of heat treatment on a pre-hydrolyzed silane to improve the adhesion of phosphate monomer-based (MDP) resin cement to glass ceramic. Resin and feldspathic ceramic blocks (n=48, n=6 for bond test, n=2 for microscopy) were randomly divided into 6 groups and subject to surface treatments: G1: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + MDP resin cement (Panavia F); G2: HF 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + Heat Treatment (oven) + Panavia F; G3: Silane + Heat Treatment (oven) + Panavia F; G4: HF 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + Heat Treatment (hot air) + Panavia F; G5: Silane + Heat Treatment (hot air) + Panavia F; G6: Silane + Panavia F. Microtensile bond strength (MTBS) test was performed using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). After debonding, the substrate and adherent surfaces were analyzed using stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to categorize the failure types. Data were analyzed statistically using two-way test ANOVA and Tukey's test (=0.05). Heat treatment of the silane containing MDP, with prior etching with HF (G2: 13.15 ± 0.89a; G4: 12.58 ± 1.03a) presented significantly higher bond strength values than the control group (G1: 9.16 ± 0.64b). The groups without prior etching (G3: 10.47 ± 0.70b; G5: 9.47 ± 0.32b) showed statistically similar bond strength values between them and the control group (G1). The silane application without prior etching and heat treatment resulted in the lowest mean bond strength (G6: 8.05 ± 0.37c). SEM analysis showed predominantly adhesive failures and EDS analysis showed common elements of spectra (Si, Na, Al, K, O, C) characterizing the microstructure of the glass-ceramic studied. Heat treatment of the pre-hydrolyzed silane containing MDP in an oven at 100 °C for 2 min or with hot air application at 50 ± 5 ºC for 1 min, was effective in increasing the bond strength values between the ceramic and resin cement containing MDP.

  16. Rapid heat treatment for anatase conversion of titania nanotube orthopedic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhosle, Sachin M.; Friedrich, Craig R.

    2017-10-01

    The amorphous to anatase transformation of anodized nanotubular titania surfaces has been studied by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A more rapid heat treatment for conversion of amorphous to crystalline anatase favorable for orthopedic implant applications was demonstrated. Nanotube titania surfaces were fabricated by electrochemical anodization of Ti6Al4V in an electrolyte containing 0.2 wt% NH4F, 60% ethylene glycol and 40% deionized water. The resulting surfaces were systematically heat treated in air with isochronal and isothermal experiments to study the temperature and time dependent transformation respectively. Energy dispersive spectroscopy shows that the anatase phase transformation of TiO2 in the as-anodized amorphous nanotube layer can be achieved in as little as 5 min at 350 °C in contrast to reports of higher temperature and much longer time. Crystallinity analysis at different temperatures and times yield transformation rate coefficients and activation energy for crystalline anatase coalescence. TEM confirms the (101) TiO2 presence within the nanotubes. These results confirm that for applications where amorphous titania nanotube surfaces are converted to crystalline anatase, a 5 min production flow-through heating process could be used instead of a 3 h batch process, reducing time, cost, and complexity.

  17. Surface Oxide Net Charge of a Titanium Alloy; Comparison Between Effects of Treatment With Heat or Radiofrequency Plasma Glow Discharge

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Daniel E.; Rapuano, Bruce E.; Schniepp, Hannes C.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we have compared the effects of heat and radiofrequency plasma glow discharge (RFGD) treatment of a Ti6Al4V alloy on the physico-chemical properties of the alloy’s surface oxide. Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) disks were passivated alone, heated to 600 °C, or RFGD plasma treated in pure oxygen. RFGD treatment did not alter the roughness, topography, elemental composition or thickness of the alloy’s surface oxide layer. In contrast, heat treatment altered oxide topography by creating a pattern of oxide elevations approximately 50–100 nm in diameter. These nanostructures exhibited a three-fold increase in roughness compared to untreated surfaces when RMS roughness was calculated after applying a spatial high-pass filter with a 200 nm cutoff wavelength. Heat treatment also produced a surface enrichment in aluminum and vanadium oxides. Both RFGD and heat treatment produced similar increases in oxide wettability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of metal surface oxide net charge signified by a long range force of attraction to or repulsion from a (negatively charged) silicon nitride AFM probe were also obtained for all three experimental groups. Force measurements showed that the RFGD-treated Ti6Al4V samples demonstrated a higher net positive surface charge at pH values below 6 and a higher net negative surface charge at physiological pH (pH values between 7 and 8) compared to control and heat-treated samples These findings suggest that RFGD treatment of metallic implant materials can be used to study the role of negatively charged surface oxide functional groups in protein bioactivity, osteogenic cell behavior and osseointegration independently of oxide topography. PMID:20880672

  18. Heat treatment as a universal technical solution for silcrete use? A comparison between silcrete from the Western Cape (South Africa) and the Kalahari (Botswana).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Patrick; Nash, David J; Coulson, Sheila; Göden, Matthias B; Awcock, Graeme J

    2017-01-01

    Heat treatment was one of the first transformative technologies in the southern African Middle Stone Age (MSA), with many studies in the Cape coastal zone of South Africa identifying it as an essential step in the preparation of silcrete prior to its use in stone tool manufacture. To date, however, no studies have investigated whether heat treatment is necessary for all silcrete types, and how geographically widespread heat treatment was in the subcontinent. The aim of this study is to investigate experimentally whether heat treatment continued further north into the Kalahari Desert of Botswana and northernmost South Africa, the closest area with major silcrete outcrops to the Cape. For this we analyse the thermal transformations of silcrete from both regions, proposing a comprehensive model of the chemical, crystallographic and 'water'-related processes taking place upon heat treatment. For the first time, we also explore the mobility of minor and trace elements during heat treatment and introduce a previously undescribed mechanism-steam leaching-causing depletion of a limited number of elements. The results of this comparative study reveal the Cape and Kalahari silcrete to respond fundamentally differently to heat treatment. While the former can be significantly improved by heat, the latter is deteriorated in terms of knapping quality. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the role of fire as a technical solution in MSA stone tool knapping, and for the extension of its use in southern Africa. Silcrete heat treatment-at least in the form we understand it today-may have been a strictly regional phenomenon, confined to a narrow zone along the west and south coast of the Cape. On the basis of our findings, silcrete heat treatment should not be added as a new trait on the list of behaviours that characterise the MSA of the southern African subcontinent.

  19. Experimental study of forced convection heat transport in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Nicola; Cherubini, Claudia; Rapti, Dimitra; Giasi, Concetta I.

    2018-04-01

    The present study is aimed at extending this thematic issue through heat transport experiments and their interpretation at laboratory scale. An experimental study to evaluate the dynamics of forced convection heat transfer in a thermally isolated column filled with porous medium has been carried out. The behavior of two porous media with different grain sizes and specific surfaces has been observed. The experimental data have been compared with an analytical solution for one-dimensional heat transport for local nonthermal equilibrium condition. The interpretation of the experimental data shows that the heterogeneity of the porous medium affects heat transport dynamics, causing a channeling effect which has consequences on thermal dispersion phenomena and heat transfer between fluid and solid phases, limiting the capacity to store or dissipate heat in the porous medium.

  20. Coarsening Kinetics and Morphological Evolution in a Two-Phase Titanium Alloy During Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianwei; Zeng, Weidong; Jia, Zhiqiang; Sun, Xin; Zhao, Yawei

    2016-03-01

    The effects of alpha/beta heat treatment on microstructure evolution of Ti-17 alloy with a lamellar colony structure are established. Heat treatment experiments are conducted at 1103 or 1063 K for times ranging from 10 min to 8 h. The main features of microstructure evolution during heat treatment comprise static globularization and coarsening of primary alpha phase. Such behaviors can be accelerated by higher heat treatment temperature. Furthermore, globularization and coarsening behaviors show a faster rate at higher prestrain. In order to better understand the microstructure evolution of Ti-17 alloy during alpha/beta heat treatment, static globularization and coarsening behaviors are modeled in the theoretical frame of the Johnson-Mehl-Avarmi-Kolmogorov (JMAK) and Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) theories, respectively. The JMAK and LSW kinetics parameters are derived under different experimental conditions. Agreements between measurements and predictions are found, indicating that the JMAK and LSW theories can be used to predict and trace static globularization and coarsening processes of Ti-17 alloy during alpha/beta heat treatment.

  1. Heat treatment of unclarified Escherichia coli homogenate improved the recovery efficiency of recombinant hepatitis B core antigen.

    PubMed

    Ng, Michelle Y T; Tan, Wen Siang; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Ling, Tau Chuan; Tey, Beng Ti

    2006-10-01

    Heat precipitation procedure has been regularly incorporated as a selective purification step in various thermostable proteins expressed in different hosts. This method is efficient in precipitation of most of the host proteins and also deactivates various host proteases that can be harmful to the desired gene products. In this study, introduction of heat treatment procedure in the purification of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) produced in Escherichia coli has been investigated. Thermal treatment of the cell homogenate at 60 degrees C for 30 min prior to subsequent clarification steps has resulted in 1.4 times and 18% higher in purity and recovery yield, respectively, compared to the non-heat-treated cell homogenate. In direct capture of HBcAg by using anion-exchangers from unclarified feedstock, pre-conditioning the feedstock by heat treatment at 60 degrees C for 45 min has increased the recovery yield of HBcAg by 2.9-fold and 42% in purity compared to that treated for 10 min. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis showed that the antigenicity of the core particles was not affected by the heat treatment process.

  2. Fabrication of TiO2 Crystalline Coatings by Combining Ti-6Al-4V Anodic Oxidation and Heat Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Schvezov, Carlos Enrique; Ares, Alicia Esther

    2015-01-01

    The bio- and hemocompatibility of titanium alloys are due to the formation of a TiO2 layer. This natural oxide may have fissures which are detrimental to its properties. Anodic oxidation is used to obtain thicker films. By means of this technique, at low voltages oxidation, amorphous and low roughness coatings are obtained, while, above a certain voltage, crystalline and porous coatings are obtained. According to the literature, the crystalline phases of TiO2, anatase, and rutile would present greater biocompatibility than the amorphous phase. On the other hand, for hemocompatible applications, smooth and homogeneous surfaces are required. One way to obtain crystalline and homogeneous coatings is by heat treatments after anodic oxidation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of heat treatments on the thickness, morphology, and crystalline structure of the TiO2 anodic coatings. The characterization was performed by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray reflectometry. Coatings with different colors of interference were obtained. There were no significant changes in the surface morphology and roughness after heat treatment of 500°C. Heat treated coatings have different proportions of the crystalline phases, depending on the voltage of anodic oxidation and the temperature of the heat treatment. PMID:25784939

  3. Effects of dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) on the fermentation of litchi juice by Lactobacillus casei as an alternative of heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Wen, Jing

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) on the fermentation of litchi juice by Lactobacillus casei as an alternative of heat treatment that may have undesirable effect on the juice. Quality attributes and products stability of both the fermented heat- and DMDC-treated litchi juice by L. casei were compared. It was found that residual indigenous microorganisms in both the heat- and DMDC-treated litchi juice cannot grow into dominant bacteria during further fermentation of litchi juice by L. casei. Compared with fermented heat-treated litchi juice, fermented DMDC-treated litchi juice showed a better color, flavor, and overall acceptance, and also retained more total phenolics and antioxidant capacity. The viability counts of L. casei in both the heat- and DMDC-treated litchi juice were more 8.0 lg CFU/mL after 4 wk of storage at 4 °C. Also, some quality attributes in both the fermented heat- and DMDC-treated litchi juices, including pH, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, antioxidant capacity, and so on, showed the tendency to slow decrease during storage at 4 °C, but the scores of overall acceptance showed no reduction after the storage of 4 wk at 4 °C. On the whole, the application of DMDC treatment could be an ideal alternative of heat treatment to ensure the microbial safety, consistent sensory, and nutritional quality of fermented litchi juice prior to fermentation. The pasteurization treatment is often recommended prior to fermentation of fruit juice by probiotics, as it would lead to a rapid inactivation and inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, and ensure the fermented products with consistent sensory and nutritional quality. Dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) is a powerful antimicrobial agent, which was approved for use as a microbial control agent in juice beverages by FDA. This study provides a scientific basis for the application of DMDC prior to fermentation of litchi juice. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. The Effect of Heat Treatment on the Crystallography and Mineral Magnetism of Pyrrhotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobart, K.; Feinberg, J. M.; Jones, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.125) is the second most common sulfide mineral after pyrite in the Earth's crust, and its properties are of interest to a wide variety of scientific disciplines, including electrical engineering, physical chemistry, planetary geology and meteoritics, and economic geology. The physical properties of pyrrhotite are highly dependent on slight variations in composition and the ordering of iron vacancies, resulting in a number of possible phases between the endmember compositions of FeS and Fe7S8­­. A common complication in studies on pyrrhotite is that different phases are frequently intergrown, making it difficult to isolate a natural single phase. This has led many researchers to rely on synthesis techniques, which produce a specific structure by using precise iron/sulfur ratios, heating protocols, and controlled cooling. One of the most common synthesis treatments used to create 4C pyrrhotite is an extended heating and annealing process, which is believed to allow the reordering of vacancies to a more thermodynamically stable, ordered state with elevated saturation magnetization. The process was first studied in detail by Schwarz and Vaughan (1972) who produced synthetic pyrrhotite at varying Fe/S ratios with annealing at either 700, 300, or 144°C. The most common method for producing 4C pyrrhotite is heating at 500°C for 24 hours under a vacuum followed by annealing at 250°C for 50 hours. While this technique has been broadly applied in diverse disciplines, there is debate about whether it produces ferrimagnetic, monoclinic 4C pyrrhotite or a different metastable disordered phase. We examined this process using a combination of rock magnetic, X-ray diffraction, and electron imaging techniques to study the effect of heating and annealing on a natural sample of pyrrhotite. Due to the lack of a Besnus transition in the annealed material, our data suggest that the increased magnetization we found following annealing, rather than

  5. Method for detecting pollutants. [through chemical reactions and heat treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Richards, R. R.; Conway, E. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for detecting and measuring trace amounts of pollutants of the group consisting of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide in a gaseous environment. A sample organic solid material that will undergo a chemical reaction with the test pollutant is exposed to the test environment and thereafter, when heated in the temperature range of 100-200 C., undergoes chemiluminescence that is measured and recorded as a function of concentration of the test pollutant. The chemiluminescence of the solid organic material is specific to the pollutant being tested.

  6. High temperature heat exchanger studies for applications to gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, June Kee; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Ha, Man Yeong; Kim, Kui Soon

    2009-12-01

    Growing demand for environmentally friendly aero gas-turbine engines with lower emissions and improved specific fuel consumption can be met by incorporating heat exchangers into gas turbines. Relevant researches in such areas as the design of a heat exchanger matrix, materials selection, manufacturing technology, and optimization by a variety of researchers have been reviewed in this paper. Based on results reported in previous studies, potential heat exchanger designs for an aero gas turbine recuperator, intercooler, and cooling-air cooler are suggested.

  7. Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of extracts from citrus peels.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seok-Moon; Kim, So-Young; Kim, Dong-Ryul; Jo, Seong-Chun; Nam, K C; Ahn, D U; Lee, Seung-Cheol

    2004-06-02

    The effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of extracts from Citrus unshiu peels was evaluated. Citrus peels (CP) (5 g) were placed in Pyrex Petri dishes (8.0 cm diameter) and heat-treated at 50, 100, or 150 degrees C for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min in an electric muffle furnace. After heat treatment, 70% ethanol extract (EE) and water extract (WE) (0.1 g/10 mL) of CP were prepared, and total phenol contents (TPC), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and reducing power of the extracts were determined. The antioxidant activities of CP extracts increased as heating temperature increased. For example, heat treatment of CP at 150 degrees C for 60 min increased the TPC, RSA, and reducing power of EE from 71.8 to 171.0 microM, from 29.64 to 64.25%, and from 0.45 to 0.82, respectively, compared to non-heat-treated control. In the case of WE from CP heat-treated at the same conditions (150 degrees C for 60 min), the TPC, RSA, and reducing power also increased from 84.4 to 204.9 microM, from 15.81 to 58.26%, and from 0.27 to 0.96, respectively. Several low molecular weight phenolic compounds such as 2,3-diacetyl-1-phenylnaphthalene, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldoxime, 5-hydroxyvaleric acid, 2,3-diacetyl-1-phenylnaphthalene, and vanillic acid were newly formed in the CP heated at 150 degrees C for 30 min. These results indicated that the antioxidant activity of CP extracts was significantly affected by heating temperature and duration of treatment on CP and that the heating process can be used as a tool for increasing the antioxidant activity of CP.

  8. Menu driven heat treatment control of thin walled bodies

    DOEpatents

    Kothmann, Richard E.; Booth, Jr., Russell R.; Grimm, Noel P.; Batenburg, Abram; Thomas, Vaughn M.

    1992-01-01

    A process for controlling the heating of a thin-walled body according to a predetermined temperature program by means of electrically controllable heaters, comprising: disposing the heaters adjacent one surface of the body such that each heater is in facing relation with a respective zone of the surface; supplying heat-generating power to each heater and monitoring the temperature at each surface zone; and for each zone: deriving (16,18,20), on the basis of the temperature values obtained in the monitoring step, estimated temperature values of the surface at successive time intervals each having a first selected duration; generating (28), on the basis of the estimated temperature values derived in each time interval, representations of the temperature, THSIFUT, which each surface zone will have, based on the level of power presently supplied to each heater, at a future time which is separated from the present time interval by a second selected duration; determining (30) the difference between THSIFUT and the desired temperature, FUTREFTVZL, at the future time which is separated from the present time interval by the second selected duration; providing (52) a representation indicating the power level which sould be supplied to each heater in order to reduce the difference obtained in the determining step; and adjusting the power level supplied to each heater by the supplying step in response to the value of the representation provided in the providing step.

  9. Dual Microstructure Heat Treatment of a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    2002-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for future subsonic aircraft will require nickel-base disk alloys that can be used at temperatures in excess of 1300 F. Smaller turbine engines, with higher rotational speeds, also require disk alloys with high strength. To address these challenges, NASA funded a series of disk programs in the 1990's. Under these initiatives, Honeywell and Allison focused their attention on Alloy 10, a high-strength, nickel-base disk alloy developed by Honeywell for application in the small turbine engines used in regional jet aircraft. Since tensile, creep, and fatigue properties are strongly influenced by alloy grain size, the effect of heat treatment on grain size and the attendant properties were studied in detail. It was observed that a fine grain microstructure offered the best tensile and fatigue properties, whereas a coarse grain microstructure offered the best creep resistance at high temperatures. Therefore, a disk with a dual microstructure, consisting of a fine-grained bore and a coarse-grained rim, should have a high potential for optimal performance. Under NASA's Ultra-Safe Propulsion Project and Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program, a disk program was initiated at the NASA Glenn Research Center to assess the feasibility of using Alloy 10 to produce a dual-microstructure disk. The objectives of this program were twofold. First, existing dual-microstructure heat treatment (DMHT) technology would be applied and refined as necessary for Alloy 10 to yield the desired grain structure in full-scale forgings appropriate for use in regional gas turbine engines. Second, key mechanical properties from the bore and rim of a DMHT Alloy 10 disk would be measured and compared with conventional heat treatments to assess the benefits of DMHT technology. At Wyman Gordon and Honeywell, an active-cooling DMHT process was used to convert four full-scale Alloy 10 disks to a dual-grain microstructure. The resulting microstructures are illustrated in the

  10. Effect of heat treatment on the crystal structure of deformed samples of chromium-manganese steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chezganov, D. S.; Chikova, O. A.; Borovykh, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Results of studying microstructures and the crystal structure of samples of 35KhGF steel (0.31-0.38 wt % C, 0.17-0.37 wt % Si, 0.95-1.25 wt % Mn, 1.0-1.3 wt % Cr, 0.06-0.12 wt % V, and the remainder was Fe) have been presented. The samples have been selected from hot-rolled pipes subjected to different heat treatments. A study has been carried out in order to explain the choice of the heat-treatment regime based on determining the structure-properties relationship that provides an increase in the corrosion resistance of pipes to the effect of hydrocarbons. Methods of the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) have been used. In the microstructure of samples, oxide inclusions and discontinuities with sizes of 1-50 μm that presumably consist of the scale were detected. The ferrite grain size and the orientations of crystals were determined; the data on the local mechanical stresses in the Taylor orientation- factor maps were obtained. The grain refinement; the increase in the fraction of the low-angle boundaries; and the decrease in the local mechanical stresses and, therefore, the highest corrosion resistance to the effect of hydrocarbons is achieved by normalizing at 910°C.

  11. SUMMARY REPORT ON THE STUDY OF BETA TREATMENT OF URANIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, R.B.; Wolff, A.K.

    A study was made on the effects of beta treatment variables on the texture, grain size, and distortion in unalloyed dingot and ingot uranium. The effects of delta heat treatment, various cooling regimes, recrystallization, etc., were studied. (D.L.C.)

  12. Heat treatment as a universal technical solution for silcrete use? A comparison between silcrete from the Western Cape (South Africa) and the Kalahari (Botswana)

    PubMed Central

    Nash, David J.; Coulson, Sheila; Göden, Matthias B.; Awcock, Graeme J.

