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Sample records for heavy duty di

  1. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  2. Effects of fuel properties on white smoke emission from the latest heavy-duty DI diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tahara, Yoshihiro; Akasaka, Yukio

    1995-12-31

    The effects of fuel properties on white smoke emission from the latest DI diesel engine were investigated with a new type of white smoke meter. The new smoke meter could distinguish fuel effects on smoke much more than the conventional PHS meter. The repeatability of the smoke meter was better than that of the PHS meter. Cetane number was the dominant factor for smoke emission. Distillation temperature and composition also affected emission. A nitrate type cetane improver was effective for reducing emission. White smoke was analyzed with GC and HPLC and compounds in white smoke from low cetane number fuel were found almost the same as in fuel. But those from high cetane number fuel consisted of compounds in fuel and many combustion products.

  3. Heavy-Duty Diesel Fuel Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's heavy-duty diesel fuel analysis program sought to quantify the hydrocarbon, NOx, and PM emission effects of diesel fuel parameters (such as cetane number, aromatics content, and fuel density) on various nonroad and highway heavy-duty diesel engines.

  4. Heavy duty complete extension slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, José Ignacio; Vázquez, Javier

    2001-09-01

    The selection from available commercial market of a set of slides to be used in an habitable pressurised module in space, to draw a 660 mm box out of a rack, up to a completely extracted position in a safely supported configuration, seems in principle not to be a complicated task. That was the first approach taken in the design process of the telescopic guides of the Crew Work Bench (CWB) included in the Fluid Science Laboratory (FSL), part of "ESA Microgravity Facilities for Columbus" within the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF) of the International Space Station (ISS). Nevertheless, common space compatible requirements such as materials, specific environmental loads, available envelope, total weight, etc., can make the selection of telescopic slides from commercial market unfeasible. A specific development to design space compatible telescopic slides for the CWB was undertaken. A set of heavy duty space compatible telescopic slides were designed, manufactured and tested. They should be operative in both, 1-g environment and in orbit, and additionally should withstand an inadvertent astronaut kick or bump of 556 N in any direction.

  5. 49 CFR 523.6 - Heavy-duty vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heavy-duty vehicle. 523.6 Section 523.6... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.6 Heavy-duty vehicle. (a) A heavy-duty vehicle is any commercial medium- and heavy-duty on highway vehicle or a work truck, as defined in 49...

  6. 49 CFR 523.6 - Heavy-duty vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heavy-duty vehicle. 523.6 Section 523.6... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.6 Heavy-duty vehicle. (a) A heavy-duty vehicle is any commercial medium- and heavy-duty on highway vehicle or a work truck, as defined in 49...

  7. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  8. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  9. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  10. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  11. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  12. 49 CFR 523.8 - Heavy-duty vocational vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heavy-duty vocational vehicle. 523.8 Section 523.8... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.8 Heavy-duty vocational vehicle. Heavy-duty vocational vehicles are vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) above 8,500...

  13. 49 CFR 523.8 - Heavy-duty vocational vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heavy-duty vocational vehicle. 523.8 Section 523.8... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.8 Heavy-duty vocational vehicle. Heavy-duty vocational vehicles are vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) above 8,500...

  14. Future heavy duty trucking engine requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawhorn, L. W.; Suski, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    Developers of advanced heavy duty diesel engines are engaged in probing the opportunities presented by new materials and techniques. This process is technology driven, but there is neither assurance that the eventual users of the engines so developed will be comfortable with them nor, indeed, that those consumers will continue to exist in either the same form, or numbers as they do today. To ensure maximum payoff of research dollars, the equipment development process must consider user needs. This study defines motor carrier concerns, cost tolerances, and the engine parameters which match the future projected industry needs. The approach taken to do that is to be explained and the results presented. The material to be given comes basically from a survey of motor carrier fleets. It provides indications of the role of heavy duty vehicles in the 1998 period and their desired maintenance and engine performance parameters.

  15. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, TOWARD HEAVY DUTY COIL PROCESSING AREA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, TOWARD HEAVY DUTY COIL PROCESSING AREA WITH HEAVY DUTY CUT TO LENGTH LINE MACHINE AND KERRY MITCHELL, LOADER ('HOOKER'); JAMES BOWMAN, CRANE OPERATOR; WILLIAM BART DORINEY, OPERATOR. - O'Neal Steel, Incorporated, Fabrication Shop, 744 Forty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. Lightweight Composite Materials for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pruez, Jacky; Shoukry, Samir; Williams, Gergis; Shoukry, Mark

    2013-08-31

    The main objective of this project is to develop, analyze and validate data, methodologies and tools that support widespread applications of automotive lightweighting technologies. Two underlying principles are guiding the research efforts towards this objective: • Seamless integration between the lightweight materials selected for certain vehicle systems, cost-effective methods for their design and manufacturing, and practical means to enhance their durability while reducing their Life-Cycle-Costs (LCC). • Smooth migration of the experience and findings accumulated so far at WVU in the areas of designing with lightweight materials, innovative joining concepts and durability predictions, from applications to the area of weight savings for heavy vehicle systems and hydrogen storage tanks, to lightweighting applications of selected systems or assemblies in light–duty vehicles.

  17. HEAVY-DUTY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS MODEL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Class 2b-8 vocational truck manufacturers and Class 7/8 tractor manufacturers would be subject to vehicle-based fuel economy and emission standards that would use a truck simulation model to evaluate the impact of the truck tires and/or tractor cab design on vehicle compliance with any new standards. The EPA has created a model called “GHG Emissions Model (GEM)”, which is specifically tailored to predict truck GHG emissions. As the model is designed for the express purpose of vehicle compliance demonstration, it is less configurable than similar commercial products and its only outputs are GHG emissions and fuel consumption. This approach gives a simple and compact tool for vehicle compliance without the overhead and costs of a more sophisticated model. Evaluation of both fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from heavy-duty highway vehicles through a whole-vehicle operation simulation model.

  18. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  19. Heavy Duty Tireman. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColman, Don

    This training outline for heavy duty tiremen, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  20. DEVELOPMENT WORK FOR IMPROVED HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE MODELING CAPABILITY DATA MINING--FHWA DATASETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A heavy-duty vehicle can produce 10 to 100 times the emissions (of NOx and PM emissions especially) of a light-duty vehicle, so heavy-duty vehicle activity needs to be well characterized. Key uncertainties with the use of MOBILE6 regarding heavy-duty vehicle emissions include th...

  1. Catalog of selected heavy duty transport energy management models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colello, R. G.; Boghani, A. B.; Gardella, N. C.; Gott, P. G.; Lee, W. D.; Pollak, E. C.; Teagan, W. P.; Thomas, R. G.; Snyder, C. M.; Wilson, R. P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A catalog of energy management models for heavy duty transport systems powered by diesel engines is presented. The catalog results from a literature survey, supplemented by telephone interviews and mailed questionnaires to discover the major computer models currently used in the transportation industry in the following categories: heavy duty transport systems, which consist of highway (vehicle simulation), marine (ship simulation), rail (locomotive simulation), and pipeline (pumping station simulation); and heavy duty diesel engines, which involve models that match the intake/exhaust system to the engine, fuel efficiency, emissions, combustion chamber shape, fuel injection system, heat transfer, intake/exhaust system, operating performance, and waste heat utilization devices, i.e., turbocharger, bottoming cycle.

  2. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-08...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  5. Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

  6. Heavy Duty Mechanics Apprenticeship Training, Module One. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Leslie A.; Abercrombie, Richard, Ed.

    This training manual, the first of two volumes, comprises the first six blocks in a nine-block in-service training course for apprentices working in heavy duty mechanics. Addressed in the individual blocks included in this volume are the following topics: shop equipment and practices; procedures for starting, moving, and stopping equipment; the…

  7. Impact of Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Reductions on Global Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2010-08-01

    The impact of a specified set of emissions reductions from heavy duty vehicles on climate change is calculated using the MAGICC 5.3 climate model. The integrated impact of the following emissions changes are considered: CO2, CH4, N2O, VOC, NOx, and SO2. This brief summarizes the assumptions and methods used for this calculation.

  8. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The heavy-duty roto peen technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the human factors assessment for safety and health issues. The heavy-duty roto peen allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy-duty flexible flap. The shot rivet is kept captive to the tool by mounting the roto peen in a slotted hub. The heavy-duty roto peen is designed to be used with several commercially available pieces of equipment. The equipment being used will determine the width of each pass. The equipment being used with the roto peen is then connected to a vacuum system for dust collection during scabbling. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  9. Commercial Training Issues: Heavy Duty Alternative Fuel Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Douglas

    The needs and opportunities in the heavy-duty alternative fuel vehicle training arena were examined in an informal ethnographic study of the appropriateness and effectiveness of the instructional materials currently being used in such training. Interviews were conducted with eight instructors from the National Alternative Fuels Training Program…

  10. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The heavy-duty roto peen technology is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the human factors assessment for safety and health issues. The heavy-duty roto peen allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy-duty flexible flap. The shot rivet is kept captive to the tool by mounting the roto peen in a slotted hub. The heavy-duty roto peen is designed to be used with several commercially available pieces of equipment. The equipment being used will determine the width of each pass. The equipment being used with the roto peen is then connected to a vacuum system for dust collection during scabbling. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  11. AUTOMOTIVE AND HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE COOLANT RECYCLING BY DISTILLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants for a facility such as the New Jersey Department of Transportation garage in Ewing, New Jersey. he specific recycling evaluated is b...

  12. Heavy Duty Mechanics Apprenticeship Training, Module One. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Leslie A.; Abercrombie, Richard, Ed.

    This training manual, the second of two volumes, comprises the final three blocks in a nine-block in-service training course for apprentices working in heavy duty mechanics. Addressed in the individual blocks included in this volume are engines, basic electricity, and winches. Each block contains a section on parts theory that gives the purpose,…

  13. 40 CFR 86.004-40 - Heavy-duty engine rebuilding practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.004-40 Heavy-duty engine... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  14. 40 CFR 86.004-40 - Heavy-duty engine rebuilding practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.004-40 Heavy-duty engine... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  15. 40 CFR 86.004-40 - Heavy-duty engine rebuilding practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.004-40 Heavy-duty engine... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  16. 78 FR 49963 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 535 RIN 2060-AR48; 2127-AL31 Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad... adverse comment on certain elements of the Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad Technical Amendments... the Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad Technical Amendments direct final rule published on...

  17. Review of light-duty diesel and heavy-duty diesel gasoline inspection programs.

    PubMed

    St Denis, Michael; Lindner, Jim

    2005-12-01

    Emissions from diesel vehicles and gas-powered heavy-duty vehicles are becoming a new focus of many inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs. Diesel particulate matter (PM) is increasingly becoming more recognized as an important health concern, while at the same time, the public awareness of diesel PM emissions because of their visibility have combined to increase the focus on diesel emissions in the United States. This has resulted in an increased interest by some states in including heavy-duty vehicle testing in their I/M program. This paper provides an overview of existing I/M programs focused on testing light-duty diesel vehicles, heavy-duty diesel vehicles, and heavy-duty gasoline vehicles (HDGVs). Information on 39 I/M programs in 27 different states in the United States plus 9 international inspection programs is included. Information on the status of diesel emissions technology and current test procedures is also presented. The goal is to provide useful information for air quality managers as they work to decide whether such I/M programs would be worth pursuing in their respective areas and in evaluating the emissions measurement technology to be used in the program. Testing of HDGVs is generally limited to idle testing, because dynamometer testing of these vehicles is not practical, and most were not certified on a chassis basis. Testing of diesel vehicles has mostly been limited to SAE J1667 "snap-idle" opacity testing. Cost-effective technology for measuring diesel emissions currently does not exist, and, therefore, opacity-type measurements, although not effective at reducing the pollutants of most significant health concern, will continue to be used.

