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Sample records for heavy drinking nondaily

  1. Neural Substrates of Alcohol-Induced Smoking Urge in Heavy Drinking Nondaily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrea; McNamara, Patrick; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan

    2010-01-01

    A strong link exists between cigarette smoking and alcohol use, which may be explained by the experimental observation that alcohol ingestion promotes cigarette craving and precipitates smoking. At the neuroanatomic level, it is unclear where and how alcohol exerts these effects, although the process likely involves the ventral striatum given its function in motivational salience and appetitive reinforcement. In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study, heavy drinking nondaily social smokers (ie, light smokers or ‘chippers') were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging after they ingested an acute dose of alcohol or placebo. We probed reactivity in the ventral striatum and other brain regions during exposure to visual smoking vs nonsmoking control cues. We found that alcohol enhanced self-reported ratings of desire to smoke, and in this context, significantly increased ventral striatum responses to smoking compared with control cues. In exploratory analyses, we observed that alcohol dampened orbitofrontal activity across both cue types, whereas dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex activation to smoking cues was not affected by alcohol. This study bridges a pharmacological challenge approach to the study of brain reactivity to smoking cues, extends prior cigarette cue imaging studies to nondependent smokers, and elucidates a potential neurobiological mechanism to explain the co-consumption of alcohol and cigarettes in nondependent users. PMID:19907419

  2. Nondaily smoking and alcohol use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol diagnoses among young adults: findings from the NESARC.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Emily L R; Desai, Rani A; McKee, Sherry A

    2008-12-01

    Nondaily smoking and heavy alcohol use are prevalent behaviors among young adults, with nondaily smoking occurring primarily in the context of alcohol use. Although the relationship between drinking and daily smoking has been well characterized in young adults, few epidemiological investigations have investigated the association between nondaily smoking and drinking behavior. We examined Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Grant et al., 2003b; n = 43,093). Young adults (aged 18 to 25 years; n = 5,838) were stratified on current smoking behavior (daily, nondaily, and nonsmokers in the past 12 months) and differences in weekly quantity of alcohol use, frequency of alcohol use, frequency of binge drinking behavior, rates of NIAAA-defined hazardous drinking, and rates of DSM-IV alcohol diagnoses were investigated. College student status was examined. Twenty-five percent were current smokers and 7% were smoking on a nondaily basis. Seventy-one percent were current drinkers, 39% reported binge drinking at least once a month, 41% met criteria for hazardous drinking, and 18% had alcohol use disorders. Across all measures of alcohol use, there was a significant effect of smoking status, with daily smokers having greater alcohol use patterns, compared with nondaily smokers, with nonsmokers consuming the least. Nondaily smokers were more likely to report any binge drinking in the past 12 months. However, daily smokers were more likely to report daily binge drinking. With regard to hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders, nondaily smoking conferred the greatest risk, followed by daily smoking with nonsmoking as the reference group. Multinomial logistic regression demonstrated that the odds of being a hazardous drinker were 16 times greater (95% CI 9.46-26.48) in a nondaily smoker compared with a nonsmoker, whereas the odds for a daily smoker were increased by 7-fold (95% CI 5.54-9.36). A similar pattern of results was

  3. Parenthood, drinking locations and heavy drinking.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Catherine

    2011-04-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the relationship between parenthood and heavy drinking is mediated by drinking locations. The analysis is based on a random sample of 4180 female and 3630 male Canadian drinkers aged between 18 and 55 years old. A multiple mediator model is tested. Results show that the parental role may be associated with variation in where people drink, and where people drink may be associated with variation in heavy drinking. For women, parenthood is related to a reduction in heavy drinking associated with a reduction of drinking occasions that occur at bars, offset to some extent by the fact that drinking in restaurants is also less common among mothers than non-mothers. For men, parenthood is related to a reduction in heavy drinking partly because fathers more often drink at friends' homes and the proportion of drinking occasions that occur at bars is smaller among fathers than non-fathers. The results of this study correspond with a refined version of the opportunity perspective. Given the nature of the processes by which parenthood is related to heavy drinking, alcohol consumption needs to be understood through a perspective that includes both individual and contextual factors.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of light and non-daily smoking in Brazil: Results from a nationwide representative survey.

    PubMed

    Formagini, Taynara Dutra Batista; Gomide, Henrique Pinto; Perales, Jaime; Colugnati, Fernando Antonio Basile

    2017-09-01

    The research of light (≤10 cigarettes per day) and non-daily smokers in developing countries including Brazil is scarce despite the high prevalence of these groups among smokers and health risks associated to low-level smoking. To describe health and smoking characteristics of Brazilian adult light and non-daily smokers. We analyzed data from the 2013 Brazilian National Health Research survey (n=48,282). The prevalence of current manufactured cigarette smoking in the total sample was 12.4%. Among these smokers, 12.8% were non-daily smokers (NDS), 47.4% were light smokers (LS) and 39.8% were moderate/heavy smokers (MHS). Bivariate analysis showed that non-daily smoking was associated with higher odds of poor self-rated health, binge drinking and lung diseases compared to never smokers (ORs=1.2; 5.9 and 1.9). Light smoking was associated with higher odds of poor self-rated health, binge drinking, depression, use of sleeping pills and lung diseases (ORs=1.3; 4.3; 1.4; 1.2 and 2.0). After controlling for sex and age, non-daily smoking was associated with lung disease (OR=2.2) and light smoking with depression and lung diseases (ORs=1.3 and 1.8). Smoking levels were associated with living with same-level smokers in bivariate and multivariate analyses. A large proportion of smokers in Brazil are light and non-daily smokers, carrying substantial health risks related to tobacco use. Longitudinal research is needed to provide further evidence of associations found in this study. Public health policies must take the different smoking patterns into consideration to effectively target all smokers and reduce the harmful consequences of tobacco worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk perception and intention to quit among a tri-ethnic sample of nondaily, light daily, and moderate/heavy daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Savoy, Elaine; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Agarwal, Mohit; Mathur, Charu; Choi, Won S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-10-01

    Although the relationship between risk perceptions and quit intentions has been established, few studies explore the potential impact of smoking level on these associations, and none have done so among diversely-aged samples of multiple ethnicities. Participants, ranging in age from 25 to 81, were 1133 nondaily smokers (smoked ≥1 cigarette on 4 to 24days in the past 30days), 556 light daily smokers (≤10 cigarettes per day), and 585 moderate to heavy daily smokers (>10 cigarettes per day). Each smoking level comprised approximately equal numbers of African Americans, Latinos, and Whites. A logistic regression analysis, adjusted for sociodemographics, self-rated health, time to the first cigarette of the day and smoking level, was used to examine the association between risk perception (perceived risk of acquiring lung cancer, lung disease, and heart disease) and intention to quit (≤6months versus >6months/never). A second adjusted model tested moderation by smoking level with an interaction term. Greater risk perception was associated with a higher odds of planning to quit within 6months (AOR=1.34, CI.95=1.24, 1.45). Smoking level did not moderate this association (p=.85). Results suggest that educating all smokers, irrespective of their smoking level, about increased risk of developing smoking-related diseases might be a helpful strategy to enhance their intention to make a smoking quit attempt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk Perception and Intention to Quit Among a Tri-Ethnic Sample of Nondaily, Light Daily, and Moderate/Heavy Daily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Savoy, Elaine; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Scheuermann, Taneisha S.; Agarwal, Mohit; Mathur, Charu; Choi, Won S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although the relationship between risk perceptions and quit intentions has been established, few studies explore the potential impact of smoking level on these associations, and none have done so among diversely-aged samples of multiple ethnicities. Methods Participants, ranging in age from 25 to 81, were 1133 nondaily smokers (smoked ≥1 cigarette on 4 to 24 days in the past 30 days), 556 light daily smokers (≤10 cigarettes per day), and 585 moderate to heavy daily smokers (>10 cigarettes per day). Each smoking level comprised approximately equal numbers of African Americans, Latinos, and Whites. A logistic regression analysis, adjusted for sociodemographics, self-rated health, time to the first cigarette of the day and smoking level, was used to examine the association between risk perception (perceived risk of acquiring lung cancer, lung disease, and heart disease) and intention to quit (≤6 months versus >6 months/never). A second adjusted model tested moderation by smoking level with an interaction term. Results Greater risk perception was associated with a higher odds of planning to quit within 6 months (AOR=1.34, CI.95=1.24, 1.45). Smoking level did not moderate this association (p=.85). Conclusions Results suggest that educating all smokers, irrespective of their smoking level, about increased risk of developing smoking-related diseases might be a helpful strategy to enhance their intention to make a smoking quit attempt. PMID:24926907

  7. Heavy coffee drinking and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Leonardo; Li, Li M

    2004-06-01

    Dietary habits have been rarely associated with seizure frequency in patients with epilepsy. We report a case of a man with a partial symptomatic epilepsy whose daily habit of heavy coffee drinking was associated with an increased seizure frequency. This patient witnessed a dramatic decrease in the frequency of his seizures after stopping coffee ingestion. Caffeine is a global stimulant and the reduction of its intake may help in the treatment of epilepsy.

  8. Brain Development in Heavy Drinking Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Tapert, Susan F.; Sullivan, Edith V.; Jacobus, Joanna; Meloy, M. J.; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2015-01-01

    Background Heavy alcohol use during adolescence may alter the trajectory of normal brain development. Whether developmental trajectories of regional cortical volume and white matter structures are differentially affected in heavy drinkers relative to non-drinking controls has not been studied over extended periods or with sample sizes adequate to address potential sex differences. Methods This longitudinal study examined gray and white matter volume trajectories in 134 adolescents (75 who transitioned into heavy drinking and 59 who remained light to non-drinkers over roughly 3.5 years). Each underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 3T system two to six times (390 total scans) between ages 12 to 24 and was followed up to 8 years. Volumes of neocortex, allocortex, and white matter structures were measured using atlas-based parcellation with longitudinal registration. Linear mixed-effects models described differences in trajectories of drinkers and controls over age; secondary analyses considered the contribution of other drug use to identified alcohol use effects. Results Heavy-drinking adolescents showed accelerated gray matter reduction in cortical lateral frontal and temporal volumes and attenuated white matter growth of the corpus callosum and pons relative to controls. These results were essentially the same when marijuana and other drug use were examined. Male and female drinkers showed similar patterns of development trajectory abnormalities. Discussion Longitudinal analysis enabled detection of accelerated typical volume decline in frontal and temporal cortical volumes and attenuated growth in principal white matter structures in adolescents who started to drink heavily. These results provide a call for caution regarding heavy alcohol use during adolescence, whether heavy alcohol drinking is the cause or one of many factors in a constellation of causes of these alterations in brain development. PMID:25982660

  9. Brain development in heavy-drinking adolescents.

    PubMed

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Tapert, Susan F; Sullivan, Edith V; Jacobus, Joanna; Meloy, M J; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2015-06-01

    Heavy alcohol use during adolescence may alter the trajectory of normal brain development. The authors measured within-subject changes in regional brain morphometry over longer intervals and in larger samples of adolescents than previously reported and assessed differences between adolescents who remained nondrinkers and those who drank heavily during adolescence as well as differences between the sexes. The authors examined gray and white matter volume trajectories in 134 adolescents, of whom 75 transitioned to heavy drinking and 59 remained light drinkers or nondrinkers over roughly 3.5 years. Each underwent MRI scanning two to six times between ages 12 and 24 and was followed for up to 8 years. The volumes of the neocortex, allocortex, and white matter structures were measured using atlas-based parcellation with longitudinal registration. Linear mixed-effects models described differences in trajectories of heavy drinkers and nondrinkers over age; secondary analyses considered the contribution of other drug use to identified alcohol use effects. Heavy-drinking adolescents showed accelerated gray matter reduction in cortical lateral frontal and temporal volumes and attenuated white matter growth of the corpus callosum and pons relative to nondrinkers. These results were largely unchanged when use of marijuana and other drugs was examined. Male and female drinkers showed similar patterns of development trajectory abnormalities. Longitudinal analysis enabled detection of accelerated typical volume decline in frontal and temporal cortical volumes and attenuated growth in principal white matter structures in adolescents who started to drink heavily. These results provide a call for caution regarding heavy alcohol use during adolescence, whether heavy drinking is the sole cause or one of several in these alterations in brain development.

  10. Multivariate Analyses of Predictors of Heavy Episodic Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenzel, L. Mickey

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines predictors of heavy drinking frequency and drinking-related problems among more than 600 college students. Controlling for high school drinking frequency, results of multiple regression analyses showed that more frequent heavy drinking was predicted by being male and risk factors of more frequent marijuana and tobacco…

  11. Solitary and Social Heavy drinking, Suicidal Ideation, and Drinking Motives in Underage College Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Vivian M.; Collins, R. Lorraine; Bradizza, Clara M.

    2009-01-01

    In college students, solitary heavy drinking (i.e., while alone) is associated with depression and with higher rates of drinking problems than heavy drinking in social contexts. This study explored the relationship among heavy episodic drinking context, suicidal ideation, and drinking motives among underage college drinkers (n = 91) with a history of passive suicidal ideation. Participants completed measures of depression, suicidal ideation, alcohol consumption and problems, and drinking motives. Multiple regression analyses revealed that suicidal ideation, but not depression, was significantly related to solitary heavy drinking. Neither was related to social heavy drinking. Enhancement motives for drinking, but not other drinking motives (i.e., social, conformity, drinking to cope), were significantly associated with social heavy drinking. In contrast, only drinking to cope was associated with solitary heavy drinking. These findings suggest that greater suicidal ideation is associated with greater frequency of becoming intoxicated while alone, and that this drinking is motivated by attempts to cope. Solitary heavy drinking is a potentially dangerous coping strategy for an individual experiencing suicidal ideation. PMID:19556066

  12. Nondaily Smokers: Who Are They?

    PubMed Central

    Hassmiller, Kristen M.; Warner, Kenneth E.; Mendez, David; Levy, David T.; Romano, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Objective. We sought to understand who constitutes the sizable population of nondaily, or some-day (SD), smokers. Methods. We analyzed descriptive statistics and regression results using the 1998–1999 Current Population Survey Tobacco Use Supplement to determine the prevalence of SD smokers, their sociodemographic characteristics, and the smoking patterns and histories of groups differentiated by the length and stability of their SD smoking. Results. SD smokers make up 19.2% of all current smokers. Among SD smokers, 44.6% have smoked less than daily for at least 1 year, no more than 14.4% are just starting to smoke, and the rest are likely in transition. Overall, SD smokers smoked a mean of 102 cigarettes per month (compared to 566.4 for daily smokers), on an average of 14.5 days out of the past 30. Conclusions. SD smokers make up a substantial segment of the smoking population. They are not just beginning to smoke nor trying to quit. Many have developed a long-standing pattern of nondaily smoking, smoking relatively few cigarettes on the days when they do smoke. They are not substantially younger than daily smokers, as one might expect. PMID:12893622

  13. The influence of religious affiliation on heavy drinking, heavy smoking and heavy betel nut chewing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiang-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The results of a national survey of determinants of drinking, smoking and betel-nut chewing behaviors are analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate whether drinking, smoking and betel-nut chewing are influenced by a variety of religions based on Taiwan data. Our results suggest that Buddhism, Taoism and practitioners of Chinese folk region are positively associated with heavy betel nut chewing while the religion effects on heavy smoking and drinking are statistically insignificant. Our findings on religion effects in Taiwan can be a valuable reference for comparison in Christian and western countries.

  14. Parenting style, religiosity, peer alcohol use, and adolescent heavy drinking.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, John P; Bahr, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the associations of parenting style, religiosity, and peer alcohol use with alcohol use and heavy drinking. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate direct and indirect associations among 5,419 adolescents ages 12-14 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997. Adolescents whose parents were authoritative were less likely to drink heavily than adolescents who experienced neglectful or indulgent parenting styles. Religiosity was negatively associated with heavy drinking after other relevant variables were controlled for. Authoritative parenting appears to have both direct and indirect negative associations with the risk of heavy drinking among adolescents. Authoritative parenting, where monitoring and support are above average, and religiosity might help deter adolescents from heavy drinking, even when adolescents experience peer environments where alcohol use is common. Authoritarian parenting, although it was not associated with heavy drinking, was positively associated with alcohol use and peer alcohol use, thus placing adolescents at some risk.

  15. The Role of Moral Disengagement in Underage Drinking and Heavy Episodic Drinking.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Catherine Angela; Bussey, Kay

    2015-01-01

    The current study had two aims. First, to develop a moral disengagement scale contextualized to underage drinking. Second, to investigate Bandura's (1986) self-regulatory model within the context of underage drinking. Two different samples of students participated in the study. The first sample included 619 (362 females) adolescents (Mage = 15.3 years, SD = 1.09 years) and the second sample 636 (386 females) adolescents (Mage = 15.3 years, SD = 1.03 years). Students in the first sample completed the Underage Drinking Disengagement Scale (UDDS), and measures of engagement in underage drinking and heavy episodic drinking. Students in the second sample completed these measures as well as scales of general moral disengagement, personal standards, and anticipatory guilt associated with underage drinking. For the UDDS, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses verified a single factor structure. The UDDS was more strongly associated with engagement in underage drinking and heavy episodic drinking than a general measure of moral disengagement. A moderated mediation analysis revealed that adolescents who negatively evaluated underage drinking reported more anticipatory guilt, and more anticipatory guilt was associated with less engagement in underage drinking and less heavy episodic drinking. This relationship was weaker at high compared to low levels of underage drinking disengagement. Understanding how adolescents self-regulate their drinking, and ways that such self-regulation may be deactivated or disengaged, may help identify those adolescents at increased risk of drinking underage and of engaging in heavy episodic drinking.

  16. Relations between heavy drinking, gender, and substance-free reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G

    2010-04-01

    Behavioral economic theory and laboratory research have suggested that substance abuse may be associated with diminished engagement in enjoyable substance-free activities (substance-free reinforcement). However, college students, in particular men, have reported numerous social benefits from drinking that might mitigate the expected inverse relation between drinking and substance-free reinforcement. In this study, we examined the relations between college student heavy drinking, gender, and several categories of substance-free reinforcement (peer, dating, sexual, school, and family activities). Participants were 246 undergraduate students who were classified as a function of their reported frequency of heavy drinking during a typical week in the past month (120 heavy drinkers, 126 light drinkers). Heavy drinking was associated with significantly higher substance-free peer and sexual reinforcement. This association was gender invariant and remained significant in multiple regression models that controlled for gender, ethnicity, and fraternity or sorority membership. Substance-free reinforcement did not predict frequency of heavy drinking in models that included levels of substance-related reinforcement. The results indicate that college student heavy drinking is not associated with global deficits in substance-free reinforcement and is instead associated with increased peer and sexual activity that occurs outside the context of drinking or drug use. Prevention programs should help students to compensate for the potential loss of social reinforcement associated with reductions in drinking.

  17. Exploring Heavy Drinking Patterns Among Black and White Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Tali; Skinner, Martie L; Haggerty, Kevin P; Crutchfield, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This investigation examined patterns of heavy drinking among Black and White young adults from a person-centered perspective and linked family and individual factors in adolescence to young adult drinking patterns. Method: The analysis focuses on 331 10th-grade students (168 Whites, 163 Blacks; 51% males) who were followed into young adulthood (ages 20 and 22). Cluster analyses using heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness, and alcohol problems in young adulthood resulted in groups of drinkers with different patterns. Groups were examined across and within race. Associations between young adult drinking groups and adolescent family and individual factors were tested. Results: Groups followed well-established race differences, with Whites clustering into frequent drinking groups more than Blacks, and Blacks clustering into non–heavy drinking groups more than Whites. Further, Black heavy drinkers reported fewer alcohol problems than White counterparts. Parental monitoring, consistent discipline, ethnic identity, and delinquency were associated with adult heavy episodic drinking groups for both races. Monitoring and delinquency, along with parental norms, were associated with drunkenness groups for both races. However, race differences were observed for drunkenness clusters such that attachment was predictive for White clusters, and parental guidelines and discipline were predictive for Black clusters. Conclusions: Large race differences in heavy drinking at young adulthood were confirmed. Family dynamics in 10th grade were identified as important for the development of different drinking patterns in the early 20s, when many individuals have left home, which suggests a key target for substance use prevention programs. PMID:25208202

  18. Examining Factors Associated with Heavy Episodic Drinking Among College Undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Scholly, Kristen; Katz, Alan R.; Kehl, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Heavy episodic drinking among college students is a serious health concern. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with heavy episodic drinking behaviors amongst a predominately Asian undergraduate college student population in the United States. A survey measuring alcohol use behaviors was completed by a random sample of 18-24 year old undergraduates during April, 2011. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with students’ heavy episodic drinking behavior. Independent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking included living on campus, ethnicity, perceived drinking behavior among peers, and a belief that alcohol is a central part of one’s social life. Heavy episodic drinking was also associated with poor academic performance. Campus-wide educational strategies to reduce heavy episodic drinking among college undergraduates should incorporate accurate information regarding alcohol use norms to correct students’ perceived over estimation of their peers alcohol consumption rates and the under estimation of students protective alcohol use behaviors. These efforts should focus in on-campus residence halls where a higher occurrence of heavy episodic drinking is often found. PMID:26973931

  19. Examining Factors Associated with Heavy Episodic Drinking Among College Undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Scholly, Kristen; Katz, Alan R; Kehl, Lisa

    2014-04-26

    Heavy episodic drinking among college students is a serious health concern. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with heavy episodic drinking behaviors amongst a predominately Asian undergraduate college student population in the United States. A survey measuring alcohol use behaviors was completed by a random sample of 18-24 year old undergraduates during April, 2011. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with students' heavy episodic drinking behavior. Independent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking included living on campus, ethnicity, perceived drinking behavior among peers, and a belief that alcohol is a central part of one's social life. Heavy episodic drinking was also associated with poor academic performance. Campus-wide educational strategies to reduce heavy episodic drinking among college undergraduates should incorporate accurate information regarding alcohol use norms to correct students' perceived over estimation of their peers alcohol consumption rates and the under estimation of students protective alcohol use behaviors. These efforts should focus in on-campus residence halls where a higher occurrence of heavy episodic drinking is often found.

  20. [Heavy metals in water of drinking fountains].

    PubMed

    Segura-Muñoz, Susana I; Trevilato, Tânia M; Takayanagui, Angela M; Hering, Sylvia E; Cupo, Palmira

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al), zinc (Zn), cooper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) in the water of drinking fountains distributed in the Campus of the University of São Paulo. Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Thirty random samples were collected in different parts of the Campus that were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. According to WHO's Drinking Water Guidelines; lead, cadmium and zinc were found in concentrations higher than those recommended in 40%, 20% and 13% of the samples, respectively. The results were analyzed considering nutritional and toxicological aspects related to the presence of essential and toxic elements for the human being. Reviewing the regulatory limits established in ten countries of America, authors focus in the necessity to find a consensus in the establishment of the higher levels of heavy metals in potable water. The tolerable daily intake, have to be the basis to assure the prevention of diseases associated with a long-term ingestion of these elements through foods.

  1. Sensation seeking and drinking game participation in heavy-drinking college students.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T J; Cropsey, K L

    2000-01-01

    Previous research has identified differences between heavy-drinking students who play drinking games and those who do not. Johnson, Wendel, and Hamilton (1998) suggested that heavy-drinking players may correspond to Cloninger's (1987) Type II alcoholic and that heavy-drinking nonplayers resemble Type I. The current study predicted that (a) sensation seeking would be associated with greater frequency of play and greater frequency of negative consequences from play and that (b) heavy-drinking students who play drinking games would be higher in sensation seeking than heavy-drinking students who do not play. A sample of 172 female and 84 male college students completed the Sensation Seeking Scale Form V, questions about quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, and questions regarding drinking game participation. Higher levels of sensation seeking predicted greater frequency of play even after controlling for overall quantity and frequency of consumption. Sensation seeking was also related to specific motives for play. Men who were higher in sensation seeking experienced more negative alcohol-related consequences as a result of play. In women, but not in men. heavy-drinking players were higher in sensation seeking than heavy-nondrinking nonplayers. The results of the current study do not clearly support Cloninger's model, but they are consistent with other research concerning the role of sensation seeking and risk taking in contributing to negative alcohol-related consequences. Personality style likely interacts with social norms and contextual factors in influencing drinking game participation and consequences of play.

  2. Progression of consequences among heavy-drinking college students.

    PubMed

    Vik, P W; Carrello, P; Tate, S R; Field, C

    2000-06-01

    Among a sample of 180 male and 226 female undergraduates, 84.2% reported a heavy drinking episode (5+ drinks for men, 4+ for women) within the previous 90 days. Principal-components analysis revealed 3 alcohol-related problem factors among the heavy drinkers (Careless Behavior, Risky/Reckless Behavior, and Authority Problems). Nearly all heavy drinkers experienced a careless behavior that was due to drinking (92.7%), and many reported a risky/reckless behavior (60.2%), yet only one third (33.9%) experienced an authority problem. Guttman scaling procedures revealed a progression from Careless Behavior to Reckless/Risky Behavior to an Authority Problem. Heavy drinkers with an authority problem drank more frequently, consumed more when drinking, endorsed more alcohol expectancies, and reported earlier ages of initial and regular drinking than other groups.

  3. Heavy Drinking on College Campuses: No Reason to Change Minimum Legal Drinking Age of 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Drew K.

    2011-01-01

    The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would…

  4. Heavy Drinking on College Campuses: No Reason to Change Minimum Legal Drinking Age of 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Drew K.

    2011-01-01

    The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would…

  5. Heavy drinking, perceived discrimination, and immigration status among Filipino Americans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Isok; Spencer, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Filipino American drinkers (N = 1,443) in Honolulu and San Francisco were selected from the 1998-1999 Filipino American Community Epidemiological Survey to examine the association between perceived discrimination and heavy drinking behavior by immigration status. Results indicate that living in San Francisco, lower religious participation, and higher perceived discrimination were associated with increased odds for heavy drinking among US-born individuals, whereas being male was a risk factor among foreign-born individuals. Thus, perceived discrimination and immigration status should be considered when designing prevention and intervention strategies to address heavy drinking behavior in this population.

  6. Heavy drinking and the risk of occupational injury.

    PubMed

    Dawson, D A

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluated the association between the frequency of heavy drinking and the risk of occupational injury, using nationally representative data from the 1988 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The sample consisted of 29,192 adults who were employed at some time during the year preceding the NHIS interview. Overall, 7.2% reported an on-the-job injury during the preceding year, but the rates were higher--about 13%--for those employed as skilled or unskilled laborers or who reported engaging in repeated strenuous physical activity at work. Slightly more than one-fourth of the employed adults reported at least one occasion of drinking five or more drinks during the preceding year. After adjusting for the effects of age, gender, education, occupation, and strenuous job activity, the odds of occupational injury increased with frequency of heavy drinking, with odds ratios varying from 1.08 (one occasion of heavy drinking) to 1.74 (daily heavy drinking). Odds ratios were decreased slightly by the inclusion of smoking as a control variable, indicating that some of the excess risk of injury among heavy drinkers may reflect their greater propensity to take health-related risks rather than direct effects of ethanol. The odds ratios also were slightly lower when the analysis was restricted to current drinkers, suggesting that the risk of work injury was increased by light or moderate as well as heavy drinking.

  7. Race, Employment Disadvantages, and Heavy Drinking: A Multilevel Model.

    PubMed

    Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C

    2015-01-01

    We intended to determine (1) whether stress from employment disadvantages led to increased frequency of heavy drinking and (2) whether race had a role in the relationship between such disadvantages and heavy drinking. Study data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a prospective study that has followed a representative sample of youth since 1979. Our study employed data from 11 particular years, during which the survey included items measuring respondents' heavy drinking. Our final sample numbered 10,171 respondents, which generated 75,394 person-waves for data analysis. Both of our hypotheses were supported by results from multilevel mixed-effects linear regression capturing the time-varying nature of three employment disadvantages and of the heavy-drinking outcome. Results show that more-frequent heavy drinking was associated with employment disadvantages, and that disadvantages' effects on drinking were stronger for Blacks and Hispanics than for Whites. That worsening employment disadvantages have worse effects on minority groups' heavy drinking (compared to Whites) probably contributes to the racial health disparities in our nation. Policies and programs addressing such disparities are especially important during economic downturns.

  8. Parenting style, religiosity, peers, and adolescent heavy drinking.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Stephen J; Hoffmann, John P

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine whether authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful parenting styles were associated with adolescent alcohol use and heavy drinking, after controlling for peer use, religiosity, and other relevant variables. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate direct and indirect associations of parenting style with alcohol use and heavy drinking among 4,983 adolescents in Grades 7-12. Adolescents whose parents were authoritative were less likely to drink heavily than adolescents from the other three parenting styles, and they were less likely to have close friends who used alcohol. In addition, religiosity was negatively associated with heavy drinking after controlling for other relevant variables. Authoritative parenting appears to have both direct and indirect associations with the risk of heavy drinking among adolescents. Authoritative parenting, where monitoring and support are above average, might help deter adolescents from heavy alcohol use, even when adolescents have friends who drink. In addition, the data suggest that the adolescent's choice of friends may be an intervening variable that helps explain the negative association between authoritative parenting and adolescent heavy drinking.

  9. Secondary Effects of Heavy Drinking on Campus. Infofacts/Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapner, Daniel Ari

    2008-01-01

    While some may view college drinking as a "rite of passage" for students, the consequences of underage and high-risk drinking leave no room for doubt--excessive alcohol use is harmful, affecting both students and the institution as a whole. Not only do heavy drinkers negatively affect their own health and academic potential but also the physical,…

  10. The Relationship between Student Engagement and Heavy Episodic Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, J. Delynne

    2011-01-01

    College student alcohol use is a significant public health issue facing institutions of higher education. Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the areas of research and the identification of recommended best practices to reduce heavy episodic drinking. Yet, students engaged in the prevention of heavy episodic drinking…

  11. Acculturation stress and drinking problems among urban heavy drinking Latinos in the Northeast.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christina S; Colby, Suzanne M; Rohsenow, Damaris J; López, Steven R; Hernández, Lynn; Caetano, Raul

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the level of acculturation and acculturation stress and the extent to which each predicts problems related to drinking. Hispanics who met criteria for hazardous drinking completed measures of acculturation, acculturation stress, and drinking problems. Sequential multiple regression was used to determine whether the levels of self-reported acculturation stress predicted concurrent alcohol problems after controlling for the predictive value of the acculturation level. Acculturation stress accounted for a significant variance in drinking problems, while adjusting for acculturation, income, and education. Choosing to drink in response to acculturation stress should be an intervention target with Hispanic heavy drinkers.

  12. Acculturation Stress and Drinking Problems Among Urban Heavy Drinking Latinos in the Northeast

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christina S.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; López, Steven R.; Hernández, Lynn; Caetano, Raul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between level of acculturation and acculturation stress, and the extent to which each predicts problems related to drinking. Hispanics who met criteria for hazardous drinking completed measures of acculturation, acculturation stress, and drinking problems. Sequential multiple regression was used to determine whether levels of self-reported acculturation stress predicted concurrent alcohol problems after controlling for the predictive value of acculturation level. Acculturation stress accounted for significant variance in drinking problems while adjusting for acculturation, income, and education. Choosing to drink in response to acculturation stress should be an intervention target with Hispanic heavy drinkers. PMID:24215224

  13. A Drinking Water Sensor for Lead and Other Heavy Metals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Chi; Li, Zhongrui; Burns, Mark A

    2017-09-05

    Leakage of lead and other heavy metals into drinking water is a significant health risk and one that is not easily detected. We have developed simple sensors containing only platinum electrodes for the detection of heavy metal contamination in drinking water. The two-electrode sensor can identify the existence of a variety of heavy metals in drinking water, and the four-electrode sensor can distinguish lead from other heavy metals in solution. No false-positive response is generated when the sensors are placed in simulated and actual tap water contaminated by heavy metals. Lead detection on the four-electrode sensor is not affected by the presence of common ions in tap water. Experimental results suggest the sensors can be embedded in water service lines for long-time use until lead or other heavy metals are detected. With its low cost (∼$0.10/sensor) and the possibility of long-term operation, the sensors are ideal for heavy metal detection of drinking water.

  14. Social Media Use and Episodic Heavy Drinking Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Kvaavik, Elisabeth

    2017-06-01

    Objectives Little is known about the consequences of adolescent social media use. The current study estimated the association between the amount of time adolescents spend on social media and the risk of episodic heavy drinking. Methods A school-based self-report cross-sectional study including 851 Norwegian middle and high school students (46.1% boys). frequency and quantity of social media use. Frequency of drinking four or six (girls and boys, respectively) alcoholic drinks during a single day (episodic heavy drinking). The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - Brief, the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items for Adolescents, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Peer Relationship problems scale, gender, and school grade. Results Greater amount of time spent on social media was associated with greater likelihood of episodic heavy drinking among adolescents ( OR = 1.12, 95% CI (1.05, 1.19), p = 0.001), even after adjusting for school grade, impulsivity, sensation seeking, symptoms of depression, and peer relationship problems. Conclusion The results from the current study indicate that more time spent on social media is related to greater likelihood of episodic heavy drinking among adolescents.

  15. Alcohol and risky sexual behavior among heavy drinking college students.

    PubMed

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Michael P; Carey, Kate B

    2010-08-01

    Multiple event-level methodology was used to examine the relation between risky sexual behavior and alcohol use among sexually active, heavy drinking college students (N = 221). Using a structured timeline follow-back interview, participants reported their sexual, alcohol, and drug use behaviors over a 3-month period. Over 2,700 vaginal or anal sexual events were reported from 177 participants. Overall, condom use was not associated with heavy or non-heavy alcohol consumption among those reporting both sexual events concurrent with heavy drinking and when no alcohol was consumed. Results from multilevel regression analyses revealed a more complex pattern. Among women, but not men, less condom use was associated with steady versus casual sexual partners, but partner type interacted with alcohol consumption such that less condom use occurred when heavy drinking preceded sex with steady partners. At the event-level, alcohol consumption among heavy drinking college students leads to risky sexual behavior but the relation differs by gender and partner type.

  16. Alcohol Increases Impulsivity and Abuse Liability in Heavy Drinking Women

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Stephanie Collins; Levin, Frances R.; Evans, Suzette M.

    2013-01-01

    Heavy drinking has increased in recent years and has been linked to numerous health-related risks, particularly in women. A number of factors may play a role in exacerbating the risks linked to heavy drinking, such as impulsivity, which itself is related to a number of risky behaviors. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol (0, 0.5, 0.75 g/kg) on impulsivity in female heavy drinkers (n = 23) and female light drinkers (n = 23) using a double-blind, placebo-controlled outpatient design; all women were tested during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Each session, participants completed a range of tasks including subjective measures of abuse liability, cognitive performance tasks, three behavioral impulsivity tasks, and a risk-taking task. Alcohol increased impulsivity on the Immediate and Delayed Memory Task (IMT and DMT) and Delay Discounting task. Heavy drinkers scored higher on impulsivity self-reports and were more impulsive on the IMT and the GoStop task than light drinkers. The high dose of alcohol further increased impulsive performance on the IMT and DMT in heavy drinkers. There were no group differences or alcohol effects on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. Alcohol increased sedative-like effects more in light drinkers and increased stimulant-like effects and alcohol liking more in heavy drinkers. In summary, female heavy drinkers are less sensitive to the negative effects of alcohol, report more positive effects of alcohol, and are more impulsive than female light drinkers. Moreover, impulsive responding was exacerbated by alcohol drinking among female heavy drinkers, indicating that women who drink at this level are at increased risk for developing alcohol use disorders and engaging in other risky behaviors, particularly after drinking. PMID:23066857

  17. Post-treatment Effects of Topiramate Treatment for Heavy Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Wetherill, Reagan; Feinn, Richard; Pond, Timothy; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined whether the effects of topiramate and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2832407) in GRIK1, which encodes a kainate receptor subunit, persisted following a 12-week, placebo-controlled trial in 138 heavy drinkers with a treatment goal of reduced drinking. During treatment, topiramate 200 mg/day significantly reduced heavy drinking days and increased the frequency of abstinent days (Kranzler et al. 2014a). In the European-American (EA) subsample (n=122), rs2832407 moderated the treatment effect on heavy drinking. Methods Patients were re-interviewed 3 and 6 months after the end of treatment. During treatment, we obtained 92.4% of drinking data, with 89.1% and 85.5% complete data at the 3- and 6-month follow-up visits, respectively. We examined four outcomes over time in the overall sample and the EA subsample: percent heavy drinking days (PHDD), percent days abstinent (PDA), serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) concentration, and a measure of alcohol-related problems. Results In the full sample, the lower PHDD and higher PDA seen with topiramate treatment were no longer significant during follow-up. Nonetheless, the topiramate-treated patients had lower alcohol-related problem scores during treatment and both follow-up periods. Further, in the EA subsample, the greater reduction in PHDD seen during treatment in rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes persisted throughout follow-up, with no significant effects in A-allele carriers. A reduction in GGTP concentration was consistent with the reduction in heavy drinking, but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion There are persistent therapeutic effects of topiramate in heavy drinkers, principally in rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes. PMID:25581656

  18. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking

    PubMed Central

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M.; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol’s aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking. PMID:26052793

  19. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking.

    PubMed

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol's aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking.

  20. Late ventricular potentials and heavy drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Pochmalicki, G.; Genest, M.; Jibril, H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chronic drinking on detection of low amplitude signals, and to determine the relation between late ventricular potentials (LVP) and liver biopsy findings. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: General hospital. PATIENTS: 41 consecutive chronic alcoholics without known pre-existing heart disease. METHODS: About four days after each patient's last alcoholic drink, ECG, echocardiography, signal averaged electrocardiogram, liver biopsy, and blood tests were performed. RESULTS: Twenty eight per cent of patients had evidence of LVP. There was a correlation between the percentage of steatosis of the hepatic biopsy and the amplitude of the last 40 ms of average QRS (P = 0.04), the duration of the terminal low amplitude QRS signal (P = 0.05), and the number of positive criteria of late potentials (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic drinking sufficient to cause steatosis is associated with positive findings on the signal averaged ECG. PMID:9326991

  1. Sexual Risk Behavior and Heavy Drinking Among Weekly Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Caswell, Amy J.; Magill, Molly; Monti, Peter M.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Sexual behavior that incurs increased risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV incidence is associated with both heavy alcohol and marijuana use. Whereas detrimental effects of alcohol on increased sexual risk have been documented in event-level and laboratory studies, less is known about the combined use of alcohol and marijuana and their relative impact on sexual risk behavior. We examined the degree to which both heavy drinking and marijuana use were associated with condomless sexual intercourse with casual versus main partners in a sample of weekly marijuana smokers. Method: Participants reported substance use and sexual activity using a 60-day Timeline Followback interview method (n = 112). Results: Results of generalized estimating equations indicated that both alcohol and marijuana use were independently associated with greater odds of having sexual intercourse but were not associated with greater odds of unprotected sex with a casual partner. Heavy drinking on a given day was associated with increased odds of having casual protected sex. Using both substances synergistically increased the likelihood of unprotected sex with a main partner. Conclusions: Findings suggest that behaviors posing higher sexual risk (condomless intercourse or sex with casual partners) occur on days when alcohol use exceeds moderate drinking guidelines. Interventions designed to reduce sexual risk behaviors may need to specifically target heavy drinking alone or when used with marijuana. PMID:26751360

  2. Heavy Episodic Drinking on College Campuses: Does Changing the Legal Drinking Age Make a Difference?*

    PubMed Central

    Rasul, Jawaid W.; Rommel, Robert G.; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Fitzpatrick, Ben G.; Ackleh, Azmy S.; Simonsen, Neal; Scribner, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article extends the compartmental model previously developed by Scribner et al. in the context of college drinking to a mathematical model of the consequences of lowering the legal drinking age. Method: Using data available from 32 U.S. campuses, the analyses separate underage and legal age drinking groups into an eight-compartment model with different alcohol availability (wetness) for the underage and legal age groups. The model evaluates the likelihood that underage students will incorrectly perceive normative drinking levels to be higher than they actually are (i.e., misperception) and adjust their drinking accordingly by varying the interaction between underage students in social and heavy episodic drinking compartments. Results: The results evaluate the total heavy episodic drinker population and its dependence on the difference in misperception, as well as its dependence on underage wetness, legal age wetness, and drinking age. Conclusions: Results suggest that an unrealistically extreme combination of high wetness and low enforcement would be needed for the policies related to lowering the drinking age to be effective. PMID:21138707

  3. Decisional balance: Alcohol decisional balance intervention for heavy drinking undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated a decisional balance intervention among heavy drinking undergraduates and compared a non-weighted decisional balance proportion (DBP; Collins, Carey, & Otto, 2009) to a participant-weighted DBP with weights based on relative importance of items. We expected: 1) the intervention to decrease drinking compared to control; 2) the weighted intervention to be more effective compared to the non-weighted or control in reducing drinking; and 3) intervention efficacy to be moderated by initial DBP. Method Participants (N =162, Mean age = 24.37, SD = 6.81, 27% male) were randomly assigned to an alcohol intervention wherein they were either asked to assign weights of importance to pros and cons (weighted intervention), or not (non-weighted intervention), or to control. Participants completed web-based questionnaires at baseline and again during a one month follow-up assessment. Results Consistent with expectations, the non-weighted intervention was associated with reduced follow-up weekly drinking, and the weighted intervention was associated with reductions in drinking frequency. Results further indicated that initial decisional balance did not moderate intervention efficacy. Discussion Findings suggest that the decisional balance procedure can reduce drinking but there was not compelling evidence for the addition of weights. This study lays the groundwork for enhancing future interventions by increasing empirical knowledge of the role motivation plays in heavy alcohol use. PMID:26555004

  4. Heavy drinking and alcohol-related injuries in college students.

    PubMed

    Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Doallo, Sonia; Juan-Salvadores, Pablo; Corral, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of heavy drinking on alcohol-related injuries. We carried out an open cohort study among university students in Spain (n=1,382). Heavy drinking and alcohol-related injuries were measured by administrating AUDIT questionnaires to every participant at the ages of 18, 20, 22 and 24. For data analysis we used a Multilevel Logistic Regression for repeated measures adjusting for consumption of alcohol and cannabis. The response rate at the beginning of the study was 99.6% (1,369 students). The incidence rate of alcohol-related injuries was 3.2 per 100 students year. After adjusting for alcohol consumption and cannabis use, the multivariate model revealed that a high frequency of heavy drinking was a risk factor for alcohol-related injuries (Odds Ratio=3.89 [95%CI: 2.16 - 6.99]). The proportion of alcohol-related injuries in exposed subjects attributable to heavy drinking was 59.78% [95%CI: 32.75 - 75.94] while the population attributable fraction was 45.48% [95%CI: 24.91 - 57.77]. We can conclude that heavy drinking leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries. This shows a new dimension on the consequences of this public concern already related with a variety of health and social problems. Furthermore, our results allow us to suggest that about half of alcohol-related injuries could be avoided by removing this consumption pattern. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Usefulness of Heavy Drinking and Binge Drinking for the Diagnosis of Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Gu; Sung, Han Na

    2016-01-01

    Background This research investigated the sensitivity and specificity of heavy and binge drinking for screening of alcohol use disorder. Methods This retrospective study was conducted with 976 adults who visited the Sun Health Screening Center for health screenings in 2015. Daily drinking amount, drinking frequency per week, and weekly drinking amount were investigated. Using criteria from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, participants were classified as normal drinkers, heavy drinkers, or binge drinkers, and grouped by age and sex. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of heavy and binge drinking were compared for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) 4th edition-text revision and alcohol use disorder using the DSM 5th edition. Results The sensitivity of heavy and binge drinking for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, and alcohol use disorder were 51.7%, 43.8%, and 35.3%, and 69.0%, 62.5%, and 48.2%, respectively. The specificity of these were 90.1%, 91.7%, and 95.5%, and 84.3%, 86.8%, and 91.2%, respectively. The PPV of these were 24.8%, 40.5%, and 72.7%, and 21.7%, 38.0%, and 65.2%, respectively. The NPV of these were 96.7%, 92.6%, and 81.2%, and 97.8%, 94.7%, and 83.7%, respectively. Conclusion Heavy and binge drinking did not show enough diagnostic power to screen DSM alcohol use disorder although they did show high specificity and NPV. PMID:27468339

  6. Alcohol mixed with energy drink: Use may be a consequence of heavy drinking.

    PubMed

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Thombs, Dennis L; Weiler, Robert M; Barry, Adam E; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Walters, Scott T; Barnett, Tracey E; Paxton, Raheem J; Pealer, Lisa N; Cannell, Brad

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, studies have indicated that consumers of alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) are more likely to drink heavily and experience more negative consequences than consumers who avoid these beverages. Although researchers have identified a number of plausible hypotheses that explain how alcohol-energy drink co-ingestion could cause greater alcohol consumption, there has been no postulation about reverse causal relations. This paper identifies several plausible hypotheses for the observed associations between AmED consumption and greater alcohol consumption, and provides initial evidence for one such hypothesis suggesting that heavy drinking may be a determinant of AmED use. Data collected from 511bar patrons were used to examine the plausibility of one of the proposed hypotheses, i.e., AmED is an artifact of heavy drinking. Associations between the consumption of an assortment of alcoholic beverage types and total alcohol consumption were examined at the event-level, to assess whether AmED is uniquely related with greater alcohol consumption. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with greater odds of consuming most alcoholic beverage types; this association was not unique to AmED. Results support the overlooked hypothesis that AmED use is an artifact of heavy drinking. Thus, AmED consumption may be a consequence or marker of heavier drinking. Much of the existing research on alcoholic beverage types is limited in its ability to implicate any specific type of drink, including AmED, as a cause of increased alcohol consumption and related harm. More rigorous study designs are needed to examine causal relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Personality Profiles and Frequent Heavy Drinking in Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jieting; Bray, Bethany C; Zhang, Minqiang; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2015-07-01

    Few studies examining the link between personality and alcohol use have adopted a comprehensive modeling framework to take into account individuals' profiles across multiple personality traits. In this study, latent profile analysis (LPA) was applied to a national sample of young adults in the United States to identify subgroups defined by their profiles of mean scores on the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness personality factors. Personality profiles were then used to predict heavy drinking. Five profiles were identified: Reserved, Rigid, Confident, Ordinary, and Resilient. Compared to individuals in the Ordinary profile, those with Reserved and Resilient profiles were at increased risk of frequent heavy drinking. These findings suggest which comprehensive personality profiles may place individuals at risk for problematic alcohol-related outcomes.

  8. Personality Profiles and Frequent Heavy Drinking in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Bethany C.; Zhang, Minqiang; Lanza, Stephanie T.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies examining the link between personality and alcohol use have adopted a comprehensive modeling framework to take into account individuals’ profiles across multiple personality traits. In this study, latent profile analysis (LPA) was applied to a national sample of young adults in the United States to identify subgroups defined by their profiles of mean scores on the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness personality factors. Personality profiles were then used to predict heavy drinking. Five profiles were identified: Reserved, Rigid, Confident, Ordinary, and Resilient. Compared to individuals in the Ordinary profile, those with Reserved and Resilient profiles were at increased risk of frequent heavy drinking. These findings suggest which comprehensive personality profiles may place individuals at risk for problematic alcohol-related outcomes. PMID:25892836

  9. Heavy drinking on college campuses: no reason to change minimum legal drinking age of 21.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Drew K

    2011-01-01

    The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would remove one of the most researched and supported policies in the nation's alcohol control arsenal. There is little evidence that other interventions or policies are capable of working on the same broad level as MLDA 21, and there could also be a deleterious ripple effect in related legislation because MLDA 21 works in conjunction with other drinking laws. In addition, historic and international experiences with a lowered MLDA indicate there are serious social and public health consequences. Instead of removing efficacious interventions, we must remain committed to implementing and enforcing evidence-based practices and legislation.

  10. Intervention defensiveness as a moderator of drinking outcome among heavy-drinking mandated college students.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Rebekka S; Kilmer, Jason R; Ball, Samuel A; Larimer, Mary E

    2010-12-01

    The efficacy of the Alcohol Skills Training Program (ASTP; Miller, et al., 2000) was evaluated in 204 heavy-drinking college students randomly assigned to either ASTP (n=119) or an assessment-only control (n=85) condition. The volunteer ASTP sample (n=119) was also compared to a sample of students mandated to ASTP following a first-time sanction (n=90). At baseline, mandated students reported lower levels of peak drinking, negative consequences, readiness to change and higher defensiveness than voluntary students. However, the voluntary sample showed reductions in problem drinking indicators over time such that there were no differences from mandated students at follow-up. There were no outcome differences between volunteers assigned to ASTP versus assessment-only. A new measure of defensiveness was evaluated and had a significant moderating effect on ASTP outcome for peak drinking consumed on a peak occasion at follow-up among mandated students.

  11. Drinking motives among heavy-drinking veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Fields, Jordan A.; Monahan, Christopher J.; Bracken, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined patterns of drinking motives endorsed by heavy drinking veterans who either did or did not meet criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method Data were collected from 69 veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom or Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) who had screened positive for hazardous drinking. The sample was 91.3% male and 65.2% Caucasian. Based on a structured interview, 58% of the sample met criteria for PTSD. Results The PTSD group scored higher than the non-PTSD group on scales measuring drinking to cope with anxiety and depression and similarly to the non-PTSD group on scales measuring social, enhancement and conformity motives. Coping and social motives were significantly correlated with adverse alcohol consequences. Overall, the PTSD group showed stronger relations between coping scales and aspects of alcohol misuse, relative to the non- PTSD group. Conclusion These findings suggest first, that among heavy drinking OEF/OIF veterans there is a high base rate of PTSD. Second, coping motives are frequently reported in this population, and they seem to be related to a more severe pattern of alcohol-related consequences. These findings underscore the importance of assessing the interplay between PTSD and substance abuse in trauma-exposed samples. PMID:27812315

  12. Linking masculinity to negative drinking consequences: the mediating roles of heavy episodic drinking and alcohol expectancies.

    PubMed

    Wells, Samantha; Flynn, Andrea; Tremblay, Paul F; Dumas, Tara; Miller, Peter; Graham, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    This study extends previous research on masculinity and negative drinking consequences among young men by considering mediating effects of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol expectancies. We hypothesized that masculinity would have a direct relationship with negative consequences from drinking as well as indirect relationships mediated by HED and alcohol expectancies of courage, risk, and aggression. A random sample of 1,436 college and university men ages 19-25 years completed an online survey, including conformity to masculine norms, alcohol-related expectancies, HED, and negative drinking consequences. Regression analyses and structural equation modeling were used. Six of seven dimensions of masculinity and the alcohol expectancy scales were significantly associated with both HED and negative consequences. In multivariate regression models predicting HED and negative consequences, the playboy and violence dimensions of masculinity and the risk/aggression alcohol expectancy remained significant. HED and the risk-taking dimension of masculinity were also significant in the model predicting negative consequences. The structural equation model indicated that masculinity was directly associated with HED and negative consequences but also influenced negative consequences indirectly through HED and alcohol expectancies. The findings suggest that, among young adult male college and university students, masculinity is an important factor related to both HED and drinking consequences, with the latter effect partly mediated by HED and alcohol expectancies. Addressing male norms about masculinity may help to reduce HED and negative consequences from drinking.

  13. Effects of presenting heavy drinking norms on adolescents' prevalence estimates, evaluative judgments, and perceived standards.

    PubMed

    Agostinelli, Gina; Grube, Joel

    2005-06-01

    Correcting normative information about the prevalence of heavy drinking is a key element in many prevention programs. To isolate the influence of normative information on older high school students' (n = 230) alcohol-related judgments, the effects of delivering normative information in different contexts (no normative information, normative information only, normative information plus a self-focusing comparison to one's drinking) and under different measurement conditions (public, private) were examined. First, relative to presenting no norms, presenting norms both with and without a self-focus reduced the underestimation of the percent of high school students who never drink heavily. Second, effects on both positive and negative evaluations of heavy drinking were examined independently. Heavy drinking students more strongly endorsed positive evaluations of heavy drinking than did non-heavy drinking students, but this self-serving bias was limited to the normative information only condition. Normative information failed to impact negative evaluations of heavy drinking for students at all drinking levels. Third, in judging the acceptable number of heavy drinking days approved by others, presenting the normative information in both contexts (relative to presenting no norms) led to more conservative judgments. Yet, only the normative context that added a self-focus to the norm led students to adopt more conservative personal standards for the acceptable number of heavy drinking days. Finally, public versus private measurement did not affect any of the dependent variables. The findings are discussed as they relate to confrontational versus empathic styles in delivering interventions.

  14. Predictors of heavy episodic drinking and weekly drunkenness among immigrant Latinos in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Daniel-Ulloa, J.; Reboussin, B.A.; Gilbert, P.A.; Mann, L.; Alonzo, J.; Downs, M.; Rhodes, S.D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined correlates of heavy drinking among rural immigrant Latino men. This analysis identified correlates of typical week drunkenness and past 30-day heavy episodic drinking, within a sample of immigrant Latino men in rural North Carolina (n = 258). In the bivariate analyses, Mexican birth, entering the United States as an adult, and year-round employment were associated with increased odds of typical week drunkenness, and higher acculturation and affiliation with a religion with strict prohibitions against drinking alcohol were associated with lower odds of typical week drunkenness. Being older, Mexican birth, and entering the United States as an adult were associated with increased odds of heavy episodic drinking, and affiliation with a religion with strict prohibitions against drinking alcohol was associated with decreased odds of heavy episodic drinking. In multivariable modeling, only religious affiliation was associated with typical week drunkenness. Mexican birth, entering the United States as an adult and were associated with increased odds of heavy episodic drinking, and affiliation with a religion with strict prohibitions against drinking alcohol and completing high school was associated with lower odds of heavy episodic drinking. The health of minority men in the United States has been neglected, and immigrant Latino men comprise a particularly vulnerable population. This analysis provides initial data on some factors associated with heavy drinking within a population about whom little is known. Future studies should examine moderating or mediating factors between age, acculturation, religiosity, and heavy drinking that might be targets for behavioral interventions. PMID:24457467

  15. Heavy episodic drinking in college students: associations with features of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Sylvers, Patrick; Landfield, Kristin E; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2011-01-01

    This study extends the college heavy episodic drinking literature by examining the associations between features of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), on the one hand, and heavy episodic drinking and associated problem behaviors, on the other. Participants were 159 (85 male, 74 female) undergraduates from a private university. Participants completed self-report measures assessing alcohol use, frequency, and consequences of heavy episodic drinking, and personality pathology. It was found that psychopathy, independent of ASPD, was related to the prediction of heavy episodic drinking frequency and problems associated with alcohol use. It was also found that the relation between traits of psychopathy and heavy episodic drinking are limited largely to the impulsive and antisocial aspects of this condition. These findings point to the need for further investigation of the association between psychopathy and ASPD traits and heavy episodic drinking behaviors in college students.

  16. Using ethyl glucuronide in urine to detect light and heavy drinking in alcohol dependent outpatients.

    PubMed

    McDonell, Michael G; Skalisky, Jordan; Leickly, Emily; McPherson, Sterling; Battalio, Samuel; Nepom, Jenny R; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John; Ries, Richard K

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated which ethyl glucuronide immunoassay (EtG-I) cutoff best detects heavy versus light drinking over five days in alcohol dependent outpatients. A total of 121 adults with alcohol use disorders and co-occurring psychiatric disorders took part in an alcohol treatment study. Participants provided self-reported drinking data and urine samples three times per week for 16-weeks (total samples=2761). Agreement between low (100 ng/mL, 200 ng/mL), and moderate (500 ng/mL) EtG-I cutoffs and light (women ≤3 standard drinks, men ≤4 standard drinks) and heavy drinking (women >3, men >4 standard drinks) were calculated over one to five days. The 100 ng/mL cutoff detected >76% of light drinking for two days, and 66% at five days. The 100 ng/mL cutoff detected 84% (1 day) to 79% (5 days) of heavy drinking. The 200 ng/mL cutoff detected >55% of light drinking across five days and >66% of heavy drinking across five days. A 500 ng/mL cutoff identified 68% of light drinking and 78% of heavy drinking for one day, with detection of light (2-5 days <58%) and heavy drinking (2-5 days <71%) decreasing thereafter. Relative to 100 ng/mL, the 200 ng/mL and 500 ng/mL cutoffs were less likely to result in false positives. An EtG-I cutoff of 100 ng/mL is most likely to detect heavy drinking for up to five days and any drinking during the previous two days. Cutoffs of ≥500 ng/mL are likely to only detect heavy drinking during the previous day. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using Ethyl Glucuronide in Urine to Detect Light and Heavy Drinking in Alcohol Dependent Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    McDonell, Michael G.; Skalisky, Jordan; Leickly, Emily; McPherson, Sterling; Battalio, Samuel; Nepom, Jenny R.; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John; Ries, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study investigated which ethyl glucuronide immunoassay (EtG-I) cutoff best detects heavy versus light drinking over five days in alcohol dependent outpatients. Methods A total of 121 adults with alcohol use disorders and co-occurring psychiatric disorders taking part in an alcohol treatment study. Participants provided self-reported drinking data and urine samples three time per week for 16-weeks (total samples = 2761). Agreement between low (100 ng/mL, 200 ng/mL), and moderate (500 ng/mL) EtG-I cutoffs and light (women ≤3 standard drinks, men ≤ 4 standard drinks) and heavy drinking (women >3, men >4 standard drinks) were calculated over one to five days. Results The 100 ng/mL cutoff detected >76% of light drinking for two days, and 66% at five days. The 100 ng/mL cutoff detected 84% (1 day) to 79% (5 days) of heavy drinking. The 200 ng/mL cutoff detected >55% of light drinking across five days and >66% of heavy drinking across five days. A 500 ng/mL cutoff identified 68% of light drinking and 78% of heavy drinking for one day, with detection of light (2–5 days <58%) and heavy drinking (2–5 days <71%) decreasing thereafter. Relative to 100 ng/mL, the 200 ng/mL and 500 ng/mL cutoffs were less likely to result in false positives. Conclusions An EtG-I cutoff of 100 ng/mL is most likely to detect heavy drinking for up to five days and any drinking during the previous two days. Cutoffs of ≥ 500 ng/mL are likely to only detect heavy drinking during the previous day. PMID:26475403

  18. College Student Affect and Heavy Drinking: Variable Associations Across Days, Semesters, and People

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Andrea L.; Patrick, Megan E.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested associations between positive and negative affect and heavy drinking in 734 college students who completed daily diaries in 14-day bursts once per semester over 7 semesters (≤98 days per person). Three-level multilevel models tested whether affect and heavy drinking were linked across days, semesters, and persons. Higher daily, between-semester, and between-person positive affect were each associated with a greater odds of heavy drinking on weekdays and on weekend days. A significant interaction with semester in college showed that the association between daily positive affect and heavy drinking on weekend days became stronger over time. That is, heavy drinking on a weekend day with higher positive affect was more likely in later years of college (OR=2.93, Fall of 4th year), compared to earlier in college (OR=1.80, Fall of 1st year). A similar interaction was found for between-semester positive affect and heavy drinking on weekdays. Higher daily negative affect was associated with a greater odds of heavy drinking on weekdays only for students who first began drinking in 7th grade or earlier (OR=2.36). Results of this study highlight the importance of varied time spans in studying the etiology, consequences, and prevention of heavy drinking. Harm-reduction strategies that target positive affect-related drinking by encouraging protective behaviors during celebratory events may become increasingly important as students transition to later years of college. PMID:25347017

  19. Identifying Patterns of Situational Antecedents to Heavy Drinking among College Students.

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Braitman, Abby L; Stamates, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Emerging adults have the highest prevalence of heavy drinking as compared to all other age groups. Given the negative consequences associated with such drinking, additional research efforts focused on at-risk consumption are warranted. The current study sought to identify patterns of situational antecedents to drinking and to examine their associations with drinking motivations, alcohol involvement, and mental health functioning in a sample of heavy drinking college students. Participants were 549 (65.8% women) college student drinkers. Latent profile analysis identified three classes based on likelihood of heavy drinking across eight situational precipitants. The "High Situational Endorsement" group reported the greatest likelihood of heavy drinking in most situations assessed. This class experienced the greatest level of alcohol-related harms as compared to the "Low Situational Endorsement" and "Moderate Situational Endorsement" groups. The Low Situational Endorsement class was characterized by the lowest likelihood of heavy drinking across all situational antecedents and they experienced the fewest alcohol-related harms, relative to the other classes. Class membership was related to drinking motivations with the "High Situational Endorsement" class endorsing the highest coping- and conformity-motivated drinking. The "High Situational Endorsement" class also reported experiencing more mental health symptoms than other groups. The current study contributed to the larger drinking literature by identifying profiles that may signify a particularly risky drinking style. Findings may help guide intervention work with college heavy drinkers.