    2017-01-01

    Heat treatment was one of the first transformative technologies in the southern African Middle Stone Age (MSA), with many studies in the Cape coastal zone of South Africa identifying it as an essential step in the preparation of silcrete prior to its use in stone tool manufacture. To date, however, no studies have investigated whether heat treatment is necessary for all silcrete types, and how geographically widespread heat treatment was in the subcontinent. The aim of this study is to investigate experimentally whether heat treatment continued further north into the Kalahari Desert of Botswana and northernmost South Africa, the closest area with major silcrete outcrops to the Cape. For this we analyse the thermal transformations of silcrete from both regions, proposing a comprehensive model of the chemical, crystallographic and ‘water’-related processes taking place upon heat treatment. For the first time, we also explore the mobility of minor and trace elements during heat treatment and introduce a previously undescribed mechanism—steam leaching—causing depletion of a limited number of elements. The results of this comparative study reveal the Cape and Kalahari silcrete to respond fundamentally differently to heat treatment. While the former can be significantly improved by heat, the latter is deteriorated in terms of knapping quality. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the role of fire as a technical solution in MSA stone tool knapping, and for the extension of its use in southern Africa. Silcrete heat treatment—at least in the form we understand it today—may have been a strictly regional phenomenon, confined to a narrow zone along the west and south coast of the Cape. On the basis of our findings, silcrete heat treatment should not be added as a new trait on the list of behaviours that characterise the MSA of the southern African subcontinent. PMID:28723941

  13. Effect of heat treatment and ball milling on MnBi magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunhong; Guo, Donglin; Shao, Bin; Li, Kejian; Li, Bingbing; Chen, Dengming

    2018-01-01

    MnBi alloy was prepared using arc melting, and was then heated at various temperatures and times. The alloy was ball milled for various lengths of time, following a heat treatment at 573 K for 20 h. The effects of the heat treatment and the ball milling on the magnetic performances of the material were investigated by analyzing the phases, the particle sizes, and the grain sizes. Results showed that the mass percentage of the LTP MnBi phase increased as the heat treatment time increased. The mass percentage initially increased and then decreased as the heat treatment temperature increased. The saturation magnetization increased quickly as the mass percentage of the LTP MnBi increased following the heat treatment. The value rose as high as 71.39 emu g-1 at 573 K for 30 h. The magnetization decreased, due to the decomposition of MnBi phases after ball milling. The coercivity increased simultaneously, due to the grain refinement, the presence of stresses, defects, and an amorphous phase. This value was improved from 0.09 to 14.65 KOe after ball milling for 24 h.

  14. Thermal wave propagation in blood perfused tissues under hyperthermia treatment for unique oscillatory heat flux at skin surface and appropriate initial condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Jaideep; Kundu, Balaram

    2018-05-01

    This paper aims to develop an analytical study of heat propagation in biological tissues for constant and variable heat flux at the skin surface correlated with Hyperthermia treatment. In the present research work we have attempted to impose two unique kind of oscillating boundary condition relevant to practical aspect of the biomedical engineering while the initial condition is constructed as spatially dependent according to a real life situation. We have implemented Laplace's Transform method (LTM) and Green Function (GFs) method to solve single phase lag (SPL) thermal wave model of bioheat equation (TWMBHE). This research work strongly focuses upon the non-invasive therapy by employing oscillating heat flux. The heat flux at the skin surface is considered as constant, sinusoidal, and cosine forms. A comparative study of the impact of different kinds of heat flux on the temperature field in living tissue explored that sinusoidal heat flux will be more effective if the time of therapeutic heating is high. Cosine heating is also applicable in Hyperthermia treatment due to its precision in thermal waveform. The result also emphasizes that accurate observation must be required for the selection of phase angle and frequency of oscillating heat flux. By possible comparison with the published experimental research work and published mathematical study we have experienced a difference in temperature distribution as 5.33% and 4.73%, respectively. A parametric analysis has been devoted to suggest an appropriate procedure of the selection of important design variables in viewpoint of an effective heating in hyperthermia treatment.

  15. Wide-angle X-ray scattering study of heat-treated PEEK and PEEK composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebe, Peggy; Lowry, Lynn; Chung, Shirley Y.; Yavrouian, Andre; Gupta, Amitava

    1987-01-01

    Samples of poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) neat resin and APC-2 carbon fiber composite were subjected to various heat treatments, and the effect of quenching and annealing treatments was studied by wide-angle X-ray scattering. It is found that high-temperature treatments may introduce disorder into neat resin and composite PEEK when followed by rapid cooling. The disorder is metastable and can revert to ordered state when the material is heated above its glass transition temperature and then cooled slowly. The disorder may result from residual thermal stresses.

  16. HEAT INPUT AND POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON REDUCED-ACTIVATION FERRITIC/MARTENSITIC STEEL FRICTION STIR WELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Wei; Chen, Gaoqiang; Chen, Jian

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are an important class of structural materials for fusion reactor internals developed in recent years because of their improved irradiation resistance. However, they can suffer from welding induced property degradations. In this paper, a solid phase joining technology friction stir welding (FSW) was adopted to join a RAFM steel Eurofer 97 and different FSW parameters/heat input were chosen to produce welds. FSW response parameters, joint microstructures and microhardness were investigated to reveal relationships among welding heat input, weld structure characterization and mechanical properties. In general, FSW heat input results in high hardness inside the stir zonemore » mostly due to a martensitic transformation. It is possible to produce friction stir welds similar to but not with exactly the same base metal hardness when using low power input because of other hardening mechanisms. Further, post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is a very effective way to reduce FSW stir zone hardness values.« less

  17. Heat Wave and Mortality: A Multicountry, Multicommunity Study

    PubMed Central

    Gasparrini, Antonio; Armstrong, Ben G.; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Tobias, Aurelio; Lavigne, Eric; Coelho, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio; Pan, Xiaochuan; Kim, Ho; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Wu, Chang-Fu; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel D.; Bell, Michelle L.; Scortichini, Matteo; Michelozzi, Paola; Punnasiri, Kornwipa; Li, Shanshan; Tian, Linwei; Garcia, Samuel David Osorio; Seposo, Xerxes; Overcenco, Ala; Zeka, Ariana; Goodman, Patrick; Dang, Tran Ngoc; Dung, Do Van; Mayvaneh, Fatemeh; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined variation in the associations between heat waves and mortality in an international context. Objectives: We aimed to systematically examine the impacts of heat waves on mortality with lag effects internationally. Methods: We collected daily data of temperature and mortality from 400 communities in 18 countries/regions and defined 12 types of heat waves by combining community-specific daily mean temperature ≥90th, 92.5th, 95th, and 97.5th percentiles of temperature with duration ≥2, 3, and 4 d. We used time-series analyses to estimate the community-specific heat wave–mortality relation over lags of 0–10 d. Then, we applied meta-analysis to pool heat wave effects at the country level for cumulative and lag effects for each type of heat wave definition. Results: Heat waves of all definitions had significant cumulative associations with mortality in all countries, but varied by community. The higher the temperature threshold used to define heat waves, the higher heat wave associations on mortality. However, heat wave duration did not modify the impacts. The association between heat waves and mortality appeared acutely and lasted for 3 and 4 d. Heat waves had higher associations with mortality in moderate cold and moderate hot areas than cold and hot areas. There were no added effects of heat waves on mortality in all countries/regions, except for Brazil, Moldova, and Taiwan. Heat waves defined by daily mean and maximum temperatures produced similar heat wave–mortality associations, but not daily minimum temperature. Conclusions: Results indicate that high temperatures create a substantial health burden, and effects of high temperatures over consecutive days are similar to what would be experienced if high temperature days occurred independently. People living in moderate cold and moderate hot areas are more sensitive to heat waves than those living in cold and hot areas. Daily mean and maximum temperatures had similar

  18. Heat treatment of transparent Yb:YAG and YAG ceramics and its influence on laser performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Kana; Mochida, Tetsuo; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Tokita, Shigeki; Kawanaka, Junji; Maruyama, Momoko; Sugiyama, Akira; Miyanaga, Noriaki

    2018-05-01

    Composite transparent ceramic materials are promising for improving the performance of high-average-power lasers. A combination of room-temperature bonding via surface treatment by a fast atom beam and diffusion bonding via heating, which effectively controls the ion diffusion distance near the interface, makes the laser materials suitable for a variety of oscillator/amplifier. During the heat treatment of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramics, the Si ions in the solid solution of the sintering aid incorporated within the grains were seen to segregate at the grain boundary, resulting in an increase of scattering sites. The number density and size of the scattering sites strongly depended on the post-heating temperature rather than the heating time. Specifically, heating at 1300 °C did not affect the transmittance of the YAG ceramic, whereas both the size and number of scattering sites substantially increased with a heat treatment at 1400 °C. The laser oscillation experiment using cryogenically-cooled Yb:YAG ceramics exhibited heating temperature dependence of the slope efficiency owing to the increasing scattering loss.

  19. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2012-06-15

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 Degree-Sign C) and high ({approx}800 Degree-Sign C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching.more » The furnace was operated up to 1400 Degree-Sign C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 Degree-Sign C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 Degree-Sign C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.« less

  20. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Pashupati Dhakal, Gianluigi Ciovati, Wayne Rigby, John Wallace, Ganapati Rao Myneni

    2012-06-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 deg C) and high ({approx}800 deg C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching.more » The furnace was operated up to 1400 deg C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 x 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 deg C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 deg C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.« less

  1. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Rigby, Wayne; Wallace, John; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2012-06-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low (∼120 °C) and high (∼800 °C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 °C with a maximum pressure of ∼1 × 10(-5) Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 °C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 °C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of ∼2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

  2. Recent advances and current status of the use of heat treatments in postharvest disease management systems: Is it time to turn up the heat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eco-friendly approaches to postharvest disease management in harvested commodities, such as heat treatments and biological control utilizing antagonistic yeasts, is an active research field. The current review focuses on the physiological and molecular aspects of heat treatment on all the major par...

  3. Study on a neon cryogenic oscillating heat pipe with long heat transport distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qing; Li, Yi; Wang, Qiuliang

    2018-06-01

    An experimental study is carried out to study the heat transfer characteristics of a cryogenic oscillating heat pipe (OHP) with long heat transport distance. The OHP is made up of a capillary tube with an inner diameter of 1.0 mm and an outer diameter of 2.0 mm. The working fluid is neon, and the length of the adiabatic section is 480 mm. Tests are performed with the different heat inputs, liquid filling ratios and condenser temperature. For the cryogenic OHP with a liquid filling ratio of 30.7% at the condenser temperature of 28 K, the effective thermal conductivity is 3466-30,854 W/m K, and the maximum transfer power is 35.60 W. With the increment of the heat input, the effective thermal conductivity of the cryogenic OHP increases at the liquid filling ratios of 30.7% and 38.5%, while it first increases and then decreases at the liquid filling ratios of 15.2% and 23.3%. Moreover, the effective thermal conductivity increases with decreasing liquid filling ratio at the small heat input, and the maximum transfer power first increases and then decreases with increasing liquid filling ratio. Finally, it is found that the thermal performance of the cryogenic OHP can be improved by increasing the condenser temperature.

  4. The Effect of Heat Treatments and Coatings on the Outgassing Rate of Stainless Steel Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Mamum, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A,; Stutzman, Marcy L.

    The outgassing rates of four nominally identical 304L stainless steel vacuum chambers were measured to determine the effect of chamber coatings and heat treatments. One chamber was coated with titanium nitride (TiN) and one with amorphous silicon (a-Si) immediately following fabrication. One chamber remained uncoated throughout, and the last chamber was first tested without any coating, and then coated with a-Si following a series of heat treatments. The outgassing rate of each chamber was measured at room temperatures between 15 and 30 deg C following bakes at temperatures between 90 and 400 deg C. Measurements for bare steel showed amore » significant reduction in the outgassing rate by more than a factor of 20 after a 400 deg C heat treatment (3.5 x 10{sup 12} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} prior to heat treatment, reduced to 1.7 x 10{ sup -13} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} following heat treatment). The chambers that were coated with a-Si showed minimal change in outgassing rates with heat treatment, though an outgassing rate reduced by heat treatments prior to a-Si coating was successfully preserved throughout a series of bakes. The TiN coated chamber exhibited remarkably low outgassing rates, up to four orders of magnitude lower than the uncoated stainless steel. An evaluation of coating composition suggests the presence of elemental titanium which could provide pumping and lead to an artificially low outgassing rate. The outgassing results are discussed in terms of diffusion-limited versus recombination-limited processes.« less

  5. Influence of Heat Treatment on Mercury Cavitation Resistance of Surface Hardened 316LN Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steven J; Hsu, Julia

    2010-11-01

    The cavitation-erosion resistance of carburized 316LN stainless steel was significantly degraded but not destroyed by heat treatment in the temperature range 500-800 C. The heat treatments caused rejection of some carbon from the carburized layer into an amorphous film that formed on each specimen surface. Further, the heat treatments encouraged carbide precipitation and reduced hardness within the carburized layer, but the overall change did not reduce surface hardness fully to the level of untreated material. Heat treatments as short as 10 min at 650 C substantially reduced cavitation-erosion resistance in mercury, while heat treatments at 500 and 800 C weremore » found to be somewhat less detrimental. Overall, the results suggest that modest thermal excursions perhaps the result of a weld made at some distance to the carburized material or a brief stress relief treatment will not render the hardened layer completely ineffective but should be avoided to the greatest extent possible.« less

  6. Alternative approaches used to assess structural changes of natural zircon caused by heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, L. T. T.; Thuyet, N. T. M.; Phan, T. L.; Tran, N.; Toan, D. N.; Thang, P. D.; Huy, B. T.

    2018-03-01

    It is known that large changes in the crystal structure of zircon (ZrSiO4) can be assessed through the linewidth of the characteristic Raman mode (Δν3) at 1008 cm-1. However, the use of Δν3 to assess small changes caused by heat treatment at temperatures below its decomposition temperature of 1670 °C is difficult. The present work points out that the combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and photoluminescence (PL) and Raman (RS) measurements with different excitation wavelengths is an effective approach to solve the above problem. In this context, we have selected natural zircon containing some rare-earth (RE) impurities, and then studied the changes in its crystal structure caused by heat treatment at temperatures Tan=400-1600 °C. XRD analyses reveal that small modifications of the unit-cell parameters occur as Tan>600 °C. Taking the intensity ratios of the ν3 mode to RE-related emissions (Iν3/IRE) or the PL intensity ratios between RE-related emissions into consideration, the similar results in good agreement with the XRD analyses are also found. We believe that the small structural changes are related to the migration and redistribution of defects and impurities, and re-crystallization of zircon. This could be further confirmed though the relation between paramagnetic and ferromagnetic signals when Tan changes.

  7. The synergy of permeable pavements and geothermal heat pumps for stormwater treatment and reuse.

    PubMed

    Tota-Maharaj, K; Scholz, M; Ahmed, T; French, C; Pagaling, E

    2010-12-14

    The use of permeable pavement systems with integrated geothermal heat pumps for the treatment and recycling of urban runoff is novel and timely. This study assesses the efficiency of the combined technology for controlled indoor and uncontrolled outdoor experimental rigs. Water quality parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand, nutrients, total viable heterotrophic bacteria and total coliforms were tested before and after treatment in both rigs. The water borne bacterial community genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and was further confirmed by DNA sequencing techniques. Despite the relatively high temperatures in the indirectly heated sub-base of the pavement, potentially pathogenic organisms such as Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, faecal Streptococci and Legionella were not detected. Moreover, mean removal rates of 99% for biochemical oxygen demand, 97% for ammonia-nitrogen and 95% for orthophosphate-phosphates were recorded. This research also supports decision-makers in assessing public health risks based on qualitative molecular microbiological data associated with the recycling of treated urban runoff.

  8. Influence of Austempering Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Medium Carbon High Silicon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaksha, P. A.; Ravishankar, K. S.

    2017-08-01

    In the present investigation, the influence of austempering heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of medium carbon high silicon steel was evaluated. The test specimens were machined from the as-received steel and were first austenitised at 900 °C for 45 minutes, followed by austempering heat treatment in salt bath at various temperatures 300 °C, 350 °C and 400 °C for a fixed duration of two hours, after that those specimens were air-cooled to room temperature. The characterization studies were carried out using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffractometer (XRD) and then correlated to the hardness and tensile properties. Results indicate that, the specimens austempered at lower temperature i.e. at 300 °C, which offered high hardness, tensile strength and lower ductility (1857 MPa and 13.3 %) due to the presence of acicular bainite i.e. lower bainite and also some martensite in the microstructure. At 350 °C, reduction in the tensile strength and hardness was observed, but comparatively higher ductility, which was favored by the presence of bainite laths i.e. upper bainitic structure along with higher retained austenite content. Finally at 400 °C, reduction in both ductility and tensile strength was observed, which is due to the precipitation of carbides between the banite laths, however good strain hardening response was observed at austempering temperatures of 350 °C and 400 °C.

  9. Optimizing Heat Treatment Process of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni Martensitic Stainless of Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, M. S.; Prifiharni, S.; Mabruri, E.

    2017-05-01

    The Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni stainless steels are modified into martensitic stainless steels for steam turbine blades application. The working temperature of steam turbine was around 600 - 700 °C. The improvement properties of turbine blade material is necessary to maintain steam turbine work. The previous research revealed that it has corrosion resistance of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni which is better than 13Cr stainless steels in the chloride environment. In this work, the effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni stainless steels has been studied. The steel was prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging. The steels were austenitized at 1000, 1050, and 1100 °C for 1 hour and were tempered at 600, 650, and 700 °C for 1 hour. The steels were then subjected to metallographic observation and hardness test of Rockwell C. The optimal heat treatment of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni was carried out austenitized in 1050 °C and tempered in 600 - 700 °C.

  10. Preliminary observations of heat treatment to control Phytophthora ramorum in infected wood species: an extended abstract

    Treesearch

    K.M. Tubajika; R. Singh; Shelly J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Identification of appropriate phytosanitary treatments that can be used for certifying solid wood packing material movement from areas infested or threatened by actionable plant pests and pathogens into uninfested areas is mportant. Heat treatment has been used on commodities to control fungal diseases and insect infestations for many years. The restricted use of...

  11. Do bark beetles and wood borers infest lumber following heat treatment? The role of bark

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice; Pascal Nzokou

    2007-01-01

    Wood packing material (WPM) is an important pathway for the movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects (Haack 2006). New international standards for treating WPM, often referred to as "ISPM 15," were adopted in 2002 (FAO 2002). The two approved WPM treatments are heat treatment (56? C core temperature for 30 min) and fumigation with methyl bromide. These...

  12. Susceptibility of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) developmental stages to high temperatures used during structural heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Mahroof, R; Subramanyam, B

    2006-12-01

    Heating the ambient air of a whole, or a portion of a food-processing facility to 50 to 60 degrees C and maintaining these elevated temperatures for 24 to 36 h, is an old technology, referred to as heat treatment. There is renewed interest in adopting heat treatments around the world as a viable insect control alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. There is limited published information on responses of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), exposed to elevated temperatures typically used during heat treatments. Time-mortality relationships were determined for eggs, fifth-instars (wandering-phase larvae), pupae, and adults of P. interpunctella exposed to five constant temperatures between 44 and 52 degrees C. Mortality of each stage increased with increasing temperature and exposure time. In general, fifth-instars were the most heat-tolerant stage at all temperatures tested. Exposure for a minimum of 34 min at 50 degrees C was required to kill 99% of the fifth-instars. It is proposed that heat treatments aimed at controlling fifth-instars should be able to control all other stages of P. interpunctella.

  13. Effects of heat treatment on shape-setting and non-linearmechanical properties of Nitinol stent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaopeng; Wang, Yinong; Qi, Min; Yang, Dazhi

    2007-07-01

    NiTi shape memory alloy is a temperature sensitive material with non-linear mechanical properties and good biocompatibility, which can be used for medical devices such as stent, catheter guide wire and orthodontic wire. The majority of nitinol stents are of the self-expanding type basing on the superelasticity. Nitinol stents are shape set into the open condition and compressed and inserted into the delivery catheter. Additional the shape-setting treatment can be used as a tool to accurately tune the transformation temperatures and mechanical properties. In this study, different heat treatments have been performed on the Ti-50.7at%Ni alloy wires. And results of shape-setting, austenite transformation finish temperature and non-linear mechanical property of NiTi shape memory alloy at body temperature have been investigated. The experimental results show that the proper shape-setting temperature should be chosen between 450-550 °C. And the shape-setting results were stabilization when the NiTi wires were constrain-treated at 500 and 550°C and ageing time longer than 10 minutes. The austenite finish temperatures increased with ageing time and increased first and then decreased with ageing temperature. The peak values were obtained at 400°C. When the heat treatments was performed at the same temperature, both the upper plateau stresses and lower plateau stresses decreased with the ageing time. Most of treated nitinol wires owned good recovery ability at body temperature and the permanent sets were less than 0.05% when short time ageing treatment was performed at 500°C.

  14. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    SciTech Connect

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediatedmore » electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.« less

  15. Study on coal char ignition by radiant heat flux.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkikh, A. G.; Slyusarskiy, K. V.

    2017-11-01

    The study on coal char ignition by CO2-continuous laser was carried out. The coal char samples of T-grade bituminous coal and 2B-grade lignite were studied via CO2-laser ignition setup. Ignition delay times were determined at ambient condition in heat flux density range 90-200 W/cm2. The average ignition delay time value for lignite samples were 2 times lower while this difference is larger in high heat flux region and lower in low heat flux region. The kinetic constants for overall oxidation reaction were determined using analytic solution of simplified one-dimensional heat transfer equation with radiant heat transfer boundary condition. The activation energy for lignite char was found to be less than it is for bituminous coal char by approximately 20 %.

  16. No major differences found between the effects of microwave-based and conventional heat treatment methods on two different liquid foods.

    PubMed

    Géczi, Gábor; Horváth, Márk; Kaszab, Tímea; Alemany, Gonzalo Garnacho

    2013-01-01

    Extension of shelf life and preservation of products are both very important for the food industry. However, just as with other processes, speed and higher manufacturing performance are also beneficial. Although microwave heating is utilized in a number of industrial processes, there are many unanswered questions about its effects on foods. Here we analyze whether the effects of microwave heating with continuous flow are equivalent to those of traditional heat transfer methods. In our study, the effects of heating of liquid foods by conventional and continuous flow microwave heating were studied. Among other properties, we compared the stability of the liquid foods between the two heat treatments. Our goal was to determine whether the continuous flow microwave heating and the conventional heating methods have the same effects on the liquid foods, and, therefore, whether microwave heat treatment can effectively replace conventional heat treatments. We have compared the colour, separation phenomena of the samples treated by different methods. For milk, we also monitored the total viable cell count, for orange juice, vitamin C contents in addition to the taste of the product by sensory analysis. The majority of the results indicate that the circulating coil microwave method used here is equivalent to the conventional heating method based on thermal conduction and convection. However, some results in the analysis of the milk samples show clear differences between heat transfer methods. According to our results, the colour parameters (lightness, red-green and blue-yellow values) of the microwave treated samples differed not only from the untreated control, but also from the traditional heat treated samples. The differences are visually undetectable, however, they become evident through analytical measurement with spectrophotometer. This finding suggests that besides thermal effects, microwave-based food treatment can alter product properties in other ways as well.