  18. Product audit for heavy duty diesel engines in production environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Sanghoon; Beresford, Jim

    2005-09-01

    A product audit at manufacturing plants has become more important due to the customer's requirements on product quality. Noise and vibration performance have been a primary concern for gas engines and small size diesel engines. Lately, more interest has been shown by truck manufacturers about engine noise for heavy duty diesel application. It has been regarded that acoustic measurements requires dedicated measurement environment for detailed study. This case study shows that acoustic measurements can be performed at performance cell without any dedicated acoustic treatment at the manufacturing plant to identify some of the noise characteristics with proper preparation. Order tracking and loudness were used to identify two different characteristics related to front gear train in heavy duty diesel engines. In addition, the coordination between technical organization and manufacturing plant for the data acquisition and analysis is discussed.

  19. Heavy Duty Roots Expander Heat Energy Recovery (HD-REHER)

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Swami

    2015-10-01

    Eaton Corporation proposed a comprehensive project to develop and demonstrate advanced component technology that will reduce the cost of implementing Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) systems to Heavy-Duty Diesel engines, making adaptation of this fuel efficiency improving technology more commercially attractive to end-users in the next 5 to 10 year time period. Accelerated adaptation and implementation of new fuel efficiency technology into service is critical for reduction of fuel used in the commercial vehicle segment.

  20. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Duty Cycles for Electric Powertrains

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Kenneth; Bennion, Kevin; Miller, Eric; Prohaska, Bob

    2016-03-02

    NREL's Fleet Test and Evaluation group has extensive in-use vehicle data demonstrating the importance of understanding the vocational duty cycle for appropriate sizing of electric vehicle (EV) and power electronics components for medium- and heavy-duty EV applications. This presentation includes an overview of recent EV fleet evaluation projects that have valuable in-use data that can be leveraged for sub-system research, analysis, and validation. Peak power and power distribution data from in-field EVs are presented for four different vocations, including class 3 delivery vans, class 6 delivery trucks, class 8 transit buses, and class 8 port drayage trucks, demonstrating the impacts of duty cycle on performance requirements.

  1. 77 FR 4678 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... and 2013 for emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO X ). In general, the availability of NCPs allows a... established for hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO X ), and particulate matter (PM... established more stringent emission standards for all heavy-duty gasoline (or ``Otto-cycle'') vehicles...

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Lisa A.; Rideout, Greg; Rosenblatt, Deborah; Hendren, Jill

    This paper summarizes greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions measurements obtained during several recent studies conducted by Environment Canada, Emissions Research and Measurement Division (ERMD). A variety of heavy-duty vehicles and engines operating on a range of different fuels including diesel, biodiesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), hythane (20% hydrogen, 80% CNG), and liquefied natural gas (LNG), and with different advanced aftertreatment technologies were studied by chassis dynamometer testing, engine dynamometer testing or on-road testing. Distance-based emission rates of CO 2, CH 4, and N 2O are reported. Fuel consumption calculated by carbon balance from measured emissions is also reported. The measurement results show, for heavy-duty diesel vehicles without aftertreatment, that while CO 2 emissions dominate, CH 4 emissions account for between 0% and 0.11% and N 2O emissions account for between 0.16% and 0.27% of the CO 2-equivalent GHG emissions. Both of the aftertreatment technologies (diesel oxidation catalyst and active regeneration diesel particle filter) studied increased N 2O emissions compared to engine out emissions while CH 4 emissions remain essentially unchanged. No effect on tailpipe GHG emissions was found with the use of up to 20% biodiesel when the engine was equipped with an oxidation catalyst. Biodiesel use did show some reductions in tailpipe GHG emissions as compared to ULSD without aftertreatment and with the use of a diesel particle filter. Natural gas and hythane also offer decreased GHG emissions (10-20%) at the tailpipe when compared with diesel. Emission factors (g L -1 fuel) for CH 4 and N 2O are suggested for heavy-duty vehicles fueled with diesel-based fuels and natural gas. These emission factors are substantially lower than those recommended for use by IPCC methodologies for developing national inventories.

  3. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The roto peen scaler allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy duty flexible flap. The peens are coupled with a commercially available piece of equipment that is used to scabble or remove the concrete. The scabbled debris is then collected into 55 gallon drums by means of a vacuum system. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  4. 2010 Commitment Letters for MY2017-2025 Light-Duty and MY 2014-2018 Heavy-Duty Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The State of California and major automobile and truck manufacturers showed their support for a national heavy-duty GHG and fuel efficiency program as well as further light-duty GHG and CAFE standards by sending letters to the agencies in May 2010.

  5. Empirical membrane lifetime model for heavy duty fuel cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macauley, Natalia; Watson, Mark; Lauritzen, Michael; Knights, Shanna; Wang, G. Gary; Kjeang, Erik

    2016-12-01

    Heavy duty fuel cells used in transportation system applications such as transit buses expose the fuel cell membranes to conditions that can lead to lifetime-limiting membrane failure via combined chemical and mechanical degradation. Highly durable membranes and reliable predictive models are therefore needed in order to achieve the ultimate heavy duty fuel cell lifetime target of 25,000 h. In the present work, an empirical membrane lifetime model was developed based on laboratory data from a suite of accelerated membrane durability tests. The model considers the effects of cell voltage, temperature, oxygen concentration, humidity cycling, humidity level, and platinum in the membrane using inverse power law and exponential relationships within the framework of a general log-linear Weibull life-stress statistical distribution. The obtained model is capable of extrapolating the membrane lifetime from accelerated test conditions to use level conditions during field operation. Based on typical conditions for the Whistler, British Columbia fuel cell transit bus fleet, the model predicts a stack lifetime of 17,500 h and a membrane leak initiation time of 9200 h. Validation performed with the aid of a field operated stack confirmed the initial goal of the model to predict membrane lifetime within 20% of the actual operating time.

  6. Demonstration of a heavy-duty vehicle chassis screening test for compliance testing heavy-duty engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, N.N.; McKain, D.L.; Hoppie, J.A.; Lyons, D.W.; Gautam, M.

    1998-07-01

    Emissions testing of new heavy-duty engines is performed to ensure compliance with governmental emissions standards. This testing involves operating the engine through the heavy-duty diesel transient Federal Test Procedure (FTP). While in-use engine emissions testing would be beneficial in aiding regions to meet standards dictated by the Clean Air Act, the process of removing the engine from the vehicle, fitting it to an engine dynamometer, testing, and refitting the engine in the chassis, combined with costs associated with removing the vehicle from service, is prohibitively expensive. A procedure for screening engine emissions testing with the engine in the vehicle using a chassis dynamometer was developed to mimic the FTP. Data from two engines and vehicles (a 195 hp Navistar T 444E in a single axle straight truck and a 370 hp Cummins N-14 in a tandem drive axle tractor) is presented as well as correlation between engine and chassis emissions tests. Also included was data gathered to gauge the effects of engine tampering and malfunctioning on emissions levels. It was concluded that engine and chassis emissions levels were well correlated with respect to oxides of nitrogen, but less well so with respect to particulate matter.

  7. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards... tank capacity of greater than 35 gallons, or which do not share a common fuel system with a...

  8. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-02

    The transportation sector accounts for approximately 65% of US petroleum consumption. Consumption for light-duty vehicles has stabilized in the last 10--15 years; however, consumption in the heavy-duty sector has continued to increase. For various reasons, the US must reduce its dependence on petroleum. One significant way is to substitute alternative fuels (natural gas, propane, alcohols, and others) in place of petroleum fuels in heavy-duty applications. Most alternative fuels have the additional benefit of reduced exhaust emissions relative to petroleum fuels, thus providing a cleaner environment. The best long-term technology for heavy-duty alternative fuel engines is the 4-stroke cycle, direct injected (DI) engine using a single fuel. This DI, single fuel approach maximizes the substitution of alternative fuel for diesel and retains the thermal efficiency and power density of the diesel engine. This report summarizes the results of the first year (Phase 1) of this contract. Phase 1 focused on developing a 4-stroke cycle, DI single fuel, alternative fuel technology that will duplicate or exceed diesel power density and thermal efficiency, while having exhaust emissions equal to or less than the diesel. Although the work is currently on a 3500 Series DING engine, the work is viewed as a basic technology development that can be applied to any engine. Phase 1 concentrated on DING engine component durability, exhaust emissions, and fuel handling system durability. Task 1 focused on identifying primary areas (e.g., ignition assist and gas injector systems) for future durability testing. In Task 2, eight mode-cycle-averaged NO{sub x} emissions were reduced from 11.8 gm/hp-hr (baseline conditions) to 2.5 gm/hp-hr (modified conditions) on a 3501 DING engine. In Task 3, a state-of-the-art fuel handling system was identified.

  9. 77 FR 75257 - Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty... medium- and heavy-duty truck fleet managers. DATES: Comments must be received within 60 days of... Information Collection: New collection. OMB Control Number: To be issued at time of approval. Title:...

  10. EVALUATION OF FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER UNITS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul truck engines idle about 30-50% of the time the engine is running. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e...

  11. 78 FR 56171 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 535 RIN 2060-AR48; 2127-AL31 Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad... Exhaust emission standards for CO2, CH4, and N2O for heavy-duty vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds...

  12. Development of a heavy heavy-duty diesel engine schedule for representative measurement of emissions.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Feng; Clark, Nigel N; Bedick, Clinton R; Gautam, Mridul; Wayne, W Scott; Thompson, Gregory J; Lyons, Donald W

    2009-08-01

    The Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) has the objective of characterizing the emissions and assessing the possible health impacts of the 2007-2010 heavy-duty diesel engines and their control systems. The program seeks to examine emissions from engines operated in a realistic duty cycle and requires the development of an engine test schedule described in this paper. Field data on engine operation were available from Engine Control Unit (ECU) broadcasts from seven heavy heavy-duty trucks (HHDDT) tested during the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) E-55/59 study. These trucks were exercised at three weights (30,000 lb [13,610 kg], 56,000 lb [25,400 kg], and 66,000 lb [29,940 kg]) through four different active modes of a chassis test schedule that were developed from the data of in-use HHDDT operation in the state of California. The trucks were equipped with heavy-duty engines made by three major U.S. engine manufacturers with a range of model years from 1998 to 2003. This paper reports on the development of four engine test modes, termed creep, transient, cruise, and high-speed cruise (HHDDT_S), which correspond to the E-55/59 HHDDT chassis test modes. The creep and transient modes represent urban travel, and the cruise and HHDDT_S modes represent freeway operation. The test mode creation used the method of joining selected truck trips together while ensuring that they offered a reasonable statistical representation of the whole database by using a least-square errors method. Least-square errors between test modes and the database are less than 5%. The four test modes are presented in normalized engine

  13. Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    David Lyons

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also

  14. Heavy-duty truck population, activity and usage patterns. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, M.

    1998-07-01

    The objective of the study was to update the heavy-duty truck (HDT) population, activity (e.g., vehicle miles traveled (VMT), numbers of starts and trips, trip duration, etc.), and usage patterns type of service/business (e.g., delivery, construction, etc.), area of operation (i.e., local, short-haul, long-haul) for HDT`s registered and/or operated in California. The population and activity estimates were done on a weight-class-specific basis light-heavy-duty, medium-heavy-duty and heavy-heavy-duty. Population, activity and usage estimates were based primarily on Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) registration data and Truck Inventory and Usage Survey (TIUS) data. In addition to the analysis of existing data (i.e., DMV and TIUS), 42 HDTs were fitted with on-board data loggers that recorded numbers of trips and starts, daily VMT and travel by time-of-day.

  15. Joining of ceramics for advanced heavy-duty diesels

    SciTech Connect

    Moorhead, A.J.; Keating, H.

    1986-03-01

    The wettability and adherence in vacuum of a series of metal alloys on several oxide ceramics were investigated with the goal of identifying those compositions suitable as filler metals for direct brazing of ceramics in uncooled diesel engine applications. Wetting behavior was determined by the sessile-drop technique. Adherence was measured by several tests including sessile-drop shear, flexure strength of ceramics brazed in a butt-joint configuration, fracture toughness using a composite double cantilever beam specimen, and, in the case of ceramic-metal brazements, by a bar/pad shear test. Compositions were identified in both the Cu-Ag-Ti and Cu-Au-Ti ternary systems that wet and strongly adhered to high-purity aluminas, partially stabilized zirconia ceramics, and alumina reinforced with SiC whiskers. Excellent flexural strengths, at temperatures up to 600/sup 0/C, of brazements containing these filler metals indicate that these materials are good candidates for use in advanced heavy-duty diesel engines. They have the advantage over competing systems of not requiring that the ceramic be metallized before brazing.