  20. Identifying Patterns of Situational Antecedents to Heavy Drinking among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N.; Braitman, Abby L.; Stamates, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Emerging adults have the highest prevalence of heavy drinking as compared to all other age groups. Given the negative consequences associated with such drinking, additional research efforts focused on at-risk consumption are warranted. The current study sought to identify patterns of situational antecedents to drinking and to examine their associations with drinking motivations, alcohol involvement, and mental health functioning in a sample of heavy drinking college students. Method Participants were 549 (65.8% women) college student drinkers. Results Latent profile analysis identified three classes based on likelihood of heavy drinking across eight situational precipitants. The “High Situational Endorsement” group reported the greatest likelihood of heavy drinking in most situations assessed. This class experienced the greatest level of alcohol-related harms as compared to the “Low Situational Endorsement” and “Moderate Situational Endorsement” groups. The Low Situational Endorsement class was characterized by the lowest likelihood of heavy drinking across all situational antecedents and they experienced the fewest alcohol-related harms, relative to the other classes. Class membership was related to drinking motivations with the “High Situational Endorsement” class endorsing the highest coping- and conformity-motivated drinking. The “High Situational Endorsement” class also reported experiencing more mental health symptoms than other groups. Conclusions The current study contributed to the larger drinking literature by identifying profiles that may signify a particularly risky drinking style. Findings may help guide intervention work with college heavy drinkers. PMID:28163666

  1. A Longitudinal Investigation of Heavy Drinking and Physical Dating Violence in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of heavy drinking and dating violence have typically focused on either female victimization or male perpetration; yet recent findings indicate that mutual aggression is the most common pattern of dating violence. The current study investigated the relation between heavy drinking and dating violence for both men and women. Participants (N = 2,247) completed surveys that assessed their heavy drinking and dating violence frequency across the first three years of college. Findings indicated that heavy drinking and dating violence were both relatively stable across time for men and women, but the relation between heavy drinking and dating violence differed by gender. For men, heavy drinking and dating violence were concurrently associated during their freshman year (Year 1), whereas for women heavy drinking during sophomore year (Year 2) predicted dating violence in their junior year (Year 3). In addition to providing educational material on healthy relationships and conflict resolution techniques, intervention efforts should target both heavy drinking and dating violence for men during or prior to their freshman year of college, whereas women may primarily benefit from efforts to reduce their heavy drinking. PMID:20079971

  2. Heavy drinking and the role of inhibitory control of attention

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Walter; Miller, Melissa A.; Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol can disrupt goal-directed behavior by impairing the ability to inhibit attentional shifts towards salient but goal-irrelevant stimuli. Individuals who are highly sensitive to this effect of the drug may be at increased risk for problematic drinking, especially among those whose attention is drawn to alcohol-related cues in the environment (i.e., attentional bias). The current study examined the acute impairing effect of alcohol on inhibitory mechanisms of attentional control in a group of healthy social drinkers. We then examined whether increased sensitivity to this disinhibiting effect of alcohol was associated with heavy drinking, especially among those who have an attentional bias towards alcohol-related stimuli. Eighty nondependent social drinkers performed a delayed ocular response task that measured their inhibitory control of attention by their ability to suppress attentional shifts to irrelevant stimuli. Attentional bias was measured using a visual probe task. Inhibitory control was assessed following a moderate dose of alcohol (0.64 g/kg) and a placebo. Participants made more inhibitory failures (i.e., premature saccades) following 0.64 g/kg alcohol compared with placebo and the relation of this effect to their drinking habits did depend on the level of the drinker’s attentional bias to alcohol-related stimuli. Among drinkers with higher attentional bias, greater impairment of inhibitory control was associated with heavier drinking. In contrast, drinkers with little or no attentional bias showed no relation between their sensitivity to the disinhibiting effects of alcohol and drinking habits. These findings have implications for understanding how heightened incentive-salience of alcohol cues and impaired attentional control can interactively contribute to excessive alcohol use. PMID:24611837

  3. Dimensions of impulsivity among heavy drinkers, smokers, and heavy drinking smokers: singular and combined effects.

    PubMed

    Moallem, Nathasha R; Ray, Lara A

    2012-07-01

    Alcohol use and cigarette smoking commonly co-occur. The role impulsivity may play as a common underlying mechanism in alcohol use and cigarette smoking is of particular interest due to emerging evidence of it being a critical component across multiple forms of addiction. Impulsivity can be examined through several constructs including, risky decision-making, response inhibition, and delay reward discounting. Impulsivity and each of these specific constructs play significant roles in the initiation of drug use, continued use despite negative consequences, and potential to relapse. This study used three behavioral tasks to measure risky decision-making (balloon analog risk test; BART), response inhibition (stop signal task; SST), and delay reward discounting (delay discounting task; DDT). This study advances research on impulsivity and substance use by parsing out the various components of impulsivity and examining them across three groups, heavy drinkers only (HD) (N=107), smokers only (S) (N=67), and heavy drinking smokers (HDS) (N=213). Participants completed questionnaires, interviews, and neurocognitive tasks including the SST, BART, and DDT. Analyses supported an additive effect of alcohol and nicotine use in delay reward discounting. Heavy drinking smokers displayed steeper delay discounting of small rewards than did smokers only (p<.05) and heavy drinkers only (p<.05). This additive effect of smoking and drinking was not observed for risky decision-making and response inhibition, suggesting specificity of the effects for delay reward discounting. These findings indicate that those who both drink heavily and smoke cigarettes daily have increased delay reward discounting, than those in the S and HD groups. Future studies should examine these constructs longitudinally, as well as incorporate genetic and/or a neuroimaging component to these group comparisons in order to ascertain the biological bases of these behavioral findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd

  4. Brief Intervention Decreases Drinking Frequency in HIV-Infected, Heavy Drinking Women: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chander, Geetanjali; Hutton, Heidi E.; Lau, Bryan; Xu, Xiaoqiang; McCaul, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hazardous alcohol use by HIV-infected women is associated with poor HIV outcomes and HIV transmission risk behaviors. We examined the effectiveness of brief alcohol intervention (BI) among hazardous drinking women receiving care in an urban, HIV clinic. Methods Women were randomized to a 2-session BI or usual care. Outcomes assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months included 90-day frequency of any alcohol use and heavy/binge drinking (≥4 drinks per occasion), and average drinks per drinking episode. Secondary outcomes included HIV medication and appointment adherence, HIV1-RNA suppression, and days of unprotected vaginal sex. We examined intervention effectiveness using generalized mixed effect models and quantile regression. Results Of 148 eligible women, 74 were randomized to each arm. In mixed effects models, 90-day drinking frequency decreased among intervention group compared to control, with women in the intervention condition less likely to have a drinking day (OR: 0.42 (95% CI: 0.23–0.75). Heavy/binge drinking days and drinks per drinking day did not differ significantly between groups. Quantile regression demonstrated a decrease in drinking frequency in the middle to upper ranges of the distribution of drinking days and heavy/binge drinking days that differed significantly between intervention and control conditions. At follow-up, the intervention group had significantly fewer episodes of unprotected vaginal sex. No intervention effects were observed for other outcomes. Conclusions Brief alcohol intervention reduces frequency of alcohol use and unprotected vaginal sex among HIV-infected women. More intensive services may be needed to lower drinks per drinking day and enhance care for more severely affected drinkers. PMID:25967270

  5. Pharmacological Options for Smoking Cessation in Heavy Drinking Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Megan M.; Mirbaba, Michael M.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of comorbid tobacco and alcohol use disorder (AUD), affecting more than 6 million people in the United States. Globally, tobacco and alcohol use rank fourth and fifth, respectively, for disability adjusted life years lost. Levels of alcohol use are higher in smokers than non-smokers, and the prevalence of smoking is higher in heavy drinkers compared to non-drinkers. This relationship is driven by many different factors including genetics, neurobiological mechanisms, conditioning processes, and psychosocial influences. Although this unique population tends to experience more negative health consequences, more severe AUD and poorer response to treatment than those with either AUD or tobacco use disorder alone, there are currently no available treatment protocols tailored to this comorbid condition. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of ongoing clinical research into smoking cessation options for heavy drinking smokers (HDS) through an evaluation of the effect of promising novel pharmacotherapies as well as combination therapies including: varenicline, naltrexone, the combination of varenicline and naltrexone, and the combination of naltrexone and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). These treatments are considered in light of the standard of care for smoking cessation and seek to improve upon the available guidelines for this sizable subgroup of smokers, namely those smokers who drink heavily. PMID:26507831

  6. Correlates of Dating Violence among Male and Female Heavy-Drinking College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roudsari, Bahman S.; Leahy, Matthew M.; Walters, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlates for dating violence among heavy-drinking college students. Method: Participants were at least 18 years old and reported at least one heavy-drinking episode in the past 2 weeks. Results: After covariate adjustment, estimated peak blood alcohol concentration during the past month was associated with higher…

  7. Heavy Episodic Drinking among Adolescents: A Test of Hypotheses Derived from Control Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Barbara J.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature on the causes of heavy episodic drinking, little attention has been paid to this phenomenon in the sociological and criminological literature. This research assesses the extent to which a popular theory of crime and deviance, control theory, can explain heavy episodic drinking. Analysis of data collected from a…

  8. A Research Update on Correlates of Heavy Episodic Drinking among Undergraduate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montauti, Sara Barrows; Bulmer, Sandra Minor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite prevention efforts of colleges and universities across the nation, there have been no substantial decreases in heavy episodic drinking among undergraduates over the past 2 decades. Purpose: This study provides an update on correlates of heavy episodic drinking for a recent cohort of undergraduate college students. Methods: A…

  9. Which Heavy Drinking College Students Benefit from a Brief Motivational Intervention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kate B.; Henson, James M.; Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy drinking among college students is common and is often harmful. A previously reported randomized trial revealed that a brief motivational intervention (BMI) reduced the alcohol consumption of heavy drinking college students (K. B. Carey, M. P. Carey, S. A. Maisto, & J. M. Henson, 2006). For this study, the researchers conducted supplemental…

  10. Which Heavy Drinking College Students Benefit from a Brief Motivational Intervention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kate B.; Henson, James M.; Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy drinking among college students is common and is often harmful. A previously reported randomized trial revealed that a brief motivational intervention (BMI) reduced the alcohol consumption of heavy drinking college students (K. B. Carey, M. P. Carey, S. A. Maisto, & J. M. Henson, 2006). For this study, the researchers conducted supplemental…

  11. Correlates of Dating Violence among Male and Female Heavy-Drinking College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roudsari, Bahman S.; Leahy, Matthew M.; Walters, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlates for dating violence among heavy-drinking college students. Method: Participants were at least 18 years old and reported at least one heavy-drinking episode in the past 2 weeks. Results: After covariate adjustment, estimated peak blood alcohol concentration during the past month was associated with higher…

  12. A Research Update on Correlates of Heavy Episodic Drinking among Undergraduate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montauti, Sara Barrows; Bulmer, Sandra Minor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite prevention efforts of colleges and universities across the nation, there have been no substantial decreases in heavy episodic drinking among undergraduates over the past 2 decades. Purpose: This study provides an update on correlates of heavy episodic drinking for a recent cohort of undergraduate college students. Methods: A…

  13. Unintended Effects of an Intervention Supporting Mexican-Heritage Youth: Decreased Parent Heavy Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Baldwin, Adrienne; Ayers, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of a parenting intervention, "Familias: Preparando la Nueva Generación" (FPNG), intended to support children, on parents heavy drinking. We hypothesized that parent participants of FPNG would reduce their heavy drinking at 1-year follow-up. Methods: Parents (N = 281) of middle school children from a large,…

  14. Unintended Effects of an Intervention Supporting Mexican-Heritage Youth: Decreased Parent Heavy Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Baldwin, Adrienne; Ayers, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of a parenting intervention, "Familias: Preparando la Nueva Generación" (FPNG), intended to support children, on parents heavy drinking. We hypothesized that parent participants of FPNG would reduce their heavy drinking at 1-year follow-up. Methods: Parents (N = 281) of middle school children from a large,…

  15. Heavy Episodic Drinking in College Students: Associations with Features of Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvers, Patrick; Landfield, Kristin E.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study extends the college heavy episodic drinking literature by examining the associations between features of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), on the one hand, and heavy episodic drinking and associated problem behaviors, on the other. Participants: Participants were 159 (85 male, 74 female) undergraduates…

  16. Heavy Episodic Drinking in College Students: Associations with Features of Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvers, Patrick; Landfield, Kristin E.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study extends the college heavy episodic drinking literature by examining the associations between features of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), on the one hand, and heavy episodic drinking and associated problem behaviors, on the other. Participants: Participants were 159 (85 male, 74 female) undergraduates…

  17. Heavy metals in drinking water: Occurrences, implications, and future needs in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Mazumder, M A Jafar; Al-Attas, Omar; Husain, Tahir

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metals in drinking water pose a threat to human health. Populations are exposed to heavy metals primarily through water consumption, but few heavy metals can bioaccumulate in the human body (e.g., in lipids and the gastrointestinal system) and may induce cancer and other risks. To date, few thousand publications have reported various aspects of heavy metals in drinking water, including the types and quantities of metals in drinking water, their sources, factors affecting their concentrations at exposure points, human exposure, potential risks, and their removal from drinking water. Many developing countries are faced with the challenge of reducing human exposure to heavy metals, mainly due to their limited economic capacities to use advanced technologies for heavy metal removal. This paper aims to review the state of research on heavy metals in drinking water in developing countries; understand their types and variability, sources, exposure, possible health effects, and removal; and analyze the factors contributing to heavy metals in drinking water. This study identifies the current challenges in developing countries, and future research needs to reduce the levels of heavy metals in drinking water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Heavy drinking occasions in Australia: do context and beverage choice differ from low-risk drinking occasions?

    PubMed

    Callinan, Sarah; Livingston, Michael; Dietze, Paul; Room, Robin

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the current study is to look for differences in drink choice and drinking location between a recent heavy drinking occasion (RHDO) and usual low-risk occasions among those that recently had both types of drinking occasion. Seven hundred and seventy-four respondents to a population-based survey reported having a RHDO [8 + Australian standard drinks (ASD) for females, 11 + ASD for males] in the past six months also reported that their usual drinking occasion in at least one location involved less than five ASD. Drink choice and drinking locations for the RHDO and usual low-risk occasions were compared using confidence intervals. The RHDO was more likely than usual low-risk occasions to occur away from licensed premises (59%), despite a higher percentage of respondents reporting drinking at a pub, bar or nightclub on a RHDO (28%) than on a usual low-risk night (12%). A higher percentage of respondents nominated bottled spirits (33%) as their main drink for their RHDO, with 11% primarily drinking bottled spirits on a usual low-risk occasion; the converse was true for bottled wine (20% and 33%, respectively). While the high proportion of RHDOs that occurred at least in part at pubs or nightclubs was not surprising, a high proportion also occur in private homes. Previously found links between heavy drinking and beer may be a reflection of the usual drink choice of heavier drinkers, rather a choice specific to a particularly heavy occasion. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. The Incidence of Heavy Drinking in a Community Mental Health Center's Outpatient Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Michael J.

    Research has shown that many psychiatric inpatients are alcoholics and that a significant number of these alcoholics are not being diagnosed or treated for their drinking problems. The incidence of heavy drinking among psychiatric outpatients and the extent to which psychotherapists are aware of their drinking behaviors were assessed. A…

  20. Use of and Interest in Smoking Cessation Strategies among Daily and Nondaily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Carla J.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Mendel, Jennifer; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine use of and interest in cessation strategies among nondaily and daily college student smokers. Participants: 800 undergraduate student smokers aged 18 to 25. Methods: The authors examined nondaily versus daily smoking in relation to use of and interest in cessation strategies using an online survey. Results: Nondaily (65.8%)…

  1. Use of and Interest in Smoking Cessation Strategies among Daily and Nondaily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Carla J.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Mendel, Jennifer; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine use of and interest in cessation strategies among nondaily and daily college student smokers. Participants: 800 undergraduate student smokers aged 18 to 25. Methods: The authors examined nondaily versus daily smoking in relation to use of and interest in cessation strategies using an online survey. Results: Nondaily (65.8%)…

  2. HEAVY DRINKING TRAJECTORIES AMONG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN: A LONGITUDINAL, GROUP-BASED ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Brandon DL; Shoveller, Jean A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy episodic drinking (HED) is associated with sexual risk behavior and HIV seroconversion among men who have sex with men (MSM), yet few studies have examined heavy drinking typologies in this population. Methods We analyzed data from 4,075 HIV-uninfected MSM (aged 16 to 88) participating in EXPLORE, a 48-month behavioral intervention trial, to determine the patterns and predictors of HED trajectories. Heavy episodic drinking was defined as the number of days in which ≥5 alcohol drinks were consumed in the past 6 months. Longitudinal group-based mixture models were used to identify HED trajectories, and multinomial logistic regression was used to determine correlates of membership in each group. Results We identified five distinct HED trajectories: non-heavy drinkers (31.9%); infrequent heavy drinkers (i.e., <10 heavy drinking days per 6 month period, 54.3%); regular heavy drinkers (30-45 heavy drinking days per 6 months, 8.4%); drinkers who increased HED over time (average 33 days in the past six months to 77 days at end of follow-up, 3.6%); and very frequent heavy drinkers (>100 days per 6 months, 1.7%). Intervention arm did not predict drinking trajectory patterns. Younger age, self-identifying as white, lower educational attainment, depressive symptoms, and stimulant use were also associated with reporting heavier drinking trajectories. Compared to non-heavy drinkers, participants who increased HED more often experienced a history of childhood sexual abuse. Over the study period, depressive symptomatology increased significantly among very frequent heavy drinkers. Conclusions Socioeconomic factors, substance use, depression, and childhood sexual abuse were associated with heavier drinking patterns among MSM. Multi-component interventions to reduce HED should seek to mitigate the adverse impacts of low educational attainment, depression, and early traumatic life events on the initiation, continuation or escalation of frequent HED among MSM. PMID

  3. Associations between binge and heavy drinking and health behaviors in a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Paul, Lisa A; Grubaugh, Anouk L; Frueh, B Christopher; Ellis, Charles; Egede, Leonard E

    2011-12-01

    Binge and heavy drinking are noted in the literature for their relatively high prevalence and adverse health-related effects. We used data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) to determine the associations between binge and heavy drinking and a wide range of health-related variables, including positive and negative health behaviors, preventive care practices, and quality of life indices in a nationally representative sample of 344,793 adults. Rates of binge and heavy drinking in the current sample were 15% and 5%, respectively. Binge and heavy drinking were more common among men, younger adults, and individuals with higher incomes and at least some college education. After controlling for relevant demographic variables, binge and heavy drinking were associated with a number of adverse health-related and preventive care behaviors (e.g., smoking, failing to receive a mammogram), as well as less life satisfaction and a greater number of poor mental health days than those who did not engage in these drinking behaviors. Interestingly, binge and heavy drinking were also associated with some positive health-related variables (e.g., recent physical activity, positive perceptions of one's own health). The current study findings provide additional information regarding the relations between health-related attitudes and behaviors and binge and heavy drinking in the U.S. population. Implications of study findings are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Heavy drinking among college students is influenced by anxiety sensitivity, gender, and contexts for alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Lawyer, Steven R; Karg, Rhonda S; Murphy, James G; McGlynn, F Dudley

    2002-01-01

    In order to quantify relationships between anxiety sensitivity and situational antecedents to heavy alcohol consumption, 245 university student drinkers completed the anxiety sensitivity index-revised (ASI-R) and the inventory of drinking situations (IDS-42). The observed correlations indicated that anxiety sensitivity is related to negatively reinforced drinking, positively reinforced drinking, and temptation-motivated drinking. However, anxiety sensitivity is most clearly implicated as a factor in negatively reinforced drinking, i.e., drinking followed by "tension reduction." Additionally, the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and negatively reinforced drinking is stronger among males than among females. The results point to anxiety sensitivity and gender as interacting individual difference variables that influence incidence of negatively reinforced heavy drinking among college students.

  5. Heavy drinking and patterns of sociability at the end of adolescence: a French survey.

    PubMed

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Beck, François; Legleye, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    Many alcohol-related problems at adolescence occur during or as a result of peer-oriented activities, so it is necessary to understand how drinking habits are embedded in sociability and lifestyle. to study patterns of peer-oriented activities among heavy drinkers, and to investigate factors associated with these patterns. A national random sample of 13,623 French adolescents aged 17-18 years, and a subgroup of 762 heavy drinkers (reporting either 20 drinking occasions or more during the prior 30 days, or 20 episodes of drunkenness or more during the previous 12 months). Respondents answered to a self-administered closed-ended questionnaire. Questions on peer-oriented activities were used for conducting a cluster analysis among heavy drinkers. Logistic regressions were used for studying factors associated with the resulting clusters. Among heavy drinkers the dominant pattern was characterized by the combination of heavy drinking and peer-oriented activities. But in two other profiles heavy drinking was associated with either strong involvement in formal sporting practice or low participation in peer-oriented activities. The expected relationship between heavy drinking, mood disorders, other drug use, violence and victimization depended on which pattern was considered. The strong links observed between drinking habits and sociability underline the need to counteract the social acceptability of drinking and focus on the social contexts in which it occurs, but preventive action programs should also take into account the diversity of sociability patterns among heavy drinkers.

  6. Postintervention Effects of "Click City®: Alcohol" on Changing Etiological Mechanisms Related to the Onset of Heavy Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Judith S.; Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah H.; Gunn, Barbara; Christiansen, Steven M.; Jacobs, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Alcohol consumption, including heavy drinking, is the fourth leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Youth who engage in heavy drinking are likely to experience a number of problems associated with their use. In 2015, U.S. prevalence of heavy drinking was 17% among 12th graders. These data suggest a clear need for…

  7. Predictors of Heavy Episodic Drinking and Weekly Drunkenness Among Immigrant Latinos in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Daniel-Ulloa, Jason; Reboussin, Beth A; Gilbert, Paul A; Mann, Lilli; Alonzo, Jorge; Downs, Mario; Rhodes, Scott D

    2014-07-01

    Few studies have examined correlates of heavy drinking among rural immigrant Latino men. This analysis identified correlates of typical week drunkenness and past 30-day heavy episodic drinking, within a sample of immigrant Latino men in rural North Carolina (n = 258). In the bivariate analyses, Mexican birth, entering the United States as an adult, and year-round employment were associated with increased odds of typical week drunkenness, and higher acculturation and affiliation with a religion with strict prohibitions against drinking alcohol were associated with lower odds of typical week drunkenness. Being older, Mexican birth, entering the United States as an adult, and lower acculturation were associated with increased odds of heavy episodic drinking, and affiliation with a religion with strict prohibitions against drinking alcohol and completing high school were associated with decreased odds of heavy episodic drinking. In multivariable modeling, only religious affiliation was associated with typical week drunkenness. Mexican birth, entering the United States as an adult, and lower acculturation were associated with increased odds of heavy episodic drinking, and affiliation with a religion with strict prohibitions against drinking alcohol and completing high school were associated with lower odds of heavy episodic drinking. The health of minority men in the United States has been neglected, and immigrant Latino men comprise a particularly vulnerable population. This analysis provides initial data on some factors associated with heavy drinking within a population about which little is known. Future studies should examine moderating or mediating factors between age, acculturation, religiosity, and heavy drinking that might be targets for behavioral interventions.

  8. Heavy episodic drinking in early adolescence: gender-specific risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Romelsjö, Anders; Tengström, Anders

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined possible gender differences regarding risk and protective factors for heavy episodic drinking among 1,222 seventh-grade students (aged 13) in the City of Stockholm, Sweden, with follow-up 2 years later. Logistic regression analyses showed that several factors predicted heavy episodic drinking. The strongest predictors for boys' heavy episodic drinking in the ninth grade were heavy episodic drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 5.30) and smoking in the seventh grade (OR = 5.80). Drinking peers (OR = 2.47) and smoking (OR = 2.44) in the seventh grade showed the strongest association for girls. Furthermore, high parental monitoring and having a secure attachment to parents may have a protective effect when risk factors are present. Our results lend support to prevention initiatives to strengthen the parent-child relation and focus on adolescents' ability to resist peer pressure and of limiting parental provision of alcohol. The study's limitations are noted.

  9. Social anxiety, alcohol expectancies, and self-efficacy as predictors of heavy drinking in college students.

    PubMed

    Gilles, Donna M; Turk, Cynthia L; Fresco, David M

    2006-03-01

    Burke and Stephens (1999) [Burke, R.S., Stephens, R.S. Social anxiety and drinking in college students: A social cognitive theory analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 19, (1999) 513-530.] proposed a social cognitive theory of heavy drinking in college students. According to this theory, alcohol expectancies for social facilitation and self-efficacy for refusing heavy drinking in anxiety-producing social situations moderate the relationship between social anxiety and drinking. In the current study, a significant three-way interaction was observed among social anxiety, expectancies, and self-efficacy when amount and frequency of drinking was the dependent variable. As predicted by the model, socially anxious college students with low self-efficacy for avoiding heavy drinking in social situations and high positive expectancies for social facilitation reported more alcohol consumption than other socially anxious individuals.

  10. The effects of social and health consequence framing on heavy drinking intentions among college students.

    PubMed

    Kingsbury, John H; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg

    2015-02-01

    Many interventions targeting college student drinking have focused on negative health effects of drinking heavily; however, some research suggests that social factors may have a stronger influence on the drinking behaviour of young people. Moreover, few studies have examined message framing effects in the context of alcohol consumption. This study investigated the effects of social and health consequence framing on college students' intentions to engage in heavy drinking. This study used a 2 × 2 experimental design with an appended control condition. One hundred and twenty-four college students (74 women; M(age) = 18.9) participated in this study for course credit. Participants read vignettes that were ostensibly written by a recent graduate from the university, who described an episode of drinking in which he or she experienced either social or health consequences. These consequences were framed as either a gain (i.e., positive consequences of not drinking heavily) or a loss (i.e., negative consequences of drinking heavily). After reading the vignette, participants completed a measure of heavy drinking intentions. Regression analyses revealed that social consequences were associated with lower heavy drinking intentions when framed as a loss and that health consequences were associated with lower heavy drinking intentions when framed as a gain. These effects were stronger among those who reported higher (vs. lower) levels of previous drinking. Results suggest that interventions that focus on the negative health effects of heavy drinking may be improved by instead emphasizing the negative social consequences of drinking heavily and the positive health consequences of avoiding this behaviour. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Previous studies have shown that gain frames are more effective than loss frames when highlighting the health consequences of health risk behaviours, such as heavy drinking. The heavy drinking behaviour of young

  11. Is heavy drinking really associated with attrition from college? The alcohol-attrition paradox.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Julia A; Sher, Kenneth J; Wood, Phillip K

    2008-09-01

    Student attrition at colleges across the United States poses a significant problem for students and families, higher educational institutions, and the nation's workforce competing in the global economy. Heavy drinking is a highly plausible contributor to the problem. However, there is little evidence that it is a reliable predictor of attrition. Notably, few studies take into account indicators of collegiate engagement that are associated with both heavy drinking and persistence in college. Event-history analysis was used to estimate the effect of heavy drinking on attrition among 3,290 undergraduates at a large midwestern university during a 4-year period, and student attendance at a number of college events was included as covariates. Results showed that heavy drinking did not predict attrition bivariately or after controlling for precollege predictors of academic success. However, after controlling for event attendance (an important indicator of collegiate engagement), heavy drinking was found to predict attrition. These findings underscore the importance of the college context in showing that heavy drinking does in fact predict attrition and in considering future intervention efforts to decrease attrition and also heavy drinking.

  12. Stress and development of depression and heavy drinking in adulthood: moderating effects of childhood trauma.

    PubMed

    Colman, Ian; Garad, Yasmin; Zeng, Yiye; Naicker, Kiyuri; Weeks, Murray; Patten, Scott B; Jones, Peter B; Thompson, Angus H; Wild, T Cameron

    2013-02-01

    Studies suggest that childhood trauma is linked to both depression and heavy drinking in adulthood, and may create a lifelong vulnerability to stress. Few studies have explored the effects of stress sensitization on the development of depression or heavy drinking among those who have experienced traumatic childhood events. This study aimed to determine the effect of childhood trauma on the odds of experiencing depression or heavy drinking in the face of an adult life stressor, using a large population-based Canadian cohort. A total of 3,930 participants were included from the National Population Health Survey. The associations among childhood trauma, recent stress and depression/heavy drinking from 1994/1995 to 2008/2009 were explored using logistic regression, as were interactions between childhood trauma and recent stress. A generalized linear mixed model was used to determine the effects of childhood trauma and stressful events on depression/heavy drinking. Analyses were stratified by sex. Childhood trauma significantly increased the odds of becoming depressed (following 1 event: OR = 1.66; 95%CI 1.01, 2.71; 2+ events, OR = 3.89; 95%CI 2.44, 6.22) and drinking heavily (2+ events: OR = 1.79; 95%CI 1.03, 3.13). Recent stressful events were associated with depression, but not heavy drinking. While most interaction terms were not significant, in 2004/2005 the association between recent stress and depression was stronger in those who reported childhood trauma compared to those with no childhood trauma. Childhood trauma increases risk for both depression and heavy drinking. Trauma may moderate the effect of stress on depression; the relationship among trauma, stress and heavy drinking is less clear.

  13. Heavy episodic drinking among transgender persons: Disparities and predictors.

    PubMed

    Scheim, Ayden I; Bauer, Greta R; Shokoohi, Mostafa

    2016-10-01

    Drawing on a survey of transgender people in Canada's most populous province, we estimate the frequency of heavy episodic drinking (HED), compare HED prevalence to the age-standardized background population, and examine associations with socio-demographics, gender transition, and social exclusion. 433 transgender persons aged 16+ completed a respondent-driven sampling survey in 2009-2010. Analyses were weighted using RDS II methods, including frequencies and prevalence ratios. Overall and sex-specific estimates of HED among Ontario residents in the 2009-2010 Canadian Community Health Survey (n=39,980) were standardized to the overall and gender-specific transgender age distributions. Estimated prevalence of HED at least monthly among transgender Ontarians was 33.2% (95% CI: 26.3, 40.1), 1.5 times greater than expected based on the age-standardized Ontario population. Transmasculine (female-to-male spectrum) persons were more likely than transfeminine persons to report HED (42.2% versus 22.7%), an effect robust to covariate adjustment. Current sex work was associated with greater HED, but gender transition and social exclusion factors were not. Gendered pathways to alcohol misuse, particularly among transmasculine persons, warrant further research and intervention development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Unintended Effects of an Intervention Supporting Mexican-Heritage Youth: Decreased Parent Heavy Drinking.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Baldwin, Adrienne; Ayers, Stephanie

    2015-03-01

    To assess the impact of a parenting intervention, Familias: Preparando la Nueva Generación (FPNG), intended to support children, on parents heavy drinking. We hypothesized that parent participants of FPNG would reduce their heavy drinking at 1-year follow-up. Parents (N = 281) of middle school children from a large, low-income metropolitan area in the Southwest United States participated in a randomized control trial over 2 years. A logistic regression analysis using the maximum likelihood test determined that at Wave 3, parents receiving FPNG reduced heavy drinking behaviors compared to parents in the youth-only condition (odds ratio = .86, p < .05). Participating in the parenting program can effectively curb heavy drinking behaviors in parents-an important mechanism through which one may expect changes in youth risk behavior. The practice, policy, and research implications of these unintended findings are promising to the overall effectiveness of a parenting intervention for Mexican-heritage families.

  15. Predicting heavy episodic drinking using an extended temporal self-regulation theory.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicola; Mullan, Barbara; Sharpe, Louise

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol consumption contributes significantly to the global burden from disease and injury, and specific patterns of heavy episodic drinking contribute uniquely to this burden. Temporal self-regulation theory and the dual-process model describe similar theoretical constructs that might predict heavy episodic drinking. The aims of this study were to test the utility of temporal self-regulation theory in predicting heavy episodic drinking, and examine whether the theoretical relationships suggested by the dual-process model significantly extend temporal self-regulation theory. This was a predictive study with 149 Australian adults. Measures were questionnaires (self-report habit index, cues to action scale, purpose-made intention questionnaire, timeline follow-back questionnaire) and executive function tasks (Stroop, Tower of London, operation span). Participants completed measures of theoretical constructs at baseline and reported their alcohol consumption two weeks later. Data were analysed using hierarchical multiple linear regression. Temporal self-regulation theory significantly predicted heavy episodic drinking (R(2)=48.0-54.8%, p<0.001) and the hypothesised extension significantly improved the prediction of heavy episodic drinking frequency (ΔR(2)=4.5%, p=0.001) but not peak consumption (ΔR(2)=1.4%, p=0.181). Intention and behavioural prepotency directly predicted heavy episodic drinking (p<0.01). Planning ability moderated the intention-behaviour relationship and inhibitory control moderated the behavioural prepotency-behaviour relationship (p<0.05). Both temporal self-regulation theory and the extended temporal self-regulation theory provide good prediction of heavy episodic drinking. Intention, behavioural prepotency, planning ability and inhibitory control may be good targets for interventions designed to decrease heavy episodic drinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Role of Education, Parents and Peers in Adolescent Heavy Episodic Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Van Dorsselaer, Saskia A. F. M.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy episodic drinking is more common among adolescents with a lower educational level. Aim: This study probed into the mechanism through which a lower educational level is linked to heavier adolescent drinking. Methods: Structural equation modelling was conducted using data from the 2005 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey (n =…

  17. A Pilot Study of Naltrexone and BASICS for Heavy Drinking Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Palmer, Rebekka S.; Corbin, William R.; Romano, Denise M.; Meandzija, Boris; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy drinking young adults often have limited motivation to change their drinking behavior. Adding pharmacotherapy to brief counseling is a novel approach to treating this population. A small open-label pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of offering eight weeks of daily and targeted (i.e., taken as needed in anticipation of drinking) naltrexone with BASICS (brief motivational) counseling to heavy drinking young adults; to assess the tolerability of the medication in this population and to obtain preliminary efficacy data. The sample (N = 14) showed strong adherence to study appointments and medication taking, supporting the feasibility of this approach. Overall, the medication was well-tolerated. Significant reductions from baseline were observed in drinks per drinking day and in percent heavy drinking days and these gains were maintained one month after treatment ended. A significant decrease in alcohol-related consequences was also observed. Findings from this small pilot study suggest that naltrexone in combination with BASICS represents a promising strategy to reduce heavy drinking among young adults. PMID:18502591

  18. The Role of Education, Parents and Peers in Adolescent Heavy Episodic Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Van Dorsselaer, Saskia A. F. M.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy episodic drinking is more common among adolescents with a lower educational level. Aim: This study probed into the mechanism through which a lower educational level is linked to heavier adolescent drinking. Methods: Structural equation modelling was conducted using data from the 2005 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey (n =…

  19. A pilot study of naltrexone and BASICS for heavy drinking young adults.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; Palmer, Rebekka S; Corbin, William R; Romano, Denise M; Meandzija, Boris; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2008-08-01

    Heavy drinking young adults often have limited motivation to change their drinking behavior. Adding pharmacotherapy to brief counseling is a novel approach to treating this population. A small open-label pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of offering eight weeks of daily and targeted (i.e., taken as needed in anticipation of drinking) naltrexone with BASICS (brief motivational) counseling to heavy drinking young adults; to assess the tolerability of the medication in this population and to obtain preliminary efficacy data. The sample (N=14) showed strong adherence to study appointments and medication taking, supporting the feasibility of this approach. Overall, the medication was well-tolerated. Significant reductions from baseline were observed in drinks per drinking day and in percent heavy drinking days and these gains were maintained one month after treatment ended. A significant decrease in alcohol-related consequences was also observed. Findings from this small pilot study suggest that naltrexone in combination with BASICS represents a promising strategy to reduce heavy drinking among young adults.

  20. Randomized Controlled Trial of BASICS for Heavy Drinking Mandated and Volunteer Undergraduates: 12-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Terlecki, Meredith A.; Buckner, Julia D.; Larimer, Mary E.; Copeland, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first randomized trial testing whether heavy drinking undergraduates mandated to the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) program following a campus alcohol violation would benefit as much as heavy drinking volunteers up to one year post-intervention using control groups with high-risk drinkers to model disciplinary-related and naturalistic changes in drinking. Participants (61% male; 51% mandated; 84% Caucasian; Mage = 20.14 years) were screened for heavy drinking and randomized to BASICS (n = 115) or assessment-only control (n = 110). Outcome measures (drinking, alcohol problems) were collected at baseline, 4 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. At 4 weeks post-intervention, intent-to-treat multilevel longitudinal models showed that regardless of referral group (mandated or volunteer) BASICS significantly decreased weekly drinking, typical drinks, and peak drinks relative to controls (ds = .41-.92). BASICS had a large effect on decreases in alcohol problems (d = .87). At 12 months post-intervention, BASICS participants (regardless of referral group) reported significantly fewer alcohol problems (d = .56) compared to controls. Significant long-term intervention gains for peak and typical drinks were sustained in both referral groups relative to controls (ds = .42; .11). Referral group had no significant main effect and did not interact with intervention condition to predict outcomes. Given that BASICS was associated with less drinking and fewer alcohol problems (even among heavier drinking mandated students up to one year post-intervention), provision of BASICS-style programs within disciplinary settings may help reduce heavy and problematic drinking among at-risk students. PMID:25844834

  1. College versus the real world: student perceptions and implications for understanding heavy drinking among college students.

    PubMed

    Colby, Suzanne M; Colby, John J; Raymond, George A

    2009-01-01

    College student heavy drinking is a persistent problem despite widespread initiatives. Using focus group methodology, this study examined student perceptions of factors that promote and limit drinking during and after college. The goal was to better understand factors that reduce drinking post-college to develop strategies to moderate college drinking. Twelve groups (N=75) were conducted with undergraduates at a northeastern Catholic college. Most participants drank; the majority exceeded a clinical indicator of problematic drinking. Transcript analysis identified themes that were coded with high reliability. Drinking in college was perceived to enhance socialization, bonding, and disinhibition. College, characterized by a high level of freedom and low level of responsibility, was seen as time-out from the "real world". In that context, heavy drinking was permissible. Students expected their future lifestyle to be burdensome and tedious; nostalgia for the good times associated with heavy drinking was anticipated. They imagined post-college drinking to be a threat to career and family and therefore irresponsible. Implications for intervention development and future research are described.

  2. Addressing Heavy Drinking in Smoking Cessation Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; LaChance, Heather R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Abrams, David B.; Monti, Peter M.; Brown, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol use frequently co-occurs with cigarette smoking and may impede smoking cessation. This clinical trial examined whether smoking cessation treatment that incorporates brief alcohol intervention can improve smoking cessation outcomes (7-day verified point prevalence abstinence) and reduce drinks consumed per week. Heavy drinkers seeking…

  3. Addressing Heavy Drinking in Smoking Cessation Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; LaChance, Heather R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Abrams, David B.; Monti, Peter M.; Brown, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol use frequently co-occurs with cigarette smoking and may impede smoking cessation. This clinical trial examined whether smoking cessation treatment that incorporates brief alcohol intervention can improve smoking cessation outcomes (7-day verified point prevalence abstinence) and reduce drinks consumed per week. Heavy drinkers seeking…

  4. Heavy Alcohol Drinking Associated Akathisia and Management with Quetiapine XR in Alcohol Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Heavy drinking contributes to involuntary body movements such as akathisia. Quetiapine has been shown to alleviate symptoms of akathisia; however, its efficacy in the alcohol dependent population is not well established. Thus, we aimed to identify efficacy of Quetiapine in treating akathisia in very heavy drinking alcohol dependent patients. 108 male and female heavy alcohol consuming study participants received 13 weeks of Quetiapine XR. Drinking history (Timeline Followback, TLFB), depression (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS), and movement (Barnes Akathisia Scale, BARS) measures were collected at baseline (0 W), week 6 (6 W), and week 12 (12 W). The role of drinking, symptoms of depression, and efficacy of Quetiapine for treating akathisia were assessed. In patients with no symptoms of depression (low MADRS), Quetiapine treatment decreased symptoms of akathisia. Patients with clinically significant depression (high MADRS) reported a significant increase in akathisia measures at 6 W which eventually decreased at 12 W to below baseline levels. The increase in akathisia at 6 W corresponded with a significant increase in the patients' total drinks and heavy drinking pattern. Treatment with Quetiapine progressively lowered the occurrence of akathisia in alcohol dependent patients who do not show symptoms of depression. Quetiapine treatment lowered akathisia over time in heavy drinkers who had clinically significant symptoms of depression. PMID:27847671

  5. Regulation Strategies Mediate Associations between Heavy Drinking and Relationship Outcomes in Married Couples

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Wickham, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Heavy drinking patterns during marriage can be problematic for both spouses and relationship. Moreover, spouses use different strategies in an attempt to change their partner’s drinking behavior, which can impact the relationship in different ways. The current research examined whether associations between heavy drinking and marital adjustment are mediated by partner regulation strategies (i.e., punishment and reward). Married couples (N=123 dyads) with at least one spouse who consumed alcohol regularly and at least one undergraduate spouse completed web-based assessments at baseline and three and six months later. Mediation hypotheses were tested using a repeated-measures version of the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. As predicted, a significant partner effect emerged suggesting that heavy drinking was associated with greater use of punishment strategies, which were in turn associated with diminished satisfaction. Another significant partner effect revealed that heavy drinking also predicted greater use of reward strategies, which were positively associated with satisfaction. However, the magnitude of the indirect effects via punishment were more than twice as large as the mediated effect via reward. Results underscore the importance of an interdependent, dyadic perspective in understanding associations between heavy drinking and marital outcomes as well as differences between punishing and rewarding regulation strategies in these associations. PMID:26722992

  6. Regulation strategies mediate associations between heavy drinking and relationship outcomes in married couples.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; DiBello, Angelo M; Wickham, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Heavy drinking patterns during marriage can be problematic for both spouses and the relationship. Moreover, spouses use different strategies in an attempt to change their partner's drinking behavior, which can impact the relationship in different ways. The current research examined whether associations between heavy drinking and marital adjustment are mediated by partner regulation strategies (i.e., punishment and reward). Married couples (N=123 dyads) with at least one spouse who consumed alcohol regularly and at least one undergraduate spouse completed web-based assessments at baseline and three and six months later. Mediation hypotheses were tested using a repeated-measures version of the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. As predicted, a significant partner effect emerged suggesting that heavy drinking was associated with greater use of punishment strategies, which were in turn associated with diminished satisfaction. Another significant partner effect revealed that heavy drinking also predicted greater use of reward strategies, which were positively associated with satisfaction. However, the magnitude of the indirect effects via punishment was more than twice as large as the mediated effect via reward. Results underscore the importance of an interdependent, dyadic perspective in understanding associations between heavy drinking and marital outcomes as well as differences between punishing and rewarding regulation strategies in these associations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Drinking Typography Established by Scheduled Induction Predicts Chronic Heavy Drinking in a Monkey Model of Ethanol Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Kathleen A.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Green, Heather L.; Szeliga, Kendall T.; Rogers, Laura S. M.; Gonzales, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Background We have developed an animal model of alcohol self-administration that initially employs schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) to establish reliable ethanol consumption under open access (22 h/d) conditions with food and water concurrently available. SIP is an adjunctive behavior that is generated by constraining access to an important commodity (e.g., flavored food). The induction schedule and ethanol polydipsia generated under these conditions affords the opportunity to investigate the development of drinking typologies that lead to chronic, excessive alcohol consumption. Methods Adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were induced to drink water and 4% (w/v in water) ethanol by a Fixed-Time 300 seconds (FT-300 seconds) schedule of banana-flavored pellet delivery. The FT-300 seconds schedule was in effect for 120 consecutive sessions, with daily induction doses increasing from 0.0 to 0.5 g/kg to 1.0 g/kg to 1.5 g/kg every 30 days. Following induction, the monkeys were allowed concurrent access to 4% (w/v) ethanol and water for 22 h/day for 12 months. Results Drinking typographies during the induction of drinking 1.5 g/kg ethanol emerged that were highly predictive of the daily ethanol intake over the next 12 months. Specifically, the frequency in which monkeys ingested 1.5 g/kg ethanol without a 5-minute lapse in drinking (defined as a bout of drinking) during induction strongly predicted (correlation 0.91) subsequent ethanol intake over the next 12 months of open access to ethanol. Blood ethanol during induction were highly correlated with intake and with drinking typography and ranged from 100 to 160 mg% when the monkeys drank their 1.5 g/kg dose in a single bout. Forty percent of the population became heavy drinkers (mean daily intakes >3.0 g/kg for 12 months) characterized by frequent “spree” drinking (intakes >4.0 g/kg/d). Conclusion This model of ethanol self-administration identifies early alcohol drinking typographies (gulping the

  8. Drinking typography established by scheduled induction predicts chronic heavy drinking in a monkey model of ethanol self-administration.

    PubMed

    Grant, Kathleen A; Leng, Xiaoyan; Green, Heather L; Szeliga, Kendall T; Rogers, Laura S M; Gonzales, Steven W

    2008-10-01

    We have developed an animal model of alcohol self-administration that initially employs schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) to establish reliable ethanol consumption under open access (22 h/d) conditions with food and water concurrently available. SIP is an adjunctive behavior that is generated by constraining access to an important commodity (e.g., flavored food). The induction schedule and ethanol polydipsia generated under these conditions affords the opportunity to investigate the development of drinking typologies that lead to chronic, excessive alcohol consumption. Adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were induced to drink water and 4% (w/v in water) ethanol by a Fixed-Time 300 seconds (FT-300 seconds) schedule of banana-flavored pellet delivery. The FT-300 seconds schedule was in effect for 120 consecutive sessions, with daily induction doses increasing from 0.0 to 0.5 g/kg to 1.0 g/kg to 1.5 g/kg every 30 days. Following induction, the monkeys were allowed concurrent access to 4% (w/v) ethanol and water for 22 h/day for 12 months. Drinking typographies during the induction of drinking 1.5 g/kg ethanol emerged that were highly predictive of the daily ethanol intake over the next 12 months. Specifically, the frequency in which monkeys ingested 1.5 g/kg ethanol without a 5-minute lapse in drinking (defined as a bout of drinking) during induction strongly predicted (correlation 0.91) subsequent ethanol intake over the next 12 months of open access to ethanol. Blood ethanol during induction were highly correlated with intake and with drinking typography and ranged from 100 to 160 mg% when the monkeys drank their 1.5 g/kg dose in a single bout. Forty percent of the population became heavy drinkers (mean daily intakes >3.0 g/kg for 12 months) characterized by frequent "spree" drinking (intakes >4.0 g/kg/d). This model of ethanol self-administration identifies early alcohol drinking typographies (gulping the equivalent of 6 drinks) that evolve into

  9. Drinking motives moderate the impact of pre-drinking on heavy drinking on a given evening and related adverse consequences--an event-level study.

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Labhart, Florian

    2013-10-01

    To test whether (i) drinking motives predict the frequency of pre-drinking (i.e. alcohol consumption before going out); (ii) drinking motives predict HDGE (heavy drinking on a given evening: 4+ for women, 5+ for men) and related adverse consequences (hangover, injuries, blackouts, etc.), even when pre-drinking is accounted for, and (iii) drinking motives moderate the impact of pre-drinking on HDGE and consequences. Using the internet-based cellphone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT), participants completed a series of cellphone questionnaires every Thursday, Friday and Saturday evening over 5 weeks. French-speaking Switzerland. A total of 183 young adults [53% female, mean age (standard deviation) = 23.1 (3.1)] who completed 7828 questionnaires on 1441 evenings. Drinking motives assessed at baseline, alcohol consumption assessed at 8 p.m., 9 p.m., 10 p.m., 11 p.m. and midnight and consequences assessed at 11 a.m. the next day. Gender-separate multi-level models revealed that pre-drinking predicted HDGE (men: B = 2.17, P < 0.001; women: B = 2.12, P < 0.001) and alcohol-related consequences (men: B = 0.24, P < 0.01; women: B = 0.29, P < 0.001). Enhancement motives were found to predict HDGE (B = 0.48, P < 0.05) and related consequences (B = 0.09, P < 0.05) among men, while among women coping motives had the same effect (HDGE: B = 0.73, P < 0.001; consequences: B = 0.13, P < 0.01). With the exception of conformity motives among women (B = 0.54, P < 0.05), however, no drinking motive dimension predicted the frequency of pre-drinking, while coping and conformity motives moderated the impact of pre-drinking on HDGE (men, conformity: B = -1.57, P < 0.05) and its consequences (men, coping: B = -0.46, P < 0.01; women, coping: B = 0.76, P < 0.05). Among young adults in Switzerland, heavy weekend drinking and the related consequences seem to result from the combination of pre-drinking, level of negative reinforcement drinking for women and positive reinforcement

  10. Frequency of heavy alcohol drinking and risk of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2014-06-01

    Frequency of alcohol drinking is known to influence cardiovascular risk. However, little is known regarding the relationship between frequency of drinking and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to determine how frequency of heavy drinking modifies the prevalence of MetS. The subjects were middle-aged male nondrinkers and occasional or regular heavy drinkers (ethanol intake: ≥66 g per drinking day). Odds ratios (ORs) for MetS and each component comprising MetS were calculated with adjustment for age and histories of smoking and regular exercise. ORs versus nondrinkers for MetS defined by the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) or the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) were significantly higher than the reference level of 1.00 in occasional heavy drinkers (NCEP-ATP III, 1.94 [confidence interval (CI): 1.54 to 2.45]; IDF, 1.97 [CI: 1.56 to 2.49]) and regular heavy drinkers (NCEP-ATP III, 1.48 [CI: 1.19 to 1.84]; IDF, 1.50 [CI: 1.20 to 1.86]). When compared with the reference level, OR versus nondrinkers for large waist circumference was significantly higher in occasional heavy drinkers (1.96 [CI: 1.63 to 2.35]), but not in regular heavy drinkers (1.12 [CI: 0.96 to 1.32]), while OR versus nondrinkers for hyperglycemia was significantly lower in regular heavy drinkers (0.66 [CI: 0.46 to 0.95]), but not in occasional heavy drinkers (0.86 [CI: 0.60 to 1.24]). There is a positive association between heavy drinking and MetS, which is stronger in occasional drinkers than in regular drinkers. This difference may be explained by a positive association between occasional heavy drinking and central obesity and an inverse association between regular heavy drinking and hyperglycemia. The results suggest that heavy drinking, even if occasionally, is a cardiovascular risk factor. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. Heavy-Drinking Smokers’ Treatment Needs and Preferences: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Fucito, Lisa M.; Hanrahan, Tess H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to describe the smoking and psychological characteristics of heavy-drinking smokers, their perceptions of smoking and drinking, and their smoking and alcohol treatment preferences to inform an integrated smoking and alcohol intervention. Heavy-drinking smokers (N = 26) completed standardized surveys and participated in semi-structured focus group interviews. Participants reported a strong association between their smoking and drinking. Participants were more motivated to quit smoking than to reduce their drinking but perceived greater barriers to smoking cessation. Stress/negative affect was closely linked with both behaviors. They expressed overall enthusiasm for a smoking and alcohol intervention but had specific format and content preferences. Half preferred an integrated treatment format whereas others preferred a sequential treatment model. The most preferred content included personalized health feedback and a way to monitor health gains after behavior changes. PMID:26297324

  12. Using Sleep Interventions to Engage and Treat Heavy-Drinking College Students: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Fucito, Lisa M; DeMartini, Kelly S; Hanrahan, Tess H; Yaggi, Henry Klar; Heffern, Christina; Redeker, Nancy S

    2017-04-01

    Continued high alcohol consumption levels by college students highlight the need for more effective alcohol interventions and novel treatment engagement strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate a behavioral sleep intervention as a means to engage heavy-drinking college students in treatment and reduce alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Heavy-drinking college students (N = 42) were assigned to 1 of 2 web-based interventions comprised of 4 modules delivered over 4 weeks. The experimental intervention focused primarily on sleep and included evidence-based sleep content (i.e., stimulus control instructions, sleep scheduling [consistent bed/rise times; ideal sleep duration for adolescents/young adults], sleep hygiene advice, relaxation training, cognitive strategies to target sleep-disruptive beliefs), and alcohol content (i.e., normative and blood alcohol level feedback, moderate drinking guidelines, controlled drinking strategies, effects of alcohol on sleep and the body, advice to moderate drinking for improved sleep) in young adults. The control condition Healthy Behaviors provided basic advice about nutrition, exercise, sleep (i.e., good sleep hygiene only), and drinking (i.e., effects of alcohol on the body, moderate drinking guidelines, advice to moderate drinking for sleep). Participants in both conditions monitored their sleep using daily web-based diaries and a wrist-worn sleep tracker. Recruitment ads targeting college students with sleep concerns effectively identified heavy-drinking students. The program generated a high number of inquiries and treatment completion rates were high. Both interventions significantly reduced typical week drinking and alcohol-related consequences and improved sleep quality and sleep-related impairment ratings. The control condition yielded greater reductions in total drinks in a heaviest drinking week. The effects on drinking were larger than those observed in typical brief alcohol intervention

  13. [Drinking/smoking habits and knowledge regarding heavy drinking/ smoking as a risk factor of stroke among Japanese general population].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Akiko; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Okamura, Tomonori; Nakayama, Hirohumi; Morinaga, Miho; Toyota, Akihiro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Hata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    2010-10-01

    We examined the knowledge regarding heavy drinking and smoking as risk factors of stroke according to drinking/smoking habits among randomly selected Japanese general population. The Japan Stroke Association and co-researchers have performed a large-scale educational intervention to improve knowledge concerning stroke from 2006 to 2008. Prior to above-mentioned intervention, we conducted mail-surveillance on knowledge about stroke in 11,306 randomly selected residents aged 40 to 74. We assessed the relationship between drinking/smoking habits and knowledge regarding heavy drinking and smoking as risk factors by using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, area, employment, living situation, history of stroke and other stroke related diseases, history of liver disease, family history of stroke and drinking (non-drinker / ex-drinker / occasional drinker / habitual drinker) / smoking habits (non-smoker / ex-smoker / current smoker). Total 5,540 subjects (49.0%) participated in this study. Ex-smokers and current smokers had better knowledge regarding smoking as a risk factor of stroke than non-smokers (odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals: 1.89, 1.55-2.31, 1.76, 1.45-2.12, respectively). There was no difference between habitual drinkers and non-drinkers in their knowledge, whereas current smokers had greater knowledge regarding smoking than nonsmokers. Accordingly, it is suggested that it will be necessary for habitual drinkers to be enlightened regarding heavy drinking as a risk factor of stroke and for current smokers to be provided with information regarding not only these risks but also the specific strategies for invoking behavioral changes.

  14. The road to drink is paved with high intentions: Expectancies, refusal self-efficacy, and intentions among heavy drinking college students

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Dukes, Kristin; Sartor, Carolyn E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study examined the effects of drinking intentions (DI) on alcohol expectancies (AE) and drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) in regards to alcohol consumption among heavy drinking undergraduates. Research shows that DRSE buffers against drinking (Young et al., 2007) and interacts with AE to predict alcohol consumption (Oei & Burrow, 2000). Studies further show that DI is predicted by DRSE (Norman, 2011) and AE (Fleming et al., 2004). However, additional research is needed to understand DI’s influence on both DRSE and AE among heavy college drinkers. Method This research included 344 heavy drinking college students (M age = 23.06, SD = 5.61, 74.71% female) from a large southern university who completed study material as part of a larger intervention. Results Findings showed that DI, DRSE, and AE interacted with respect to heavy drinking such that DRSE was negatively associated with alcohol consumption, particularly among those low in positive AE and high in negative AE. This relationship was stronger among individuals low in DI relative to those high in DI. Discussion DI seems to be an important factor influencing heavy drinking among undergraduate students. Present findings further support DI’s associations with heavy drinking, regardless of an individual’s DRSE or AE. Implications of this research suggest that it may be beneficial for interventions to target specific aspects of AE, including anxious drinking. PMID:26810041

  15. Heavy Drinking in University Students With and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Contributions of Drinking Motives and Protective Behavioral Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Andrea L; Pritchard, Tyler R

    2017-01-01

    This study examined rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems in relation to drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies in university students with a documented current diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 31) compared with students with no history of ADHD (n = 146). Participants completed a Web-based questionnaire, and logistic regression models tested interactions between ADHD/comparison group membership and motives and protective strategies. Group differences in rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems were not statistically significant, but medium-sized risk ratios showed that students without ADHD reported heavy drinking at a rate 1.44 times higher than students with ADHD and met screening criteria for problematic alcohol use at a rate of 1.54 times higher than students with ADHD. Other key findings were, first, that drinking to enhance positive affect (e.g., drinking because it is exciting), but not to cope with negative affect (e.g., drinking to forget your worries), predicted both heavy drinking and alcohol problems. Second, only protective behavioral strategies that emphasize alcohol avoidance predicted both heavy drinking and alcohol problems. Contrary to expectations, we found no ADHD-related moderation of effects of motives or protective strategies on our alcohol outcomes. Results of this study are limited by the small sample of students with ADHD but highlight tentative similarities and differences in effects of motives and strategies on drinking behaviors and alcohol problems reported by students with and without ADHD. PMID:28814878

  16. Off-Campus Residence as a Risk Factor for Heavy Drinking Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Benz, Madeline B; DiBello, Angelo M; Balestrieri, Sara G; Miller, Mary Beth; Merrill, Jennifer E; Lowery, Ashley D; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Carey, Kate B

    2017-07-29

    College student alcohol use is a public health problem. The aim of this study was to examine associations between residence and drinking behaviors among college students. We hypothesized that living off-campus independently or with peers would be associated with riskier drinking than living on-campus, and living with parents would be associated with less risky drinking than living on-campus. We analyzed data from two separate studies conducted at two four-year universities in the Northeast. Study 1 examined data from 1286 students (57% female) attending a private university. In Study 2, analyses were replicated and extended with 2408 students (67% female) from a public university. We conducted regression analyses that controlled for age, race, gender, and class year to determine the unique association of residence on typical and peak drinking, frequency of heavy drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. In both samples, students living off-campus without parents reported more frequent alcohol consumption, larger drinking quantities, more frequent heavy drinking, and a greater number of alcohol-related consequences than students living on-campus (ps <.001). In Study 2, students living off-campus with their parents exhibited significantly fewer risky drinking behaviors than those living on-campus (ps <.001). Living off-campus - either independently or with peers - is a risk factor for heavy drinking and consequences. This group exhibits more risky drinking behaviors and alcohol-related consequences than students living on-campus, independent of age and class year. Therefore, students moving off-campus may be appropriate targets for alcohol misuse prevention programs.

  17. Associations between heavy alcohol drinking and lipid-related indices in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2013-12-01

    The ratio of triglycerides to HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C ratio) and lipid accumulation product (LAP: a continuous marker of lipid over-accumulation determined by waist circumference and triglycerides) have been proposed to be good predictors of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between heavy alcohol drinking and lipid-related indices including TG/HDL-C ratio, LAP, and ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C ratio). The subjects were middle-aged male nondrinkers and heavy drinkers (ethanol intake: ≥66 g per drinking day, which is 2-3 times or more than the generally recommended border level of daily alcohol consumption of 20-30 g). The levels of each lipid-related index after adjustment for age, smoking, and regular exercise were compared among nondrinkers, occasional heavy drinkers, and regular heavy drinkers. Log-transformed TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly higher in occasional heavy drinkers (mean ± standard error: 0.445 ± 0.014) than in nondrinkers (0.388 ± 0.004) and regular heavy drinkers (0.359 ± 0.013), and was not significantly different in nondrinkers and regular heavy drinkers. Log-transformed LAP was significantly higher in occasional heavy drinkers (1.51 ± 0.02) and regular heavy drinkers (1.44 ± 0.02) than in nondrinkers (1.34 ± 0.01), and was significantly higher in occasional heavy drinkers than in regular heavy drinkers. LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was significantly lower in occasional heavy drinkers (2.41 ± 0.04) and regular heavy drinkers (1.72 ± 0.04) than in nondrinkers (2.62 ± 0.01) and was significantly lower in regular heavy drinkers than in occasional heavy drinkers. Results of logistic regression analysis, using odds ratios for high lipid indices of occasional or regular heavy drinkers vs. nondrinkers, agreed with the above results of analysis of covariance. Occasional heavy drinkers showed more detrimental and less favorable levels of the lipid indices than did regular heavy

  18. Longitudinal prediction of early childhood discipline styles among heavy drinking parents.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ellen P; Homish, Gregory G; Eiden, Rina D; Grohman, Kerry K; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of parenting trajectories in a sample of heavy drinking and abstaining/light drinking parents. Mixture modeling was used to estimate trajectories of parental discipline styles over time. Two dimensions of parenting were examined: laxness and overreactivity. Changes in these dimensions were examined for each parent. Trajectories for mothers and fathers were very similar and were generally stable from 18 months to 5-6 years child age. Fathers' binge drinking was associated with high levels of both paternal and maternal overreactivity. Mothers with depressed affect had the highest levels of overreactivity, whereas fathers reporting depressed affect were more likely to have moderate levels of laxness. Mothers with high levels of marital satisfaction were more likely to have partners in the stable low overreactivity group. Findings begin to elucidate the nature of early family processes that may contribute to maladaptive child outcomes in heavy drinking families.