  17. No Major Differences Found between the Effects of Microwave-Based and Conventional Heat Treatment Methods on Two Different Liquid Foods

    PubMed Central

    Géczi, Gábor; Horváth, Márk; Kaszab, Tímea; Alemany, Gonzalo Garnacho

    2013-01-01

    Extension of shelf life and preservation of products are both very important for the food industry. However, just as with other processes, speed and higher manufacturing performance are also beneficial. Although microwave heating is utilized in a number of industrial processes, there are many unanswered questions about its effects on foods. Here we analyze whether the effects of microwave heating with continuous flow are equivalent to those of traditional heat transfer methods. In our study, the effects of heating of liquid foods by conventional and continuous flow microwave heating were studied. Among other properties, we compared the stability of the liquid foods between the two heat treatments. Our goal was to determine whether the continuous flow microwave heating and the conventional heating methods have the same effects on the liquid foods, and, therefore, whether microwave heat treatment can effectively replace conventional heat treatments. We have compared the colour, separation phenomena of the samples treated by different methods. For milk, we also monitored the total viable cell count, for orange juice, vitamin C contents in addition to the taste of the product by sensory analysis. The majority of the results indicate that the circulating coil microwave method used here is equivalent to the conventional heating method based on thermal conduction and convection. However, some results in the analysis of the milk samples show clear differences between heat transfer methods. According to our results, the colour parameters (lightness, red-green and blue-yellow values) of the microwave treated samples differed not only from the untreated control, but also from the traditional heat treated samples. The differences are visually undetectable, however, they become evident through analytical measurement with spectrophotometer. This finding suggests that besides thermal effects, microwave-based food treatment can alter product properties in other ways as well. PMID

  18. Manufacturing of tailored tubes with a process integrated heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hordych, Illia; Boiarkin, Viacheslav; Rodman, Dmytro; Nürnberger, Florian

    2017-10-01

    The usage of work-pieces with tailored properties allows for reducing costs and materials. One example are tailored tubes that can be used as end parts e.g. in the automotive industry or in domestic applications as well as semi-finished products for subsequent controlled deformation processes. An innovative technology to manufacture tubes is roll forming with a subsequent inductive heating and adapted quenching to obtain tailored properties in the longitudinal direction. This processing offers a great potential for the production of tubes with a wide range of properties, although this novel approach still requires a suited process design. Based on experimental data, a process simulation is being developed. The simulation shall be suitable for a virtual design of the tubes and allows for gaining a deeper understanding of the required processing. The model proposed shall predict microstructural and mechanical tube properties by considering process parameters, different geometries, batch-related influences etc. A validation is carried out using experimental data of tubes manufactured from various steel grades.

  19. Microstructural evolution during the homogenization heat treatment of 6XXX and 7XXX aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, Pikee

    Homogenization heat treatment of as-cast billets is an important step in the processing of aluminum extrusions. Microstructural evolution during homogenization involves elimination of the eutectic morphology by spheroidisation of the interdendritic phases, minimization of the microsegregation across the grains through diffusion, dissolution of the low-melting phases, which enhances the surface finish of the extrusions, and precipitation of nano-sized dispersoids (for Cr-, Zr-, Mn-, Sc-containing alloys), which inhibit grain boundary motion to prevent recrystallization. Post-homogenization cooling reprecipitates some of the phases, changing the flow stress required for subsequent extrusion. These precipitates, however, are deleterious for the mechanical properties of the alloy and also hamper the age-hardenability and are hence dissolved during solution heat treatment. Microstructural development during homogenization and subsequent cooling occurs both at the length scale of the Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing (SDAS) in micrometers and dispersoids in nanometers. Numerical tools to simulate microstructural development at both the length scales have been developed and validated against experiments. These tools provide easy and convenient means to study the process. A Cellular Automaton-Finite Volume-based model for evolution of interdendritic phases is coupled with a Particle Size Distribution-based model for precipitation of dispersoids across the grain. This comprehensive model has been used to study the effect of temperature, composition, as-cast microstructure, and cooling rates during post-homogenization quenching on microstructural evolution. The numerical study has been complimented with experiments involving Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and Differential Scanning Calorimetry and a good agreement has with numerical results has been found. The current work aims to study the microstructural evolution during

  20. Numerical Study on the Heat Transfer of Carbon Dioxide in Horizontal Straight Tubes under Supercritical Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Cooling heat transfer of supercritical CO2 in horizontal straight tubes with wall is numerically investigated by using FLUENT. The results show that almost all models are able to present the trend of heat transfer qualitatively, and the stand k−ε with enhanced wall treatment model shows the best agreement with the experimental data, followed by LB low Re turbulence model. Then further studies are discussed on velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions. The parameters which are defined as the criterion of buoyancy effect on convection heat transfer are introduced to judge the condition of the fluid. The relationships among the inlet temperature, outlet temperature, the mass flow rate, the heat flux and the diameter are discussed and the difference between the cooling and heating of CO2 are compared. PMID:27458729

  1. Effect of heat-moisture treatment on the structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Larissa S; Moraes, Jaqueline; Albano, Kivia M; Telis, Vânia R N; Franco, Célia M L

    2016-04-01

    The effect of heat-moisture treatment on structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch was investigated. Heat-moisture treatment was performed with starch samples conditioned to 28% moisture at 100 ℃ for 2, 4, 8, and 16 h. Structural and physicochemical characterization of native and modified starches, as well as rheological assays with gels of native and 4 h modified starches subjected to acid and sterilization stresses were performed. Arrowroot starch had 23.1% of amylose and a CA-type crystalline pattern that changed over the treatment time to A-type. Modified starches had higher pasting temperature and lower peak viscosity while breakdown viscosity practically disappeared, independently of the treatment time. Gelatinization temperature and crystallinity increased, while enthalpy, swelling power, and solubility decreased with the treatment. Gels from modified starches, independently of the stress conditions, were found to have more stable apparent viscosities and higher G' and G″ than gels from native starch. Heat-moisture treatment caused a reorganization of starch chains that increased molecular interactions. This increase resulted in higher paste stability and strengthened gels that showed higher resistance to shearing and heat, even after acid or sterilization conditions. A treatment time of 4 h was enough to deeply changing the physicochemical properties of starch. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Untargeted analysis to monitor metabolic changes of garlic along heat treatment by LC-QTOF MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Molina-Calle, María; Sánchez de Medina, Verónica; Calderón-Santiago, Mónica; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, María D

    2017-09-01

    Black garlic is increasing its popularity in cuisine around the world; however, scant information exists on the composition of this processed product. In this study, polar compounds in fresh garlic and in samples taken at different times during the heat treatment process to obtain black garlic have been characterized by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry in high resolution mode. Ninety-five compounds (mainly amino acids and metabolites, organosulfur compounds, and saccharides and derivatives) were tentatively identified in all the analysed samples and classified as a function of the family they belong to. Statistical analysis of the results allowed establishing that the major changes in garlic occur during the first days of treatment, and they mainly affect to the three representative families. The main pathways involved in the synthesis of the compounds affected by heat treatment, and their evolution during the process were studied. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Effect of Heat Treatment Technique on the Low Temperature Impact Toughness of Steel EQ70 for Offshore Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Su-Fen; Xia, Yun-Jin; Wang, Fu-Ming; Li, Jie; Fan, Ding-Dong

    2017-09-01

    Circle quenching and tempering (CQ&T), intercritical quenching and tempering (IQ&T) and regular quenching and tempering (Q&T) were used to study the influence of heat treatment techniques on the low temperature impact toughness of steel EQ70 for offshore structure. The steels with 2.10 wt. % Ni (steel A) and 1.47 wt. % Ni (steel B) were chosen to analyze the effect of Ni content on the low temperature impact toughness of steel EQ70 for offshore structure. The fracture morphologies were examined by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, JSM-6480LV), and microstructures etched by 4 vol. % nitric acid were observed on a type 9XB-PC optical microscope. The results show that the impact toughness of steel A is higher than that of steel B at the same test temperature and heat treatment technique. For steel B, the energy absorbed is, in descending order, CQ&T, Q&T and IQ&T, while for steel A, that is CQ&T, IQ&T and Q&T. The effects of heat treatment on the low temperature impact toughness are different for steels A and B, the absorbed energy changes more obviously for steel A. The results can be significant references for actual heat treatment techniques in steel plant.

  4. Heat treatment effects on the antimicrobial activity of macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in milk.

    PubMed

    Zorraquino, M A; Althaus, R L; Roca, M; Molina, M P

    2011-02-01

    Antibiotic residues in milk can cause serious problems for consumers and the dairy industry. Heat treatment of milk may diminish the antimicrobial activity of these antibiotic residues. This study analyzed the effect of milk processing (60 °C for 30 min, 120 °C for 20 min, and 140 °C for 10 s) on the antimicrobial activity of milk samples fortified with three concentrations of three macrolides (erythromycin: 20, 40 and 80 μg/liter; spiramycin: 100, 200, and 400 μg/liter; and tylosin: 500, 1,000, and 2,000 μg/liter) and one lincosamide (lincomycin: 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 μg/liter). To measure the loss of antimicrobial activity, a bioassay based on the growth inhibition of Micrococcus luteus was done. The data were analyzed using a multiple linear regression model. The results indicate that treatment at 120 °C for 20 min produces inactivation percentages of 93% (erythromycin), 64% (spiramycin), 51% (tylosin), and 5% (lincomycin), while treatment at 140 °C for 10 s results in generally lower percentages (30% erythromycin, 35% spiramycin, 12% tylosin, and 5% lincomycin). The lowest loss or lowest reduction of antimicrobial activity (21% erythromycin and 13% spiramycin) was obtained by treatment at 60 °C for 30 min. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  5. The effects of heat treatment on selected properties of a conventional and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Rafeek, Reisha N

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of application of heat alone and heat & pressure on the compressive strength and modulus, the stress relaxation characteristics and the fluoride release of a conventional and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Cylindrical specimens were made from both materials and divided into 3 groups. One group was heat treated in an oven at 120 degrees C for 20 min, another group was subjected to heat & pressure at 120 degrees C for 20 min at 6-bar pressure. The third group acted as a control. The compressive strength and modulus, stress relaxation and fluoride release were tested over 56 days. The results of this investigation indicate that heat treatment had no significant effect on the conventional GIC used but significantly affected the resin modified GIC by increasing both the compressive strength and modulus and reducing the stress relaxation characteristics and the fluoride release. The use of GIC to produce inlay or onlay restorations that adhere to tooth tissue and release fluoride would be highly desirable. The results of this study indicate that it is possible to improve the strength of RMGIC with heat to a limited extent, but fluoride release may decrease.

  6. Molecular dynamics study of lubricant depletion by pulsed laser heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Young Woo; Rosenkranz, Andreas; Talke, Frank E.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to numerically investigate the effect of pulsed laser heating on lubricant depletion. The maximum temperature, the lubricant depletion width, the number of evaporated lubricant beads and the number of fragmented lubricant chains were studied as a function of laser peak power, pulse duration and repetition rate. A continuous-wave laser and a square pulse laser were simulated and compared to a Gaussian pulse laser. With increasing repetition rate, pulsed laser heating was found to approach continuous-wave laser heating.

  7. Anaerobic Digestion and Combined Heat and Power Study

    SciTech Connect

    Frank J. Hartz

    2011-12-30

    One of the underlying objectives of this study is to recover the untapped energy in wastewater biomass. Some national statistics worth considering include: (1) 5% of the electrical energy demand in the US is used to treat municipal wastewater; (2) This carbon rich wastewater is an untapped energy resource; (3) Only 10% of wastewater treatment plants (>5mgd) recover energy; (4) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to produce > 575 MW of energy nationwide; and (5) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to capture an additional 175 MW of energy from waste Fats, Oils and Grease. The WSSC conducted thismore » study to determine the feasibility of utilizing anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power (AD/CHP) and/or biosolids gasification and drying facilities to produce and utilize renewable digester biogas. Digester gas is considered a renewable energy source and can be used in place of fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The project focus includes: (1) Converting wastewater Biomass to Electricity; (2) Using innovative technologies to Maximize Energy Recovery; and (3) Enhancing the Environment by reducing nutrient load to waterways (Chesapeake Bay), Sanitary Sewer Overflows (by reducing FOG in sewers) and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The study consisted of these four tasks: (1) Technology screening and alternative shortlisting, answering the question 'what are the most viable and cost effective technical approaches by which to recover and reuse energy from biosolids while reducing disposal volume?'; (2) Energy recovery and disposal reduction potential verification, answering the question 'how much energy can be recovered from biosolids?'; (3) Economic environmental and community benefit analysis, answering the question 'what are the potential economic, environmental and community benefits/impacts of each approach?'; and (4) Recommend the best plan and develop a concept design.« less

  8. A Continuous Variation Study of Heats of Neutralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Dennis W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that students study heats of neutralization of a 1 M solution of an unknown acid by 1 M solution of a strong base using the method continuous variation. Reviews results using several common acids. (SK)

  9. Radiofrequency heating of nanomaterials for cancer treatment: Progress, controversies, and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Hui-jiuan; Chen, Xiaodong; Alfadhl, Yasir; Yu, Junsheng; Wen, Dongsheng

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, the application of nanomaterials to biological and biomedicine areas has attracted intensive interest. One of the hot topics is the nanomaterial mediated radiofrequency (RF) hyperthermia or ablation, i.e., using RF fields/waves to heat tumor tissues treated with nanomaterials to destroy cancerous cells while minimizing the side-heating effect. However, there are currently many contradictive results reported concerning the heating effect of nanomaterials under a RF field. This paper provided a comprehensive review to nanomaterial mediated RF ablation from both experimental and theoretical aspects. Three heating mechanisms were discussed, i.e., laser heating, magnetic field heating, and electric field heating in RF spectrum, with the focus on the last one. The results showed that while diluted pure metallic nanoparticles could be heated significantly by a laser through the surface plasmon resonance, they cannot be easily heated by a RF electric field. Further studies are proposed focusing on nanoparticle structure and morphology, electromagnetic frequency and localized heating effect to pave the way for future development.

  10. Effect of heat treatment on CO2 adsorption of KOH-activated graphite nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Meng, Long-Yue; Park, Soo-Jin

    2010-12-15

    In this work, graphite nanofibers (GNFs) were successfully expanded intercalating KOH followed by heat treatment in the temperature range of 700-1000 °C. The aim was to improve the CO(2) adsorption capacity of the GNFs by increasing the porosity of GNFs. The effects of heat treatment on the pore structures of GNFs were investigated by N(2) full isotherms, XRD, SEM, and TEM. The CO(2) adsorption capacity was measured by CO(2) isothermal adsorption at 25 °C and 1 atm. From the results, it was found that the activation temperature had a major influence on CO(2) adsorption capacity and textural properties of GNFs. The specific surface area, total pore volume, and mesopore volume of the GNFs increased after heat treatment. The CO(2) adsorption isotherms showed that G-900 exhibited the best CO(2) adsorption capacity with 59.2 mg/g. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Automated system of devising and choosing economically effective technological processes of heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, V.P.; Tkacheva, O.N.

    1986-03-01

    Heat treatment entails considerable expenditure of power and often requires expensive equipment. One of the fundamental problems arising in the elaboration of heat treatment technology is the selection of the economically optimal process, which also has to ensure the quality of finished parts required by the customer. To correctly determine the expenditures on the basic kinds of resources it is necessary to improve the methods of calculating prime costs and to carry out such a calculation at the earliest stages of the technological preparation of production. A new method of optimizing synthesis of the structure of devising technological processes ofmore » heat treatment using the achievements of cybernetics and the possibilities of computerization is examined in this article. The method makes it possible to analyze in detail the economy of all possible variants of a technological process when one parameter is changed, without recalculating all items of prime cost.« less

  12. Photocatalytic activity and reusability of ZnO layer synthesised by electrolysis, hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Akhmal Saadon, Syaiful; Sathishkumar, Palanivel; Mohd Yusoff, Abdull Rahim; Hakim Wirzal, Mohd Dzul; Rahmalan, Muhammad Taufiq; Nur, Hadi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the zinc oxide (ZnO) layer was synthesised on the surface of Zn plates by three different techniques, i.e. electrolysis, hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment. The synthesised ZnO layers were characterised using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnO layer was further assessed against methylene blue (MB) degradation under UV irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of MB was achieved up to 84%, 79% and 65% within 1 h for ZnO layers synthesised by electrolysis, heat and hydrogen peroxide treatment, respectively. The reusability results show that electrolysis and heat-treated ZnO layers have considerable photocatalytic stability. Furthermore, the results confirmed that the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO was directly associated with the thickness and enlarged surface area of the layer. Finally, this study proved that the ZnO layers synthesised by electrolysis and heat treatment had shown better operational stability and reusability.

  13. Effect of sequential dry heat and hydrogen peroxide treatment on inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium on alfalfa seeds and seeds germination.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eun-Jeong; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to inactivate Salmonella Typhimurium on alfalfa seeds without having negative effect on seed germination. Inoculated alfalfa seeds were treated with dry heat at 60, 70 or 80 °C for 0, 12, 18 or 24 h followed by 2% hydrogen peroxide solution (10 min). Populations of Salmonella on alfalfa seeds treated with dry heat alone (60, 70 or 80 °C) for up to 24 h were reduced by 0.26-2.76 log CFU/g, and sequential treatment with dry heat and H2O2 reduced populations by 1.66-3.60 log CFU/g. The germination percentage of seeds subjected to sequential treatments was significantly enhanced to up to 97%, whereas that of untreated seeds was only 79.5%. This study suggests that sequential treatment with dry heat and hydrogen peroxide is applicable for reducing levels of Salmonella on seeds while simultaneously enhancing seeds germinability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Rheological and structural properties of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus during heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Xue, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Xu, Jiachao; Xue, Changhu

    2005-07-01

    Changes in tissue structure, rheological properties and water content of raw and heated sea cucumber meat were studied. Sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus was heated at 25°C , 70°C and 100°C water for 5 min. The structural changes were observed using a light microscope and the rheological parameters (rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation) determined using a texture meter. Microscopic photograph revealed that the structural change of heated meat was greater than that of raw meat. The rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation of raw meat were smaller than those of the heated meat. Meanwhile, rheological parameters showed positive correlation with heating temperature. These changes are mainly caused by thermal denaturation and gelatinization of collagen during heating. These changes were also evidenced in observations using a light microscope and differential scanning calorimetry.

  15. Conjugate heat transfer analysis of an ultrasonic molten metal treatment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Youli; Bian, Feilong; Wang, Yanli; Zhao, Qian

    2014-09-01

    In piezoceramic ultrasonic devices, the piezoceramic stacks may fail permanently or function improperly if their working temperatures overstep the Curie temperature of the piezoceramic material. While the end of the horn usually serves near the melting point of the molten metal and is enclosed in an airtight chamber, so that it is difficult to experimentally measure the temperature of the transducer and its variation with time, which bring heavy difficulty to the design of the ultrasonic molten metal treatment system. To find a way out, conjugate heat transfer analysis of an ultrasonic molten metal treatment system is performed with coupled fluid and heat transfer finite element method. In modeling of the system, the RNG model and the SIMPLE algorithm are adopted for turbulence and nonlinear coupling between the momentum equation and the energy equation. Forced air cooling as well as natural air cooling is analyzed to compare the difference of temperature evolution. Numerical results show that, after about 350 s of working time, temperatures in the surface of the ceramic stacks in forced air cooling drop about 7 K compared with that in natural cooling. At 240 s, The molten metal surface emits heat radiation with a maximum rate of about 19 036 W/m2, while the heat insulation disc absorbs heat radiation at a maximum rate of about 7922 W/m2, which indicates the effectiveness of heat insulation of the asbestos pad. Transient heat transfer film coefficient and its distribution, which are difficult to be measured experimentally are also obtained through numerical simulation. At 240 s, the heat transfer film coefficient in the surface of the transducer ranges from -17.86 to 20.17 W/(m2 · K). Compared with the trial and error method based on the test, the proposed research provides a more effective way in the design and analysis of the temperature control of the molten metal treatment system.

  16. Heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability. Annual progress report, June 1, 1976-May 31, 1977. Civil engineering technical report No. 222

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, J.B. Jr.; Owen, W.F.; Stuckey, D.C.

    1977-06-30

    This report represents the results of the first year of study on the heat treatment of organics to increase its biodegradability by anaerobic bacteria for the microbial production of methane. The purpose of this study is to develop a means for increasing the yield and reducing the cost of methane, a useful energy source. The procedures being evaluated are heat treatment at temperatures up to 250/sup 0/C, under pH ranges of 1 to 13. Included in this report are results on: (1) lignocellulose digestion and acclimation to its products from heat treatment; (2) the fate of waste activated sludge andmore » its cellular nitrogenous compounds; and (3) the biodegradability of model compounds likely to be formed during heat treatment.« less

  17. Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Spheroidized 1045 Steel by Induction Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minwook; Shin, Jung-Ho; Choi, Young; Lee, Seok-Jae

    2016-04-01

    The effects of induction heat treatment on the formation of carbide particles and mechanical properties of spheroidized 1045 steel were investigated by means of microstructural analysis and tensile testing. The induction spheroidization accelerated the formation of spherical cementite particles and effectively softened the steel. The volume fraction of cementite was found to be a key factor that affected the mechanical properties of spheroidized steels. Further tests showed that sequential spheroidization by induction and furnace heat treatments enhanced elongation within a short spheroidization time, resulting in better mechanical properties. This was due to the higher volume fraction of spherical cementite particles that had less diffusion time for particle coarsening.

  18. Study on finned pipe performance as a ground heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qinglong; Ma, Jinghui; Shi, Lei

    2017-08-01

    The GHEs (ground heat exchangers) is an important element that determines the thermal efficiency of the entire ground-source heat-pump system. The aim of the present study is to clarify thermal performance of a new type GHE pipe, which consists straight fins of uniform cross sectional area. In this paper, GHE model is introduced and an analytical model of new type GHE pipe is developed. The heat exchange rate of BHEs utilizing finned pips is 40.42 W/m, which is 16.3% higher than normal BHEs, based on simulation analyses.