  16. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards...-duty vehicles (2003 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 1 in § 86.005-1(c)(1), or 2004 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 2 in § 86.005-1(c)(2)) fueled...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards...-duty vehicles (2003 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 1 in § 86.005-1(c)(1), or 2004 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 2 in § 86.005-1(c)(2)) fueled...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards...-duty vehicles (2003 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 1 in § 86.005-1(c)(1), or 2004 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 2 in § 86.005-1(c)(2)) fueled...

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Compliance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) is a free, desktop computer application that estimates the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel efficiency performance of specific aspects of heavy-duty vehicles.

  20. EPA and DOT Propose Greenhouse Gas and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Heavy-Duty Trucks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (06/19/15) ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are jointly proposing standards for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles that would improve

  1. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission standards...) Carbon monoxide. 7.3 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen. (A)0.2 grams per mile. (B) A manufacturer... grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen. (A)0.4 grams per mile. (B) A manufacturer may elect to...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards for complete... (2003 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 1 in § 86.005-1(c)(1), or 2004 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 2 in § 86.005-1(c)(2)) fueled by...

  3. The U.S. Army, Diesel Engines, and Heavy-Duty Emission Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-16

    Dr. Pete Schihl The U.S. Army, Diesel Engines , and Heavy-Duty Emission Standards TARDEC Propulsion Laboratory Report Documentation Page Form...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The U.S. Army, Diesel Engines , and Heavy-Duty Emission Standards 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...transmission, engine (fuel), ducting requirements — Ex. Bradley FIV: PD=3 2. High Power Density Engines (Future Combat System ~ 20 ton vehicle

  4. Demonstrating and evaluating heavy-duty alternative fuel operations

    SciTech Connect

    Peerenboom, W.

    1998-02-01

    The principal objectives of this project was to understand the effects of using an alternative fuel on a truck operating fleet through actual operation of trucks. Information to be gathered was expected to be anecdotal, as opposed to statistically viable, because the Trucking Research institute (TRI) recognized that projects could not attract enough trucks to produce statistically credible volumes of data. TRI was to collect operational data, and provide them to NREL, who would enter the data into the alternative fuels database being constructed for heavy-duty trucks at the time. NREL would also perform data analysis, with the understanding that the demonstrations were generally pre-production model engines and vehicles. Other objectives included providing information to the trucking industry on the availability of alternative fuels, developing the alternative fuels marketplace, and providing information on experience with alternative fuels. In addition to providing information to the trucking industry, an objective was for TRI to inform NREL and DOE about the industry, and give feedback on the response of the industry to developments in alternative fuels in trucking. At the outset, only small numbers of vehicles participated in most of the projects. Therefore, they had to be considered demonstrations of feasibility, rather than data gathering tests from which statistically significant conclusions might be drawn. Consequently, data gathered were expected to be useful for making estimates and obtaining valuable practical lessons. Project data and lessons learned are the subjects of separate project reports. This report concerns itself with the work of TRI in meeting the overall objectives of the TRI-NREL partnership.

  5. The transportable heavy-duty engine emissions testing laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    West Virginia University has designed and constructed a Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for measuring emissions from heavy duty vehicles, such as buses and trucks operating on conventional and alternative fuels. The laboratory facility can be transported to a test site located at, or nearby, the home base of the vehicles to be tested. The laboratory has the capability of measuring vehicle emissions as the vehicle is operated under either transient or steady state loads and speeds. The exhaust emissions from the vehicle is sampled and the levels of the constituents of the emission are measured. The laboratory consists of two major units; a power absorber unit and an emissions measurement unit. A power absorber unit allows for the connection of a dynamic load to the drive train of the vehicle so that the vehicle can be driven'' through a test cycle while actually mounted on a stationary test bed. The emissions unit contains instrumentation and equipment which allows for the dilution of the vehicle's exhaust with air. The diluteed exhaust is sampled and analyzed to measure the level of concentration of those constituents which have been identified to have impact on the clean environment. Sampling probes withdraw diluted exhaust which is supplied to a number of different exhaust gas analysis instruments. The exhaust gas analysis instruments have the capability to measure the levels of the following exhaust gas constituents: carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), formaldehyde (HCHO), methane and particulate matter. Additional instruments or sampling devices can be installed whenever measurements of additional constituents are desired. A computer based, data acquisition system is used to continuously monitor a wide range of parameters important to the operation of the test and to record the test results.

  6. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... described in this section do not apply to Otto-cycle medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) that are...

  7. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... described in this section do not apply to Otto-cycle medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) that are...

  8. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... described in this section do not apply to Otto-cycle medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) that are...

  9. Fuel Economy Improvement Potential of a Heavy Duty Truck using V2x Communication

    SciTech Connect

    LaClair, Tim J; Verma, Rajeev; Norris, Sarah; Cochran, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an intelligent driver assistance system to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty vehicles irrespective of the driving style of the driver. We specifically study the potential of V2I and V2V communications to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty trucks. Most ITS communications today are oriented towards vehicle safety, with communications strategies and hardware that tend to focus on low latency. This has resulted in technologies emerging with a relatively limited range for the communications. For fuel economy, it is expected that most benefits will be derived with greater communications distances, at the scale of many hundred meters or several kilometers, due to the large inertia of heavy duty vehicles. It may therefore be necessary to employ different communications strategies for ITS applications aimed at fuel economy and other environmental benefits than what is used for safety applications in order to achieve the greatest benefits.

  10. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and Later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proposed Rule and Related Materials for: Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and Later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  11. 40 CFR 86.004-15 - NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled... contained in § 86.005-10(f), the ABT program requirements contained in § 86.000-15 apply for 2004 model...

  12. 40 CFR 86.004-15 - NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled... contained in § 86.005-10(f), the ABT program requirements contained in § 86.000-15 apply for 2004 model...

  13. 40 CFR 86.004-15 - NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled... contained in § 86.005-10(f), the ABT program requirements contained in § 86.000-15 apply for 2004 model...

  14. 40 CFR 86.004-15 - NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled... contained in § 86.005-10(f), the ABT program requirements contained in § 86.000-15 apply for 2004 model...

  15. 40 CFR 86.004-15 - NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled... contained in § 86.005-10(f), the ABT program requirements contained in § 86.000-15 apply for 2004 model...

  16. Idle emissions from medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks.

    PubMed

    Khan, A B M S; Clark, Nigel N; Gautam, Mridul; Wayne, W Scott; Thompson, Gregory J; Lyons, Donald W

    2009-03-01

    Idle emissions data from 19 medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks are presented in this paper. Emissions from these trucks were characterized using full-flow exhaust dilution as part of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Project E-55/59. Idle emissions data were not available from dedicated measurements, but were extracted from the continuous emissions data on the low-speed transient mode of the medium heavy-duty truck (MHDTLO) cycle. The four gasoline trucks produced very low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and negligible particulate matter (PM) during idle. However, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HCs) from these four trucks were approximately 285 and 153 g/hr on average, respectively. The gasoline trucks consumed substantially more fuel at an hourly rate (0.84 gal/hr) than their diesel counterparts (0.44 gal/hr) during idling. The diesel trucks, on the other hand, emitted higher NOx (79 g/hr) and comparatively higher PM (4.1 g/hr), on average, than the gasoline trucks (3.8 g/hr of NOx and 0.9 g/hr of PM, on average). Idle NOx emissions from diesel trucks were high for post-1992 model year engines, but no trends were observed for fuel consumption. Idle emissions and fuel consumption from the medium heavy-duty diesel trucks (MHDDTs) were marginally lower than those from the heavy heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDTs), previously reported in the literature.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 86 - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks X Appendix X to Part 86 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Pt. 86, App. X Appendix X to Part...

  18. EPA and NHTSA to Propose Greenhouse Gas and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Heavy-Duty Trucks; Begin Process for Further Light-Duty Standards Factsheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet is an overview of EPA and NHTSA's plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy for heavy-duty trucks, and to adopt the 2nd phase of GHG and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicles for MY 2017 and beyond.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 86 - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks X Appendix X to Part 86 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Pt. 86, App. X Appendix X to Part...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 86 - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks X Appendix X to Part 86 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Pt. 86, App. X Appendix X to Part...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 86 - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks X Appendix X to Part 86 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Pt. 86, App. X Appendix X to Part 86—Sampling Plans...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 86 - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks X Appendix X to Part 86 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Pt. 86, App. X Appendix X to Part...

  3. 75 FR 33565 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for New Medium- and Heavy-Duty Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Impact Statement for New Medium- and Heavy-Duty Fuel Efficiency Improvement Program AGENCY: National... impacts of the agency's new fuel efficiency improvement program for commercial medium- and heavy-duty on... change to http://www.regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For technical issues,...

  4. 76 FR 57105 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ...EPA and NHTSA, on behalf of the Department of Transportation, are each finalizing rules to establish a comprehensive Heavy-Duty National Program that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption for on-road heavy-duty vehicles, responding to the President's directive on May 21, 2010, to take coordinated steps to produce a new generation of clean vehicles. NHTSA's final fuel......

  5. 76 FR 65971 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles AGENCY... 57106). The regulations established fuel efficiency standards for medium- and heavy-duty engines and vehicles, as prescribed under the Energy Independence and Security Act (49 U.S.C. 32902(k)(2))....

  6. 76 FR 59922 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles AGENCY: National... established fuel efficiency standards for medium- and heavy-duty engines and vehicles, as prescribed under the Energy Independence and Security Act (49 U.S.C. 32902(k)(2)). DATES: Effective Date: November 14,...

  7. 30 CFR 72.501 - Emission limits for nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. 72.501 Section 72.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. (a) Each piece of nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment (as defined by § 75.1908(a) of this part), generator or...

  8. 30 CFR 72.501 - Emission limits for nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. 72.501 Section 72.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. (a) Each piece of nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment (as defined by § 75.1908(a) of this part), generator or...

  9. 30 CFR 72.501 - Emission limits for nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. 72.501 Section 72.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. (a) Each piece of nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment (as defined by § 75.1908(a) of this part), generator or...

  10. 30 CFR 72.501 - Emission limits for nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. 72.501 Section 72.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. (a) Each piece of nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment (as defined by § 75.1908(a) of this part), generator or...

  11. 30 CFR 72.501 - Emission limits for nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. 72.501 Section 72.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. (a) Each piece of nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment (as defined by § 75.1908(a) of this part), generator or...

  12. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  13. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  14. HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK TEST CYCLES: COMBINING DRIVEABILITY WITH REALISTIC ENGINE EXERCISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy-duty engine certification testing uses a cycle that is scaled to the capabilities of each engine. As such, every engine should be equally challenged by the cycle's power demands. It would seem that a chassis cycle, similarly scaled to the capabilities of each vehicle, could...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1215-85 - EPA heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) urban dynamometer driving schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dynamometer driving schedule. 86.1215-85 Section 86.1215-85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... (HDV) urban dynamometer driving schedule. (a)(1) The EPA dynamometer driving schedule for heavy-duty... mph (30.4 km/hr). The Administrator will use this driving schedule when conducting...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1215-85 - EPA heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) urban dynamometer driving schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dynamometer driving schedule. 86.1215-85 Section 86.1215-85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... (HDV) urban dynamometer driving schedule. (a)(1) The EPA dynamometer driving schedule for heavy-duty... mph (30.4 km/hr). The Administrator will use this driving schedule when conducting...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1215-85 - EPA heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) urban dynamometer driving schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dynamometer driving schedule. 86.1215-85 Section 86.1215-85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... (HDV) urban dynamometer driving schedule. (a)(1) The EPA dynamometer driving schedule for heavy-duty... mph (30.4 km/hr). The Administrator will use this driving schedule when conducting...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1215-85 - EPA heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) urban dynamometer driving schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dynamometer driving schedule. 86.1215-85 Section 86.1215-85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... (HDV) urban dynamometer driving schedule. (a)(1) The EPA dynamometer driving schedule for heavy-duty... mph (30.4 km/hr). The Administrator will use this driving schedule when conducting...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF ON-ROAD EMISSION FACTORS FOR HEAVY- DUTY VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an EPA project the objectives of which are to: (1) define on-road emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs); (2) assess agreement between engine and chassis dynamometers and on-road emission factors; (3) evaluate current conversion factors for dynamome...