  19. Which Heavy Drinking College Students Benefit from a Brief Motivational Intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Kate B.; Henson, James M.; Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy drinking among college students is common and is often harmful. A previously reported randomized trial revealed that a brief motivational intervention (BMI) reduced the alcohol consumption of heavy drinking college students (Carey, Carey, Maisto, & Henson, 2006). For this study, we conducted supplemental analyses of hypothesized predictors of change using the same sample (N = 495). Greater readiness-to-change, higher levels of self-regulation, and less engagement in social comparison all independently predicted reductions in drinking outcomes. Furthermore, self-regulation, social comparison, and future time perspective interacted with BMI and predicted drinks per week. As expected, greater self-regulation skills enhanced response to the BMI; the remaining interaction effects were unexpected. Overall, these findings suggest that BMIs produce relatively robust effects. PMID:17663621

  20. Predictors of Abstinence from Heavy Drinking During Treatment in COMBINE and External Validation in PREDICT

    PubMed Central

    Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Wu, Ran; O'Connor, Patrick G; Weisner, Constance; Fucito, Lisa M.; Hoffmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Background The goal of the current study was to use tree-based methods (Zhang and Singer, 2010) to identify predictors of abstinence from heavy drinking in COMBINE (Anton et al., 2006), the largest study of pharmacotherapy for alcoholism in the United States to date, and to validate these results in PREDICT (Mann et al., 2012), a parallel study conducted in Germany. Methods We compared a classification tree constructed according to purely statistical criteria to a tree constructed according to a combination of statistical criteria and clinical considerations for prediction of no heavy drinking during treatment in COMBINE. We considered over one-hundred baseline predictors. The tree approach was compared to logistic regression. The trees and a deterministic forest identified the most important predictors of no heavy drinking for direct testing in PREDICT. Results The tree built using both clinical and statistical considerations consisted of four splits based on consecutive days of abstinence (CDA) prior to randomization, age, family history of alcoholism (FHAlc) and confidence to resist drinking in response to withdrawal and urges. The tree based on statistical considerations with four splits also split on CDA and age but also on GGT level and drinking goal. Deterministic forest identified CDA, age and drinking goal as the most important predictors. Backward elimination logistic regression among the top 18 predictors identified in the deterministic forest analyses identified only age and CDA as significant main effects. Longer CDA and goal of complete abstinence were associated with better outcomes in both data sets. Conclusions The most reliable predictors of abstinence from heavy drinking were CDA and drinking goal. Trees provide binary decision rules and straightforward graphical representations for identification of subgroups based on response and may be easier to implement in clinical settings. PMID:25346505

  1. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  2. Tobacco Use by College Students: A Comparison of Daily and Nondaily Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Berg, Carla J.; Champion, Heather; Helme, Donald W.; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore demographics, contextual factors, and health risk behaviors associated with nondaily smoking by college students. Methods: In fall 2005, a random sample of 4100 students completed an online survey. Results: Of those surveyed, 29% reported current smoking; of that 29%, 70% were nondaily smokers. Compared to daily smokers,…

  3. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  4. Suppression of heavy drinking and alcohol seeking by a selective ALDH-2 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Arolfo, Maria P; Overstreet, David H; Yao, Lina; Fan, Peidong; Lawrence, Andrew J; Tao, Guoxin; Keung, Wing-Ming; Vallee, Bert L; Olive, M Foster; Gass, Justin T; Rubin, Emanuel; Anni, Helen; Hodge, Clyde W; Besheer, Joyce; Zablocki, Jeff; Leung, Kwan; Blackburn, Brent K; Lange, Louis G; Diamond, Ivan

    2009-11-01

    Inherited human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2) deficiency reduces the risk for alcoholism. Kudzu plants and extracts have been used for 1,000 years in traditional Chinese medicine to treat alcoholism. Kudzu contains daidzin, which inhibits ALDH-2 and suppresses heavy drinking in rodents. Decreased drinking due to ALDH-2 inhibition is attributed to aversive properties of acetaldehyde accumulated during alcohol consumption. However, daidzin can reduce drinking in some rodents without necessarily increasing acetaldehyde. Therefore, a selective ALDH-2 inhibitor might affect other metabolic factors involved in regulating drinking. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 inhibitors were synthesized based on the co-crystal structure of ALDH-2 and daidzin. We tested the efficacy of a highly selective reversible ALDH-2 inhibitor, CVT-10216, in models of moderate and high alcohol drinking rats. We studied 2-bottle choice and deprivation-induced drinking paradigms in Fawn Hooded (FH) rats, operant self-administration in Long Evans (LE), FH, and inbred P (iP) rats and in cue-induced reinstatement in iP rats. We also assayed blood acetaldehyde levels as well as dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and tested possible rewarding/aversive effects of the inhibitor in a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. CVT-10216 increases acetaldehyde after alcohol gavage and inhibits 2-bottle choice alcohol intake in heavy drinking rodents, including deprivation-induced drinking. Moreover, CVT-10216 also prevents operant self-administration and eliminates cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking even when alcohol is not available (i.e., no acetaldehyde). Alcohol stimulates DA release in the NAc, which is thought to contribute to increased drinking and relapse in alcoholism. CVT-10216 prevents alcohol-induced increases in NAc DA without changing basal levels. CVT-10216 does not show rewarding or aversive properties in the CPP paradigm at therapeutic doses. Our findings suggest

  5. Orbitofrontal Neuroadaptations and Cross-Species Synaptic Biomarkers in Heavy-Drinking Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Uys, Joachim D.; Woodward, John J.; Randall, Patrick K.; Ball, Lauren E.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairments, uncontrolled drinking, and neuropathological cortical changes characterize alcohol use disorder. Dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a critical cortical subregion that controls learning, decision-making, and prediction of reward outcomes, contributes to executive cognitive function deficits in alcoholic individuals. Electrophysiological and quantitative synaptomics techniques were used to test the hypothesis that heavy drinking produces neuroadaptations in the macaque OFC. Integrative bioinformatics and reverse genetic approaches were used to identify and validate synaptic proteins with novel links to heavy drinking in BXD mice. In drinking monkeys, evoked firing of OFC pyramidal neurons was reduced, whereas the amplitude and frequency of postsynaptic currents were enhanced compared with controls. Bath application of alcohol reduced evoked firing in neurons from control monkeys, but not drinking monkeys. Profiling of the OFC synaptome identified alcohol-sensitive proteins that control glutamate release (e.g., SV2A, synaptogyrin-1) and postsynaptic signaling (e.g., GluA1, PRRT2) with no changes in synaptic GABAergic proteins. Western blot analysis confirmed the increase in GluA1 expression in drinking monkeys. An exploratory analysis of the OFC synaptome found cross-species genetic links to alcohol intake in discrete proteins (e.g., C2CD2L, DIRAS2) that discriminated between low- and heavy-drinking monkeys. Validation studies revealed that BXD mouse strains with the D allele at the C2cd2l interval drank less alcohol than B allele strains. Thus, by profiling of the OFC synaptome, we identified changes in proteins controlling glutamate release and postsynaptic signaling and discovered several proteins related to heavy drinking that have potential as novel targets for treating alcohol use disorder. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Clinical research identified cognitive deficits in alcoholic individuals as a risk factor for relapse, and alcoholic

  6. Does our legal minimum drinking age modulate risk of first heavy drinking episode soon after drinking onset? Epidemiological evidence for the United States, 2006-2014.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hui G; Anthony, James C

    2016-01-01

    Background. State-level 'age 21' drinking laws conform generally with the United States National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 (US), and are thought to protect young people from adverse drinking experiences such as heavy episodic drinking (HED, sometimes called 'binge drinking'). We shed light on this hypothesis while estimating the age-specific risk of transitioning from 1st full drink to 1st HED among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, with challenge to a "gender gap" hypothesis and male excess described in HED prevalence reports. Methods. The study population consisted of non-institutionalized civilians in the United States, with nine independently drawn nationally representative samples of more than 40,000 12-to-23-year-olds (2006-2014). Standardized audio computer-assisted self-interviews identified 43,000 newly incident drinkers (all with 1st HED evaluated within 12 months of drinking onset). Estimated age-specific HED risk soon after first full drink is evaluated for males and females. Results. Among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, an estimated 20-30% of females and 35-45% of males experienced their 1st HED within 12 months after drinking onset. Before mid-adolescence, there is no male excess in such HED risk. Those who postponed drinking to age 21 are not spared (27% for 'postponer' females; 95% CI [24-30]; 42% for 'postponer' males; 95% CI [38-45]). An estimated 10-18% females and 10-28% males experienced their 1st HED in the same month of their 1st drink; peak HED risk estimates are 18% for 'postponer' females (95% CI [15-21]) and 28% for 'postponer' males (95% CI [24-31]). Conclusions. In the US, one in three young new drinkers transition into HED within 12 months after first drink. Those who postpone the 1st full drink until age 21 are not protected. Furthermore, 'postponers' have substantial risk for very rapid transition to HED. A male excess in this transition to HED is not observed until after age 14.

  7. A LATENT PROFILE ANALYSIS OF DRINKING MOTIVES AMONG HEAVY DRINKING COLLEGE STUDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Martens, Matthew P.; Herman, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Positively (Enhancement and Social) and negatively (Coping) reinforcing drinking motives have been shown to be associated with alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Although prior studies of drinking motives have mostly consisted of variable-centered analyses, the current study used a person-centered approach where individuals were grouped into categories based on shared characteristics using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA). We investigated the utility of drinking motive profiles to determine how different profiles were associated with alcohol outcomes and depressive symptoms. Method Participants were 648 undergraduate students who had violated a university alcohol policy and who endorsed consuming alcohol in the past month. Social, Coping, and Enhancement subscales from the Drinking Motives Questionnaire were used as indicators. Results After examining one-through-eight class LPA solutions, the six-class solution provided the best empirical and clinically meaningful fit to the data. Classes with high coping and high positive reinforcing drinking motives consumed more alcohol than profiles of students with high coping and low positive reinforcing motives. Classes high on both coping and positively reinforcing motives reported the most alcohol related problems. Classes with higher levels of coping motives and either high or low positive reinforcing motives reported the highest depression symptoms. Conclusions Drinking motive profiles differ in terms of alcohol outcomes and depressive symptoms. We encourage researchers to explore motives for drinking with individuals, especially assessing the relationship between coping motives and depression in the presence or absence of positively reinforcing motives. PMID:26253937

  8. NMDA receptor antagonism has differential effects on alcohol craving and drinking in heavy drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Franco, Nicholas; Cavallo, Dana A.; Morean, Meghan; Shi, Julia; Pittman, Brian; Krystal, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist, memantine (0, 20, 40 mg/day), upon alcohol drinking and craving in heavy drinkers with or without a family history (FH) of alcoholism, and to explore the modulatory influence of the presence of impulsivity on these outcomes. Methods Ninety-two, non-treatment-seeking, heavy drinkers received memantine or placebo for eight days. On the eighth day, they received a priming dose of ethanol followed by a three-hour period of alcohol access. Results Memantine at a dose of 20 mg reduced alcohol craving but did not influence alcohol drinking. No effects of FH were observed. In participants with higher baseline levels of impulsivity, 40 mg of memantine reduced alcohol craving but increased alcohol drinking and alcohol-induced stimulation. Conclusions NMDA receptor signaling may play divergent roles in mediating alcohol cue-induced craving and alcohol drinking in heavy drinkers. The potential efficacy of memantine as monotherapy for alcohol use disorders may be limited by its tendency to disinhibit drinking in some individuals. PMID:25664775

  9. Optimizing a Text Message Intervention to Reduce Heavy Drinking in Young Adults: Focus Group Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kristan, Jeffrey; Person Mecca, Laurel; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent trial results show that an interactive short message service (SMS) text message intervention, Texting to Reduce Alcohol Consumption (TRAC), is effective in reducing heavy drinking in non-treatment-seeking young adults, but may not be optimized. Objective To assess the usability of the TRAC intervention among young adults in an effort to optimize future intervention design. Methods We conducted five focus groups with 18 young adults, aged 18-25 years, who had a history of heavy drinking and had been randomized to 12 weeks of the TRAC intervention as part of a clinical trial. A trained moderator followed a semistructured interview guide. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed to identify themes. Results We identified four themes regarding user experiences with the TRAC intervention: (1) ease of use, (2) comfort and confidentiality, (3) increased awareness of drinking behavior, and (4) accountability for drinking behavior. Participants’ comments supported the existing features of the TRAC intervention, as well as the addition of other features to increase personalization and continuing engagement with the intervention. Conclusions Young adults perceived the TRAC intervention as a useful way to help them reduce heavy drinking on weekends. Components that promote ease of use, ensure confidentiality, increase awareness of alcohol consumption, and increase accountability were seen as important. PMID:27335099

  10. Different Forms of Spirituality and Heavy Episodic Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Brian J.; Grekin, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined prospective, bidirectional relationships between 3 measures of spirituality (Daily Spiritual Experiences, Positive Religious Coping, and Negative Religious Coping) and frequency of heavy episodic drinking. Participants: Three hundred ninety-one students attending a large, public university in the Midwest.…

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life among Heavy-Drinking College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Christopher J.; Bracken-Minor, Katherine L.; McCausland, Claudia M.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Murphy, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine unique contributions of depression, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences on functional health outcomes in college students. Methods: Participants were heavy-drinking undergraduate students (N = 207) who completed self-report questionnaires. Results: For men and women, depression predicted overall general…

  12. Electronic Cigarette Use among College Students: Links to Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Smoking, and Heavy Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Andrew K.; Gottlieb, Joshua C.; Cohen, Lee M.; Trotter, David R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use continues to rise, and current data regarding use of e-cigarettes among college students are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine e-cigarette use and the relation of such use with gender, race/ethnicity, traditional tobacco use, and heavy drinking. Participants and Methods: A sample of…

  13. Unintended Effects of an Intervention Supporting Mexican-Heritage Youth: Decreased Parent Heavy Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Baldwin, Adrienne; Ayers, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of a parenting intervention, Familias: Preparando la Nueva Generación (FPNG), intended to support children, on parents heavy drinking. We hypothesized that parent participants of FPNG would reduce their heavy drinking at 1-year follow-up. Methods Parents (N = 281) of middle school children from a large, low-income metropolitan area in the Southwest United States participated in a randomized control trial over 2 years. Results A logistic regression analysis using the maximum likelihood test determined that at Wave 3, parents receiving FPNG reduced heavy drinking behaviors compared to parents in the youth-only condition (odds ratio = .86, p < .05). Conclusions Participating in the parenting program can effectively curb heavy drinking behaviors in parents—an important mechanism through which one may expect changes in youth risk behavior. The practice, policy, and research implications of these unintended findings are promising to the overall effectiveness of a parenting intervention for Mexican-heritage families. PMID:25755619

  14. Maternal Depressive Symptoms as a Predictor of Alcohol Use Onset and Heavy Episodic Drinking in Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study addressed a gap in the literature by investigating the association between maternal depressive symptoms and subsequent timing of their children's alcohol use onset and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Childhood depression/dysthymia symptoms, harsh discipline, and parental positive regard were examined as potential…

  15. Longitudinal Associations between Fathers' Heavy Drinking Patterns and Children's Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; O'Farrell, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in children of alcoholics (N = 114) was examined in the year before and at three follow-ups in the 15 months after their alcoholic fathers entered alcoholism treatment, testing the hypothesis that children's adjustment problems will vary over time as a function of their fathers' heavy drinking patterns. Three unique…

  16. College Students' Early Cessation from Episodic Heavy Drinking: Prevalence and Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinman, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    The author surveyed 788 undergraduates at a large public university (overall response rate 54%) to (1) estimate the proportion of college students who cease engaging in a pattern of episodic heavy drinking (EHD) and (2) identify individual and contextual factors associated with early cessation. He used a staging algorithm to classify respondents…

  17. Electronic Cigarette Use among College Students: Links to Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Smoking, and Heavy Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Andrew K.; Gottlieb, Joshua C.; Cohen, Lee M.; Trotter, David R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use continues to rise, and current data regarding use of e-cigarettes among college students are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine e-cigarette use and the relation of such use with gender, race/ethnicity, traditional tobacco use, and heavy drinking. Participants and Methods: A sample of…

  18. Condom Use in Heavy Drinking College Students: The Importance of Always Using Condoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Certain, Heather E.; Harahan, Brian J.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Fleming, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined whether alcohol use decreased condom use. Participants: The subjects were heavy-drinking students on 5 different college campuses. Methods: A face-to-face interview, administered between November of 2004 and February of 2007, gathered information about condom use, alcohol use, and other behaviors. Multivariate…

  19. Different Forms of Spirituality and Heavy Episodic Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Brian J.; Grekin, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined prospective, bidirectional relationships between 3 measures of spirituality (Daily Spiritual Experiences, Positive Religious Coping, and Negative Religious Coping) and frequency of heavy episodic drinking. Participants: Three hundred ninety-one students attending a large, public university in the Midwest.…

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life among Heavy-Drinking College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Christopher J.; Bracken-Minor, Katherine L.; McCausland, Claudia M.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Murphy, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine unique contributions of depression, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences on functional health outcomes in college students. Methods: Participants were heavy-drinking undergraduate students (N = 207) who completed self-report questionnaires. Results: For men and women, depression predicted overall general…

  1. Maternal Depressive Symptoms as a Predictor of Alcohol Use Onset and Heavy Episodic Drinking in Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study addressed a gap in the literature by investigating the association between maternal depressive symptoms and subsequent timing of their children's alcohol use onset and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Childhood depression/dysthymia symptoms, harsh discipline, and parental positive regard were examined as potential…

  2. Longitudinal Associations between Fathers' Heavy Drinking Patterns and Children's Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; O'Farrell, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in children of alcoholics (N = 114) was examined in the year before and at three follow-ups in the 15 months after their alcoholic fathers entered alcoholism treatment, testing the hypothesis that children's adjustment problems will vary over time as a function of their fathers' heavy drinking patterns. Three unique…

  3. A Randomized Trial of Motivational Interviewing and Feedback with Heavy Drinking College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juarez, Patricia; Walters, Scott T.; Daugherty, Mikyta; Radi, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a brief intervention that has been shown to reduce heavy drinking among college students. Because all college studies of MI to date have included a personalized feedback report, it remains unclear which of the components is necessary to produce behavior change. This study evaluated the separate and collective…

  4. Condom Use in Heavy Drinking College Students: The Importance of Always Using Condoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Certain, Heather E.; Harahan, Brian J.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Fleming, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined whether alcohol use decreased condom use. Participants: The subjects were heavy-drinking students on 5 different college campuses. Methods: A face-to-face interview, administered between November of 2004 and February of 2007, gathered information about condom use, alcohol use, and other behaviors. Multivariate…

  5. A Randomized Trial of Motivational Interviewing and Feedback with Heavy Drinking College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juarez, Patricia; Walters, Scott T.; Daugherty, Mikyta; Radi, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a brief intervention that has been shown to reduce heavy drinking among college students. Because all college studies of MI to date have included a personalized feedback report, it remains unclear which of the components is necessary to produce behavior change. This study evaluated the separate and collective…

  6. Does our legal minimum drinking age modulate risk of first heavy drinking episode soon after drinking onset? Epidemiological evidence for the United States, 2006–2014

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hui G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. State-level ‘age 21’ drinking laws conform generally with the United States National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 (US), and are thought to protect young people from adverse drinking experiences such as heavy episodic drinking (HED, sometimes called ‘binge drinking’). We shed light on this hypothesis while estimating the age-specific risk of transitioning from 1st full drink to 1st HED among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, with challenge to a “gender gap” hypothesis and male excess described in HED prevalence reports. Methods. The study population consisted of non-institutionalized civilians in the United States, with nine independently drawn nationally representative samples of more than 40,000 12-to-23-year-olds (2006–2014). Standardized audio computer-assisted self-interviews identified 43,000 newly incident drinkers (all with 1st HED evaluated within 12 months of drinking onset). Estimated age-specific HED risk soon after first full drink is evaluated for males and females. Results. Among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, an estimated 20–30% of females and 35–45% of males experienced their 1st HED within 12 months after drinking onset. Before mid-adolescence, there is no male excess in such HED risk. Those who postponed drinking to age 21 are not spared (27% for ‘postponer’ females; 95% CI [24–30]; 42% for ‘postponer’ males; 95% CI [38–45]). An estimated 10–18% females and 10–28% males experienced their 1st HED in the same month of their 1st drink; peak HED risk estimates are 18% for ‘postponer’ females (95% CI [15–21]) and 28% for ‘postponer’ males (95% CI [24–31]). Conclusions. In the US, one in three young new drinkers transition into HED within 12 months after first drink. Those who postpone the 1st full drink until age 21 are not protected. Furthermore, ‘postponers’ have substantial risk for very rapid transition to HED. A male excess in this transition to HED is not

  7. Trajectory classes of heavy episodic drinking among Asian American college students

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Derek K.; Corbin, William; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Aims Heavy episodic drinking (HED) among Asian Americans is a growing concern. However, little is known about the etiology and developmental patterns of HED among Asian Americans, even though this group is one of the fastest-growing populations in the United States. Design Three year longitudinal design. Participants Sample included 404 Asian American college students transitioning from high school, through the college years. Measurement Measures included heavy episodic drinking, parental and peer relationships, alcohol expectancies, drinking values, and alcohol-related problems. Findings Results from growth-mixture models (GMM) identified two discrete latent classes of HED comprising 59% of our sample: these trajectory classes (high increasers and low increasers) corresponded to expected changes and stability in well-established correlates of drinking behaviour, including alcohol-related problems, personal drinking values and alcohol expectancies. Parental awareness and caring and quality of peer relationships during senior year of high school were associated directly and indirectly with HED class membership. Conclusion These findings advance the literature by providing information about the developmental course of HED among Asian American young adults. The significant within-group variability in problematic drinking in this sample highlights the fact that subgroups of high-risk drinkers can be identified even in relatively low-risk groups such as Asian Americans. PMID:21040058

  8. Cultural adaptation of a brief motivational intervention for heavy drinking among Hispanics in a medical setting.

    PubMed

    Field, Craig A; Cabriales, José Alonso; Woolard, Robert H; Tyroch, Alan H; Caetano, Raul; Castro, Yessenia

    2015-07-30

    Hispanics, particularly men of Mexican origin, are more likely to engage in heavy drinking and experience alcohol-related problems, but less likely to obtain treatment for alcohol problems than non-Hispanic men. Our previous research indicates that heavy-drinking Hispanics who received a brief motivational intervention (BMI) were significantly more likely than Hispanics receiving standard care to reduce subsequent alcohol use. Among Hispanics who drink heavily the BMI effectively reduced alcohol use but did not impact alcohol-related problems or treatment utilization. We hypothesized that an adapted BMI that integrates cultural values and addresses acculturative stress among Hispanics would be more effective. We describe here the protocol for the design and implementation of a randomized (approximately 300 patients per condition) controlled trial evaluating the comparative effectiveness of a culturally adapted (CA) BMI in contrast to a non-adapted BMI (NA-BMI) in a community hospital setting among men of Mexican origin. Study participants will include men who were hospitalized due to an alcohol related injury or screened positive for heavy drinking. By accounting for risk and protective factors of heavy drinking among Hispanics, we hypothesize that CA-BMI will significantly decrease alcohol use and alcohol problems, and increase help-seeking and treatment utilization. This is likely the first study to directly address alcohol related health disparities among non-treatment seeking men of Mexican origin by comparing the benefits of a CA-BMI to a NA-BMI. This study stands to not only inform interventions used in medical settings to reduce alcohol-related health disparities, but may also help reduce the public health burden of heavy alcohol use in the United States. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02429401; Registration date: April 28, 2015.

  9. Hook ‘Em Horns and Heavy Drinking: Alcohol Use and Collegiate Sports

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Dan J.; Fromme, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption has been associated with collegiate sporting events, but little is known about specific levels of consumption over the course of an entire sports season. Ongoing web-based daily-monitoring at the University of Texas at Austin allowed assessment of drinking levels of students (n = 541) over two full football seasons. High-profile football game days were among the heaviest days for alcohol consumption, comparable to consumption on other well-known drinking days such as New Years Eve and Halloween weekend. Men increased their drinking for all games, and women with greater social involvement were more likely to drink heavily during away games. Among lighter drinkers, away games were associated with a greater likelihood of behavioral risks as intoxication increased. PMID:17662537

  10. Nondaily Smokers' Characteristics and Likelihood of Prenatal Cessation and Postpartum Relapse.

    PubMed

    Rockhill, Karilynn M; Tong, Van T; England, Lucinda J; D'Angelo, Denise V

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to calculate the prevalence of pre-pregnancy nondaily smoking (<1 cigarette/day), risk factors, and report of prenatal provider smoking education; and assess the likelihood of prenatal cessation and postpartum relapse for nondaily smokers. We analyzed data from 2009 to 2011 among women with live-born infants participating in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. We compared characteristics of pre-pregnancy daily smokers (≥1 cigarette/day), nondaily smokers, and nonsmokers (chi-square adjusted p < .025). Between nondaily and daily smokers, we compared proportions of prenatal cessation, postpartum relapse (average 4 months postpartum), and reported provider education. Multivariable logistic regression calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) for prenatal cessation among pre-pregnancy smokers (n = 27 360) and postpartum relapse among quitters (n = 13 577). Nondaily smokers (11% of smokers) were more similar to nonsmokers and differed from daily smokers on characteristics examined (p ≤ .001 for all). Fewer nondaily smokers reported provider education than daily smokers (71.1%, 86.3%; p < .001). A higher proportion of nondaily compared to daily smokers quit during pregnancy (89.7%, 49.0%; p < .001), and a lower proportion relapsed postpartum (22.2%, 48.6%; p < .001). After adjustment, nondaily compared to daily smokers were more likely to quit (APR: 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.58-1.71) and less likely to relapse postpartum (APR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.48-0.62). Nondaily smokers were more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy, less likely to relapse postpartum, and less likely to report provider education than daily smokers. Providers should educate all women, regardless of frequency of use, about the harms of tobacco during pregnancy, provide effective cessation interventions, and encourage women to be tobacco free postpartum and beyond. Nondaily smoking (<1 cigarette/day) is increasing among US smokers and carries a significant

  11. Social anxiety and heavy situational drinking: coping and conformity motives as multiple mediators.

    PubMed

    Terlecki, Meredith A; Buckner, Julia D

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with clinically elevated social anxiety are at greater risk for alcohol use disorder, and the relation between social anxiety and drinking problems is at least partially accounted for by drinking more in negative emotional (e.g., feeling sad or angry) and personal/intimate (e.g., before sexual intercourse) situations. Identification of cognitive/motivational factors related to drinking in these high-risk situations could inform the development of treatment and prevention interventions for these high-risk drinkers. The current cross-sectional study examined the mediating effect of drinking motives on the relationship between social anxiety and drinking these high-risk situations among undergraduates (N=232). Clinically elevated social anxiety was associated with greater coping and conformity motives. Both coping and conformity motives mediated the relation between social anxiety and heavier alcohol consumption in negative emotional and personal/intimate contexts. Multiple mediation analyses indicated that these motives work additively to mediate the social anxiety-drinking situations relationship, such that heavy situational drinking among undergraduates with clinically elevated social anxiety can be jointly attributed to desire to cope with negative affect and to avoid social scrutiny. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Social Anxiety and Heavy Situational Drinking: Coping and Conformity Motives as Multiple Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Terlecki, Meredith A.; Buckner, Julia D.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with clinically elevated social anxiety are at greater risk for alcohol use disorder, and the relation between social anxiety and drinking problems is at least partially accounted for by drinking more in negative emotional (e.g., feeling sad or angry) and personal/intimate (e.g., before sexual intercourse) situations. Identification of cognitive/motivational factors related to drinking in these high-risk situations could inform the development of treatment and prevention interventions for these high-risk drinkers. The current study examined the mediating effect of drinking motives on the relationship between social anxiety and drinking these high-risk situations amongst undergraduates (N = 232). Clinically elevated social anxiety was associated with greater coping and conformity motives. Both coping and conformity motives mediated the relation between social anxiety and heavier alcohol consumption in negative emotional and personal/intimate contexts. Multiple mediation analyses indicated that these motives work additively to mediate the social anxiety-drinking situations relationship, such that that heavy situational drinking amongst undergraduates with clinically elevated social anxiety can be jointly attributed to desire to cope with negative affect and to avoid social scrutiny. PMID:25233446

  13. Health risks associated with heavy metals in the drinking water of Swat, northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Khan, Hizbullah; Zakir, Shahida; Ihsanullah; Khan, Sardar; Khan, Akbar Ali; Wei, Luo; Wang, Tieyu

    2013-10-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were investigated in drinking water sources (surface and groundwater) collected from Swat valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The potential health risks of heavy metals to the local population and their possible source apportionment were also studied. Heavy metal concentrations were analysed using atomic absorption spectrometer and compared with permissible limits set by Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb were higher than their respective permissible limits, while Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations were observed within their respective limits. Health risk indicators such as chronic daily intake (CDI) and health risk index (HRI) were calculated for adults and children separately. CDIs and HRIs of heavy metals were found in the order of Cr > Mn > Ni > Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb and Cd > Ni > Mn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Zn, respectively. HRIs of selected heavy metals in the drinking water were less than 1, indicating no health risk to the local people. Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses showed that geologic and anthropogenic activities were the possible sources of water contamination with heavy metals in the study area.

  14. Current insights into the mechanisms and development of treatments for heavy drinking cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Daniel J.O.; Ray, Lara A.; Yardley, Megan M.; King, Andrea C.

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong association between cigarette smoking and alcohol use at the epidemiological, behavioral, and molecular levels, and this co-use creates substantial impediments to smoking cessation among smokers who are also heavy drinkers. Compared with individuals who only smoke, those who both drink and smoke heavily experience more severe health consequences and have greater difficulty in quitting smoking. During smoking abstinence, greater alcohol use is associated with decreased odds of smoking cessation, and smokers are substantially more likely to experience a smoking lapse during drinking episodes. As heavy drinking smokers are less responsive to the currently available pharmacological treatments, this subgroup of high-risk substance users possesses a unique clinical profile and treatment needs. Thus, treatment development for heavy drinking smokers represents a significant and understudied research area within the field of smoking cessation. This review will briefly describe findings from epidemiological, behavioral, and molecular studies illustrating alcohol and tobacco co-use and identify how the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms underlying the interaction of alcohol and nicotine may inform the development of targeted treatments for this unique population of smokers. PMID:27162709

  15. Changes in emotional reactivity and distress tolerance among heavy drinking adolescents during sustained abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Winward, Jennifer L.; Bekman, Nicole M.; Hanson, Karen L.; Lejuez, C.W.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Negative affect and low distress tolerance have been associated with increased likelihood of alcohol consumption and relapse. This study utilized the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test (PASAT-C) Computer Version to examine affective reactivity, cognitive performance, and distress tolerance during early abstinence among heavy drinking adolescents. Methods Participants, ages 16–18 (50% female), were 23 heavy episodic drinking youth (HED) and 23 demographically-matched, non-drinking teens (CON). Both groups were drawn from the same schools and assessed at three time points: HED were first studied within 10 days (M = 4.26, SD = 4.4) of heavy episodic drinking and then at two 2-week intervals over four subsequent weeks of monitored abstinence. CON were studied at the same 2-week intervals. Results Findings indicate that HED responded with greater emotional response to the PASAT-C (i.e., greater increases in frustration and irritability and greater decreases in happiness) at the initial assessment, but their affective responses diminished with sustained abstinence. CON and HED task performance did not differ at the initial assessment or across time. HED showed faster task discontinuation times to the PASAT-C at the first assessment, and both groups reduced task persistence across testings. Among HED, greater lifetime and recent alcohol consumption, alcohol-induced blackouts, and withdrawal symptoms were associated with increases in negative affect with PASAT-C exposure. Earlier age of onset of alcohol use was linked to poorer performance. Conclusions Heavy episodic drinking adolescents demonstrated heightened emotional reactivity and poorer distress tolerance to a cognitively challenging task during early abstinence. The combination of elevated negative affect and low distress tolerance may place adolescents at a heightened risk for escalations in or return to alcohol involvement. PMID:24818520

  16. Latent Class Analysis of DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder Criteria among Heavy-Drinking College Students

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    The DSM-5 has created significant changes in the definition of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Limited work has considered the impact of these changes in specific populations, such as heavy-drinking college students. Latent class analysis (LCA) is a person-centered approach that divides a population into mutually exclusive and exhaustive latent classes, based on observable indicator variables. The present research was designed to examine whether there were distinct classes of heavy-drinking college students who met DSM-5 criteria for an AUD and whether gender, perceived social norms, use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS), drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), self-perceptions of drinking identity, psychological distress, and membership in a fraternity/sorority would be associated with class membership. Three-hundred and ninety-four college students who met DSM-5 criteria for an AUD were recruited from three different universities. Two distinct classes emerged: Less Severe (86%), the majority of whom endorsed both drinking more than intended and tolerance, as well as met criteria for a mild AUD; and More Severe (14%), the majority of whom endorsed at least half of the DSM-5 AUD criteria and met criteria for a severe AUD. Relative to the Less Severe class, membership in the More Severe class was negatively associated with DRSE and positively associated with self-identification as a drinker. There is a distinct class of heavy-drinking college students with a more severe AUD and for whom intervention content needs to be more focused and tailored. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26051027

  17. Latent Class Analysis of DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder Criteria Among Heavy-Drinking College Students.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-10-01

    The DSM-5 has created significant changes in the definition of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Limited work has considered the impact of these changes in specific populations, such as heavy-drinking college students. Latent class analysis (LCA) is a person-centered approach that divides a population into mutually exclusive and exhaustive latent classes, based on observable indicator variables. The present research was designed to examine whether there were distinct classes of heavy-drinking college students who met DSM-5 criteria for an AUD and whether gender, perceived social norms, use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS), drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), self-perceptions of drinking identity, psychological distress, and membership in a fraternity/sorority would be associated with class membership. Three-hundred and ninety-four college students who met DSM-5 criteria for an AUD were recruited from three different universities. Two distinct classes emerged: Less Severe (86%), the majority of whom endorsed both drinking more than intended and tolerance, as well as met criteria for a mild AUD; and More Severe (14%), the majority of whom endorsed at least half of the DSM-5 AUD criteria and met criteria for a severe AUD. Relative to the Less Severe class, membership in the More Severe class was negatively associated with DRSE and positively associated with self-identification as a drinker. There is a distinct class of heavy-drinking college students with a more severe AUD and for whom intervention content needs to be more focused and tailored. Clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Sialadenosis in a patient with alcoholic fatty liver developing after heavy alcohol drinking].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yeon Hwa; Park, Young Sook; Kim, Seong Hwan; Son, Byoung Kwan; Jun, Dae Won; Jo, Yun Ju; Ryu, Yong Suk; Kim, Hyeon Suk

    2009-07-01

    Sialadenosis is a unique form of non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic bilateral salivary gland disorder characterized by recurrent painless swelling which usually occurs in parotid glands. Alcoholism is one of the main causes of sialadenosis along with diabetes, bulimia, and other idiopathic causes. The prognosis is verified according to the degree of liver function. We present a case of a 46 year-old man who had alcoholic fatty liver disease diagnosed as alcoholic sialadenosis based on clinical points of recurrent bilateral parotid swelling after heavy alcohol drinking, computed tomography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy. After stopping alcohol drinking and treated with conservative treatment, he got improved without specific sequela.

  19. Toenail as a biomarker of heavy metal exposure via drinking water: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ab Razak, Nurul Hafiza; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Hashim, Zailina

    2015-01-01

    Toenail is metabolic end product of the skin, which can provide information about heavy metal accumulation in human cells. Slow growth rates of toenail can represent heavy metal exposure from 2 to 12 months before the clipping. The toenail is a non-invasive biomarker that is easy to collect and store and is stable over time. In this systematic review, the suitability of toenail as a long-term biomarker was reviewed, along with the analysis and validation of toenail and confounders to heavy metal. This systematic review has included 30 articles chosen from a total of 132 articles searched from online electronic databases like Pubmed, Proquest, Science Direct, and SCOPUS. Keywords used in the search included "toenail", "biomarker", "heavy metal", and "drinking water". Heavy metal in toenail can be accurately analyzed using an ICP-MS instrument. The validation of toenail heavy metal concentration data is very crucial; however, the Certified Reference Material (CRM) for toenail is still unavailable. Usually, CRM for hair is used in toenail studies. Confounders that have major effects on heavy metal accumulation in toenail are dietary intake of food and supplement, smoking habit, and overall health condition. This review has identified the advantages and limitations of using toenail as a biomarker for long-term exposure, which can help future researchers design a study on heavy metal exposure using toenail.

  20. Effects of heavy episodic drinking on physical performance in club level rugby union players.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Christopher; Stannard, Stephen R; Barnes, Matthew J

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute alcohol consumption, in a natural setting, on exercise performance in the 2 days after the drinking episode. Additionally, alcohol related behaviours of this group of rugby players were identified. Prospective cohort study. Nineteen male club rugby players volunteered for this study. Measures of counter movement jump, maximal lower body strength, repeated sprint ability and hydration were made 2 days before and in the 2 days following heavy episodic alcohol consumption. Participants completed a questionnaire at each time point so that alcohol consumption and sleep hours from the previous 24 h period could be quantified. Additionally, participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Test (AUDIT) prior to completing baseline measures of performance. Reported alcohol consumption ranged from 6 to >20 standard drinks (mean category scale score=11-19 standard drinks). A significant decrease in sleep hours (p=0.01) was reported after the drinking episode with participants reporting 1-3 h for the night. A significant reduction (-1.8±1.5 cm) in counter movement jump (p<0.01) the morning after the drinking episode was observed; no other measures were altered at any time point compared to baseline (p>0.05). AUDIT scores for this group (18.2±4.3) indicate regular alcohol consumption at a hazardous level. Heavy episodic alcohol use, and associated reduced sleep hours, results in a reduction in lower body power output but not other measures of anaerobic performance the morning after a drinking session. Full recovery from this behaviour is achieved by 2 days post drinking episode. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Harms to Adults from Others' Heavy Drinking in Five Indian States

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Marissa B.; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Rao, Girish N.; Jernigan, David H.; Murthy, Pratima; Jayarajan, Deepak; Lakshmanan, S.; Benegal, Vivek; Babu, G. Krishna; Dutta, Sanjiba; Mehta, Ritambhara; Mishra, Kaushik; Tambe, Muralidhar

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aims of this study were to assess a wide range of alcohol-related harms from known heavy drinkers in Indian respondents' lives, and to assess respondents' characteristics and drinking patterns associated with reporting these harms. Methods Household interviews were administered in five Indian states from October 2011 to May 2012. For the secondary data analyses in this study, participants were Indians, ages 15–70, who self-reported having a heavy drinker in their lives (n = 5,375). We assessed the proportion of respondents reporting seventeen types of alcohol-related harms from a heavy drinker. Results Approximately 83% of respondents reported at least one alcohol-related harm from a heavy drinker in their lives. Twenty-five percent of respondents reported physical harm, 6% reported sexual harm and 50% reported emotional harm or neglect. Controlling for other factors, being in the upper income quartiles was associated with reporting ≥5 harm types. Among females, being age 25–39 and married/cohabitating predicted reporting ≥5 harm types, while among males, being age 25–39 or age 40–70 and living in a rural area increased the odds. Among females, binge drinkers had 46% lower odds of reporting ≥5 harm types than abstainers; among males, binge drinkers had 54% greater odds. Conclusion Regardless of respondents' own drinking pattern, a substantial proportion of respondents reported experiencing a range of harms from a known heavy drinker; interventions are needed to reduce these harms. PMID:26884508

  2. [Heavy metals in environmental media around drinking water conservation area of Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Shi, Gui-Tao; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Zhang, Cui; Bi, Chun-Juan; Cheng, Chen; Teng, Ji-Yan; Shen, Jun; Wang, Dong-Qi; Xu, Shi-Yuan

    2008-07-01

    The levels of heavy metals in Shanghai drinking water conservation area were determined, and the spatial distributions and main sources of heavy metals were investigated. Moreover, the ecological risk assessment of heavy metals was conducted. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The average concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and As in road dust were 0.80, 0.23, 148.45, 127.52, 380.57, 63.17, 250.38 and 10.37 mg x kg(-1) respectively. In terms of the pollution level, the values of soils were relatively lower, with the mean contents of 0.16 (Cd), 0.33 (Hg), 30.14 (Pb), 30.66 (Cu), 103.79 (Zn), 24.04 (Ni), 65.75 (Cr) and 6.31 mg x kg(-1) (As) severally; meanwhile the average levels of heavy metals in vegetables were 0.010 (Cd), 0.016 (Hg), 0.36 (Pb), 12.80 (Cu), 61.69 (Zn), 2.04 (Ni), 2.41 (Cr) and 0.039 mg x kg(-1) (As) respectively. (2) Semivariogram and multivariate analysis indicated that heavy metals pollution of soils was induced by anthropogenic activities mostly, and the pollutants produced by traffic were the major source of heavy metals in road dust. (3) The order for heavy metal enrichment coefficients of vegetables was as following: Zn (0.589) > Cu (0.412) > 0.102 (Ni) > Cd (0.059) > Cr (0.061) > Hg (0.056) > Pb (0.012) > As (0.007), and the results indicated that Cd and Zn in vegetables were mainly from the soils, and the other metals were probably from the pollutants in the atmosphere. (4) Sediments in drinking water conservation area were probably derived from soils around; however, there was no significant relationship between heavy metals contents of them. (5) The results of ecological risk assessment of heavy metals showed that heavy metals in soils were in no-warning to warning situation, and warning to light-warning situation for road dust and vegetables. The fuzzy synthesis judgment for all the environmental media around drinking water conservation area was warning to light-warning.

  3. Do the noncaffeine ingredients of energy drinks affect metabolic responses to heavy exercise?

    PubMed

    Pettitt, Robert W; Niemeyer, JoLynne D; Sexton, Patrick J; Lipetzky, Amanda; Murray, Steven R

    2013-07-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) such as Red Bull (RB) are marketed to enhance metabolism. Secondary ingredients of EDs (e.g., taurine) have been purported to improve time trial performance; however, little research exists on how such secondary ingredients affect aerobic metabolism during heavy exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the secondary ingredients of RB on aerobic metabolism during and subsequent to heavy exercise. In double-blind, counterbalanced, and crossover fashion, 8 recreationally trained individuals completed a graded exercise test to determine the gas exchange threshold (GET). Subjects returned on 2 separate occasions and ingested either a 245 ml serving of RB or a control (CTRL) drink with the equivalent caffeine before engaging in two 10-minute constant-load cycling bouts, at an intensity equivalent to GET, with 3 minutes of rest between bouts. Accumulated liters of O2 (10 minutes) were higher for the first bout (17.1 ± 3.5 L) vs. the second bout (16.7 ± 3.5 L) but did not differ between drinks. Similarly, excess postexercise oxygen consumption was higher after the initial bout (RB mean, 2.6 ± 0.85 L; CTRL mean, 2.9 ± 0.90 L) vs. the second bout (RB mean, 1.5 ± 0.85 L; CTRL mean, 1.9 ± 0.87 L) but did not differ between drinks. No differences occurred between drinks for measures of heart rate or rating of perceived exertion. These results indicate that the secondary ingredients contained in a single serving of RB do not augment aerobic metabolism during or subsequent to heavy exercise.

  4. Use of and Interest in Smoking Cessation Strategies Among Daily and Nondaily College Student Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Mendel, Jennifer; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine use of and interest in cessation strategies among nondaily and daily college student smokers. Participants 800 undergraduate student smokers aged 18 to 25. Methods The authors examined nondaily versus daily smoking in relation to use of and interest in cessation strategies using an online survey. Results Nondaily (65.8%) versus daily smokers (34.3%) were more likely to have made a quit attempt (p = .01) but less likely to have used any assistance (p < .001). Nondaily smokers were less interested in pharmacotherapy and traditional behavioral interventions; however, there was no difference in interest in technology-based interventions among nondaily versus daily smokers. Controlling for covariates, there were no significant differences in interest in traditional or technology-based behavioral interventions. Higher motivation, lower confidence, and depressive symptomatology were related to interest in each intervention. Smoking for social reasons was related to interest in technology-based interventions. Conclusions Different intervention strategies may be appropriate for nondaily and daily smokers. PMID:22420696

  5. “Demonstrating Masculinity” Via Intimate Partner Aggression: The Moderating Effect of Heavy Episodic Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Lisco, Claire G.; Leone, Ruschelle M.; Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men’s history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men’s attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men’s adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed. PMID:26456996

  6. "Demonstrating Masculinity" Via Intimate Partner Aggression: The Moderating Effect of Heavy Episodic Drinking.

    PubMed

    Lisco, Claire G; Leone, Ruschelle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men's history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men's attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men's adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed.

  7. Recent Alcohol Use and Episodic Heavy Drinking among American Indian Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hill, Mallory K.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 366 American Indian students in grades 7 through 12 completed the PRIDE questionnaire. Recent alcohol use was reported by 31.9% of students, whereas 26.7% reported frequent episodic heavy drinking. One in three students felt it was harmful/very harmful to use alcohol and less than half felt alcohol was easy/very easy to obtain. A series…

  8. Recent Alcohol Use and Episodic Heavy Drinking among American Indian Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hill, Mallory K.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 366 American Indian students in grades 7 through 12 completed the PRIDE questionnaire. Recent alcohol use was reported by 31.9% of students, whereas 26.7% reported frequent episodic heavy drinking. One in three students felt it was harmful/very harmful to use alcohol and less than half felt alcohol was easy/very easy to obtain. A series…

  9. Perceptions of Heavy-Drinking College Students About a Sleep and Alcohol Health Intervention.

    PubMed

    Fucito, Lisa M; DeMartini, Kelly S; Hanrahan, Tess H; Whittemore, Robin; Yaggi, H Klar; Redeker, Nancy S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to describe the sleep and psychological characteristics of heavy-drinking college students, their perceptions of sleep and sleep/alcohol interactions, and their reactions to a proposed integrated sleep and alcohol Web-based intervention. Students (N = 24) completed standardized surveys and participated in semistructured focus group interviews. Participants reported a high degree of sleep disturbance, sleep obstacles, and sleep-related consequences, which were validated by both quantitative and qualitative investigations. Sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment were associated with more frequent drinking and greater risks from drinking. Participants perceived that alcohol has positive and negative effects on sleep latency, continuity, and quality. They expressed overall enthusiasm for the intervention but had specific content and format preferences.

  10. Perceptions of Heavy Drinking College Students about a Sleep and Alcohol Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    DeMartini, Kelly S.; Hanrahan, Tess; Whittemore, Robin; Yaggi, Henry Klar; Redeker, Nancy S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to describe the sleep and psychological characteristics of heavy drinking college students, their perceptions of sleep and sleep/alcohol interactions, and their reactions to a proposed integrated sleep and alcohol internet-based intervention. Students (N = 24) completed standardized surveys and participated in semi-structured focus group interviews. Participants reported a high degree of sleep disturbance, sleep obstacles, and sleep-related consequences, which were validated by both quantitative and qualitative investigations. Sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment were associated with more frequent drinking and greater risks from drinking. Participants perceived that alcohol has positive and negative effects on sleep latency, continuity, and quality. They expressed overall enthusiasm for the intervention but had specific content and format preferences. PMID:24924956

  11. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Alcohol-related Problems: Differences by Gender and Level of Heavy Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Witbrodt, Jane; Mulia, Nina; Zemore, Sarah E.; Kerr, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective While prior studies have reported racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol-related problems at a given level of heavy drinking, particularly lower levels, it is unclear whether these occur in both genders and are an artifact of racial/ethnic differences in drink alcohol content. Such information is important to understanding disparities and developing specific, targeted interventions. This study addresses these questions and examines disparities in specific types of alcohol problems across racial-gender groups. Method Using 2005 and 2010 National Alcohol Survey data (N=7,249 current drinkers), gender-stratified regression analyses were conducted to assess black-white and Hispanic-white disparities in alcohol dependence and negative drinking consequences at equivalent levels of heavy drinking. Heavy drinking was measured using a gender-specific, composite drinking-patterns variable derived through factor analysis. Analyses were replicated using adjusted-alcohol consumption variables that account for group differences in drink alcohol content based on race/ethnicity, gender, age and alcoholic beverage. Results Compared to white men, black and Hispanic men had higher rates of injuries/accidents/health and social consequences, and marginally greater work/legal consequences (p< .10). Hispanic women had marginally higher rates of social consequences. In main effects models controlling for demographics, light drinking and heavy drinking, only black women and men had greater odds of alcohol-related problems relative to whites. Interaction models indicated that compared to whites, black women had greater odds of dependence at all levels of heavy drinking, while both black and Hispanic men had elevated risk of alcohol problems only at lower levels of heavy drinking. Drink alcohol content adjustments did not significantly alter findings for either gender. Conclusions This study highlights the gender-specific nature of racial/ethnic disparities. Interventions focused on

  12. Leaching of heavy metals from water bottle components into the drinking water of rodents.

    PubMed

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Otto, Kevin J; Artwohl, James E; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Providing high-quality, uncontaminated drinking water is an essential component of rodent husbandry. Acidification of drinking water is a common technique to control microbial growth but is not a benign treatment. In addition to its potential biologic effects, acidified water might interact with the water-delivery system, leading to the leaching of heavy metals into the drinking water. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of water acidification and autoclaving on water-bottle assemblies. The individual components of the system (stainless-steel sipper tubes, rubber stoppers, neoprene stoppers, and polysulfone water bottles) were acid-digested and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc to quantify the metal composition of each material. In addition the amounts of these metals that leached into tap and acidified water with and without autoclaving were quantified after 1 wk of contact time. On a weight basis, sipper tubes contained the largest quantities of all metals except magnesium and zinc, which were greatest in the neoprene stoppers. Except for cadmium and selenium, all metals had leached into the water after 1 wk, especially under the acidified condition. The quantities of copper, lead, and zinc that leached into the drinking water were the most noteworthy, because the resulting concentrations had the potential to confound animal experiments. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that water-quality monitoring programs include heavy metal analysis at the level of water delivery to animals.

  13. Leaching of Heavy Metals from Water Bottle Components into the Drinking Water of Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Otto, Kevin J; Artwohl, James E; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Providing high-quality, uncontaminated drinking water is an essential component of rodent husbandry. Acidification of drinking water is a common technique to control microbial growth but is not a benign treatment. In addition to its potential biologic effects, acidified water might interact with the water-delivery system, leading to the leaching of heavy metals into the drinking water. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of water acidification and autoclaving on water-bottle assemblies. The individual components of the system (stainless-steel sipper tubes, rubber stoppers, neoprene stoppers, and polysulfone water bottles) were acid-digested and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc to quantify the metal composition of each material. In addition the amounts of these metals that leached into tap and acidified water with and without autoclaving were quantified after 1 wk of contact time. On a weight basis, sipper tubes contained the largest quantities of all metals except magnesium and zinc, which were greatest in the neoprene stoppers. Except for cadmium and selenium, all metals had leached into the water after 1 wk, especially under the acidified condition. The quantities of copper, lead, and zinc that leached into the drinking water were the most noteworthy, because the resulting concentrations had the potential to confound animal experiments. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that water-quality monitoring programs include heavy metal analysis at the level of water delivery to animals. PMID:23562029

  14. Comparison of Longitudinal Phenotypes Based on Alternate Heavy Drinking Cut Scores

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kristina M.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to empirically determine the effect of employing different cut scores for frequency of heavy episodic drinking (HED; an often-used indicator of problematic alcohol involvement) within a longitudinal framework. Using data from a large prospective (9-wave) college student sample, the authors used latent class growth analyses to characterize developmental trajectories of HED based on alternate cut scores that varied in frequency of HED (defined by 5+ drinks per occasion), as well as to measure very heavy episodic drinking (12+ drinks per occasion). As cut score severity increased and base rates for HED correspondingly decreased, individuals were increasingly categorized into less severe classes. Concordance between trajectories ranged from small to moderate, with concordance using highly discrepant definitions of frequent HED being particularly low. HED trajectories based upon different cut scores were validated against a range of etiological and consequential correlates. No single cut score was superior to others in explaining variance in external validity indicators, suggesting that the choice of cut score should be based upon theoretical and clinical considerations. This study further extends the authors’ prior work examining the effects of methodological factors that are critical to characterizing the developmental course of alcohol involvement. PMID:18540717

  15. Heavy metal contamination of drinking water in Kamrup district, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Sutapa; Sarma, Hari Prasad

    2011-08-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the heavy metal concentration of the drinking water with respect to zinc, copper, cadmium, manganese, lead and arsenic in Kamrup district of Assam, India. Ground water samples were collected from tube wells, deep tube wells and ring wells covering all the major hydrogeological environs. Heavy metals in groundwater are estimated by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, Perkin Elmer Analyst 200. Data were assessed statistically to find the distribution pattern and other related information for each metal. The study revealed that a good number of the drinking water sources were contaminated with cadmium, manganese and lead. Arsenic concentrations although did not exceeded WHO limits but was found to be slightly elevated. Copper and zinc concentrations were found to be within the prescribed WHO limits. An attempt has also been made to ascertain the possible source of origin of the metals. Positive and significant correlation existing between manganese with zinc and copper indicates towards their similar source of origin and mobility. In view of the present study and the level of heavy metal contamination, it could be suggested to test the potability of the water sources before using it for drinking purpose.

  16. Effects of Sex, Drinking History, and Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Dysregulation on the Onset of Liver Injury in Very Heavy Drinking Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Song, Ming; Schwandt, Melanie L.; Cave, Matthew C.; Barve, Shirish S.; George, David T.; Ramchandani, Vijay A.; McClain, Craig J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Heavy alcohol consumption frequently causes liver inflammation/injury, and certain fatty acids (FAs) may be involved in this liver pathology. In this study, we evaluated the association of heavy drinking and the changes in the FA levels involved in the ω-6 (pro-inflammatory) and ω-3 (anti-inflammatory) state in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients who had no clinical manifestations of liver injury. We aimed to identify sex-based differences in patients with mild or no biochemical evidence of liver injury induced by heavy drinking. Methods A total of 114 heavy drinking AD female and male patients aged 21 to 65 years without clinical manifestations of liver injury, who were admitted to an alcohol dependence treatment program, were grouped by the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels: ≤40 IU/l, as no liver injury (GR.1), and >40 IU/l, as mild liver injury (GR.2). Patients were actively drinking until the day of admission. Comprehensive metabolic panel, comprehensive FA panel, and drinking history data were evaluated. Results Elevated ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed close association with markers of heavy alcohol intake. In the patients with mild biochemical liver injury (GR.2), females showed significantly higher AST level than males. Significant association of AST and total drinks in past 90 days (TD90) in females, and AST and heavy drinking days in past 90 days (HDD90) in males was observed. The ω-6:ω-3 ratio showed a significant pro-inflammatory response only in females with mild liver injury (GR.2) when adjusted by drinking history marker, TD90. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were increased in males with liver injury, while females did not show any comparable rise in EPA; and DHA levels were lower. Conclusions Measures of heavy drinking, TD90 and HDD90, predicted changes in liver injury. Changes in the ω-3 and ω-6 FA levels and the ω-6:ω-3 ratio showed a pro-inflammatory shift in patients with biochemical

  17. Effects of Sex, Drinking History, and Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Dysregulation on the Onset of Liver Injury in Very Heavy Drinking Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

    PubMed

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Song, Ming; Schwandt, Melanie L; Cave, Matthew C; Barve, Shirish S; George, David T; Ramchandani, Vijay A; McClain, Craig J

    2016-10-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption frequently causes liver inflammation/injury, and certain fatty acids (FAs) may be involved in this liver pathology. In this study, we evaluated the association of heavy drinking and the changes in the FA levels involved in the ω-6 (pro-inflammatory) and ω-3 (anti-inflammatory) state in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients who had no clinical manifestations of liver injury. We aimed to identify sex-based differences in patients with mild or no biochemical evidence of liver injury induced by heavy drinking. A total of 114 heavy drinking AD female and male patients aged 21 to 65 years without clinical manifestations of liver injury, who were admitted to an alcohol dependence treatment program, were grouped by the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels: ≤40 IU/l, as no liver injury (GR.1), and >40 IU/l, as mild liver injury (GR.2). Patients were actively drinking until the day of admission. Comprehensive metabolic panel, comprehensive FA panel, and drinking history data were evaluated. Elevated ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed close association with markers of heavy alcohol intake. In the patients with mild biochemical liver injury (GR.2), females showed significantly higher AST level than males. Significant association of AST and total drinks in past 90 days (TD90) in females, and AST and heavy drinking days in past 90 days (HDD90) in males was observed. The ω-6:ω-3 ratio showed a significant pro-inflammatory response only in females with mild liver injury (GR.2) when adjusted by drinking history marker, TD90. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were increased in males with liver injury, while females did not show any comparable rise in EPA; and DHA levels were lower. Measures of heavy drinking, TD90 and HDD90, predicted changes in liver injury. Changes in the ω-3 and ω-6 FA levels and the ω-6:ω-3 ratio showed a pro-inflammatory shift in patients with biochemical liver injury with a significant

  18. The loss of metabolic control on alcohol drinking in heavy drinking alcohol-dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    de Timary, Philippe; Cani, Patrice D; Duchemin, Julie; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Gihousse, Dominique; Laterre, Pierre-François; Badaoui, Abdenor; Leclercq, Sophie; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Stärkel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Most physiological studies interested in alcohol-dependence examined ethanol as a pharmacological agent rather than a nutrient. We conducted two studies, which assessed the metabolic and endocrine factors involved in the regulation of alcohol and nutrient intake in alcohol-dependent (AD) subjects. We also examined the potential role of a disruption in energy balance in alcohol-dependence. In Study-1, quantitative dietetic interviews of eating and drinking habits were conducted with 97 AD subjects. The population was split around a median alcohol intake value of 12.5 kcal/kg/day. The results showed that the "low alcohol" drinking AD subjects had high Body Mass Index (BMI) and Fat Mass (FM) and alcohol intake was compensated for by a decrease in non-alcoholic intakes. "High alcohol" drinking AD subjects, on the other hand, had low BMI and FM and the total caloric intakes were largely above norms. In Study-2, 24 AD inpatients were submitted to dietetic interviews, calorimetry and blood samplings for the measurement of biomarkers of the regulation of metabolism and satiety, on day 2, 5 and 16 of abstinence. These patients were compared with 20 controls matched for age and gender. We observed in AD patients an increase in cortisol, leptin and PYY plasma levels and a decrease in ghrelin, which might explain the observed decrease in non-alcoholic intakes. However, alcoholic and non-alcoholic intakes correlated positively with basal metabolism and negatively with leptin and leptin/BMI. For individuals consuming below 12.5 kcal/kg/day of alcohol, alcohol intake is compensated for by a decrease in non-alcoholic nutrient intakes, probably due to changes in metabolic and satiety factors. For individuals consuming above 12.5 kcal/kg/day of alcohol, alcohol accelerates metabolism and decreases fat mass and leptin levels, and the total caloric intake largely exceeds norms. A dual model for regulation of energy intake in AD subjects is proposed.

  19. Longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking: A comparison between Caucasians and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The current study compared longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking from early adolescence to adulthood for Caucasians and African Americans. Methods Data were collected from N=9,988 non-Hispanic Caucasian and African American participants from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Growth curve modeling tested differences in rates of change and levels of heavy drinking from ages 13–31 among non-college youth, college withdrawers, 2-year-college graduates, and 4-year-college graduates, and compared these differences for Caucasians and African Americans. Results There were significant racial differences in relationships between college education with both changes in and levels of heavy drinking. Rates of change of heavy drinking differed significantly across the college education groups examined for Caucasians but not for African Americans. In addition, Caucasians who graduated from 4-year colleges showed the highest levels of heavy drinking after age 20, although differences between the four groups diminished by the early 30s. In contrast, for African Americans, graduates from 2- or 4-year colleges did not show higher levels of heavy drinking from ages 20–31 than the non-college group. Instead, African American participants who withdrew from college without an associate’s, bachelor’s, or professional degree consistently exhibited the highest levels of heavy drinking from ages 26–31. Conclusions The relationship between college education and increased levels of heavy drinking in young adulthood is significant for Caucasians but not African Americans. Conversely, African Americans are likely to be more adversely affected than Caucasians by college withdrawal. PMID:23707401

  20. Longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking: a comparison between Caucasians and African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C

    2013-09-01

    The current study compared longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking from early adolescence to adulthood for Caucasians and African-Americans. We analyzed data from 9,988 non-Hispanic Caucasian and African-American participants from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Growth curve modeling tested differences in rates of change and levels of heavy drinking from ages 13 to 31 years among non-college youth, college withdrawers, 2-year college graduates, and 4-year college graduates, and compared these differences for Caucasians and African-Americans. There were significant racial differences in relationships between college education with both changes in and levels of heavy drinking. Rates of change of heavy drinking differed significantly across the college education groups examined for Caucasians but not for African-Americans. In addition, Caucasians who graduated from 4-year colleges showed the highest levels of heavy drinking after age 20 years, although differences among the four groups diminished by the early 30s. In contrast, for African-Americans, graduates from 2- or 4-year colleges did not show higher levels of heavy drinking from ages 20 to 31 years than the non-college group. Instead, African-American participants who withdrew from college without an associate's, bachelor's, or professional degree consistently exhibited the highest levels of heavy drinking from ages 26 to 31 years. The relationship between college education and increased levels of heavy drinking in young adulthood is significant for Caucasians but not African-Americans. Conversely, African-Americans are likely to be more adversely affected than are Caucasians by college withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A controlled trial of web-based feedback for heavy drinking college students.

    PubMed

    Walters, Scott T; Vader, Amanda M; Harris, T Robert

    2007-03-01

    Alcohol consumption has been a growing concern at U.S. colleges, particularly among first-year students, who are at increased risk for problems. This study tested the efficacy of the "electronic Check-Up to Go" (e-CHUG), a commercially-available internet program, at reducing drinking among a group of at-risk college freshman. The design was a randomized controlled trial: 106 freshmen students who reported heavy episodic drinking were randomly assigned to receive feedback or to assessment only. Assessment measures were completed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks. At 8 weeks, the feedback group showed a significant decrease in drinks per week and peak BAC over control. By 16 weeks, the control group also declined to a point where there were no differences between groups. Changes in normative drinking estimates mediated the effect of the intervention. An additional 245 abstainers and light drinkers who were also randomized to condition did not show any intervention effect. This study provides preliminary support for the efficacy of this intervention at reducing short-term drinking among at-risk students.