  19. Thermal Effects That Arise upon Different Heat Treatments in Austenitic Steels Alloyed with Titanium and Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuzov, V. L.; Berger, I. F.; Bobrovskii, V. I.; Voronin, V. I.; Danilov, S. E.; Kazantsev, V. A.; Kataev, N. V.; Sagaradze, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    Structural and microstructural changes that arise in the course of the heat treatment of Cr-Ni-Mo austenitic stainless steels with different concentrations of titanium and phosphorus have been studied. It has been found that the alloying with phosphorus decreases the lattice parameter of these steels. The phosphorus contribution to this effect is 0.015 ± 0.002 Å/at %. Aging at a temperature of 670 K for about 20 h leads to the precipitation of dispersed needle-like particles, which are most likely to be iron phosphides. In the temperature range of 700-800 K, in austenitic steels, the atomic separation of the solid solution occurs, the intensity of which decreases upon alloying with titanium or phosphorus at concentrations of 1.0 and 0.1 wt %, respectively. At higher temperatures (about 950 K), the formed precipitates of the Ni3Ti (γ') phase increase in size to 7-10 nm.

  20. The structural properties of barium cobalt hexaferrite powder prepared by a simple heat treatment method

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, Chetna, E-mail: chetna.chauhan@nirmauni.ac.in; Jotania, Rajshree, E-mail: rbjotania@gmail.com

    2016-05-06

    The W-type barium hexaferrite was prepared using a simple heat treatment method. The precursor was calcinated at 650°C for 3 hours and then slowly cooled to room temperature in order to obtain barium cobalt hexaferrite powder. The prepared powder was characterised by different experimental techniques like XRD, FTIR and SEM. The X-ray diffractogram of the sample shows W-and M phases. The particle size calculated by Debye Scherrer formula. The FTIR spectra of the sample was taken at room temperature by using KBr pallet method which confirms the formation of hexaferrite phase. The morphological study on the hexaferrite powder was carriedmore » out by SEM analysis.« less

  1. COHO - Utilizing Waste Heat and Carbon Dioxide at Power Plants for Water Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Sumanjeet; Wilson, Aaron; Wendt, Daniel

    The COHO is a breakthrough water purification system that can concentrate challenging feed waters using carbon dioxide and low-grade heat. For this project, we studied feeds in a lab-scale system to simulate COHO’s potential to operate at coal- powered power plants. COHO proved successful at concentrating the highly scaling and challenging wastewaters derived from a power plant’s cooling towers and flue gas desulfurization units. We also found that COHO was successful at scrubbing carbon dioxide from flue gas mixtures. Thermal regeneration of the switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis draw solution ended up requiring higher temperatures than initially anticipated, but wemore » also found that the draw solution could be polished via reverse osmosis. A techno-economic analysis indicates that installation of a COHO at a power plant for wastewater treatment would result in significant savings.« less

  2. Polymorphism, microstructure and rheology of butter. Effects of cream heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Rønholt, Stine; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain; Pedersen, Thomas Bæk; Mortensen, Kell; Knudsen, Jes Christian

    2012-12-01

    The effect of cream heat treatment prior to butter manufacturing, fluctuating temperatures during storage and presence of fat globules vs. no fat globules was examined in laboratory scale produced butter. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry was used to study crystallization behaviour and nuclear magnetic resonance to measure solid fat content and water droplet size distribution. Furthermore, the crystal structure was linked to the rheological properties and microstructure of the butter using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Butter produced from non-matured cream mainly formed α- and β'-crystals with minor traces of β-crystals. Maturing of the cream caused a transition from α- to β'- and β-form. The rheological behaviour of slow cooled butter deviated from the matured ones by having a lower elastic modulus, caused by a weaker crystal network. Presence of fat globules did not affect the rheological properties significantly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of heat treatment on the gel properties of the body wall of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Hou, Hu; Bu, Lin; Li, Bafang; Xue, Changhu; Peng, Zhe; Su, Shiwei

    2017-03-01

    The sensory texture of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus ) was dramatically affected by heat treatment. In this study, sea cucumbers were heated under different thermal conditions (HSC), and divided into five groups (HSC-80, HSC-90, HSC-100, HSC-110, and HSC-120) according to the heating temperature (from 80 to 120 °C). The changes in texture, moisture, gel structure, and biochemical parameters of the HSC were investigated. With increasing heating time (from 10 to 80 min), the hardness and gel structure changed slightly, and the water activity decreased as the proportion of T 21 increased by 133.33, 55.56, and 59.09% in the HSC-80, HSC-90, and HSC-100 groups, respectively. This indicated that moderate heating conditions (below 100 °C) caused gelation of sea cucumbers in HSC-80, HSC-90, and HSC-100 groups. However, as the water activity increased, the hardness declined rapidly by 2.56 and 2.7% in the HSC-110 and HSC-120 groups, with heating time increased from 10 to 80 min. Meanwhile, free hydroxyproline and ammonia nitrogen contents increased by 81.24 and 63.16% in the HSC-110 group; and by 63.09 and 54.99% in the HSC-120 group, as the gel structure of the sea cucumbers decomposed in these two groups. These results demonstrated that, severe heat treatment (above 100 °C) destroyed the chemical bonds, triggered the disintegration of collagen fibers and the gel structure of sea cucumbers, and transformed the migration and distribution of moisture, finally causing the deterioration of the sensory texture of the sea cucumbers.

  4. Studies of heat treated CSS CdS films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinskiy, D.; Marinskaya, S.; Viswanathan, V.; Morel, D. L.; Ferekides, C. S.

    1999-03-01

    Cadmium sulfide continues to be the most successful and widely used n-type heterojunction partner in thin film CdTe solar cells. In most cases solar cell performance is enhanced if the CdS films are heat treated prior to the deposition of the CdTe. This paper discusses the effect of H2 annealing on the resistivity of CSS-CdS films and the use of a mobility activation model to explain the observed changes in resistivity. Photoluminescence measurements of CSS CdS films heat-treated in He and in CdCl2 vapor have also been carried out. In all cases the heat treatments lead to an increase in the intensity of a photoluminescence band believed to be associated with sulfur vacancies.

  5. The Effect of Post-heat Treatment on the Microstructures of Single Crystal DD6 Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongfan; Gao, Hangshan; Wen, Zhixun; Li, Zhenwei; Yue, Zhufeng

    2016-09-01

    Various thermal cycles at the end of solution heat treatment and their influences on microstructure of single crystal superalloy DD6 were studied by experiments. During various thermal cycles, the qualitative and quantitative microstructure of samples quenched of the transformations is microscopically characterized. This completely includes the large changes in volume fraction, size distribution and morphology of gamma prime precipitate experienced in the upper temperature transformation. Noticeable deviation from the equilibrium volume fraction of γ' phase is detected in both the dissolution and precipitation processes above 1,120°C for both moderate cooling and heating rate; differences were mainly attributed to the unsteady nature of the turbulent flow. The growth and alignment of the γ' precipitates are deeply influenced by several factors, e.g. ageing time, cooling rate and quenching temperature. In addition, interesting findings such as "labyrinth" and "cluster" morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope. During precipitation processes, the complicated microstructure evolution is illustrated by considering the consecutive equilibrium shapes of a coherent precipitate, which grows under the interaction with its neighbors and the coherency of the precipitates improves their potential to resist dissolution.

  6. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Grade 91 steel

    DOE PAGES

    Shrestha, Triratna; Alsagabi, Sultan; Charit, Indrajit; ...

    2015-01-21

    The modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (Grade 91) is a material of choice in fossil-fuel-fired power plants with increased efficiency, service life, and reduction in emission of greenhouse gases. It is also considered a prospective material for the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant for application in reactor pressure vessels at temperatures up to 650°C. In this paper, heat treatment of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was studied by normalizing and tempering the steel at various temperatures and times, with the ultimate goal of improving its creep resistance and optimizing material hardness. The microstructural evolution of the heat treated steels was correlated with themore » differential scanning calorimetric results. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with microhardness profiles and calorimetric plots were used to understand the evolution of microstructure including precipitate structures in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel and relate it to the mechanical behavior of the steel. Thermo-CalcTM calculations were used to support experimental work and provide guidance in terms of the precipitate stability and microstructural evolution. Furthermore, the carbon isopleth and temperature dependencies of the volume fraction of different precipitates were constructed. The predicted and experimentally observed results were found to be in good agreement.« less

  7. Industrial Application of Different Heat Treatments and Cream Fat Contents for Improving the Spreadability of Butter.

    PubMed

    Tondhoosh, Arash; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mohamadifar, Mohamad A; Homayouni-Rad, Aziz; Hosseinoghli, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Individual factors, which interfere in the continuous churning, were manipulated to enhance the rheological properties and chemical composition of butter. This process leads to achieve softer; more spreadable, and ultimately healthier product for consumers. In addition it could prevent hardening of texture especially in winter. Firstly, Pasteurized cream with different fat contents (40 & 45% fat) was passed through heat treatments, and then it was injected to a continuous churn. Textural and melting behavior and fatty acid composition of butter were analyzed. Increasing the fat content of cream (from 40 to 45 %) and holding time (from 3h to 5h) in mid-temperature (18 ºC) and reducing the churning temperature (from 12 ºC to 10 ºC), resulted in soft butter texture and improved butter spreadability. Loss Tangent (tan δ) was increased from 0.11 to 0.74 (T=15 ºC;f=1Hz). The melting temperature of butter was decreased from 36ºC to 32ºC and total trans fatty acid content was decreased from 3.2 % to 1.87 %. It was concluded that such heating process (which has been studied and reported in patents) absorbs the low- SFC fats of the cream, integrates them into the butter texture a softer and more spreadable product. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Characterization of Machine Variability and Progressive Heat Treatment in Selective Laser Melting of Inconel 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prater, T.; Tilson, W.; Jones, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The absence of an economy of scale in spaceflight hardware makes additive manufacturing an immensely attractive option for propulsion components. As additive manufacturing techniques are increasingly adopted by government and industry to produce propulsion hardware in human-rated systems, significant development efforts are needed to establish these methods as reliable alternatives to conventional subtractive manufacturing. One of the critical challenges facing powder bed fusion techniques in this application is variability between machines used to perform builds. Even with implementation of robust process controls, it is possible for two machines operating at identical parameters with equivalent base materials to produce specimens with slightly different material properties. The machine variability study presented here evaluates 60 specimens of identical geometry built using the same parameters. 30 samples were produced on machine 1 (M1) and the other 30 samples were built on machine 2 (M2). Each of the 30-sample sets were further subdivided into three subsets (with 10 specimens in each subset) to assess the effect of progressive heat treatment on machine variability. The three categories for post-processing were: stress relief, stress relief followed by hot isostatic press (HIP), and stress relief followed by HIP followed by heat treatment per AMS 5664. Each specimen (a round, smooth tensile) was mechanically tested per ASTM E8. Two formal statistical techniques, hypothesis testing for equivalency of means and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), were applied to characterize the impact of machine variability and heat treatment on six material properties: tensile stress, yield stress, modulus of elasticity, fracture elongation, and reduction of area. This work represents the type of development effort that is critical as NASA, academia, and the industrial base work collaboratively to establish a path to certification for additively manufactured parts. For future

  9. Drill-back studies examine fractured, heated rock

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.; Myer, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the effects of heating on the mineralogical, geochemical, and mechanical properties of rock by high-level radioactive waste, cores are being examined from holes penetrating locations where electric heaters simulated the presence of a waste canister, and from holes penetration natural hydrothermal systems. Results to date indicate the localized mobility and deposition of uranium in an open fracture in heated granitic rock, the mobility of U in a breccia zone in an active hydrothermal system in tuff, and the presence of U in relatively high concentration in fracture-lining material in tuff. Mechanical -- property studies indicate that differences inmore » compressional- and shear-wave parameters between heated and less heated rock can be attributed to differences in the density of microcracks. Emphasis has shifted from initial studies of granitic rock at Stripa, Sweden to current investigations of welded tuff at the Nevada Test Site. 7 refs., 8 figs.« less

  10. A phase 1 study of heat/phenol-killed, E. coli-encapsulated, recombinant modified peanut proteins Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3 (EMP-123) for the treatment of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Wood, R A; Sicherer, S H; Burks, A W; Grishin, A; Henning, A K; Lindblad, R; Stablein, D; Sampson, H A

    2013-06-01

    Immunotherapy for peanut allergy may be limited by the risk of adverse reactions. To investigate the safety and immunologic effects of a vaccine containing modified peanut proteins. This was a phase 1 trial of EMP-123, a rectally administered suspension of recombinant Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3, modified by amino acid substitutions at major IgE-binding epitopes, encapsulated in heat/phenol-killed E. coli. Five healthy adults were treated with 4 weekly escalating doses after which 10 peanut-allergic adults received weekly dose escalations over 10 weeks from 10 mcg to 3063 mcg, followed by three biweekly doses of 3063 mcg. There were no significant adverse effects in the healthy volunteers. Of the 10 peanut-allergic subjects [4 with intermittent asthma, median peanut IgE 33.3 kUA /l (7.2-120.2), and median peanut skin prick test wheal 11.3 mm (6.5-18)]; four experienced no symptoms; one had mild rectal symptoms; and the remaining five experienced adverse reactions preventing completion of dosing. Two were categorized as mild, but the remaining three were more severe, including one moderate reaction and two anaphylactic reactions. Baseline peanut IgE was significantly higher in the five reactive subjects (median 82.4 vs 17.2 kUA /l, P = 0.032), as was baseline anti-Ara h 2 IgE (43.3 versus 8.3, P = 0.036). Peanut skin test titration and basophil activation (at a single dilution) were significantly reduced after treatment, but no significant changes were detected for total IgE, peanut IgE, or peanut IgG4. Rectal administration of EMP-123 resulted in frequent adverse reactions, including severe allergic reactions in 20%. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of heat treatment on the n-3/n-6 ratio and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Schneedorferová, Ivana; Tomčala, Aleš; Valterová, Irena

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different heat treatments (pan-frying, oven-baking, and grilling) on the contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish tissue. Four fish species were examined: pike, carp, cod, and herring. High performance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/ESI/MS), was employed for determination of intact lipid molecules containing n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. Although mostly non-polar lipids (triacylglycerols, TGs) were present in the fish tissue, the PUFAs were present preferentially in the phospholipid fraction. Omnivorous fish species (carp, herring) contained more TGs than did predatory ones (pike, cod). Higher amounts of PUFAs were detected in the marine species than in the freshwater ones. The impact of heat treatments on the lipid composition in the fish tissue seems to be species-specific, as indicated by multivariate data analysis. Herring tissue is most heat-stable, and the mildest heat treatment for PUFA preservation was oven-baking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Heat and pressure treatments effects on peanut allergenicity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanut allergy is recognized as one of the most severe food allergies. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in IgE binding capacity of peanut proteins produced by thermal-processing methods, including autoclaving. Immunoreactivity to raw and thermally processed peanut extracts was ev...

  13. The Effect of Solution Heat Treatment on an Advanced Nickel-Base Disk Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Kantzos, P. T.

    2004-01-01

    Five heat treat options for an advanced nickel-base disk alloy, LSHR, have been investigated. These included two conventional solution heat treat cycles, subsolvus/oil quench and supersolvus/fan cool, which yield fine grain and coarse grain microstructure disks respectively, as well as three advanced dual microstructure heat treat (DMHT) options. The DMHT options produce disks with a fine grain bore and a coarse grain rim. Based on an overall evaluation of the mechanical property data, it was evident that the three DMHT options achieved a desirable balance of properties in comparison to the conventional solution heat treatments for the LSHR alloy. However, one of the DMHT options, SUB/DMHT, produced the best set of properties, largely based on dwell crack growth data. Further evaluation of the SUB/DMHT option in spin pit experiments on a generic disk shape demonstrated the advantages and reliability of a dual grain structure at the component level.

  14. Proteomic profiling of camel and cow milk proteins under heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Felfoul, Imène; Jardin, Julien; Gaucheron, Frédéric; Attia, Hamadi; Ayadi, M A

    2017-02-01

    Cow and camel milk proteins before and after heat treatment at 80°C for 60min were identified using LC/MS and LC-MS/MS following monodimensional electrophoresis. The database used for the identification of camel and cow proteins was set from http://www.uniprot.org/. The obtained results showed that, after heating, camel milk at 80°C for 60min, camel α-lactalbumin (α-la) and peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) were not detected while camel serum albumin (CSA) was significantly diminished. When heating cow milk at 80°C for 60min, α-lactalbumin (α-la) and β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) were not significantly detected. Moreover, 19 protein bands from SDS-PAGE were analyzed and a total of 45 different proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. Casein fractions were kept intact under a heat treatment of 80°C during 60min of both camel and cow milks. Camel and bovine whey proteins were affected by a heat treatment of 80°C for 60min. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of heat treatment on microfissuring in alloy 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. G.; Dobbs, J. R.; Mayo, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in the microfissuring susceptibility of alloy 718 due to solution annealing and age hardening are studied. The effects of Ni3Nb (delta) precipitation during solution annealing and gamma-prime + gamma-double-prime precipitation during age hardening on microfissuring are investigated. It is observed that solution annealing reduces microfissuring and age hardening increases it, and the two precipitates do not affect microfissuring susceptibility. Potential causes for the detected intergranular segregation of the alloy are discussed.

  16. Study of Polyurethane Foaming Dynamics Using a Heat Flow Meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koniorczyk, P.; Trzyna, M.; Zmywaczyk, J.; Zygmunt, B.; Preiskorn, M.

    2017-05-01

    This work presents the results of the study concerning the effects of fillers addition on the heat flux density \\dot{q}( t ) of foaming of polyurethane-polystyrene porous composite (PSUR) and describes the dynamics of this process during the first 600 s. This foaming process resulted in obtaining porous materials that were based on HFC 365/225 blown rigid polyurethane foam (PUR) matrix, which contained thermoplastic expandable polystyrene (EPS) beads as the filler. In PSUR composites, the EPS beads were expanded after being heated to a temperature above the glass transition temperature of EPS and vaporing gas incorporated inside, by using the heat of exothermic reaction of polyol with isocyanate. From the start (t=0) to the end of the PSUR composite foaming process (t=tk), \\dot{q}( t ) was measured with the use of the heat flow meter. For the purpose of the study two PUR systems were selected: one with high and one with low heat density of foaming process q. EPS beads were selected from the same manufacturer with large and small diameter. The mass fraction of EPS in PSUR foam varied during the measurements. Additionally, a study of volume fractions of expanded EPS phase in PSUR foams as a function of mass fractions of EPS was conducted. In order to verify effects of the EPS addition on the heat flux density during PSUR foaming process, the thermal conductivity measurements were taken.

  17. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic profiling of citrus fruit with enhancement of disease resistance by postharvest heat treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background From field harvest to the consumer’s table, fresh citrus fruit spends a considerable amount of time in shipment and storage. During these processes, physiological disorders and pathological diseases are the main causes of fruit loss. Heat treatment (HT) has been widely used to maintain fruit quality during postharvest storage; however, limited molecular information related to this treatment is currently available at a systemic biological level. Results Mature ‘Kamei’ Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruits were selected for exploring the disease resistance mechanisms induced by HT during postharvest storage. Proteomic analyses based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and metabolomic research based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) were conducted. The results show resistance associated proteins were up-regulated in heat treated pericarp, such as beta-1, 3-glucanase, Class III chitinase, 17.7 kDa heat shock protein and low molecular weight heat-shock protein. Also, redox metabolism enzymes were down-regulated in heat treated pericarp, including isoflavone reductase, oxidoreductase and superoxide dismutase. Primary metabolic profiling revealed organic acids and amino acids were down-regulated in heat treated pericarp; but significant accumulation of metabolites, including tetradecanoic acid, oleic acid, ornithine, 2-keto-d-gluconic acid, succinic acid, turanose, sucrose, galactose, myo-inositol, glucose and fructose were detected. Noticeably, H2O2 content decreased, while, lignin content increased in heat treated pericarp compared to the control, which might increase fruit resistibility in response to external stress. Also, flavonoids, substances which are well-known to be effective in reducing external stress, were up-regulated in heat treated pericarp. Conclusions This study provides a broad picture of differential

  18. Antibacterial activity of recombinant human lactoferrin from rice: effect of heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Celia; Rota, Carmen; Castillo, Eduardo; Pérez, María-Dolores; Calvo, Miguel; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2009-06-01

    The antibacterial activity of recombinant human lactoferrin from rice (rhLF) compared with that of human milk lactoferrin (hLF) was evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes. The hydrolysates of rhLF and hLF were found to be more active than native proteins against E. coli O157:H7, and their activity was independent of their iron saturation. The effect of different heat treatments on the antibacterial activity of apo-rhLF was studied and compared with hLF. We observed that an HTST pasteurization treatment did not affect the antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin against the pathogens studied. Furthermore, the activity of apo-rhLF and hLF against E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes in UHT milk and whey was assayed, finding a decrease in the number of bacteria, although lower than that observed in a broth medium. This study shows the similar antibacterial activity of rhLF and hLF which is important in order to consider the addition of rhLF as a supplement in special products.

  19. Emulsion stabilizing capacity of intact starch granules modified by heat treatment or octenyl succinic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Timgren, Anna; Rayner, Marilyn; Dejmek, Petr; Marku, Diana; Sjöö, Malin

    2013-03-01

    Starch granules are an interesting stabilizer candidate for food-grade Pickering emulsions. The stabilizing capacity of seven different intact starch granules for making oil-in-water emulsions has been the topic of this screening study. The starches were from quinoa; rice; maize; waxy varieties of rice, maize, and barley; and high-amylose maize. The starches were studied in their native state, heat treated, and modified by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA). The effect of varying the continuous phase, both with and without salt in a phosphate buffer, was also studied. Quinoa, which had the smallest granule size, had the best capacity to stabilize oil drops, especially when the granules had been hydrophobically modified by heat treatment or by OSA. The average drop diameter (d 32) in these emulsions varied from 270 to 50 μm, where decreasing drop size and less aggregation was promoted by high starch concentration and absence of salt in the system. Of all the starch varieties studied, quinoa had the best overall emulsifying capacity, and OSA modified quinoa starch in particular. Although the size of the drops was relatively large, the drops themselves were in many instances extremely stable. In the cases where the system could stabilize droplets, even when they were so large that they were visible to the naked eye, they remained stable and the measured droplet sizes after 2 years of storage were essentially unchanged from the initial droplet size. This somewhat surprising result has been attributed to the thickness of the adsorbed starch layer providing steric stabilization. The starch particle-stabilized Pickering emulsion systems studied in this work has potential practical application such as being suitable for encapsulation of ingredients in food and pharmaceutical products.