  20. Ceramic valve development for heavy-duty low heat rejection diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, K. E.; Micu, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic valves can be successfully operated in a heavy-duty diesel engine, even under extreme low heat rejection operating conditions. This paper describes the development of a silicon nitride valve from the initial design stage to actual engine testing. Supplier involvement, finite element analysis, and preliminary proof of concept demonstration testing played a significant role in this project's success.

  1. Informal Market Survey of Training Issues: Heavy Duty Alternative Fuel Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Doug

    The needs and opportunities in the heavy-duty alternative fuel vehicle training arena were examined in an informal marketing survey. A list of 277 potential respondents was compiled from the 220 individuals in the National Alternative Fuels Training Program database and 57 names identified from journals in the field of alternative fuels. When 2…

  2. 78 FR 36369 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle, and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...EPA and NHTSA, on behalf of the Department of Transportation, are each adopting corrections to provisions in our respective Medium- and Heavy-Duty Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Efficiency final rule issued on September 15, 2011. These amendments eliminate duplicative reporting requirements, reduce inadvertent minor differences between the EPA and NHTSA programs regarding such matters as......

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION OF EMISSION CONTROLS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    While lower emissions limits that took effect in 2004 and reduced sulfur content in diesel fuels will reduce emissions from new heavy-duty engines, the existing diesel fleet, which pollutes at much higher levels, may still have a lifetime of 20 to 30 years. Fleet operators seekin...

  4. ON-ROAD FACILITY TO MEASURE AND CHARACTERIZE EMISSIONS FROM HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to lingering concerns about the utility of dynamometer data for mobile source emissions modeling, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has constructed an on-road test facility to characterize the real-world emissions of heavy-duty trucks. The facility was de...

  5. 40 CFR 86.004-40 - Heavy-duty engine rebuilding practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... without removing the engine from the vehicle, or during the installation of a rebuilt engine, all critical... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Heavy-duty engine rebuilding practices... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  6. NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines-Testing and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hakim, N; Hoelzer, J.; Liu, Y.

    2002-08-25

    This feasibility study of NOx adsorbers in heavy-duty diesel engines examined three configurations (dual-leg, single-leg and single-leg-bypass) in an integrated experimental setup, composed of a Detroit Diesel Class-8 truck engine, a catalyzed diesel particulate filter and the NOx absorber system. The setup also employed a reductant injection concept, sensors and advanced control strategies.

  7. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE LOAD ESTIMATION: DEVELOPMENT OF VEHICLE ACTIVITY OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Heavy-Duty Vehicle Modal Emission Model (HDDV-MEM) developed by the Georgia Institute of Technology(Georgia Tech) has a capability to model link-specific second-by-second emissions using speed/accleration matrices. To estimate emissions, engine power demand calculated usin...

  8. 75 FR 28820 - Notice of Public Meeting by Teleconference Concerning Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Consent Decrees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Public Meeting by Teleconference Concerning Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Consent Decrees The Department of Justice and the Environmental Protection Agency will hold a public meeting on June 14, 2010 at 3 p.m. by telephone conference. The subject...

  9. Exhaust Emission Rates for Heavy-Duty Onroad Vehicles in the Next Version of MOVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Derivation of the exhaust and crankcase emission rates for HC, CO, NOx, and PM emissions from medium and heavy-duty diesel, gasoline, and compressed natural gas vehicles. Including updates for emission rates for 2007 and later model year diesel vehicles

  10. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (iii) The production counts for end-of-year reports shall be based on the location of the first point.... However, any such credits may be revoked based on review of end-of-model year reports, follow-up audits... applicable complete heavy-duty vehicle chassis-based NOX emission standard. (iii) Calculate the projected...

  11. 77 FR 4736 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... later for emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). In general, the availability of NCPs allows a...), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO X ), and particulate matter (PM). The most recent NCP rule (67...), EPA established more stringent emission standards for all heavy-duty gasoline (or...

  12. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  13. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  14. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  15. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  16. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  17. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...: 3.0 grams carbon per test. (2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §...

  18. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...: 3.0 grams carbon per test. (2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §...

  19. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.099-11 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. (a) Exhaust emissions from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines shall not exceed...

  20. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.099-11 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. (a) Exhaust emissions from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines shall not exceed...

  1. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.099-11 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. (a) Exhaust emissions from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines shall not exceed...

  2. HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE MODAL EMISSION MODEL (HDDV-MEM): VOLUME I: MODAL EMISSION MODELING FRAMEWORK; VOLUME II: MODAL COMPONENTS AND OUTPUTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research outlines a proposed Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Modal Emission Modeling Framework (HDDV-MEMF) for heavy-duty diesel-powered trucks and buses. The heavy-duty vehicle modal modules being developed under this research effort, although different, should be compatible wi...

  3. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.099-11 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. (a) Exhaust emissions from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines shall not exceed...

  4. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.099-11 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. (a) Exhaust emissions from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines shall not exceed...

  5. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.008-10 Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...)(1) Exhaust emissions from new 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle HDEs shall not exceed:...

  6. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.008-10 Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...)(1) Exhaust emissions from new 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle HDEs shall not exceed:...

  7. Combustion and emission analysis of heavy-duty vehicle diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhixin; Wang, Xue; Wang, Xiancheng; Zhou, Jingkai

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the research on combustion and emission characteristics of heavy-duty vehicle diesel engine, a bench test was carried out for PM and NOx emission for a certain type diesel engine under different speed and loads. Results shows that for this type of heavy-duty vehicle diesel engine, ignition delay is longer and the proportion of diffusion combustion increases under high speed of external characteristics conditions. Under the speed of 1400 r/min, ignition delay decreases with load increases, combustion duration shortened at first, then increases, the proportion of diffusion combustion increases. The ignition delay is longer and cylinder temperature is higher under lower speed external characteristics of diesel engine, the emissions of soot and NOx are heavier; with large load of external characteristics of diesel engine, the emissions of soot and NOx are heavy as well.

  8. Evaluations of 1997 Fuel Consumption Patterns of Heavy Duty Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, Danilo

    2001-08-05

    The proposed 21st Century Truck program selected three truck classes for focused analysis. On the basis of gross vehicle weight (GVW) classification, these were Class 8 (representing heavy), Class 6 (representing medium), and Class 2b (representing light). To develop and verify these selections, an evaluation of fuel use of commercial trucks was conducted, using data from the 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS). Truck fuel use was analyzed by registered GVW class, and by body type.

  9. Fuel comsumption of heavy-duty trucks : potential effect of future technologies for improving energy efficiency and emission.

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C. L.; Vyas, A. D.; Stodolsky, F.; Maples, J. D.; Energy Systems; USDOE

    2003-01-01

    The results of an analysis of heavy-duty truck (Classes 2b through 8) technologies conducted to support the Energy Information Administration's long-term projections for energy use are summarized. Several technology options that have the potential to improve the fuel economy and emissions characteristics of heavy-duty trucks are included in the analysis. The technologies are grouped as those that enhance fuel economy and those that improve emissions. Each technology's potential impact on the fuel economy of heavy-duty trucks is estimated. A rough cost projection is also presented. The extent of technology penetration is estimated on the basis of truck data analyses and technical judgment.

  10. Materials advances required to reduce energy consumption through the application of heavy duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, J.W.

    1984-09-01

    Several key materials advances are required to reduce energy consumption through application of heavy duty diesel engines. Heavy duty diesel engines are viewed as effecting energy use both directly through fuel consumption, and indirectly through their durability with large energy expenditures required to replace worn-out engines. Materials advances that would improve fuel consumption include materials related to hot gas-path insulation, and materials related to design advances (other than insulation). Most design advances that are focused on fuel consumption or other performance factors also directly influence durability through materials properties. Several major engine components and many conventional (and advanced) materials are examined. If materials development is integrated with design and manufacturing advances, then fuel economy higher than 0.28 BSFC (50 pct thermal efficiency), and durability beyond 750,000 miles may be achievable.

  11. High Temperature Solid Lubricant Materials for Heavy Duty and Advanced Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, C.; Wood, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature Stirling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines, and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. This paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis on heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

  12. Evaluation of the potential of the Stirling engine for heavy duty application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meijer, R. J.; Ziph, B.

    1981-01-01

    A 150 hp four cylinder heavy duty Stirling engine was evaluated. The engine uses a variable stroke power control system, swashplate drive and ceramic insulation. The sensitivity of the design to engine size and heater temperature is investigated. Optimization shows that, with porous ceramics, indicated efficiencies as high as 52% can be achieved. It is shown that the gain in engine efficiency becomes insignificant when the heater temperature is raised above 200 degrees F.

  13. Impact of Military JP-8 Fuel on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-07

    Filipi, Z., Assanis, D., Kuo, T.-W., Najt, P., Rask, R. “New Heat Transfer Correlation for the HCCI Engine Derived from Measurements of...Impact of Military JP-8 Fuel on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions Gerald Fernandes1, Jerry Fuschetto1, Zoran Filipi1 and Dennis...with the operation of a diesel engine with JP- 8 fuel due to its lower density and viscosity, but few experimental studies suggest that kerosene

  14. The Effect of Heavy-Duty Diesel Emission Standards on U.S. Army Ground Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-05

    Program) - ‘Environmental Impact of Fuel Use on Military Engines ’ December 5, 2007 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...Standards • Emission Control Technology Discussion • Fuels and Lubricants Discussion • Current Army Ground Vehicle Engine Philosophy and Conclusion...P.J. Schihl Conclusion • The Army can not buy 2007 compliant COTS engines and directly integrate into current and new heavy-duty vehicles. P.J

  15. 75 FR 39251 - Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Announcement of Public Workshop for Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Diesel Engines Employing Selective Catalyst Reduction Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... being held to discuss the operation of heavy-duty engines equipped with selective catalyst reduction... manufacturers have recently begun utilizing a NO X emission control technology called selective...

  16. Conversion of the exhaust emission results obtained from combustion engines of heavy-duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkisz, J.; Pielecha, J.

    2016-09-01

    The use of internal combustion engines as the drive for heavy-duty vehicles forces these engines to be tested on an engine dynamometer. Thus, these engines operate under forced conditions, which are significantly different from their actual application. To assess the ecology of such vehicles (or more accurately the engine alone) the emission of pollution per unit of work done by the engine must be determined. However, obtaining the results of unit emissions (expressed in grams of the compound per a unit of performed work) does not give the grounds for determining the mass of pollutants on a given stretch of the road travelled by the vehicle. Therefore, there is a need to change the emission value expressed in units referenced to the engine work into a value of road emissions. The paper presents a methodology of determining pollutant emissions of heavy-duty road vehicles on the basis of the unit emissions, as well as additional parameters determined on the basis of the algorithm presented in the article. A solution was obtained that can be used not only for heavy-duty vehicles, but was also extended to allow use for buses.