  2. The Loss of Metabolic Control on Alcohol Drinking in Heavy Drinking Alcohol-Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    de Timary, Philippe; Cani, Patrice D.; Duchemin, Julie; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Gihousse, Dominique; Laterre, Pierre-François; Badaoui, Abdenor; Leclercq, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Background Most physiological studies interested in alcohol-dependence examined ethanol as a pharmacological agent rather than a nutrient. We conducted two studies, which assessed the metabolic and endocrine factors involved in the regulation of alcohol and nutrient intake in alcohol-dependent (AD) subjects. We also examined the potential role of a disruption in energy balance in alcohol-dependence. Methods and Results In Study-1, quantitative dietetic interviews of eating and drinking habits were conducted with 97 AD subjects. The population was split around a median alcohol intake value of 12.5 kcal/kg/day. The results showed that the “low alcohol” drinking AD subjects had high Body Mass Index (BMI) and Fat Mass (FM) and alcohol intake was compensated for by a decrease in non-alcoholic intakes. “High alcohol” drinking AD subjects, on the other hand, had low BMI and FM and the total caloric intakes were largely above norms. In Study-2, 24 AD inpatients were submitted to dietetic interviews, calorimetry and blood samplings for the measurement of biomarkers of the regulation of metabolism and satiety, on day 2, 5 and 16 of abstinence. These patients were compared with 20 controls matched for age and gender. We observed in AD patients an increase in cortisol, leptin and PYY plasma levels and a decrease in ghrelin, which might explain the observed decrease in non-alcoholic intakes. However, alcoholic and non-alcoholic intakes correlated positively with basal metabolism and negatively with leptin and leptin/BMI. Conclusion For individuals consuming below12.5 kcal/kg/day of alcohol, alcohol intake is compensated for by a decrease in non-alcoholic nutrient intakes, probably due to changes in metabolic and satiety factors. For individuals consuming above 12.5 kcal/kg/day of alcohol, alcohol accelerates metabolism and decreases fat mass and leptin levels, and the total caloric intake largely exceeds norms. A dual model for regulation of energy intake in AD subjects

  3. Combined Varenicline and naltrexone treatment reduces smoking topography intensity in heavy-drinking smokers

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Daniel J.O.; Bujarski, Spencer; Hartwell, Emily; Green, ReJoyce; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy drinking smokers constitute a distinct sub-population of smokers for whom traditional smoking cessation therapies may not be effective. Recent evidence suggested that combined varenicline (VAR) and naltrexone (NTX) therapy may be more efficacious than either monotherapy alone in reducing smoking and drinking-related behavior in this population. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e., smoking topography) may be predictive of smoking cessation outcomes, yet the effects of smoking pharmacotherapies on puffing behavior have not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, the current double-blind medication study examined the effects of VAR alone (1mg BID), low dose NTX alone (25mg QD), the combination of VAR+NTX, and placebo on smoking topography measures in heavy drinking, non-treatment seeking daily smokers (n=120). After a 9-day titration period, participants completed a laboratory session in which they smoked their first cigarette of the day using a smoking topography device following 12-hrs of nicotine abstinence and consumption of an alcoholic beverage (BrAC = 0.06 g/dl). The primary measures were puff count, volume, duration, and velocity and inter-puff interval (IPI). Independent of medication group, puff velocity and IPI increased, while puff volume and duration decreased, over the course of the cigarette. The active medication groups, vs. the placebo group, had significantly blunted puff duration and velocity slopes over the course of the cigarette, and this effect was particularly evident in the VAR+NTX group. Additionally, the VAR+NTX group demonstrated lower average IPI than the monotherapy groups and lower average puff volume than all other groups. These results suggest that smoking pharmacotherapies, particularly the combination of VAR+NTX, alter smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers, producing a pattern of less intense puffing behavior. As smoking topography has been predictive of the ability to quit smoking, future studies should

  4. Varenicline Reduces Alcohol Self-Administration in Heavy-Drinking Smokers

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Sherry A.; Harrison, Emily L.R.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Shi, Julia; Tetrault, Jeanette M.; Picciotto, Marina R.; Petrakis, Ismene L.; Estevez, Naralys; Balchunas, Erika

    2010-01-01

    Background Alcohol and tobacco dependence are highly comorbid disorders, with preclinical evidence suggesting a role for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in alcohol consumption. Varenicline, a partial nicotinic agonist with high affinity for the α4β2 nAChR receptor, reduced ethanol intake in rodents. We aimed to test whether varenicline would reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol craving in humans. Methods This double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation examined the effect of varenicline (2 mg/day vs. placebo) on alcohol self-administration using an established laboratory paradigm in non-alcohol-dependent heavy drinkers (n = 20) who were daily smokers. Following 7 days of medication pretreatment, participants were first administered a priming dose of alcohol (.3 g/kg) and subjective, and physiologic responses were assessed. A 2-hour alcohol self-administration period followed during which participants could choose to consume up to 8 additional drinks (each .15 g/kg). Results Varenicline (.5 ± SE = .40) significantly reduced the number of drinks consumed compared to placebo (2.60 ± SE = .93) and increased the likelihood of abstaining from any drinking during the self-administration period. Following the priming drink, varenicline attenuated alcohol craving and reduced subjective reinforcing alcohol effects (high, like, rush, feel good, intoxicated). Adverse events associated with varenicline were minimal and, when combined with alcohol, produced no significant effects on physiologic reactivity, mood, or nausea. Conclusions This preliminary investigation demonstrated that varenicline significantly reduced alcohol self-administration and was well tolerated, alone and in combination with alcohol in heavy-drinking smokers. Varenicline should be investigated as a potential treatment for alcohol use disorders. PMID:19249750

  5. Pain as a Predictor of Heavy Drinking and Any Drinking Lapses in the COMBINE Study and the United Kingdom Alcohol Treatment Trial

    PubMed Central

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Vowles, Kevin E.; McCallion, Elizabeth; Frohe, Tessa; Kirouac, Megan; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To test the association between pain and heavy drinking lapses during and following treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUD). Design Secondary data analysis of data from two clinical trials for AUD. Setting and participants Participants included 1383 individuals from the COMBINE Study in the United States [31% female, 23% ethnic minorities, average age=44.4 (SD=10.2)] and 742 individuals from the United Kingdom Alcohol Treatment Trial (UKATT) in the United Kingdom [25.9% female, 4.4% ethnic minorities, average age=41.6 (SD=10.1)]. Measurements Form-90 (a structured assessment interview) was used to assess the primary outcome: time-to-first heavy drinking day. The Short Form Health Survey and Quality of Life measures were used to assess pain interference and pain intensity. Findings Pain was a significant predictor of heavy drinking lapses during treatment in UKATT (OR=1.19 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.32), p=0.0003) and COMBINE (OR=1.12 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.21), p = 0.009) and was a significant predictor of heavy drinking lapses following treatment in COMBINE (OR=1.16 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.17), p<.00001). After controlling for other relapse risk factors (e.g., dependence severity, self-efficacy, temptation, psychiatric distress), pain remained a significant predictor of heavy drinking lapses during treatment in UKATT (OR=1.19 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.34), p = .004) and following treatment in COMBINE (OR=1.44 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.92, p = .01). Conclusions Among people treated for alcohol use disorder, being in physical pain appears to predict heavy drinking lapses during or after treatment. PMID:25919978

  6. Self-schema as a non-drinker: a protective resource against heavy drinking in Mexican-American college women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Stein, Karen F; Corte, Colleen; Steffen, Alana

    2017-03-21

    Alcohol use is considered less acceptable for women than men in the Mexican culture. However, recent studies of Mexican-American (MA) women show that prevalence and rates of alcohol use are escalating, particularly in those with high acculturation to Western standards. Building on recent studies that demonstrated that drinking-related identities (self-schemas) are important predictors of alcohol use in college populations, this secondary data analysis investigated the association between acculturation, MA cultural values, and acculturative stress, drinking-related self-schemas and heavy drinking over time in college-enrolled MA women. Data were drawn from a 12-month longitudinal study of self-schemas and health-risk behaviors in 477 college-enrolled MA women. Drinking-related self-schemas, acculturation, MA cultural values and acculturative stress were measured at baseline, and heavy drinking was measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Thirty-six percent of women had a non-drinker self-schema but only 3% had a drinker self-schema. Higher spirituality was protective against heavy drinking, and this effect can be partially explained by presence of a non-drinker self-schema. Interventions that emphasize the personal relevance of being a non-drinker and support the importance of spirituality may help to prevent heavy drinking in MA college women.

  7. A multisite randomized trial of normative feedback for heavy drinking: Social comparison versus social comparison plus correction of normative misperceptions.

    PubMed

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A; LaBrie, Joseph; DiBello, Angelo M; Young, Chelsie M; Rinker, Dipali V; Litt, Dana; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Knee, C Raymond; Hamor, Ezekiel; Jerabeck, Jessica M; Larimer, Mary E

    2016-03-01

    Given widespread alcohol misuse among college students, numerous intervention programs have been developed, including personalized normative feedback (PNF). Most research evaluating PNF assumes that presenting one's own perceived norms is necessary to correct normative misperceptions and thereby reduce drinking. Alternatively, simply providing social comparison information showing that one drinks more than others may be sufficient. The present study evaluated the efficacy of full PNF (one's own drinking, campus drinking rates, and perceived norms) and a partial personalized social comparison feedback (PSCF; one's own drinking and campus drinking rates) in a randomized trial among heavy-drinking college students. Participants included 623 heavy-drinking students from 3 universities. Assessments occurred at baseline and 3- and 6-months postbaseline. Primary analyses examined differences across 4 drinking outcomes (drinks per week, total drinks past month, frequency of past month drinking, and negative alcohol-related consequences) at 3- and 6-month follow-ups controlling for the baseline variable. Results revealed significant reductions across all alcohol consumption outcomes at 3 months in both intervention conditions compared to attention-control. Mediation analyses demonstrated significant indirect effects of the intervention on 6-month drinking through changes in perceived norms at 3 months. Moreover, evidence emerged for changes in drinking at 3 months as a mediator of the association between PSCF and 6-month perceived norms. The present research suggests PNF may not require explicit consideration of one's perceived norms to be effective and that direct social comparison provides an alternative theoretical mechanism for PNF efficacy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Sex and age differences in heavy binge drinking and its effects on alcohol responsivity following abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Melón, Laverne C.; Wray, Kevin N.; Moore, Eileen M.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Binge drinking during adolescence may perturb the maturing neuroenvironment and increase susceptibility of developing an alcohol use disorder later in life. In the present series of experiments, we utilized a modified version of the drinking in the dark-multiple scheduled access (DID-MSA) procedure to study how heavy binge drinking during adolescence alters responsivity to ethanol later in adulthood. Adult and adolescent C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) males and females were given access to a 20% ethanol solution for 3 hourly periods, each separated by 2 h of free water access. B6 adults and adolescents consumed 2 to 3.5 g/kg ethanol an hour and displayed significant intoxication and binge-like blood ethanol concentrations. There was an interaction of sex and age, however, driven by high intakes in adult B6 females, who peaked at 11.01 g/kg. Adolescents of both sexes and adult males never consumed more than 9.3 g/kg. D2 mice consumed negligible amounts of alcohol and showed no evidence of intoxication. B6 mice were abstinent for one month and were retested on the balance beam 10 min following 1.75 g/kg ethanol challenge (20%v/v; i.p). They were also tested for changes in home cage locomotion immediately following the 1.75 g/kg dose (for 10 min prior to balance beam). Although there was no effect of age of exposure, all mice with a binge drinking history demonstrated a significantly dampened ataxic response to an ethanol challenge. Female mice that binge drank during adulthood showed a significantly augmented locomotor response to ethanol when compared to their water drinking controls. This alteration was not noted for males or for females that binge drank during adolescence. These results highlight the importance of biological sex, and its interaction with age, in the development of behavioral adaptation following binge drinking. PMID:23333154

  9. Sex and age differences in heavy binge drinking and its effects on alcohol responsivity following abstinence.

    PubMed

    Melón, Laverne C; Wray, Kevin N; Moore, Eileen M; Boehm, Stephen L

    2013-03-01

    Binge drinking during adolescence may perturb the maturing neuroenvironment and increase susceptibility of developing an alcohol use disorder later in life. In the present series of experiments, we utilized a modified version of the drinking in the dark-multiple scheduled access (DID-MSA) procedure to study how heavy binge drinking during adolescence alters responsivity to ethanol later in adulthood. Adult and adolescent C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) males and females were given access to a 20% ethanol solution for 3 hourly periods, each separated by 2h of free water access. B6 adults and adolescents consumed 2 to 3.5 g/kg ethanol an hour and displayed significant intoxication and binge-like blood ethanol concentrations. There was an interaction of sex and age, however, driven by high intakes in adult B6 females, who peaked at 11.01 g/kg. Adolescents of both sexes and adult males never consumed more than 9.3 g/kg. D2 mice consumed negligible amounts of alcohol and showed no evidence of intoxication. B6 mice were abstinent for one month and were retested on the balance beam 10 min following 1.75 g/kg ethanol challenge (20%v/v; i.p). They were also tested for changes in home cage locomotion immediately following the 1.75 g/kg dose (for 10 min prior to balance beam). Although there was no effect of age of exposure, all mice with a binge drinking history demonstrated a significantly dampened ataxic response to an ethanol challenge. Female mice that binge drank during adulthood showed a significantly augmented locomotor response to ethanol when compared to their water drinking controls. This alteration was not noted for males or for females that binge drank during adolescence. These results highlight the importance of biological sex, and its interaction with age, in the development of behavioral adaptation following binge drinking.

  10. Effect of drinking water source on associations between gastrointestinal illness and heavy rainfall in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Jessie A; Fagliano, Jerald A

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal illness (GI) has been associated with heavy rainfall. Storm events and periods of heavy rainfall and runoff can result in increased microbiological contaminants in raw water. Surface water supplies are open to the environment and runoff can directly influence the presence of contaminants. A time-stratified bi-directional case-crossover study design was used to estimate associations of heavy rainfall and hospitalizations for GI. Cases of GI were identified as in-patient hospitalization with a primary diagnosis of infectious disease associated diarrhea [ICD-9 codes: specified gastrointestinal infections 001-009.9 or diarrhea 787.91] among the residents of New Jersey from 2009 to 2013 resulting in a final sample size of 47,527 cases. Two control days were selected on the same days of the week as the case day, within fixed 21-day strata. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios controlling for temperature and humidity. To determine potential effect modification estimates were stratified by season (warm or cold) and drinking water source (groundwater, surface water, or 'other' category). Stratified analyses by drinking water source and season identified positive associations of rainfall and GI hospitalizations in surface water systems during the warm season with no lag (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.05-1.19) and a 2-day lag (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16). Positive associations in 'Other' water source areas (served by very small community water systems, private wells, or unknown) during the warm season with a 4-day lag were also found. However, there were no statistically significant positive associations in groundwater systems during the warm season. The results suggest that water systems with surface water sources can play an important role in preventing GI hospitalizations during and immediately following heavy rainfall. Regulators should work with water system providers to develop system specific prevention techniques to limit the impact

  11. Varenicline, low dose naltrexone, and their combination for heavy-drinking smokers: human laboratory findings.

    PubMed

    Ray, Lara A; Courtney, Kelly E; Ghahremani, Dara G; Miotto, Karen; Brody, Arthur; London, Edythe D

    2014-10-01

    Heavy-drinking smokers constitute a sizeable and hard-to-treat subgroup of smokers, for whom tailored smoking cessation therapies are not yet available. The present study used a double-blind, randomized, 2 × 2 medication design, testing varenicline alone (VAR; 1 mg twice daily), low dose naltrexone alone (L-NTX; 25 mg once daily), varenicline plus naltrexone, and placebo for effects on cigarette craving and subjective response to alcohol and cigarettes in a sample (n = 130) of heavy-drinking daily smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day). All participants were tested after a 9-day titration period designed to reach a steady state on the target medication. Testing was completed at 12 h of nicotine abstinence, after consuming a standard dose of alcohol (target breath alcohol concentration = 0.06 g/dl) and after smoking the first cigarette of the day. The combination of VAR + L-NTX was superior to placebo, and at times superior to monotherapy, in attenuating cigarette craving, cigarette and alcohol "high," and in reducing ad-lib consumption of both cigarettes and alcohol during the 9-day medication titration period. These preliminary findings indicate that clinical studies of the combination of VAR + L-NTX for heavy drinkers trying to quit smoking are warranted and may ultimately improve clinical care for this sizeable and treatment-resistant subgroup of smokers.

  12. Varenicline, Low Dose naltrexone, and their combination for heavy-drinking smokers: Human laboratory findings

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Lara A.; Courtney, Kelly E.; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Miotto, Karen; Brody, Arthur; London, Edythe D.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Heavy drinking smokers constitute a sizeable and hard-to-treat subgroup of smokers, for whom tailored smoking cessation therapies are not yet available. Objectives The present study used a double-blind, randomized, 2×2 medication design, testing varenicline alone (VAR; 1mg twice daily), low dose naltrexone alone (L-NTX; 25mg once daily), varenicline plus naltrexone, and placebo for effects on cigarette craving and subjective response to alcohol and cigarettes in a sample (n=130) of heavy drinking daily smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day). Methods All participants were tested after a 9-day titration period designed to reach steady state on the target medication. Testing was completed at 12-hrs of nicotine abstinence, after consuming a standard dose of alcohol (target Breath Alcohol Concentration = 0.06 g/dl), and after smoking the first cigarette of the day. Results The combination of VAR+L-NTX was superior to placebo, and at times superior to monotherapy, in attenuating cigarette craving, cigarette and alcohol “high,” and in reducing ad-lib consumption of both cigarettes and alcohol during the 9-day medication titration period. Conclusions These preliminary findings indicate that clinical studies of the combination of VAR+L-NTX for heavy drinkers trying to quit smoking are warranted and may ultimately improve clinical care for this sizeable and treatment-resistant subgroup of smokers. PMID:24733235

  13. Sexual risk-taking behaviors, gambling, and heavy drinking among U.S. College athletes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiun-Hau; Jacobs, Durand F; Derevensky, Jeffrey L

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the prevalence patterns of sexual risk-taking behaviors (i.e., unprotected sex and having multiple sex partners) in relation to levels of gambling problems and heavy episodic drinking (HED) status among U.S. college athletes. Data from a representative national sample of 20,739 U.S. college athletes were derived from the first National Collegiate Athletic Association national survey of problem gambling and health-risk behaviors. Among college athletes who were sexually active during the past year, males reported significantly higher prevalence of unprotected sex (10.2%) and multiple sex partners (14.6%) than females (7.9% and 9.3%, respectively). Using the DSM-IV Gambling Screen classification, as the level of gambling severity increased, the prevalence of sexual risk-taking behaviors also increased among female athletes, but decreased among male athletes. As regards the effect of heavy drinking, while both male and female HED athletes reported elevated sexual risk-taking, the effect of HED was twice as large in females as in males. It is important to note that the definitions of sexual risk behaviors in this study took into account committed sexual relationship status; hence, the results of this study need to be interpreted with the refined sexual risk measures in mind. Further investigations are warranted to help us better understand and explicate the interrelationships of sexual risk-taking behaviors, gambling, and heavy drinking among these college athletes. Findings from this exploratory study suggest new directions for future research and practice and also highlight the importance of a more inclusive multi-component approach to address these co-occurring youth risk behaviors.

  14. Relationship between negative affect and smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers.

    PubMed

    Green, ReJoyce; Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O; Ray, Lara A

    2016-10-01

    Heavy drinking smokers represent a sizeable subgroup of smokers for whom nicotine deprivation and alcohol use increases the urge to smoke in the laboratory and predicts lapses during smoking cessation. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e. smoking topography) provides a reliable index of smoking intensity and reinforcement, yet the effects of affect on smoking topography have not been thoroughly examined in heavy drinking smokers. The current study examined how affect and nicotine deprivation predict smoking behavior as participants (N=27) smoked one cigarette using a smoking topography device after 12-h of nicotine abstinence and after a priming dose of alcohol (target BrAC=0.06g/dl). Primary smoking topography measures were puff volume, velocity, duration, and inter-puff interval (IPI). The effect of nicotine deprivation was measured by the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Measures were obtained at baseline (i.e. 12-h of nicotine abstinence and pre-alcohol) and 30-minutes after alcohol administration (i.e. peak BrAC). Results revealed post-priming negative affect significantly moderated the trajectories of puff volume, puff duration and IPI (p's<0.05) over the course of the cigarette, such that those with greater negative affect had flatter slopes for volume and duration and increasingly infrequent puffs. Our results suggest that baseline and post-priming negative affect following nicotine deprivation alters smoking patterns and increases nicotine exposure throughout a single cigarette. Future studies need to examine differential amounts of nicotine deprivation on response to alcohol and smoking in heavy drinking smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Drinking water studies: a review on heavy metal, application of biomarker and health risk assessment (a special focus in Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Ab Razak, Nurul Hafiza; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Hashim, Zailina

    2015-12-01

    Malaysia has abundant sources of drinking water from river and groundwater. However, rapid developments have deteriorated quality of drinking water sources in Malaysia. Heavy metal studies in terms of drinking water, applications of health risk assessment and bio-monitoring in Malaysia were reviewed from 2003 to 2013. Studies on heavy metal in drinking water showed the levels are under the permissible limits as suggested by World Health Organization and Malaysian Ministry of Health. Future studies on the applications of health risk assessment are crucial in order to understand the risk of heavy metal exposure through drinking water to Malaysian population. Among the biomarkers that have been reviewed, toenail is the most useful tool to evaluate body burden of heavy metal. Toenails are easy to collect, store, transport and analysed. This review will give a clear guidance for future studies of Malaysian drinking water. In this way, it will help risk managers to minimize the exposure at optimum level as well as the government to formulate policies in safe guarding the population.

  16. Drinking and Desired Self-Images: Path Models of Self-Image Goals, Coping Motives, Heavy-Episodic Drinking, and Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Scott J.; Crocker, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Coping motives for drinking initiate alcohol-related problems. Interpersonal goals, which powerfully influence affect, could provide a starting point for this relation. Here we tested effects of self-image goals (which aim to construct and defend desired self-views) and compassionate goals (which aim to support others) on heavy-episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems. Undergraduate drinkers (N=258) completed measures of self-image and compassionate goals in academics and friendships, coping and enhancement drinking motives, heavy-episodic drinking, and alcohol-related problems in a cross-sectional design. As predicted, self-image goals, but not compassionate goals, positively related to alcohol-related problems. Path models showed that self-image goals relate to coping motives, but not enhancement motives; coping motives then relate to heavy-episodic drinking, which in turn relate to alcohol-related problems. Self-image goals remained a significant predictor in the final model, which accounted for 34% of the variance in alcohol-related problems. These findings indicate that self-image goals contribute to alcohol-related problems in college students both independently and through coping motives. Interventions can center on reducing self-image goals and their attendant negative affect. PMID:19586150

  17. The Low Level of Response to Alcohol-Based Heavy Drinking Prevention Program: One-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Schuckit, Marc A; Smith, Tom L; Clausen, Peyton; Fromme, Kim; Skidmore, Jessica; Shafir, Alexandra; Kalmijn, Jelger

    2016-01-01

    Heavy drinking is common on college campuses, with a marked increase from high school to freshman year. Programs addressing heavy campus drinking often personalize prevention protocols to fit a student's demography and prior drinking characteristics. Few efforts have individualized approaches to address a person's vulnerability through his or her low level of response (low LR) to alcohol. This article describes the recently completed 55-week outcome in drinking quantities and problems for the >90% of 500 participants in a prevention program at a U.S. university (62% female, mean age = 18 years) who completed a 4-week series of 50-minute videos delivered via the Internet. We evaluated whether, for low LRs, participation in an educational approach that focused on a low LR (the LR-based [LRB] condition) was associated with better outcomes than a state-of-the-art (SOTA) general education or with a no-intervention control condition. Using a mixed-design analysis of variance and focusing on the most closely ethnically matched high and low LR pairs, students with low LRs in the LRB condition demonstrated the greatest decreases in usual and maximum drinks over the 55 weeks, especially when compared with closely ethnically matched students with high LRs. Low LR controls showed the highest drinking values over time. This study underscores the potential importance of targeting a person's specific preexisting vulnerability toward heavy drinking when he or she enters college. The approach can be used in a relatively inexpensive protocol of video education sessions delivered via the Internet.

  18. A parent-based intervention reduces heavy episodic drinking among first-year college students.

    PubMed

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Earle, Andrew M; Boyle, Sarah C; Hummer, Justin F; Montes, Kevin; Turrisi, Rob; Napper, Lucy E

    2016-08-01

    A randomized controlled trial tested an interactive normative feedback-based intervention-codenamed "FITSTART"-delivered to groups of 50-100 parents of matriculating college students. The 60-min session motivated parents to alter their alcohol-related communication by correcting normative misperceptions (e.g., about how approving other parents are of student drinking) with live-generated data. Then, tips were provided on discussing drinking effectively. Incoming students (N = 331; 62.2% female) completed baseline measures prior to new-student orientation. Next, at parent orientation in June, these students' parents were assigned to either FITSTART or a control session. Finally, 4 months later, students completed a follow-up survey. Results revealed that students whose parents received FITSTART during the summer consumed less alcohol and were less likely to engage in heavy episodic drinking (HED) during the first month of college. These effects were mediated by FITSTART students' lower perceptions of their parents' approval of alcohol consumption. Further, FITSTART students who were not drinkers in high school were less likely to initiate drinking and to start experiencing negative consequences during the first month of college, where FITSTART students who had been drinkers in high school experienced fewer consequences overall and were significantly more likely to report that they did not experience any consequences whatsoever during the first month of college. Importantly, FITSTART is the first parent-based intervention to impact HED, one of the most well-studied indicators of risky drinking. Thus, interactive group normative feedback with parents is a promising approach for reducing college alcohol risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Development and evaluation of a mobile intervention for heavy drinking and smoking among college students.

    PubMed

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Desai, Sruti A; Bowen, Sarah; Leigh, Barbara C; Kirouac, Megan; Larimer, Mary E

    2014-09-01

    Nearly all college student smokers also drink alcohol, and smoking and heavy episodic drinking (HED) commonly co-occur. However, few studies have examined the factors that concurrently influence smoking and HED among college students and, to date, no interventions have been developed that target both HED and smoking in this population. The objective of the current study was to develop and evaluate a mobile feedback intervention that targets HED and smoking. Participants (N = 94) were non-treatment-seeking college students (M(age) = 20.5 years, SD = 1.7) who engaged in at least a single HED episode in the past 2 weeks and reported concurrent smoking and drinking at least once a week. Participants were randomized to receive either the mobile intervention for 14 days, complete mobile assessments (without intervention) for 14 days, or complete minimal assessments (without intervention or mobile assessments). At a 1-month follow-up, compared with the minimal assessment condition, we observed significant reductions in the number of cigarettes per smoking day in both the mobile intervention (d = 0.55) and mobile assessment (d = 0.45) conditions. Among those randomized to the mobile intervention, receiving more modules of the intervention was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of any drinking during the 14-day assessment period and significant reductions in smoking at 1-month follow-up. The mobile intervention did not result in significant reductions in HED or concurrent smoking and drinking. Future research should continue to examine ways of using technology and the real-time environment to improve interventions for HED and smoking.

  20. A Parent-Based Intervention Reduces Heavy Episodic Drinking Among First-Year College Students

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Earle, Andrew M.; Boyle, Sarah C.; Hummer, Justin F.; Montes, Kevin; Turrisi, Rob; Napper, Lucy E.

    2016-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial tested an interactive normative feedback-based intervention—codenamed “FITSTART”—delivered to groups of 50–100 parents of matriculating college students. The 60-minute session motivated parents to alter their alcohol-related communication by correcting normative misperceptions (e.g., about how approving other parents are of student drinking) with live-generated data. Then, tips were provided on discussing drinking effectively. Incoming students (N = 331; 62.2% female) completed baseline measures prior to new-student orientation. Next, at parent orientation in June, these students’ parents were assigned to either FITSTART or a control session. Finally, four months later, students completed a follow-up survey. Results revealed that students whose parents received FITSTART during the summer consumed less alcohol and were less likely to engage in heavy episodic drinking (HED) during the first month of college. These effects were mediated by FITSTART students' lower perceptions of their parents' approval of alcohol consumption. Further, FITSTART students who weren’t drinkers in high school were less likely to initiate drinking and to start experiencing negative consequences during the first month of college, while FITSTART students who had been drinkers in high school experienced fewer consequences overall and were significantly more likely to report that they did not experience any consequences whatsoever during the first month of college. Importantly, FITSTART is the first PBI to impact HED, one of the most well-studied indicators of risky drinking. Thus, interactive group normative feedback with parents is a promising approach for reducing college alcohol risk. PMID:27824231

  1. Effects of sulfate on heavy metal release from iron corrosion scales in drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huifang; Shi, Baoyou; Yang, Fan; Wang, Dongsheng

    2017-05-01

    Trace heavy metals accumulated in iron corrosion scales within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS) could potentially be released to bulk water and consequently deteriorate the tap water quality. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the release of trace heavy metals in DWDS under changing source water conditions. Experimental pipe loops with different iron corrosion scales were set up to simulate the actual DWDS. The effects of sulfate levels on heavy metal release were systemically investigated. Heavy metal releases of Mn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cr and As could be rapidly triggered by sulfate addition but the releases slowly decreased over time. Heavy metal release was more severe in pipes transporting groundwater (GW) than in pipes transporting surface water (SW). There were strong positive correlations (R(2) > 0.8) between the releases of Fe and Mn, Fe and Ni, Fe and Cu, and Fe and Pb. When switching to higher sulfate water, iron corrosion scales in all pipe loops tended to be more stable (especially in pipes transporting GW), with a larger proportion of stable constituents (mainly Fe3O4) and fewer unstable compounds (β-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, FeCO3 and amorphous iron oxides). The main functional iron reducing bacteria (IRB) communities were favorable for the formation of Fe3O4. The transformation of corrosion scales and the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) accounted for the gradually reduced heavy metal release with time. The higher metal release in pipes transporting GW could be due to increased Fe6(OH)12CO3 content under higher sulfate concentrations.

  2. Examination of posttraining supervision of peer counselors in a motivational enhancement intervention to reduce drinking in a sample of heavy-drinking college students.

    PubMed

    Mastroleo, Nadine R; Turrisi, Rob; Carney, Jolynn V; Ray, Anne E; Larimer, Mary E

    2010-10-01

    Importance of peer counselor posttraining supervision on motivational interviewing (MI) microskills and postintervention drinking outcomes were evaluated in a sample of heavy-drinking undergraduate students completing Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS; L.A. Dimeff, J.S. Baer, D.R. Kivlahan, & G.A. Marlatt, 1999). Two peer counselor groups were trained using identical protocols. Posttraining, one group was randomized to receive supervision, whereas the other received no supervision. Groups were subsequently compared on MI microskills. College students (n = 122) were randomly assigned to either assessment-only control, supervision, or no supervision groups and completed a BASICS intervention. Postintervention drinking outcomes were examined. Results suggested supervision aided peer counselors in reducing use of closed-ended questions. Both treatment groups reduced total drinks per week and heavy-drinking behaviors compared to control. No differences on peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) or alcohol-related consequences were observed. Differences in supervision did not influence drinking outcomes; however, posttraining supervision for peer counselors deficient in MI microskills may be needed to improve BASICS fidelity.

  3. Examination of Post-Training Supervision of Peer Counselors in a Motivational Enhancement Intervention to Reduce Drinking in a Sample of Heavy Drinking College Students

    PubMed Central

    Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Turrisi, Rob; Carney, JoLynn V.; Ray, Anne E.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of peer counselor post-training supervision on Motivational Interviewing microskills and post-intervention drinking outcomes were evaluated in a sample of heavy drinking undergraduate students completing BASICS (Dimeff et al., 1999). Two peer counselor groups were trained using identical protocols. Post-training, one group was randomized to receive supervision, while the other received no supervision. Groups were subsequently compared on MI microskills. College students (N=122) were randomly assigned to either assessment-only control, supervision, or no supervision groups and completed a BASICS intervention. Post-intervention drinking outcomes were examined. Results suggested supervision aided peer counselors in reducing use of closed-ended questions. Both treatment groups reduced total drinks per week and heavy drinking behaviors compared to control. No differences on peak BAC or alcohol related consequences were observed. Differences in supervision did not influence drinking outcomes; however post-training supervision for peer counselors deficient in MI microskills may be needed to improve BASICS fidelity. PMID:20673621

  4. Heavy alcohol consumption among marginalised African refugee young people in Melbourne, Australia: motivations for drinking, experiences of alcohol-related problems and strategies for managing drinking.

    PubMed

    Horyniak, Danielle; Higgs, Peter; Cogger, Shelley; Dietze, Paul; Bofu, Tapuwa

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about substance use among resettled refugee populations. This study aimed to describe motivations for drinking, experiences of alcohol-related problems and strategies for managing drinking among marginalised African refugee young people in Melbourne, Australia. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 self-identified African refugees recruited from street-based settings in 2012-2013. Interview transcripts were analysed inductively to identify key themes. Participants gathered in public spaces to consume alcohol on a daily or near-daily basis. Three key motivations for heavy alcohol consumption were identified: drinking to cope with trauma, drinking to cope with boredom and frustration and drinking as a social experience. Participants reported experiencing a range of health and social consequences of their alcohol consumption, including breakdown of family relationships, homelessness, interpersonal violence, contact with the justice system and poor health. Strategies for managing drinking included attending counselling or residential detoxification programmes, self-imposed physical isolation and intentionally committing crime in order to be incarcerated. These findings highlight the urgent need for targeted harm reduction education for African young people who consume alcohol. Given the importance of social relationships within this community, use of peer-based strategies are likely to be particularly effective. Development and implementation of programmes that address the underlying health and psychosocial causes and consequences of heavy alcohol use are also needed.

  5. Human exposure risk to heavy metals through groundwater used for drinking in an intensively irrigated river delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrimurugan, E.; Brindha, K.; Elango, L.; Ndwandwe, Osman Muzi

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water containing heavy metals above the maximum permissible limits cause potential risk to human health. The aim of this study was to determine the groundwater suitability for drinking use based on heavy metal concentration and the associated human exposure risk in an intensively irrigated part of the Cauvery river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Sixteen heavy metals analysed were in the order of dominance of chromium < zinc < copper < cadmium < cobalt < iron < aluminium < nickel < titanium < zirconium < boron < silver < manganese < lead < lithium < silicon in groundwater. Chromium and zinc were within permissible limits of the Bureau of Indian Standards for drinking water quality, and silver, lead and nickel were above limits in all the groundwater samples. In less than 50 % of the groundwater samples, aluminium, boron, cadmium, copper, iron and manganese exceeded their individual permissible limits. Heavy metal pollution index based on 11 heavy metals indicated that groundwater quality of this area is poor-to-unsuitable. Non-carcinogenic risk for humans due to ingestion of groundwater through drinking water pathway was very high for infants, children and adults. Silver, lead, nickel, cadmium and manganese largely contributed to the health hazard. Sources of heavy metals were identified to be geological and from human activities, i.e., application of fertilizers in agricultural fields, seawater intrusion due to intensive pumping for agriculture and wastewater from industries. Groundwater and surface water in this area pose large threat due to high levels of heavy metals, and it is necessary to avoid this water for drinking due to potential risk of health hazard. This study also demonstrated the application of HPI and human exposure hazard index to study the groundwater quality based on heavy metals' concentration.

  6. Combined varenicline and naltrexone treatment reduces smoking topography intensity in heavy-drinking smokers.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel J O; Bujarski, Spencer; Hartwell, Emily; Green, ReJoyce; Ray, Lara A

    2015-07-01

    Heavy drinking smokers constitute a distinct sub-population of smokers for whom traditional smoking cessation therapies may not be effective. Recent evidence suggested that combined varenicline (VAR) and naltrexone (NTX) therapy may be more efficacious than either monotherapy alone in reducing smoking and drinking-related behavior in this population. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e., smoking topography) may be predictive of smoking cessation outcomes, yet the effects of smoking pharmacotherapies on puffing behavior have not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, the current double-blind medication study examined the effects of VAR alone (1mg BID), low dose NTX alone (25mg QD), the combination of VAR+NTX, and placebo on smoking topography measures in heavy drinking, non-treatment seeking daily smokers (n=120). After a 9-day titration period, participants completed a laboratory session in which they smoked their first cigarette of the day using a smoking topography device following 12h of nicotine abstinence and consumption of an alcoholic beverage (BrAC=0.06g/dl). The primary measures were puff count, volume, duration, and velocity and inter-puff interval (IPI). Independent of medication group, puff velocity and IPI increased, while puff volume and duration decreased, over the course of the cigarette. The active medication groups, vs. the placebo group, had significantly blunted puff duration and velocity slopes over the course of the cigarette, and this effect was particularly evident in the VAR+NTX group. Additionally, the VAR+NTX group demonstrated lower average IPI than the monotherapy groups and lower average puff volume than all other groups. These results suggest that smoking pharmacotherapies, particularly the combination of VAR+NTX, alter smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers, producing a pattern of less intense puffing behavior. As smoking topography has been predictive of the ability to quit smoking, future studies should

  7. The effect of coping skills training on alcohol consumption in heavy social drinking.

    PubMed

    Källmén, Håkan; Sjöberg, Lennart; Wennberg, Peter

    2003-06-01

    This study, designed to evaluate a relapse prevention technique, is based on Swedish "heavy" social drinkers who wanted to drink less or quit completely. They were recruited by advertisement in national Swedish newspapers and were randomly assigned into a control group and a coping skill training group (treatment group). Data were collected during the period 1989-1991. Subjects in the coping skills training group were taught methods to cope with the craving for alcohol, and subjects in the control group had a conventional discussion about their problems and the future. All participants also had to set a goal to be reached after the treatment. Subjects were asked about their alcohol consumption and dependence of alcohol and other alcohol-related behaviors, before, six months, and 18 months after treatment. The coping skills training did not prove more efficient than nonspecific treatment received in the control group. Instead alcohol consumption decreased as a function of the subjects' initial goals, independent of treatment and a wish to control drinking seemed more efficient than to try to quit drinking completely.

  8. The Theory of Planned Behavior as a Model of Heavy Episodic Drinking Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Susan E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a simultaneous, confirmatory test of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting heavy episodic drinking (HED) among college students. It was hypothesized that past HED, drinking attitudes, subjective norms and drinking refusal self-efficacy would predict intention, which would in turn predict future HED. Participants consisted of 131 college drinkers (63% female) who reported having engaged in HED in the previous two weeks. Participants were recruited and completed questionnaires within the context of a larger intervention study (see Collins & Carey, 2005). Latent factor structural equation modeling was used to test the ability of the TPB to predict HED. Chi-square tests and fit indices indicated good fit for the final structural models. Self-efficacy and attitudes but not subjective norms significantly predicted baseline intention, and intention and past HED predicted future HED. Contrary to hypotheses, however, a structural model excluding past HED provided a better fit than a model including it. Although further studies must be conducted before a definitive conclusion is reached, a TPB model excluding past behavior, which is arguably more parsimonious and theory driven, may provide better prediction of HED among college drinkers than a model including past behavior. PMID:18072832

  9. The theory of planned behavior as a model of heavy episodic drinking among college students.

    PubMed

    Collins, Susan E; Carey, Kate B

    2007-12-01

    This study provided a simultaneous confirmatory test of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting heavy episodic drinking (HED) among college students. It was hypothesized that past HED, drinking attitudes, subjective norms, and drinking refusal self-efficacy would predict intention, which would, in turn, predict future HED. Participants consisted of 131 college drinkers (63% women) who reported having engaged in HED in the previous 2 weeks. Participants were recruited and completed questionnaires within the context of a larger intervention study (see Collins & Carey, 2005). Latent factor structural equation modeling was used to test the ability of the TPB to predict HED. Chi-square tests and fit indices indicated good fit for the final structural models. Self-efficacy and attitudes but not subjective norms significantly predicted baseline intention, and intention and past HED predicted future HED. Contrary to hypotheses, however, a structural model excluding past HED provided a better fit than a model including it. Although further studies must be conducted before a definitive conclusion is reached, a TPB model excluding past behavior, which is arguably more parsimonious and theory driven, may predict HED among college drinkers better than a model including past behavior.

  10. Community- and individual-level factors associated with smoking and heavy drinking among Aboriginal people in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Georgiades, Katholiki; MacMillan, Harriet L; Boyle, Michael H

    2015-02-03

    1) To examine the association between place of residence (i.e., on- versus off-communities and between provinces) and daily smoking and heavy drinking among Aboriginal people in Canada; and 2) to identify community- and individual-level factors that may account for these associations. Data were from the Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2001). The sample included 52,110 Aboriginal people (≥ 15 years of age). Community-level variables included: place of residence, community socio-economic status (SES) and perceived community social problems. Individual-level variables included: age, sex, education, income, employment status, marital status, Aboriginal heritage and social support. Multilevel logistic regressions were conducted to analyze the data. Living in First Nations communities (compared with living off-communities) was associated with daily smoking, and this association was accounted for by perceived community social problems. However, the association between Inuit communities and daily smoking remained after controlling for all covariates (odds ratio (OR) = 1.97, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.44-2.70). Residence in First Nations communities was associated with heavy drinking (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.17-2.04), however this risk became evident only after controlling for community SES, which was also positively associated with heavy drinking (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.26-1.69). Compared with Saskatchewan, Aboriginal people in Atlantic Provinces (OR = 2.80, 95% CI = 2.08-3.78) or Territories (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.01-1.92) were more likely to engage in heavy drinking. Studies are needed to better understand the increased risk for smoking in Inuit communities and heavy drinking in First Nations communities, Atlantic Provinces and Territories, and to identify possible reasons for the positive association between community SES and heavy drinking among Aboriginal people.

  11. Naltrexone Improves Quit Rates, Attenuates Smoking Urge, and Reduces Alcohol Use in Heavy Drinking Smokers Attempting to Quit Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Fridberg, Daniel J.; Cao, Dingcai; Grant, Jon E.; King, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Heavy drinking smokers (HDS) have more difficulty quitting smoking than lighter drinkers or abstainers. The opioid antagonist naltrexone may improve smoking quit rates and reduce alcohol use in drinker–smokers, but its relative efficacy in smokers with a range of drinking patterns is unknown. The current study tested the hypothesis that HDS would show differential benefit of naltrexone versus placebo relative to moderate-to-light or nondrinking smokers in terms of improving smoking outcomes and reducing alcohol consumption. Methods Adult smokers (N = 315) enrolled in a 12-week, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 50 mg naltrexone for smoking cessation were categorized into subgroups based upon past 6-month drinking patterns: HDS (n = 69; i.e., averaged ≥2 heavy drinking episodes per month), moderate-to-light drinking smokers (n = 204, i.e., consumed 1 drink up to a maximum of <2 heavy drinking episodes per month on average), or nondrinking smokers (n = 42, no alcohol consumed in the past 6 months). The groups were compared on the main study outcomes of biochemically verified prolonged abstinence quit rates (i.e., no smoking weeks 2 to 12), and smoking urge and alcohol use (drinks/wk) during treatment. Results Naltrexone significantly increased 12-week smoking abstinence rates and decreased smoking urge and alcohol use among HDS, but not moderate-to-light or nondrinking smokers. Mediation analyses in HDS revealed that naltrexone’s effect on smoking urge during the first 4 weeks of treatment mediated its effect on quit rates. Conclusions HDS appear to be particularly sensitive to naltrexone effects on smoking and drinking outcomes. This group may represent an important target for adjunctive treatment with naltrexone to optimize smoking cessation outcomes. PMID:25335648

  12. Effect of drinking water source on associations between gastrointestinal illness and heavy rainfall in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Jessie A.; Fagliano, Jerald A.

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal illness (GI) has been associated with heavy rainfall. Storm events and periods of heavy rainfall and runoff can result in increased microbiological contaminants in raw water. Surface water supplies are open to the environment and runoff can directly influence the presence of contaminants. A time-stratified bi-directional case-crossover study design was used to estimate associations of heavy rainfall and hospitalizations for GI. Cases of GI were identified as in-patient hospitalization with a primary diagnosis of infectious disease associated diarrhea [ICD-9 codes: specified gastrointestinal infections 001–009.9 or diarrhea 787.91] among the residents of New Jersey from 2009 to 2013 resulting in a final sample size of 47,527 cases. Two control days were selected on the same days of the week as the case day, within fixed 21-day strata. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios controlling for temperature and humidity. To determine potential effect modification estimates were stratified by season (warm or cold) and drinking water source (groundwater, surface water, or ‘other’ category). Stratified analyses by drinking water source and season identified positive associations of rainfall and GI hospitalizations in surface water systems during the warm season with no lag (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.05–1.19) and a 2-day lag (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.03–1.16). Positive associations in ‘Other’ water source areas (served by very small community water systems, private wells, or unknown) during the warm season with a 4-day lag were also found. However, there were no statistically significant positive associations in groundwater systems during the warm season. The results suggest that water systems with surface water sources can play an important role in preventing GI hospitalizations during and immediately following heavy rainfall. Regulators should work with water system providers to develop system specific prevention techniques to

  13. Legal Ages for Purchase and Consumption of Alcohol and Heavy Drinking among College Students in Canada, Europe, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Adrienne; Frye, Laurie; Bauerle, Jennifer; Turner, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy drinking and associated negative consequences remain a serious problem among college students. In a secondary analysis of data from two published study, the authors examine the correlation between minimum legal age to purchase and/or consume alcohol and rates of heavy drinking among college students in 22 countries. The published studies use…

  14. Legal Ages for Purchase and Consumption of Alcohol and Heavy Drinking among College Students in Canada, Europe, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Adrienne; Frye, Laurie; Bauerle, Jennifer; Turner, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy drinking and associated negative consequences remain a serious problem among college students. In a secondary analysis of data from two published study, the authors examine the correlation between minimum legal age to purchase and/or consume alcohol and rates of heavy drinking among college students in 22 countries. The published studies use…

  15. Loose Cigarette Purchasing and Nondaily Smoking Among Young Adult Bar Patrons in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Guillory, Jamie; Johns, Michael; Farley, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined loose cigarette (loosie) purchasing behavior among young adult (aged 18–26 years) smokers at bars in New York City and factors associated with purchase and use. Methods. Between June and December 2013, we conducted cross-sectional surveys (n = 1916) in randomly selected bars and nightclubs. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we examined associations of loose cigarette purchasing and use with smoking frequency, price, social norms, cessation behaviors, and demographics. Results. Forty-five percent (n = 621) of nondaily smokers and 57% (n = 133) of daily smokers had ever purchased a loosie; 15% of nondaily smokers and 4% of daily smokers reported that their last cigarette was a loosie. Nondaily smokers who never smoked daily were more likely than were daily smokers to have last smoked a loosie (odds ratio = 7.27; 95% confidence interval = 2.35, 22.48). Quitting behaviors and perceived approval of smoking were associated with ever purchasing and recently smoking loosies. Conclusions. Loosie purchase and use is common among young adults, especially nondaily smokers. Smoking patterns and attitudes should be considered to reduce loose cigarette purchasing among young adults in New York City. PMID:25880951

  16. Loose Cigarette Purchasing and Nondaily Smoking Among Young Adult Bar Patrons in New York City.

    PubMed

    Guillory, Jamie; Johns, Michael; Farley, Shannon M; Ling, Pamela M

    2015-08-01

    We examined loose cigarette (loosie) purchasing behavior among young adult (aged 18-26 years) smokers at bars in New York City and factors associated with purchase and use. Between June and December 2013, we conducted cross-sectional surveys (n = 1916) in randomly selected bars and nightclubs. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we examined associations of loose cigarette purchasing and use with smoking frequency, price, social norms, cessation behaviors, and demographics. Forty-five percent (n = 621) of nondaily smokers and 57% (n = 133) of daily smokers had ever purchased a loosie; 15% of nondaily smokers and 4% of daily smokers reported that their last cigarette was a loosie. Nondaily smokers who never smoked daily were more likely than were daily smokers to have last smoked a loosie (odds ratio = 7.27; 95% confidence interval = 2.35, 22.48). Quitting behaviors and perceived approval of smoking were associated with ever purchasing and recently smoking loosies. Loosie purchase and use is common among young adults, especially nondaily smokers. Smoking patterns and attitudes should be considered to reduce loose cigarette purchasing among young adults in New York City.

  17. Childhood and adolescent predictors of heavy drinking and alcohol use disorders in early adulthood: a longitudinal developmental analysis

    PubMed Central

    Englund, Michelle M.; Egeland, Byron; Oliva, Elizabeth M.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Aims To identify childhood and adolescent factors differentiating heavy alcohol users in early adulthood from more moderate users or abstainers. Design Low-income participants followed from birth to age 28 years. Participants A total of 178 adults (95 males) who were first-born children of low-income mothers recruited in Minneapolis, Minnesota, during their third trimester of pregnancy. Measurements Maternal hostility (24/42 months), externalizing and internalizing behavior problems (9 years), peer acceptance and academic achievement (12 years), maternal alcohol use and participants’ drinking behavior (16 years), quantity of alcohol use per occasion (19, 23 and 26 years), alcohol use disorders (28 years). Findings For men: (i) higher amounts of alcohol consumption at age 16 increased the odds of being a heavy drinker compared to an abstainer (age 19) and a moderate drinker (ages 23 and 26); (ii) lower achievement scores at age 12 and having a mother who drank more when the participant was age 16 increased the odds of being a heavy drinker compared to moderate drinker (age 26). Higher levels of externalizing behavior problems at age 9 and drinking more when the participants were age 16 increased the odds that men would have a current alcohol use disorder at age 28. For women: (i) drinking more at age 16 increased the odds of being a heavy drinker compared to being either an abstainer or a moderate drinker (age 26); (ii) having higher levels of achievement at age 12 increased the odds of being a heavy drinker compared to an abstainer at age 23. Adolescent alcohol use mediated the relation between externalizing behavior at age 9 and alcohol use at age 26 for women. Conclusions Problem drinking may be the result of a long-term developmental process wherein childhood externalizing behavior problems sets a pathway leading to heavy drinking during and after adolescence. PMID:18426538

  18. School violent victimization and recent alcohol use and episodic heavy drinking among youth.

    PubMed

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L

    2014-06-01

    School violent victimization is a serious public health problem among youth. The current study investigated the association between youth alcohol use and school violent victimization among middle school and high school students (N=54,361). The PRIDE national survey for Grades 6-12 was administered to youth in their classrooms. Results indicated that 38.3% of students were involved in school violent victimization. School violent victimization differed significantly based on sex, race, and grade level. Logistic regression analyses indicated that school violent victimization was directly related to elevated alcohol use in the past 12 months and episodic heavy drinking among youth. Findings from this study may be beneficial to school nurses in creating bullying and substance abuse prevention programs for students. Recommendations for future research are included.

  19. Readiness to Change among a Group of Heavy-Drinking College Students: Correlates of Readiness and a Comparison of Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, T. Robert; Walters, Scott T.; Leahy, Matthew M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Although several multi-item scales assess readiness to change alcohol consumption, some researchers have proposed that a small number of single-item rulers may assess readiness nearly as well. Participants: In fall 2006 and spring 2007, the authors assessed 279 participants who reported at least 1 heavy drinking episode in the 2 weeks…

  20. A Cocktail of Extracurricular Activities (ECAs): Different ECA Combinations and Their Association with Heavy Drinking in Two College Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Julia A.; Johnson, Douglas N.; Jones, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    The activities that students participate in are important to college life and outcomes. With regard to the problem outcome of heavy drinking, some activities pose risks (e.g., fraternity/sorority life) and others are protective (e.g., religious groups), yet students often participate in multiple activities. We estimated the odds of frequent heavy…

  1. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and metalloid in drinking water from communities near gold mines in Tarkwa, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Akoto, Osei; Baidoo, Elvis; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-07-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and metalloid in borehole drinking water from 18 communities in Tarkwa, Ghana, were measured to assess the health risk associated with its consumption. Mean concentrations of heavy metals (μg/L) exceeded recommended values in some communities. If we take into consideration the additive effect of heavy metals and metalloid, then oral hazard index (HI) results raise concerns about the noncarcinogenic adverse health effects of drinking groundwater in Huniso. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) guidelines, HI values indicating noncarcinogenic health risk for adults and children in Huniso were 0.781 (low risk) and 1.08 (medium risk), respectively. The cancer risk due to cadmium (Cd) exposure in adults and children in the sampled communities was very low. However, the average risk values of arsenic (As) for adults and children through drinking borehole water in the communities indicated medium cancer risk, but high cancer risk in some communities such as Samahu and Mile 7. Based on the USEPA assessment, the average cancer risk values of As for adults (3.65E-05) and children (5.08E-05) indicated three (adults) and five (children) cases of neoplasm in a hundred thousand inhabitants. The results of this study showed that residents in Tarkwa who use and drink water from boreholes could be at serious risk from exposure to these heavy metals and metalloid.

  2. A Cocktail of Extracurricular Activities (ECAs): Different ECA Combinations and Their Association with Heavy Drinking in Two College Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Julia A.; Johnson, Douglas N.; Jones, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    The activities that students participate in are important to college life and outcomes. With regard to the problem outcome of heavy drinking, some activities pose risks (e.g., fraternity/sorority life) and others are protective (e.g., religious groups), yet students often participate in multiple activities. We estimated the odds of frequent heavy…

  3. Decreasing Heavy Drinking in First-Year Students: Evaluation of a Web-Based Personalized Feedback Program Administered during Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Kane, Christina M.; Navarro, Tabitha B.; Roman, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a web-based personalized normative feedback program, electronic Check-Up to Go (e-CHUG), in decreasing heavy drinking among 1st-year university students. Results indicated high-risk students receiving the e-CHUG program during 1st-year orientation activities reported significantly greater reductions in…

  4. Racial differences in parenting style typologies and heavy episodic drinking trajectories.

    PubMed

    Clark, Trenette T; Yang, Chongming; McClernon, F Joseph; Fuemmeler, Bernard F

    2015-07-01

    This study examines racial differences between Whites and Blacks in the association of parenting style typologies with changes in heavy episodic drinking from adolescence to young adulthood. The analytic sample consists of 9,942 adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which followed respondents from ages 12 to 31 years. Confirmatory factor analysis and factor mixture modeling are used to classify parenting style typologies based on measures of parental acceptance and control. Heavy Episodic Drinking (HED) trajectories are evaluated using a zero-inflated Poisson multigroup latent growth curve modeling approach. The mixture model identified 4 heterogeneous groups that differed based on the 2 latent variables (parental acceptance and control): balanced (65.8% of the sample), authoritarian (12.2%), permissive (19.4%), and uninvolved or neglectful (2.7%). Regardless of race, we found that at age 12 years, children of authoritarian parents have a higher probability of not engaging in HED than children of parents with balanced, permissive, or neglectful parenting styles. However, among Black youth who reported HED at age 12, authoritarian parenting was associated with greater level of HED at age 12 but a less steep increase in level of HED as age increased yearly as compared with balanced parenting. For White adolescents, uninvolved, permissive, and authoritarian parenting were not associated with a greater level of HED as age increased yearly as compared with adolescents exposed to balanced parenting. The influence of parenting styles on HED during adolescence persists into young adulthood and differs by race for youth engaging in HED. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of Heavy Drinking and Risky Sexual Behaviors in Adult Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Operario, Don; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Monti, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The study aim was to assess the prevalence and co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behaviors among emergency department (ED) patients in community hospitals. Methods Systematic screening of ED patients (N = 6,486; 56.5% female) was conducted in 2 community hospitals in the northeast during times with high patient volume, generally between the hours of 10 AM to 8 PM, Monday through Saturday. Screening occurred from May 2011 through November 2013. Assessment included validated measures of alcohol use and sexual risk behavior. Results Overall results identified high rates of alcohol use, sexual risk behaviors, and their co-occurrence in this sample of ED patients. Specifically, ED patients in between the ages of 18 and 35 were consistently highest in hazardous alcohol use (positive on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test or endorsing heavy episodic drinking [HED]), sexual risk behaviors, and the co-occurrence of alcohol and sex-risk behaviors. Conclusions Findings show a high co-occurrence of hazardous drinking and unprotected sex among ED patients and highlight the role of HED as a factor associated with sexual risk behavior. Efforts to integrate universal screening for the co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behavior in ED settings are warranted; brief interventions delivered to ED patients addressing the co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behaviors have the potential to decrease the risk of sexually transmitted infections and HIV among a large number of patients. PMID:26332359

  6. The Low Level of Response to Alcohol-Based Heavy Drinking Prevention Program: One-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Schuckit, Marc A.; Smith, Tom L.; Clausen, Peyton; Fromme, Kim; Skidmore, Jessica; Shafir, Alexandra; Kalmijn, Jelger

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Heavy drinking is common on college campuses, with a marked increase from high school to freshman year. Programs addressing heavy campus drinking often personalize prevention protocols to fit a student’s demography and prior drinking characteristics. Few efforts have individualized approaches to address a person’s vulnerability through his or her low level of response (low LR) to alcohol. Method: This article describes the recently completed 55-week outcome in drinking quantities and problems for the >90% of 500 participants in a prevention program at a U.S. university (62% female, mean age = 18 years) who completed a 4-week series of 50-minute videos delivered via the Internet. We evaluated whether, for low LRs, participation in an educational approach that focused on a low LR (the LR-based [LRB] condition) was associated with better outcomes than a state-of-the-art (SOTA) general education or with a no-intervention control condition. Results: Using a mixed-design analysis of variance and focusing on the most closely ethnically matched high and low LR pairs, students with low LRs in the LRB condition demonstrated the greatest decreases in usual and maximum drinks over the 55 weeks, especially when compared with closely ethnically matched students with high LRs. Low LR controls showed the highest drinking values over time. Conclusions: This study underscores the potential importance of targeting a person’s specific preexisting vulnerability toward heavy drinking when he or she enters college. The approach can be used in a relatively inexpensive protocol of video education sessions delivered via the Internet. PMID:26751352

  7. Spatial analysis and health risk assessment of heavy metals concentration in drinking water resources.

    PubMed

    Fallahzadeh, Reza Ali; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi; Miri, Mohammad; Dashti, Mohamad Mehdi

    2017-09-15

    The heavy metals available in drinking water can be considered as a threat to human health. Oncogenic risk of such metals is proven in several studies. Present study aimed to investigate concentration of the heavy metals including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in 39 water supply wells and 5 water reservoirs within the cities Ardakan, Meibod, Abarkouh, Bafgh, and Bahabad. The spatial distribution of the concentration was carried out by the software ArcGIS. Such simulations as non-carcinogenic hazard and lifetime cancer risk were conducted for lead and nickel using Monte Carlo technique. The sensitivity analysis was carried out to find the most important and effective parameters on risk assessment. The results indicated that concentration of all metals in 39 wells (except iron in 3 cases) reached the levels mentioned in EPA, World Health Organization, and Pollution Control Department standards. Based on the spatial distribution results at all studied regions, the highest concentrations of metals were derived, respectively, for iron and zinc. Calculated HQ values for non-carcinogenic hazard indicated a reasonable risk. Average lifetime cancer risks for the lead in Ardakan and nickel in Meibod and Bahabad were shown to be 1.09 × 10(-3), 1.67 × 10(-1), and 2 × 10(-1), respectively, demonstrating high carcinogenic risk compared to similar standards and studies. The sensitivity analysis suggests high impact of concentration and BW in carcinogenic risk.

  8. Demographic, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants of daily versus non-daily sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption.

    PubMed

    Mullie, P; Aerenhouts, D; Clarys, P

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of demographic, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants on daily versus non-daily sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption. Cross-sectional design in 1852 military men. Using mailed questionnaires, sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption was recorded. Principal component analysis was used for dietary pattern analysis. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages were consumed daily by 36.3% and 33.2% of the participants, respectively. Age, body mass index (BMI), non-smoking and income were negatively related to sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. High BMI and trying to lose weight were related to artificially sweetened beverages consumption. Three major patterns were obtained from principal component analysis: first, the 'meat pattern', was loaded for red meats and processed meats; second, the 'healthy pattern', was loaded for tomatoes, fruit, whole grain, vegetables, fruit, fish, tea and nuts; finally, the 'sweet pattern' was loaded for sweets, desserts, snacks, high-energy drinks, high-fat dairy products and refined grains. The sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was strongly related with both the meat and sweet dietary patterns and inversely related to the healthy dietary pattern. The artificially sweetened beverage consumption was strongly related with the sweet and healthy dietary pattern. Daily consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was inversely associated with a healthy dietary pattern. Daily consumption of artificially sweetened beverages was clearly associated with weight-loss intention.

  9. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    , traditional norms that may directly pertain to hyperfemininzed Asian-American women, including modesty and sexual fidelity, may protect against heavy episodic drinking (Young et al. 2005). Conversely, the risk for heavy episodic drinking may be enhanced in men who strive to demonstrate traditional notions of masculinity through risk-taking and endorsement of playboy norms (Iwamoto et al. 2010). Although this review has illustrated the contemporary state of research on alcohol use among Asian Americans, it also highlights the significant limitations in this literature. Many of the studies reviewed here have used cross-sectional data, which do not allow researchers to infer causality between the various sociocultural factors and problematic alcohol use. One way of addressing this gap in the existing literature may be to implement longitudinal designs to further understand how the temporal relationship between sociocultural factors, including acculturation and gender norms, may impact alcohol use and alcohol-related problem trajectories. There also is a pressing need to develop greater understanding of within-group differences among U.S.-born and foreign-born Asian Americans as well as among as specific ethnic groups. To date, epidemiological research has largely neglected to examine these significant discrepancies. Given the growing prevalence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among Asian-American women (Grant et al. 2004; Iwamoto et al. 2010), studies also should focus on this group and explore how the intersection of gender and culture may influence alcohol use. Finally, the majority of research on this population has been conducted in college samples; therefore, it is important to also examine community samples, including U.S.-born young adults who are not attending college and older adult Asian-American populations.

  10. Relationships of both Heavy and Binge Alcohol Drinking with Unhealthy Habits in Korean Adults Based on the KNHANES IV Data

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Ha-Na; SONG, Sang-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background We conducted this cross-sectional study to examine the relationships between problematic alcohol drinking, unhealthy habits and socio-demographic factors based on the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). Methods We analyzed a total of 13,488 participants based on the data collected from the KNHANES IV performed between 2007 and 2009. Results The frequency of binge and heavy drinking was significantly higher in men and the married participants with intermediate income. The frequency of binge drinking was higher in younger adults and individuals with at least high school graduates. After the adjustment of socio-demographic factors, the odds of current smoking (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 4.11, 95% CI 3.35-5.03), abdominal obesity (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.48), stress (aOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.261.68), and depressed mood (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.58) were greater in heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers. The odds of current smoking (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.42-2.09 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 4.95, 95% CI 4.25-5.77 for frequent binge drinking), obesity (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.41 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.46-1.85 for frequent binge drinking), and abdominal obesity (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.43 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.36-1.77 for frequent binge drinking) were increased with the increased frequency of the binge drinking. Conclusions Our results would be of help for screening a specific subgroup of individuals who are vulnerable to alcohol drinking by establishing effective population-based strategies to reduce the problematic drinking. PMID:26060759

  11. Health Risk Assessment Research on Heavy Metals Ingestion Through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for the Residents in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Liping; Wang, Yeyao; Guo, Yongli; Zhou, Youya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng; Xie, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Drinking groundwater is a significant pathway for human exposure to heavy metals. To evaluate the health effect of some heavy metals ingestion through the groundwater drinking pathway, the authors collected 35 groundwater samples from the drinking water wells of local residents and the exploitation wells of waterworks in Baotou, China. The monitoring results indicate that the groundwater had been polluted by heavy metals in some regions of the study area. A health risk assessment model derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was used to determine the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic effects to residents who drink groundwater. All the respondents in the study area were at potential risk of carcinogenic health effects from arsenic when using the lowest safe standard for carcinogenic risk (1E-06). The hazard quotient values for noncarcinogenic health risk of arsenic exceeded 1 in 14.3% of the sampling wells in the study area. The research results could provide baseline data for groundwater utilization and supervision in the Baotou plain area.

  12. Racial Differences in the Consequences of Childhood Maltreatment for Adolescent and Young Adult Depression, Heavy Drinking, and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chioun; Cronley, Courtney; White, Helene Raskin; Mun, Eun-Young; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study examined racial differences in the consequences of childhood maltreatment for depression, heavy drinking, and violence during adolescence and young adulthood among Black and White young men. Methods Data came from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a prospective longitudinal study of urban males (N = 971, 56% Black). Childhood maltreatment was defined as substantiated physical or sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional maltreatment, or moral/legal/educational maltreatment with the first referral before age 12. Self reports of depressive symptoms and heavy drinking (consuming 6+ drinks on a single occasion) and official, parent, and self reports of violent offending were assessed between ages 12–17 (adolescence) and at age 24/25 (young adulthood). Regression analyses were conducted to examine childhood maltreatment and race, as well as maltreatment-by-race interactions, as predictors of the three outcomes. Results Prevalence of childhood maltreatment was higher for Black than White boys; however, there were no racial differences in timing, type, severity, and chronicity of maltreatment. When SES and cohort were controlled, childhood maltreatment significantly predicted depressive symptoms and violence in adolescence but none of the outcomes in young adulthood. Race was a significant predictor of heavy drinking and violence during adolescence and of all three outcomes in young adulthood. No significant race-by-maltreatment interaction effects were found. Conclusions Childhood maltreatment has similar negative consequences for Black and White male youth during adolescence. Extending intervention efforts through adolescence is important to alleviate these problems among victims. PMID:22525106

  13. The role of heavy episodic drinking and hostile sexism in men's sexual aggression toward female intimate partners.

    PubMed

    Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra Teten

    2012-11-01

    Research indicates that men's heavy episodic drinking is a significant risk factor for their perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimate partners. The aim of this investigation was to examine how hostile sexism (i.e., antipathy toward women) and benevolent sexism (i.e., subjectively positive, yet patriarchal, views of women) influence the relation between men's heavy episodic drinking and their perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimate partners. Participants were 205 heterosexual drinking men who completed self-report measures of quantity of alcohol consumption during the past 12 months, hostile sexism, and sexual aggression toward an intimate partner during the past 12 months. Men's heavy episodic drinking was positively associated with sexual aggression perpetration toward intimate partners amongst men who endorsed high, but not low, levels of hostile sexism. No such interactive effect emerged for men's endorsement of benevolent sexism. These results have important implications for understanding cumulative risk factors for the perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Heavy Drinking and Social and Health Factors in University Students from 24 Low, Middle Income and Emerging Economy Countries.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate heavy drinking and social and health correlates in university students in low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 17,590 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD 2.9) from 25 universities in 24 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 71.6 % were non-drinkers, 17.1 % moderate and 11.3 % heavy alcohol drinkers (14.2 % in men and 9.2 % in women) in the past 2 weeks. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age, poorer family background, living in a higher income country, weak beliefs in the importance of limiting alcohol use, higher country per capita alcohol consumption, other substance use (tobacco and illicit drug use), and poor life satisfaction was associated with heavy drinking. Addressing health beliefs and co-occurring addictive behaviors may be crucial in the prevention of heavy drinking in this population.