  20. Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood.

  1. Improvement of bioinsecticides production through adaptation of Bacillus thuringiensis cells to heat treatment and NaCl addition.

    PubMed

    Ghribi, D; Zouari, N; Jaoua, S

    2005-01-01

    The present work aimed to increase yields of delta-endotoxin production through adaptation of Bacillus thuringiensis cells to heat shock and sodium chloride and to investigate their involvements in bioinsecticides production improvement. Growing B. thuringiensis cells were heat treated after different incubation times to study the response of the adaptative surviving cells in terms of delta-endotoxin synthesis. Similarly, adaptation of B. thuringiensis cells to sodium chloride was investigated. Adaptation to combined stressors was also evaluated. When applied separately in the glucose-based medium, 20-min heat treatment of 6-h-old cultures and addition of 7 g l(-1) NaCl at the beginning of the incubation gave respectively 38 and 27% delta-endotoxin production improvements. Heat shock improved toxin synthesis yields, while NaCl addition improved delta-endotoxin production by increasing the spore titres without significant effect on toxin synthesis yields. Cumulative improvements (66%) were obtained by combination of the two stressors at the conditions previously established for each one. Interestingly, when the similar approach was conducted by using the large scale production medium based on gruel and fish meal, 17, 8 and 29% delta-endotoxin production improvements were respectively, obtained with heat shock, NaCl and combined stressors. Heat treatment of vegetative B. thuringiensis cells and NaCl addition to the culture media improved bioinsecticides production. Heat treatment increased toxin synthesis yields, while addition of NaCl increased biomass production yields. Cumulative improvements of 66 and 29% were obtained in glucose and economic production media, respectively. Overproduction of bioinsecticides by B. thuringiensis could be obtained by the combination of heat treatment of vegetative cells and addition of NaCl to the culture medium. This should contribute to a significant reduction of the cost of B. thuringiensis bioinsecticides production and

  2. Growth of Listeria spp. in shredded cabbage is enhanced by a mild heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Ells, Timothy C; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2010-03-01

    Mild thermal processing can enhance the shelf life of cut fruits and vegetables by delaying the onset of spoilage and preserving the organoleptic properties of shredded cabbage. However, food safety issues related to this process have not been fully investigated. Therefore, the survival and growth of Listeria spp. on cabbage treated in this manner was examined. Experimentally, 24 strains of Listeria spp. (including L. monocytogenes) were inoculated onto cut and intact cabbage tissues and stored at 5 degrees C. All strains on intact tissues exhibited a moderate decline in numbers (up to 1.0 log CFU/cm(2)) over the 28-day storage period. Conversely, cut tissue supported growth of most strains during the first 7 to 14 days of incubation with maximum increases of 1.2 log CFU/cm(2). Subsequently, the survival or growth on heat-treated (50 degrees C for 3 min) and untreated shredded cabbage of four L. monocytogenes and four nonpathogenic Listeria spp. strains were compared during storage for 21 days at 5 degrees C. Growth on untreated shred for all strains was similar to the results observed on cut tissue with a maximum increase of approximately 1.0 log CFU/g. However, in the heat-treated cabbage shred all strains displayed a rapid increase in growth (up to 2.5 log CFU/g) during the first 7 days of incubation, which may be indicative of the destruction of an endogenous growth-inhibiting compound within the cabbage. In conclusion, this study shows that mild thermal treatments of cut cabbage may promote pathogen growth if other inimical barriers are not implemented downstream of the thermal treatment.

  3. A New Understanding of the Heat Treatment of Nb-Sn Superconducting Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria, Charlie

    Enhancing the beam energy of particle accelerators like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at CERN, can increase our probability of finding new fundamental particles of matter beyond those predicted by the standard model. Such discoveries could improve our understanding of the birth of universe, the universe itself, and/or many other mysteries of matter--that have been unresolved for decades--such as dark matter and dark energy. This is obviously a very exciting field of research, and therefore a worldwide collaboration (of universities, laboratories, and the industry) is attempting to increase the beam energy in the LHC. One of the most challenging requirements for an energy increase is the production of a magnetic field homogeneous enough and strong enough to bend the high energy particle beam to keep it inside the accelerating ring. In the current LHC design, these beam bending magnets are made of Nb Ti superconductors, reaching peak fields of 8 T. However, in order to move to higher fields, future magnets will have to use different and more advanced superconducting materials. Among the most viable superconductor wire technologies for future particle accelerator magnets is Nb3Sn, a technology that has been used in high field magnets for many decades. However, Nb3Sn magnet fabrication has an important challenge: the fact the wire fabrication and the coil assembly itself must be done using ductile metallic components (Nb, Sn, and Cu) before the superconducting compound (Nb3 Sn) is activated inside the wires through a heat treatment. The studies presented in this thesis work have found that the heat treatment schedule used on the most advanced Nb3Sn wire technology (the Restacked Rod Process wires, RRPRTM) can still undergo significant improvements. These improvements have already led to an increase of the figure of merit of these wires (critical current density) by 28%.

  4. The Strain-Hardening Behavior of TZAV-30 Alloy After Various Heat Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, S. X.; Yin, L. X.; Zheng, L. Y.; Ma, M. Z.; Liu, R. P.

    2016-02-01

    The Ti-Zr-Al-V series titanium alloys with excellent mechanical properties and low density exhibit tremendous application potential as structural materials in aviation, automotive, and navigation industries. The strain-hardening behavior of Ti-30Zr-5Al-3V (wt.%, TZAV-30) alloy with various heat treatments is investigated in this study. Experimental results show that strain-hardening behavior of the examined alloy depends on the heat treatment process. The average strain-hardening exponent, n, is approximately 0.061 for WA specimen (825 °C/0.5 h/water quenching + 600 °C/4 h/air cooling), 0.068 for FC (850 °C/0.5 h/furnace cooling), 0.121 for AC (850 °C/0.5 h/air cooling), and 0.412 for WQ (850 °C/0.5 h/water quenching). Analysis of strain-hardening rate versus true strain curves indicates that higher n of AC specimen results from the lower degradation rate of strain-hardening rate with strain, and the ultrahigh n of WQ specimen is attributed to the evident increase in strain-hardening rate at the true strain from 0.04 to 0.06. Phase constitution and microstructural analyses reveal that the n of the examined alloy with α + β phases increases with the increase in the relative content of the retained β phase but is independent of average thickness of α plates. The increase in strain-hardening rate in WQ specimen depends on metastable α″ martensite and martensitic transition induced by tensile stress.

  5. Effect of Multistage Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingdong; Wen, Haiming; Zhang, Han; Gu, Jianfeng; Li, Chuanwei; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2016-05-01

    The influence of Cu-rich precipitates (CRPs) and reverted austenite (RA) on the strength and impact toughness of a Cu-containing 3.5 wt pct Ni high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel after various heat treatments involving quenching (Q), lamellarization (L), and tempering (T) is studied using electron back-scatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography. The QT sample exhibits high strength but low impact toughness, whereas the QL samples mostly possess improved impact toughness but moderate strength, but the QLT samples again have degraded impact toughness due to additional tempering. The dispersion of nanoscale CRPs, which are formed during tempering, is responsible for the enhanced strength but simultaneously leads to the degraded impact toughness. The RA formed during lamellarization contributes to the improved impact toughness. Based on the present study, new heat treatment schedules are proposed to balance strength and impact toughness by optimizing the precipitation of CRPs and RA.

  6. Effects of post-weld heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of laser welds in GH3535 superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kun; Jiang, Zhenguo; Leng, Bin; Li, Chaowen; Chen, Shuangjian; Tao, Wang; Zhou, Xingtai; Li, Zhijun

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the microstructure and mechanical properties of laser welds before and after post-weld heat treatment processes were studied. The results show that the tensile strength of the joints can be increased by 90 MPa by a post-weld heat treatment process at 871 °C for 6 h, exceeding the strength of the original state of the base metal. Besides, elongation of the joints are also increased to 43% by the process, whereas the elongation of as-welded joints are only 22%. In addition, the Charpy impact properties of laser welds almost do not change. Second phase precipitates, which were identified as Mo-Si rich M6C-type carbides by transmission electron diffraction and scanning electron microscope, were observed at solidification grain boundaries and solidification subgrain boundaries. These carbides can pin dislocations during the following tensile deformation, hence are responsible for the strengthening of tensile properties of the joints.

  7. A Novel Combination of Thermal Ablation and Heat-Inducible Gene therapy for Breast Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    intensity focused ultrasound ( HIFU ) has been developed as an emerging non-invasive strategy for cancer treatment by thermal ablation of tumor tissue. The...Leenders, G., et al., Histopathological changes associated with high intensity focused ultrasound ( HIFU ) treatment for localised adenocarcinoma of...invasive strategy for cancer therapy [1, 2]. Through HIFU exposure, acoustic energy is focused into a deep-sited tumor volume and converted into heat

  8. Lower operational costs in heat treatment and process engineering through improved temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furniss, C. P.

    New metal-sheathed thermocouple systems are described which have lowered operational heat treatment costs and process engineering. The improvements which these thermocouples represent over conventional ones with regard to chemical composition, thermomechanical properties, oxidation resistance, weldability, and coefficient of linear expansion are pointed out. Experimentally determined cost savings for a variety of applications are reported.

  9. Case report: severe heat stroke with multiple organ dysfunction – a novel intravascular treatment approach

    PubMed Central

    Broessner, Gregor; Beer, Ronny; Franz, Gerhard; Lackner, Peter; Engelhardt, Klaus; Brenneis, Christian; Pfausler, Bettina; Schmutzhard, Erich

    2005-01-01

    Introduction We report the case of a patient who developed a severe post-exertional heat stroke with consecutive multiple organ dysfunction resistant to conventional antipyretic treatment, necessitating the use of a novel endovascular device to combat hyperthermia and maintain normothermia. Methods A 38-year-old male suffering from severe heat stroke with predominant signs and symptoms of encephalopathy requiring acute admission to an intensive care unit, was admitted to a ten-bed neurological intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. The patient developed consecutive multiple organ dysfunction with rhabdomyolysis, and hepatic and respiratory failure. Temperature elevation was resistant to conventional treatment measures. Aggressive intensive care treatment included forced diuresis and endovascular cooling to combat hyperthermia and maintain normothermia. Results Analyses of serum revealed elevation of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF alpha, IL-6), cytokines (IL-2R), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4) and chemokines (IL-8) as well as signs of rhabdomyolysis and hepatic failure. Aggressive intensive care treatment as forced diuresis and endovascular cooling (CoolGard® and CoolLine®) to combat hyperthermia and maintain normothermia were used successfully to treat this severe heat stroke. Conclusion In this case of severe heat stroke, presenting with multiple organ dysfunction and elevation of cytokines and chemokines, which was resistant to conventional cooling therapies, endovascular cooling may have contributed significantly to the reduction of body temperature and, possibly, avoided a fatal result. PMID:16285034

  10. Formosan subterranean termite resistance to heat treatment of Scots pine and Norway spruce

    Treesearch

    W. Ramsay Smith; Andreas O. Rapp; Christian Welzbacher; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2003-01-01

    New challenges to the durability of wood building materials have arisen in the U.S. The Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) now infests sizable portions of the U.S. south (Figure 1) and their range is extending. Heat treatments offer a unique opportunity for wood-based composites because many of the process techniques already employ various...

  11. Effect of prolonged isothermal heat treatment on the mechanical behavior of advanced NANOBAIN steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avishan, Behzad

    2017-09-01

    The microstructural evolution and consequent changes in strength and ductility of advanced NANOBAIN steel during prolonged isothermal heat-treatment stages were investigated. The microstructure and mechanical properties of nanostructured bainite were not expected to be influenced by extending the heat-treatment time beyond the optimum value because of the autotempering phenomenon and high tempering resistance. However, experimental results indicated that the microstructure was thermodynamically unstable and that prolonged austempering resulted in carbon depletion from high-carbon retained austenite and carbide precipitations. Therefore, austenite became thermally less stable and partially transformed into martensite during cooling to room temperature. Prolonged austempering did not lead to the typical tempering sequence of bainite, and the sizes of the microstructural constituents were independent of the extended heat-treatment times. This independence, in turn, resulted in almost constant ultimate tensile strength values. However, microstructural variations enhanced the yield strength and the hardness of the material at extended isothermal heat-treatment stages. Finally, although microstructural changes decreased the total elongation and impact toughness, considerable combinations of mechanical properties could still be achieved.

  12. Hardening of steels and cast irons by passivation of their surface and heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, A. I.

    1994-01-01

    Examples of the use of a casehardening (CH) method (surface passivation and standard heat treatment) developed to increase hardness and corrosion resistance and to lower the surface roughness of various components and tools — glass molds. piston rings and ball-bearing races — are presented in this paper.

  13. Numerical analysis of heat treatment of TiCN coated AA7075 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinath, M. K.; Prasad, M. S. Ganesha

    2018-04-01

    The Numerical analysis of heat treatments of TiCN coated AA7075 aluminium alloys is presented in this paper. The Convection-Diffusion-Reaction (CDR) equation with solutions in the Streamlined-Upward Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method for different parameters is provided for the understanding of the process. An experimental process to improve the surface properties of AA-7075 aluminium alloy was attempted through the coatings of TiCN and subsequent heat treatments. From the experimental process, optimized temperature and time was obtained which gave the maximum surface hardness and corrosion resistance. The paper gives an understanding and use of the CDR equation for application of the process. Expression to determine convection, diffusion and reaction parameters are provided which is used to obtain the overall expression of the heat treatment process. With the substitution of the optimized temperature and time, the governing equation may be obtained. Additionally, the total energy consumed during the heat treatment process is also developed to give a mathematical formulation of the energy consumed.

  14. Deposition, Heat Treatment And Characterization of Two Layer Bioactive Coatings on Cylindrical PEEK

    PubMed Central

    Durham, John W.; Rabiei, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) rods were coated via ion beam asssited deposition (IBAD) at room temperature. The coating consists of a two-layer design of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as a heat-protection layer, and hydroxyapatite (HA) as a top layer to increase bioactivity. A rotating substrate holder was designed to deposit an even coating on the cylindrical surface of PEEK rods; the uniformity is verified by cross-sectional measurements using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Deposition is followed by heat treatment of the coating using microwave annealing and autoclaving. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a dense, uniform columnar grain structure in the YSZ layer that is well bonded to the PEEK substrate, while the calcium phosphate layer was amorphous and pore-free in its as-deposited state. Subsequent heat treatment via microwave energy introduced HA crystallization in the calcium phosphate layer and additional autoclaving further expanded the crystallization of the HA layer. Chemical composition evaluation of the coating indicated the Ca/P ratios of the HA layer to be near that of stoichiometric HA, with minor variations through the HA layer thickness. The adhesion strength of as-deposited HA/YSZ coatings on smooth, polished PEEK surfaces was mostly unaffected by microwave heat treatment, but decreased with additional autoclave treatment. Increasing surface roughness showed improvement of bond strength. PMID:27713592

  15. Effect of Cr and Mn addition and heat treatment on AlSi3Mg casting alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Tocci, Marialaura, E-mail: m.tocci@unibs.it

    In the present paper the effect of heat treatment on an AlSi3Mg alloy with and without Cr and Mn addition was investigated. Beside the well-known modification of the morphology of Fe-containing intermetallics, it was found that Cr and Mn allowed the formation of dispersoids in the aluminium matrix after solution heat treatment at 545 °C, as shown by scanning transmission electron microscope observations. These particles were responsible of the enhanced Vickers microhardness of the aluminium matrix in comparison with the base alloy after solution treatment and quenching, according to dispersion hardening mechanism. The presence of these particles was not affectedmore » by ageing treatment, which instead allowed the precipitation of β-Mg{sub 2}Si, as shown by the elaboration of differential scanning calorimeter curves. The formation of dispersoids and the study of their effect on mechanical properties can represent an interesting development for applications at high temperatures of casting alloys due to their thermal stability compared to other strengthening phases as β-Mg{sub 2}Si. - Highlights: •Cr and Mn successfully modified the morphology of Fe-containing intermetallics. •Cr- and Mn-dispersoids formed in the aluminium matrix during solution treatment. •Dispersion hardening was detected after solution treatment for Cr-containing alloy. •The dispersion hardening effect was maintained after ageing treatment.« less

  16. The effect of heat shrink treatment and storage temperature on the time of onset of "blown pack" spoilage.

    PubMed

    Moschonas, Galatios; Bolton, Declan J; Sheridan, James J; McDowell, David A

    2011-02-01

    This study determined the effects of (a) the short "heat shrink" treatment frequently applied to vacuum packed meats within normal commercial production, and (b) chill holding storage temperature, on the subsequent time to onset (TTO) of "blown pack" spoilage (BPS). Beef or lamb steaks were inoculated with 10³ CFU/cm² of spore suspensions of five gas producing clostridia, vacuum packed (VP) and treated as follows: no heat, 50°C/15 s, 70°C/10 s or 90°C/3 s. Samples were stored at -1.5, 1 or 4°C and examined daily to determine TTO of BPS. For each strain, pack treatment and storage temperature had significant (P<0.05 and P<0.001 respectively) effects on TTO of BPS, i.e. 90°C/3 s<70°C/10 s<50°C/15 s≤"no heat", and 4°C<1°C<-1.5°C. The study suggested that the meat industry could reduce the risks of BPS by avoiding higher temperature (90°C/3 s or 70°C/10 s) heat shrinking, and by storing VP meats at lower temperatures (e.g. -1.5°C). Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of mechanical alloying and heat treatment on the behavior of fe - 28% al - 5% cr powder with nanocrystalline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, W. M.; Liu, H. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Xu, G. O.; Zheng, Z. X.

    2012-05-01

    Nanocrystalline powders of alloy Fe - 28% Al - 5% Cr (at.%) obtained by mechanical alloying from powdered iron, aluminum, and preliminarily alloyed Fe - 20% Cr are studied. The chemical composition is shown to be homogenized. The changes in the structure and in the morphology of the particles in the process of ball milling and subsequent heat treatment are determined. The alloying is shown to occur by the mechanism of continuous diffusion mixing.

  18. Effect of laser heat treatment on Pull-out bond strength of fiber posts treated with different silanes.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Saadat, Maryam; Jowkar, Zahra

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of three different silanes and post-silanization treatments on the retentive strength of fiber posts luted with an etch-and-rinse resin cement. One hundred intact maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into 10 groups after endodontic treatment and post space preparation (n=10). The fiber posts were etched using 24% hydrogen peroxide. Posts of the control group did not receive silane. In nine experimental groups, each of the three silanes used, Scotchbond Universal adhesive, Bis-Silane and Porcelain Primer, was subjected to three treatments: air-drying at 25°C, warm air-drying and CO2 laser heat treatment. After cementation of the treated posts using One-Step Plus/Duo-Link cement, the specimens were stored for one weak and then subjected to pull-out bond strength (PBS) testing. The data in Newton (N) were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05). PBS was significantly affected by silane type and post-silanization treatment ( p <0.001). The interaction of the two factors was not statistically significant ( p =0.15). The effect of Porcelain Primer on PBS was significantly higher than those of universal adhesive ( p <0.001) and Bis-Silane ( p =0.01), with similar results for the two latter. Warm air-drying and laser treatment significantly increased PBS ( p <0.001). The lowest and highest PBS was obtained in the control (no silane) group (190.9±31) and laser-treated/ Porcelain Primer group (377.1±50), respectively. Warm air-drying and CO2 laser heat treatment had a significantly beneficial effect on retentive strength of fiber posts. Porcelain Primer was significantly more effective than universal adhesive and Bis-Silane. Key words: Laser heat treatment, Pull-out bond strength, fiber post.

  19. Optimization of stress relief heat treatment of PHWR pressure tubes (Zr 2.5Nb alloy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhuri, Gargi; Srivastava, D.; Gurumurthy, K. R.; Shah, B. K.

    2008-12-01

    The micro-structure of cold worked Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tube material consists of elongated grains of α-zirconium enclosed by a thin film of β-zirconium phase. This β-Zr phase is unstable and on heating, progressively decomposes to α-Zr phase and β-phase enriched with Nb and ultimately form β Nb. Meta-stable ω-phase precipitates as an intermediate step during decomposition depending on the heat treatment schedule, β→α+β→α+ω+β→α+β→α+β Morphological changes occur in the β-zirconium phase during the decomposition. The continuous ligaments of β Zr phase turn into a discontinuous array of particles followed by globulization of the β-phase. The morphological changes impose a significant effect on the creep rate and on the delayed hydride cracking velocity due to reduction in the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in α Zr. If the continuity of β-phase is disrupted by heat treatment, the effective diffusion coefficient decreases with a concomitant reduction in DHC velocity. The pressure tubes for the Indian PHWRs are made by a process of hot extrusion followed by cold pilgering in two stages and an intermediate annealing. Autoclaving at 400 °C for 36 h ensures stress relieving of the finished tubes. In the present studies, autoclaving duration at 400 °C was varied from 24 h to 96 h at 12 h-steps and the micro-structural changes in the β-phase were observed by TEM. Dislocation density, hardness and the micro-structural features such as thickness of β-phase, inter-particle spacing and volume fraction of the phases were measured at each stage. Autoclaving for a longer duration was found to change the morphology of β-phase and increase the inter-particle spacing. Progressive changes in the aspect ratio of the β-phase and their size and distribution are documented and reported. These micro-structural modifications are expected to decrease DHC velocity during reactor operation.

  20. Study of heat dissipation process from heat sink using lensless Fourier transform digital holographic interferometry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Shakher, Chandra

    2015-02-20

    This paper presents the results of experimental investigations about the heat dissipation process of plate fin heat sink using digital holographic interferometry. Visual inspection of reconstructed phase difference maps of the air field around the heat sink with and without electric power in the load resistor provides qualitative information about the variation of temperature and the heat dissipation process. Quantitative information about the temperature distribution is obtained from the relationship between the digitally reconstructed phase difference map of ambient air and heated air. Experimental results are presented for different current and voltage in the load resistor to investigate the heat dissipation process. The effect of fin spacing on the heat dissipation performance of the heat sink is also investigated in the case of natural heat convection. From experimental data, heat transfer parameters, such as local heat flux and convective heat transfer coefficients, are also calculated.