  17. Lubricating oil and fuel contributions to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Kleeman, Michael J; Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Jakober, Chris A

    2008-01-01

    Size-resolved particulate matter emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) and light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) operated under realistic driving cycles were analyzed for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), hopanes, steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measured hopane and sterane size distributions did not match the total carbon size distribution in most cases, suggesting that lubricating oil was not the dominant source of particulate carbon in the vehicle exhaust. A regression analysis using 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-29-norhopane as a tracer for lubricating oil and benzo[ghi/perylene as a tracer for gasoline showed that gasoline fuel and lubricating oil both make significant contributions to particulate EC and OC emissions from LDGVs. A similar regression analysis performed using 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-29-norhopane as a tracer for lubricating oil and flouranthene as a tracerfor diesel fuel was able to explain the size distribution of particulate EC and OC emissions from HDDVs. The analysis showed that EC emitted from all HDDVs operated under relatively high load conditions was dominated by diesel fuel contributions with little EC attributed to lubricating oil. Particulate OC emitted from HDDVs was more evenly apportioned between fuel and oil contributions. EC emitted from LDGVs operated underfuel-rich conditions was dominated by gasoline fuel contributions. OC emitted from visibly smoking LDGVs was mostly associated with lubricating oil, but OC emitted from all other categories of LDGVs was dominated by gasoline fuel. The current study clearly illustrates that fuel and lubricating oil make separate and distinct contributions to particulate matter emissions from motor vehicles. These particles should be tracked separately during ambient source apportionment studies since the atmospheric evolution and ultimate health effects of these particles may be different. The source profiles for fuel and lubricating oil contributions to EC and OC

  18. Method for analyzing articulated torques of heavy-duty six-legged robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Hongchao; Gao, Haibo; Ding, Liang; Liu, Zhen; Deng, Zongquan

    2013-07-01

    The accuracy of an articulated torque analysis influences the comprehensive performances of heavy-duty multi-legged robots. Currently, the extremal estimation method and some complex methods are employed to calculate the articulated torques, which results in a large safety margin or a large number of calculations. To quickly obtain accurate articulated torques, an analysis method for the articulated torque is presented for an electrically driven heavy-duty six-legged robot. First, the rearmost leg that experiences the maximum normal contact force is confirmed when the robot transits a slope. Based on the ant-type and crab-type tripod gaits, the formulas of classical mechanics and MATLAB software are employed to theoretically analyze the relevant static torques of the joints. With the changes in the joint angles for the abductor joint, hip joint, and knee joint, variable tendency charts and extreme curves are obtained for the static articulated torques. Meanwhile, the maximum static articulated torques and the corresponding poses of the robot are also obtained. According to the poses of the robot under the maximum static articulated torques, ADAMS software is used to carry out a static simulation analysis. Based on the relevant simulation curves of the articulated torques, the maximum static articulated torques are acquired. A comparative analysis of the maximum static articulated torques shows that the theoretical calculation values are higher than the static simulation values, and the maximum error value is approximately 10%. The proposed method lays a foundation for quickly determining accurate articulated torques to develop heavy-duty six-legged robots.

  19. Alternative fuels for low emissions and improved performance in CI and heavy duty engines

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Contents include: Limited durability of the diesel engine with a dual-fuel system on neat sunflower oil; Analysis and testing of a high-pressure micro-compressor; Spark-assisted alcohol operation in a low heat rejection engine; Combustion improvement of heavy-duty methanol engine by using autoignition system; Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels demonstration project; Vehicle fuel economy -- the Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels project; Safety and occupational hygiene results -- Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels project; Vehicle reliability and maintenance -- Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels project; Flammability tests of alcohol/gasoline vapors; Flame luminosity enhancement of neat methanol fuel by non-aromatic hydrocarbon additives; and more.

  20. Driving an Industry: Medium and Heavy Duty Fuel Cell Electric Truck Component Sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Kast, James; Marcinkoski, Jason; Vijayagopal, Ram; Duran, Adam

    2016-06-22

    Medium and heavy duty (MD and HD respectively) vehicles are responsible for 26 percent of the total U.S. transportation petroleum consumption [1]. Hydrogen fuel cells have demonstrated value as part of a portfolio of strategies for reducing petroleum use and emissions from MD and HD vehicles. [2] [3], but their performance and range capabilities, and associated component sizing remain less clear when compared to other powertrains. This paper examines the suitability of converting a representative sample of MD and HD diesel trucks into Fuel Cell Electric Trucks (FCETs), while ensuring the same truck performance, in terms of range, payload, acceleration, speed, gradeability and fuel economy.

  1. Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method. HHDDT as the training cycle gave the best predictive results, because HHDDT contains a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. Among the four model approaches, MARS gave the best predictive performance, with an average absolute percent error of -1.84% over the four chassis dynamometer drive cycles. To further evaluate the accuracy of the predictive models, the approaches were first applied to real-world data. MARS outperformed the other three approaches, providing an average absolute percent error of -2.2% of four real-world road segments. The MARS model performance was then compared to HHDDT, CSHVC, NYCC, and HHV drive cycles with the performance from Future Automotive System Technology Simulator (FASTSim). The results indicated that the MARS method achieved a comparative predictive performance with FASTSim.

  2. Chassis dynamometer study of emissions from 21 in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Yanowitz, J.; Graboski, M.S.; Ryan, L.B.A.; Alleman, T.L.; McCormick, R.L.

    1999-01-15

    Regulated emissions from 21 in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles were measured on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer via three driving cycles using a low-sulfur diesel fuel. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and PM sulfate fraction were measured. For hot start tests, emissions ranged from 0.30 to 7.43 g/mi (mean 1.96) for PM; 4.15--54.0 g/mi (mean 23.3) for NO{sub x}; 2.09--86.2 g/mi (mean 19.5) for CO; and 0.25--8.25 g/mi (mean 1.70) for THC. When emissions are converted to a g/gal basis, the effect of driving cycle is eliminated for NO{sub x} and largely eliminated for PM. Sulfate comprised less than 1% of the emitted PM for all vehicles and test cycles. A strong correlation is observed between emissions of CO and PM. Cold starting at 77 F produced an 11% increase in PM emissions. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that in-use PM emissions have decreased at a slower rate than anticipated based on the stricter engine certification test standards put into effect since 1985. NO{sub x} emissions do not decrease with model year for the vehicles tested here. Smoke opacity measurements are not well correlated with mass emissions of regulated pollutants.

  3. Natural Gas as a Future Fuel for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wai-Lin Litzke; James Wegrzyn

    2001-05-14

    In addition to their significant environmental impacts, medium-duty and heavy-duty (HD) vehicles are high volume fuel users. Development of such vehicles, which include transit buses, refuse trucks, and HD Class 6-8 trucks, that are fueled with natural gas is strategic to market introduction of natural gas vehicles (NGV). Over the past five years the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) has funded technological developments in NGV systems to support the growth of this sector in the highly competitive transportation market. The goals are to minimize emissions associated with NGV use, to improve on the economies of scale, and to continue supporting the testing and safety assessments of all new systems. This paper provides an overview of the status of major projects under a program supported by DOE/OHVT and managed by Brookhaven National Laboratory. The discussion focuses on the program's technical strategy in meeting specific goals proposed by the N GV industry and the government. Relevant projects include the development of low-cost fuel storage, fueling infrastructure, and HD vehicle applications.

  4. Feasibility evaluation of fuel cells for selected heavy-duty transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, J. R.; Murray, H. S.

    1982-10-01

    A study of the feasibility of using fuel cell power plants for heavy duty transportation applications is performed. It is concluded that it will be feasible to use fuel cell technology projected as being available by 1995 to 2000 for powering 3000-hp freight locomotives and 6000-hp river boats. The fuel cell power plant is proposed as an alternative to the currently used diesel or diesel-electric system. Phosphoric acid and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells are determined to be the only applicable technologies in the desired time frame. Methanol, chemically reformed to produce hydrogen, is determined to be the most practical fuel for the applications considered. Feasibility is determined on the basis of weight and volume constraints, compatibility with existing propulsion components, and adequate performance relative to operational requirements. Simulation results show that performance goals are met and that overall energy consumption of heavy duty fuel cell power plants is lower that of diesels for the same operating conditions. Overall energy consumption is substantially improved over diesel operation for locomotives.

  5. A new deformation measurement method for heavy-duty machine tool base by multipoint distributed FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruiya; Tan, Yuegang; Liu, Yi; Zhou, Zude; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-10-01

    The deformation of machine tool base is one of main error elements of heavy-duty CNC machine tool. A new deformation measurement method for heavy-duty machine tool base by multipoint distributed FBG sensors is developed in this study. Experiment is implemented on a real moving beam gantry machine tool. 16 FBG strain sensors are installed on the side-surface of the machine tool base. Moving the machine tool column to different positions, varying strain signals are collected. The testing results show that this distributed measurement method based on FBG sensors can effectively detect the deformation of the machine tool base. The largest deflection in vertical direction (axis Z) can be 75μm. This work is of great significance to the structure optimizing of machine tool base and real-time error compensation of heavy-duty CNC machine tool.

  6. 40 CFR 86.007-11 - Emission standards and supplemental requirements for 2007 and later model year diesel heavy-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for... Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands shall be subject to the same standards and requirements as apply... TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES EXCEPT GUAM, AMERICAN SAMOA, OR THE COMMONWEALTH OF THE NORTHERN...

  7. 40 CFR 86.007-11 - Emission standards and supplemental requirements for 2007 and later model year diesel heavy-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for... Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands shall be subject to the same standards and requirements as apply... TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES EXCEPT GUAM, AMERICAN SAMOA, OR THE COMMONWEALTH OF THE NORTHERN...

  8. Idle emissions from heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles at high altitude.

    PubMed

    McCormick, R L; Graboski, M S; Alleman, T L; Yanowitz, J

    2000-11-01

    Idle emissions of total hydrocarbon (THC), CO, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) were measured from 24 heavy-duty diesel-fueled (12 trucks and 12 buses) and 4 heavy-duty compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. The volatile organic fraction (VOF) of PM and aldehyde emissions were also measured for many of the diesel vehicles. Experiments were conducted at 1609 m above sea level using a full exhaust flow dilution tunnel method identical to that used for heavy-duty engine Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing. Diesel trucks averaged 0.170 g/min THC, 1.183 g/min CO, 1.416 g/min NOx, and 0.030 g/min PM. Diesel buses averaged 0.137 g/min THC, 1.326 g/min CO, 2.015 g/min NOx, and 0.048 g/min PM. Results are compared to idle emission factors from the MOBILE5 and PART5 inventory models. The models significantly (45-75%) overestimate emissions of THC and CO in comparison with results measured from the fleet of vehicles examined in this study. Measured NOx emissions were significantly higher (30-100%) than model predictions. For the pre-1999 (pre-consent decree) truck engines examined in this study, idle NOx emissions increased with model year with a linear fit (r2 = 0.6). PART5 nationwide fleet average emissions are within 1 order of magnitude of emissions for the group of vehicles tested in this study. Aldehyde emissions for bus idling averaged 6 mg/min. The VOF averaged 19% of total PM for buses and 49% for trucks. CNG vehicle idle emissions averaged 1.435 g/min for THC, 1.119 g/min for CO, 0.267 g/min for NOx, and 0.003 g/min for PM. The g/min PM emissions are only a small fraction of g/min PM emissions during vehicle driving. However, idle emissions of NOx, CO, and THC are significant in comparison with driving emissions.

  9. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.004-11 Section 86.004-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.004-11 Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles... diesel HDEs only). (iii) Particulate. (A) For diesel engines to be used in urban buses, 0.05 gram...

  10. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  11. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  12. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  13. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  14. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 1037 - Heavy-Duty Transient Chassis Test Cycle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....00 169 0.00 0.00 170 0.00 0.00 171 0.00 0.00 172 1.11 0.50 173 2.65 1.18 174 4.45 1.99 175 5.68 2.54... 1.61 0.72 431 1.53 0.68 432 2.34 1.05 433 4.29 1.92 434 7.25 3.24 435 10.20 4.56 436 12.46 5.57 437... Appendix I to Part 1037—Heavy-Duty Transient Chassis Test Cycle Timesec. Speedmph Speedm/s 1 0.00......

  16. Evolution of Westinghouse heavy-duty power generation and industrial combustion turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Scalzo, A.J.; Bannister, R.L.; DeCorso, M.; Howard, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of heavy-duty power generation and industrial combustion turbines in the United States from a Westinghouse Electric Corporation perspective. Westinghouse combustion turbine genealogy began in March of 1943 when the first wholly American designed and manufactured jet engine went on test in Philadelphia, and continues today in Orlando, Florida, with the 230 MW, 501G combustion turbine. In this paper, advances in thermodynamics, materials, cooling, and unit size will be described. Many basic design features such as two-bearing rotor, cold-end drive, can-annular internal combustors, CURVIC{sup 2} clutched turbine disks, and tangential exhaust struts have endured successfully for over 40 years. Progress in turbine technology includes the clean coal technology and advanced turbine systems initiatives of the US Department of Energy.

  17. Heavy-duty low-emission engine from Stork-Waertsilae

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, P.