  15. Smoking and heavy drinking patterns in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants: the PERU MIGRANT Study.

    PubMed

    Taype-Rondan, Alvaro; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Alvarado, Germán F; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2017-02-03

    Previous studies have found mixed results about cigarette and alcohol consumption patterns among rural-to-urban migrants. Moreover, there are limited longitudinal data about consumption patterns in this population. As such, this study aimed to compare the smoking and heavy drinking prevalence among rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru, as well as the smoking and heavy drinking incidence in a 5-year follow-up. We analyzed the PERU MIGRANT Study data from rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrant populations in Peru. The baseline study was carried out in 2006-2007 and follow-up was performed five years later. For the baseline data analysis, the prevalence of lifetime smoking, current smokers, and heavy drinking was compared by population group using prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). For the longitudinal analysis, the incidence of smoking and heavy drinking was compared by population group with risk ratios (RR) and 95% CI. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to calculate both PRs and RRs. We analyzed data from 988 participants: 200 rural dwellers, 589 migrants, and 199 urban dwellers. Compared with migrants, lifetime smoking prevalence was higher in the urban group (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.64-3.20), but lower in the rural group (PR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31-0.99). Compared with migrants, the urban group had a higher current smoking prevalence (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.26-4.16), and a higher smoking incidence (RR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.03-7.34). Current smoking prevalence and smoking incidence showed no significant difference between rural and migrant groups. The prevalence and incidence of heavy drinking was similar across the three population groups. Our results show a trend in lifetime smoking prevalence (urban > migrant > rural), while smoking incidence was similar between migrant and rural groups, but higher in the urban group. In addition, our results suggest that different

  16. Sexual Victimization, Alcohol Intoxication, Sexual-Emotional Responding, and Sexual Risk in Heavy Episodic Drinking Women

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N. Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Andrasik, Michele P.

    2013-01-01

    This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women’s sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10%) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol’s effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517

  17. Alcohol and tobacco cue effects on craving in non-daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Peloquin, Marcel P J; McGrath, Daniel S; Telbis, Dessislava; Barrett, Sean P

    2014-12-01

    Non-daily smokers commonly smoke cigarettes following the consumption of alcohol, yet the reason(s) for this remains poorly understood. The present study examined the impact of alcohol consumption on responses in tobacco salient cues 49 male and 50 female non-daily smokers. After the administration of an alcohol, placebo, or control beverage, participants were exposed to series neutral video clips and tobacco smoking salient video clips, and their subjective states and heart rates were monitored. The timing of the exposure to the tobacco smoking clips was randomly determined to coincide with the timing of either the ascending limb or the descending limb of the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) curve of the alcohol beverage condition. The tobacco smoking clips were found to increase cigarette craving regardless of beverage condition or timing of exposure (p = .002). Alcohol consumption was associated with increased ratings of intoxication (p < .001), increased heart rate across participants (p < .001), and increased cigarette craving in female participants specifically (p = .017). Alcohol did not influence responses to the smoking videos. These results suggest that smoking salient cues and alcohol may impact cigarette craving in non-daily smokers through independent processes.

  18. Brief Motivational Intervention for Intimate Partner Violence and Heavy Drinking in the Emergency Department: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Karin V; Rodgers, Melissa; Sommers, Marilyn; Hanlon, Alexandra; Chittams, Jesse; Doyle, Andrea; Datner, Elizabeth; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2015-08-04

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and heavy drinking are co-occurring public health problems, but integrated brief interventions for these conditions have not been tested. To determine whether a brief motivational intervention provided at the time of an emergency department (ED) visit reduces IPV and heavy drinking. A randomized clinical trial conducted at 2 US academic urban EDs between January 2011 and December 2014 to assess the effectiveness of a motivational intervention for IPV-involved female ED patients (ages: 18-64 years; N = 600) who exceeded sex-specific safe drinking limits. All received social service referrals; 2:2:1 to brief intervention (n = 242), assessed control (n = 237), or no-contact control (n = 121). A 20- to 30-minute manual-guided motivational intervention (recorded and monitored for fidelity) delivered by master's-level therapists with a follow-up telephone booster. The assessed control group received the same number of assessments as the brief intervention group; the no-contact control group was assessed only once at 3 months. Incidents of heavy drinking and experiencing IPV measured over prespecified, 12 weekly assessments using an interactive voice response system. Of 600 participants, 80% were black women with a mean age of 32 years. Retention was 89% for 2 or more interactive voice response system calls. Seventy-eight percent of women completed the 3-month interview, 79% at 6 months, and 71% at 12 months. During the 12-week period following the brief motivational intervention, there were no significant differences between the intervention group and the assessed control group on weekly assessments for experiencing IPV (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% CI, 0.98-1.06) or heavy drinking (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.96-1.03). From baseline to 12 weeks, the number of women with any IPV in the past week decreased from 57% (134 of 237) in the intervention group to 43% (83 of 194) and from 63% (145 of 231) in the assessed control group to 41

  19. Recent alcohol use, episodic heavy drinking, and school violent victimization: Sex and grade level differences among Hispanic youth.

    PubMed

    Merianos, Ashley L; King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and involvement in school violent victimization are two significant public health problems among Hispanic youth. The present study examined alcohol use by involvement in school violent victimization among seventh through twelfth grade Hispanic students in one metropolitan area. The Pride Student National Survey was administered to students in their school classrooms. Results indicated that Hispanic students who were involved in school violent victimization were at increased risk for recent alcohol use and frequent episodic heavy drinking compared to Hispanic students who were not involved. Logistic regression revealed Hispanic males, junior high school, and high school students were at increased odds for recent alcohol use based on involvement in school violent victimization. Regarding frequent episodic heavy drinking, Hispanic males, females, and high school students were at increased odds. These findings can aid professionals in developing effective prevention programs and efforts for this high-risk population. Recommendations for future studies are included.

  20. Trace elements and heavy metals in mineral and bottled drinking waters on the Iranian market.

    PubMed

    Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Dezfooli-Manesh, Shirin; Shoeibi, Shahram; Ziarati, Parisa; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2015-01-01

    A survey of Iranian waters, sampled from 2010 to 2013, is presented. A total of 128 water samples from 42 different brands of bottled mineral and drinking water were collected and analysed for contamination levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg). Determinations were performed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Pb, Cd and Cu, a hydride vapour generation as well as an Arsenator digital kit (Wagtech WTD, Tyne and Wear, UK) for As and a direct mercury analyser for Hg. Arsenic concentration in six bottled gaseous mineral samples was higher than the related limit. Regardless of these, mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, As and Hg in all types of water samples were 4.50 ± 0.49, 1.08 ± 0.09, 16.11 ± 2.77, 5.80 ± 1.63 and 0.52 ± 0.03 µg L⁻¹, respectively. Values obtained for analysed heavy metals in all samples were permissible according to the limits of national and international standards.

  1. Daily Co-Occurrence of Alcohol Use and High-Risk Sexual Behavior among Heterosexual, Heavy Drinking Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Tyler B.; Celio, Mark A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Operario, Don; Monti, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Global association and experimental studies suggest that alcohol use may increase sexual behavior that poses risk for exposure to sexually-transmitted infections (STI) among heterosexual men and women. However, results from longitudinal and daily recall studies exploring the co-occurrence of alcohol use with various sexual risk outcomes in more naturalistic contexts have been mixed, and the bulk of this research has focused on college students. Methods The current study enrolled heavy-drinking emergency department (ED) patients and used a cross-sectional, 30-day Timeline Followback (TLFB) method to examine the daily co-occurrence between alcohol use and three sexual behavior outcomes: Any sex, unprotected intercourse (UI), and UI with casual partners (vs. protected intercourse [PI] with casual partners, or UI/PI with steady partners). Results Results indicated that increasing levels of alcohol use on a given day increased the odds of engaging in any sexual activity and that heavy drinking (but not very heavy drinking) on a given day was associated with an increased odds of engaging in UI with either steady or casual partners. However, day-level alcohol use was not associated with an increased odds of UI with casual partners. Conclusions These findings suggest that alcohol may play an important role in increasing risk for HIV/STIs among heterosexuals, and support the continued need to target heavy drinking in sex risk reduction interventions. However, our results also suggest that alcohol may not universally result in unprotected sex with casual partners, a behavior posing perhaps the highest risk for HIV/STI transmission. PMID:25962789

  2. Daily co-occurrence of alcohol use and high-risk sexual behavior among heterosexual, heavy drinking emergency department patients.

    PubMed

    Wray, Tyler B; Celio, Mark A; Kahler, Christopher W; Barnett, Nancy P; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Operario, Don; Monti, Peter M

    2015-07-01

    Global association and experimental studies suggest that alcohol use may increase sexual behavior that poses risk for exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STI) among heterosexual men and women. However, results from longitudinal and daily recall studies exploring the co-occurrence of alcohol use with various sexual risk outcomes in more naturalistic contexts have been mixed, and the bulk of this research has focused on college students. The current study enrolled heavy-drinking emergency department (ED) patients and used a cross-sectional, 30-day Timeline Followback (TLFB) method to examine the daily co-occurrence between alcohol use and three sexual behavior outcomes: Any sex, unprotected intercourse (UI), and UI with casual partners (versus protected intercourse [PI] with casual partners, or UI/PI with steady partners). Results indicated that increasing levels of alcohol use on a given day increased the odds of engaging in any sexual activity and that heavy drinking (but not very heavy drinking) on a given day was associated with an increased odds of engaging in UI with either steady or casual partners. However, day-level alcohol use was not associated with an increased odds of UI with casual partners. These findings suggest that alcohol may play an important role in increasing risk for HIV/STIs among heterosexuals, and support the continued need to target heavy drinking in sex risk reduction interventions. However, our results also suggest that alcohol may not universally result in unprotected sex with casual partners, a behavior posing perhaps the highest risk for HIV/STI transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Single-Session Alcohol Interventions for Heavy Drinking College Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Jennifer E.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis summarizing the effectiveness of brief, single-session interventions to reduce alcohol use among heavy drinking college students. Method: A comprehensive literature search identified 73 studies comparing the effects of single-session brief alcohol intervention with treatment-as-usual or no-treatment control conditions on alcohol use among heavy drinking college students. Random-effects meta-analyses with robust variance estimates were used to synthesize 662 effect sizes, estimating the average overall effect of the interventions and the variability in effects across a range of moderators. Results: An overall mean effect size of ḡ = 0.18, 95% CI [0.12, 0.24] indicated that, on average, single-session brief alcohol interventions significantly reduced alcohol use among heavy drinking college students relative to comparison conditions. There was minimal variability in effects associated with study method and quality, general study characteristics, participant demo-graphics, or outcome measure type. However, studies using motivational enhancement therapy/motivational interviewing (MET/MI) modalities reported larger effects than those using psychoeducational therapy (PET) interventions. Further investigation revealed that studies using MET/ MI and feedback-only interventions, but not those using cognitive-behavioral therapy or PET modalities, reported average effect sizes that differed significantly from zero. There was also evidence that long-term effects were weaker than short-term effects. Conclusions: Single-session brief alcohol interventions show modest effects for reducing alcohol consumption among heavy drinking college students and may be particularly effective when they incorporate MET/MI principles. More research is needed to directly compare intervention modalities, to develop more potent interventions, and to explore the persistence of long-term effects. PMID:26098028

  4. Childhood physical and sexual abuse as risk factors for heavy drinking among African-American women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jasinski, J L; Williams, L M; Siegel, J

    2000-08-01

    This study examines the associations among characteristics of child sexual abuse. childhood physical abuse, lack of parental care, and heavy drinking in a relatively young, urban population of African-American women all of whom have documented histories of child sexual abuse. The sample consists of 113 African American child victims who were brought to a city hospital emergency room for treatment and collection of forensic evidence in the 1970s and re-interviewed as adults in the 1990s. The results of this research suggest that multiple incidents of child sexual abuse, more than the characteristics of such abuse is an important predictor of adult heavy alcohol use and binge drinking. These results remain even after controlling for the effects of parental drinking behavior. Although the victim of multiple child sexual assaults is more likely to suffer force and penetration, these analyses suggest that it is the multiple victimization and not the force or penetration that drives the relationship between child sexual assault and drinking behaviors.

  5. Development and Preliminary Testing of a Promotora- Delivered, Spanish Language, Counseling Intervention for Heavy Drinking among Male, Latino Day Laborers

    PubMed Central

    Karno, Mitchell P.; Ray, Lara; Ramirez, Karina; Barenstein, Veronica; Portillo, Marlom J.; Rizo, Patricia; Borok, Jenna; Liao, Diana H.; Barron, Juan; del Pino, Homero E.; Valenzuela, Abel; Barry, Kristin L.

    2016-01-01

    This study developed and then tested the feasibility, acceptability and initial efficacy of a 3-session, culturally adapted, intervention combining motivational enhancement therapy (MET) and strengths-based case management (SBCM) delivered by promotoras in Spanish to reduce heavy drinking among male, Latino day laborers. A pilot two-group randomized trial (N=29) was conducted to evaluate the initial efficacy of MET/SBCM compared to Brief Feedback (BF). Alcohol-related measures were assessed at 6, 12 and 18 weeks after baseline. Most intervention group participants (12/14) attended all counseling sessions and most participants (25/29) remained in the study at 18 weeks. Alcohol related measures improved in both groups over time with no statistically significant differences observed at any of the time points. However the comparative effect size of MET/SBCM on weekly drinking was in the large range at 6-weeks and in the moderate range at 12-weeks. Post hoc analyses identified a statistically significant reduction in number of drinks over time for participants in the intervention group but not for control group participants. Despite the extreme vulnerability of the population, most participants completed all sessions of MET/SBCM and reported high satisfaction with the intervention. We feel our community partnership facilitated these successes. Additional studies of community-partnered and culturally adapted interventions are needed to reduce heavy drinking among the growing population of Latinos in the U.S. PMID:26738641

  6. College Students' Evaluations of Heavy Drinking: The Influence of Gender, Age, and College Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Suzanne M.; Swanton, Dale N.; Colby, John J.

    2012-01-01

    College students tend not to view their drinking as problematic despite negative consequences. Nevertheless, excessive drinking tends to desist when students graduate. We examined how college drinking is influenced by attitudes and perceived norms using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). Using standardized vignettes, we assessed the extent to…

  7. College Students' Evaluations of Heavy Drinking: The Influence of Gender, Age, and College Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Suzanne M.; Swanton, Dale N.; Colby, John J.

    2012-01-01

    College students tend not to view their drinking as problematic despite negative consequences. Nevertheless, excessive drinking tends to desist when students graduate. We examined how college drinking is influenced by attitudes and perceived norms using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). Using standardized vignettes, we assessed the extent to…

  8. The Role of Discrimination in Alcohol-related Problems in Samples of Heavy Drinking HIV-Negative and Positive Men who have Sex with Men (MSM)

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Tyler B.; Pantalone, David W.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Monti, Peter M.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Heavy drinking is a major public health concern among men who have sex with men (MSM), as it is in many other populations. However, the consequences of heavy drinking among MSM may be particularly severe, especially for sexual risk behavior, due to the relatively high prevalence of HIV. Minority stress models suggest that, among members of marginalized groups, discrimination may be associated with heavier alcohol use as these individuals increasingly drink to cope with such experiences. Past studies have provided some support for this association. However, they have not explored the role other drinking motives play, how these relationships might differ across MSM who are HIV-positive versus HIV-negative, or how this relationship extends to alcohol-related problems. Methods In this study, we used path modeling to explore associations between perceived discrimination experiences, drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems in samples of heavy drinking MSM with and without HIV. Results In both HIV-negative and positive MSM, perceived discrimination was significantly positively associated with alcohol problems. Drinking to cope appears to play an important role in this relationship in both samples. Reporting more discrimination experiences was associated with drinking more frequently for sexual reasons among both groups. While the total effect of drinking to facilitate sex was positively associated with alcohol-related problems, sex motives did not mediate associations between discrimination and either drinking outcome. Conclusion These results suggest that interventions addressing discrimination and specific drinking motivations may be useful in helping reduce alcohol use of heavy drinking MSM. PMID:27481457

  9. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and bacterial contamination in drinking water sources: a case study of Malakand Agency, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Ali, Sharafat; Sher, Hassan; Rahman, Ziaur; Khan, Kifayatullah; Tang, Jianfeng; Ahmad, Aziz

    2016-05-01

    Human beings are frequently exposed to pathogens and heavy metals through ingestion of contaminated drinking water throughout the world particularly in developing countries. The present study aimed to assess the quality of water used for drinking purposes in Malakand Agency, Pakistan. Water samples were collected from different sources (dug wells, bore wells, tube wells, springs, and hand pumps) and analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters and bacterial pathogens (fecal coliform bacteria) using standard methods, while heavy metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS-PEA-700). In the study area, 70 % of water sources were contaminated with F. coliform representing high bacterial contamination. The heavy metals, such as Cd (29 and 8 %), Ni (16 and 78 %), and Cr (7 %), exceeded their respective safe limits of WHO (2006) and Pak-EPA (2008), respectively, in water sources, while Pb (9 %) only exceeded from WHO safe limit. The risk assessment tools such as daily intake of metals (DIMs) and health risk indexes (HRIs) were used for health risk estimation and were observed in the order of Ni > Cr > Mn > Pb > Cd and Cd > Ni > Pb > Mn > Cr, respectively. The HRI values of heavy metals for both children and adults were <1, showing lack of potential health risk to the local inhabitants of the study area.

  10. The effect of heavy drinking on social security old-age and survivors insurance contributions and benefits.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Jan; Sloan, Frank A

    2004-01-01

    This article estimates the effects of heavy alcohol consumption on Social Security Old-Age and Survivor Insurance (OASI) contributions and benefits. The analysis accounts for differential earnings and mortality experiences of individuals with different alcohol consumption patterns and controls for other characteristics, including smoking. Relative to moderate drinkers, heavy drinkers receive fewer OASI benefits relative to their contributions. Ironically, for each cohort of 25-year-olds, eliminating heavy drinking costs the program an additional $3 billion over the cohort's lifetime. Public health campaigns are designed to improve individual health-relevant behaviors and, in the long run, increase longevity. Therefore, if programs for the elderly are structured as longevity-independent defined benefit programs, their success will reward healthier behaviors but increase these programs' outlays and worsen their financial condition.

  11. The Effect of Heavy Drinking on Social Security Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Contributions and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Jan; Sloan, Frank A

    2004-01-01

    This article estimates the effects of heavy alcohol consumption on Social Security Old-Age and Survivor Insurance (OASI) contributions and benefits. The analysis accounts for differential earnings and mortality experiences of individuals with different alcohol consumption patterns and controls for other characteristics, including smoking. Relative to moderate drinkers, heavy drinkers receive fewer OASI benefits relative to their contributions. Ironically, for each cohort of 25-year-olds, eliminating heavy drinking costs the program an additional $3 billion over the cohort's lifetime. Public health campaigns are designed to improve individual health-relevant behaviors and, in the long run, increase longevity. Therefore, if programs for the elderly are structured as longevity-independent defined benefit programs, their success will reward healthier behaviors but increase these programs’ outlays and worsen their financial condition. PMID:15330975

  12. Ups and Downs of Alcohol Use among First-year College Students: Number of Drinks, Heavy Drinking, and Stumble and Pass out Drinking Days

    PubMed Central

    Maggs, Jennifer L.; Williams, Lela Rankin; Lee, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the dynamic fluctuating nature of alcohol use among emerging adults (Del Boca, Darkes, Greenbaum, & Goldman, 2004), patterns of alcohol use were modeled across 70 days in an intensive repeated-measures diary design. Two hundred first-year college students provided 10 weekly reports of their daily alcohol consumption via computer-assisted telephone interviews. Multi-level models demonstrated large within-person variability across days in drinks consumed, binge drinking, and days exceeding self-reported limits for stumbling around and passing out; these outcome variables were predicted by weekdays vs. weekend days (within-person) and gender, age of drinking initiation, fraternity/sorority membership, and alcohol motivations (between-persons). Repeated measurement of alternate indicators of alcohol use permits the examination of novel and important questions about alcohol use and abuse particularly in young adult and other erratically drinking populations. PMID:21106298

  13. Ups and downs of alcohol use among first-year college students: Number of drinks, heavy drinking, and stumble and pass out drinking days.

    PubMed

    Maggs, Jennifer L; Williams, Lela Rankin; Lee, Christine M

    2011-03-01

    Given the dynamic fluctuating nature of alcohol use among emerging adults (Del Boca, Darkes, Greenbaum, & Goldman, 2004), patterns of alcohol use were modeled across 70 days in an intensive repeated-measures diary design. Two hundred first-year college students provided 10 weekly reports of their daily alcohol consumption via computer-assisted telephone interviews. Multi-level models demonstrated large within-person variability across days in drinks consumed, binge drinking, and days exceeding self-reported limits for stumbling around and passing out; these outcome variables were predicted by weekdays vs. weekend days (within-person) and gender, age of drinking initiation, fraternity/sorority membership, and alcohol motivations (between-persons). Repeated measurement of alternate indicators of alcohol use permits the examination of novel and important questions about alcohol use and abuse particularly in young adult and other erratically drinking populations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Drinking water quality in six small tea gardens of Sonitpur District of Assam, India, with special reference to heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Joydev; Chetia, Mridul; Misra, A K

    2011-10-01

    Contamination of drinking water by arsenic and other heavy metals and their related toxicology is a serious concern now-a-days. Millions of individual world-wide are suffering from the arsenic and other heavy metal related diseases due to the consumption of contaminated groundwater. 60 water samples from different sources of 6 small tea gardens of Sonitpur district were collected to study the potability of water for drinking purposes. The water samples collected from sources like tube wells, ring wells and ponds were analyzed for arsenic, heavy metals like iron, manganese and mercury with sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, pH, total hardness, chloride, fluoride and sulphate. Some drain water samples of the tea garden areas were also collected to analyze the above mentioned water parameters to see the contamination level. Experiments revealed that 78% samples of total collection had arsenic content above the permissible limit (0.01 ppm) of WHO guideline value for drinking water. The highest arsenic was observed 0.09 ppm at one sample of Gobindra Dahal tea garden of Gohpur sub division of Sonitpur district. 94% samples had contamination due to manganese 39% samples had iron and 44% samples had Hg. The water quality data was subjected to some statistical treatments like NDA, cluster analysis and pearson correlation to observe the distribution pattern of the different water quality parameters. A strong pearson correlation coefficient was observed between parameters-arsenic and manganese (0.865) and arsenic and mercury (0.837) at 0.01 level, indicated the same sources of drinking water contamination.

  15. [Heavy episodic drinking, cannabis use and unsafe sex among university students].

    PubMed

    Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Doallo, Sonia; Juan-Salvadores, Pablo; Corral, Montserrat; Cadaveira, Fernando; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco

    To determine the incidence of unsafe sex among university students and its association with heavy episodic drinking (HED) and cannabis use. A cohort study was carried out from 2005 to 2011 among university students of the Compostela Cohort (n=517). HED was measured using the third question of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Unsafe sex was considered to be sex under the influence of alcohol (SUA) and sex without a condom (SWC). Logistic regression models were created. The incidence of SUA was 40.9% for women and 53.0% for men, while the SWC incidence ranged from 13.7% for women to 25.7% for men. HED and cannabis use were associated with SUA in both women (OR=2.08, 95% CI: 1.03-4.21; OR=2.78, 95%CI: 1.57-4.92) and men (OR=4.74 (95%CI: 1.49-15.09; OR=4.37, 95%CI: 1.17- 16.36). Moreover, cannabis use in women was associated with SWC (OR=2.96, 95%CI: 1.52-5.75). The population attributable fractions of SUA for HED were 24.7% and 52.9% for women and men, respectively. HED and cannabis use represent a public health problem due to their association with a variety of problems, including engagement in unsafe sex. Our results suggest that a significant proportion of unsafe sex could be avoided by reducing this consumption pattern of alcohol. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related injuries: An open cohort study among college students.

    PubMed

    Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Doallo, Sonia; Corral, Montserrat; Rodriguez Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effects of Heavy Episodic Drinking (HED) on the incidence of alcohol-related injuries among university students in Spain, taking sex into consideration. We carried out an open cohort study among college students in Spain (992 women and 371 men). HED and alcohol-related injuries were measured by question 3rd and 9th of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test to every participant at the ages of 18, 20, 22, 24 and 27. For data analysis we used a Multilevel Logistic Regression for repeated measures adjusting for alcohol and cannabis use. The incidence rate of alcohol-related injuries was 0.028year(-1) for females and 0.036year(-1) for males. The multivariate analysis showed that among females a high frequency of HED and use of cannabis are risk factors for alcohol-related injuries (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.64 and OR=3.68), while being more than 23 is a protective factor (OR=0.34). For males, bivariate analysis also showed HED like risk factor (OR=4.69 and OR=2.51). Finally, the population attributable fraction for HED among females was 37.12%. HED leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries in both sexes and being over 23 years old acts as a protective factor among women. Our results suggest that about one third of alcohol-related injuries among women could be avoided by removing HED. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Racial Differences in Parenting Style Typologies and Heavy Episodic Drinking Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Trenette T.; Yang, Chongming; McClernon, F. Joseph; Fuemmeler, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examines racial differences between Caucasians and African Americans in the association of parenting style typologies with changes in heavy episodic drinking from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods The analytic sample consists of 9,942 adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which followed respondents from ages 12 to 31 years. Confirmatory factor analysis and factor mixture modeling are used to classify parenting style typologies based on measures of parental acceptance and control. HED trajectories are evaluated using a zero-inflated Poisson multigroup latent growth curve modeling approach. Results The mixture model identified four heterogeneous groups that differed based on the two latent variables (parental acceptance and control): balanced (65.8% of the sample), authoritarian (12.2%), permissive (19.4%), and uninvolved/neglectful (2.7%). Regardless of race, we found that at age 12 years, children of authoritarian parents have a higher probability of not engaging in HED than children of parents with balanced, permissive, or neglectful parenting styles. However, among African American youth who reported HED at age 12, authoritarian parenting was associated with greater level of HED at age 12 but a less steep increase in level of HED as age increased yearly as compared with balanced parenting. For Caucasian adolescents, uninvolved, permissive, and authoritarian parenting were not associated with a greater level of HED as age increased yearly as compared with adolescents exposed to balanced parenting. Conclusion The influence of parenting styles on HED during adolescence persists into young adulthood and differs by race for youth engaging in HED. PMID:25222086

  18. The effectiveness of the 'what do you drink' web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among students: a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Voogt, Carmen V; Poelen, Evelien A P; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex A C J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention 'What Do You Drink' (WDYD) among heavy drinking students at 1- and 6-month post-intervention. Additionally, it was investigated whether certain subgroups would benefit more than others from the WDYD intervention. A two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial was conducted online in the Netherlands in 2010-2011. Inclusion criteria were: (1) being between 18- and 24-year old, (2) reporting heavy drinking in the past 6 months, (3) being motivated to change alcohol consumption, (4) having access to the Internet and (5) giving informed consent. Participants (n = 913) were randomized to the experimental (WDYD intervention) or control condition (no intervention). Measures were heavy drinking, frequency of binge drinking and weekly alcohol consumption. Analyses according to the intention-to-treat principle revealed no significant main intervention effects in reducing the alcohol measures at the follow-up assessments. Secondary analyses revealed that gender, freshmen and fraternity or sorority membership did not moderate the effect of the WDYD intervention at both follow-ups. Readiness to change, problem drinking and carnival participation moderated intervention effects such that contemplators, those with severe symptoms of alcohol abuse or dependence, and those who participated in carnival benefited more than others from the WDYD intervention regarding weekly alcohol consumption at 1-month follow-up. The WDYD intervention was not effective in reducing the alcohol measures among heavy drinking students at 1- and 6-month post-intervention. However, there is preliminary evidence that the WDYD intervention is effective in lowering drinking levels for subgroups of heavy drinking students in the short term.

  19. Heavy episodic drinking and soccer practice among high school students in Brazil: the contextual aspects of this relationship.

    PubMed

    Bedendo, André; Opaleye, Emérita S; Andrade, André Luiz Monezi; Noto, Ana Regina

    2013-03-20

    Heavy episodic drinking (HED) (consumption of five or more drinks on the same occasion) among adolescents is related to several problems and partaking in sport or physical activities has been suggested as an option to prevent or reduce alcohol consumption among this population. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between soccer practice and heavy episodic drinking among high school students from Brazil. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study among a representative sample of public and private high school students from all Brazilian state capitals (N=19,132). Only students aged from 14 to 18 who reported having taken part in soccer practice, other team sports or non-practicing sports in the last month were included. Characteristics of sport practice (frequency and motivation) and HED in the last month (type of drink; where and with whom they drank; frequency of HED) were also considered. Regression models were controlled for sociodemographic variables. For all groups studied most of the students reported drinking beer, with friends and at nightclubs or bars. Soccer practice was associated to HED when compared to non-practicing sports and to other team sports. Compared to other team sports, playing soccer for pleasure or profession, but not for keep fit or health reasons, were more associated to HED. Frequency of soccer practice from 1 to 5 days per month and 20 or more days per month, but not from 6 to 19 days per month, were also more associated to HED. The relationship between soccer and HED appears to be particularly stronger than in other team sports among adolescents in Brazil. Induced sociability of team sports practice cannot be assumed as the main reason for HED among soccer players. Possibly these results reflect the importance of a strong cultural association between soccer and beer in Brazil and these findings should be integrated to future prevention or intervention programs.

  20. Heavy episodic drinking and soccer practice among high school students in Brazil: the contextual aspects of this relationship

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heavy episodic drinking (HED) (consumption of five or more drinks on the same occasion) among adolescents is related to several problems and partaking in sport or physical activities has been suggested as an option to prevent or reduce alcohol consumption among this population. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between soccer practice and heavy episodic drinking among high school students from Brazil. Methods Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study among a representative sample of public and private high school students from all Brazilian state capitals (N=19,132). Only students aged from 14 to 18 who reported having taken part in soccer practice, other team sports or non-practicing sports in the last month were included. Characteristics of sport practice (frequency and motivation) and HED in the last month (type of drink; where and with whom they drank; frequency of HED) were also considered. Regression models were controlled for sociodemographic variables. Results For all groups studied most of the students reported drinking beer, with friends and at nightclubs or bars. Soccer practice was associated to HED when compared to non-practicing sports and to other team sports. Compared to other team sports, playing soccer for pleasure or profession, but not for keep fit or health reasons, were more associated to HED. Frequency of soccer practice from 1 to 5 days per month and 20 or more days per month, but not from 6 to 19 days per month, were also more associated to HED. Conclusions The relationship between soccer and HED appears to be particularly stronger than in other team sports among adolescents in Brazil. Induced sociability of team sports practice cannot be assumed as the main reason for HED among soccer players. Possibly these results reflect the importance of a strong cultural association between soccer and beer in Brazil and these findings should be integrated to future prevention or intervention programs. PMID

  1. Does e-cigarette use predict cigarette escalation? A longitudinal study of young adult non-daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Doran, Neal; Brikmanis, Kristin; Petersen, Angela; Delucchi, Kevin; Al-Delaimy, Wael K; Luczak, Susan; Myers, Mark; Strong, David

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that e-cigarette use among youth may be associated with increased risk of cigarette initiation. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that use of e-cigarettes among young adult non-daily cigarette smokers would be associated with increased cigarette consumption. Participants (n=391; 52% male) were 18-24year-old non-daily cigarette smokers recruited from across California. Cigarette and e-cigarette use were assessed online or via mobile phone every three months for one year between March 2015 and December 2016. Longitudinal negative binomial regression models showed that, adjusted for propensity for baseline e-cigarette use, non-daily smokers who reported more frequent use of e-cigarettes upon study entry reported greater quantity and frequency of cigarette smoking at baseline and greater increases in cigarette quantity over 12months than non-daily cigarette only smokers (ps<0.01). During the 12months of assessment, more consistent consumption of e-cigarettes was associated with greater quantity and frequency of cigarette use (ps<0.01); these effects did not vary over time. Findings suggest that among non-daily smokers, young adults who use e-cigarettes tend to smoke more cigarettes and to do so more frequently. Such individuals may be at greater risk for chronic tobacco use and dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Response of heavy-drinking voluntary and mandated college students to a peer-led brief motivational intervention addressing alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Mastroleo, Nadine R; Oakley, William C; Eaton, Erica M; Borsari, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the way in which mandated and heavy-drinking voluntary students comparatively respond to peer-led brief motivational interventions (BMIs) and the mediators and moderators of intervention effects. Research suggests that mandated students may be more defensive due to their involvement in treatment against their will and this defensiveness, in turn, may relate to treatment outcome. Furthermore, it is not clear how mandated and heavy-drinking voluntary students perceived satisfaction with peer-led BMIs relates to treatment outcomes. Using data from two separate randomized controlled trials, heavy drinking college students (heavy-drinking voluntary, n = 156; mandated, n = 82) completed a peer-led brief motivational intervention (BMI). Both mandated and heavy-drinking volunteer students significantly reduced drinking behaviors at 3-month follow-up, reported high levels of post-intervention session satisfaction, yet no effects for mediation or moderation were found. Findings offer continued support for using peer counselors to deliver BMIs; however, results regarding the mechanisms of change were in contrast to previous findings. Implications for treatment and future areas of research are discussed.

  3. A Multi-site Randomized Trial of Normative Feedback for Heavy Drinking: Social Comparison versus Social Comparison plus Correction of Normative Misperceptions

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; LaBrie, Joseph; DiBello, Angelo M.; Young, Chelsie M.; Rinker, Dipali V.; Litt, Dana; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Knee, C. Raymond; Hamor, Ezekiel; Jerabeck, Jessica M.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Given widespread alcohol misuse among college students, numerous intervention programs have been developed, including personalized normative feedback (PNF). Most research evaluating PNF assumes that presenting one's own perceived norms is necessary to correct normative misperceptions and thereby reduce drinking. Alternatively, simply providing social comparison information showing that one drinks more than others may be sufficient. The present study evaluated the efficacy of full PNF (one's own drinking, campus drinking rates, and perceived norms) and a partial personalized social comparison feedback (PSCF; one's own drinking and campus drinking rates) in a randomized trial among heavy-drinking college students. Method Participants included 623 heavy-drinking students from three universities. Assessments occurred at baseline and three- and six-months post-baseline. Results Primary analyses examined differences across four drinking outcomes (drinks per week, total drinks past month, frequency of past month drinking, and negative alcohol-related consequences) at three- and six-month follow-ups controlling for the baseline variable. Results revealed significant reductions across all alcohol consumption outcomes at three months in both intervention conditions compared to attention-control. Mediation analyses demonstrated significant indirect effects of the intervention on six-month drinking through changes in perceived norms at three months. Moreover, evidence emerged for changes in drinking at three months as a mediator of the association between PSCF and six-month perceived norms. Conclusions The present research suggests PNF may not require explicit consideration of one's perceived norms in order to be effective and that direct social comparison provides an alternative theoretical mechanism for PNF efficacy. PMID:26727407

  4. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Cobbina, Samuel J; Duwiejuah, Abudu B; Quansah, Reginald; Obiri, Samuel; Bakobie, Noel

    2015-08-28

    The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga) in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72) water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean levels (mg/l) of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg), 0.031 and 0.002 (As), 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb), 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn), and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd), respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended.

  5. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Cobbina, Samuel J.; Duwiejuah, Abudu B.; Quansah, Reginald; Obiri, Samuel; Bakobie, Noel

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga) in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72) water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean levels (mg/l) of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg), 0.031 and 0.002 (As), 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb), 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn), and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd), respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended. PMID:26343702

  6. Determination of trace heavy metals in harvested rainwater used for drinking in Hebron (south West Bank, Palestine) by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Malassa, Husam; Al-Rimawi, Fuad; Al-Khatib, Mahmoud; Al-Qutob, Mutaz

    2014-10-01

    Rainwater samples harvested for drinking from the west part of Hebron (south of West Bank in Palestine), the largest city in the West Bank, were analyzed for the content of different trace heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Bi, and Pb) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This study was conducted to determine the water quality of harvested rainwater used for drinking of south West Bank (case study, Hebron area). A total of 44 water samples were collected in November 2012 from 44 house cisterns used to collect rainwater from the roofs of houses. The samples were analyzed for their pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, and different heavy metal contents. The pH of all water samples was within the US Environmental Protection Agency limits (6.5-8.5), while some water samples were found to exceed the allowed WHO limit for total dissolved solids (TDSs) in drinking water. Results showed that concentrations of the heavy metals vary significantly between the 44 samples. Results also showed that the concentration of five heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Ag, and Pb) is higher than the WHO limits for these heavy metals in drinking water. Overall, our findings revealed that harvested rainwater used for drinking of this part of south West Bank is contaminated with heavy metals that might affect human health.

  7. RADIATION DOSE DUE TO RADON AND HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN DRINKING WATER SAMPLES OF JAMMU DISTRICT, JAMMU & KASHMIR, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Kaur, M; Sharma, S; Mehra, R; Sharma, D K; Mishra, R

    2016-10-01

    In the present investigation, radon concentration and heavy metal analysis were carried out in drinking water samples in Jammu district, Jammu & Kashmir, India. The radon concentration was measured by using RAD-7, portable alpha particle detector. The values of radon concentration in drinking water samples were also compared within the safe limit recommended by different health agencies. The total annual effective dose ranged from 53.04 to 197.29 µSv y(-1) The annual effective dose from few locations from the studied area was found to be greater than the safe limit (100 µSv y(-1)) suggested by World Health Organisation (WHO) and EU Council. Heavy metal concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A total of eight elements were analysed, viz. arsenic, mercury, zinc, iron, copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Heavy metals are considered to be the major pollutants of water sources. The results were compared with the limits of WHO, EU and Indian organisations. The trace metal analysis is not on the exceeding side of the permissible limit in all the samples. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Markers of Microbial Translocation and Immune Activation Predict Cognitive Processing Speed in Heavy-Drinking Men Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Monnig, Mollie A; Kahler, Christopher W; Cioe, Patricia A; Monti, Peter M; Mayer, Kenneth H; Pantalone, David W; Cohen, Ronald A; Ramratnam, Bharat

    2017-09-21

    HIV infection and alcohol use disorder are associated with deficits in neurocognitive function. Emerging evidence points to pro-inflammatory perturbations of the gut-brain axis as potentially contributing to neurocognitive impairment in the context of HIV and chronic heavy alcohol use. This study examined whether plasma markers of microbial translocation (LPS) from the gastrointestinal tract and related immune activation (sCD14, EndoCAb) were associated with neurocognition in 21 men living with HIV who were virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy. All participants met federal criteria for heavy drinking and were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a brief alcohol intervention. This secondary analysis utilized blood samples and cognitive scores (learning, memory, executive function, verbal fluency, and processing speed) obtained at baseline and three-month follow-up of the RCT. In generalized estimating equation models, LPS, sCD14, and EndoCAb individually were significant predictors of processing speed. In a model with all biomarkers, higher LPS and sCD14 both remained significant predictors of lower processing speed. These preliminary findings suggest that inflammation stemming from HIV and/or alcohol could have negative effects on the gut-brain axis, manifested as diminished processing speed. Associations of microbial translocation and immune activation with processing speed in heavy-drinking PLWH warrant further investigation in larger-scale studies.

  9. Intermittent nondaily dosing strategies in patients with previous statin-induced myopathy.

    PubMed

    Keating, Alyssa J; Campbell, Kristen Bova; Guyton, John R

    2013-03-01

    To review the safety and efficacy of alternative intermittent statin dosing regimens in patients with previous intolerance due to myopathy. Literature was accessed through MEDLINE (1946 -December 2012) and EMBASE (1966-December 2012) using relevant MeSH and Emtree search terms, including statins, HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors, simvastatin, atorvastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin, pravastatin, pitavastatin, rosuvastatin, myopathy, and myalgias. Web of Science (1955-December 2012) and the aforementioned databases were additionally searched using combinations of the following text words: statin intolerance, alternate dosing, nondaily dosing, weekly dosing, statin-induced myopathy, and intermittent statin dosing. References of identified articles were reviewed for additional citations. All identified English-language peer-reviewed publications were evaluated. Articles (excluding meeting abstracts) specifically addressing nondaily statin use in patients with previous statin-induced myopathy were reviewed. Although statins have achieved significant reductions in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as many as 10% of patients prescribed these therapies experience myopathies. Intermittent statin regimens ranging from every-other-day to once-weekly dosing have emerged in an attempt to maintain efficacy while moderating the incidence of adverse effects. The results reported in 10 publications investigating varying regimens with atorvastatin and/or rosuvastatin revealed that at least 70% of patients were able to tolerate an intermittent dosing strategy without a recurrence of previous treatment-limiting adverse effects. Although the degree of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering varied appreciably among studies (12-38%), the addition of a nondaily statin regimen facilitated attainment of National Cholesterol Education Program goals for some. Although areas of uncertainty remain, intermittent dosing (particularly with rosuvastatin and atorvastatin) in previously

  10. Hair Ethyl Glucuronide is Highly Sensitive and Specific for Detecting Moderate-to-Heavy Drinking in Patients with Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Scott H.; Koch, David G.; Willner, Ira R.; Randall, Patrick K.; Reuben, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Hair ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a promising biomarker of moderate-to-heavy alcohol consumption and may have utility in detecting and monitoring alcohol use in clinical populations where alcohol use is of particular importance. This study evaluated the relationship between hair EtG and drinking in patients with liver disease. Methods: The subjects (n = 200) were patients with liver disease who presented for care at a university medical center. Alcohol use during the 3 months preceding participation in the study was assessed, and a sample of hair was obtained for EtG testing. Classification of drinking status (any drinking or averaging at least 28 g per day) by hair EtG was evaluated, as well as the effects of liver disease severity and demographic and hair care factors. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for detecting an average of 28 g or more per day during the prior 90 days was 0.93. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity of hair EtG ≥8 pg/mg for averaging at least 28 g of ethanol per day were 92 and 87%, respectively. Cirrhosis and gender may have a modest influence on the relationship between drinking and hair EtG. Conclusion: Hair EtG was highly accurate in differentiating subjects with liver disease averaging at least 28 g of ethanol per day from abstainers and lighter drinkers. PMID:23015609

  11. Factors associated with short-term transitions of non-daily smokers: socio-demographic characteristics and other tobacco product use.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2017-05-01

    To examine the transitions in smoking status among non-daily smokers who transitioned to daily or former smokers or remained as non-daily smokers during a 12-month period. We analyzed factors associated with these transitions, including the use of cigars and smokeless tobacco (SLT). Secondary data analyses using pooled data from the 2003, 2006/07 and 2010/11 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). United States. Self-respondents aged 18+ who have smoked for more than 5 years and were non-daily smokers 12 months before the interview (n = 13 673, or 14.5% of current smokers). Multinomial logistic regression model to determine the correlates of non-daily to daily, stable non-daily and non-daily to former smoking transitions among non-daily smokers at baseline. The model controlled for socio-demographic factors and the use of cigars and SLT. Of the adults in our sample, 2.6% were non-daily smokers at baseline. Among these, 69.7% remained non-daily smokers (stable non-daily smokers), 18.4% became daily smokers (non-daily to daily smokers) and 11.9% quit smoking (non-daily to former smokers) after 12 months. The non-daily to daily versus stable non-daily smoking transition was less likely among those who were aged 65+ (P = 0.018), male (P < 0.001), Hispanic (P < 0.001), with an income of $25 000-49 999 or ≥$75 000 and current users of SLT (P = 0.003), but more likely among those without a college degree compared with the appropriate reference group. The non-daily to former versus stable non-daily smoking transition was less likely among those aged 25+, male (P = 0.013), non-Hispanic Asian (P = 0.032), without a college degree, widowed/divorced/separated (P = 0.013) or never married (P = 0.011) and current users of cigars (P = 0.003) compared with the appropriate reference group. While more than two-thirds of non-daily smokers in the United States remain as such after 12 months, others become daily smokers or

  12. Environmentally friendly chitosan/PEI-grafted magnetic gelatin for the highly effective removal of heavy metals from drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bingbing; Zhou, Feng; Huang, Kai; Wang, Yipei; Mei, Surong; Zhou, Yikai; Jing, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The development of environmentally friendly sorbents with a high adsorption capacity is an essential problem in the removal of heavy metals from drinking water. In this study, magnetic gelatin was prepared using transglutaminase as a cross-linker, which could only catalyze an acyl-transfer reaction between lysine and glutamine residues of the gelatin and not affect other amino groups. Therefore, it was beneficial for the further modification based on the amino groups, and did not affect the spatial structure of gelatin, which can effectively prevent the embedding of active sites in the polymer matrix. After modification with the chitosan/polyethylenimine copolymers, the numbers of amino groups was greatly increased, and the magnetic composites exhibited a high adsorption capacity, excellent water compatibility and simple magnetic separation. The adsorption capacities of lead and cadmium were 341 mg g-1 and 321 mg g-1, respectively, which could be used for the removal of metal ions in drinking water.

  13. Socioeconomic factors and heavy drinking over the course of the week among job seekers with at-risk alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Haberecht, Katja; Baumann, Sophie; Gaertner, Beate; John, Ulrich; Freyer-Adam, Jennis

    2017-03-08

    This article investigates the influence of socioeconomic factors on heavy drinking over the course of the week. As part of a randomized controlled trial, 1,282 job seekers with at-risk alcohol use were systematically recruited at 3 job agencies and reported number of drinks consumed on each day in the past week. Latent growth curve models were calculated to represent variations of alcohol use. School education and duration of lifetime unemployment were tested as predictors; sociodemographic variables were integrated as covariates. A weekly pattern was confirmed in the total sample: constant low alcohol use on working days, escalation on Friday, and a further increase on weekends. Significant associations between longer duration of lifetime unemployment and higher initial alcohol use on Sundays (p < .001) and less increase on Fridays (p = .001) disappeared after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Longer duration of lifetime unemployment does not appear to affect alcohol use trajectories over the course of the week.

  14. Environmentally friendly chitosan/PEI-grafted magnetic gelatin for the highly effective removal of heavy metals from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Li, Bingbing; Zhou, Feng; Huang, Kai; Wang, Yipei; Mei, Surong; Zhou, Yikai; Jing, Tao

    2017-02-22

    The development of environmentally friendly sorbents with a high adsorption capacity is an essential problem in the removal of heavy metals from drinking water. In this study, magnetic gelatin was prepared using transglutaminase as a cross-linker, which could only catalyze an acyl-transfer reaction between lysine and glutamine residues of the gelatin and not affect other amino groups. Therefore, it was beneficial for the further modification based on the amino groups, and did not affect the spatial structure of gelatin, which can effectively prevent the embedding of active sites in the polymer matrix. After modification with the chitosan/polyethylenimine copolymers, the numbers of amino groups was greatly increased, and the magnetic composites exhibited a high adsorption capacity, excellent water compatibility and simple magnetic separation. The adsorption capacities of lead and cadmium were 341 mg g(-1) and 321 mg g(-1), respectively, which could be used for the removal of metal ions in drinking water.

  15. 5-HTTLPR moderates naltrexone and psychosocial treatment responses in heavy drinking men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Andrew C.H.; Davis, Christine M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Covault, Jonathan; Kranzler, Henry R.; Morgenstern, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Background A functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene has been widely studied as a risk factor and moderator of treatment for a variety of psychopathologic conditions. To evaluate whether 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of treatment to reduce heavy drinking, we studied 112 high-functioning European-American men who have sex with men (MSM). Subjects participated in a randomized clinical trial of naltrexone (NTX) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for problem drinking. Methods Subjects were treated for 12 weeks with 100 mg/day of oral NTX or placebo. All participants received medical management with adjusted Brief Behavioral Compliance Enhancement Treatment (BBCET) alone or in combination with Modified Behavioral Self-Control Therapy (MBSCT, an amalgam of motivational interviewing and CBT). Participants were genotyped for the tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (i.e., low-activity S′ or high-activity L′ alleles). Results During treatment, the number of weekly heavy drinking days (HDD, defined as 5 or more standard drinks per day) was significantly lower in subjects with the L′L′ (N=26, p=0.015) or L′S′ (N=52, p=0.016) genotype than those with the S′S′ (N=34) genotype regardless of treatment type. There was a significant interaction of genotype with treatment: For subjects with the S′S′ genotype, the effects of MBSCT or NTX on HDD were significantly greater than the minimal intervention (i.e., BBCET or placebo, p=0.007 and p=0.049, respectively). In contrast, for subjects with one or two L′ alleles, the effects of the more intensive psychosocial treatment (MBSCT) or NTX did not significantly differ from BBCET or placebo. Conclusions These preliminary findings support the utility of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism for personalizing treatment selection in problem drinkers. PMID:25070809

  16. The Reasons for Heavy Drinking Questionnaire: Factor Structure and Validity in Alcohol-Dependent Adults Involved in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Zachary W.; Schacht, Joseph P.; Randall, Patrick; Anton, Raymond F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: People consume alcohol at problematic levels for many reasons. These different motivational pathways may have different biological underpinnings. Valid, brief measures that discriminate individuals’ reasons for drinking could facilitate inquiry into whether varied drinking motivations account for differential response to pharmacotherapies for alcohol use disorders. The current study evaluated the factor structure and predictive validity of a brief measure of alcohol use motivations developed for use in randomized clinical trials, the Reasons for Heavy Drinking Questionnaire (RHDQ). Method: The RHDQ was administered before treatment to 265 participants (70% male) with alcohol dependence according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, in three pharmacotherapy randomized clinical trials. Principal components analysis was used in half the sample to determine the RHDQ factor structure. This structure was verified with confirmatory factor analysis in the second half of the sample. The factors derived from this analysis were evaluated with respect to alcohol dependence severity indices. Results: A two-factor solution was identified. Factors were interpreted as Reinforcement and Normalizing. Reinforcement scores were weakly to moderately associated with severity, whereas normalizing scores were moderately to strongly associated with severity. In all cases in which significant associations between RHDQ scores and severity indices were observed, the relationship was significantly stronger for normalizing than for reinforcing. Conclusions: The RHDQ is a promising brief assessment of motivations for heavy alcohol use, particularly in the context of randomized clinical trials. Additional research should address factor structure stability in non–treatment-seeking individuals and the RHDQ’s utility in detecting and accounting for changes in drinking behavior, including in response to intervention. PMID:26997195

  17. Heavy metals in drinking water: Standards, sources, and effects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of heavy metal pollutants in drinking water and their effects on public health. Topics examine the toxicological effects of prolonged exposure incurred by ingestion of lead, copper, nickel, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and zinc. Quantification factors, federal and state regulations and standards, and laboratory animal studies are discussed. Goundwater contamination by landfill leachates, acid precipitation contributions to groundwater pollution, and corrosion by-products in residential plumbing and public water supply transport systems are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Heavy metals in drinking water: Standards, sources, and effects. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the public health aspects and documented studies of heavy metal pollutants in drinking water. Topics include human exposure studies and the toxicological effects incurred by ingestion. Prolonged exposure and quantification factors and effects, federal and state regulations and standards, and laboratory animal studies are discussed. Among the pollution pathways examined are landfill contamination of groundwater, acid precipitation contributions to groundwater pollution, and corrosion by-products in residential plumbing and public water supply transport systems. (Contains a minimum of 105 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. [Estimation of the levels of heavy metals in the water courses and drinking water in the south of the Issyk-Kul Region].

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    The levels of heavy metals were determined in the river and drinking waters of the localities of the Ton and Jety-Oguz Districts of the Issyk-Kul Region. The quality of water was tested for the content of 11 heavy metals (Be, Pb, Cd, Ni, Co, Cr6+, Zn, Ba, Sr, TI, Sn) by emission spectral analysis in 1990-2000. The analysis of the findings indicated that the water levels of the heavy metals, met the sanitary requirements for drinking water, except for those of chromium whose content in the Barskoon and Chon-Kyzyl-Suu rivers in the cold period of 1999 was 2-3 times higher than the allowable levels. There were seasonal variations in the concentrations of heavy metals in the river waters. In most cases, the concentrations of most metals increase in the warm period of a year. The concentrations of heavy metals tended to increase in the river water in 2000 versus 1999.

  20. Exploring the Utility of Web-Based Social Media Advertising to Recruit Adult Heavy-Drinking Smokers for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Tess H; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Fucito, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying novel ways to recruit smokers for treatment studies is important. In particular, certain subgroups of adult smokers, such as heavy-drinking smokers, are at increased risk for serious medical problems and are less likely to try quitting smoking, so drawing this hard-to-reach population into treatment is important for improving health outcomes. Objective This study examined the utility of Facebook advertisements to recruit smokers and heavy-drinking smokers for treatment research and evaluated smoking and alcohol use and current treatment goals among those who responded to the Web-based survey. Methods Using Facebook’s advertising program, 3 separate advertisements ran for 2 months targeting smokers who were thinking about quitting. Advertisements were shown to adult (at least 18 years of age), English-speaking Facebook users in the greater New Haven, Connecticut, area. Participants were invited to complete a Web-based survey to determine initial eligibility for a smoking cessation research study. Results Advertisements generated 1781 clicks and 272 valid, completed surveys in 2 months, with one advertisement generating the most interest. Facebook advertising was highly cost-effective, averaging $0.27 per click, $1.76 per completed survey, and $4.37 per participant meeting initial screening eligibility. On average, those who completed the Web-based survey were 36.8 (SD 10.4) years old, and 65.8% (179/272) were female. Advertisements were successful in reaching smokers; all respondents reported daily smoking (mean 16.2 [SD 7.0] cigarettes per day). The majority of smokers (254/272, 93.4%) were interested in changing their smoking behavior immediately. Many smokers (161/272, 59.2%) also reported heavy alcohol consumption at least once a month. Among smokers interested in reducing their alcohol use, more were heavy drinkers (45/56, 80.4%) compared to non-heavy drinkers (11/56, 19.6%; χ2[1,N=272]=13.0, P<.001). Of those who met initial screening

  1. Exploring the Utility of Web-Based Social Media Advertising to Recruit Adult Heavy-Drinking Smokers for Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bold, Krysten W; Hanrahan, Tess H; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Fucito, Lisa M

    2016-05-18

    Identifying novel ways to recruit smokers for treatment studies is important. In particular, certain subgroups of adult smokers, such as heavy-drinking smokers, are at increased risk for serious medical problems and are less likely to try quitting smoking, so drawing this hard-to-reach population into treatment is important for improving health outcomes. This study examined the utility of Facebook advertisements to recruit smokers and heavy-drinking smokers for treatment research and evaluated smoking and alcohol use and current treatment goals among those who responded to the Web-based survey. Using Facebook's advertising program, 3 separate advertisements ran for 2 months targeting smokers who were thinking about quitting. Advertisements were shown to adult (at least 18 years of age), English-speaking Facebook users in the greater New Haven, Connecticut, area. Participants were invited to complete a Web-based survey to determine initial eligibility for a smoking cessation research study. Advertisements generated 1781 clicks and 272 valid, completed surveys in 2 months, with one advertisement generating the most interest. Facebook advertising was highly cost-effective, averaging $0.27 per click, $1.76 per completed survey, and $4.37 per participant meeting initial screening eligibility. On average, those who completed the Web-based survey were 36.8 (SD 10.4) years old, and 65.8% (179/272) were female. Advertisements were successful in reaching smokers; all respondents reported daily smoking (mean 16.2 [SD 7.0] cigarettes per day). The majority of smokers (254/272, 93.4%) were interested in changing their smoking behavior immediately. Many smokers (161/272, 59.2%) also reported heavy alcohol consumption at least once a month. Among smokers interested in reducing their alcohol use, more were heavy drinkers (45/56, 80.4%) compared to non-heavy drinkers (11/56, 19.6%; χ(2)[1,N=272]=13.0, P<.001). Of those who met initial screening eligibility from the Web

  2. Differences in Subjective Response to Alcohol in Heavy and Light Drinking Chinese Men versus Caucasian American Men

    PubMed Central

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Hu, Hongxing; McNamara, Patrick; Cao, Dingcai; Hao, Wei; King, Andrea C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Compare subjective responses to alcohol among Han Chinese and Caucasian American males. Design Double-blinded, placebo-controlled human laboratory design. Participants completed three randomized experimental sessions with high and low alcohol, and placebo beverage. Setting Chinese participants were examined at Xinjiang Medical University, China. Caucasian participants were examined at the University of Chicago, USA. Participants 70 Han Chinese (35 heavy/35 light drinkers) and 75 Caucasian Americans (43 heavy/32 light drinkers). Measurements Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and the Stimulation and Sedation subscales of the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale were assessed at pre-drink baseline and four timepoints after beverage consumption. The Like and Want subscales of the Drug Effects Questionnaire were also assessed at the post-drink assessments. Findings Comparisons with light drinkers showed that high and low dose alcohol produced decreases in stimulation, liking, and wanting in Chinese vs. Caucasians (ps<.05), and dose-dependent increases in sedation in both groups (ps<0.001). Among heavy drinkers, high dose alcohol produced higher stimulation (p<0.001) but with concomitant higher sedation for both doses (ps<0.05) for Chinese vs. Caucasians. Alcohol also demonstrated significantly lower liking (ps<0.001) in Chinese vs. Caucasian heavy drinkers for both doses. Interestingly, both groups showed dose dependent increases in wanting relative to placebo (ps<0.05), but the magnitude of the increase was lower in Chinese. Conclusions Stimulating effects of alcohol are predominant in Chinese male binge drinkers, as has been found in Caucasians, but with less hedonic and motivational reward, potentially explaining some of the lower risk for alcohol disorders in Asian subgroups. PMID:25203488

  3. Differences in subjective response to alcohol in heavy- and light-drinking Chinese men versus Caucasian American men.

    PubMed

    Rueger, Sandra Y; Hu, Hongxing; McNamara, Patrick; Cao, Dingcai; Hao, Wei; King, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    To compare subjective responses to alcohol among Han Chinese and Caucasian American males. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled human laboratory design. Participants completed three randomized experimental sessions with high and low alcohol and placebo beverages. Chinese participants were examined at Xinjiang Medical University, China. Caucasian participants were examined at the University of Chicago, USA. Seventy Han Chinese (35 heavy/35 light drinkers) and 75 Caucasian Americans (43 heavy/32 light drinkers). Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and the 'stimulation' and 'sedation' subscales of the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale were assessed at pre-drink baseline and four time-points after beverage consumption. The 'like' and 'want' subscales of the Drug Effects Questionnaire were also assessed at the post-drink assessments. Comparisons with light drinkers showed that high- and low-dose alcohol produced decreases in stimulation, liking and wanting in Chinese versus Caucasians (P < 0.05), and dose-dependent increases in sedation in both groups (P < 0.001). Among heavy drinkers, high-dose alcohol produced higher stimulation (P < 0.001) but with concomitant higher sedation for both doses (P < 0.05) for Chinese versus Caucasians. Alcohol also demonstrated significantly lower liking (P < 0.001) in Chinese versus Caucasian heavy drinkers for both doses. Interestingly, both groups showed dose-dependent increases in wanting relative to placebo (P < 0.05), but the magnitude of the increase was lower in Chinese drinkers. Stimulating effects of alcohol are predominant in Chinese male binge drinkers, as has been found in Caucasians, but with less hedonic and motivational reward, potentially explaining some of the lower risk for alcohol disorders in Asian subgroups. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Consumption of fruits and vegetables in Malaysia: profiling the daily and nondaily consumers.

    PubMed

    Yen, Steven T; Tan, Andrew K G; Feisul, Mustapha I

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the sociodemographic factors associated with daily fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in Malaysia. Based on a cross-sectional sample of 2447 individuals from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1, a multivariate sample selection system is developed and estimated, to accommodate high frequencies of daily FV consumption and the days of servings among nondaily consumers. Results indicate that the authors' attempt to account for endogenous sample selectivity and cross-equation correlations is justified. There exist positive correlations between FV consumption likelihoods and longer work hours, higher levels of education, high income, female gender, nonsmoking status, and being from East Malaysia. Among nondaily consumers, those with longer work hours, singles, and people with diabetes are less inclined to eat fruits on more days. Overall, higher-educated, affluent people, nonsmokers, and East Malaysians display more days of FV consumption. Based on these outcomes, several policy implications are recommended vis-à-vis FV consumption patterns in Malaysia. © 2012 APJPH.

  5. Daily Associations Among Self-control, Heavy Episodic Drinking, and Relationship Functioning: An Examination of Actor and Partner Effects

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that temporary deficits in the ability to inhibit impulsive urges may be proximally associated with intimate partner aggression. The current study examined the experience of alcohol use and the depletion of self-control in the prediction of relationship functioning. Daily diary data collected from 118 heterosexual couples were analyzed using parallel multi-level Actor Partner Interdependence Models to assess the effects of heavy episodic drinking and depletion of self-control across partners on outcomes of participant-reported daily arguing with and anger toward an intimate partner. Heavy episodic drinking among actors predicted greater arguing but failed to interact with either actor or partner depletion. We also found that greater arguing was reported on days of high congruent actor and partner depletion. Both actor and partner depletion, as well as their interaction, predicted greater partner-specific anger. Greater partner-specific anger was generally reported on days of congruent actor and partner depletion, particularly on days of high partner depletion. The current results highlight the importance of independently assessing partner effects (i.e., depletion of self-control), which interact dynamically with disinhibiting actor effects, in the prediction of daily adverse relationship functioning. Results offer further support for the development of prospective individualized and couples-based interventions for partner conflict. PMID:24700558

  6. Daily associations among self-control, heavy episodic drinking, and relationship functioning: an examination of actor and partner effects.