  1. Longitudinal evaluation of the efficacy of heat treatment procedures against Legionella spp. in hospital water systems by using a flow cytometric assay.

    PubMed

    Allegra, Severine; Grattard, Florence; Girardot, Françoise; Riffard, Serge; Pozzetto, Bruno; Berthelot, Philippe

    2011-02-01

    Legionella spp. are frequently isolated in hospital water systems. Heat shock (30 min at 70°C) is recommended by the World Health Organization to control its multiplication. The aim of the study was to evaluate retrospectively the efficacy of heat treatments by using a flow cytometry assay (FCA) able to identify viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells. The study included Legionella strains (L. pneumophila [3 clusters] and L. anisa [1 cluster]) isolated from four hot water circuits of different hospital buildings in Saint-Etienne, France, during a 20-year prospective surveillance. The strains recovered from the different circuits were not epidemiologically related, but the strains isolated within a same circuit over time exhibited an identical genotypic profile. After an in vitro treatment of 30 min at 70°C, the mean percentage of viable cells and VBNC cells varied from 4.6% to 71.7%. The in vitro differences in heat sensitivity were in agreement with the observed efficacy of preventive and corrective heating measures used to control water contamination. These results suggest that Legionella strains can become heat resistant after heating treatments for a long time and that flow cytometry could be helpful to check the efficacy of heat treatments on Legionella spp. and to optimize the decontamination processes applied to water systems for the control of Legionella proliferation.

  2. Heating treatment schemes for enhancing chelant-assisted phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yahua; Wang, Chunchun; Wang, Guiping; Luo, Chunling; Mao, Ying; Shen, Zhenguo; Li, Xiangdong

    2008-04-01

    Recent research has shown that chelant-assisted phytoextraction approaches often require a high dosage of chelant applied to soil. The present study focused on optimization of phytoremediation processes to increase the phytoextraction efficiency of metals at reduced chelant applications. Pot experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of increased soil temperature on shoot uptake of heavy metals by corn (Zea mays L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiat L. Wilczek) from heavy metal-contaminated soils. After the application of S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid or ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid, soils were exposed to high temperatures (50 or 80 degrees C) for 3 h, which significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in shoots. The heating treatment 2 d after the chelant addition resulted in higher concentrations of metals compared with those treatments 2 d before or simultaneously with the chelant application. Irrigation with 100 degrees C water 2 d after the chelant addition, or irrigation with 100 degrees C chelant solutions directly, also resulted in significantly higher phytoextraction of metals in the two crops compared with 25 degrees C chelant solutions. In addition, a novel application method to increase soil temperature using underground polyvinyl chloride tubes would increase the chelant-assisted extraction efficiency of Cu approximately 10- to 14-fold in corn and fivefold in mung bean compared with those nonheating treatments. In a field experiment, increasing soil temperature 2 d after chelant addition also increased the shoot Cu uptake approximately fivefold compared with those nonheating treatments. This new technique may represent a potential, engineering-oriented approach for phytoremediation of metal-polluted soils.

  3. Effect of heat treatment on interfacial and mechanical properties of A6022/A7075/A6022 roll-bonded multi-layer Al alloy sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Joon-Hyeon; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Lee, Yun-Soo; Kim, Hyoung-Wook; Choi, Yoon Suk

    2016-09-01

    Multi-layered Al alloy sheets can exhibit unique properties by the combination of properties of component materials. A poor corrosion resistance of high strength Al alloys can be complemented by having a protective surface with corrosion resistant Al alloys. Here, a special care should be taken regarding the heat treatment of multi-layered Al alloy sheets because dissimilar Al alloys may exhibit unexpected interfacial reactions upon heat treatment. In the present study, A6022/A7075/A6022 sheets were fabricated by a cold roll-bonding process, and the effect of the heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties was examined. The solution treatment gave rise to the diffusion of Zn, Mg, Cu and Si elements across the core/clad interface. In particular, the pronounced diffusion of Zn, which is a major alloying element (for solid-solution strengthening) of the A7075 core, resulted in a gradual hardness change across the core/clad interface. Mg2Si precipitates and the precipitate free zone were also formed near the interface after the heat treatment. The heat-treated sheet showed high strengths and reasonable elongation without apparent deformation misfit or interfacial delamination during the tensile deformation. The high strength of the sheet was mainly due to the T4 and T6 heat treatment of the A7075 core.

  4. The effect of pH and heat treatments on the foaming properties of purified α-lactalbumin from camel milk.

    PubMed

    Lajnaf, Roua; Picart-Palmade, Laetitia; Attia, Hamadi; Marchesseau, Sylvie; Ayadi, M A

    2017-08-01

    The effect of pH (4.3 or 6.5) and heat treatment (70°C or 90°C for 30min) on the foaming and interfacial properties of α-lactalbumin extracted from camel milk were studied. The increased temperature treatment changed the foaming properties of camel α-lactalbumin solution and its ability to unfold at the air-water interface. At neutral pH, heat treatment was found to improve foamability, whereas at acid pH (4.3) this property decreased. Foams were more stable after a heat treatment at pH 4.3 than at 6.5, due to higher levels of protein aggregation at low pH. Heat treatment at 90°C for 30min affected the physicochemical properties of the camel α-lactalbumin by increasing free thiol group concentration at pH 6.5. Heat treatment also caused changes in α-lactalbumin's surface charge. These results also confirm the pronounced aggregation of heated camel α-lactalbumin solution at acid pH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Preliminary Trade Study of Phase Change Heat Sinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Leimkeuhler, Thomas; Quinn, Gregory; Golliher, Eric

    2006-01-01

    For short durations, phase change based heat rejection systems are a very effective way of removing heat from spacecraft. Future NASA vehicles, such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), will require non-radiative heat rejection systems during at least a portion of the planned mission, just as their predecessors have. While existing technologies are available to modify, such as Apollo era sublimators, or the Space Shuttle Flash Evaporator System (FES), several new technologies are under development or investigation to progress beyond these existing heat rejection systems. Examples include the Multi-Fluid Evaporator developed by Hamilton Sundstrand, improvements upon the Contaminant Insensitive Sublimator originally developed for the X-38 program, and a Compact Flash Evaporator System (CFES). Other possibilities evaluate new ways of operating existing designs. The new developments are targeted at increasing operating life, expanding the environments in which the system can operate, improving the mass and volume characteristics, or some combination of these or other improvements. This paper captures the process and results of a preliminary trade study performed at Johnson Space Center to compare the various existing and proposed phase change based heat rejection systems for the CEV. Because the new systems are still in development, and the information on existing systems is extrapolation, this trade study is not meant to suggest a final decision for future vehicles. The results of this early trade study are targeted to aid the development efforts for the new technologies by identifying issues that could reduce the chances of selection for the CEV.

  6. Study of heat exchange in cooling systems of heat-stressed structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikulin, A. V.; Yaroslavtsev, N. L.; Zemlyanaya, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing working parameters of the cycle of gas-turbine engines, complicating design of gas-turbine plants, as well as growing aerodynamic, thermal, static, and dynamic loads, necessitate the development of promising cooling systems for heat-stressed structures. This work is devoted to an experimental study of heat exchange in ducts equipped with systems of inclined and cross walls (fins). It has been found that an increase in the Reynolds number Re from 3000 to 20000 leads to a decrease in the heat exchange, which is characterized by the relative Nusselt number overline{Nu}, by 19-30% at the angle of inclination of the walls φ = 0, 40°, 50°, and 90° if the length of the walls x w is comparable to the spacing b s and by 12-15% at φ = 30° and 90° if x w ≫ b s. If cross walls are used in cooling ducts, the length of the walls x w plays the governing role; an increase in this characteristic from 1.22 × 10-3 to 3.14 × 10-3 m leads to an increase in the intensity of heat exchange by 30-40% and to a decrease in the capacity of the entire system of the walls. It has been shown that, on surfaces with wavy fins, the intensity of heat exchange is closest to that determined in the models under study. For example, values of the Colborne criterion StPr2/3 for ducts equipped with wavy fins and for the models under study differ only slightly (by 2-20% depending on the value of the angle φ). However, the difference for surfaces with short plate fins and ducts equipped with inclined walls is high (30-40%). This is due to the design features of these surfaces and to the severe effect of the inlet portion on heat exchange, since the surfaces are characterized by a higher ratio of the duct length to the hydraulic diameter L/d h at small fin thicknesses ((0.1-0.15) × 10-3 m). The experimental results can be used in developing designs of nozzle and rotor blades of high-temperature gas turbines in gas-turbine engines and plants.

  7. Functional Properties of Glutinous Rice Flour by Dry-Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yang; Liu, Chengzhen; Jiang, Suisui; Cao, Jinmiao; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2016-01-01

    Glutinous rice flour (GRF) and glutinous rice starch (GRS) were modified by dry-heat treatment and their rheological, thermal properties and freeze-thaw stability were evaluated. Compared with the native GRF and GRS, the water-holding ability of modified GRF and GRS were enhanced. Both the onset and peak temperatures of the modified samples increased while the endothermic enthalpy change decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, dry heating remarkably increased the apparent viscosities of both GRF and GRS. Importantly, compared with GRS samples, the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") values of modified GRF increased more greatly and the tanδ values decreased more remarkably, indicating that the dry-heat treatment showed more impact on the GRF and a higher viscoelasticity compared with GRS. Our results suggest the dry-heat treatment of GRF is a more effective method than that of GRS, which omits the complex and tedious process for purifying GRS, and thereby has more practical applications in the food industry.

  8. Effects of heat and high-pressure treatments on the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Jieqiong; Sheng, Wei; Wang, Shuo; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2016-05-15

    The effects of dry and moist heat, autoclave sterilization and high-pressure treatment on the biochemical characteristics and immunological properties of almond proteins were investigated. Changes in the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins extracted from treated almond flour were evaluated using a total protein assay, indirect competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA), and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Almond proteins were stable during dry-heat treatment at temperatures below 250°C. Dry heat at 400°C, boiling, autoclave sterilization and high-pressure treatment in the presence of water at ⩾ 500 MPa greatly reduced the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins. SDS-PAGE revealed that the protein profiles of almond flour samples treated under these conditions also changed significantly. The synergistic effects of heat, pressure and the presence of water contributed to significant changes in solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of Dispersant and Heat Treatment on the Morphology of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yusong; Xiong, Dangsheng

    2010-10-01

    Natural biological hard tissues are biocomposites of proteins and hydroxyapatite (HA) with superior strength. Nanometer scale HAp is the key material to manufacture bone substitute. In this work, nano-sized HA particles were synthesized by a wet method using orthophosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide as raw materials. The prepared nanocrystalline HAp was characterized for its phase purity and nano-scale morphological structure by XRD, TEM, and FTIR. The influences of heat treatment temperature and dispersant on the properties of HAp were also investigated. The results indicated that nano-particles were pure single-phase HAp with a diameter of 25-70 nm and length of 50-180 nm depending on heat treatment temperature. The morphology and crystallite size of HAp change with heat treatment temperature. After heat treating, the crystallinity of these nano-particles increased and its morphology transformed from needle-like to sphere-like structure. The dispersant is beneficial to prevent the growth of HA particles and provide a uniform particle size distribution. Moreover, the HAp tends to form small agglomerates in the absence of dispersant.

  10. Heat Treatment of Cold-Sprayed C355 Al for Repair: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. W.; Zuccoli, M. V.; Hussain, T.

    2018-01-01

    Cold gas dynamic spraying of commercially pure aluminum is widely used for dimensional repair in the aerospace sector as it is capable of producing oxide-free deposits of hundreds of micrometer thickness with strong bonding to the substrate, based on adhesive pull-off tests, and often with enhanced hardness compared to the powder prior to spraying. There is significant interest in extending this application to structural, load-bearing repairs. Particularly, in the case of high-strength aluminum alloys, cold spray deposits can exhibit high levels of porosity and microcracks, leading to mechanical properties that are inadequate for most load-bearing applications. Here, heat treatment was investigated as a potential means of improving the properties of cold-sprayed coatings from Al alloy C355. Coatings produced with process conditions of 500 °C and 60 bar were heat-treated at 175, 200, 225, 250 °C for 4 h in air, and the evolution of the microstructure and microhardness was analyzed. Heat treatment at 225 and 250 °C revealed a decreased porosity ( 0.14% and 0.02%, respectively) with the former yielding slightly reduced hardness (105 versus 130 HV0.05 as-sprayed). Compressive residual stress levels were approximately halved at all depths into the coating after heat treatment, and tensile testing showed an improvement in ductility.

  11. Functional Properties of Glutinous Rice Flour by Dry-Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yang; Liu, Chengzhen; Jiang, Suisui; Cao, Jinmiao; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2016-01-01

    Glutinous rice flour (GRF) and glutinous rice starch (GRS) were modified by dry-heat treatment and their rheological, thermal properties and freeze-thaw stability were evaluated. Compared with the native GRF and GRS, the water-holding ability of modified GRF and GRS were enhanced. Both the onset and peak temperatures of the modified samples increased while the endothermic enthalpy change decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, dry heating remarkably increased the apparent viscosities of both GRF and GRS. Importantly, compared with GRS samples, the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") values of modified GRF increased more greatly and the tanδ values decreased more remarkably, indicating that the dry-heat treatment showed more impact on the GRF and a higher viscoelasticity compared with GRS. Our results suggest the dry-heat treatment of GRF is a more effective method than that of GRS, which omits the complex and tedious process for purifying GRS, and thereby has more practical applications in the food industry. PMID:27537844

  12. THE EFFECTS OF HYDROGEN, TRITIUM, AND HEAT TREATMENT ON THE DEFORMATION AND FRACTURE TOUGHNESS PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.; Tosten, M.; Chapman, G.

    2013-09-06

    The deformation and fracture toughness properties of forged stainless steels pre-charged with tritium were compared to the deformation and fracture toughness properties of the same steels heat treated at 773 K or 873 K and precharged with hydrogen. Forged stainless steels pre-charged with tritium exhibit an aging effect: Fracture toughness values decrease with aging time after precharging because of the increase in concentration of helium from tritium decay. This study shows that forged stainless steels given a prior heat treatment and then pre-charged with hydrogen also exhibit an aging effect: Fracture toughness values decrease with increasing time at temperature. Amore » microstructural analysis showed that the fracture toughness reduction in the heat-treated steels was due to patches of recrystallized grains that form within the forged matrix during the heat treatment. The combination of hydrogen and the patches of recrystallized grains resulted in more deformation twinning. Heavy deformation twinning on multiple slip planes was typical for the hydrogen-charged samples; whereas, in the non-charged samples, less twinning was observed and was generally limited to one slip plane. Similar effects occur in tritium pre-charged steels, but the deformation twinning is brought on by the hardening associated with decay helium bubbles in the microstructure.« less

  13. Effects of heat treatment on the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of orange by-products.

    PubMed

    Li, Chien-Chun; Hsu, Hui-Jin; Wang, Yu-Shiang; Cassidy, Jennifer; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Liu, Shih-Chuan

    2017-07-19

    This study investigated the changes in the functional components, antioxidative activities, antibacterial activities, anti-inflammatory activities of orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by-products (OBP) on heat treatment at 50 and 100 °C (hereafter denoted 50D and 100D extracts, respectively). Optimal heating conditions were also investigated. The total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidative activities of OBP extracts significantly increased on heat treatment. The lag time of Cu 2+ -induced oxidation of human LDL was increased by 2.61, 8.61 and 8.76-fold with the addition of 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mg ml -1 100D extracts, respectively. The 100D extracts may significantly inhibit the growth of E. coli O157, Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes. 1 μg mL -1 of 100D extract may suppress the TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 protein expression. The optimal heating time for OBP was 26 h at 100 °C, which resulted in the highest antioxidant activities.

  14. Effects of Pressure, Temperature, Treatment Time, and Storage on Rheological, Textural, and Structural Properties of Heat-Induced Chickpea Gels

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, María Dolores; Fuentes, Raúl; Canet, Wenceslao

    2015-01-01

    Pressure-induced gelatinization of chickpea flour (CF) was studied in combination with subsequent temperature-induced gelatinization. CF slurries (with 1:5 flour-to-water ratio) and CF in powder form were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), temperature (T), and treatment time (t) at three levels (200, 400, 600 MPa; 10, 25, 50 °C; 5, 15, 25 min). In order to investigate the effect of storage (S), half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were immediately analyzed for changes in oscillatory rheological properties under isothermal heating at 75 °C for 15 min followed by cooling to 25 °C. The other half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were refrigerated (at 4 °C) for one week and subsequently analyzed for changes in oscillatory properties under the same heating conditions as the unrefrigerated samples. HHP-treated CF in powder form was analyzed for changes in textural properties of heat-induced CF gels under isothermal heating at 90 °C for 5 min and subsequent cooling to 25 °C. Structural changes during gelatinization were investigated using microscopy. Pressure had a more significant effect on rheological and textural properties, followed by T and treatment t (in that order). Gel aging in HHP-treated CF slurries during storage was supported by rheological measurements. PMID:28231191

  15. Creep properties of PWC-11 base metal and weldments as affected by heat treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, R. H.; Moore, T. J.; Grobstein, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    In a preliminary study using single specimens for each condition, PWC-11 (a niobium-base alloy with a nominal composition of Nb-1%Zr-0.1%C) was creep tested at 1350 K and 40 MPa. Base metal specimens and specimens with transverse electron beam welds were tested with and without a 1000 hr, 1350 K aging treatment prior to testing. In the annealed condition (1 hr at 1755 K + 2 hr at 1475 K), the base metal exhibited superior creep strength compared to the nonaged condition, reaching 1 percent strain in 3480 hr. A 1000 hr, 1350 K aging treatment prior to creep testing had a severe detrimental effect on creep strength of the base metal and transverse electron beam weldments, reducing the time to attain 1 percent strain by an order of magnitude. Extrapolated temperature compensated creep rates indicate that the present heat of PWC-11 may be four times as creep resistant as similarly tested Nb-1%Zr. The extrapolated stress to achieve 1 percent creep strain in 7 yr at 1350 K is 2.7 MPa for annealed Nb-1%Zr and 12 MPa for annealed and aged PWC-11 base metal with and without a transverse electron beam weld.

  16. Heat reversal of activity-based anorexia: implications for the treatment of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Emilio; Cerrato, María; Carrera, Olaia; Vazquez, Reyes

    2008-11-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) provides an animal model of anorexia nervosa (AN). In this model, rats given restricted access to food but unrestricted access to activity wheels, run excessively while reducing food intake, lose a sizeable percentage of body weight, become hypothermic, and can fail to recover unless removed from these conditions. Once rats had lost 20% of body weight under standard ABA conditions, they were assigned to one of two ambient temperature (AT) conditions. Increased AT reduced running rates and led to weight gain in active rats. The effect of increasing AT on food intake was dependent on whether the rats were sedentary or active. Although warming reduced food intake in the sedentary rats their body weight remained stable, whereas in active rats increased AT did not reduce food intake and weight gain gradually rose. From a translational perspective, these findings offer a fresh perspective to the disorder, and underscore the need for further studies to assess the effects of heat treatment in patients as an innovative adjunctive treatment for anorexia nervosa.

  17. Opportunities for Combined Heat and Power at Wastewater Treatment Facilities: Market Analysis and Lessons from the Field

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report presents the opportunities for combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the municipal wastewater treatment sector, and it documents the experiences of the wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) operators who have employed CHP.

  18. Intensification of heat transfer during mild thermal treatment of dry-cured ham by using airborne ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Contreras, M; Benedito, J; Bon, J; Garcia-Perez, J V

    2018-03-01

    The application of power ultrasound (PuS) could be used as a novel technology with which to intensify thermal treatments using hot air. Mild thermal treatments have been applied to improve the soft texture of dry-cured ham caused by defective processing. In this regard, the aim of this study was to assess the kinetic intensification linked to the application of airborne PuS in the mild thermal treatment using hot air of dry-cured ham. For this purpose, vacuum packed cylindrical samples (2.52±0.11cm in diameter and 1.90±0.14cm in height) of dry-cured ham were heated using hot air at different temperatures (40, 45, 50°C) and air velocities (1, 2, 3, 4, 6m/s) with (22.3kHz, 50W) and without PuS application. Heat transfer was analyzed by considering that it was entirely controlled by conduction and the apparent thermal diffusivity was identified by fitting the model to the heating kinetics. The obtained results revealed that PuS application sped up the heat transfer, showing an increase in the apparent thermal diffusivity (up to 37%). The improvement in the apparent thermal diffusivity produced by PuS application was greater at high temperatures (50°C) but negligible at high air velocities (6m/s). Heating caused an increase in the hardness and elasticity of dry-cured ham, which would correct ham pastiness defects, while the influence of PuS on such textural parameters was negligible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Moderate Heat, Carvacrol, and Thymol Treatments on the Viability, Injury, and Stress Response of Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Guevara, L.; Antolinos, V.; Palop, A.; Periago, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    The microbial safety and stability of minimally processed foods are based on the application of combined preservative factors. Since microorganisms are able to develop adaptive networks to survive under conditions of stress, food safety may be affected, and therefore understanding of stress adaptive mechanisms plays a key role in designing safe food processing conditions. In the present study, the viability and the sublethal injury of Listeria monocytogenes exposed to moderate heat (55°C) and/or essential oil compounds (carvacrol and thymol, 0.3 mM) treatments were studied. Synergistic effects were obtained when combining mild heat (55°C) with one or both essential oil compounds, leading to inactivation kinetics values three to four times lower than when using heat alone. All the treatments applied caused some injury in the population. The injury levels ranged from around 20% of the surviving population under the mildest conditions to more than 99.99% under the most stringent conditions. Protein extracts of cells exposed to these treatments were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results obtained revealed that stressed cells exhibited differential protein expression to control cells. The proteins upregulated under these stressing conditions were implicated, among other functions, in stress response, metabolism, and protein refolding. PMID:26539510

  20. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of SLA titanium surfaces with further alkali or hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, E W; Wang, Y B; Shuai, K G; Gao, F; Bai, Y J; Cheng, Y; Xiong, X L; Zheng, Y F; Wei, S C

    2011-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of titanium surfaces sandblasted with large-grit corundum and acid etched (SLA) plus further alkali or hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment for dental implant application. Pure titanium disks were mechanically polished as control surface (Ti-control) and then sandblasted with large-grit corundum and acid etched (SLA). Further chemical modifications were conducted using alkali and heat treatment (ASLA) and hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment (HSLA) alternatively. The surface properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle and roughness measurements. Further evaluation of surface bioactivity was conducted by MC3T3-E1 cell attachment, proliferation, morphology, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition on the sample surfaces. After insertion in the beagle's mandibula for a specific period, cylindrical implant samples underwent micro-CT examination and then histological examination. It was found that ASLA and HSLA surfaces significantly increased the surface wettability and MC3T3-E1 cell attachment percentage, ALP activity and the quality of calcium deposition in comparison with simple SLA and Ti-control surfaces. Animal studies showed good osseointegration of ASLA and HSLA surfaces with host bone. In conclusion, ASLA and HSLA surfaces enhanced the bioactivity of the traditional SLA surface by integrating the advantages of surface topography, composition and wettability.