    1995-12-01

    A new heavy-duty medium-speed diesel engine range has been announced by the Waertsilae Diesel Group. A six-cylinder in-line version was shown for the first time at Europort `95. The new Waertsilae 26 power unit, of modular design, was developed at Stork-Waertsilae`s plant at Zwolle, the Netherlands. It is aimed at a wide variety of applications including marine propulsion and auxiliary use, power generation and industrial operations. The 26 engine filled a gap in the Stork-Waertsilae range and is very much a response to market demands for a power unit with high reliability, low emissions and good fuel economy. Our design approach is aimed at easy space-saving installation, multiple fuel choices and an overall low operating cost per kilowatt for the user.

  18. Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

  19. FUEL CONSUMPTION AND COST SAVINGS OF CLASS 8 HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS POWERED BY NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    We compare the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas and diesel heavy-duty (HD) class 8 trucks under consistent simulated drive cycle conditions. Our study included both conventional and hybrid HD trucks operating with either natural gas or diesel engines, and we compare the resulting simulated fuel efficiencies, fuel costs, and payback periods. While trucks powered by natural gas engines have lower fuel economy, their CO2 emissions and costs are lower than comparable diesel trucks. Both diesel and natural gas powered hybrid trucks have significantly improved fuel economy, reasonable cost savings and payback time, and lower CO2 emissions under city driving conditions. However, under freeway-dominant driving conditions, the overall benefits of hybridization are considerably less. Based on payback period alone, non-hybrid natural gas trucks appear to be the most economic option for both urban and freeway driving environments.

  20. Heavy-Duty Emissions Control: Plasma-Facilitated vs Reformer-Assisted Lean NOx Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aardahl, C; Rozmiarek, R; Rappe, K; Mendoza, D Park, P

    2003-08-24

    Progress has been made in the control of combustion processes to limit the formation of environmentally harmful species, but lean burn vehicles, such as those powered by diesel engines used for the majority of commercial trucking and off-road applications, remain a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Tighter control of the combustion process coupled with exhaust gas recirculation has brought emissions in line with 2004 targets worldwide. Additional modifications to the engine control system, somewhat limited NOx control, and PM filters will likely allow the 2007 limits to be met for the on-highway regulations for heavy-duty engines in the United States. Concern arises when the NOx emission limit of 0.2 g/bhphr set for the year 2010 is considered.

  1. Marine vessels as substitutes for heavy-duty trucks in Great Lakes freight transportation.

    PubMed

    Comer, Bryan; Corbett, James J; Hawker, J Scott; Korfmacher, Karl; Lee, Earl E; Prokop, Chris; Winebrake, James J

    2010-07-01

    This paper applies a geospatial network optimization model to explore environmental, economic, and time-of-delivery tradeoffs associated with the application of marine vessels as substitutes for heavy-duty trucks operating in the Great Lakes region. The geospatial model integrates U.S. and Canadian highway, rail, and waterway networks to create an intermodal network and characterizes this network using temporal, economic, and environmental attributes (including emissions of carbon dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen oxides). A case study evaluates tradeoffs associated with containerized traffic flow in the Great Lakes region, demonstrating how choice of freight mode affects the environmental performance of movement of goods. These results suggest opportunities to improve the environmental performance of freight transport through infrastructure development, technology implementation, and economic incentives.

  2. Fault detection in heavy duty wheels by advanced vibration processing techniques and lumped parameter modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malago`, M.; Mucchi, E.; Dalpiaz, G.

    2016-03-01

    Heavy duty wheels are used in applications such as automatic vehicles and are mainly composed of a polyurethane tread glued to a cast iron hub. In the manufacturing process, the adhesive application between tread and hub is a critical assembly phase, since it is completely made by an operator and a contamination of the bond area may happen. Furthermore, the presence of rust on the hub surface can contribute to worsen the adherence interface, reducing the operating life. In this scenario, a quality control procedure for fault detection to be used at the end of the manufacturing process has been developed. This procedure is based on vibration processing techniques and takes advantages of the results of a lumped parameter model. Indicators based on cyclostationarity can be considered as key parameters to be adopted in a monitoring test station at the end of the production line due to their not deterministic characteristics.

  3. Transformation toughened ceramics for the heavy duty diesel engine technology program, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musikant, S.; Samanta, S. C.; Architetto, P.; Feingold, E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an insulating structural ceramic for application in a heavy duty adiabatic diesel engine. The approach is to employ transformation toughening (TT) by additions of zirconia-hafnia solid solution (ZHSS). The feasibility of using ZHSS as a toughening agent in mullite and alumina has been demonstrated in Phase 1 of this work. Based on Phase 1 results, a decision was made to concentrate the Phase 2 effort on process optimization of the TT mullite. A strong factor in that decision was the low thermal conductivity and high thermal shock resistance of the mullite. Results of the Phase 2 effort indicate that optimum toughening of mullite by additions of ZHSS is difficult to achieve due to apparent sensitivity to morphology. The 48 ksi room temperature modulus-of-rupture (MOR) achieved in selected specimens is approximately 50% of the original strength target. The MOR deteriorated to 34 ksi at 800 C.

  4. Unregulated greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from current technology heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc; Carder, Daniel; Oshinuga, Adewale; Pasek, Randall; Hogo, Henry; Gautam, Mridul

    2016-11-01

    The study presents the measurement of carbonyl, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene), ammonia, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), and greenhouse gas emissions from modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles. Vehicles from different vocations that included goods movement, refuse trucks, and transit buses were tested on driving cycles representative of their duty cycle. The natural gas vehicle technologies included the stoichiometric engine platform equipped with a three-way catalyst and a diesel-like dual-fuel high-pressure direct-injection technology equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The diesel vehicles were equipped with a DPF and SCR. Results of the study show that the BTEX emissions were below detection limits for both diesel and natural gas vehicles, while carbonyl emissions were observed during cold start and low-temperature operations of the natural gas vehicles. Ammonia emissions of about 1 g/mile were observed from the stoichiometric natural gas vehicles equipped with TWC over all the driving cycles. The tailpipe GWP of the stoichiometric natural gas goods movement application was 7% lower than DPF and SCR equipped diesel. In the case of a refuse truck application the stoichiometric natural gas engine exhibited 22% lower GWP than a diesel vehicle. Tailpipe methane emissions contribute to less than 6% of the total GHG emissions.

  5. Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

    2005-11-01

    Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

  6. The GREET Model Expansion for Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hao; Burnham, Andrew; Wang, Michael; Hang, Wen; Vyas, Anant

    2015-05-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for a significant portion of the U.S. transportation sector’s fuel consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and air pollutant emissions. In our most recent efforts, we expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model to include life-cycle analysis of HDVs. In particular, the GREET expansion includes the fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and air pollutant emissions of a variety of conventional (i.e., diesel and/or gasoline) HDV types, including Class 8b combination long-haul freight trucks, Class 8b combination short-haul freight trucks, Class 8b dump trucks, Class 8a refuse trucks, Class 8a transit buses, Class 8a intercity buses, Class 6 school buses, Class 6 single-unit delivery trucks, Class 4 single-unit delivery trucks, and Class 2b heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans. These vehicle types were selected to represent the diversity in the U.S. HDV market, and specific weight classes and body types were chosen on the basis of their fuel consumption using the 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) database. VIUS was also used to estimate the fuel consumption and payload carried for most of the HDV types. In addition, fuel economy projections from the U.S. Energy Information Administration, transit databases, and the literature were examined. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s latest Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator was employed to generate tailpipe air pollutant emissions of diesel and gasoline HDV types.

  7. Semivolatile organic compound emissions from heavy-duty trucks operating on diesel and bio-diesel fuel blends

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study measured semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in particle matter (PM) emitted from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern after-treatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted as described by the George et al. VOC study also presented as part of this se...

  8. 40 CFR 1042.605 - Dressing engines already certified to other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines for marine use. 1042.605 Section 1042.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance...

  9. 40 CFR 1042.605 - Dressing engines already certified to other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines for marine use. 1042.605 Section 1042.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance...

  10. 40 CFR 1042.605 - Dressing engines already certified to other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines for marine use. 1042.605 Section 1042.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance...

  11. 40 CFR 1042.605 - Dressing engines already certified to other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines for marine use. 1042.605 Section 1042.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance...

  12. Heavy Duty Equipment Mechanic. Apprenticeship Training Standards = Mecanicien d'equipement lourd. Normes de formation en apprentissage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    These training standards for heavy duty equipment mechanics are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related training program. They are…

  13. EFFECTS OF ENGINE SPEED AND ACCESSORY LOAD ON IDLING EMISSIONS FROM HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCK ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nontrivial portion of heavy-duty vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) occurs during idling. Regulators and the environmental community are interested in curtailing truck idling emissions, but current emissions models do not characterize them ac...

  14. 40 CFR 86.007-15 - NOX and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....8). (5) For diesel engine families, the combined number of engines certified to FELs higher than 0... percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of engines in all heavy-duty diesel engine families... diesel engine families, or generated for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle engine families are...

  15. 40 CFR 86.007-15 - NOX and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....8). (5) For diesel engine families, the combined number of engines certified to FELs higher than 0... percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of engines in all heavy-duty diesel engine families... diesel engine families, or generated for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle engine families are...

  16. 40 CFR 86.007-15 - NOX and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....8). (5) For diesel engine families, the combined number of engines certified to FELs higher than 0... percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of engines in all heavy-duty diesel engine families... diesel engine families, or generated for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle engine families are...

  17. 40 CFR 86.007-15 - NOX and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....8). (5) For diesel engine families, the combined number of engines certified to FELs higher than 0... percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of engines in all heavy-duty diesel engine families... diesel engine families, or generated for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle engine families are...

  18. 40 CFR 86.007-15 - NOX and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....8). (5) For diesel engine families, the combined number of engines certified to FELs higher than 0... percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of engines in all heavy-duty diesel engine families... diesel engine families, or generated for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle engine families are...

  19. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.305-94 Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles. (a) All clean-fuel...

  20. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.305-94 Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles. (a) All clean-fuel...

  1. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.305-94 Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles. (a) All clean-fuel...

  2. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.305-94 Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles. (a) All clean-fuel...

  3. 75 FR 68448 - Revisions to In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Engines and Vehicles, 70 FR 34594 (June 14, 2005). The program was amended in March 2008 to delay some of... Measurement Accuracy Margins for Portable Emission Measurement Systems and Program Revisions, 73 FR 13441... Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles, 70 FR...

  4. Joint measurements of black carbon and particle mass for heavy-duty diesel vehicles using a portable emission measurement system

    EPA Science Inventory

    The black carbon (BC) emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles(HDDVs) is an important source of urban atmospheric pollution and createsstrong climate-forcing impacts. The emission ratio of BC to totalparticle mass (PM) (i.e., BC/PM ratio) is an essential variable used toestimate t...

  5. 78 FR 11804 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Kansas; Idle Reduction of Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...EPA is proposing to approve the State Implementation Plan (SIP) submitted by the State of Kansas on July 27, 2010, to add two new rules which implement restrictions on the idling of heavy duty diesel vehicles and reduce nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions at stationary sources in the Kansas portion of the Kansas City Maintenance Area for ozone. EPA is approving this revision because the......

  6. 75 FR 68575 - Revisions To In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...: In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles, 70 FR 34594 (June 14, 2005). The program... Measurement Systems and Program Revisions, 73 FR 13441 (March 13, 2008). The in-use testing program began with... Vehicles,'' 70 FR 34624 (June 14, 2005). 2. Particulate Matter Emission Measurement Margin for...

  7. Using Extractive FTIR to Measure N2O from Medium Heavy Duty Vehicles Powered with Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to measure N2O and other pollutant gases during an evaluation of two medium heavy-duty diesel trucks equipped with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). The emissions of these trucks were characterized under a variety of oper...