    PubMed

    Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that temporary deficits in the ability to inhibit impulsive urges may be proximally associated with intimate partner aggression. The current study examined the experience of alcohol use and the depletion of self-control in the prediction of relationship functioning. Daily diary data collected from 118 heterosexual couples were analyzed using parallel multi-level Actor-Partner Interdependence Models to assess the effects of heavy episodic drinking and depletion of self-control across partners on outcomes of participant-reported daily arguing with and anger toward an intimate partner. Heavy episodic drinking among actors predicted greater arguing but failed to interact with either actor or partner depletion. We also found that greater arguing was reported on days of high congruent actor and partner depletion. Both actor and partner depletion, as well as their interaction, predicted greater partner-specific anger. The current results highlight the importance of independently assessing partner effects (i.e., depletion of self-control), which interact dynamically with disinhibiting actor effects, in the prediction of daily adverse relationship functioning. Results offer further support for the development of prospective individualized and couples-based interventions for partner conflict.

  7. Daily associations between alcohol use and unprotected anal sex among heavy drinking HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Christopher W; Wray, Tyler B; Pantalone, David W; Kruis, Ryan D; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Monti, Peter M; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2015-03-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for the largest proportion of new HIV infections in the United States. Alcohol may facilitate HIV transmission by increasing unprotected anal sex, but few studies have focused on transmission behaviors in HIV-positive MSM. This study explored daily associations between alcohol use and sexual behavior among heavy drinking HIV-positive MSM using a 30-day Timeline Followback interview. Results of generalized estimating equations indicated that greater alcohol consumption on a given day was associated with a linear increase in the odds of having unprotected anal sex with partners of any HIV status. However, the odds of reporting unprotected anal sex with HIV-negative or HIV-status unknown partners increased in a curvilinear fashion, occurring primarily at very heavy levels of use (12+ drinks). Results suggest that very heavy drinking increases the risk of engaging in sexual behavior that has the potential for transmitting HIV to other men.

  8. Specific Dimensions of Impulsivity Are Differentially Associated with Daily and Non-Daily Cigarette Smoking in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dustin C.; Peters, Jessica R.; Adams, Zachary W.; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Young adults are at risk for initiation of tobacco use and progression to tobacco dependence. Not every person who smokes cigarettes becomes tobacco dependent, however, and non-daily smoking is becoming more prevalent among those who use tobacco. It is likely that individual differences in psychosocial and behavioral factors influence risk for engaging in non-daily and daily cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between impulsivity and smoking status in young adults who vary in frequency of cigarette smoking. Young adult first-year college students between the ages of 18-24 (512) were classified to one of three groups: non-smokers, non-daily smokers, or daily smokers, and impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P(Negative and Positive Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, Sensation Seeking). When all impulsivity dimensions were used simultaneously to predict smoking status, negative urgency predicted increased risk of membership in the daily smoking group and lack of premeditation predicted increased risk of membership in the non-daily smoking group. These results suggest that dimensions of impulsivity may contribute differentially to forms of smoking behavior in young adults. PMID:25827335

  9. Brief intervention for heavy drinking in primary care: Role of patient initiation

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Gail L.; Guth, Sarah E.; Badger, Gary J.; Plante, Dennis A.; Fazzino, Tera L.; Helzer, John E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alcohol brief intervention (BI) in primary care (PC) is effective, but remains underutilized in spite of multiple efforts to increase provider-initiated BI. An alternative approach to promote BI is to prompt patients to initiate alcohol-related discussions. Little is known about the role of patients in BI delivery. OBJECTIVE To determine the characteristics of PC patients who reported initiating BI with their providers, and to evaluate the association between initiator (patient vs. provider) and drinking following a BI. METHODS In the context of clinical trial, patients (N=267) who received BI during a PC visit reported on the manner in which the BI was initiated, readiness to change, demographics, and recent history of alcohol consumption. Drinking was assessed again at 6-months following the BI. RESULTS Fifty percent of patients receiving a BI reported initiating the discussion of drinking themselves. Compared with those who reported a provider-initiated discussion, self-initiators were significantly younger (43.7 vs. 47.1, p=.03), more likely to meet DSM criteria for current major depression (24% vs. 14%, p=.04), and more likely to report a history of alcohol withdrawal symptoms (68% vs. 52%, p<.01). Baseline readiness to change, baseline consumption rates, and current DSM-IV alcohol dependence were not different between groups. In the two-to-three weeks following BI, self-initiators reported greater decreases in drinks per week (5.7 vs. 2.4, p=.02), and drinking days per week (1.0 vs. 0.3, p=.002). At six month follow up, self-initiators showed significantly greater reductions in weekly drinking compared to those whose provider initiated the BI (p=.002). CONCLUSIONS Patient- and provider-initiated BI occurred with equal frequency, and patient-initiated BIs were associated with greater reductions in alcohol use. Future efforts to increase the BI rate in PC should include a focus on prompting patients to initiate alcohol-related discussions. PMID

  10. THE USE OF PROTECTIVE BEHAVIORAL STRATEGIES IS RELATED TO REDUCED RISK IN HEAVY DRINKING COLLEGE STUDENTS WITH POORER MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH*

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample of heavy drinking college students (N = 1,820). In this high risk sample, multiple regression analyses showed that stronger social health was related to increased drinking, while poorer physical, mental, and social health were related to increased alcohol negative consequences. Further, moderation effects revealed that increasing the use of protective behaviors was associated with significantly less drinking in those with stronger social health, as well as significantly lower numbers of negative consequences among participants with poorer physical and mental health. Implications for college counselors and medical personnel are discussed. PMID:21381463

  11. Being Smart and Social: The Lived Experience of High Achieving and Heavy Drinking College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachenheimer, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Studies showing the pervasiveness of college student drinking and the multitude of serious negative consequences as a result of this consumption have left researchers calling student abuse of alcohol "the single most serious public health problem confronting American colleges" (Wechsler, Dowdall, Maenner, Gledhill-Hoyt, & Lee, 1998,…

  12. Being Smart and Social: The Lived Experience of High Achieving and Heavy Drinking College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachenheimer, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Studies showing the pervasiveness of college student drinking and the multitude of serious negative consequences as a result of this consumption have left researchers calling student abuse of alcohol "the single most serious public health problem confronting American colleges" (Wechsler, Dowdall, Maenner, Gledhill-Hoyt, & Lee, 1998,…

  13. Detection of heavy metal ions in drinking water using a high-resolution differential surface plasmon resonance sensor.

    PubMed

    Forzani, Erica S; Zhang, Haiqian; Chen, Wilfred; Tao, Nongjian

    2005-03-01

    We have built a high-resolution differential surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor for heavy metal ion detection. The sensor surface is divided into a reference and sensing areas, and the difference in the SPR angles from the two areas is detected with a quadrant cell photodetector as a differential signal. In the presence of metal ions, the differential signal changes due to specific binding of the metal ions onto the sensing area coated with properly selected peptides, which provides an accurate real-time measurement and quantification of the metal ions. Selective detection of Cu2+ and Ni2+ in the ppt-ppb range was achieved by coating the sensing surface with peptides NH2-Gly-Gly-His-COOH and NH2-(His)6-COOH. Cu2+ in drinking water was tested using this sensor.

  14. Changes in the Associations of Heavy Drinking and Drug Use with Intimate Partner Violence in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Feingold, Alan; Washburn, Isaac J.; Tiberio, Stacey S.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that the disinhibitory effects induced by alcohol consumption contribute to domestic violence has gained support from meta-analyses of mainly cross-sectional studies that examined the association between alcohol abuse and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, findings from multilevel analyses of longitudinal data investigating the time-varying effects of heavy episodic drinking (HED) on physical IPV have been equivocal. This 12-year prospective study used multilevel analysis to examine the effects of HED and illicit drug use on perpetration of both physical and psychological IPV during early adulthood. Participants were 157 romantic couples who were assessed biennially 2 to 6 times for substance misuse and IPV. The analyses found no significant main effect of either HED or drug use on perpetration of IPV but there were significant interactions of both HED and drug use with age. Moreover, the developmental trends in substance use effects on IPV typically varied by gender and type of IPV. PMID:25678737

  15. Social network, social support and heavy drinking in elderly men--a population study of men born in 1914, Malmö, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hanson, B S

    1994-06-01

    We analysed whether there were associations among different aspects of social network and social support, on one hand, and heavy drinking and alcohol problems on the other. The study sample (n = 621) comprised a random half of all male residents born in 1914 in Malmö, Sweden. Five hundred (80.5%) participated. Heavy drinking was defined as an alcohol consumption above 250 g alcohol per week and alcohol problems were assessed by a modified Michigan Alcoholism Screening test. Eight conceptually differential aspects of social networks and social support were measured. Four of five social network indices (social anchorage, social participation, contact frequency, spousal support) were associated with heavy drinking (OR 1.9-2.5) and two social network indices (social anchorage, spousal support) were associated with alcohol problems (OR 2.1-2.3). The results in this study are independent of social class, but based on a cross-sectional study, so we do not know if heavy drinking has caused social isolation or the contrary. If these results can be verified in a prospective study, a strengthening of the social network of the individual could perhaps lead to more moderate alcohol habits and better health, a finding of potential importance in the field of health promotion.

  16. Discrepant Patterns of Heavy Drinking, Marijuana Use, and Smoking and Intimate Partner Violence: Results from the California Community Health Study of Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed whether discrepant (husband or wife use only) or concordant (both partners use) patterns of heavy drinking, marijuana use, and smoking are associated with increased risk for male-to-female partner violence and female-to-male partner violence among adult couples. Based on a geographic sample of married or cohabiting couples…

  17. Discrepant Patterns of Heavy Drinking, Marijuana Use, and Smoking and Intimate Partner Violence: Results from the California Community Health Study of Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed whether discrepant (husband or wife use only) or concordant (both partners use) patterns of heavy drinking, marijuana use, and smoking are associated with increased risk for male-to-female partner violence and female-to-male partner violence among adult couples. Based on a geographic sample of married or cohabiting couples…

  18. The Relationship Between End-of-Treatment Alcohol Use and Subsequent Healthcare Costs: Do Heavy Drinking Days Predict Higher Healthcare Costs?

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Arnie P; Zarkin, Gary A; Dowd, William N; Bray, Jeremy W

    2016-05-01

    A challenge for evaluating alcohol treatment efficacy is determining what constitutes a "good" outcome or meaningful improvement. Abstinence at the end of treatment is an unambiguously good outcome; however, a focus on abstinence ignores the potential benefits of patients reducing their drinking to less problematic levels. Patients may be drinking at low-risk levels at the end of treatment but may be high-functioning and impose few social costs. In this study, we estimate the relationship between drinking at the end of COMBINE treatment and subsequent healthcare costs with an emphasis on heavy and nonheavy drinking levels. Indicators of heavy drinking days (HDDs; 5+ drinks for men, 4+ for women) and nonheavy drinking days (non-HDDs) during the last 30 days of COMBINE treatment were constructed for 748 patients enrolled in the COMBINE Economic Study. Generalized linear models were used to model total costs following COMBINE treatment as a function of drinking indicators. Different model specifications analyzed alternative counts of HDDs (e.g., 1 HDD and 2 to 30 HDDs), and groups having Both non-HDDs and HDDs. Patients with HDDs had 66.4% (p < 0.01) higher healthcare costs than those who were abstinent. Having more than 2 HDDs was associated with the highest costs (75.9%, p < 0.01). Patients with non-HDDs had costs that were not significantly different than abstainers, even if they also had HDDs. However, those with HDDs only had costs 91.7% higher than abstainers (p < 0.01). Having HDDs at the end of treatment is associated with higher costs. Patients who had Only HDDs at the end of treatment had worse subsequent outcomes than those who had Both non-HDDs and HDDs. These findings offer new context for evaluating treatment outcomes and provide new information on the association of drinking with consequences. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Parenting, self-control, and the gender gap in heavy drinking: the case of Russia.

    PubMed

    Botchkovar, Ekaterina V; Broidy, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Drawing on Gottfredson and Hirschi's theory linking parenting to deviant behavior via development of self-control, the authors assess the association between parenting styles, self-control ability, and frequent alcohol use separately for males and females. The authors' findings from a random sample of 440 Russian respondents provide mixed support for self-control theory. Contrary to the theory, but in line with extant research, the authors failed to uncover significant gender differences in childhood upbringing or establish a strong link between parenting techniques and self-control. Furthermore, whereas parental upbringing appears to increase the likelihood of frequent drinking among men, self-control does not mediate this relationship but rather acts as an independent predictor of men's alcohol abuse. Finally, the relatively modest contribution of self-control differences to the gender gap in frequent drinking suggests that higher alcohol consumption among men likely stems from alternative, possibly context-embedded factors.

  20. [Health risk assessment of heavy metals in drinking water based on field measurement of exposure factors of Chinese people].

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiao-li; Wang, Zong-shuang; Li, Qin; Zhang, Wen-jie; Huang, Nan; Wang, Bei-bei; Zhang, Jin-liang

    2011-05-01

    This study was carried out in Biyang County, located in the junction of Yangtze river and Huaihe river. Drinking water samples of 20 sites in urban and rural areas in this county were collected to measure 14 heavy metals by ICP/MS. About 2 500 subjects with different age and sex were selected to measure exposure factors. Time-activity of drinking water by ingestion and dermal contact of each individual subject during the last three days were kept in dairy in detail by questionnaires. Intake of drinking water from direct and indirect consumption of water and time duration of dermal contact to water in each individual subject were kept in record based on real time measurements. Human health risks were assessed and sensitivity of exposure factors and uncertainty of risks were also analyzed. The results showed that the average drinking water intake rate of male and female are 2276 mL/d, 2265 mL/d in urban adults and 2464 mL/d, 2170 mL/d in rural adults respectively. Body surface area of male and female are 1.806 m2, 1.641 m2 in urban adults and 1.747 m2, 1.617 m2 in rural adults respectively. The contents of 14 heavy metals in this study area are all below the national drinking water standards. Cancer risks from exposure to As are ranged from 2.5 x 10(-6) to 5.2 x 10(-6) through ingestion and 1.1 x 10(-7) to 2.3 x 10(-7) through dermal exposure. Non-cancer risks are ranged from 2.1 x 10(-7) to 1.7 x 10(-6) through ingestion and 1.0 x 10(-8) to 6.0 x 10(-8) through dermal exposure. Non-cancer risks in rural population are 2.1 times to 5.6 times to the risks in urban populations. However all the risks are below the acceptable level. The sensitivity of various exposure factors including drinking water intake rate, dermal exposure time and body surface area are 71.5%. This indicates that exposure factors play a very important role in health risk assessment. Health risks in this research based on real measurement of exposure factors are about 0.94 time to 6.33 times higher

  1. Discrepant Patterns of Heavy Drinking, Marijuana Use, and Smoking and Intimate Partner Violence: Results from the California Community Health Study of Couples

    PubMed Central

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed whether discrepant (husband or wife use only) or concordant (both partners use) patterns of heavy drinking, marijuana use and smoking are associated with increased risk for male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) among adult couples. Based on a geographic sample of married/cohabiting couples residing in 50 California cities, logistic regression analyses were conducted using dyadic data on past-year partner violence, binge drinking and frequency of intoxication, marijuana use, and smoking. When all substance use patterns were included simultaneously, wife-only heavy drinking couples were at elevated risk for MFPV, as were concordant marijuana-using couples. Husband-only marijuana discrepant couples were at increased risk for FMPV. Further research is needed to explore the processes by which discrepant and concordant substance use patterns may contribute to partner aggression. PMID:26464462

  2. Subjective versus Objective Definitions of Homelessness: Are there Differences in Risk Factors among Heavy-Drinking Women?

    PubMed Central

    Eyrich-Garg, Karin M.; O'Leary, Catina Callahan; Cottler, Linda B.

    2009-01-01

    Investigations with homeless populations have focused on those living on the streets or in shelters; few have examined phenomena based on respondents' self-definitions as homeless or not. This investigation examined similarities and differences among risk factors (including mental health, substance abuse, religion/spirituality, social support, and risky sexual behaviors) using two definitions of homelessness: one where place of residence defined individuals as homeless (the `objective', or traditional, definition) and another where respondents defined themselves as homeless (the `subjective' definition). Data come from the baseline survey of the NIAAA-funded “Sister-to-Sister” study (n=339) of heavy-drinking women. Subjectively-defined homelessness was associated with higher rates of mental health and substance use disorders, lower rates of condom use, higher rates of trading sex for food, and less social support. Objectively-defined homelessness was associated with higher rates of drinking in abandoned buildings, on the streets, and in public restrooms, more new sexual partners, and higher rates of trading sex for heroin and speedballs. Investigations failing to ask for subjective information may misattribute some factors to homelessness which may overestimate the effect of various factors on homelessness. Investigators should ask respondents to define their homelessness, or they lose an important dimension of the concept of homelessness. PMID:20011677

  3. Arsenic and heavy metals contamination, risk assessment and their source in drinking water of the Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Gul, Nida; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Khan, Sardar; Khattak, Nimat Ullah; Muhammad, Said

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the physico-chemical characteristics in drinking water of Mardan District, Pakistan. Furthermore, water quality was evaluated for the risk assessment of arsenic and heavy metals (HMs) and their contamination sources. Representative groundwater samples of shallow and deep sources were collected in the study area. These samples were analyzed for physical parameters, anions, light metals (LMs) and HMs. Results were compared with the drinking water guideline values set by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Average concentrations of anions, LMs and HMs were found within the maximum allowable contaminant levels except for bicarbonates, Fe, Cu, and Pb. Results revealed that hazard quotients >1 were observed for shallow groundwater for 10% samples only, suggesting potential health risk from water consumption. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis showed a relationship among various physico-chemical parameters in both shallow and deep groundwater. Statistical analyses suggested the geogenic and anthropogenic sources for possible enhancement of various physico-chemical parameters in the aquifer system of the study area.

  4. Reciprocal Effects of Internalizing and Oppositional Defiance Symptoms on Heavy Drinking and Alcohol-Related Harms in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kara D.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Ames, Megan E.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for longitudinal research to understand how psychopathology relates to the onset and maintenance of substance use from adolescence into young adulthood. Hence, we investigate the longitudinal, reciprocal influences of internalizing (anxiety and depression) and externalizing (oppositional defiance) symptoms on heavy episodic drinking (HED; ≥5 drinks per occasion) and alcohol-related harms in a community-based sample of youth aged 12–27 years. Participants were chosen from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, followed six times, biennially between 2003 and 2013 (N = 662). Analyses used cross-lagged panel models to examine reciprocal relations over time. Differences across age and sex were also tested. Defiance symptoms predicted increases in HED, which reciprocally predicted increases in defiance symptoms for females. Internalizing symptoms were related to HED within time for females. Alcohol-related harms had reciprocal positive associations with internalizing and defiance symptoms for both males and females. Associations were largely invariant across age groups, suggesting that the presence and strength of associations persisted across development. While psychopathology preceded the onset of HED and harms, the overall findings suggest that these risk processes are mutually reinforcing across development and that youth may become entrenched in an interdependent cycle that significantly increases their risk of comorbid disorders in adulthood. PMID:26819553

  5. Environmentally friendly chitosan/PEI-grafted magnetic gelatin for the highly effective removal of heavy metals from drinking water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bingbing; Zhou, Feng; Huang, Kai; Wang, Yipei; Mei, Surong; Zhou, Yikai; Jing, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The development of environmentally friendly sorbents with a high adsorption capacity is an essential problem in the removal of heavy metals from drinking water. In this study, magnetic gelatin was prepared using transglutaminase as a cross-linker, which could only catalyze an acyl-transfer reaction between lysine and glutamine residues of the gelatin and not affect other amino groups. Therefore, it was beneficial for the further modification based on the amino groups, and did not affect the spatial structure of gelatin, which can effectively prevent the embedding of active sites in the polymer matrix. After modification with the chitosan/polyethylenimine copolymers, the numbers of amino groups was greatly increased, and the magnetic composites exhibited a high adsorption capacity, excellent water compatibility and simple magnetic separation. The adsorption capacities of lead and cadmium were 341 mg g−1 and 321 mg g−1, respectively, which could be used for the removal of metal ions in drinking water. PMID:28225082

  6. The role of impulsivity traits and delayed reward discounting in dysregulated eating and drinking among heavy drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Stojek, Monika M.; Fischer, Sarah; Murphy, Cara M.; MacKillop, James

    2016-01-01

    Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that has been linked to dysregulated eating and problematic alcohol use. The UPPS model identifies five personality-based impulsivity traits that have unique predictive utility: Negative Urgency, Perseverance, Premeditation, Sensation Seeking, and Positive Urgency. Delayed reward discounting (DRD) is an index of impulsive decision making characterized by preference for smaller immediate gains at the cost of larger delayed gains. In the current study, we sought to refine the influence of impulsive personality traits and DRD on disordered eating patterns and problematic drinking. One hundred and eight treatment-seeking heavy drinkers were assessed for UPPS impulsivity traits, DRD, disordered eating, alcohol use, and demographic information. With regard to disordered eating patterns, DRD predicted higher levels of Dietary Restraint and Weight and Shape Concerns. Negative Urgency predicted binge eating and Weight and Shape Concerns. Positive Urgency predicted Eating Concerns. Female sex predicted Eating, Weight, and Shape Concerns. When considering problematic alcohol use, only Negative Urgency and Sensation Seeking were predictive. This is the first study to examine both personality-based impulsivity and DRD in relation to pathological eating and drinking behavior. The results suggest the importance of disentangling the contributions of various impulsivity constructs on dysregulated eating. PMID:24816318

  7. The role of impulsivity traits and delayed reward discounting in dysregulated eating and drinking among heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    Stojek, Monika M; Fischer, Sarah; Murphy, Cara M; MacKillop, James

    2014-09-01

    Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that has been linked to dysregulated eating and problematic alcohol use. The UPPS model identifies five personality-based impulsivity traits that have unique predictive utility: Negative Urgency, Perseverance, Premeditation, Sensation Seeking, and Positive Urgency. Delayed reward discounting (DRD) is an index of impulsive decision making characterized by preference for smaller immediate gains at the cost of larger delayed gains. In the current study, we sought to refine the influence of impulsive personality traits and DRD on disordered eating patterns and problematic drinking. One hundred and eight treatment-seeking heavy drinkers were assessed for UPPS impulsivity traits, DRD, disordered eating, alcohol use, and demographic information. With regard to disordered eating patterns, DRD predicted higher levels of Dietary Restraint and Weight and Shape Concerns. Negative Urgency predicted binge eating and Weight and Shape Concerns. Positive Urgency predicted Eating Concerns. Female sex predicted Eating, Weight, and Shape Concerns. When considering problematic alcohol use, only Negative Urgency and Sensation Seeking were predictive. This is the first study to examine both personality-based impulsivity and DRD in relation to pathological eating and drinking behavior. The results suggest the importance of disentangling the contributions of various impulsivity constructs on dysregulated eating.

  8. Inconsistency in Reporting Abstention and Heavy Drinking Frequency: Associations with Sex and Socioeconomic Status, and Potential Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Kydd, Robyn M.; Connor, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To describe inconsistencies in reporting past-year drinking status and heavy drinking occasions (HDOs) on single questions from two different instruments, and to identify associated characteristics and impacts. Methods: We compared computer-presented Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) with categorical response options, and mental health interview (MHI) with open-ended consumption questions, completed on the same day. Participants were 464 men and 459 women aged 38 (91.7% of surviving birth cohort members). Differences in dichotomous single-item measures of abstention and HDO frequency, associations of inconsistent reporting with sex, socioeconomic status (SES) and survey order, and impacts of instrument choice on associations of alcohol with sex and SES were examined. Results: The AUDIT-C drinking frequency question estimated higher past-year abstention prevalence (AUDIT = 7.6%, MHI = 5.4%), with one-third of AUDIT-C abstainers being MHI drinkers. Only AUDIT-C produced significant sex differences in abstainer prevalence. Inconsistencies in HDO classifications were bidirectional, but with fewer HDOs reported on the MHI than AUDIT-C question. Lower SES was associated with inconsistency in abstention and weekly+ HDOs. Abstention and higher HDO frequency were associated with lower SES overall, but sex-specific associations differed by instrument. Conclusions: In this context, data collection method affected findings, with inconsistencies in abstention reports having most impact. Future studies should: (a) confirm self-reported abstention; (b) consider piloting data collection methods in target populations; (c) expect impacts of sex and SES on measurements and analyses. PMID:25648932

  9. Perceived Discrimination and Heavy Episodic Drinking Among African-American Youth: Differences by Age and Reason for Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Jackson, Kristina; Wang, Heng; Miles, Thomas T; Mather, Frances; Shankar, Arti

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether associations between perceived discrimination and heavy episodic drinking (HED) vary by age and by discrimination type (e.g., racial, age, physical appearance) among African-American youth. National data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Transition to Adulthood Study were analyzed. Youth participated in up to four interviews (2005, 2007, 2009, 2011; n = 657) between ages 18 and 25 years. Respondents reported past-year engagement in HED (four or more drinks for females, five or more drinks for males) and frequency of discriminatory acts experienced (e.g., receiving poor service, being treated with less courtesy). Categorical latent growth curve models, including perceived discrimination types (racial, age, and physical appearance) as a time-varying predictors of HED, were run. Controls for gender, birth cohort, living arrangement in adolescence, familial wealth, parental alcohol use, and college attendance were explored. The average HED trajectory was curvilinear (increasing followed by flattening), whereas perceived discrimination remained flat with age. In models including controls, odds of HED were significantly higher than average around ages 20-21 years with greater frequency of perceived racial discrimination; associations were not significant at other ages. Discrimination attributed to age or physical appearance was not associated with HED at any age. Perceived racial discrimination may be a particularly salient risk factor for HED around the ages of transition to legal access to alcohol among African-American youth. Interventions to reduce discrimination or its impact could be targeted before this transition to ameliorate the negative outcomes associated with HED. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceived Discrimination and Heavy Episodic Drinking among African American Youth: Differences by Age and Reason for Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kristina; Wang, Heng; Miles, Thomas T.; Mather, Frances; Shankar, Arti

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether associations between perceived discrimination and heavy episodic drinking (HED) varies by age and by discrimination type (e.g., racial, age, physical appearance) among African American youth. Methods National data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Transition to Adulthood Study were analyzed. Youth participated in up to four interviews (2005, 2007, 2009, 2011; n=657) between ages 18–25. Respondents reported past-year engagement in HED (4 or more drinks for females, 5 or more drinks for males), and frequency of discriminatory acts experienced (e.g., receiving poor service, being treated with less courtesy). Categorical latent growth curve models, including perceived discrimination types (racial, age, and physical appearance) as a time-varying predictors of HED, were run in MPlus. Controls for gender, birth cohort, living arrangement in adolescence, familial wealth, parental alcohol use, and college attendance were explored. Results The average HED trajectory was curvilinear (increasing followed by flattening), while perceived discrimination remained flat with age. In models including controls, odds of HED were significantly higher than average around ages 20–21 with greater frequency of perceived racial discrimination; associations were not significant at other ages. Discrimination attributed to age or physical appearance was not associated with HED at any age. Conclusions Perceived racial discrimination may be a particularly salient risk factor for HED around the ages of transition to legal access to alcohol among African American youth. Interventions to reduce discrimination or its impact could be targeted before this transition to ameliorate the negative outcomes associated with HED. PMID:26499858

  11. Reducing alcohol-related aggression: Effects of a self-awareness manipulation and locus of control in heavy drinking males.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Danielle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction - that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient - have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men's intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect. Participants were 102 intoxicated male heavy drinkers who completed a self-report measure of locus of control and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (Taylor, 1967). In this task, participants administered electric shocks to, and received electric shocks from, a fictitious female opponent while exposed to an environment saturated with or devoid of self-awareness cues. Results indicated that the self-awareness manipulation was associated with less alcohol-related aggression toward the female confederate for men who reported an internal, but not an external, locus of control. Findings support AMT as a theoretical framework to inform preventative interventions for alcohol-related aggression and highlight the importance of individual differences in receptivity to such interventions.

  12. Reducing Alcohol-Related Aggression: Effects of a Self-Awareness Manipulation and Locus of Control in Heavy Drinking Males

    PubMed Central

    Purvis, Danielle M.; Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction – that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient – have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men’s intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect. Participants were 102 intoxicated male heavy drinkers who completed a self-report measure of locus of control and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (Taylor, 1967). In this task, participants administered electric shocks to, and received electric shocks from, a fictitious female opponent while exposed to an environment saturated with or devoid of self-awareness cues. Results indicated that the self-awareness manipulation was associated with less alcohol-related aggression toward the female confederate for men who reported an internal, but not an external, locus of control. Findings support AMT as a theoretical framework to inform preventative interventions for alcohol-related aggression and highlight the importance of individual differences in receptivity to such interventions. PMID:26905761

  13. Smiling Instead of Smoking: Development of a Positive Psychology Smoking Cessation Smartphone App for Non-daily Smokers.

    PubMed

    Hoeppner, Bettina B; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Kelly, Lourah; Schick, Melissa; Kelly, John F

    2017-02-14

    The usefulness of mobile technology in supporting smoking cessation has been demonstrated, but little is known about how smartphone apps could best be leveraged. The purpose of this paper is to describe the program of research that led to the creation of a smoking cessation app for non-daily smokers, so as to stimulate further ideas to create "smart" smartphone apps to support health behavior change. Literature reviews to evaluate the appropriateness of the proposed app, content analyses of existing apps, and smoking cessation sessions with non-daily smokers (n = 38) to inform the design of the app. The literature reviews showed that (1) smoking cessation apps are sought after by smokers, (2) positive affect plays an important role in smoking cessation, (3) short, self-administered exercises consistently bring about enduring positive affect enhancements, and (4) low treatment-seeking rates of non-daily smokers despite high motivation to quit indicate a need for novel smoking cessation support. Directed content analyses of existing apps indicated that tailoring, two-way interactions, and proactive features are under-utilized in existing apps, despite the popularity of such features. Conventional content analyses of audio-recorded session tapes suggested that difficulty in quitting was generally linked to specific, readily identifiable occasions, and that social support was considered important but not consistently sought out. The "Smiling Instead of Smoking" (SIS) app is an Android app that is designed to act as a behavioral, in-the-pocket coach to enhance quitting success in non-daily smokers. It provides proactive, tailored behavioral coaching, interactive tools (e.g., enlisting social support), daily positive psychology exercises, and smoking self-monitoring.

  14. The Reliability and Stability of Puff Topography Variables in Non-Daily Smokers Assessed in the Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Gass, Julie C; Germeroth, Lisa J; Wray, Jennifer M; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2016-04-01

    Puff topography variables, often measured using the Clinical Research Support System device, have traditionally been studied in regular, daily smokers and have been shown to be highly stable. However, more recent research has focused on non-daily smokers as a population of interest. As such, the aim of this article was to examine puff topography stability (cross-cigarette agreement over time) and reliability (within-cigarette consistency) in non-daily smokers across six laboratory sessions. One hundred seven non-daily smokers attended six laboratory sessions over the course of 3 months. At each session, they smoked one cigarette through the Clinical Research Support System pocket, in addition to completing questionnaires about their smoking history and dependence. Puff topography measurements were highly reliable (α values ranged from 0.87-0.95) and puff behavior was highly stable across sessions (r values ranged from 0.38-0.84). Adding sessions substantially improved reliability estimates. Aspects of puffing behavior observed in session, including puff volume, puff duration, time of puff peak, and total cigarette volume were related to level of smoke exposure, measured by expired carbon monoxide. Instability in puffing behavior was not predicted by recent or long-term smoking patterns. Puff topography appears to be a stable and routinized aspect of smoking in non-daily smokers. The feasibility of assessing puff topography in this population is supported by the high reliabilities observed, though it should be noted that reliability greatly improved by having more than one session. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. MAOA Alters the Effects of Heavy Drinking and Childhood Physical Abuse on Risk for Severe Impulsive Acts of Violence Among Alcoholic Violent Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, Roope; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Background A polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has been shown to alter the effect of persistent drinking and childhood maltreatment on the risk for violent and antisocial behaviors. These findings indicate that MAOA could contribute to inter-individual differences in stress resiliency. Methods Recidivism in severe violent crimes was assessed after 8 years of nonincarcerated follow-up in a male sample of 174 impulsive Finnish alcoholic violent offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder (BPD) or both. We examined whether MAOA genotype alters the effects of heavy drinking and childhood physical abuse (CPA) on the risk for committing impulsive recidivistic violent crimes. Results Logistic regression analyses showed that both heavy drinking and CPA were significant independent predictors of recidivism in violent behavior (OR 5.2, p = 0.004 and OR 5.3, p = 0.003) among offenders having the high MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-H), but these predictors showed no effect among offenders carrying the low MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-L). Conclusion Carriers of the MAOA-H allele have a high risk to commit severe recidivistic impulsive violent crimes after exposure to heavy drinking and CPA. PMID:20201935

  16. MAOA alters the effects of heavy drinking and childhood physical abuse on risk for severe impulsive acts of violence among alcoholic violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Roope; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2010-05-01

    A polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has been shown to alter the effect of persistent drinking and childhood maltreatment on the risk for violent and antisocial behaviors. These findings indicate that MAOA could contribute to inter-individual differences in stress resiliency. Recidivism in severe violent crimes was assessed after 8 years of nonincarcerated follow-up in a male sample of 174 impulsive Finnish alcoholic violent offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder (BPD) or both. We examined whether MAOA genotype alters the effects of heavy drinking and childhood physical abuse (CPA) on the risk for committing impulsive recidivistic violent crimes. Logistic regression analyses showed that both heavy drinking and CPA were significant independent predictors of recidivism in violent behavior (OR 5.2, p = 0.004 and OR 5.3, p = 0.003) among offenders having the high MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-H), but these predictors showed no effect among offenders carrying the low MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-L). Carriers of the MAOA-H allele have a high risk to commit severe recidivistic impulsive violent crimes after exposure to heavy drinking and CPA.

  17. Geostatistical analysis of the relationship between heavy metals in drinking water and cancer incidence in residential areas in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Colak, Ebru Husniye; Yomralioglu, Tahsin; Nisanci, Recep; Yildirim, Volkan; Duran, Celal

    2015-01-01

    In the study described in this article, the authors examined the relationship between heavy metals in the drinking water and cancer densities in residential areas. The Turkish cities of Trabzon, Rize, and Giresun in the eastern Black Sea region were chosen as the study areas. Cancer registry data, population information, heavy metal chemical analysis results for drinking water, and other spatial information for the region were collected in a database designed in GIS. Information on a total of 13,012 registered cancer cases from the years 2000-2007 was obtained from a cancer record center and depicted spatially on a map. The incidence values explaining cancer density in residential units were calculated. Chemical analyses were then conducted to determine the presence of 17 different heavy metals by collecting a total of 541 drinking water samples. It was determined that among the 17 analyzed heavy metals, beryllium, nickel, antimony, and molybdenum had a significant relationship with cancer incidence values in the residential units.

  18. Apple snails and their endosymbionts bioconcentrate heavy metals and uranium from contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vega, Israel A; Arribére, María A; Almonacid, Andrea V; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

    2012-09-01

    The differential ability of apple snail tissues, endosymbionts, and eggs to bioaccumulate several metals (Sb, As, Ba, Br, Zn, Cr, Fe, Hg, Se, and U) was investigated. Metal concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis in several tissues, endosymbionts, and eggs from mature apple snails cultured in either drinking water or reconstituted water (prepared with American Society for Testing and Materials type I water). The highest bioconcentration factors (BCFs) in the midgut gland were found for Ba, Zn, Se, As, U, Br, and Hg (in decreasing order), while the highest in the kidney were for Ba, Br, and Hg. The foot showed the highest BCFs for Ba, Hg, Br, and Se (in decreasing order). Calcified tissues (uterus, shell) and eggs showed low BCFs, except for Ba. Both C corpuscles and gland tissue showed statistically higher BCFs than K corpuscles for Ba, Fe, U, Br, and Sb. The concentration of most of the studied elements was significantly lower in tissues and endosymbionts obtained from snails cultured in reconstituted water instead of drinking water. Snails cultured in reconstituted water and then exposed or not to Hg, As, and U (at the maximum contaminant level allowed by the US Environmental Protection Agency) also resulted in high levels accumulated in midgut gland, endosymbionts and kidney. Our findings suggest that the midgut gland (and the symbionts contained therein), the kidney, and the foot of Pomacea canaliculata may be useful bioindicators of Hg, As and U pollution in freshwater bodies and that the unrestricted use of ampullariid snails as human and animal food must be considered with caution.

  19. [Application of ICP-mS in the health risk assessment of heavy metals for drinking water sources in reservoirs].

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Huai-Dong; Gao, Ji-Jun; Zou, Xiao-Wen; Yong, Huang

    2014-05-01

    The six heavy metal concentrations (Cr, Cr, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) in water samples collected from five reservoirs of Liao River Basin were studied. The health risk assessment for heavy metals pollution in reservoirs was conducted based on the environmental health risk assessment model recommended by U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in five reservoirs of Liao River Basin were 3.36, 1.03, 2. 70, 1.23, 0. 02 and 0. 03 microg L-1, respectively. In fact, these heavy metals concentrations were obviously lower than the Standard of National Drinking Water in China (GB 5749-2006). The results also showed that the metal carcinogenic risk was relatively high in this region. The order of the risk level of carcinogenic metals was Cr>As>Cd. The highest carcinogenic risk was from Cr, with the risk for adults ranging from 4. 50 X 10(-5) approximately 7. 53 X 10(-5) a-1' and the risk for children ranging from 6. 29 X 10(-5) to 1. 05 X 10(-4) a-1. The health risk levels caused by non-carcinogenic metals ranging from 10-13 to 10(-10) a-1 were lower than the acceptable range suggested by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the order of the risk level of non-carcinogenic metals was Cu>Zn>Pb. The total health risk of heavy metals for adults ranging from 1. 07X 10(-4) to 1. 72X 10(-4) a-1 and for children ranging from 1. 49 X 10(-4) to 2. 40 X 10(-4) a-1 exceeded the accepted level of 5 X 10(-5) a-1 as suggested by ICRP. The health risk levels of carcinogenic metals were significantly higher than those of non-carcinogenic metals in the reservoirs for Liao River Basin.

  20. Heavy metals in the gold mine soil of the upstream area of a metropolitan drinking water source.

    PubMed

    Ding, Huaijian; Ji, Hongbing; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Aixing; Guo, Xinyue; Li, Cai; Gao, Yang; Briki, Mergem

    2016-02-01

    Pinggu District is adjacent to the county of Miyun, which contains the largest drinking water source of Beijing (Miyun Reservoir). The Wanzhuang gold field and tailing deposits are located in Pinggu, threatening Beijing's drinking water security. In this study, soil samples were collected from the surface of the mining area and the tailings piles and analyzed for physical and chemical properties, as well as heavy metal contents and particle size fraction to study the relationship between degree of pollution degree and particle size. Most metal concentrations in the gold mine soil samples exceeded the background levels in Beijing. The spatial distribution of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn was the same, while that of Cr and Ni was relatively similar. Trace element concentrations increased in larger particles, decreased in the 50-74 μm size fraction, and were lowest in the <2 μm size fraction. Multivariate analysis showed that Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb originated from anthropogenic sources, while Cr, Ni, and Sc were of natural origin. The geo-accumulation index indicated serious Pb, As, and Cd pollution, but moderate to no Ni, Cr, and Hg pollution. The Tucker 3 model revealed three factors for particle fractions, metals, and samples. There were two factors in model A and three factors for both the metals and samples (models B and C, respectively). The potential ecological risk index shows that most of the study areas have very high potential ecological risk, a small portion has high potential ecological risk, and only a few sampling points on the perimeter have moderate ecological risk, with higher risk closer to the mining area.

  1. Subjective and neural responses to intravenous alcohol in young adults with light and heavy drinking patterns.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Jodi M; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Crouss, Tess; Hommer, Daniel W

    2012-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption during young adulthood is a risk factor for the development of serious alcohol use disorders. Research has shown that individual differences in subjective responses to alcohol may affect individuals' vulnerability to developing alcoholism. Studies comparing the subjective and objective response to alcohol between light and heavy drinkers (HDs), however, have yielded inconsistent results, and neural responses to alcohol in these groups have not been characterized. We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover alcohol challenge study comparing functional magnetic resonance imaging and subjective response to intravenously administered 6% v/v ethanol to a target blood alcohol concentration of 0.08% or placebo between HDs and social drinkers (SDs). During the imaging, we presented emotional cues in order to measure how emotion modulated the effects of alcohol on the brain's reward circuitry. We found that, at equivalent blood alcohol concentrations, HDs reported lower subjective alcohol effects than SDs. Alcohol significantly activated the nucleus accumbens in SDs, but not in HDs. Self-reported ratings of intoxication correlated with striatal activation, suggesting that activation may reflect subjective experience of intoxication. Fearful faces significantly activated the amygdala in the SDs only, and this activation was attenuated by alcohol. This study shows that HDs not only experience reduced subjective effects of alcohol, but also demonstrate a blunted response to alcohol in the brain's reward system. Our findings indicate that reduced subjective and neural response to alcohol in HDs may be suggestive of either the development of tolerance to alcohol, or of pre-existing decreased sensitivity to alcohol's effects.

  2. Associations between recent heavy drinking and dorsal anterior cingulate N-acetylaspartate and glutamate concentrations in non-treatment seeking individuals with alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Prisciandaro, James J.; Schacht, Joseph P.; Prescot, Andrew P.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Brown, Truman R.; Anton, Raymond F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies have consistently found abnormal brain concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamate in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) relative to light drinkers. However, most such studies have focused on individuals in treatment for severe alcohol dependence and few studies have investigated associations between neurochemical concentrations and recent alcohol consumption. The present study focused on associations between recent drinking and prefrontal neurometabolite concentrations in non-severe, non-treatment seeking individuals with AUD. Methods Nineteen treatment naïve alcohol-dependent individuals aged 21–40 completed a 1H-MRS scan. Single-voxel 1H-MRS spectra were acquired in dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) using a Two-dimensional J-resolved Point Resolved Spectroscopy (2D J-PRESS) sequence. Associations between recent heavy drinking, assessed using the Timeline FollowBack, and dACC metabolite concentrations were estimated via regression controlling for within-voxel tissue composition. Results Participants provided a negative breathalyzer reading and reported between 1 and 5 days (M = 2.45, SD = 1.23) since their last drink. Number of heavy drinking days in the 14 days preceding the scan (M = 4.84, SD = 3.32) was significantly inversely associated with both glutamate/water (β = −0.63, t(17) = −3.37, p = 0.004) and NAA/water concentrations (β = −0.59, t(17) = −2.98, p = 0.008). Conclusions The present study extends the literature by demonstrating inverse associations between recent heavy drinking and dACC glutamate and NAA concentrations in a sample of non-severe, non-treatment seeking individuals with AD. These findings may support the hypothesis that amount of recent alcohol consumption may account for differences in neuronal metabolism, even in non-severe, non-treatment seeking alcoholics. PMID:26853538

  3. Is video gaming, or video game addiction, associated with depression, academic achievement, heavy episodic drinking, or conduct problems?

    PubMed

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Frøyland, Lars Roar

    2014-03-01

    While the relationships between video game use and negative consequences are debated, the relationships between video game addiction and negative consequences are fairly well established. However, previous studies suffer from methodological weaknesses that may have caused biased results. There is need for further investigation that benefits from the use of methods that avoid omitted variable bias. Two wave panel data was used from two surveys of 1,928 Norwegian adolescents aged 13 to 17 years. The surveys included measures of video game use, video game addiction, depression, heavy episodic drinking, academic achievement, and conduct problems. The data was analyzed using first-differencing, a regression method that is unbiased by time invariant individual factors. Video game addiction was related to depression, lower academic achievement, and conduct problems, but time spent on video games was not related to any of the studied negative outcomes. The findings were in line with a growing number of studies that have failed to find relationships between time spent on video games and negative outcomes. The current study is also consistent with previous studies in that video game addiction was related to other negative outcomes, but it made the added contribution that the relationships are unbiased by time invariant individual effects. However, future research should aim at establishing the temporal order of the supposed causal effects. Spending time playing video games does not involve negative consequences, but adolescents who experience problems related to video games are likely to also experience problems in other facets of life.

  4. Effects of smoking and alcohol use on neurocognitive functioning in heavy drinking, HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Monnig, Mollie A; Kahler, Christopher W; Lee, Hana; Pantalone, David W; Mayer, Kenneth H; Cohen, Ronald A; Monti, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    High rates of cognitive impairment persist in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, despite improved health outcomes and reduced mortality through widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Heavy alcohol use and cigarette smoking are potential contributors to neurocognitive impairment in people living with HIV (PLWH), yet few studies have examined their influence concurrently. Here we investigated the effects of self-reported alcohol use and smoking on learning, memory, processing speed, verbal fluency, and executive function in 124 HIV-positive men who have sex with men [age (mean ± SD) = 42.8 ± 10.4 years], engaged with medical care. All participants were heavy drinkers. Duration of HIV infection averaged 9.9 ± 7.6 years, and 92.7% were on a stable ART regimen. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery and assessment of past 30-day substance use. Average number of drinks per drinking day (DPDD) was 5.6 ± 3.5, and 33.1% of participants were daily smokers. Rates of neurocognitive impairment were the highest in learning (50.8%), executive function (41.9%), and memory (38.0%). Multiple regression models tested DPDD and smoking status as predictors of neurocognitive performance, controlling for age and premorbid intelligence. Smoking was significantly, negatively related to verbal learning (p = .046) and processing speed (p = .001). DPDD was a significant predictor of learning (p = .047) in a model that accounted for the interaction of DPDD and smoking status. As expected, premorbid intelligence significantly predicted all neurocognitive scores (ps < .01), and older age was associated with slower processing speed (ps < .01). In conclusion, smoking appears to be associated with neurocognitive functioning deficits in PLWH beyond the effects of heavy drinking, aging, and premorbid intelligence. Smoking cessation interventions have the potential to be an important target for improving functional outcomes

  5. Effects of smoking and alcohol use on neurocognitive functioning in heavy drinking, HIV-positive men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Monnig, Mollie A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Lee, Hana; Pantalone, David W.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Monti, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment affects approximately half of people living with HIV (PLWH) in the United States, despite improved health outcomes and reduced mortality through widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Heavy alcohol use and cigarette smoking are potential contributors to neurocognitive impairment in PLWH, yet few studies have examined their influence concurrently. Here we investigated the effects of self-reported alcohol use and smoking on learning, memory, processing speed, verbal fluency, and executive function in 124 HIV-positive men who have sex with men [age (mean ± SD) = 42.8 ± 10.4 years], engaged with medical care. All participants were heavy drinkers. Duration of HIV infection averaged 9.9 ± 7.6 years, and 92.7% were on a stable ART regimen. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery and assessment of past 30-day substance use. Average number of drinks per drinking day (DPDD) was 5.6 ± 3.5, and 33.1% of participants were daily smokers. Rates of neurocognitive impairment were highest in learning (50.8%), executive function (41.9%), and memory (38.0%). Multiple regression models tested DPDD and smoking status as predictors of neurocognitive performance, controlling for age and premorbid intelligence. Smoking was significantly, negatively related to verbal learning (p = 0.046) and processing speed (p = 0.001). DPDD was a significant predictor of learning (p = 0.047) in a model that accounted for the interaction of DPDD and smoking status. As expected, premorbid intelligence significantly predicted all neurocognitive scores (p’s < 0.01), and older age was associated with slower processing speed (p’s < 0.01). In conclusion, smoking appears to be associated with neurocognitive functioning deficits in PLWH beyond the effects of heavy drinking, aging, and premorbid intelligence. Smoking cessation interventions have the potential to be an important target for improving functional outcomes in heavy drinking PLWH. PMID:26444260

  6. Lack of leadership confidence relates to problem drinking in women: gender identity, heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use disorders in Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Hensing, Gunnel; Spak, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse in women the association between four dimensions of gender identity, heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol use disorders (AUD), taking into account age, personality, psychiatric co-morbidity and level of education. An initial screening of alcohol consumption was followed by a structured psychiatric interview in a sample of women drawn from the Gothenburg population and women attending primary care, maternity and hospital services (n = 930). Gender identity was assessed using the Masculinity-Femininity Questionnaire (M/F-Q) (items grouped into four dimensions: leadership, caring, self-assertiveness and emotionality). The Karolinska Scale of Personality was administered. Clinical psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM were made in face-to-face interviews. HED was defined as consumption of at least 60 g of ethanol on a single day at least once a month. Women who scored low on the leadership dimension were twice as likely to have AUD [age-adjusted odds1.98 (95% confidence interval 1.30-3.01)] compared to those with medium scores. These odds ratios were significant after adjustment for personality [2.21 (1.35-3.63)], psychiatric disorders [2.09 (1.25-3.47)] and level of education [1.95 (1.17-3.26)]. Low scores on the leadership dimension were associated with HED [1.55 (0.98-2.44)] after adjustment for age, personality, psychiatric disorders and level of education. High scores on leadership were not significantly associated with AUD or HED after these adjustments. The odds ratios for those who scored low on caring were non-significant throughout the analyses of associations with both AUD and HED. A similar pattern was found for the self-assertiveness dimension. Low emotionality was associated with decreased odds for AUD [0.42 (0.25-0.70)] and HED [0.66 (0.44-0.99)], and increased odds for AUD [2.14 (1.38-3.31)] and HED [2.33 (1.58-3.44)], after adjusting for age. These associations became non-significant after adjustment for

  7. Development and Preliminary Testing of a Promotora-Delivered, Spanish Language, Counseling Intervention for Heavy Drinking among Male, Latino Day Laborers.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison A; Karno, Mitchell P; Ray, Lara; Ramirez, Karina; Barenstein, Veronica; Portillo, Marlom J; Rizo, Patricia; Borok, Jenna; Liao, Diana H; Barron, Juan; del Pino, Homero E; Valenzuela, Abel; Barry, Kristin L

    2016-03-01

    This study developed and then tested the feasibility, acceptability and initial efficacy of a 3-session, culturally adapted, intervention combining motivational enhancement therapy (MET) and strengths-based case management (SBCM) delivered by promotoras in Spanish to reduce heavy drinking among male, Latino day laborers. A pilot two-group randomized trial (N=29) was conducted to evaluate the initial efficacy of MET/SBCM compared to brief feedback (BF). Alcohol-related measures were assessed at 6, 12 and 18weeks after baseline. Most intervention group participants (12/14) attended all counseling sessions and most participants (25/29) remained in the study at 18weeks. Alcohol related measures improved in both groups over time with no statistically significant differences observed at any of the time points. However the comparative effect size of MET/SBCM on weekly drinking was in the large range at 6-weeks and in the moderate range at 12-weeks. Post hoc analyses identified a statistically significant reduction in number of drinks over time for participants in the intervention group but not for control group participants. Despite the extreme vulnerability of the population, most participants completed all sessions of MET/SBCM and reported high satisfaction with the intervention. We feel our community partnership facilitated these successes. Additional studies of community-partnered and culturally adapted interventions are needed to reduce heavy drinking among the growing population of Latinos in the U.S.

  8. Using urine as a biomarker in human exposure risk associated with arsenic and other heavy metals contaminating drinking groundwater in intensively agricultural areas of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wongsasuluk, Pokkate; Chotpantarat, Srilert; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark

    2017-02-07

    Urine used as a biomarker was collected and compared between two groups of participants: (1) a groundwater-drinking group and (2) a non-groundwater-drinking group in intensively agricultural areas in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. The statistical relationship with the metal concentration in shallow groundwater wells was established with urine data. According to the groundwater data, the health risk assessment results for four metals appeared to be higher for participants who drank groundwater than for the other group. The carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk of arsenic (As) were found in 25.86 and 31.03% of participants, respectively. For lead (Pb), 13.79% of the participants had a non-carcinogenic risk. Moreover, 30 of the 58 participants in the groundwater-drinking group had As urine higher than the standard, and 26, 2 and 9 of the 58 participants had above-standard levels for cadmium (Cd), Pb and mercury (Hg) in urine, respectively. Both the risk assessment and biomarker level of groundwater-drinking participants were higher than in the other group. The results showed an average drinking rate of approximately 4.21 ± 2.73 L/day, which is twice as high as the standard. Interestingly, the As levels in the groundwater correlated with those in the urine of the groundwater-drinking participants, but not in the non-groundwater-drinking participants, as well as with the As-related cancer and non-carcinogenic risks. The hazard index (HI) of the 100 participants ranged from 0.00 to 25.86, with an average of 1.51 ± 3.63 higher than the acceptable level, revealing that 28 people appeared to have non-carcinogenic risk levels (24 and 4 people for groundwater-drinking participants and non-groundwater-drinking participants, respectively). Finally, the associated factors of heavy metals in urine were the drinking water source, body weight, smoking, sex and use of personal protective equipment.

  9. Tobacco outlet density and converted versus native non-daily cigarette use in a national US sample

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Thomas R; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Bennett, Morgane; Gao, Hong; Carlos, Heather; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2017-01-01

    Objective Investigate whether non-daily smokers’ (NDS) cigarette price and purchase preferences, recent cessation attempts, and current intentions to quit are associated with the density of the retail cigarette product landscape surrounding their residential address. Participants Cross-sectional assessment of N=904 converted NDS (CNDS). who previously smoked every day, and N=297 native NDS (NNDS) who only smoked non-daily, drawn from a national panel. Outcome measures Kernel density estimation was used to generate a nationwide probability surface of tobacco outlets linked to participants’ residential ZIP code. Hierarchically nested log-linear models were compared to evaluate associations between outlet density, non-daily use patterns, price sensitivity and quit intentions. Results Overall, NDS in ZIP codes with greater outlet density were less likely than NDS in ZIP codes with lower outlet density to hold 6-month quit intentions when they also reported that price affected use patterns (G2=66.1, p<0.001) and purchase locations (G2=85.2, p<0.001). CNDS were more likely than NNDS to reside in ZIP codes with higher outlet density (G2=322.0, p<0.001). Compared with CNDS in ZIP codes with lower outlet density, CNDS in high-density ZIP codes were more likely to report that price influenced the amount they smoke (G2=43.9, p<0.001), and were more likely to look for better prices (G2=59.3, p<0.001). NDS residing in high-density ZIP codes were not more likely to report that price affected their cigarette brand choice compared with those in ZIP codes with lower density. Conclusions This paper provides initial evidence that the point-of-sale cigarette environment may be differentially associated with the maintenance of CNDS versus NNDS patterns. Future research should investigate how tobacco control efforts can be optimised to both promote cessation and curb the rising tide of non-daily smoking in the USA. PMID:26969172

  10. Exposure to childhood neglect and physical abuse and developmental trajectories of heavy episodic drinking from early adolescence into young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunny H; Miller, Daniel P; Teicher, Martin H

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature suggests that childhood maltreatment (CM) relates to adolescent heavy episodic drinking (HED), few studies have examined the long-term effects of CM on adolescent HED. This study is the first to examine associations between exposure to CM and trajectories of HED from adolescence to young adulthood for the US population. Four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. A total of 8503 adolescents followed from adolescence (7th-12th grades) into young adulthood (ages 24-32) were assessed on CM and past-year HED frequency. Using growth curve modeling, trajectories of adolescent HED were examined, with subtype, frequency, and severity of CM as the primary independent variables. All of our analyses controlled for common risk factors for adolescent HED, including demographics, parental and peer alcohol use, parental education and employment, family income, parent-child relationship, and adolescent depression. After controlling for potential risk factors, neglect and physical abuse, both individually and in conjunction, were associated with faster increases in HED during adolescence and persistently elevated HED over much of adolescence and young adulthood. The frequency of neglect and physical abuse, individually and in conjunction, was also associated with the trajectory of HED, such that additional instances of these types of maltreatment were associated with faster increases in HED during adolescence and higher rates of peak use during young adulthood. Child neglect and physical abuse appear to have long-lasting adverse effects on HED beyond adolescence and throughout much of young adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Is video gaming, or video game addiction, associated with depression, academic achievement, heavy episodic drinking, or conduct problems?

    PubMed Central

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Frøyland, Lars Roar

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: While the relationships between video game use and negative consequences are debated, the relationships between video game addiction and negative consequences are fairly well established. However, previous studies suffer from methodological weaknesses that may have caused biased results. There is need for further investigation that benefits from the use of methods that avoid omitted variable bias. Methods: Two wave panel data was used from two surveys of 1,928 Norwegian adolescents aged 13 to 17 years. The surveys included measures of video game use, video game addiction, depression, heavy episodic drinking, academic achievement, and conduct problems. The data was analyzed using first-differencing, a regression method that is unbiased by time invariant individual factors. Results: Video game addiction was related to depression, lower academic achievement, and conduct problems, but time spent on video games was not related to any of the studied negative outcomes. Discussion: The findings were in line with a growing number of studies that have failed to find relationships between time spent on video games and negative outcomes. The current study is also consistent with previous studies in that video game addiction was related to other negative outcomes, but it made the added contribution that the relationships are unbiased by time invariant individual effects. However, future research should aim at establishing the temporal order of the supposed causal effects. Conclusions: Spending time playing video games does not involve negative consequences, but adolescents who experience problems related to video games are likely to also experience problems in other facets of life. PMID:25215212

  12. A self-awareness intervention manipulation for heavy-drinking men's alcohol-related aggression toward women.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2016-09-01

    The primary aim of the present investigation was to directly examine a theoretically based, self-awareness intervention manipulation for at-risk men's alcohol-related aggression toward women. This study was developed in response to a call in the literature for research to (a) empirically investigate specific intervention techniques that reduce aggression, and (b) identify in whom such interventions will have the greatest impact. A community sample (77% African American) of 94 heavy-drinking males age 21 years and older (M = 35.61) completed a battery of questionnaires that assessed alcohol consumption and perpetration of aggression toward women during the past year as well as dispositional masculine gender role stress. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention manipulation designed to focus attention onto inhibitory, self-awareness cues, or a control group. Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked with a gender-relevant provocation from a female confederate and participants' physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. Men who received the intervention manipulation, relative to control, enacted significantly less alcohol-related physical aggression toward the female confederate. This finding held for men who reported lower, but not higher, levels of masculine gender role stress. Findings support the development of interventions that aim to redirect intoxicated men's attention toward stimuli that are nonaggressive, nonprovocative, or prohibitive of aggressive behavior. However, caution is warranted that en masse dissemination of such interventions may not impact the most at-risk men for alcohol-related violence toward women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. A Self-Awareness Intervention Manipulation for Heavy Drinking Men’s Alcohol-Related Aggression Toward Women

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of the present investigation was to directly examine a theoretically-based, self-awareness intervention manipulation for at-risk men’s alcohol-related aggression toward women. This study was developed in response to a call in the literature for research to (1) empirically investigate specific intervention techniques that reduce aggression, and (2) identify in whom such interventions will have the greatest impact. Method A community sample (77% African-American) of 94 heavy drinking males age 21 years and older (M = 35.61) completed a battery of questionnaires that assessed alcohol consumption and perpetration of aggression toward women during the past year as well as dispositional masculine gender role stress. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention manipulation designed to focus attention onto inhibitory, self-awareness cues or a control group. Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked with a gender-relevant provocation from a female confederate and participants’ physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. Results Men who received the intervention manipulation, relative to control, enacted significantly less alcohol-related physical aggression toward the female confederate. This finding held for men who reported lower, but not higher, levels of masculine gender role stress. Conclusions Findings support the development of interventions that aim to redirect intoxicated men’s attention toward stimuli that is non-aggressive, non-provocative, and/or prohibitive of aggressive behavior. However, caution is warranted that en masse dissemination of such interventions may not impact the most at-risk men for alcohol-related violence toward women. PMID:27176660

  14. Use of and reasons for using multiple other tobacco products in daily and nondaily smokers: Associations with cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Michael S; Shadel, William G; Tucker, Joan S; Edelen, Maria O

    2016-11-01

    Use of other tobacco products (OTPs) among smokers is increasing. Little is known about types of OTP used and the reasons for use, and how OTP use and reasons for use correlate with smoking patterns and nicotine dependence in daily and nondaily smokers. This paper addresses these gaps in the literature. 656 daily smokers and 203 nondaily smokers provided information on their use of different OTPs (hookah, e-cigarettes, chew/snuff, snus, cigars, dissolvables), and reasons for using OTPs (e.g., "to cut down on smoking"), as well as their cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. Logistic regression models assessed the association of smoking status with OTP use (ever and current) and reasons for use. Within each smoking group, separate logistic regression models examined the associations of OTP use and reasons for use with cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. Compared to daily smokers, nondaily smokers were more likely to use hookah and cigars, less likely to use dissolvables, and less likely to endorse using OTPs to reduce their smoking. Among non-daily smokers, nicotine dependence was associated with a higher likelihood of current OTP use (OR=1.04 [95% CI 1.01-1.07]; p<0.05), whereas cigarette consumption was not. Results suggest OTP use in nondaily smokers does not correlate with less frequent smoking, but may correlate with higher nicotine dependence. Use of combustible OTPs among nondaily smokers may offset any potential benefits achieved through less frequent cigarette consumption. Providers should explicitly address OTP use when discussing cigarette cessation and reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Initial Progress Toward Development of a Voice-Based Computer-Delivered Motivational Intervention for Heavy Drinking College Students: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, William J; MacGlashan, James; Wray, Tyler B; Littman, Michael L

    2017-01-01

    Background Computer-delivered interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing alcohol consumption in heavy drinking college students. However, these computer-delivered interventions rely on mouse, keyboard, or touchscreen responses for interactions between the users and the computer-delivered intervention. The principles of motivational interviewing suggest that in-person interventions may be effective, in part, because they encourage individuals to think through and speak aloud their motivations for changing a health behavior, which current computer-delivered interventions do not allow. Objective The objective of this study was to take the initial steps toward development of a voice-based computer-delivered intervention that can ask open-ended questions and respond appropriately to users’ verbal responses, more closely mirroring a human-delivered motivational intervention. Methods We developed (1) a voice-based computer-delivered intervention that was run by a human controller and that allowed participants to speak their responses to scripted prompts delivered by speech generation software and (2) a text-based computer-delivered intervention that relied on the mouse, keyboard, and computer screen for all interactions. We randomized 60 heavy drinking college students to interact with the voice-based computer-delivered intervention and 30 to interact with the text-based computer-delivered intervention and compared their ratings of the systems as well as their motivation to change drinking and their drinking behavior at 1-month follow-up. Results Participants reported that the voice-based computer-delivered intervention engaged positively with them in the session and delivered content in a manner consistent with motivational interviewing principles. At 1-month follow-up, participants in the voice-based computer-delivered intervention condition reported significant decreases in quantity, frequency, and problems associated with drinking, and increased

  16. Regional probabilistic risk assessment of heavy metals in different environmental media and land uses: An urbanization-affected drinking water supply area

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chi; Cai, Yimin; Wang, Tieyu; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we proposed a Regional Probabilistic Risk Assessment (RPRA) to estimate the health risks of exposing residents to heavy metals in different environmental media and land uses. The mean and ranges of heavy metal concentrations were measured in water, sediments, soil profiles and surface soils under four land uses along the Shunde Waterway, a drinking water supply area in China. Hazard quotients (HQs) were estimated for various exposure routes and heavy metal species. Riverbank vegetable plots and private vegetable plots had 95th percentiles of total HQs greater than 3 and 1, respectively, indicating high risks of cultivation on the flooded riverbank. Vegetable uptake and leaching to groundwater were the two transfer routes of soil metals causing high health risks. Exposure risks during outdoor recreation, farming and swimming along the Shunde Waterway are theoretically safe. Arsenic and cadmium were identified as the priority pollutants that contribute the most risk among the heavy metals. Sensitivity analysis showed that the exposure route, variations in exposure parameters, mobility of heavy metals in soil, and metal concentrations all influenced the risk estimates. PMID:27845404

  17. Regional probabilistic risk assessment of heavy metals in different environmental media and land uses: An urbanization-affected drinking water supply area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chi; Cai, Yimin; Wang, Tieyu; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we proposed a Regional Probabilistic Risk Assessment (RPRA) to estimate the health risks of exposing residents to heavy metals in different environmental media and land uses. The mean and ranges of heavy metal concentrations were measured in water, sediments, soil profiles and surface soils under four land uses along the Shunde Waterway, a drinking water supply area in China. Hazard quotients (HQs) were estimated for various exposure routes and heavy metal species. Riverbank vegetable plots and private vegetable plots had 95th percentiles of total HQs greater than 3 and 1, respectively, indicating high risks of cultivation on the flooded riverbank. Vegetable uptake and leaching to groundwater were the two transfer routes of soil metals causing high health risks. Exposure risks during outdoor recreation, farming and swimming along the Shunde Waterway are theoretically safe. Arsenic and cadmium were identified as the priority pollutants that contribute the most risk among the heavy metals. Sensitivity analysis showed that the exposure route, variations in exposure parameters, mobility of heavy metals in soil, and metal concentrations all influenced the risk estimates.