  1. Development of a pilot-scale 1 for Legionella elimination in biofilm in hot water network: heat shock treatment evaluation.

    PubMed

    Farhat, M; Trouilhé, M-C; Briand, E; Moletta-Denat, M; Robine, E; Frère, J

    2010-03-01

    (i) To develop an analytical tool in order to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-Legionella treatment in biofilm and (ii) study the fate of Legionella populations in water and biofilm after applying a heat shock treatment. A pilot-scale unit simulating a hot water system was built and designed by the Scientific and Technical Building Centre (CSTB, France). At the end of the contamination period, a stable cultivable Legionella spp. concentration of 5x10(5) CFU l(-1) was obtained. Two heat shock treatments (70 degrees C for 30 min) were applied. The results showed that the first treatment had a transitional effect on the abatement of Legionella concentrations, while the second treatment had no detectable effect on Legionella populations in water and biofilm. The DAPI (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole), Legionella PCR and GVPC (glycocolle vancomycin pyrophosphate cycloheximide) counts measured in the dead leg water of the Test Loop were 1, 2 and 2 log units higher than results found in the Test Loop water. Moreover, Legionella spp. count in tap water was about 10(4) GU l(-1). These analyses revealed that they are responsible for the rapid recolonization as well as the uncomplete destroyed biofilm. In addition, a resistance test was conducted and showed that Legionella in the second heat shock treatment was not thermo-resistant but thermo-acclimated. Thermal disinfection does not seem to be efficient enough to eliminate Legionella when it is used as a curative treatment. This work could help water managers for a better management of water network and for a better control of Legionella.

  2. Effects of post heat-treatment on surface characteristics and adhesive bonding performance of medium density fiberboard

    Treesearch

    Nadir Ayrilimis; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2009-01-01

    A series of commercially manufactured medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels were exposed to a post-manufacture heat-treatment at various temperatures and durations using a hot press and just enough pressure to ensure firm contact between the panel and the press platens. Post-manufacture heat-treatment improved surface roughness of the exterior MDF panels. Panels...

  3. Mathematical modeling of heat treatment processes conserving biological activity of plant bioresources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, N. S.; Popov, E. S.; Pozhidaeva, E. A.; Pynzar, S. S.; Ryaskina, L. O.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a mathematical model of the heat exchange process of LT-processing to estimate the dynamics of temperature field changes and optimize the regime parameters, due to the non-stationarity process, the physicochemical and thermophysical properties of food systems. The application of LT-processing, based on the use of low-temperature modes in thermal culinary processing of raw materials with preliminary vacuum packaging in a polymer heat- resistant film is a promising trend in the development of technics and technology in the catering field. LT-processing application of food raw materials guarantees the preservation of biologically active substances in food environments, which are characterized by a certain thermolability, as well as extend the shelf life and high consumer characteristics of food systems that are capillary-porous bodies. When performing the mathematical modeling of the LT-processing process, the packet of symbolic mathematics “Maple” was used, as well as the mathematical packet flexPDE that uses the finite element method for modeling objects with distributed parameters. The processing of experimental results was evaluated with the help of the developed software in the programming language Python 3.4. To calculate and optimize the parameters of the LT processing process of polycomponent food systems, the differential equation of non-stationary thermal conductivity was used, the solution of which makes it possible to identify the temperature change at any point of the solid at different moments. The present study specifies data on the thermophysical characteristics of the polycomponent food system based on plant raw materials, with the help of which the physico-mathematical model of the LT- processing process has been developed. The obtained mathematical model allows defining of the dynamics of the temperature field in different sections of the LT-processed polycomponent food systems on the basis of calculating the

  4. Proteome changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fertilized eggs as an effect of triploidization heat-shock treatment.

    PubMed

    Babaheydari, Samad Bahrami; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Dorafshan, Salar; Johari, Seyed Ali

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore proteome changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fertilized eggs as an effect of triploidization heat-shock treatment. Eggs and milt were taken from eight females and six males. The gametes were pooled to minimize the individual differences. After insemination, the eggs were incubated at 10°C for 10min. Half of the fertilized eggs were then subjected to heat shock for 10min submerged in a 28°C water bath to induce triploidy. The remainder were incubated normally and used as diploid controls. Three batches of eggs were randomly selected from each group and were incubated at 10-11°C under the same environmental conditions in hatchery troughs until the fry stage. Triplicate samples of 30 eggs (10 eggs per trough) from each group were randomly selected 1.5h post-fertilization for proteome extraction. Egg proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Based on the results from the statistical analyses, 15 protein spots were found to decrease significantly in abundance in heat-shock treated group and were selected for identification. Out of 15 protein spots showing altered abundance, 14 spots were successfully identified. All of the egg proteins identified in our study were related to vitellogenin (vtg). Decreased abundance of vitellogenin in heat-shock treated eggs in our study may either be explained by (i) higher utilization of vtg as an effect of increased cell size in triploids or (ii) changed metabolism in response to heat-shock stress and (iii) diffusion of vtg through chorion due to incidence of egg shell damage. Decreased abundance of vitellogenin in heat-shock treated eggs was associated with reduced early survival rates and lowered growth performance of triploid fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterizing precipitate evolution of an Al–Zn–Mg–Cu-based commercial alloy during artificial aging and non-isothermal heat treatments by in situ electrical resistivity monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Fulin; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7; Zurob, Hatem S., E-mail: zurobh@mcmaster.ca

    In situ electrical resistivity monitoring technique was employed to continuously evaluate the precipitate evolution of an Al–Zn–Mg–Cu-based commercial alloy during typical artificial aging treatments. The effects of artificial aging on the precipitates stability during non-isothermal heat treatments were also explored. Conventional hardness test, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were also adopted to verify the electrical resistivity results. The results indicated that both the precipitation process and its timely rate could be followed by the monitored electrical resistivity during artificial aging treatments. The electrical resistivity results gave overall information on continuous precipitation and dissolution processes, especially under high heatingmore » rates. Samples artificial aging heat treated at 120 °C for 24 h followed by aging at 150 °C for 24 h presented more stable state and coarser precipitates than the samples only artificial aging heat treated at 120 °C for 24 h or triple artificial aging heat treated at 120 °C/24 h + 195 °C/15 min + 120 °/24 h. While the incoherent η precipitates in the samples artificial aging heat treated at 120 °C for 24 h followed by aging at 150 °C for 24 h were more easiness to coarsening and dissolve during non-isothermal heat treatments as well. - Highlights: • In situ electrical resistivity monitoring technique was employed on an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. • The precipitate evolution during typical artificial aging treatments was studied. • The precipitate stability during non-isothermal heat treatments was explored. • The electrical resistivity wonderfully monitored continuous precipitation and dissolution. • The alloy submitted to a T7 treatment presents a more stable state during heating due to incoherent η precipitates.« less

  6. Impact of Next Generation District Heating Systems on Distribution Network Heat Losses: A Case Study Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu; Rezgui, Yacine

    2018-01-01

    District heating (DH) is a promising energy pathway to alleviate environmental negative impacts induced by fossil fuels. Improving the performance of DH systems is one of the major challenges facing its wide adoption. This paper discusses the heat losses of the next generation DH based on the constructed Simulink model. Results show that lower distribution temperature and advanced insulation technology greatly reduce network heat losses. Also, the network heat loss can be further minimized by a reduction of heat demand in buildings.

  7. The effect of air-abrasion and heat treatment on the fracture behavior of Y-TZP.

    PubMed

    Passos, Sheila P; Linke, Bernie; Major, Paul W; Nychka, John A

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated how the flexural strength and fracture behavior of a zirconia-based ceramic (Y-TZP) were affected by pre- and post-sintering mechanical and thermal treatments. Treatments included sandblasting with different particle size and type (30μm SiO2; 50 and 110μm Al2O3) and thermal conditioning. Two hundred bar-shaped specimens of pre-sintered Y-TZP ceramic (Lava Frame, 3M) were prepared (specimen dimensions: 25mm length×4mm width×0.7mm thickness) and divided into three groups (before sintering, after sintering and after sintering with heating treatment). The before sintering group specimens were airborne-particle abraded prior to dense sintering. Specimens from the after sintering group were airborne-particle abraded after sintering. The after sintering with heating treatment group specimens were submitted to a heating procedure after airborne-particle abrasion. The controls were the specimens that were sintered and not treated with any conditioning procedures. The specimens from all experimental conditions were analyzed by SEM, CLSM and XRD. All specimens were tested in four-point bending. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Post Hoc tests (α=0.05). A Weibull analysis was used to analyze the strength reliability. Sandblasting pre-sintered zirconia before sintering significantly decreased the flexural strength, except when the smallest blasting particles were used (30μm SiO2). Phase transformation (t-m) was observed after sandblasting and reverse transformation (m-t) was observed after heating. Sandblasting with 30μm SiO2 and 50μm Al2O3 allowed lower phase transformation. However, 30mm SiO2 presented better reliability. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High field Q slope and the baking effect: Review of recent experimental results and new data on Nb heat treatments

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ciovati, G. Myneni, F. Stevie, P. Maheshwari, D. Griffis

    The performance of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of bulk Nb at high fields (peak surface magnetic field greater than about 90 mT) is characterized by exponentially increasing rf losses (high-field Q slope), in the absence of field emission, which are often mitigated by low-temperature (100–140°C, 12–48 h) baking. In this contribution, recent experimental results and phenomenological models to explain this effect will be briefly reviewed. New experimental results on the high-field Q slope will be presented for cavities that had been heat treated in a vacuum furnace at high temperature without subsequent chemical etching. These studies are aimed atmore » understanding the role of hydrogen on the high-field Q slope and at the passivation of the Nb surface during heat treatment. Improvement of the cavity performances, particularly of the cavities’ quality factor, have been obtained following the high-temperature heat treatments, while secondary ion mass spectroscopy surface analysis measurements on Nb samples treated with the cavities revealed significantly lower hydrogen concentration than for samples that followed standard cavity treatments.« less

  9. High field Q slope and the baking effect: Review of recent experimental results and new data on Nb heat treatments

    DOE PAGES

    G. Ciovati; Myneni, G.; Stevie, F.; ...

    2010-02-22

    Here, the performance of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of bulk Nb at high fields (peak surface magnetic field greater than about 90 mT) is characterized by exponentially increasing rf losses (high-field Q-slope), in the absence of field emission, which are often mitigated by low temperature (100-140 °C, 12-48 h) baking. In this contribution, recent experimental results and phenomenological models to explain this effect will be briefly reviewed. New experimental results on the high-field Q-slope will be presented for cavities that had been heat treated in a vacuum furnace at high temperature without subsequent chemical etching. These studies are aimedmore » at understanding the role of hydrogen on the high-field Q-slope and at the passivation of the Nb surface during heat treatment. Improvement of the cavity performances, particularly of the cavities’ quality factor, have been obtained following the high temperature heat-treatments, while SIMS surface analysis measurements on Nb samples treated with the cavities revealed significantly lower hydrogen concentration than for samples that followed standard cavity treatments.« less

  10. High field Q slope and the baking effect: Review of recent experimental results and new data on Nb heat treatments

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ciovati; Myneni, G.; Stevie, F.

    Here, the performance of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of bulk Nb at high fields (peak surface magnetic field greater than about 90 mT) is characterized by exponentially increasing rf losses (high-field Q-slope), in the absence of field emission, which are often mitigated by low temperature (100-140 °C, 12-48 h) baking. In this contribution, recent experimental results and phenomenological models to explain this effect will be briefly reviewed. New experimental results on the high-field Q-slope will be presented for cavities that had been heat treated in a vacuum furnace at high temperature without subsequent chemical etching. These studies are aimedmore » at understanding the role of hydrogen on the high-field Q-slope and at the passivation of the Nb surface during heat treatment. Improvement of the cavity performances, particularly of the cavities’ quality factor, have been obtained following the high temperature heat-treatments, while SIMS surface analysis measurements on Nb samples treated with the cavities revealed significantly lower hydrogen concentration than for samples that followed standard cavity treatments.« less

  11. Sensitivity study of the monogroove with screen heat pipe design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Austin L.; Joyce, Martin

    1988-01-01

    The present sensitivity study of design variable effects on the performance of a monogroove-with-screen heat pipe obtains performance curves for maximum heat-transfer rates vs. operating temperatures by means of a computer code; performance projections for both 1-g and zero-g conditions are obtainable. The variables in question were liquid and vapor channel design, wall groove design, and the number of feed lines in the evaporator and condenser. The effect on performance of three different working fluids, namely ammonia, methanol, and water, were also determined. Greatest sensitivity was to changes in liquid and vapor channel diameters.

  12. Study of heating capacity of focused IR light soldering systems.

    PubMed

    Anguiano, C; Félix, M; Medel, A; Bravo, M; Salazar, D; Márquez, H

    2013-10-07

    An experimental study about four optical setups used for developing a Focused IR Light Soldering System (FILSS) for Surface Mount Technology (SMT) lead-free electronic devices specifically for Ball Grid Arrays (BGA) is presented. An analysis of irradiance and infrared thermography at BGA surface is presented, as well as heat transfer by radiation and conduction process from the surface of the BGA to the solder balls. The results of this work show that the heating provided by our proposed optical setups, measured at the BGA under soldering process, meets the high temperature and uniform thermal distribution requirements, which are defined by the reflow solder method for SMT devices.

  13. Experimental Study of Endwall Heat Transfer in a Linear Cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Sundén, Bengt; Chernoray, Valery; Abrahamsson, Hans

    2012-11-01

    The endwall heat transfer characteristics of forced flow past outlet guide vanes (OGVs) in a linear cascade have been investigated by using a liquid crystal thermography (LCT) method. Due to the special design of an OGV profile, the focus of this study is emphasized on the heat transfer patterns around the leading part of a vane. The Reynolds number is kept constant at 260,000. Two attack angles of the vane are considered. For α = 0°, the vane obstructs the incident flow like a bluff body and a remarkable flow separation phenomenon was noticed. For α = 30°, the vane is more "streamlined" with respect to the incoming flow and no obvious flow separation was observed. In general, the endwall heat transfer for α = 0° is higher than that for α = 30°.

  14. Distinguishing between heating power and hyperthermic cell-treatment efficacy in magnetic fluid hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Menendez, Cristina; Conde-Leboran, Ivan; Serantes, David; Chantrell, Roy; Chubykalo-Fesenko, Oksana; Baldomir, Daniel

    2016-11-04

    In the magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) research field, it is usually assumed that achieving a uniform temperature enhancement (ΔT) of the entire tumour is a key-point for treatment. However, various experimental works reported successful cell apoptosis via MFH without a noticeable ΔT of the system. A possible explanation of the success of these negligible-ΔT experiments is that a local ΔT restricted to the particle nanoenvironment (i.e. with no significant effect on the global temperature T) could be enough to trigger cell death. Shedding light on such a possibility requires accurate knowledge of heat dissipation at the local level in relation to the usually investigated global (average) one. Since size polydispersity is inherent to all synthesis techniques and the heat released is proportional to the particle size, heat dissipation spots with different performances - and thus different effects on the cells - will likely exist in every sample. In this work we aim for a double objective: (1) to emphasize the necessity to distinguish between the total dissipated heat and hyperthermia effectiveness, and (2) to suggest a theoretical approach on how to select, for a given size polydispersity, a more adequate average size so that most of the particles dissipate within a desired heating power range. The results are reported in terms of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles as a representative example.

  15. Changes in protein and starch digestibility in sorghum flour during heat-moisture treatments.

    PubMed

    Vu, Thanh-Hien; Bean, Scott; Hsieh, Chao-Feng; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) has been used to modify properties of sorghum starches. However, information is limited on the effects of HMT on the digestibility of starch and the concurrent changes in protein in sorghum flour. The objectives of this research were to identify heat-moisture conditions to increase the resistant starch (RS) content of sorghum flour and investigate changes in sorghum proteins and starch structure. Sorghum flours with different moisture contents (0, 125, 200, and 300 g kg -1 w.b.) were heated at three temperatures (100, 120 and 140 °C) and times (1, 2 and 4 h). HMT of sorghum flour increased its RS level. The flour treated at 200 g kg -1 moisture and 100 °C for 4 h had a high RS content (221 g kg -1 vs. 56 g kg -1 for the untreated flour). Starch was not gelatinized when sorghum flours heated at moisture content of 200 g kg -1 or below. Sorghum protein digestibility and solubility decreased during HMT. The increase in RS of sorghum flour upon HMT was attributed to enhanced amylose-lipid complexes and heat induced structural changes in its protein fraction. HMT can be used to increase RS content in sorghum flour without gelatinizing its starch, thereby providing sorghum flour with unique food applications. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Improvements in Sensible Heat-Flux Parametrization in the High-Resolution Regional Model (HRM) Through the Modified Treatment of the Roughness Length for Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anurose, T. J.; Subrahamanyam, D. Bala

    2013-06-01

    We discuss the impact of the differential treatment of the roughness lengths for momentum and heat (z_{0m} and z_{0h}) in the flux parametrization scheme of the high-resolution regional model (HRM) for a heterogeneous terrain centred around Thiruvananthapuram, India (8.5°N, 76.9°E). The magnitudes of sensible heat flux ( H) obtained from HRM simulations using the original parametrization scheme differed drastically from the concurrent in situ observations. With a view to improving the performance of this parametrization scheme, two distinct modifications are incorporated: (1) In the first method, a constant value of 100 is assigned to the z_{0m}/z_{0h} ratio; (2) and in the second approach, this ratio is treated as a function of time. Both these modifications in the HRM model showed significant improvements in the H simulations for Thiruvananthapuram and its adjoining regions. Results obtained from the present study provide a first-ever comparison of H simulations using the modified parametrization scheme in the HRM model with in situ observations for the Indian coastal region, and suggest a differential treatment of z_{0m} and z_{0h} in the flux parametrization scheme.

  17. Retained Austenite in SAE 52100 Steel Post Magnetic Processing and Heat Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, Nathaniel R; Watkins, Thomas R; Cavin, Odis Burl

    2007-01-01

    Steel is an iron-carbon alloy that contains up to 2% carbon by weight. Understanding which phases of iron and carbon form as a function of temperature and percent carbon is important in order to process/manufacture steel with desired properties. Austenite is the face center cubic (fcc) phase of iron that exists between 912 and 1394 C. When hot steel is rapidly quenched in a medium (typically oil or water), austenite transforms into martensite. The goal of the study is to determine the effect of applying a magnetic field on the amount of retained austenite present at room temperature after quenching.more » Samples of SAE 52100 steel were heat treated then subjected to a magnetic field of varying strength and time, while samples of SAE 1045 steel were heat treated then subjected to a magnetic field of varying strength for a fixed time while being tempered. X-ray diffraction was used to collect quantitative data corresponding to the amount of each phase present post processing. The percentage of retained austenite was then calculated using the American Society of Testing and Materials standard for determining the amount of retained austenite for randomly oriented samples and was plotted as a function of magnetic field intensity, magnetic field apply time, and magnetic field wait time after quenching to determine what relationships exist with the amount of retained austenite present. In the SAE 52100 steel samples, stronger field strengths resulted in lower percentages of retained austenite for fixed apply times. The results were inconclusive when applying a fixed magnetic field strength for varying amounts of time. When applying a magnetic field after waiting a specific amount of time after quenching, the analyses indicate that shorter wait times result in less retained austenite. The SAE 1045 results were inconclusive. The samples showed no retained austenite regardless of magnetic field strength, indicating that tempering removed the retained austenite. It is

  18. Improving the Elevated-Temperature Properties by Two-Step Heat Treatments in Al-Mn-Mg 3004 Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Ma, H.; Chen, X. Grant

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, two-step heat treatments with preheating at different temperatures (175 °C, 250 °C, and 330 °C) as the first step followed by the peak precipitation treatment (375 °C/48 h) as the second step were performed in Al-Mn-Mg 3004 alloys to study their effects on the formation of dispersoids and the evolution of the elevated-temperature strength and creep resistance. During the two-step heat treatments, the microhardness is gradually increased with increasing time to a plateau after 24 hours when first treated at 250 °C and 330 °C, while there is a minor decrease with time when first treated at 175 °C. Results show that both the yield strength (YS) and creep resistance at 300 °C reach the peak values after the two-step treatment of 250 °C/24 h + 375 °C/48 h. The formation of dispersoids is greatly related to the type and size of pre-existing Mg2Si precipitated during the preheating treatments. It was found that coarse rodlike β ' -Mg2Si strongly promotes the nucleation of dispersoids, while fine needle like β ″-Mg2Si has less influence. Under optimized two-step heat treatment and modified alloying elements, the YS at 300 °C can reach as high as 97 MPa with the minimum creep rate of 2.2 × 10-9 s-1 at 300 °C in Al-Mn-Mg 3004 alloys, enabling them as one of the most promising candidates in lightweight aluminum alloys for elevated-temperature applications.

  19. Effects of heat treatment on oil-binding ability of rice flour.

    PubMed

    Tabara, Aya; Nakagawa, Mariko; Ushijima, Yuki; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Seguchi, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Heat-treated (120 °C for 120 min) rice flour showed high affinity to oil (oil-binding ability). This oil-binding ability could be observed by shaking the heat-treated rice flour (2.0 g), oil (4.0 mL), and water (20 mL) vigorously in a test tube, and the oil bound to the rice flour sank into the water. To examine the time-dependent levels of the oil-binding ability, rice flour was heat-treated at 120 °C for 10, 20, 40, 60, and 120 min, and the precipitated volume of oil/rice flour complex increased with an increase of the heating time. The oil-binding ability of the rice flour was not affected by the treatments with diethyl ether or boiled chloroform/methanol (2:1) solutions, which suggested no relationship to the oil in the rice flour, but was lost upon alkali (0.2% NaOH solution) or pepsin treatment, which suggested its relationship to the rice proteins.