  8. Heavy Duty Diesel Exhaust Particles during Engine Motoring Formed by Lube Oil Consumption.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Panu; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Murtonen, Timo; Wihersaari, Hugo; Simonen, Pauli; Mylläri, Fanni; Nylund, Nils-Olof; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2016-11-15

    This study reports high numbers of exhaust emissions particles during engine motoring. Such particles were observed in the exhaust of two heavy duty vehicles with no diesel particle filter (DPF), driven on speed ramp tests and transient cycles. A significant fraction of these particles was nonvolatile in nature. The number-weighted size distribution peak was below 10 nm when a thermodenuder was used to remove semivolatile material, growing up to 40 nm after semivolatile species condensation. These particles were found to contribute to 9-13% of total particle number emitted over a complete driving cycle. Engine motoring particles originated from lube oil and evidence suggests that these are of heavy organic or organometallic material. Particles of similar characteristics have been observed in the core particle mode during normal fired engine operation. Their size and chemical character has implications primarily on the environmental toxicity of non-DPF diesel and, secondarily, on the performance of catalytic devices and DPFs. Lube oil formulation measures can be taken to reduce the emission of such particles.

  9. The energy consumption and cost savings of truck electrification for heavy duty vocational applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Lin, Zhenhong; Franzese, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the application of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and genset plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to Class-7 local delivery trucks and genset PHEV for Class-8 utility bucket trucks over widely real-world driving data performed by conventional heavy-duty trucks. A simulation tool based on vehicle tractive energy methodology and component efficiency for addressing component and system performance was developed to evaluate the energy consumption and performance of the trucks. As part of this analysis, various battery sizes combined with different charging powers on the E-Trucks for local delivery and utility bucket applications were investigated. The results show that the E-Truck applications not only reduce energy consumption but also achieve significant energy cost savings. For delivery E-Trucks, the results show that periodic stops at delivery sites provide sufficient time for battery charging, and for this reason, a high-power charger is not necessary. For utility bucket PHEV trucks, energy consumption per mile of bucket truck operation is typically higher because of longer idling times and extra high idling load associated with heavy utility work. The availability of on-route charging is typically lacking at the work sites of bucket trucks; hence, the battery size of these trucks is somewhat larger than that of the delivery trucks studied.

  10. Effects of fuel oxygenates, cetane number, and aromatic content on emissions from 1994 and 1998 prototype heavy-duty diesel engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Spreen, K.B.; Ullman, T.L.; Mason, R.L.

    1995-05-01

    The Coordinating Research Council-Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee (CRC-APRAC) developed the VE-10 Project to determine the effects of selected fuel properties on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. In the first part, the VE-10 Project examined the effects of cetane number, aromatic level, and oxygen content of diesel fuel on regulated and selected unregulated emissions from two heavy-duty diesel engines calibrated for 1994 emission levels. In the second part of VE-10, cetane number effects on emissions from prototype 1998 heavy-duty engine were examined.

  11. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    There is a global effort to expand the use of alternative fuels due to their several benefits such as improving air quality with reducing some criteria emissions, reducing dependency on fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. This dissertation is focused on investigating the impact of two popular alternative fuels, biodiesel and natural gas (NG), on emissions from heavy-duty engines. Biodiesel is one of the most popular renewable fuels with diesel applications. Although biodiesel blends are reported to reduce particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and total hydrocarbon emissions; there is uncertainty on their impact on nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. This dissertation evaluated the effect of biodiesel feedstock, biodiesel blend level, engine technology, and driving conditions on NOx emissions. The results showed that NOx emissions increase with 20% and higher biodiesel blends. Also, in this study some strategies were proposed and some fuel formulations were found for mitigating NOx emissions increases with biodiesel. The impact of 5% biodiesel on criteria emissions specifically NOx was also fully studied in this thesis. As a part of the results of this study, 5% animal-based biodiesel was certified for use in California based on California Air Resources Board emissions equivalent procedure. NG is one of the most prominent alternative fuels with larger reserves compared to crude oil. However, the quality of NG depends on both its source and the degree to which it is processed. The current study explored the impact of various NG fuels, ranging from low methane/high energy gases to high methane/low energy gases, on criteria and toxic emissions from NG engines with different combustion and aftertreatment technologies. The results showed stronger fuel effects for the lean-burn technology bus. Finally, this thesis investigated the impact of changing diesel fuel composition on the criteria emissions from a variety of heavy-duty engine

  12. SCR SYSTEMS FOR HEAVY DUTY TRUCKS: PROGRESS TOWARDS MEETING EURO 4 EMISSION STANDARDS IN 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, W; Huethwohl, G; Maurer, B

    2003-08-24

    Emissions of diesel engines contain some components, which support the generation of smog and which are classified hazardous. Exhaust gas aftertreatment is a powerful tool to reduce the NOx and Particulate emissions. The NOx-emission can be reduced by the SCR technology. SCR stands for Selective Catalytic Reduction. A reduction agent has to be injected into the exhaust upstream of a catalyst. On the catalyst the NOx is reduced to N2 (Nitrogen) and H2O (Water). This catalytic process was developed in Japan about 30 years ago to reduce the NOx emission of coal-fired power plants. The first reduction agent used was anhydrous ammonia (NH3). SCR technology was used with diesel engines starting mid of the 80s. First applications were stationary operating generator-sets. In 1991 a joint development between DaimlerChrysler, MAN, IVECO and Siemens was started to use SCR technology for the reduction of heavy duty trucks. Several fleet tests demonstrated the durability of the systems. To day, SCR technology is the most promising technology to fulfill the new European Regulations EURO 4 and EURO 5 being effective Oct. 2005 and Oct. 2008. The efficient NOx reduction of the catalyst allows an engine calibration for low fuel consumption. DaimlerChrysler decided to use the SCR technology on every heavy duty truck and bus in Europe and many other truck manufacturers will introduce SCR technology to fulfill the 2005 emission regulation. The truck manufacturers in Europe agreed to use aqueous solution of Urea as reducing agent. The product is called AdBlue. AdBlue is a non toxic, non smelling liquid. The consumption is about 5% of the diesel fuel consumption to reduce the NOx emissions. A small AdBlue tank has to be installed to the vehicle. With an electronically controlled dosing system the AdBlue is injected into the exhaust. The dosing system is simple and durable. It has proven its durability during winter and summer testing as well as in fleet tests. The infrastructure for Ad

  13. The challenge to NOx emission control for heavy-duty diesel vehicles in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Zhang, S. J.; Li, M. L.; Ge, Y. S.; Shu, J. W.; Zhou, Y.; Xu, Y. Y.; Hu, J. N.; Liu, H.; Fu, L. X.; He, K. B.; Hao, J. M.

    2012-10-01

    China's new "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" set a target for total NOx emission reduction of 10% for the period of 2011-2015. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) have been considered a major contributor to NOx emissions in China. Beijing initiated a comprehensive vehicle test program in 2008. This program included a sub-task for measuring on-road emission profiles of hundreds of HDDVs using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). The major finding is that neither the on-road distance-specific (g km-1) nor brake-specific (g kWh-1) NOx emission factors for diesel buses and heavy-duty diesel trucks improved in most cases as emission standards became more stringent. For example, the average NOx emission factors for Euro II, Euro III and Euro IV buses are 11.3 ± 3.3 g km-1, 12.5 ± 1.3 g km-1, and 11.8 ± 2.0 g km-1, respectively. No statistically significant difference in NOx emission factors was observed between Euro II and III buses. Even for Euro IV buses equipped with SCR systems, the NOx emission factors are similar to Euro III buses. The data regarding real-time engine performance of Euro IV buses suggest the engine certification cycles did not reflect their real-world operating conditions. These new on-road test results indicate that previous estimates of total NOx emissions for HDDV fleet may be significantly underestimated. The new estimate in total NOx emissions for the Beijing HDDV fleet in 2009 is 37.0 Gg, an increase of 45% compared to the previous study. Further, we estimate that the total NOx emissions for the national HDDV fleet in 2009 are approximately 4.0 Tg, higher by 1.0 Tg (equivalent to 18% of total NOx emissions for vehicle fleet in 2009) than that estimated in the official report. This would also result in 4% increase in estimation of national anthropogenic NOx emissions. More effective control measures (such as promotion of CNG buses and a new in-use compliance testing program) are urged to secure the goal of total NOx mitigation for the HDDV

  14. The challenge to NOx emission control for heavy-duty diesel vehicles in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Zhang, S. J.; Li, M. L.; Ge, Y. S.; Shu, J. W.; Zhou, Y.; Xu, Y. Y.; Hu, J. N.; Liu, H.; Fu, L. X.; He, K. B.; Hao, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    China's new "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" set a target for total NOx emission reduction of 10% for the period of 2011-2015. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) have been considered a major contributor to NOx emissions in China. Beijing initiated a comprehensive vehicle test program in 2008. This program included a sub-task for measuring on-road emission profiles of hundreds of HDDVs using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). The major finding is that neither the on-road distance-specific (g km -1) nor brake-specific (g kW h-1) NOx emission factors for diesel buses and heavy-duty diesel trucks improved in most cases as emission standards became more stringent. For example, the average NOx emission factors for Euro II, Euro III and Euro IV buses are 11.3±3.3 g km-1, 12.5± 1.3 g km-1, and 11.8±2.0 g km-1, respectively. No statistically significant difference in NOx emission factors was observed between Euro II and III buses. Even for Euro IV buses equipped with SCR systems, the NOx emission factors are similar to Euro III buses. The data regarding real-time engine performance of Euro IV buses suggest the engine certification cycles did not reflect their real-world operating conditions. These new on-road test results indicate that previous estimates of total NOx emissions for HDDV fleet may be significantly underestimated. The new estimate in total NOx emissions for the Beijing HDDV fleet in 2009 is 37.0 Gg, an increase of 45% compared to the previous study. Further, we estimate that the total NOx emissions for the national HDDV fleet in 2009 are approximately 4.0 Tg, higher by 1.0 Tg (equivalent to 18% of total NOx emissions for vehicle fleet in 2009) than that estimated in the official report. This would also result in 4% increase in estimation of national anthropogenic NOx emissions. More effective control measures (such as promotion of CNG buses and a new in-use compliance testing program) are urged to secure the goal of total NOxmitigation for the HDDV fleet

  15. Analysis of heavy-duty diesel truck activity and emissions data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huai, Tao; Shah, Sandip D.; Wayne Miller, J.; Younglove, Ted; Chernich, Donald J.; Ayala, Alberto

    Despite their relatively small population, heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) are (in 2005) disproportionate contributors to the emissions inventory for oxides of nitrogen (NO x) and particulate matter (PM) due to their high individual vehicle emissions rates, lack of engine aftertreatment, and high vehicle miles traveled. Beginning in the early 1990s, heavy-duty engine manufacturers began equipping their engines with electronic sensors and controls and on-board electronic computer modules (ECMs) to manage these systems. These ECMs can collect and store both periodic and lifetime engine operation data for a variety of engine and vehicle parameters including engine speed and load, time at idle, average vehicle speed, etc. The University of California, Riverside (UCR), under a contract with the California Air Resources Board (CARB), performed data analysis of 270 ECM data sets obtained from the CARB. The results from this analysis have provided insights into engine/vehicle operation that have not been obtained from previous on-board datalogger studies since those previous studies focused on vehicle operation and did not collect engine operating data. Results indicate that HDDVs spend a considerable amount of time at high-speed cruise and at idle and that a smaller percentage of time is spent under transient engine/vehicle operation. These results are consistent with other HDDV activity studies, and provide further proof of the validity of assumptions in CARB's emission factor (EMFAC2002) model. An additional important contribution of this paper is that the evaluation of vehicle ECM data provides several advantages over traditional global positioning system (GPS) and datalogger studies: (1) ECM data is significantly cheaper than the traditional method (50 record -1 vs. ˜2000 record -1) and (2) ECM data covers vehicle operation over the entire life of the vehicle, whereas traditional surveys cover only short periods of surveillance (days, weeks, or months). It is