  18. Regional probabilistic risk assessment of heavy metals in different environmental media and land uses: An urbanization-affected drinking water supply area.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chi; Cai, Yimin; Wang, Tieyu; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping

    2016-11-15

    In this study, we proposed a Regional Probabilistic Risk Assessment (RPRA) to estimate the health risks of exposing residents to heavy metals in different environmental media and land uses. The mean and ranges of heavy metal concentrations were measured in water, sediments, soil profiles and surface soils under four land uses along the Shunde Waterway, a drinking water supply area in China. Hazard quotients (HQs) were estimated for various exposure routes and heavy metal species. Riverbank vegetable plots and private vegetable plots had 95(th) percentiles of total HQs greater than 3 and 1, respectively, indicating high risks of cultivation on the flooded riverbank. Vegetable uptake and leaching to groundwater were the two transfer routes of soil metals causing high health risks. Exposure risks during outdoor recreation, farming and swimming along the Shunde Waterway are theoretically safe. Arsenic and cadmium were identified as the priority pollutants that contribute the most risk among the heavy metals. Sensitivity analysis showed that the exposure route, variations in exposure parameters, mobility of heavy metals in soil, and metal concentrations all influenced the risk estimates.

  19. Cigarette Smoking and Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Adherence in a Sample of Heavy Drinking HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM).

    PubMed

    Cioe, Patricia A; Gamarel, Kristi E; Pantalone, David W; Monti, Peter M; Mayer, Kenneth H; Kahler, Christopher W

    2016-07-20

    Cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol use is prevalent among HIV-infected men who sex with men (MSM) and have been linked to imperfect antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. Our study examined the correlates of smoking and whether smoking was independently associated with imperfect adherence in heavy-drinking HIV-infected MSM. Of the 185 participants, approximately half (n = 91, 49.2 %) reported having smoked cigarettes in the past 30 days. Current smokers were more likely to have reported imperfect adherence compared to non-smokers (37.4.2 vs. 22.3 %, p < 0.05). In multivariable regression analyses, only lower education was significantly associated with imperfect adherence. This study demonstrated that the greatest risk factor for smoking and imperfect ART adherence was low socioeconomic status, in which MSM of color were over-represented. As the first study to examine smoking and ART adherence in this population, our study has the potential to inform the clinical care provided to heavy-drinking MSM.

  20. WHO water quality standards Vs Synergic effect(s) of fluoride, heavy metals and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasana, Hewa M. S.; Perera, Gamage D. R. K.; Gunawardena, Panduka De S.; Fernando, Palika S.; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2017-02-01

    Despite WHO standards, waterborne diseases among the human being are rising alarmingly. It is known that the prolong exposure to contaminated water has major impact on public health. The effect of chemical contaminations in drinking water on human being is found to be chronic rather than acute and hence can be defined “consumption of contaminated drinking water could be a silent killer”. As the WHO recommended water quality standards are only for individual element and synergic effects of trace metals and anions have not been considered, investigation of synergic effects of trace metals and anions and their effect on human being is of prime important research. By an animal trial, we investigated the synergic effect(s) of heavy metals, aluminium, arsenic, fluoride and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues of mice. Our investigation strongly suggests existing of a synergic effect especially among Cd, F and hardness of water which could lead to severe kidney damage in mice, even at WHO maximum recommended levels. Hence, the synergic effect(s) of trace metals, fluoride and hardness present in drinking water should be investigated meticulously when stipulating the water quality at WHO maximum recommended levels.

  1. WHO water quality standards Vs Synergic effect(s) of fluoride, heavy metals and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues.

    PubMed

    Wasana, Hewa M S; Perera, Gamage D R K; Gunawardena, Panduka De S; Fernando, Palika S; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2017-02-14

    Despite WHO standards, waterborne diseases among the human being are rising alarmingly. It is known that the prolong exposure to contaminated water has major impact on public health. The effect of chemical contaminations in drinking water on human being is found to be chronic rather than acute and hence can be defined "consumption of contaminated drinking water could be a silent killer". As the WHO recommended water quality standards are only for individual element and synergic effects of trace metals and anions have not been considered, investigation of synergic effects of trace metals and anions and their effect on human being is of prime important research. By an animal trial, we investigated the synergic effect(s) of heavy metals, aluminium, arsenic, fluoride and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues of mice. Our investigation strongly suggests existing of a synergic effect especially among Cd, F and hardness of water which could lead to severe kidney damage in mice, even at WHO maximum recommended levels. Hence, the synergic effect(s) of trace metals, fluoride and hardness present in drinking water should be investigated meticulously when stipulating the water quality at WHO maximum recommended levels.

  2. WHO water quality standards Vs Synergic effect(s) of fluoride, heavy metals and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wasana, Hewa M. S.; Perera, Gamage D. R. K.; Gunawardena, Panduka De S.; Fernando, Palika S.; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2017-01-01

    Despite WHO standards, waterborne diseases among the human being are rising alarmingly. It is known that the prolong exposure to contaminated water has major impact on public health. The effect of chemical contaminations in drinking water on human being is found to be chronic rather than acute and hence can be defined “consumption of contaminated drinking water could be a silent killer”. As the WHO recommended water quality standards are only for individual element and synergic effects of trace metals and anions have not been considered, investigation of synergic effects of trace metals and anions and their effect on human being is of prime important research. By an animal trial, we investigated the synergic effect(s) of heavy metals, aluminium, arsenic, fluoride and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues of mice. Our investigation strongly suggests existing of a synergic effect especially among Cd, F and hardness of water which could lead to severe kidney damage in mice, even at WHO maximum recommended levels. Hence, the synergic effect(s) of trace metals, fluoride and hardness present in drinking water should be investigated meticulously when stipulating the water quality at WHO maximum recommended levels. PMID:28195172

  3. Moderating Effects of a Craving Intervention on the Relation between Negative Mood and Heavy Drinking Following Treatment for Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah; Donovan, Dennis M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Negative affect is a significant predictor of alcohol relapse, and the relation between negative affect and drinking has been shown to be strongly mediated by alcohol craving. Thus, targeting craving during treatment could potentially attenuate the relation between negative affect and drinking. Method: The current study is a secondary…

  4. Comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for alcohol use disorders in VA primary care patients with frequent heavy drinking enrolled in a trial.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Traci; Lapham, Gwen; Chavez, Laura J; Lee, Amy K; Williams, Emily C; Richards, Julie E; Greenberg, Diane; Rubinsky, Anna; Berger, Douglas; Hawkins, Eric J; Merrill, Joseph O; Bradley, Katharine A

    2017-07-18

    Criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) were intended to result in a similar prevalence of AUD as DSM-IV. We evaluated the prevalence of AUD using DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria, and compared characteristics of patients who met criteria for: neither DSM-5 nor DSM-IV AUD, DSM-5 alone, DSM-IV alone, or both, among Veterans Administration (VA) outpatients in the Considering Healthier drinking Options In primary CarE (CHOICE) trial. VA primary care patients who reported frequent heavy drinking and enrolled in the CHOICE trial were interviewed at baseline using the DSM-IV Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for AUD, as well as questions about socio-demographics, mental health, alcohol craving, and substance use. We compared characteristics across 4 mutually exclusive groups based on DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria. Of 304 participants, 13.8% met criteria for neither DSM-5 nor DSM-IV AUD; 12.8% met criteria for DSM-5 alone, and 73.0% met criteria for both DSM-IV and DSM-5. Only 1 patient (0.3%) met criteria for DSM-IV AUD alone. Patients meeting both DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria had more negative drinking consequences, mental health symptoms and self-reported readiness to change compared with those meeting DSM-5 criteria alone or neither DSM-5 nor DSM-IV criteria. In this sample of primary care patients with frequent heavy drinking, DSM-5 identified 13% more patients with AUD than DSM-IV. This group had a lower mental health symptom burden and less self-reported readiness to change compared to those meeting criteria for both DSM-IV and DSM-5 AUD. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01400581. 2011 February 17.

  5. Characteristics of intermittent smokers and their association with quit intentions in a sample of heavy-drinking HIV-infected men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Cioe, Patricia A; Gamarel, Kristi E; Pantalone, David W; Monti, Peter M; Mayer, Kenneth H; Kahler, Christopher W

    2016-10-02

    Intermittent smokers (ITS) have increased health risks compared with non-smokers (NS). Cigarette smoking remains prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM) and persons living with HIV (PLWH), yet most studies in PLWH do not discriminate between daily smokers (DS) and ITS. In this study, the characteristics and quit intentions of ITS and DS are compared in a sample of heavy-drinking HIV-infected MSM. Of the 185 participants enrolled, 49.2% reported having smoked cigarettes in the past month; among those, 50.5% were DS, and 49.5% were ITS. Compared with DS, ITS were significantly more likely to be White and to have a college degree or higher. DS reported significantly higher average number of drinks per week compared with both ITS and NS. Compared with DS, ITS were significantly more likely to report future quit intentions (i.e., within 6 months or more) compared to no intentions at all; DS were more likely to report immediate quit intentions (i.e., within 30 days) compared to future quit intentions. Among heavy-drinking MSM living with HIV, intermittent smoking was associated with being White, college educated, and having future quit intentions. Considering that smoking in ITS may be less driven by nicotine dependence, tailored approaches to smoking cessation may be needed. Specifically, it may be important for interventions for ITS to address social and situational cues to smoke, including the influence of heavy alcohol use on smoking behaviors, and to provide information regarding the adverse health effects of even low-level smoking.

  6. Differential potassium channel gene regulation in BXD mice reveals novel targets for pharmacogenetic therapies to reduce heavy alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Jennifer A; Fulmer, Diana B; Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Smith, Maren L; Williams, Robert W; Lopez, Marcelo F; Randall, Patrick K; Chandler, L Judson; Miles, Michael F; Becker, Howard C; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2017-02-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) dependence is a chronic relapsing brain disorder partially influenced by genetics and characterized by an inability to regulate harmful levels of drinking. Emerging evidence has linked genes that encode KV7, KIR, and KCa2 K(+) channels with variation in alcohol-related behaviors in rodents and humans. This led us to experimentally test relations between K(+) channel genes and escalation of drinking in a chronic-intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure model of dependence in BXD recombinant inbred strains of mice. Transcript levels for K(+) channel genes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) covary with voluntary ethanol drinking in a non-dependent cohort. Transcripts that encode KV7 channels covary negatively with drinking in non-dependent BXD strains. Using a pharmacological approach to validate the genetic findings, C57BL/6J mice were allowed intermittent access to ethanol to establish baseline consumption before they were treated with retigabine, an FDA-approved KV7 channel positive modulator. Systemic administration significantly reduced drinking, and consistent with previous evidence, retigabine was more effective at reducing voluntary consumption in high-drinking than low-drinking subjects. We evaluated the specific K(+) channel genes that were most sensitive to CIE exposure and identified a gene subset in the NAc and PFC that were dysregulated in the alcohol-dependent BXD cohort. CIE-induced modulation of nine genes in the NAc and six genes in the PFC covaried well with the changes in drinking induced by ethanol dependence. Here we identified novel candidate genes in the NAc and PFC that are regulated by ethanol dependence and correlate with voluntary drinking in non-dependent and dependent BXD mice. The findings that Kcnq expression correlates with drinking and that retigabine reduces consumption suggest that KV7 channels could be pharmacogenetic targets to treat individuals with alcohol addiction.

  7. Associations Between Recent Heavy Drinking and Dorsal Anterior Cingulate N-Acetylaspartate and Glutamate Concentrations in Non-Treatment-Seeking Individuals with Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Prisciandaro, James J; Schacht, Joseph P; Prescot, Andrew P; Renshaw, Perry F; Brown, Truman R; Anton, Raymond F

    2016-03-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) studies have consistently found abnormal brain concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamate in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) relative to light drinkers. However, most such studies have focused on individuals in treatment for severe alcohol dependence (AD), and few studies have investigated associations between neurochemical concentrations and recent alcohol consumption. This study focused on associations between recent drinking and prefrontal neurometabolite concentrations in nonsevere, non-treatment-seeking individuals with AUD. Nineteen treatment-naïve alcohol-dependent individuals aged 21 to 40 completed a (1) H-MRS scan. Single-voxel (1) H-MRS spectra were acquired in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) using a 2-dimensional J-resolved point resolved spectroscopy sequence. Associations between recent heavy drinking, assessed using the Timeline FollowBack, and dACC metabolite concentrations were estimated via regression controlling for within-voxel tissue composition. Participants provided a negative breathalyzer reading and reported between 1 and 5 days (M = 2.45, SD = 1.23) since their last drink. Number of heavy drinking days in the 14 days preceding the scan (M = 4.84, SD = 3.32) was significantly inversely associated with both glutamate/water (β = -0.63, t(17) = -3.37, p = 0.004) and NAA/water concentrations (β = -0.59, t(17) = -2.98, p = 0.008). This study extends the literature by demonstrating inverse associations between recent heavy drinking and dACC glutamate and NAA concentrations in a sample of nonsevere, non-treatment-seeking individuals with AD. These findings may support the hypothesis that amount of recent alcohol consumption may account for differences in neuronal metabolism, even in nonsevere, non-treatment-seeking alcoholics. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Heavy metals in drinking water: Standards, sources, and effects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of heavy metal pollutants in drinking water and their effects on public health. Topics examine the toxicological effects of prolonged exposure incurred by ingestion of lead, copper, nickel, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and zinc. Quantification factors, federal and state regulations and standards, and laboratory animal studies are discussed. Goundwater contamination by landfill leachates, acid precipitation contributions to groundwater pollution, and corrosion by-products in residential plumbing and public water supply transport systems are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Heavy metals in drinking water: standards, sources, and effects. January 1977-December 1987 (citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the public health aspects and documented studies of heavy metal pollutants in drinking water. Topics include human exposure studies and the toxicological effects incurred by ingestion of lead, copper, nickel, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and zinc. Prolonged exposure and quantification factors and effects, federal and state regulations and standards, and laboratory animal studies are discussed. Sources from landfill contamination of groundwater, acid precipitation contributions to groundwater pollution, and corrosion by-products in residential plumbing and public water supply transport systems are examined. (This updated bibliography contains 139 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  10. Occupational variations in obesity, smoking, heavy drinking, and non-adherence to physical activity recommendations: findings from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Raees A; Sikora, Asia; Siahpush, Mohammad; Singh, Gopal K

    2015-01-01

    Understanding occupational variations in health risks is necessary to identify high risk groups. We examined the recent prevalence of obesity, heavy alcohol consumption, smoking, and leisure time physical activity (PA) across occupations. Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey were used. Analysis was limited to adults, 18 and older who had a job or business the week before the interview (n = 14,754). Adjusted prevalences of outcomes across occupations were calculated using logistic regression. The highest prevalence of obesity was within community and social services and morbid obesity was in computer and mathematical occupations. That of smoking was highest in healthcare support, heavy drinking in food preparation and serving related, and non-adherence to PA recommendations in the farming, fishing, and forestry occupations. Important health risk factors vary across occupations. Worksite and public health interventions need to be designed and modified to address such occupational health disparities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Celiac trunk and branches dissection due to energy drink consumption and heavy resistance exercise: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    González, Wilma; Altieri, Pablo I; Alvarado, Enrique; Banchs, Héctor L; Colón, Edgar; Escobales, Nelson; Crespo, María

    2015-01-01

    Higher doses and consumption of energy drinks leads to cardiovascular effects and potential consequences. Principal components found in energy drinks such as caffeine, guarana and taurine has been related to dilatation, aneurysm formation, dissection and ruptures. There is no evidence showing an integration of these components and its effects in endothelium and aortic walls due to higher levels of pressure during exercises. We report a case of a 44 years male with celiac trunk and branches dissection due to long-term consumption of energy drinks and intense exercise routine. Our proposition relates cell and vessel walls alterations including elasticity in endothelial wall due to higher blood pressure, resistance by intense exercise routine and long-term consumption of energy drinks.

  12. Web-Delivered CBT Reduces Heavy Drinking in OEF-OIF Veterans in Primary Care With Symptomatic Substance Use and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Michelle C; Possemato, Kyle; Maisto, Stephen A; Marsch, Lisa A; Barrie, Kimberly; Lantinga, Larry; Fong, Chunki; Xie, Haiyi; Grabinski, Michael; Rosenblum, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Veterans from conflicts such as the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan commonly return with behavioral health problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and hazardous or harmful substance use. Unfortunately, many veterans experience significant barriers to receiving evidence-based treatment, including poor treatment motivation, concerns about stigma, and lack of access to appropriate care. To address this need, the current study developed and evaluated a web-based self-management intervention based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), targeting PTSD symptoms and hazardous substance use in a group of symptomatic combat veterans enrolled in VA primary care. Veterans with PTSD/subthreshold PTSD and hazardous substance use were randomized to primary care treatment as usual (TAU; n = 81) or to TAU plus a web-based CBT intervention called Thinking Forward (n = 81). Thinking Forward consisted of 24 sections (approximately 20 minutes each), accessible over 12 weeks. Participants completed baseline and 4-, 8-, 12-, 16-, and 24-week follow-up assessments. Three primary outcomes of PTSD, alcohol and other drug use, and quality of life were examined. Significant treatment effects were found for heavy drinking, but not for PTSD or quality of life. The effect of the intervention on heavy drinking was mediated by intervening increases in coping, social support, self-efficacy, and hope for the future. These results demonstrate the promise of a web-based, self-management intervention for difficult-to-engage OEF/OIF veterans with behavioral health and substance use concerns.

  13. Heavy episodic drinking and its consequences: the protective effects of same-sex, residential living-learning communities for undergraduate women.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Carol J; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Cranford, James A; Morales, Michele; Lange, James E; Reed, Mark B; Ketchie, Julie M; Scott, Marcia S

    2008-08-01

    Gender and living environment are two of the most consistent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking on college campuses. This study aimed to determine group differences in alcohol misuse and its attendant consequences between undergraduate women living in four distinct on-campus residential environments. A Web-based survey was self-administered to a stratified random sample of full-time students attending a large Midwestern University, and living in four distinct on-campus residential environments: 1) single-sex (all female) residential learning communities (RLCs), 2) mixed-sex (male and female) RLCs, 3) single-sex (all female) non-RLCs and 4) mixed-sex (male and female) non-RLCs. Respondents living in single-sex and mixed-sex RLCs had significantly lower rates of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking and related primary alcohol-related consequences when compared to respondents living in non-RLCs; however, women in single-sex RLCs had the lowest rates. RLCs - particularly single-sex learning communities - appear to provide undergraduate women with an environment that supports lower rates of alcohol use and abuse.

  14. Heavy Episodic Drinking and Its Consequences: The Protective Effects of Same-Sex, Residential Living-Learning Communities for Undergraduate Women

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Carol J.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Cranford, James A.; Morales, Michele; Lange, James E.; Reed, Mark B.; Ketchie, Julie M.; Scott, Marcia S.

    2008-01-01

    Gender and living environment are two of the most consistent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking on college campuses. This study aimed to determine group differences in alcohol misuse and its attendant consequences between undergraduate women living in four distinct on-campus residential environments. A Web-based survey was self-administered to a stratified random sample of full-time students attending a large Midwestern University, and living in four distinct on-campus residential environments: 1) single-sex (all female) Residential Learning Communities (RLCs), 2) mixed-sex (male and female) RLCs, 3) single-sex (all female) non-RLCs and 4) mixed-sex (male and female) non-RLCs. Respondents living in single-sex and mixed-sex RLCs had significantly lower rates of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking and related primary alcohol-related consequences when compared to respondents living in non-RLCs; however, women in single-sex RLCs had the lowest rates. RLCs – particularly single-sex learning communities – appear to provide undergraduate women with an environment that supports lower rates of alcohol use and abuse. PMID:18485609

  15. A time-series analysis of the impact of heavy drinking on homicide and suicide mortality in Russia, 1956–2002*

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Chamlin, Mitchell B.

    2008-01-01

    Aim Assess the impact of heavy drinking on homicide and suicide mortality in Russia between 1956 and 2002. Measures and design Alcohol-related mortality was used as a proxy for heavy drinking. We used autoregressive integrated moving average techniques to model total and sex-specific alcohol—homicide and alcohol—suicide relationships at the population level. Findings We found a positive and significant contemporaneous association between alcohol and homicide and between alcohol and suicide. We found no evidence of lagged relationships. These results held for overall and sex-specific associations. Conclusion Our results lend convergent validity to the alcohol—suicide link in Russia found by Nemtsov and to the alcohol—homicide associations found in cross-sectional analyses of Russia. Levels of alcohol consumption, homicide and suicide in Russia are among the highest in the world, and the mounting evidence of the damaging effects of consumption on the social fabric of the country reveals the need for intervention at multiple levels. PMID:17156171

  16. A time-series analysis of the impact of heavy drinking on homicide and suicide mortality in Russia, 1956-2002.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex; Chamlin, Mitchell B

    2006-12-01

    Assess the impact of heavy drinking on homicide and suicide mortality in Russia between 1956 and 2002. MEASURES AND DESIGN: Alcohol-related mortality was used as a proxy for heavy drinking. We used autoregressive integrated moving average techniques to model total and sex-specific alcohol-homicide and alcohol-suicide relationships at the population level. We found a positive and significant contemporaneous association between alcohol and homicide and between alcohol and suicide. We found no evidence of lagged relationships. These results held for overall and sex-specific associations. Our results lend convergent validity to the alcohol-suicide link in Russia found by Nemtsov and to the alcohol-homicide associations found in cross-sectional analyses of Russia. Levels of alcohol consumption, homicide and suicide in Russia are among the highest in the world, and the mounting evidence of the damaging effects of consumption on the social fabric of the country reveals the need for intervention at multiple levels.

  17. The neuroeconomics of alcohol demand: an initial investigation of the neural correlates of alcohol cost-benefit decision making in heavy drinking men.

    PubMed

    MacKillop, James; Amlung, Michael T; Acker, John; Gray, Joshua C; Brown, Courtney L; Murphy, James G; Ray, Lara A; Sweet, Lawrence H

    2014-07-01

    Neuroeconomics integrates concepts and methods from psychology, economics, and cognitive neuroscience to understand how the brain makes decisions. In economics, demand refers to the relationship between a commodity's consumption and its cost, and, in behavioral studies, high alcohol demand has been consistently associated with greater alcohol misuse. Relatively little is known about how the brain processes demand decision making, and the current study is an initial investigation of the neural correlates of alcohol demand among heavy drinkers. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm, participants (N=24) selected how much they would drink under varying levels of price. These choices determined access to alcohol during a subsequent bar laboratory self-administration period. During decisions to drink in general, greater activity was present in multiple distinct subunits of the prefrontal and parietal cortices. In contrast, during decisions to drink that were demonstrably affected by the cost of alcohol, significantly greater activation was evident in frontostriatal regions, suggesting an active interplay between cognitive deliberation and subjective reward value. These choices were also characterized by significant deactivation in default mode network regions, suggesting suppression resulting from greater cognitive load. Across choice types, the anterior insula was notably recruited in diverse roles, further implicating the importance of interoceptive processing in decision-making behavior. These findings reveal the neural signatures subserving alcohol cost-benefit decision making, providing a foundation for future clinical applications of this paradigm and extending this approach to understanding the neural correlates of demand for other addictive commodities.

  18. Heavy metal contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from shallow groundwater wells in an agricultural area in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wongsasuluk, Pokkate; Chotpantarat, Srilert; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Most local people in the agricultural areas of Hua-ruea sub-district, Ubon Ratchathani province (Thailand), generally consume shallow groundwater from farm wells. This study aimed to assess the health risk related to heavy metal contamination in that groundwater. Samples were randomly collected from 12 wells twice in each of the rainy and the dry seasons and were analyzed by inductive coupled plasma spectrometry-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentration of detected metals in each well and the overall mean were below the acceptable groundwater standard limits for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni and Zn, but Pb levels were higher in four wells with an overall average Pb concentration of 16.66 ± 18.52 μg/l. Exposure questionnaires, completed by face-to-face interviews with 100 local people who drink groundwater from farm wells, were used to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQs) and hazard indices (HIs). The HQs for non-carcinogenic risk for As, Cu, Zn and Pb, with a range of 0.004-2.901, 0.053-54.818, 0.003-6.399 and 0.007-26.80, respectively, and the HI values (range from 0.10 to 88.21) exceeded acceptable limits in 58 % of the wells. The HI results were higher than one for groundwater wells located in intensively cultivated chili fields. The highest cancer risk found was 2.6 × 10(-6) for As in well no. 11. This study suggested that people living in warmer climates are more susceptible to and at greater risk of groundwater contamination because of their increased daily drinking water intake. This may lead to an increased number of cases of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health defects among local people exposed to heavy metals by drinking the groundwater.

  19. Microbial profiles of a drinking water resource based on different 16S rRNA V regions during a heavy cyanobacterial bloom in Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junyi; Zhu, Congming; Guan, Rui; Xiong, Zhipeng; Zhang, Wen; Shi, Junzhe; Sheng, Yi; Zhu, Bingchuan; Tu, Jing; Ge, Qinyu; Chen, Ting; Lu, Zuhong

    2017-03-31

    Understanding of the bacterial community structure in drinking water resources helps to enhance the security of municipal water supplies. In this study, bacterial communities were surveyed in water and sediment during a heavy cyanobacterial bloom in a drinking water resource of Lake Taihu, China. A total of 325,317 high-quality sequences were obtained from different 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) regions (V3, V4, and V6) using the Miseq sequencing platform. A notable difference was shown between the water and sediment samples, as predominated by Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria in the water and Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Verrucomicrobia in the sediment, respectively. The LD12 family dominated the water surface and was tightly associated with related indicators of cyanobacterial propagation, indicating involvement in the massive proliferation of cyanobacterial blooms. Alternatively, the genus Nitrospira dominated the sediment samples, which indicates that nitrite oxidation was very active in the sediment. Although pathogenic bacteria were not detected in a large amount, some genera such as Mycobacterium, Acinetobacter, and Legionella were still identified but in very low abundance. In addition, the effects of different V regions on bacterial diversity survey were evaluated. Overall, V4 and V3 were proven to be more promising V regions for bacterial diversity survey in water and sediment samples during heavy water blooms in Lake Taihu, respectively. As longer, cheaper, and faster DNA sequencing technologies become more accessible, we expect that bacterial community structures based on 16S rRNA amplicons as an indicator could be used alongside with physical and chemical indicators, to conduct comprehensive assessments for drinking water resource management.

  20. Determination of some heavy metal levels in soft drinks on the Ghanaian market using atomic absorption spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Ackah, Michael; Anim, Alfred Kwablah; Zakaria, Nafisatu; Osei, Juliet; Saah-Nyarko, Esther; Gyamfi, Eva Tabuaa; Tulasi, Delali; Enti-Brown, Sheriff; Hanson, John; Bentil, Nash Owusu

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-three soft drink samples (i.e., four pineapple-based fruit drinks, eight citrus-based fruit juices, one soya-based drink, three cola carbonated drinks, one apple-based fruit drink, and six cocktail fruit drinks) were randomly purchased from retail outlets in an urban market in Accra and analyzed for the concentrations of iron, cobalt, cadmium, zinc, lead, and copper using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean concentration of iron and cadmium were 0.723 ± 0.448 mg/L and 0.032 ± 0.012 mg/L, respectively. The mean cobalt concentration was 0.071 ± 0.049 mg/L, while the mean Zn concentration in the samples was 0.060 ± 0.097 mg/L. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cu in the fruit juice samples were 0.178 ± 0.091 mg/L and 0.053 ± 0.063 mg/L respectively. About 78 % of the samples exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level of 0.3 mg/L prescribed for iron, whereas all the samples exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant level of 0.005 mg/L prescribed for cadmium. About 91 % of the samples exceeded the EU maximum contaminant level prescribed for lead insoft drinks.

  1. Risk behaviors and drug use: a latent class analysis of heavy episodic drinking in first-year college students.

    PubMed

    Chiauzzi, Emil; Dasmahapatra, Pronabesh; Black, Ryan A

    2013-12-01

    Examining individual characteristics may not yield an understanding of the complex array of factors that affect college student alcohol use. Utilizing a latent class analysis, the present study investigated an alcohol and drug use database of first-year college students at 89 U.S. colleges and universities (N = 21,945). These data were collected between December, 2010 and September, 2011. This study identified: (1) classes based on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related behaviors, and past-year use of illegal drugs and nonmedical use of prescriptions medications (NMUPM); (2) demographic covariates of these classes; and (3) differential social norms awareness, perceived harmfulness of illegal drugs and NMUPM, and protective strategies. Four classes were identified: (1) Low Risk Drinking/Low Prevalence Drug Use (Class 1); (2) Lower Intake Drinking/Moderate Prevalence Drug Use (Class 2); (3) Moderate Risk Drinking/Moderate Prevalence Drug Use (Class 3); and (4) High Risk Drinking/High Prevalence Drug Use (Class 4). Classes differed in self-reported typical week drinking, estimated peak blood alcohol content over the past 2 weeks, high-risk alcohol use, negative alcohol-related consequences, driving under the influence or riding with drinking drivers, alcohol-related protective behaviors, and past-year substance use. Of particular interest was the identification of a latent class (Class 2) composed primarily of females with a relatively low alcohol intake, but with a high probability of past-year other substance use. This group reported negative alcohol-related consequences despite their relatively low intake. To our knowledge, this is the first latent class analysis of college student alcohol use that includes a drug use indicator and compares social norms awareness, harmfulness perceptions, and alcohol-related protective behaviors between classes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences: Sex-Specific Differences in Parental Influences among Ninth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Hausheer, Robin; Esp, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Parents impact adolescent substance abuse, but sex-specific influences are not well-understood. This study examined parental influences on adolescent drinking behavior in a sample of ninth-grade students (N = 473). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated parental monitoring, disapproval of teen alcohol use, and quality of parent-teen general…

  3. Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences: Sex-Specific Differences in Parental Influences among Ninth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Hausheer, Robin; Esp, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Parents impact adolescent substance abuse, but sex-specific influences are not well-understood. This study examined parental influences on adolescent drinking behavior in a sample of ninth-grade students (N = 473). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated parental monitoring, disapproval of teen alcohol use, and quality of parent-teen general…

  4. Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Voogt, Carmen V; Poelen, Evelien A P; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex A C J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-04-14

    The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that is aimed at reducing alcohol use among heavy drinking college students aged 18 to 24 years old. The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 908 heavy drinking college students in a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants will be allocated at random to either the experimental (N=454: web-based brief alcohol intervention) or control condition (N=454: no intervention). The primary outcome measure will be the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking. These limits specify that, for heavy alcohol use, the mean consumption cannot exceed 14 or 21 glasses of standard alcohol units per week for females and males, respectively, while for binge drinking, the consumption cannot exceed five or more glasses of standard alcohol units on one drinking occasion at least once per week within one month and six months after the intervention. Reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking are also primary outcome measures. Weekly Ecological Momentary Assessment will measure alcohol-related cognitions, that is, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms and alcohol expectancies, which will be included as the secondary outcome measures. This study protocol describes the two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial developed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention. We expect a reduction of mean weekly alcohol

  5. The psychological impact of heavy drinking among the elderly on their co-residents: The 10/66 group population based survey in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Acosta, Daisy; Rodriguez, Guillermina; Prince, Martin; Ferri, Cleusa P.

    2011-01-01

    Background There is very limited literature on alcohol use among the elderly and little is known about the impact it has on family and caregivers, especially in low and middle income countries. Aim To estimate the independent effect of heavy alcohol use among the elderly on the psychological health of their co-residents. Methods This is a secondary analysis using data from the comprehensive cross-sectional survey of the 10/66 dementia research group population-based research programme in the Dominican Republic. The characteristics of the elderly participants as well as the co-residents were described. The independent association of heavy drinking among the participants with psychological morbidity in their co-residents was estimated. Different models were generated to rule out potential mediating effects of disability and behavioural symptoms. Results Prevalence of heavy alcohol use in the elderly in Dominican Republic was 10.6%. There was a statistically significant independent effect of heavy alcohol use by the elderly on their co-residents mental health (PR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.07–2.01) which was not accounted by disability (Sobel–Goodman test, p = 0.15). Severity of psychological and behavioural symptoms partially (29.1% of the total effect) explained this association (Sobel–Goodman mediation test, p = 0.006). Conclusions Health services for the elderly in low and middle income countries will have to be configured around detection of alcohol problems among the elderly as well as offering appropriate support to their co-residents. PMID:20970926

  6. Chronic Drinking During Adolescence Predisposes the Adult Rat for Continued Heavy Drinking: Neurotrophin and Behavioral Adaptation after Long-Term, Continuous Ethanol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Gina M.; Stewart, William N.; Savage, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found that adolescent ethanol (EtOH) exposure alters drug seeking behaviors, cognition and neuroplasticity. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, differences in spatial working memory, non-spatial discrimination learning and behavioral flexibility were explored as a function of age at the onset (mid-adolescent vs. adult) of chronic EtOH exposure (CET). Concentrations of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) and beta-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were also assessed at different time-points: during CET, following acute abstinence (48-hrs), and after protracted abstinence (6–8 wks). Our results revealed that an adolescent onset of CET leads to increased EtOH consumption that persisted into adulthood. In both adult and adolescent onset CET groups, there were significant long-term reductions in prefrontal cortical mBDNF and β-NGF levels. However, only adult onset CET rats displayed decreased hippocampal BDNF levels. Spatial memory, assessed by spontaneous alternation and delayed alternation, was not significantly affected by CET as a function of age of drinking onset, but higher blood–EtOH levels were correlated with lower spontaneous alternation scores. Regardless of the age of onset, EtOH exposed rats were impaired on non-spatial discrimination learning and displayed inflexible behavioral patterns upon reversal learning. Our results indicate that adolescent EtOH exposure changes long-term consumption patterns producing behavioral and neural dysfunctions that persist across the lifespan. PMID:26930631

  7. Chronic Drinking During Adolescence Predisposes the Adult Rat for Continued Heavy Drinking: Neurotrophin and Behavioral Adaptation after Long-Term, Continuous Ethanol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Gina M; Stewart, William N; Savage, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found that adolescent ethanol (EtOH) exposure alters drug seeking behaviors, cognition and neuroplasticity. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, differences in spatial working memory, non-spatial discrimination learning and behavioral flexibility were explored as a function of age at the onset (mid-adolescent vs. adult) of chronic EtOH exposure (CET). Concentrations of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) and beta-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were also assessed at different time-points: during CET, following acute abstinence (48-hrs), and after protracted abstinence (6-8 wks). Our results revealed that an adolescent onset of CET leads to increased EtOH consumption that persisted into adulthood. In both adult and adolescent onset CET groups, there were significant long-term reductions in prefrontal cortical mBDNF and β-NGF levels. However, only adult onset CET rats displayed decreased hippocampal BDNF levels. Spatial memory, assessed by spontaneous alternation and delayed alternation, was not significantly affected by CET as a function of age of drinking onset, but higher blood-EtOH levels were correlated with lower spontaneous alternation scores. Regardless of the age of onset, EtOH exposed rats were impaired on non-spatial discrimination learning and displayed inflexible behavioral patterns upon reversal learning. Our results indicate that adolescent EtOH exposure changes long-term consumption patterns producing behavioral and neural dysfunctions that persist across the lifespan.

  8. TRAJECTORIES OF ACCULTURATION AND ENCULTURATION IN RELATION TO HEAVY EPISODIC DRINKING AND MARIJUANA USE IN A SAMPLE OF MEXICAN AMERICAN SERIOUS JUVENILE OFFENDERS

    PubMed Central

    Losoya, Sandra H.; Knight, George P.; Chassin, Laurie; Little, Michelle; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Mauricio, Anne; Piquero, Alex

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the longitudinal relations of multiple dimensions of acculturation and enculturation to heavy episodic drinking and marijuana use in a sample of 300 male, Mexican-American, serious juvenile offenders. We track trajectories between ages 15 and 20 and also consider the effects of participants’ time spent residing in supervised settings during these years. Results showed some (although not entirely consistent) support for the hypothesis that bicultural adaptation is most functional in terms of lowered substance use involvement. The current findings demonstrate the importance of examining these relations longitudinally and among multiple dimensions of acculturation and enculturation, and they call into question simple models that suggest that greater acculturation is associated with greater substance use among Mexican-American adolescents. PMID:20198119

  9. Differences in Subjective Response to Alcohol by Gender, Family History, Heavy Episodic Drinking, and Cigarette Use: Refining and Broadening the Scope of Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Subjective response to alcohol (SR) has been shown to differ by gender, family history of alcoholism, drinking status, and cigarette smoking status. However, the requisite statistical basis for making mean-level comparisons (scalar measurement invariance; MI) has not been established for any SR measure, making it impossible to determine whether observed differences reflect true differences or measurement bias. Secondary data analyses were conducted to evaluate (a) MI of the Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale (SEAS) by gender, family history, heavy drinking status, and cigarette smoking status using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis; and (b) the impact of these group-level variables on SR using multivariate general linear modeling. A central strength, the SEAS assesses novel high arousal negative (HIGH−; e.g., aggressive) and low arousal positive effects (LOW+; e.g., relaxed) in addition to commonly assessed high arousal positive [HIGH+; e.g., sociable] and low arousal negative effects [LOW−; e.g., woozy]). Method: A total of 215 young adults reported on SR during a placebo-controlled alcohol administration study in a simulated bar setting (target blood alcohol concentration = .08%). Results: Scalar MI was achieved for each group. After consuming alcohol, family history–positive individuals reported stronger HIGH− effects and female smokers reported weaker LOW+ effects than their counterparts. Heavy episodic drinkers and family history–positive females reported weaker LOW− effects than their counterparts. Conclusions: The SEAS permits meaningful SR comparisons within several important groups. SR differences largely were observed on the novel SEAS subscales, highlighting the importance of assessing a full range of SR. PMID:25785804

  10. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... If you drink alcohol, health care providers advise limiting how much ... drinking in moderation, or responsible drinking. Responsible ...

  11. Heavy episodic drinking among Kenyan female sex workers is associated with unsafe sex, sexual violence and sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Chersich, M F; Luchters, S M F; Malonza, I M; Mwarogo, P; King'ola, N; Temmerman, M

    2007-11-01

    This study examined patterns of alcohol use and its association with unsafe sex and related sequelae among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted using snowball sampling. Binge drinkers (> or =5 alcoholic drinks on > or =1 occasion in the previous month) were compared with non-binge drinkers. Of 719 participants, 22.4% were lifetime-alcohol abstainers, 44.7% non-binge and 33.0% binge drinkers. Compared with non-binge drinkers, binge drinkers were more likely to report unprotected sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00-2.53; P=0.047) and sexual violence (AOR=1.85, 95% CI=1.27-2.71; P=0.001) and to have either syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis infection (AOR=1.56, 95% CI=1.00-2.41; P=0.048). HIV prevalence was higher among women having ever drunk (39.9%) than lifetime abstainers (23.2%; P<0.001), but was not associated with drinking patterns. Interventions are needed to assist female sex workers adopt safer drinking patterns. Investigation is needed for the effectiveness of such interventions in reducing unprotected sex, sexual violence and sexually transmitted infections.

  12. [Monitoring of the concentration of lithium and heavy metals in drinking water by the method of stripping voltammetry].

    PubMed

    Khakhanina, T I; Kovaleva, A Iu; Gurskaia, A A

    2007-01-01

    A method for monitoring of the concentration of lithium, zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper in drinking water is suggested. Monitoring can be performed within the range of 1.5(10(-8) - 2.0(10(-6) mg/dm3. A new design of the electrochemical cell is suggested. Analysis is performed against the background of 0.02 M dimethylformamide solution of (C4H9)4NCIO4. The time and potential of electrolysis are determined experimentally. The method can be used in medical research.

  13. The effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among adolescents aged 15–20 years with a low educational background: a two-arm parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the slightly modified version of the web-based brief alcohol intervention “What Do You Drink” (WDYD) among heavy drinking adolescents and young adults aged 15–20 years with a low educational background at one and six months follow-up. Methods A two-arm parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted online in the Netherlands in 2011–2012. Participants included in the trial were recruited from preparatory and secondary vocational education institutions and had to be between 15 and 20 years of age and report heavy drinking in the past six months. In total, 73 classes representing 609 (59.9% male) participants were allocated to the experimental condition (37 classes, 318 participants: WDYD intervention) or control condition (36 classes, 291 participants: no intervention). Outcomes were heavy drinking, weekly alcohol consumption, and frequency of binge drinking. Results Regressions analyses revealed no significant main intervention effects on any of the alcohol outcomes at one and six month’s follow-up according to the intention-to-treat principle. Additionally, there were no moderating effects of gender, age, educational level, and readiness to change on the relation between the WDYD intervention and the alcohol outcomes at follow-up. Conclusions The WDYD intervention was not effective in reducing alcohol consumption among heavy drinking adolescents and young adults aged 15–20 years with a low educational background at one and six months follow-up. However, the absence of intervention effectiveness cannot be used as an argument for not conducting these types of interventions with low educated individuals, since our study was the first to target this population. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2971 PMID:23895403

  14. The Drinking Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…

  15. DSM-based problem gambling: increasing the odds of heavy drinking in a national sample of U.S. college athletes?

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiun-Hau; Jacobs, Durand F; Derevensky, Jeffrey L

    2011-03-01

    Despite previously found co-occurrence of youth gambling and alcohol use, their relationship has not been systematically explored in a national sample using DSM-based gambling measures and multivariate modeling, adjusted for potential confounders. This study aimed to empirically examine the prevalence patterns and odds of at-least-weekly alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking (HED) in relation to various levels of gambling severity in college athletes. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on data from a national sample of 20,739 U.S. college athletes from the first National Collegiate Athletic Association national survey of gambling and health-risk behaviors. Prevalence of at-least-weekly alcohol use significantly increased as DSM-IV-based gambling severity increased, from non-gambling (24.5%) to non-problem gambling (43.7%) to sub-clinical gambling (58.5%) to problem gambling (67.6%). Multivariate results indicated that all levels of gambling were associated with significantly elevated risk of at-least-weekly HED, from non-problem (OR = 1.25) to sub-clinical (OR = 1.75) to problem gambling (OR = 3.22); the steep increase in the relative risk also suggested a possible quadratic relationship between gambling level and HED risk. Notably, adjusted odds ratios showed problem gambling had the strongest association with at-least-weekly HED, followed by marijuana (OR = 3.08) and cigarette use (OR = 2.64). Gender interactions and differences were also identified and assessed. In conclusion, attention should be paid to college athletes exhibiting gambling problems, especially considering their empirical multivariate associations with high-risk drinking; accordingly, screening for problem gambling is recommended. More research is warranted to elucidate the etiologic mechanisms of these associations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of Metals (Heavy and Radioactive) in Drinking Water by an Indirect Analysis Method Based on Scale Tests

    PubMed Central

    Rajkovic, Miloš B.; Lacnjevac, Caslav M.; Ralevic, Nebojsa R.; Stojanović, Mirjana D.; Tosković, Dragan V.; Pantelic, Gordana K.; Ristic, Nikola M.; Jovanic, Sasa

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of water quality, regarding the content of metals, especially heavy and radioactive ones, has been carried out in an indirect way, by testing scale formed in a hot-water heater, using water from the water-supply network of the city of Belgrade – the district of New Belgrade. The determination of the composition and the structure of the scale has resulted in its complete identification, and its crystallochemical formula has been defined. It has unequivocally been established that the obtained results are within the tolerance boundary with the results acquired by a conventional analysis of water, when it is a matter of very low concentrations. The presence of radioactive elements of uranium and strontium in a scale sample has been found and the way of their penetrating its composition and structure has been explained. Applying the fractional extraction method, uranium has been established to be of an anthropogenic origin. PMID:27879817

  17. Barroom Aggression Among Australian Men: Associations With Heavy Episodic Drinking, Conformity to Masculine Norms, and Personal and Perceived Peer Approval of Barroom Aggression.

    PubMed

    Miller, Peter; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Hayley, Alexa; Sonderlund, Anders; Litherland, Steven; Medew-Ewen, Tess; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn

    2016-05-01

    Research suggests that heavy episodic drinking (HED), perceived peer norms, and personal approval of aggression influence male barroom aggression (MBA). Qualitative research suggests that conformity to hegemonic masculine gender norms also influences MBA; however, quantitative research on the direct and indirect influence of masculinity on MBA is limited. This study tested the relationships between HED, conformity to masculine gender norms, and personal approval and peer approval of MBA on MBA perpetration, as well as the indirect effect of masculine norms on MBA via HED. A convenience sample of Australian men (N = 322; mean age = 21.05 years, SD = 1.95; 76.9% university students) completed an online questionnaire, assessing HED and MBA over the previous year, and subscales of the Beliefs and Attitudes Towards Male Alcohol-Related Aggression Inventory and Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46. Negative binomial regression analyses found that, overall, HED, male peer approval, and personal approval of MBA directly predicted increased risk of verbal and physical MBA perpetration. Greater conformity to specific masculine norms also increased (Power Over Women) and decreased (Emotional Control, Heterosexual Self-Presentation) risk of MBA perpetration. The masculine norms Risk Taking, Playboy, and Emotional Control were found to be indirect predictors of MBA via HED. Risk of MBA perpetration is increased primarily by HED as a direct, but also mediating, predictor. Personal and male peer approval of MBA, and specific masculine norms, further increase this risk whereas other masculine norms appear protective.

  18. Do romantic partners influence each other's heavy episodic drinking? Support for the partner influence hypothesis in a three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bartel, Sara J; Sherry, Simon B; Molnar, Danielle S; Mushquash, Aislin R; Leonard, Kenneth E; Flett, Gordon L; Stewart, Sherry H

    2017-06-01

    Approximately one in five adults engage in heavy episodic drinking (HED), a behavior with serious health and social consequences. Environmental, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors contribute to and perpetuate HED. Prior research supports the partner influence hypothesis where partners influence each other's HED. We examined the partner influence hypothesis longitudinally over three years in heterosexual couples in serious romantic relationships, while exploring possible sex differences in the magnitude of partner influence. One-hundred-and-seventy-nine heterosexual couples in serious relationships (38.5% married at baseline) completed a measure of HED at baseline and again three years later. Using actor-partner interdependence modelling, results showed actor effects for both men and women, with HED remaining stable for each partner from baseline to follow-up. Significant partner effects were found for both men and women, who both positively influenced their partners' HED over the three-year follow-up. The partner influence hypothesis was supported. Results indicated partner influences on HED occur over the longer term and apply to partners in varying stages of serious romantic relationships (e.g., cohabiting, engaged, married). Women were found to influence their partners' HED just as much as men influence their partners' HED. Findings suggest HED should be assessed and treated as a couples' issue rather than simply as an individual risky behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Attitudes and Learning through Practice Are Key to Delivering Brief Interventions for Heavy Drinking in Primary Health Care: Analyses from the ODHIN Five Country Cluster Randomized Factorial Trial.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Kaner, Eileen; Keurhorst, Myrna; Bendtsen, Preben; Steenkiste, Ben van; Reynolds, Jillian; Segura, Lidia; Wojnar, Marcin; Kłoda, Karolina; Parkinson, Kathryn; Drummond, Colin; Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Mierzecki, Artur; Laurant, Miranda; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Gual, Antoni

    2017-01-26

    In this paper, we test path models that study the interrelations between primary health care provider attitudes towards working with drinkers, their screening and brief advice activity, and their receipt of training and support and financial reimbursement. Study participants were 756 primary health care providers from 120 primary health care units (PHCUs) in different locations throughout Catalonia, England, The Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Our interventions were training and support and financial reimbursement to providers. Our design was a randomized factorial trial with baseline measurement period, 12-week implementation period, and 9-month follow-up measurement period. Our outcome measures were: attitudes of individual providers in working with drinkers as measured by the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire; and the proportion of consulting adult patients (age 18+ years) who screened positive and were given advice to reduce their alcohol consumption (intervention activity). We found that more positive attitudes were associated with higher intervention activity, and higher intervention activity was then associated with more positive attitudes. Training and support was associated with both positive changes in attitudes and higher intervention activity. Financial reimbursement was associated with more positive attitudes through its impact on higher intervention activity. We conclude that improving primary health care providers' screening and brief advice activity for heavy drinking requires a combination of training and support and on-the-job experience of actually delivering screening and brief advice activity.

  20. Attitudes and Learning through Practice Are Key to Delivering Brief Interventions for Heavy Drinking in Primary Health Care: Analyses from the ODHIN Five Country Cluster Randomized Factorial Trial

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Peter; Kaner, Eileen; Keurhorst, Myrna; Bendtsen, Preben; van Steenkiste, Ben; Reynolds, Jillian; Segura, Lidia; Wojnar, Marcin; Kłoda, Karolina; Parkinson, Kathryn; Drummond, Colin; Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Mierzecki, Artur; Laurant, Miranda; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Gual, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we test path models that study the interrelations between primary health care provider attitudes towards working with drinkers, their screening and brief advice activity, and their receipt of training and support and financial reimbursement. Study participants were 756 primary health care providers from 120 primary health care units (PHCUs) in different locations throughout Catalonia, England, The Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Our interventions were training and support and financial reimbursement to providers. Our design was a randomized factorial trial with baseline measurement period, 12-week implementation period, and 9-month follow-up measurement period. Our outcome measures were: attitudes of individual providers in working with drinkers as measured by the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire; and the proportion of consulting adult patients (age 18+ years) who screened positive and were given advice to reduce their alcohol consumption (intervention activity). We found that more positive attitudes were associated with higher intervention activity, and higher intervention activity was then associated with more positive attitudes. Training and support was associated with both positive changes in attitudes and higher intervention activity. Financial reimbursement was associated with more positive attitudes through its impact on higher intervention activity. We conclude that improving primary health care providers’ screening and brief advice activity for heavy drinking requires a combination of training and support and on-the-job experience of actually delivering screening and brief advice activity. PMID:28134783

  1. Adaptation of blood pressure to continuous heavy coffee drinking in young volunteers. A double-blind crossover study.

    PubMed Central

    Ammon, H P; Bieck, P R; Mandalaz, D; Verspohl, E J

    1983-01-01

    In a double-blind crossover trial, the effect of 4 week daily ingestion of eight cups of regular coffee (corresponding to 504 mg caffeine) vs eight cups of decaffeinated coffee was studied. Blood pressure, heart rate and urinary catecholamines were measured in eight healthy, young volunteers. In both groups, regular coffee immediately led to a significant increase in mean blood pressure (+ 3 and + 5 mm Hg respectively). The difference between both groups, however, existed only in the first 3 to 5 days of ingestion of regular coffee. On day 5 after ingestion of regular coffee, and thereafter in weekly intervals, no significant increase in catecholamine excretion was observed. The data suggest that long-term consumption of large amounts of coffee leads to only a small and transient rise in mean blood pressure. This may be due to an adaptation phenomenon. Therefore, continuous heavy coffee ingestion (eight cups/day for 4 weeks) by young persons does not appear to involve a risk of the development of hypertension. PMID:6871070

  2. Delivery of Brief Interventions for Heavy Drinking in Primary Care: Outcomes of the ODHIN 5-Country Cluster Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Coulton, Simon; Kaner, Eileen; Bendtsen, Preben; Kłoda, Karolina; Reynolds, Jillian; Segura, Lidia; Wojnar, Marcin; Mierzecki, Artur; Deluca, Paolo; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Parkinson, Kathryn; Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Drummond, Colin; Gual, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to test whether 3 strategies-training and support, financial reimbursement, and an option to direct screen-positive patients to an Internet-based method of giving brief advice-have a longer-term effect on primary care clinicians' delivery of screening and advice to heavy drinkers operationalized with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) tool. We undertook a cluster randomized factorial trial with a 12-week implementation period in 120 primary health care units throughout Catalonia, England, Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Units were randomized to 8 groups: care as usual (control); training and support alone; financial reimbursement alone; electronic brief advice alone; paired combinations of these conditions; and all 3 combined. The primary outcome was the proportion of consulting adult patients (aged 18 years and older) receiving intervention-screening and, if screen-positive, advice-at 9 months. Based on the factorial design, the ratio of the log of the proportion of patients given intervention at the 9-month follow-up was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.03-1.88) in units that received training and support as compared with units that did not. Neither financial reimbursement nor directing screen-positive patients to electronic brief advice led to a higher proportion of patients receiving intervention. Training and support of primary health care units has a lasting, albeit small, impact on the proportion of adult patients given an alcohol intervention at 9 months. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  3. Screening for Problem Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Katharine A; Bush, Kristen R; McDonell, Mary B; Malone, Timothy; Fihn, Stephan D

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare self-administered versions of three questionnaires for detecting heavy and problem drinking: the CAGE, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and an augmented version of the CAGE. DESIGN Cross-sectional surveys. SETTING Three Department of Veterans Affairs general medical clinics. PATIENTS Random sample of consenting male outpatients who consumed at least 5 drinks over the past year (“drinkers”). Heavy drinkers were oversampled. MEASUREMENTS An augmented version of the CAGE was included in a questionnaire mailed to all patients. The AUDIT was subsequently mailed to “drinkers.” Comparison standards, based on the tri-level World Health Organization alcohol consumption interview and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, included heavy drinking (>14 drinks per week typically or ≥5 drinks per day at least monthly) and active DSM-IIIR alcohol abuse or dependence (positive diagnosis and at least one alcohol-related symptom in the past year). Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) were used to compare screening questionnaires. MAIN RESULTS Of 393 eligible patients, 261 (66%) returned the AUDIT and completed interviews. For detection of active alcohol abuse or dependence, the CAGE augmented with three more questions (AUROC 0.871) performed better than either the CAGE alone or AUDIT (AUROCs 0.820 and 0.777, respectively). For identification of heavy-drinking patients, however, the AUDIT performed best (AUROC 0.870). To identify both heavy drinking and active alcohol abuse or dependence, the augmented CAGE and AUDIT both performed well, but the AUDIT was superior (AUROC 0.861). CONCLUSIONS For identification of patients with heavy drinking or active alcohol abuse or dependence, the self-administered AUDIT was superior to the CAGE in this population. PMID:9669567

  4. Immunosuppressive effect of subchronic exposure to a mixture of eight heavy metals, found as groundwater contaminants in different areas of India, through drinking water in male rats.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, S H; Sarkar, S N; Ram, G C; Tripathi, H C

    2007-10-01

    Immunotoxicity is an important health hazard of heavy metal exposure. Because the risk of combined exposure in the population cannot be neglected, we examined whether subchronic exposure to a mixture of metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, nickel, manganese, and iron) via drinking water at contemporary Indian groundwater contamination levels and at concentrations equivalent to the WHO maximum permissible limit (MPL) in drinking water can induce immunotoxicity in male rats. Data on groundwater contamination with metals in India were collected from literature and metals were selected on the basis of their frequency of occurrence and contamination level above the MPL. Male albino Wistar rats were exposed to the mixture at 0, 1, 10, and 100 times the mode concentrations (the most frequently occurring concentration) of the individual metals in drinking water for 90 days. In addition, one group was exposed to the mixture at a concentration equal to the MPL of the individual metal and another group was used as positive control for immune response studies. The end points assessed were weights of organs, hematological indices, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and histopathology of skin and spleen. The MPL and 1x doses did not significantly affect any of the parameters and none of the doses induced any significant changes after 30 days of exposure. The mixture at 10x and 100x doses increased the relative weight of the spleen, but that of thymus, adrenals, and popliteal lymphnodes were increased with the 100x dose. After 90 days, 10x and 100x doses decreased serum protein and globulin contents and increased the albumin:globulin ratio; the albumin level was decreased only with the 100x dose. After 60 days, the total erythrocyte count (TEC), hemoglobin (Hb) level, and packed cell volume (PCV) were decreased with the 100x dose, whereas after 90 days, 10x and 100x doses reduced the TEC, total leukocyte count, Hb level, PCV, mean corpuscular volume, and

  5. The influence of drinking-water pollution with heavy metal on the expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ in mice by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Radbin, Rayhaneh; Vahedi, Fatemeh; Chamani, JamshidKhan

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, water pollution has been converted to a challenging discussion in health area of human being. Heavy elements are one of the most important water pollutants and their negative adverse effects on body systems have been confirmed. In this study, investigation of effects of two heavy elements including lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) on expression of interlukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as humoral and cellular immunity biomarkers, respectively, was aimed and PCR, real-time PCR and electrophoresis techniques were used. In this study, BALB/c mice were studied that had free access to drinking water which contained Cu or Pb salts. After 2 weeks, spleens of mice were removed, RNA extracted, and cDNA was prepared for RT-PCR. Then the expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ genes were assessed by real-time PCR. The expression of IFN-γ was up-regulated in both treated groups and the expression of IL-4 was only up-regulated in the group treated with Cu and down-regulated in the group treated with Pb. This study shows that the presence of heavy elements as drinking-water pollutants results in a disproportion of natural cytokines balances, and thus may result in a negative effect on immune system.

  6. Drinking pattern and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Seppä, K; Laippala, P; Sillanaukee, P

    1994-03-01

    Large amounts of alcohol are known to increase blood pressure. There is little evidence about the effect of binge drinking of alcohol on blood pressure, although this is the dominant style of alcohol drinking in several countries. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking and blood pressure using daily heavy drinkers as a reference group. We examined 260 consecutive nonalcoholic 40- and 45-year-old men participating in a health screening. There were 37 teetotalers, 147 social drinkers, 62 weekend heavy drinkers attending the health screening 2 to 7 days after binge drinking, and 14 men who drank heavily every day. Group division was made using self-reported alcohol consumption and a structured alcohol questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured manually by a mercury manometer. BMDP statistical software was used in the statistical analysis of the material. The diastolic blood pressure of weekend heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend, 289 g) did not differ from that found in teetotalers but systolic blood pressure was slightly higher (5 mm Hg, P = .04). In contrast, daily heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend [Friday to Saturday], 151 g) had significantly higher systolic (8 mm Hg, P = .04) and diastolic (6 mm Hg, P = .05) blood pressure values than teetotalers. We conclude that different drinking habits seem to have different effects on blood pressure, those of daily heavy drinking being more prominent than those of weekend heavy drinking.

  7. Impact of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning advertisements on alcohol consumption, affect, and implicit cognition in heavy-drinking young adults: A laboratory-based randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Stautz, Kaidy; Frings, Daniel; Albery, Ian P; Moss, Antony C; Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-02-01

    There is sparse evidence regarding the effect of alcohol-advertising exposure on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers. This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning video advertising on objective alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking young adults, and to examine underlying processes. Between-participants randomized controlled trial with three conditions. Two hundred and four young adults (aged 18-25) who self-reported as heavy drinkers were randomized to view one of three sets of 10 video advertisements that included either (1) alcohol-promoting, (2) alcohol-warning, or (3) non-alcohol advertisements. The primary outcome was the proportion of alcoholic beverages consumed in a sham taste test. Affective responses to advertisements, implicit alcohol approach bias, and alcohol attentional bias were assessed as secondary outcomes and possible mediators. Typical alcohol consumption, Internet use, and television use were measured as covariates. There was no main effect of condition on alcohol consumption. Participants exposed to alcohol-promoting advertisements showed increased positive affect and an increased approach/reduced avoidance bias towards alcohol relative to those exposed to non-alcohol advertisements. There was an indirect effect of exposure to alcohol-warning advertisements on reduced alcohol consumption via negative affect experienced in response to these advertisements. Restricting alcohol-promoting advertising could remove a potential influence on positive alcohol-related emotions and cognitions among heavy-drinking young adults. Producing alcohol-warning advertising that generates negative emotion may be an effective strategy to reduce alcohol consumption. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Exposure to alcohol advertising has immediate and distal effects on alcohol consumption. There is some evidence that effects may be larger in heavy drinkers. Alcohol-warning advertising has

  8. Comparing the AUDIT and 3 Drinking Indices as Predictors of Personal and Social Drinking Problems in Freshman First Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)…

  9. Comparing the AUDIT and 3 Drinking Indices as Predictors of Personal and Social Drinking Problems in Freshman First Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)…

  10. The Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies Is Related to Reduced Risk in Heavy Drinking College Students with Poorer Mental and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample…

  11. The Polish Version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Modified to Reflect Obsessions and Compulsions Related to Heavy Drinking (YBOCS-hd-PL).