  20. New method of processing heat treatment experiments with numerical simulation support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kik, T.; Moravec, J.; Novakova, I.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, benefits of combining modern software for numerical simulations of welding processes with laboratory research was described. Proposed new method of processing heat treatment experiments leading to obtaining relevant input data for numerical simulations of heat treatment of large parts was presented. It is now possible, by using experiments on small tested samples, to simulate cooling conditions comparable with cooling of bigger parts. Results from this method of testing makes current boundary conditions during real cooling process more accurate, but also can be used for improvement of software databases and optimization of a computational models. The point is to precise the computation of temperature fields for large scale hardening parts based on new method of temperature dependence determination of the heat transfer coefficient into hardening media for the particular material, defined maximal thickness of processed part and cooling conditions. In the paper we will also present an example of the comparison standard and modified (according to newly suggested methodology) heat transfer coefficient data’s and theirs influence on the simulation results. It shows how even the small changes influence mainly on distribution of temperature, metallurgical phases, hardness and stresses distribution. By this experiment it is also possible to obtain not only input data and data enabling optimization of computational model but at the same time also verification data. The greatest advantage of described method is independence of used cooling media type.

  1. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stanecki, John

    2010-09-21

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  2. Experimental and numerical study of latent heat thermal energy storage systems assisted by heat pipes for concentrated solar power application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiari, Saeed

    A desirable feature of concentrated solar power (CSP) with integrated thermal energy storage (TES) unit is to provide electricity in a dispatchable manner during cloud transient and non-daylight hours. Latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) offers many advantages such as higher energy storage density, wider range of operating temperature and nearly isothermal heat transfer relative to sensible heat thermal energy storage (SHTES), which is the current standard for trough and tower CSP systems. Despite the advantages mentioned above, LHTES systems performance is often limited by low thermal conductivity of commonly used, low cost phase change materials (PCMs). Research and development of passive heat transfer devices, such as heat pipes (HPs) to enhance the heat transfer in the PCM has received considerable attention. Due to its high effective thermal conductivity, heat pipe can transport large amounts of heat with relatively small temperature difference. The objective of this research is to study the charging and discharging processes of heat pipe-assisted LHTES systems using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental testing to develop a method for more efficient energy storage system design. The results revealed that the heat pipe network configurations and the quantities of heat pipes integrated in a thermal energy storage system have a profound effect on the thermal response of the system. The optimal placement of heat pipes in the system can significantly enhance the thermal performance. It was also found that the inclusion of natural convection heat transfer in the CFD simulation of the system is necessary to have a realistic prediction of a latent heat thermal storage system performance. In addition, the effects of geometrical features and quantity of fins attached to the HPs have been studied.

  3. Effects of Heat Treatments and Compositional Modification on Carbide Network and Matrix Microstructure in Ultrahigh Carbon Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Matthew David

    This dissertation investigates microstructure/property relations in ultrahigh carbon steel (UHCS) with the aim of improving toughness while retaining high hardness. Due to high C contents (ranging from 1 to 2 wt%), UHCS exhibit high strength, hardness, and wear resistance. Despite this, applications for UHCS are currently limited because they typically contain a continuous network of proeutectoid cementite that greatly reduces ductility and toughness. In previous research, thermomechanic processing had seen considerable success in breaking up the network. However, the processing is difficult and has thus far seen very limited industrial application. Chemical modification of the steel composition has also seen some success in network break-up, but is still not well understood. There have been relatively few fundamental studies of microstructure evolution in UHCS; studies in the literature typically focused on lower C steels (up to 1 wt% C) or on cast irons (>2.1 wt% C). Thus, this work was undertaken to gain a better understanding of microstructural changes that occur during heat treatment and/or chemical modification of UHCS with a focus on the distribution of proeutectoid cementite within the microstructure. This dissertation is composed of eight chapters. The first chapter presents an introduction to phases found in UHCS, descriptions of research materials used in each chapter, and the hypotheses and objectives guiding the work. The second chapter describes a study of the microstructure found in a 2C-4Cr UHCS before and after an industrial-scale austenitizating heat treatment that increased hardness and toughness and also produced discrete carbide particles in the matrix. The third chapter establishes and demonstrates a metric for measuring connectivity in carbide networks. The fourth chapter describes a series of heat treatments designed to investigate kinetics of spheroidization and coarsening of carbide particles and denuded zones near cementite network

  4. The effect of heat treatments applied to superstructure porcelain on the mechanical properties and microstructure of lithium disilicate glass ceramics.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Hatice; Özdoğan, Alper

    2018-01-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate that heat treatments with different numbers applied to superstructure porcelain whether effects microstructure and mechanical properties of lithium disilicate ceramic (LDC). Eighty disc-shaped specimens were fabricated from IPS e.max Press. Specimens were fired at heating values of porcelain in different numbers and divided four groups (n=5). Initial Vickers hardness were measured and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed. Different surface treatment were applied and then Vickers hardness, surface roughness and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis were performed. Data were analyzed with Varyans analysis and Tukey HSD test (α=0.05). Initial hardness among groups was no significant different (p>0.05), but hardness and surface roughness after surface treatments were significant different (p<0.05). Lithium disilicate (LD) peaks decrease depended on firing numbers. ESEM observations showed that firing number and surface treatments effect microstructure of LDC. Increasing firing numbers and surface treatments effect the microstructure of LDC.

  5. Influence of Heat Treatment Conditions on the Properties of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films for Thermochromic Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donguk; Kwon, Samyoung; Park, Young; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Nam, Sang-Hun; Joo, Yang Tae; Kim, Minha; Lee, Jaehyeong

    2016-05-01

    In present work, the effects of the heat treatment on the structural, optical, and thermochromic properties of vanadium oxide films were investigated. Vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering from a vanadium metal target in mixture atmosphere of argon and oxygen gas. Various heat treatment conditions were applied in order to evaluate their influence on the crystal phases formed, surface morphology, and optical properties. The films were characterized by an X-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to investigate the crystal structure and identify the phase change as post-annealing temperature of 500-600 degrees C for 5 minutes. Surface conditions of the obtained VO2(M) films were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the semiconductor-metal transition (SMT) characteristics of the VO2 films were evaluate by optical spectrophotometry in the UV-VIS-NIR, controlling temperature of the films.

  6. The response of cobalt-free Udimet 700 type alloy to modified heat treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1985-01-01

    A superalloy based on Udimet 700, in which all of the cobalt was replaced by nickel, was prepared from hot isostatically pressed prealloyed powders. This material was given various heat treatments consisting of partial solutioning and aging in a sequence of four different temperatures. Comparisons were made of microstructures and mechanical properties. Best results were obtained by partially solutioning at 1145 deg C and aging through a sequence of 870, 1030, 650 and 760 deg C. This heat treatment also provided significantly improved properties for wrought material of the same composition. The results suggest that cobalt free Udimet 700 should be considered as a substitute for Udimet 700 with the standard 17 percent cobalt content.

  7. The response of cobalt-free Udimet 700 type alloy to modified heat treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    A superalloy based on Udimet 700, in which all of the cobalt was replaced by nickel, was prepared from hot isostatically pressed prealloyed powders. This material was given various heat treatments consisting of partial solutioning and aging in a sequence of four different temperatures. Comparisons were made of microstructures and mechanical properties. Best results were obtained by partially solutioning at 1145 deg C and aging through a sequence of 870, 1030, 650 and 760 deg C. This heat treatment also provided significantly improved properties for wrought material of the same composition. The results suggest that cobalt free Udimet 700 should be considered as a substitute for Udimet 700 with the standard 17 percent cobalt content.

  8. Effects of heat treatment on mechanical properties of h13 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guanghua, Yan; Xinmin, Huang; Yanqing, Wang; Xingguo, Qin; Ming, Yang; Zuoming, Chu; Kang, Jin

    2010-12-01

    Heat treatment on the mechanical properties of H13 hot working die steel for die casting is discussed. The H13 steel for die casting was treated by different temperatures of vacuum quenching, tempering, and secondary tempering to investigate its mechanical properties. Strength, plasticity, hardness, and impact toughness of the H13 hot working die steel for die casting were measured. Microstructure, grain size, and carbide particle size after heat treatment have a great impact on the mechanical properties of H13 hot working die steel for die casting. The microstructure of the H13 was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by a metallographic microscope. It is found that H13 exhibits excellent mechanical properties after vacuum quenching at 1050°C and twice tempering at 600°C.

  9. Decreased immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to cashew allergens following sodium sulfite treatment and heating.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Christopher P; Desormeaux, Wendy A; Wasserman, Richard L; Yoshioka-Tarver, Megumi; Condon, Brian; Grimm, Casey C

    2014-07-16

    Cashew nut and other nut allergies can result in serious and sometimes life-threatening reactions. Linear and conformational epitopes within food allergens are important for immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding. Methods that disrupt allergen structure can lower IgE binding and lessen the likelihood of food allergy reactions. Previous structural and biochemical data have indicated that 2S albumins from tree nuts and peanuts are potent allergens, and that their structures are sensitive to strong reducing agents such as dithiothreitol. This study demonstrates that the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) compound sodium sulfite effectively disrupted the structure of the cashew 2S albumin, Ana o 3, in a temperature-dependent manner. This study also showed that sulfite is effective at disrupting the disulfide bond within the cashew legumin, Ana o 2. Immunoblotting and ELISA demonstrated that the binding of cashew proteins by rabbit IgG or IgE from cashew-allergic patients was markedly lowered following treatment with sodium sulfite and heating. The results indicate that incorporation of sodium sulfite, or other food grade reagents with similar redox potential, may be useful processing methods to lower or eliminate IgE binding to food allergens.

  10. The effect of heat treatment on the stability of Nb 3Sn RRP-150/169 strands

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Pei; Turrioni, Daniele; Barzi, Emanuela; ...

    2017-02-17

    Here, the magnetic stability of superconductor strands and cables is a key issue in the successful building and operation of high-field accelerator magnets. In this paper, we report the study of a state-of-the-art 0.7 mm Nb 3Sn restacked-rod-process strand manufactured by Oxford Instrument Superconductor Technology. This conductor will be used in Rutherford cable for a 15-T Nb 3Sn dipole demonstrator being built at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Particularly, this study focuses on the impact of varying heat treatment conditions on the stability of the strand. Both the stability against internal flux jumps and external thermal perturbations are studied.

  11. The effect of heat treatment on the stability of Nb 3Sn RRP-150/169 strands

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Pei; Turrioni, Daniele; Barzi, Emanuela

    Here, the magnetic stability of superconductor strands and cables is a key issue in the successful building and operation of high-field accelerator magnets. In this paper, we report the study of a state-of-the-art 0.7 mm Nb 3Sn restacked-rod-process strand manufactured by Oxford Instrument Superconductor Technology. This conductor will be used in Rutherford cable for a 15-T Nb 3Sn dipole demonstrator being built at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Particularly, this study focuses on the impact of varying heat treatment conditions on the stability of the strand. Both the stability against internal flux jumps and external thermal perturbations are studied.

  12. Effects of ultraviolet light (UV-C) and heat treatment on the quality of fresh-cut Chokanan mango and Josephine pineapple.

    PubMed

    George, Dominic Soloman; Razali, Zuliana; Santhirasegaram, Vicknesha; Somasundram, Chandran

    2015-02-01

    The effects of ultraviolet (UV-C) and medium heat (70 °C) treatments on the quality of fresh-cut Chokanan mango and Josephine pineapple were investigated. Quality attributes included physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids), ascorbic acid content (vitamin C), antioxidant activity, as well as microbial inactivation. Consumers' acceptance was also investigated through sensory evaluation of the attributes (appearance, texture, aroma and taste). Furthermore, shelf-life study of samples stored at 4 ± 1 °C was conducted for 15 d. The fresh-cut fruits were exposed to UV-C for 0, 15, 30, and 60 min while heat treatments were carried out at 70 °C for 0, 5, 10 and 20 min. Both UV-C and medium heat treatments resulted in no significant changes to the physicochemical attributes of both fruits. The ascorbic acid content of UV-C treated fruits was unaffected; however, medium heat treatment resulted in deterioration of ascorbic acids in both fruits. The antioxidants were enhanced with UV-C treatment which could prove invaluable to consumers. Heat treatments on the other hand resulted in decreased antioxidant activities. Microbial count in both fruits was significantly reduced by both treatments. The shelf life of the fresh-cut fruits were also successfully extended to a maximum of 15 d following treatments. As for consumers' acceptance, UV-C treated fruits were the most accepted as compared to their heat-treated counterparts. The results obtained through this study support the use of UV-C treatment for better retention of quality, effective microbial inactivation and enhancement of health promoting compounds for the benefit of consumers. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Heat treatment for improvement in lower temperature mechanical properties of 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Yoshiyuki; Okabayashi, Kunio

    1983-11-01

    In the previous paper, it was reported that isothermal heat treatment of a commercial Japanese 0.40 pct C-Ni-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel (AISI 4340 type) at 593 K for a short time followed by water quenching, in which a mixed structure of 25 vol pct lower bainite and 75 vol pct martensite is produced, results in the improvement of low temperature mechanical properties (287 to 123 K). The purpose of this paper is to study whether above new heat treatment will still be effective in commercial practice for improving low temperature mechanical properties of the ultrahigh strength steel when applied to a commercial Japanese 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel which is economical because it lacks the expensive nickel component (AISI 4140 type). At and above 203 K this new heat treatment, as compared with the conventional 1133 K direct water quenching treatment, significantly improved the strength, tensile ductility, and notch toughness of the 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel. At and above 203 K the new heat treatment also produced superior fracture ductility and notch toughness results at similar strength levels as compared to those obtained by using γ α' repetitive heat treatment for the same steel. However, the new heat treatment remarkably decreased fracture ductility and notch toughness of the 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel below 203 K, and thus no significant improvement in the mechanical properties was noticeable as compared with the properties produced by the conventional 1133 K direct water quenching treatment and the γ α' repetitive heat treatment. This contrasts with the fact that the new heat treatment, as compared with the conventional 1133 K direct water quenching treatment and the γ α' repetitive heat treatment, dramatically improved the notch toughness of the 0.40 pct C-Ni-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel, providing a better combination of strength and ductility throughout the 287 to 123 K temperature range. The difference

  14. Laboratory Investigation on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Granite After Heating and Water-Cooling Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Jianjian; Hu, Dawei; Skoczylas, Frederic; Shao, Jianfu

    2018-03-01

    High-temperature treatment may cause changes in physical and mechanical properties of rocks. Temperature changing rate (heating, cooling and both of them) plays an important role in those changes. Thermal conductivity tests, ultrasonic pulse velocity tests, gas permeability tests and triaxial compression tests are performed on granite samples after a heating and rapid cooling treatment in order to characterize the changes in physical and mechanical properties. Seven levels of temperature (from 25 to 900 °C) are used. It is found that the physical and mechanical properties of granite are significantly deteriorated by the thermal treatment. The porosity shows a significant increase from 1.19% at the initial state to 6.13% for samples heated to 900 °C. The increase in porosity is mainly due to three factors: (1) a large number of microcracks caused by the rapid cooling rate; (2) the mineral transformation of granite through high-temperature heating and water-cooling process; (3) the rapid cooling process causes the mineral particles to weaken. As the temperature of treatment increases, the thermal conductivity and P-wave velocity decrease while the gas permeability increases. Below 200 °C, the elastic modulus and cohesion increase with temperature increasing. Between 200 and 500 °C, the elastic modulus and cohesion have no obvious change with temperature. Beyond 500 °C, as the temperature increases, the elastic modulus and cohesion obviously decrease and the decreasing rate becomes slower with the increase in confining pressure. Poisson's ratio and internal frictional coefficient have no obvious change as the temperature increases. Moreover, there is a transition from a brittle to ductile behavior when the temperature becomes high. At 900 °C, the granite shows an obvious elastic-plastic behavior.

  15. A Novel Combination of Thermal Ablation and Heat-Inducible Gene Therapy for Breast Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    6 INTRODUCTION: In recent years, high-intensity focused ultrasound ( HIFU ) has emerged as a new and promising non-invasive...treatment modality for breast cancers. The fundamental principle of HIFU is to convert focused acoustic energy into heat and thus produce well-defined...Lucite water tank (Fig.1a). A specially designed adapter was used to align the ultrasound imaging probe perpendicular to the HIFU beam at 0o or 90o

  16. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure of a 2CrMoNiWV rotor steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng

    resistance to the material is elucidated.The usefulness of equilibrium thermodynamic calculations using MTDATA in predicting the microstructural changes and carbide evolution has been demonstrated in this work, particularly the separate effect of composition on the stable carbide dispersion where a thermodynamic approach offers great benefits.A possibly optimised heat treatment route is suggested for the large diameter rotor forgings which involves austenitising at 980°C for 10 hours following by oil quenching and then tempering at 675°C for 20 hours following by air cooling.Some general conclusions are drawn from this study, especially with regard to the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure of this 2CrMoNiWV steel and suggestions for further work are made.

  17. Safety assessment of heated diacylglycerol oil: subchronic toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Morita, Osamu; Tamaki, Yasushi; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie B; Chengelis, Christopher P

    2008-08-01

    Diacylglycerol oil is an edible oil with similar taste and usability characteristics as conventional edible oil rich in triacylglycerol oil. The objective of the present study was to evaluate potential adverse effects of heated diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol oil in rats following subchronic administration. The heated diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol oils were prepared separately following deep frying potato slices at 180 degrees C for 8h per day for three days. Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets containing different ratios (concentrations) of heated to unheated diacylglycerol oil. The ratio of heated to unheated diacylglycerol was as follows: 0%/5.5% (control-1; Group 1), 1.0%/4.5% (Group 2), 2.75%/2.75% (Group 3), and 5.5%/0% (Group 4). Two additional groups received the feed containing 5.5% of unheated or 5.5% of heated triacylglycerol oil. Compared to the unheated oils, feeding of heated diacylglycerol or triacylglycerol oil did not reveal any toxicologically significant changes in clinical observation, body weights, body weight gains, feed consumption, ophthalmic examinations, functional observational battery and motor activity, clinical pathology evaluations and organ weights. Similarly, terminal necropsy did not reveal treatment-related gross or histopathology findings. Based on the results of this subchronic study, the no-observed-effect levels (NOELs) of heated diacylglycerol or triacylglycerol oil were 5.5%, the highest levels tested. The mean dietary exposure levels at the highest dose for the heated diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol oil for male and female rats ranged from 3,178 to 4,120 mg/kg/day.

  18. EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON (Cr, Fe)7C3/γ-Fe COATINGS IN SITU SYNTHESIZED BY VACUUM ELECTRON BEAM IRRADIATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Binfeng; Chen, Yunxia; Xu, Mengjia

    (Cr, Fe)7C3/γ-Fe composite layer has been in situ synthesized on a low carbon steel surface by vacuum electron beam VEB irradiation. The synthesized samples were then subdued to different heat treatments to improve their impaired impact toughness. The microstructure, impact toughness and wear resistance of the heat-treated samples were studied by means of optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), microhardness tester, impact test machine and tribological tester. After heat treatment, the primary and eutectic carbides remained in their original shape and size, and a large number of secondary carbides precipitated in the iron matrix. Since the Widmanstatten ferrite in the heat affected zone (HAZ) transformed to fine ferrite completely, the impact toughness of the heat-treated samples increased significantly. The microhardness of the heat-treated samples decreased slightly due to the decreased chromium content in the iron matrix. The wear resistance of 1000∘C and 900∘C heat-treated samples was almost same with the as-synthesized sample. While the wear resistance of the 800∘C heat-treated one decreased slightly because part of the austenite matrix had transformed to ferrite matrix, which reduced the bonding of carbides particulates.

  19. Numerical study on microbubble-enhanced heating for various parameters in EUS-FUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okita, Kohei; Maezawa, Miyuki; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2012-11-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography guided focused ultrasound surgery (EUS-FUS) have been developed as a less-invasive treatment for pancreatic cancer. In the present study, microbubble-enhanced heating for various parameters in EUS-FUS is investigated numerically. Mass and momentum equations for bubbly mixture are solved to reproduce the propagation of ultrasound of 4.8MHz through the gel containing microbubbles as Sonazoid®. The dynamics of bubble is governed by the equation which considers the elasticity of both shell and surrounding media. Additionally, the heat equation with the time averaged heat source is solved to obtain a temperature distribution. The basic equations are discretized by the 6th-order finite difference method and developed based on FDTD method. The mixture and bubbles are coupled by Euler-Lagrange method. As the results, the temperature around the target increased due to the microbubble oscillation with increasing the initial void fraction fG0 from 10-5 to 10-4%. However, at fG0=10-3%, ultrasounds were too attenuated to heat the target. The heating region moved from the target to the transducer side. By comparing the results with and without shell, the shell of bubble induced the heating around focus. This is because the decrease of the attenuation due to the elasticity of the shell and the increase of the viscous dissipation rate due to the viscosity of the shell.

  20. Effects of Heat Treatment on the Magnetic Properties of Polymer-Bound Iron Particle Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, M.; Wincheski, B.; Bryant, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    Spherical iron particles of three different size distributions, 6-10 microns in diameter, 100 mesh and 30-80 mesh, were mixed with 2.0 wt. % of soluble imide and compression molded at 300 C under 131 MPa. Post fabrication heat treatments were performed at 960 C for 6 hours resulting in a significant enhancement of the permeability in low field region for all the specimens except for the one made of 30-80 mesh particles. The rate of core loss of these specimens at a magnetic induction of 5 kG measured up to 1 kHz shows a noticeable increase after heat treatment which, along with the permeability enhancement, can be explained by the coalescence of particles forming a network of conductivity paths in the specimens. The scanning electron micrographs taken for the 6-10 micron particle specimens show no evidence of heat treatment-induced grain growth. The untreated specimens show a very weak f(sup 2) dependence of the core loss which clearly indicates a negligible contribution from the eddy current loss. In particular, an almost perfect linearity was found in the frequency dependence of the core loss of the untreated specimen made of 100 mesh iron particles.