    PubMed

    Nowakowska-Domagała, Katarzyna; Chodkiewicz, Jan; Ziółkowski, Marcin; Czarnecki, Damian; Gąsior, Krzysztof; Juczyński, Artur; Biedrzycka, Agata

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the research work was to present the process of adapting the Polish version of the YBOCS-hd by Modell and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1992;16:266) to Polish conditions and to characterize the psychometric validation of the measure (e.g., validity, internal structure, and reliability). The scale is a self-assessment method consisting of 10 statements designed for measuring the severity of obsessive and compulsive craving-related thoughts and behaviors in alcohol-dependent or alcohol-abusing patients. The study was carried out in a group of 550 patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence syndrome, 510 of whom (396 males and 114 females) were included in the final analysis. The patients were interviewed during the third week of therapy by the Polish version of the Yale-Brown Compulsive Scale Modified to Reflect Obsessions and Compulsions Related to Heavy Drinking (YBOCS-hd-PL), the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS), Short Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire (SADD), and the "compulsive" subscale of SCL-90. The YBOCS-hd-PL is characterized by good psychometric properties. Factor analysis identified 2 factors corresponding to the structure of the original version. Its internal consistency, assessed on the basis of Cronbach's alpha, is satisfactory: 0.84 for YBOCS-hd-PL (overall), 0.75 for factor 1 (obsessive thoughts), and 0.79 for factor 2 (compulsive behaviors). The discriminant power of the questions ranged from 0.46 to 0.68 (p < 0.001). For the adapted YBOCS-hd-PL, significant correlations were found between its scores and the PACS and the "compulsive" subscale of the SCL-90 scale. The obtained results indicate the Polish version of the YBOCS-hd (YBOCS-hd-PL) proved to be a reliable and valid instrument. In view of its very good psychometric properties, the Polish version of the YBOCS-hd can be recommended as an instrument for assessment of alcohol craving and its obsessive and compulsive aspects in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Copyright

  12. Role Transitions and Young Adult Maturing Out of Heavy Drinking: Evidence for Larger Effects of Marriage among More Severe Pre-Marriage Problem Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew R.; Chassin, Laurie; MacKinnon, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown a developmental process of “maturing out” of problem drinking beginning in young adulthood. Perhaps surprisingly, past studies suggests that young adult drinking reductions may be particularly pronounced among those exhibiting relatively severe forms of problem drinking earlier in emerging adulthood. This may occur because more severe problem drinkers experience stronger ameliorative effects of normative young adult role transitions like marriage. Methods The hypothesis of stronger marriage effects among more severe problem drinkers was tested using three waves of data from a large ongoing study of familial alcohol disorder (Chassin et al., 1992; N=844; 51% children of alcoholics). Results Longitudinal growth models characterized (1) the curvilinear trajectory of drinking quantity from ages 17-40, (2) effects of marriage on altering this age-related trajectory, and moderation of this effect by pre-marriage problem drinking levels (alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms). Results confirmed the hypothesis that protective marriage effects on drinking quantity trajectories would be stronger among more severe pre-marriage problem drinkers. Supplemental analyses showed that results were robust to alternative construct operationalizations and modeling approaches. Conclusions Consistent with role incompatibility theory, findings support the view of role conflict as a key mechanism of role-driven behavior change, as greater problem drinking likely conflicts more with demands of roles like marriage. This is also consistent with the developmental psychopathology view of transitions and turning points. Role transitions among already low-severity drinkers may merely represent developmental continuity of a low-risk trajectory, whereas role transitions among higher-severity problem drinkers may represent developmentally discontinuous “turning points” that divert individuals from a higher- to a lower-risk trajectory. Practically

  13. Role transitions and young adult maturing out of heavy drinking: evidence for larger effects of marriage among more severe premarriage problem drinkers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Chassin, Laurie; MacKinnon, David P

    2015-06-01

    Research has shown a developmental process of "maturing out" of problem drinking beginning in young adulthood. Perhaps surprisingly, past studies suggest that young adult drinking reductions may be particularly pronounced among those exhibiting relatively severe forms of problem drinking earlier in emerging adulthood. This may occur because more severe problem drinkers experience stronger ameliorative effects of normative young adult role transitions like marriage. The hypothesis of stronger marriage effects among more severe problem drinkers was tested using 3 waves of data from a large ongoing study of familial alcohol disorder (N = 844; 51% children of alcoholics). Longitudinal growth models characterized (i) the curvilinear trajectory of drinking quantity from ages 17 to 40, (ii) effects of marriage on altering this age-related trajectory, and (iii) moderation of this effect by premarriage problem drinking levels (alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms). Results confirmed the hypothesis that protective marriage effects on drinking quantity trajectories would be stronger among more severe premarriage problem drinkers. Supplemental analyses showed that results were robust to alternative construct operationalizations and modeling approaches. Consistent with role incompatibility theory, findings support the view of role conflict as a key mechanism of role-driven behavior change, as greater problem drinking likely conflicts more with demands of roles like marriage. This is also consistent with the developmental psychopathology view of transitions and turning points. Role transitions among already low-severity drinkers may merely represent developmental continuity of a low-risk trajectory, whereas role transitions among higher-severity problem drinkers may represent developmentally discontinuous "turning points" that divert individuals from a higher- to a lower-risk trajectory. Practically, findings support the clinical relevance of role-related "maturing out

  14. Drinking motives among HIV primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jennifer C; Aharonovich, Efrat; O'Leary, Ann; Wainberg, Milton; Hasin, Deborah S

    2014-07-01

    Heavy drinking among individuals with HIV is associated with poor medication adherence and other health problems. Understanding reasons for drinking (drinking motives) in this population is therefore important and could inform intervention. Using concepts of drinking motives from previous alcohol research, we assessed these motives and drinking in 254 HIV-positive primary care patients (78.0 % male; 94.5 % African American or Hispanic) prior to their participation in an alcohol intervention trial. Three motives had good factor structure and internal consistency: "drinking to cope with negative affect", "drinking for social facilitation" (both associated with heavier drinking), and "drinking due to social pressure" (associated with less drinking). Drinking motives may provide important content for alcohol intervention; clinical trials could indicate whether inclusion of such content improves intervention efficacy. Discussing motives in session could help providers assist clients in better managing psychological and social aspects of their lives without reliance on alcohol.

  15. Estimation of spatial distribution of heavy metals in groundwater using interpolation methods and multivariate statistical techniques; its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes in the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Hakan; Ayyildiz Turan, Nazlı

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in groundwater potentially used for drinking and irrigation is very important. This study collected groundwater samples from 78 wells in July 2012 and analyzed them for 17 heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Co, Ni, Al, As, Mo, Se, B, Ti, V, Ba). Spatial distributions of these elements were identified using three different interpolation methods [inverse distance weighing (IDW), radial basis function (RBF), and ordinary kriging (OK)]. Root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) for cross validation were used to select the best interpolation methods for each parameter. Multivariate statistical analysis [cluster analysis (CA) and factor analysis (FA)] were used to identify similarities among sampling sites and the contribution of variables to groundwater pollution. Fe and Mn levels exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limits for drinking water in almost all of the study area, and some locations had Fe and Mn levels that exceeded Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) guidelines for drip irrigation systems. Al, As, and Cd levels also exceeded WHO guidelines for drinking water. Cluster analysis classified groundwater in the study area into three groups, and factor analysis identified five factors that explained 73.39% of the total variation in groundwater, which are as follows: factor 1: Se, Ti, Cr, Mo; factor 2: Ni, Mn, Co, Ba; factor 3: Pb, Cd; factor 4: B, V, Fe, Cu; and factor 5: AS, Zn. As a result of this study, it could be said that interpolation methods and multivariate statistical techniques gave very useful results for the determination of the source.

  16. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Underage Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Research ... be the victim of physical or sexual assault. Underage Drinking Warning Signs Academic and/or behavioral problems Changing ...

  17. Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase ... people has been quite effective. Next to multivitamins, energy drinks are the most popular dietary supplement consumed ...

  18. Social host policies and underage drinking parties.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, Kimberly G; Sparks, Michael; Francisco, Vincent T; Wyrick, David; Nichols, Tracy; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Social host policies focused on underage drinking parties are implemented to reduce social availability of alcohol and high-risk drinking by adolescents in private locations. We examined the policies' relationship with drinking location, peer-group drinking size, heavy episodic drinking, and nonviolent consequences. Cross-sectional data from 11,205, 14-20-year olds, were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Policies were not associated with drinking location, decreased heavy episodic drinking, or nonviolent consequences. However, adolescents from communities with a preexisting policy had lower odds of drinking in large peer groups compared to those from communities without a policy at baseline. Additional research is needed to examine their effectiveness. The study's limitations are noted.

  19. Rethinking Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are having drinking-related problems with your job, relationships, health, or the law, you should still seek help. Read More "Rethinking Drinking" Articles Rethinking Drinking / The Importance of Drinking Patterns / Dr. George Koob: ... Information | Contact Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of ...

  20. Comparison of daily versus nondaily image-guided radiotherapy protocols for patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yao; Michaud, Anthony L; Sreeraman, Radhika; Liu, Tianxiao; Purdy, James A; Chen, Allen M

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of nondaily image-guided radiotherapy (RT) strategies with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer. Alignment data was analyzed from 103 consecutive patients treated by IMRT for head and neck cancer who had undergone daily imaging with onboard mega-voltage CT (MVCT), resulting in 3275 images. Geometric setup errors that would have occurred using less-than-daily imaging were hypothetically estimated for 4 temporal less-than-daily image-guided RT protocols. For image-guided RT on the first fraction, weekly image-guided RT, first 5 + weekly image-guided RT, and alternating day image-guided RT, the respective incidences of geometric miss were 50.5%, 33.8%, 30.1%, and 15.7% assuming 3-mm uncertainty margins; and 18.7%, 11.7%, 10.3%, and 4.1% with 5-mm margins. Less-than-daily image-guided RT strategies result in a high incidence of potential miss when 3-mm uncertainty margins are utilized. Less-than-daily image-guided RT strategies should incorporate margins of at least 5 mm. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Event-specific drinking among college students.

    PubMed

    Neighbors, Clayton; Atkins, David C; Lewis, Melissa A; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Rodriguez, Lindsey M

    2011-12-01

    College represents a period of risk for heavy drinking and experiencing unwanted consequences associated with drinking. Previous research has identified specific events, including holidays (e.g., New Years), school breaks (e.g., Spring Break) and personally relevant events (e.g., 21st birthdays), that are associated with elevated risk of heavy drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. The systematic evaluation of relative risk offers insights into event-specific drinking and an empirical basis upon which to consider allocation of limited prevention resources. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to provide a comparative index of drinking across a wide range of holidays and compare holiday drinking to 21st birthday drinking. Participants were 1,124 students (55% female) who had turned 21 within the previous three weeks in 2008 and provided 90-day retrospective reports of their drinking using the Timeline Follow-back. Results based on a hurdle mixed model for blood alcohol content revealed several holidays that stand out for elevated drinking, including New Year's Eve and July 4th, whereas other holidays appear more similar to weekend drinking, such as Spring Break (approximately last week of March) and graduation (mid-June). Drinking on holidays or special days was substantially lower than drinking on 21st birthdays. Results are discussed in terms of practical applications for targeted intervention efforts on college campuses toward specific events where elevated drinking is known to occur.

  2. Event Specific Drinking Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Atkins, David C.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.

    2011-01-01

    College represents a period of risk for heavy drinking and experiencing unwanted consequences associated with drinking. Previous research has identified specific events including holidays (e.g., New Years), school breaks (e.g., Spring Break) and personally relevant events (e.g., 21st birthdays) that are associated with elevated risk of heavy drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. The systematic evaluation of relative risk offers insights into event specific drinking and an empirical basis upon which to consider allocation of limited prevention resources. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to provide a comparative index of drinking across a wide range of holidays and compare holiday drinking to 21st birthday drinking. Participants were 1,124 students (55% female) who had turned 21 within the previous three weeks in 2008 and provided 90-day retrospective reports of their drinking using the Timeline Follow-back. Results based on a hurdle mixed model for blood alcohol content (BAC) revealed several holidays that stand out for elevated drinking, including New Year’s Eve and July 4th, whereas other holidays appear more similar to weekend drinking, such as Spring Break (approximately last week of March) and graduation (mid-June). Drinking on holidays or special days was substantially lower than drinking on 21st birthdays. Results are discussed in terms of practical applications for targeted intervention efforts on college campuses toward specific events where elevated drinking is known to occur. PMID:21639597

  3. I Like People Who Drink Like Me: Perceived Appeal as a Function of Drinking Status

    PubMed Central

    Young, Chelsie M.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Steers, Mai-Ly N.; Quist, Michelle C.; Foster, Dawn W.; Bryan, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Individuals rate opposite sex faces as more attractive after consuming or being primed with alcohol. However, other traits such as intelligence and likeability have not been examined and might vary as a function of information about one's drinking habits. We expected social drinkers to be rated more positively than heavy drinkers, abstainers, or recovering alcoholics. We further hypothesized that faces with similar drinking habits to participants would be rated as more appealing. Methods Five hundred ninety-four undergraduates viewed 25 opposite sex faces randomly paired with drinking information, and rated each face on perceived appeal. Results Hierarchical linear models revealed that social drinkers were rated as most appealing, as expected. Unexpectedly, recovering alcoholics were rated as the next most appealing, followed by abstainers, then heavy drinkers. The interaction between drinker type and participants’ own drinking predicting ratings indicated that the heavier the participant drinks, the more favorably they rated heavy drinkers compared to other types of drinkers. Thus, as expected, ratings varied as a function of participants’ own drinking; however, ratings did not vary as a function of participants’ alcohol-related problems. Conclusions Findings support hypotheses in that social drinkers were generally perceived as appealing compared to other drinker types, and ratings tended to be influenced by participants’ own drinking. Individuals’ prototypes and norms regarding drinking may influence how they perceive others when others’ drinking habits are known. This might be especially important to consider with heavy drinkers who may seek out others who drink similarly, which could reinforce problematic drinking. PMID:26477014

  4. Influences of barriers to cessation and reasons for quitting on substance use among treatment-seeking smokers who report heavy drinking

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined behavioral and cognitively-based quit processes among concurrent alcohol and tobacco users and assessed whether smoking and drinking were differentially influenced. Methods Participants were 200 treatment-seeking smokers (37.50% female; Mage = 30.72; SD = 12.68) who reported smoking an average of 10 or more cigarettes daily for at least one year. Results Barriers to cessation (BCS) and reasons for quitting (RFQ) were generally correlated with substance use. BCS moderated the relationship between quit methods and cigarette use such that quit methods were negatively associated with smoking, particularly among those with more BCS. RFQ moderated the association between quit methods and cigarette use such that quit methods were negatively linked with smoking among those with fewer RFQ, but positively linked with smoking among those with more RFQ. Two 3-way interactions emerged. The first 3-way indicated that among individuals with fewer RFQ, quit methods was negatively associated with smoking, and this was strongest among those with more BCS. However, among those with more RFQ, smoking and quit methods were positively associated, particularly among those with more BCS. The second 3-way showed that among those with fewer RFQ, quit methods was negatively linked with drinking frequency, and this was strongest among those with more BCS. However, among those with fewer BCS, drinking and quit methods were positively linked. Conclusions The relationship between behavioral and cognitively-based quit processes and substance use is not straightforward. There may be concurrent substance-using individuals for whom these processes might be associated with increased substance use. PMID:26949566

  5. Impacts of urbanization on the distribution of heavy metals in soils along the Huangpu River, the drinking water source for Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Wang, Min; Peng, Chi; Alatalo, Juha M

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the horizontal and vertical distribution of heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As, Ni, and Cr) in soils in the water source protection zone for Shanghai to study the origins of these metals, their connections with urbanization, and their potential risk posed on the ecosystem. Determination of metal concentrations in 50 topsoil samples and nine soil profiles indicated that Hg, Pb, Zn, and Cu were present in significantly higher concentrations in topsoil than in deep soil layers. The spatial distributions of Hg, Pb, Zn, and Cu and contamination hotspots for these metals in the study area were similar to those near heavy industries and urban built-up areas. Emissions from automobiles resulted in increased soil concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn along roadsides, while high concentrations of Hg in the soil resulted from recent atmospheric deposition. Calculation of the potential ecological risk indicated that the integrative risk of these heavy metals in most areas was low, but a few sites surrounding high density of factories showed moderate risks.

  6. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Institute of Medicine, Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility . Committee on Developing a Strategy to Reduce and Prevent Underage Drinking. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies ...

  7. Interactive effects of drinking history and impulsivity on college drinking

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Zachary W.; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R.; Charnigo, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The transition from adolescence into emerging adulthood is a critical developmental period for changes in alcohol use and drinking related problems. Prior research has identified a number of distinct developmental alcohol use trajectories, which appear to be differentially related to young adult drinking outcomes. Another correlate of alcohol use in early adulthood is impulsivity. The primary aim of this study was to examine the moderating role of impulsivity in the relation between patterns of past alcohol use and hazardous drinking during the first year of college. Participants (N=452; 49% male; mean age 18.5 years; 82% Caucasian) completed self-report measures during the first year of college, including retrospective alcohol use calendars, current alcohol use and drinking problems, and personality. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify groups with similar adolescent drinking history from retrospective, self-report. Four groups were identified: abstainers/very light users, late/moderate users, early/moderate users, and steep increase/heavy users. The abstainer/very light user group reported the lowest levels of alcohol use and problematic drinking in college; the steep increase/heavy use group reported the highest levels of alcohol use and problematic drinking. As predicted, the role of personality—specifically urgency, or emotion-based rash action—was strongest among moderate use groups. These findings may be helpful in guiding targeted prevention and intervention programs for alcohol use and abuse. PMID:24018231

  8. Influences on the drinking of heavier drinkers: Interactional realities in seeking to 'change drinking cultures'.

    PubMed

    Room, Robin; Callinan, Sarah; Dietze, Paul

    2015-06-29

    'Changing drinking culture' is a prominent goal in the Australian state of Victoria's current alcohol strategy-seeking a shift so that 'excessive drinking isn't seen as the norm'. As a social activity, there is a strong collective aspect to drinking and associated behaviour: customs within the drinking group and at the level of social worlds of drinking operate both to increase and to control drinking patterns and associated behaviours. The paper considers how risky drinkers and those in social worlds of heavy drinking experience others' expectations about drinking. Using Victorian population survey responses (n = 2092 adults who had consumed alcohol in previous year) to identify those in a social world of group drinking, and a subcategory who are also risky drinkers, the paper explores pressures on those in these categories both to drink more and to drink less, whether from family members, from work colleagues, or from friends. Those who are both risky and social drinkers are much more likely than other drinkers to report pressures to drink more from friends and workmates, and even from family members, although they more often report pressures from family members to drink less than to drink more. Efforts to change a drinking culture, it is argued, must take account of the collective nature of drinking and of the interplay of influences at interpersonal and subcultural levels if they are to be effective in reducing rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems. [Room R, Callinan S, Dietze P. Influences on the drinking of heavier drinkers: Interactional realities in seeking to 'change drinking cultures'. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. The drinking partnership and marital satisfaction: The longitudinal influence of discrepant drinking

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether discrepancies between husbands’ and wives’ past year heavy drinking predicted decreased marital satisfaction over time. Participants were recruited at the time they applied for their marriage licenses (N= 634). Couples completed questionnaires about their alcohol use and marital satisfaction at the time of marriage, and again at their first and second anniversaries. Generalized estimating equation models were used to evaluate the association between discrepancies in husbands’ and wives’ heavy drinking in the year prior to marriage and marital satisfaction at the first wedding anniversary and the association between discrepancies in heavy alcohol use in the first year of marriage and marital satisfaction at the second wedding anniversary. In these prospective time-lagged analyses, discrepancies in husbands’ and wives’ heavy drinking predicted decreased marital satisfaction over time while controlling for heavy drinking. Over time, these couples may be at greater risk for decreased marital functioning that may lead to relationship dissolution. PMID:17295562

  10. Modeling the source contribution of heavy metals in surficial sediment and analysis of their historical changes in the vertical sediments of a drinking water reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoqiang; A, Yinglan; Jiang, Hong; Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui

    2015-01-01

    Increasing water pollution in developing countries poses a significant threat to environmental health and human welfare. Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of pollution are important for the efficient management of water resources. In this study, ten types of heavy metals were detected during 2010-2013 for all ambient samples and point sources samples. A pollution assessment based on the surficial sediment dataset by Enrichment Factor (EF) showed the surficial sediment was moderately contaminated. A comparison of the multivariate approach (principle components analysis/absolute principle component score, PCA/APCS) and the chemical mass balance model (CMB) shows that the identification of sources and calculation of source contribution based on the CMB were more objective and acceptable when source profiles were known and source composition was complex. The results of source apportionment for surficial heavy metals, both from PCA/APCS and CMB model, showed that the natural background (30%) was the most dominant contributor to the surficial heavy metals, followed by mining activities (29%). The contribution percentage of the natural background was negatively related to the degree of contamination. The peak concentrations of many heavy metals (Cu, Ba, Fe, As and Hg) were found in the middle layer of sediment, which is most likely due to the result of development of industry beginning in the 1970s. However, the highest concentration of Pb appeared in the surficial sediment layer, which was most likely due to the sharp increase in the traffic volume. The historical analysis of the sources based on the CMB showed that mining and the chemical industry are stable sources for all of the sections. The comparing of change rates of source contribution versus years indicated that the composition of the materials in estuary site (HF1) is sensitive to the input from the land, whereas center site (HF4) has a buffering effect on the materials from

  11. Web-based self-help intervention reduces alcohol consumption in both heavy-drinking and dependent alcohol users: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Andrade, André Luiz Monezi; de Lacerda, Roseli Boerngen; Gomide, Henrique Pinto; Ronzani, Telmo Mota; Sartes, Laisa Marcorela Andreoli; Martins, Leonardo Fernandes; Bedendo, André; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    As part of a multicenter project supported by the World Health Organization, we developed a web-based intervention to reduce alcohol use and related problems. We evaluated the predictors of adherence to, and the outcomes of the intervention. Success was defined as a reduction in consumption to low risk levels or to <50% of the baseline levels of number of drinks. From the 32,401 people who accessed the site, 3389 registered and 929 completed the full Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a necessary condition to be considered eligible to take part in the intervention. Based on their AUDIT scores, these participants were classified into: low risk users (LRU; n=319) harmful/hazardous users (HHU; n=298) or suggestive of dependence users (SDU; n=312). 29.1% of the registered users (LRU=42; HHU=90; SDU=82) completed the evaluation form at the end of the six-week period, and 63.5% reported low-risk drinking levels. We observed a significant reduction in alcohol consumption in the HHU (62.5%) and SDU (64.5%) groups in relation to baseline. One month after the intervention, in the follow-up, 94 users filled out the evaluation form, and their rate of success was similar to the one observed in the previous evaluation. Logistic regression analyses indicated that HHU participants presented higher adherence than LRU. Despite a relatively low adherence to the program, its good outcomes and low cost, as well as the high number of people that can be reached by a web-based intervention, suggest it has good cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of daily versus non-daily granulocyte colony-stimulating factors in patients with solid tumours undergoing chemotherapy: a multivariate analysis of data from current practice

    PubMed Central

    Almenar Cubells, D; Bosch Roig, C; Jiménez Orozco, E; Álvarez, R; Cuervo, JM; Díaz Fernández, N; Sánchez Heras, AB; Galán Brotons, A; Giner Marco, V; Codes M De Villena, M

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a multicentre, retrospective, observational study including patients with solid tumours (excluding breast cancer) that received granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) and chemotherapy. We investigated the effectiveness of daily vs. non-daily G-CSFs (pegfilgrastim) adjusting by potential confounders. The study included 391 patients (211 daily G-CSF; 180 pegfilgrastim), from whom 47.3% received primary prophylaxis (PP) (57.8% pegfilgrastim), 26.3% secondary prophylaxis (SP: initiation after cycle 1 and no reactive treatment in any cycle) (51.5% pegfilgrastim) and 26.3% reactive treatment (19.4% pegfilgrastim). Only 42.2% of patients with daily G-CSF and 46.2% with pegfilgrastim initiated prophylaxis within 72 h after chemotherapy, and only 10.5% of patients with daily G-CSF received it for ≥7 days. In the multivariate models, daily G-CSF was associated with higher risk of grade 3-4 neutropenia (G3-4N) vs. pegfilgrastim [odds ratio (OR): 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.004–2.97]. Relative to SP, PP protected against G3-4N (OR for SP vs. PP: 6.0, 95%CI: 3.2–11.4) and febrile neutropenia (OR: 3.1, 95%CI: 1.1–8.8), and was associated to less chemotherapy dose delays and reductions (OR for relative dose intensity <85% for SP vs. PP: 3.1, 95%CI: 1.7–5.4) and higher response rate (OR: 2.1, 95%CI: 1.2–3.7). Data suggest that pegfilgrastim, compared with a daily G-CSF, and PP, compared with SP, could be more effective in preventing neutropenia and its related events in the clinical practice. PMID:23331323

  13. Bupropion for the Treatment of Methamphetamine Dependence in Non-Daily Users: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ann L.; Li, Shou-Hua; Markova, Denka; Holmes, Tyson H.; Chiang, Nora; Kahn, Roberta; Campbell, Jan; Dickerson, Daniel L.; Galloway, Gantt P.; Stock, Christopher; Elkashef, Ahmed M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Bupropion was tested for efficacy to achieve methamphetamine (MA) abstinence in dependent, non-daily users. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, with 12-week treatment and 4-week follow-up, was conducted with 204 treatment-seeking participants having MA dependence per DSM-IV, who used MA on a less-than-daily basis. 104 were randomized to matched placebo and 100 to bupropion, sustained-release 150mg, twice daily. Participants were seen three times weekly to obtain urine for MA and bupropion assays, study assessments, and thrice weekly, 90-minute, group psychotherapy. There was no biomarker for placebo adherence. The primary outcome was achievement of abstinence throughout the last two weeks of treatment; ‘success’ requiring at least two urine samples during each of Weeks 11 and 12, and all samples MA-negative (<300ng/mL). Results Bupropion and placebo groups did not differ significantly in the percentage achieving abstinence for the last 2 weeks of treatment (chi-square, p=0.32). Subgroup analysis of participants with lower baseline MA use (≤18 of last 30 days before consent) also revealed no difference in success between groups (p=0.73). Medication adherence per protocol (detectable bupropion, >5ng/mL, in ≥50% of urine samples from Study Weeks 1–10 and ≥66% of urine samples from Weeks 11–12) was achieved by 47% of participants taking bupropion. Conclusions These data indicate that bupropion did not increase abstinence in dependent participants who were using MA less-than-daily. Medication non-adherence was a limitation in this trial. Psychosocial therapy remains the mainstay of treatment for MA dependence. Further research on subgroups who may respond to bupropion may be warranted. Trial Registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT00687713. PMID:25818061

  14. Bupropion for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence in non-daily users: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ann L; Li, Shou-Hua; Markova, Denka; Holmes, Tyson H; Chiang, Nora; Kahn, Roberta; Campbell, Jan; Dickerson, Daniel L; Galloway, Gantt P; Haning, William; Roache, John D; Stock, Christopher; Elkashef, Ahmed M

    2015-05-01

    Bupropion was tested for efficacy to achieve methamphetamine (MA) abstinence in dependent, non-daily users. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, with 12-week treatment and 4-week follow-up, was conducted with 204 treatment-seeking participants having MA dependence per DSM-IV, who used MA on a less-than-daily basis. 104 were randomized to matched placebo and 100 to bupropion, sustained-release 150mg, twice daily. Participants were seen three times weekly to obtain urine for MA and bupropion assays, study assessments, and thrice weekly, 90-min, group psychotherapy. There was no biomarker for placebo adherence. The primary outcome was achievement of abstinence throughout the last two weeks of treatment; 'success' requiring at least two urine samples during each of Weeks 11 and 12, and all samples MA-negative (<300ng/mL). Bupropion and placebo groups did not differ significantly in the percentage achieving abstinence for the last 2 weeks of treatment (chi-square, p=0.32). Subgroup analysis of participants with lower baseline MA use (≤18 of last 30 days before consent) also revealed no difference in success between groups (p=0.73). Medication adherence per protocol (detectable bupropion, >5ng/mL, in ≥50% of urine samples from Study Weeks 1-10 and ≥66% of urine samples from Weeks 11 to 12) was achieved by 47% of participants taking bupropion. These data indicate that bupropion did not increase abstinence in dependent participants who were using MA less-than-daily. Medication non-adherence was a limitation in this trial. Psychosocial therapy remains the mainstay of treatment for MA dependence. Further research on subgroups who may respond to bupropion may be warranted. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Alcohol screening and brief intervention in primary care: Absence of evidence for efficacy in people with dependence or very heavy drinking

    PubMed Central

    SAITZ, RICHARD

    2010-01-01

    Issues Although screening and brief intervention (BI) in the primary-care setting reduces unhealthy alcohol use, its efficacy among patients with dependence has not been established. This systematic review sought to determine whether evidence exists for BI efficacy among patients with alcohol dependence identified by screening in primary-care settings. Approach We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) extracted from eight systematic reviews and electronic-database searches published through September 2009. These RCTs compared outcomes among adults with unhealthy alcohol use identified by screening who received BI in a primary-care setting with those who received no intervention. Key Findings Sixteen RCTs including 6839 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 excluded some or all persons with very heavy alcohol use or dependence; one in which 35% of 175 patients had dependence found no difference in an alcohol severity score between groups; and one in which 58% of 24 female patients had dependence showed no efficacy. Conclusion and Implications Alcohol screening and BI has efficacy in primary care for patients with unhealthy alcohol use but, there is no evidence for efficacy among those with very heavy use or dependence. Since alcohol screening identifies both dependent and non-dependent unhealthy use, the absence of evidence for the efficacy of BI among primary-care patients with screening-identified alcohol dependence raises questions regarding the efficiency of screening and BI, particularly in settings where dependence is common. The finding also highlights the need to develop new approaches to help such patients, particularly if screening and BI are to be disseminated widely. PMID:20973848

  16. The Role of Alcohol Advertising in Excessive and Hazardous Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Charles K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the influence of advertising on excessive and dangerous drinking in a survey of 1,200 adolescents and young adults who were shown advertisements depicting excessive consumption themes. Results indicated that advertising stimulates consumption levels, which leads to heavy drinking and drinking in dangerous situations. (JAC)

  17. The Role of Alcohol Advertising in Excessive and Hazardous Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Charles K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the influence of advertising on excessive and dangerous drinking in a survey of 1,200 adolescents and young adults who were shown advertisements depicting excessive consumption themes. Results indicated that advertising stimulates consumption levels, which leads to heavy drinking and drinking in dangerous situations. (JAC)

  18. Life stress as a mediator and community belonging as a moderator of mood and anxiety disorders and co-occurring disorders with heavy drinking of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual Canadians.

    PubMed

    Pakula, Basia; Carpiano, Richard M; Ratner, Pamela A; Shoveller, Jean A

    2016-08-01

    To examine the extent to which sexual identity disparities in mental health outcomes (anxiety disorder, mood disorder, anxiety-mood disorder, and co-occurring anxiety or mood disorder and heavy drinking) are mediated by life stress or moderated by a sense of community belonging. This study pooled data from a large, national, multi-year sample of Canadians aged 18-59 years, who self-identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or heterosexual (N = 222,548). A series of stratified binary mediation models were fitted. Significance of the indirect effect was determined by using bootstrapping to obtain standard errors and confidence intervals. Sexual minority (versus heterosexual) respondents were significantly more likely to describe their lives as stressful, their sense of community belonging as weak, and had significantly greater odds of the negative mental health outcomes. Perceived life stress partially mediated the effects of sexual identity on the mental health outcomes. The differences between the mediated effects for the gay/lesbian and bisexual subgroups were statistically significant (all p < 0.05). When stratified by sense of community belonging, life stress mediated the relationship with mood disorders for the gay/lesbian group, where a strong sense of community belonging was associated with greater odds of mood disorders for gay/lesbian versus heterosexual respondents. These mediation and moderated mediation models provide further evidence for a social patterning of the mental health disparities experienced by sexual minorities in Canada.

  19. Energy Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Ugochukwu, Chio; Bagot, Kara; Khalili, David; Zaky, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Methods: Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. Results: The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Conclusions: Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill. PMID:22347688

  20. College Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink often do so because their parents discussed alcohol use and its adverse consequences with them. Nighttime restrictions on young drivers and strict license suspension policies, interventions focused ...

  1. Categorizing US State Drinking Practices and Consumption Trends

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, William C.

    2010-01-01

    US state alcohol consumption patterns and trends are examined in order to identify groups of states with similar drinking habits or cultures. Rates of heavy drinking and current abstention and per capita apparent consumption levels are used to categorize states. Six state groupings were identified: North Central and New England with the highest consumption and heavy drinking levels; Middle Atlantic, Pacific and South Coast with moderate drinking levels; and Dry South with the lowest drinking levels. Analyses of relationships between beer and spirits series for states within groups as compared to those in different groups failed to clearly indicate group cohesiveness. PMID:20195444

  2. Evaluating implicit drinking identity as a mediator of drinking motives and alcohol consumption and craving.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Wiers, Reinout W; Gasser, Melissa L; Teachman, Bethany A

    2015-04-01

    Implicit drinking identity (i.e., cognitive associations between the self and drinking) is a reliable predictor of drinking. However, whether implicit drinking identity might mediate the relationship between other robust predictors of drinking and drinking outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that implicit drinking would mediate the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consumption and craving. We assessed drinking motives at Time 1, implicit drinking identity at Time 2 (on average, 11 days later) and self-reported alcohol consumption and craving at Time 3 (on average, 6 days later) in a sample of 194 US undergraduates (54% women) who reported at least one heavy drinking episode (4 drinks for women, 5 for men) in the past month. Participants completed self-report measures of drinking motives, daily alcohol consumption, and current craving. Implicit drinking identity uniquely mediated the relationship between social motives and alcohol consumption. It did not, however, mediate the relationship between motives and craving. Time 2 implicit drinking identity was positively associated with greater alcohol consumption and craving at Time 3, even after controlling for drinking motives. Subsequent analyses indicated significant indirect effects between social, enhancement, and coping motives (but not conformity) and consumption and craving when each motive was evaluated individually. Implicit drinking identity continues to have promise as a predictor of drinking outcomes and as a target for interventions. Future experimental and prospective studies will be critical to establish the circumstances under which implicit drinking identity is strengthened and/or activated and the resulting effects on hazardous drinking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating Implicit Drinking Identity as a Mediator of Drinking Motives and Alcohol Consumption and Craving

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Neighbors, Clayton; Wiers, Reinout W.; Gasser, Melissa L.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Implicit drinking identity (i.e., cognitive associations between the self and drinking) is a reliable predictor of drinking. However, whether implicit drinking identity might mediate the relationship between other robust predictors of drinking and drinking outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that implicit drinking would mediate the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consumption and craving. Method We assessed drinking motives at Time 1, implicit drinking identity at Time 2 (on average, 11 days later) and self-reported alcohol consumption and craving at Time 3 (on average, 6 days later) in a sample of 194 US undergraduates (54% women) who reported at least one heavy drinking episode (4 drinks for women, 5 for men) in the past month. Participants completed self-report measures of drinking motives, daily alcohol consumption, and current craving. Results Implicit drinking identity uniquely mediated the relationship between social motives and alcohol consumption. It did not, however, mediate the relationship between motives and craving. Time 2 implicit drinking identity was positively associated with greater alcohol consumption and craving at Time 3, even after controlling for drinking motives. Subsequent analyses indicated significant indirect effects between social, enhancement, and coping motives (but not conformity) and consumption and craving when each motive was evaluated individually. Conclusions Implicit drinking identity continues to have promise as a predictor of drinking outcomes and as a target for interventions. Future experimental and prospective studies will be critical to establish the circumstances under which implicit drinking identity is strengthened and/or activated and the resulting effects on hazardous drinking. PMID:25544353

  4. The effect of drink price and next-day responsibilities on college student drinking: a behavioral economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G

    2011-03-01

    More than [3/4] of U.S. college students report a heavy drinking episode (HDE; 5 (for men) and 4 (for women) drinks during an occasion) in the previous 90 days. This pattern of drinking is associated with various risks and social problems for both the heavy drinkers and the larger college community. According to behavioral economics, college student drinking is a contextually bound phenomenon that is impacted by contingencies such as price and competing alternative reinforcers, including next-day responsibilities such as college classes. This study systematically examines the role of these variables by using hypothetical alcohol purchase tasks to analyze alcohol consumption and expenditures among college students who reported recent heavy drinking (N = 207, 53.1% women). The impact of gender and the personality risk factor sensation seeking (SS) were also assessed. Students were asked how many drinks they would purchase and consume across 17 drink prices and 3 next-day responsibility scenarios. Mean levels of hypothetical consumption were highly sensitive to both drink price and next-day responsibility, with the lowest drinking levels associated with high drink prices and a next-day test. Men and participants with greater levels of SS reported more demand overall (greater consumption and expenditures) than women and students with low SS personality. Contrary to our hypotheses women appeared to be less sensitive to increases in price than men. The results suggest that increasing drink prices and morning academic requirements may be useful in preventing heavy drinking among college students.

  5. Social Influences on the Clustering of Underage Risky Drinking and Its Consequences in Communities

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; Song, Eun-Young; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine whether the clustering of underage risky drinking and its consequences within communities might arise from shared perceptions regarding underage drinking as well as the social context of drinking. Method: The Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Randomized Community Trial provided data from repeated cross-sectional samples of 5,017 current drinkers (2,619 male) ages 14–20 years from 68 communities surveyed in 2004, 2006, and 2007. Alternating logistic regressions were used to estimate the influence of social factors on the clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, nonviolent consequences, and driving after drinking or riding with a drinking driver. Results: The clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, and nonviolent consequences was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for drinking with friends and drinking with parents. Parents providing alcohol explained the clustering of heavy episodic drinking and nonviolent consequences, whereas drinking with other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol explained the clustering of nonviolent consequences. Drinking with friends or other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol increased the risk of these behaviors, whereas drinking with parents and parents providing alcohol were protective. Perceptions regarding peer drinking, community norms, consequences for drinking, and drinking at a party did not influence clustering. Conclusions: These findings suggest that interventions to reduce underage risky drinking in communities should focus on the differential effects of the social context in which drinking occurs. PMID:23036206

  6. Social influences on the clustering of underage risky drinking and its consequences in communities.

    PubMed

    Reboussin, Beth A; Song, Eun-Young; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine whether the clustering of underage risky drinking and its consequences within communities might arise from shared perceptions regarding underage drinking as well as the social context of drinking. The Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Randomized Community Trial provided data from repeated cross-sectional samples of 5,017 current drinkers (2,619 male) ages 14-20 years from 68 communities surveyed in 2004, 2006, and 2007. Alternating logistic regressions were used to estimate the influence of social factors on the clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, nonviolent consequences, and driving after drinking or riding with a drinking driver. The clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, and nonviolent consequences was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for drinking with friends and drinking with parents. Parents providing alcohol explained the clustering of heavy episodic drinking and nonviolent consequences, whereas drinking with other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol explained the clustering of nonviolent consequences. Drinking with friends or other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol increased the risk of these behaviors, whereas drinking with parents and parents providing alcohol were protective. Perceptions regarding peer drinking, community norms, consequences for drinking, and drinking at a party did not influence clustering. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce underage risky drinking in communities should focus on the differential effects of the social context in which drinking occurs.

  7. The Effects of Drinking Goal on Treatment Outcome for Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Bujarski, Spencer; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Lunny, Katy; Ray, Lara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is well known to clinicians and researchers in the field of alcoholism that patients vary with respect to drinking goal. The objective of this study is to elucidate the contribution of drinking goal to treatment outcome in the context of specific behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Method Participants were 1226 alcohol dependent individuals enrolled in a large, multi-site trial of Combined Behavioral Intervention (CBI), acamprosate, and naltrexone. Drinking goal was coded as follows: (a) controlled drinking, (b) conditional abstinence, and (c) complete abstinence. Results Analysis revealed a main effect of drinking goal on percent days abstinent (p < .0001), days to relapse to heavy drinking (p < 0.0001), and global clinical outcome (p < .001). These results were such that a goal of complete abstinence was associated with the best outcomes, followed by conditional abstinence; controlled drinking was associated with the poorest outcomes. Conversely, a main effect of drinking goal was observed on drinks per drinking day (p < .01), such that controlled drinking was associated with fewer drinks per drinking day whereas complete abstinence was associated with the highest drinks per drinking day. CBI performed better than medical management alone for participants whose drinking goal was not complete abstinence. Conclusion These results suggest that drinking goal represents a highly predictive clinical variable and should be an integral part of the clinical assessment of patients with alcohol dependence. Assessment of patients' drinking goals may also help match patients to interventions best suited to address their goals and clinical needs. PMID:23231573

  8. Longitudinal associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks, and binge drinking behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol attitudes are often considered an important predecessor of drinking behavior, although the literature is equivocal. Lately, attention has turned to enhancing positive cognitions on alcoholic-free drinks to discourage heavy drinking. The current study was the first to longitudinally examine associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks and binge drinking behavior in a cross-lagged path model in Mplus. Participants were 293 adolescents (131 boys, M(age)=16.1 years) who filled in two online questionnaires with a six-month interval. Binge drinking behavior and attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks were all significantly correlated at both waves. The multivariate model, however, showed that only higher levels of binge drinking at T1 were prospectively related to more positive binge drinking attitudes at T2, and not vice versa. Analyses were controlled for sex, educational level, and age. Findings discard the Theory of Planned Behavior, but rather seem consistent with the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, i.e., adolescents may adapt their cognitions to their behavior. More longitudinal research with several time points and over a longer period of time is needed to further examine the development of attitudes and drinking behavior.

  9. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  10. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  11. The Persistent Effects of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws on Drinking Patterns Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Plunk, Andrew D.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J.; Grucza, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to permissive minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws not only affects young adults in the short term, but also later in life; for example, individuals who could legally purchase alcohol before age 21 are more likely to suffer from drinking problems as older adults, long after the laws had been changed. However, it is not known how permissive MLDA exposure affects specific drinking behavior. This present study uses changes in MLDA laws during the 1970s and 1980s as a natural experiment to investigate the potential impact of permissive MLDA exposure on average alcohol consumption, frequency of drinking, and on patterns of binging and more moderate, non-heavy drinking. Methods Policy exposure data were paired with alcohol use data from the 1991–1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey and the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Past-year drinkers born between 1949 and 1972 (n = 24,088) were included. Average daily intake, overall drinking frequency, and frequency of both binge episodes (5+ drinks) and days without a binge episode (non-heavy drinking) for the previous year at the time of interview were tracked for each respondent. Results Exposure to permissive MLDAs was associated with higher odds to report frequent binging and lower odds to report any moderate drinking; these associations were largely driven by men and those who did not attend college. Overall drinking frequency and average alcohol consumption were not affected by MLDA exposure. Conclusions The ability to legally purchase alcohol before age 21 does not seem to increase overall drinking frequency, but our findings suggest that it is associated with certain types of problematic drinking behaviors that persist into later adulthood: more frequent binge episodes and less frequent non-heavy drinking. We also propose that policymakers and critics should not focus on college drinking when evaluating the effectiveness of MLDAs. PMID

  12. Smoking patterns and their relationship to drinking among first-year college students.

    PubMed

    Hoeppner, Bettina B; Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P

    2014-06-01

    Unlike older smokers, young adult smokers frequently engage in light and intermittent smoking. It remains unclear how stable such smoking patterns are over time, as substantial variability exists between these smokers. This study identified subgroups of college student smokers based on the trajectory of their smoking frequency during the first year of college, thereby examining stability versus instability over time. We then tested if the interplay between drinking and smoking differed in the identified groups to determine the relative role drinking may play in intermittent versus more regular smoking. Incoming college students at 3 institutions completed online biweekly surveys of their daily substance use throughout the first year of college. Students who reported smoking at least 1 cigarette during this year (n = 266) were included in analyses (70% female, 74% White). Group-based trajectory modeling identified 5 groups of smokers, 3 of which maintained their smoking frequency throughout the year (77%), and 2 groups of infrequent smokers showed significant trends (11% increasing, 12% decreasing). Notably, nondaily smoking was maintained at different specific frequencies (e.g., 1 vs. 3 days per week). Identified groups differed in the relationship between drinking and smoking, where cooccurrence was particularly strong among infrequent smokers, and trends in smoking quantity differed between groups. While there was a diversity of smoking patterns in the sample, patterns of intermittent smoking remain relatively stable for a majority of students throughout the year. Intervention messages targeting drinking and smoking should be tailored on the basis of smoking frequency.

  13. Survey of arsenic and other heavy metals in food composites and drinking water and estimation of dietary intake by the villagers from an arsenic-affected area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, Tarit; Tokunaga, Hiroshi; Ando, Masanori

    2003-06-01

    An investigation of arsenic, copper, nickel, manganese, zinc and selenium concentration in foodstuffs and drinking water, collected from 34 families and estimation of the average daily dietary intake were carried out in the arsenic-affected areas of the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, Murshidabad district, West Bengal where arsenic-contaminated groundwater (mean: 0.11 mg/l, n=34) is the main source for drinking. The shallow large diameter tubewells, installed for agricultural irrigation contain an appreciable amount of arsenic (mean: 0.094 mg/l, n=10). So some arsenic can be expected in the food chain and food cultivated in this area. Most of the individual food composites contain a considerable amount of arsenic. The mean arsenic levels in food categories are vegetables (20.9 and 21.2 microg/kg), cereals and bakery goods (130 and 179 microg/kg) and spices (133 and 202 microg/kg) for the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively. For all other heavy metals, the observed mean concentration values are mostly in good agreement with the reported values around the world (except higher zinc in cereals). The provisional tolerable daily intake value of inorganic arsenic microg/kg body wt./day) is: for adult males (11.8 and 9.4); adult females (13.9 and 11); and children (15.3 and 12) in the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively (according to FAO/WHO report, the value is 2.1 microg/kg body wt./day). According to WHO, intake of 1.0 mg of inorganic arsenic per day may give rise to skin lesions within a few years. The average daily dietary intake of copper, nickel and manganese is high, whereas for zinc, the value is low (for adult males: 8.34 and 10.2 mg/day; adult females: 8.26 and 10.3 mg/day; and children: 4.59 and 5.66 mg/day) in the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively, compared to the recommended dietary allowance of zinc for adult males, adult females and children (15, 12 and 10 mg/day, respectively). The average daily dietary intake of selenium microg/kg body wt

  14. Asian American Problem Drinking Trajectories During the Transition to Adulthood: Ethnic Drinking Cultures and Neighborhood Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Bond, Jason; Lui, Camillia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to identify problem drinking trajectories and their predictors among Asian Americans transitioning from adolescence to adulthood. We considered cultural and socioeconomic contextual factors, specifically ethnic drinking cultures, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and neighborhood coethnic density, to identify subgroups at high risk for developing problematic drinking trajectories. Methods. We used a sample of 1333 Asian Americans from 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (1994–2008) in growth mixture models to identify trajectory classes of frequent heavy episodic drinking and drunkenness. We fitted multinomial logistic regression models to identify predictors of trajectory class membership. Results. Two dimensions of ethnic drinking culture—drinking prevalence and detrimental drinking pattern in the country of origin—were predictive of problematic heavy episodic drinking and drunkenness trajectories. Higher neighborhood socioeconomic status in adolescence was predictive of the trajectory class indicating increasing frequency of drunkenness. Neighborhood coethnic density was not predictive of trajectory class membership. Conclusions. Drinking cultures in the country of origin may have enduring effects on drinking among Asian Americans. Further research on ethnic drinking cultures in the United States is warranted for prevention and intervention. PMID:25393183

  15. Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include adding fluoride to prevent cavities and chlorine to kill germs. Your water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking ...

  16. College Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... standard drink is one that contains about 14 grams of pure alcohol, which is found in: » 12 ... environmental-level interventions that work together to maximize positive effects. Strong leadership from a concerned college president, ...

  17. Binge Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... over a short period of time (just as binge eating means a specific period of uncontrolled overeating). Today the generally accepted definition of binge drinking in the United States is the consumption ...

  18. Binge Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... become angry or moody while drinking, for example. Alcoholism Some studies have shown that people who binge- ... 2 weeks — have some of the symptoms of alcoholism. Getting Help If you think you or a ...

  19. Lesbians' drinking patterns: beyond the data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Tonda L

    2003-01-01

    Early studies report very high rates of "alcohol abuse" and alcoholism among lesbians. However, serious methodological problems, including nonrepresentative samples that were often recruited in lesbian or gay lesbian bars, limit the validity of findings from these studies. In this article, I briefly review the literature on lesbians' use of alcohol and present findings from a recent study conducted in Chicago (USA). This study recruited a race- and age-diverse sample of lesbians and a demographically matched group of heterosexual women. Rates of "heavy" alcohol use and alcohol-use-related problems among lesbians were much lower in this study than in early studies. However, lesbians were more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to be in recovery and to have been in treatment for alcohol-use-related problems. Further, high rates of childhood sexual abuse, depression, and suicidal ideation reported by lesbians suggest that at least some groups may be at heightened risk for "heavy" drinking and drinking-related problems. Nevertheless, results of this and other studies suggest that reports of heavy drinking and drinking-related problems among lesbians may have been inflated in earlier studies, or that heavy drinking and drinking-related problems may have declined among lesbians.

  20. [Risks of energy drinks in youths].

    PubMed

    Bigard, A-X

    2010-11-01

    The market value for energy drinks is continually growing and the annual worldwide energy drink consumption is increasing. However, issues related to energy drink ingredients and the potential for adverse health consequences remain to be elucidated. This aim of the present paper is to review the current knowledge on putative adverse effects of energy drinks, especially in youths. There are many energy drink brands in the worldwide market, even if only few brands are available in France. Although the energy drink content varies, these beverages often contain taurine, caffeine, vitamins B and carbohydrates. These drinks vary widely in both caffeine content (80 to 141 mg per can) and caffeine concentration. Except caffeine, the effects of energy drink ingredients on physical and cognitive performances remain controversial. Researchers identified moderate positive effects of energy drinks on performances, whereas others found contrary results. The adverse effects of energy drink can be related to either the toxicity of ingredients or specific situations in which energy drinks are used such as ingestion in combination with alcohol. Although the issue of taurine-induced toxic encephalopathy has been addressed, it is likely that the risk of taurine toxicity after energy drink consumption remains low. However, whether the prolonged use of energy drinks providing more than 3g taurine daily remains to be examined in the future. The consumption of energy drinks may increase the risk for caffeine overdose and toxicity in children and teenagers. The practice of consuming great amounts of energy drink with alcohol is considered by many teenagers and students a primary locus to socialize and to meet people. This pattern of energy drink consumption explains the enhanced risk of both caffeine and alcohol toxicity in youths. Twenty five to 40% of young people report consumption of energy drink with alcohol while partying. Consumption of energy drinks with alcohol during heavy

  1. Binge Drinking.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Lorena; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol is the substance most frequently abused by children and adolescents in the United States, and its use is associated with the leading causes of death and serious injury at this age (ie, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, and suicides). Among youth who drink, the proportion who drink heavily is higher than among adult drinkers, increasing from approximately 50% in those 12 to 14 years of age to 72% among those 18 to 20 years of age. In this clinical report, the definition, epidemiology, and risk factors for binge drinking; the neurobiology of intoxication, blackouts, and hangovers; genetic considerations;and adverse outcomes are discussed. The report offers guidance for the pediatrician. As with any high-risk behavior, prevention plays a more important role than later intervention and has been shown to be more effective. In the pediatric office setting, it is important to ask every adolescent about alcohol use.

  2. Heavy Drinking and Suicide in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Russian levels of alcohol consumption and suicide are among the highest in the world. While observers have long suspected an association between the two, they were unable to investigate this hypothesis until recently due to past Soviet secrecy and thus a lack of data. This study took advantage of the newly available data during the post-Soviet era…

  3. College Drinking Problems and Social Anxiety: The Importance of Drinking Context

    PubMed Central

    Terlecki, Meredith A.; Ecker, Anthony H.; Buckner, Julia D.

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety more than quadruples the risk of developing an alcohol use disorder, yet it is inconsistently linked to heavy alcohol use. Elucidation of the relation between social anxiety and alcohol use is an important next step in treating and preventing risky drinking. College students routinely face potentially anxiety-provoking social situations (e.g., meeting new people) and socially anxious undergraduates are especially vulnerable to alcohol-related impairment. Drinking to cope with social anxiety is thought to reinforce alcohol use, yet research on coping-motivated drinking among socially anxious students has yielded inconsistent findings. Further, undergraduate drinking varies by drinking context, yet the role of context in drinking behaviors among socially anxious individuals remains unclear. The current study sought to examine the relationship of social anxiety and drinking quantity in specific drinking contexts among undergraduates (N = 611). We also evaluated whether relevant drinking contexts mediated the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol-related problems. Clinically elevated social anxiety was related to heavier consumption in negative emotion (e.g., feeling sad or angry) and personal/intimate (e.g., before sexual intercourse) contexts, but not social/convivial contexts (e.g., parties, bars). Quantity of alcohol consumed in negative emotion and personal/intimate contexts mediated the relationship between social anxiety and drinking problem severity. Drinking in personal/intimate contexts demonstrated a unique mediational role. Findings suggest that heavy drinking in particular contexts (especially personal/intimate and negative emotion) may play an important role in drinking problems among socially anxious individuals. PMID:24955673

  4. College drinking problems and social anxiety: The importance of drinking context.

    PubMed

    Terlecki, Meredith A; Ecker, Anthony H; Buckner, Julia D

    2014-06-01

    Social anxiety more than quadruples the risk of developing an alcohol use disorder, yet it is inconsistently linked to heavy alcohol use. Elucidation of the relation between social anxiety and alcohol use is an important next step in treating and preventing risky drinking. College students routinely face potentially anxiety-provoking social situations (e.g., meeting new people) and socially anxious undergraduates are especially vulnerable to alcohol-related impairment. Drinking to cope with social anxiety is thought to reinforce alcohol use, yet research on coping-motivated drinking among socially anxious students has yielded inconsistent findings. Further, undergraduate drinking varies by drinking context, yet the role of context in drinking behaviors among socially anxious individuals remains unclear. The current study sought to examine the relationship of social anxiety and drinking quantity in specific drinking contexts among undergraduates (N = 611). We also evaluated whether relevant drinking contexts mediated the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol-related problems. Clinically elevated social anxiety was related to heavier consumption in negative emotion (e.g., feeling sad or angry) and personal/intimate (e.g., before sexual intercourse) contexts, but not social/convivial contexts (e.g., parties, bars). Quantity of alcohol consumed in negative emotion and personal/intimate contexts mediated the relationship between social anxiety and drinking problem severity. Drinking in personal/intimate contexts demonstrated a unique mediational role. Findings suggest that heavy drinking in particular contexts (especially personal/intimate and negative emotion) may play an important role in drinking problems among socially anxious individuals.

  5. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... persons under the age of 21 die from causes related to underage drinking. These deaths include about 1,600 homicides and 300 suicides. Alcohol also plays a significant role in risky sexual behavior and increases the risk of physical and sexual assault. Among college students under age 21, 50,000 ...

  6. Social pressures to drink or drink a little more: the Nigerian experience

    PubMed Central

    Ibanga, Akanidomo K J; Adetula, Victor A. O.; Dagona, Zubairu K

    2009-01-01

    This study set out to investigate the pressures experienced by different individuals to drink, or drink a little more than intended, by someone who drinks or drinks more than they do. A total of 2099 Nigerian adults between the ages of 18 and 65 years were randomly sampled. The frequency with which they experienced such other drinkers encouraging them to drink or drink more than intended from various sources was examined. Logistic regression was used to identify significant individual predictors of receiving pressure by sources of influence. Focus group discussions were also held to examine how these pressures are applied in various settings. Results indicated that male friends or acquaintances were the sources respondents reported influenced them the most to drink or drink more. Significant predictors of pressure varied by source but tended to include religion (5 of 6 sources) and gender (3 of 6). Results showed that pressure to drink or drink a little more was seen to come more from males than from females. It raises the need to have a better knowledge of these factors, particularly as they may relate to heavy or problematic drinking, and their implications for prevention and treatment. PMID:20651928

  7. Drinking severity and its association with nutrition risk among African American women.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Dionna O; Nickel, Katelin B; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred; Fearn, Noelle; Jones, Lori; Cottler, Linda B

    2014-01-01

    This analysis examined the association between drinking severity, food insecurity, and drinking related health comorbidities among 258 African American women who drank heavily from the "Sister to Sister" study. Women were stratified by drinking status: 23% were heavy drinkers (women who drank 30 to 52 weeks in the 12 months prior to study participation and consumed the equivalent of at least 20 alcoholic beverages at one sitting) and 77% were less heavy drinkers (women with all other combinations of drinking habits who drank less than 30 weeks in the 12 months prior to study participation). Heavy drinkers were more likely to not check nutrition labels, skip meals to buy drugs/alcohol, and report a history of stomach disease, diabetes, memory, weight, and kidney problems compared with less heavy drinkers. The heavy drinkers were at increased nutrition risk due to food insecurities and were more susceptible to drinking related health comorbidities compared with less heavy drinkers.

  8. Risk for excessive alcohol use and drinking-related problems in college student athletes

    PubMed Central

    Yusko, David A.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; White, Helene R.; Pandina, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that college student athletes engage in frequent episodes of heavy drinking and are prone to negative consequences resulting from such use. This study sought to identify risk and protective factors associated with student-athlete drinking and determine if student-athlete risk factors differed from those of non-athletes. Athletes compared to non-athletes reported more exaggerated perceptions of peer heavy drinking and lower sensation seeking and coping and enhancement motives for drinking, suggesting a risk profile distinct from non-athletes. In the overall sample, higher sensation seeking, overestimation of peer heavy drinking, non-use of protective behaviors while drinking, and higher enhancement and coping drinking motives were associated with greater frequency of heavy episodic drinking and more negative drinking consequences. In athletes compared to non-athletes, sensation seeking was more strongly associated with heavy episodic drinking and drinking to cope was more strongly associated with negative alcohol-related consequences. Overall, the results suggest that already proven brief intervention strategies, with minor adaptations related to the roles of sensation seeking and drinking to cope, may be helpful for student athletes. PMID:18752900

  9. Perceived behavioral alcohol norms predict drinking for college students while studying abroad.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; LaBrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F

    2009-11-01

    College students who study abroad may represent a subgroup at risk for increased drinking while living in foreign countries. The present study explores this idea as well as the extent to which students' pre-abroad perceptions of study-abroad student drinking are related to actual drinking while abroad. Ninety-one students planning to study abroad completed an online survey of demographics, pre-abroad drinking behavior, perceptions of study-abroad student drinking behavior while abroad, and intentions to drink while abroad. Halfway into their study-abroad experience, participants completed a follow-up survey assessing drinking while abroad. Pre-abroad intentions of drinking and pre-abroad perceptions of study-abroad drinking were associated with actual drinking while abroad. However, perceptions predicted actual drinking while abroad over and above intended drinking. In addition, although participants overall did not significantly increase their drinking while studying abroad, participants with higher pre-abroad perceived norms significantly increased their own drinking behavior while abroad. As in other samples of college students, perceived norms appear to be an important correlate of study-abroad student drinking behavior. Findings suggest that perceptions of study-abroad student-specific drinking predicted not only actual drinking while abroad but also increases in drinking from pre-abroad levels. Findings provide preliminary support for the idea that presenting prospective study-abroad students with accurate norms of study-abroad student-drinking behavior may help prevent increased or heavy drinking during this period.

  10. Expressive writing as a brief intervention for reducing drinking intentions.

    PubMed

    Young, Chelsie M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of expressive writing in reducing drinking behavior. We expected that students prompted to write about negative drinking experiences would show greater decreases in future drinking intentions compared to the neutral and the positive writing conditions. We also expected that decreases in drinking intentions following the writing prompts might differ based on current drinking and AUDIT scores. Participants included 200 (76% female) undergraduates who completed measures of their current drinking behavior. They were then randomly assigned to either write about: a time when they had a lot to drink that was a good time (Positive); a time when they had a lot to drink that was a bad time (Negative); or their first day of college (Neutral), followed by measures assessing intended drinking over the next three months. Results revealed that participants intended to drink significantly fewer drinks per week and engage in marginally fewer heavy drinking occasions after writing about a negative drinking occasion when compared to control. Interactions provided mixed findings suggesting that writing about a positive event was associated with higher drinking intentions for heavier drinkers. Writing about a negative event was associated with higher intentions among heavier drinkers, but lower intentions among those with higher AUDIT scores. This research builds on previous expressive writing interventions by applying this technique to undergraduate drinkers. Preliminary results provide some support for this innovative strategy but also suggest the need for further refinement, especially with heavier drinkers. © 2013.

  11. Expressive Writing as a Brief Intervention for Reducing Drinking Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Young, Chelsie M.; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of expressive writing in reducing drinking behavior. We expected that students prompted to write about negative drinking experiences would show greater decreases in future drinking intentions compared to the neutral and the positive writing conditions. We also expected that decreases in drinking intentions following the writing prompts might differ based on current drinking and AUDIT scores. Participants included 200 (76% female) undergraduates who completed measures of their current drinking behavior. They were then randomly assigned to either write about: a time when they had a lot to drink that was a good time (Positive); a time when they had a lot to drink that was a bad time (Negative); or their first day of college (Neutral), followed by measures assessing intended drinking over the next three months. Results revealed that participants intended to drink significantly fewer drinks per week and engage in marginally fewer heavy drinking occasions after writing about a negative drinking occasion when compared to control. Interactions provided mixed findings suggesting that writing about a positive event was associated with higher drinking intentions for heavier drinkers. Writing about a negative event was associated with higher intentions among heavier drinkers, but lower intentions among those with higher AUDIT scores. This research builds on previous expressive writing interventions by applying this technique to undergraduate drinkers. Preliminary results provide some support for this innovative strategy but also suggest the need for further refinement, especially with heavier drinkers. PMID:24064189