  16. Materials-Enabled High-Efficiency (MEHE) Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, M.; Veliz, M.

    2011-09-30

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UTBattelle, Inc. and Caterpillar, Inc. was to improve diesel engine efficiency by incorporating advanced materials to enable higher combustion pressures and temperatures necessary for improved combustion. The project scope also included novel materials for use in advanced components and designs associated with waste-heat recovery and other concepts for improved thermal efficiency. Caterpillar initially provided ORNL with a 2004 Tier 2 C15 ACERT diesel engine (designed for on-highway use) and two 600 hp motoring dynamometers. The first year of the CRADA effort was focused on establishing a heavy-duty experimental engine research cell. First year activities included procuring, installing and commissioning the cell infrastructure. Infrastructure components consisted of intake air handling system, water tower, exhaust handling system, and cell air conditioning. Other necessary infrastructure items included the fuel delivery system and bottled gas handling to support the analytical instrumentation. The second year of the CRADA focused on commissioning the dynamometer system to enable engine experimentation. In addition to the requirements associated with the dynamometer controller, the electrical system needed a power factor correction system to maintain continuity with the electrical grid. During the second year the engine was instrumented and baseline operated to confirm performance and commission the dynamometer. The engine performance was mapped and modeled according to requirements provided by Caterpillar. This activity was further supported by a Work-for-Others project from Caterpillar to evaluate a proprietary modeling system. A second Work-for-Others activity was performed to evaluate a novel turbocharger design. This project was highly successful and may lead to new turbocharger designs for Caterpillar heavy-duty diesel engines. During the third (and final) year of the CRADA, a

  17. Quantitative Effects of Vehicle Parameters on Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Kelly, Kenneth; Walkowicz, Kevin; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-16

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluations team recently conducted chassis dynamometer tests of a class 8 conventional regional delivery truck over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), West Virginia University City (WVU City), and Composite International Truck Local and Commuter Cycle (CILCC) drive cycles. A quantitative study was conducted by analyzing the impacts of various factors on fuel consumption (FC) and fuel economy (FE) by modeling and simulating the truck using NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim). Factors used in this study included vehicle weight, and the coefficients of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. The simulation results from a single parametric study revealed that FC was approximately a linear function of the weight, coefficient of aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance over various drive cycles. Among these parameters, the truck weight had the largest effect on FC. The study of the impact of two technologies on FE suggested that, depending on the circumstances, it may be more cost effective to reduce one parameter (such as coefficient of aerodynamic drag) to increase fuel economy, or it may be more beneficial to reduce another (such as the coefficient of rolling resistance). It also provided a convenient way to estimate FE by interpolating within the parameter values and extrapolating outside of them. The simulation results indicated that the FC could be reduced from 38.70 L/100 km, 50.72 L/100 km, and 38.42 L/100 km in the baseline truck to 26.78 L/100 km, 43.14 L/100 km and 29.84 L/100 km over the HHDDT, WVU City and CILCC drive cycles, respectively, when the U.S. Department of Energy's three targeted new technologies were applied simultaneously.

  18. Boosted di-boson from a mixed heavy stop

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Diptimoy

    2013-12-01

    The lighter mass eigenstate ($\\widetilde{t}_1$) of the two top squarks, the scalar superpartners of the top quark, is extremely difficult to discover if it is almost degenerate with the lightest neutralino ($\\widetilde{\\chi}_1^0$), the lightest and stable supersymmetric particle in the R-parity conserving supersymmetry. The current experimental bound on $\\widetilde{t}_1$ mass in this scenario stands only around 200 GeV. For such a light $\\widetilde{t}_1$, the heavier top squark ($\\widetilde{t}_2$) can also be around the TeV scale. Moreover, the high value of the higgs ($h$) mass prefers the left and right handed top squarks to be highly mixed allowing the possibility of a considerable branching ratio for $\\widetilde{t}_2 \\to \\widetilde{t}_1 h$ and $\\widetilde{t}_2 \\to \\widetilde{t}_1 Z$. In this paper, we explore the above possibility together with the pair production of $\\widetilde{t}_2$ $\\widetilde{t}_2^*$ giving rise to the spectacular di-boson + missing transverse energy final state. For an approximately 1 TeV $\\widetilde{t}_2$ and a few hundred GeV $\\widetilde{t}_1$ the final state particles can be moderately boosted which encourages us to propose a novel search strategy employing the jet substructure technique to tag the boosted $h$ and $Z$. The reconstruction of the $h$ and $Z$ momenta also allows us to construct the stransverse mass $M_{T2}$ providing an additional efficient handle to fight the backgrounds. We show that a 4--5$\\sigma$ signal can be observed at the 14 TeV LHC for $\\sim$ 1 TeV $\\widetilde{t}_2$ with 100 fb$^{-1}$ integrated luminosity.

  19. Wind tunnel measurements of the dilution of tailpipe emissions downstream of a car, a light-duty truck, and a heavy-duty truck tractor head.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor W C; Hildemann, Lynn M; Chang, Cheng-hisn

    2009-06-01

    The particle and gaseous pollutants in vehicle exhaust emissions undergo rapid dilution with ambient air after exiting the tailpipe. The rate and extent of this dilution can greatly affect both the size evolution of primary exhaust particles and the potential for formation of ultrafine particles. Dilution ratios were measured inside of a wind tunnel in the region immediately downstream of the tailpipe using model vehicles (approximately one-fifth to one-seventh scale models) representing a light-duty truck, a passenger car, and a heavy-duty tractor head (without the trailer). A tracer gas (ethene) was released at a measured flow rate from the tailpipe, and 60 sampling probes placed downstream of the vehicle simultaneously sampled gas tracer concentrations in the near-wake (first few vehicle heights) and far-wake regions (beyond 10 vehicle heights). Tests using different tunnel wind speeds show the range of dilution ratios that can be expected as a function of vehicle type and downstream distance (i.e., time). The vehicle shape quite strongly influences dilution profiles in the near-wake region but is much less important in the far-wake region. The tractor generally produces higher dilution rates than the automobile and light-duty truck under comparable conditions.

  20. Evaluation of fuel consumption potential of medium and heavy duty vehicles through modeling and simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Delorme, A.; Karbowski, D.; Sharer, P.; Energy Systems

    2010-03-31

    The main objective of this report is to provide quantitative data to support the Committee in its task of establishing a report to support rulemaking on medium- and heavy-duty fuel efficiency improvement. In particular, it is of paramount importance for the Committee to base or illustrate their conclusions on established models and actual state-of-the art data. The simulations studies presented in the report have been defined and requested by the members of the National Academy committee to provide quantitative inputs to support their recommendations. As such, various technologies and usage scenarios were considered for several applications. One of the objective is to provide the results along with their associated assumptions (both vehicle and drive cycles), information generally missing from public discussions on literature search. Finally, the advantages and limitations of using simulation will be summarized. The study addresses several of the committee tasks, including: (1) Discussion of the implication of metric selection; (2) Assessing the impact of existing technologies on fuel consumption through energy balance analysis (both steady-state and standard cycles) as well as real world drive cycles; and (3) Impact of future technologies, both individually and collectively.

  1. Effects of methanol-containing additive on emission characteristics from a heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Chao, M R; Lin, T C; Chao, H R; Chang, F H; Chen, C B

    2001-11-12

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of methanol-containing additive (MCA) on the regulated emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), as well as the unregulated carbon dioxide (CO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a diesel engine. The engine was tested on a series of diesel fuels blended with five additive levels (0, 5, 8, 10 and 15% of MCA by volume). Emissions tests were performed under both cold- and hot-start transient heavy-duty federal test procedure (HD-FTP) cycles and two selected steady-state modes. Results show that MCA addition slightly decreases PM emissions but generally increases both THC and CO emissions. Decrease in NOx emissions was found common in all MCA blends. As for unregulated emissions, CO2 emissions did not change significantly for all MCA blends, while vapor-phase and particle-associated PAHs emissions in high load and transient cycle tests were relatively low compared to the base diesel when either 5 or 8% MCA was used. This may be attributed to the lower PAHs levels in MCA blends. Finally, the particle-associated PAHs emissions also showed trends quite similar to that of the PM emissions in this study.

  2. Fuel Economy Improvement by Utilizing Thermoelectric Generator in Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Hu, T.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.

    2016-10-01

    Recent advances in thermoelectric technology have made exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (TEGs) promising for recovery of waste heat. Utilization of exhaust-based TEGs in heavy-duty vehicles was studied in this work. Given that the generated power is limited, the alternator is still indispensable. To improve the fuel economy, the generated electricity must be integrated into the automotive electrical system and consumed by electrical loads. Therefore, two feasible ways of integrating the generated electricity into the automotive electrical system are discussed: one in which the original alternator works only under certain conditions, i.e., the "thermostat" strategy, and another in which a smaller alternator is adopted and works together with the TEG, i.e., the "cooperative work" strategy. The overall performance and efficiency are obtained through simulation analysis. The simulation results show that both methods can improve the fuel economy, but the former provides better results. Moreover, if the electrical loads can be properly modified, the fuel economy is further improved. These simulation results lay a solid foundation for application of TEGs in vehicles in the future.

  3. Nucleation mode particles with a nonvolatile core in the exhaust of a heavy duty diesel vehicle.

    PubMed

    Rönkkö, Topi; Virtanen, Annele; Kannosto, Jonna; Keskinen, Jorma; Lappi, Maija; Pirjola, Liisa

    2007-09-15

    The characteristics of the nucleation mode particles of a Euro IV heavy-duty diesel vehicle exhaust were studied. The NOx and PM emissions of the vehicle were controlled through the use of cooled EGR and high-pressure fuel injection techniques; no exhaust gas after-treatment was used. Particle measurements were performed in vehicle laboratory and on road. Nucleation mode dominated the particle number size distribution in all the tested driving conditions. According to the on-road measurements, the nucleation mode was already formed after 0.7 s residence time in the atmosphere and no significant changes were observed for longer residence times. The nucleation mode was insensitive to the fuel sulfur content, dilution air temperature, and relative humidity. An increase in the dilution ratio decreased the size of the nucleation mode particles. This behavior was observed to be linked to the total hydrocarbon concentration in the diluted sample. In volatility measurements, the nucleation mode particles were observed to have a nonvolatile core with volatile species condensed on it. The results indicate that the nucleation mode particles have a nonvolatile core formed before the dilution process. The core particles have grown because of the condensation of semivolatile material, mainly hydrocarbons, during the dilution.

  4. Dynamic Analysis of Heavy Vehicle Medium Duty Drive Shaft Using Conventional and Composite Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Jain, Rajat; Patil, Pravin P.

    2016-09-01

    The main highlight of this study is structural and modal analysis of single piece drive shaft for selection of material. Drive shaft is used for torque carrying from vehicle transmission to rear wheel differential system. Heavy vehicle medium duty transmission drive shaft was selected as research object. Conventional materials (Steel SM45 C, Stainless Steel) and composite materials (HS carbon epoxy, E Glass Polyester Resin Composite) were selected for the analysis. Single piece composite material drive shaft has advantage over conventional two-piece steel drive shaft. It has higher specific strength, longer life, less weight, high critical speed and higher torque carrying capacity. The main criteria for drive shaft failure are strength and weight. Maximum modal frequency obtained is 919 Hz. Various harmful vibration modes (lateral vibration and torsional vibration) were identified and maximum deflection region was specified. For single-piece drive shaft the natural bending frequency should be higher because it is subjected to torsion and shear stress. Single piece drive shaft was modelled using Solid Edge and Pro-E. Finite Element Analysis was used for structural and modal analysis with actual running boundary condition like frictional support, torque and moment. FEA simulation results were validated with experimental literature results.

  5. Effect of fuel aromatic content on PAH emission from a heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Mi, H H; Lee, W J; Chen, C B; Yang, H H; Wu, S J

    2000-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emission tests for a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with blend base diesel fuel by adding batch fractions of poly-aromatic and mono-aromatic hydrocarbons, Fluorene and Toluene, respectively, were simulated to five steady-state modes by a DC-current dynamometer with fully automatic control system. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of total aromatic content and poly-aromatic content in diesel fuels on PAH emission from the HDD engine exhaust under these steady-state modes. The results of this study revealed that adding 3% and 5% (fuel vol%) Fluorene in the diesel fuel increases the amount of total-PAH emission by 2.6 and 5.7 times, respectively and increases the amount of Fluorene emission by 52.9 and 152 times, respectively, than no additives. However, there was no significant variation of PAH emission by adding 10% (vol%) of Toluene. To regulate the content of poly-aromatic content in diesel fuel, in contrast to the total aromatic content, will be more suitable for the management of PAH emission.

  6. Unregulated emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine with various fuels and emission control systems.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shida; Frank, Brian P; Lanni, Thomas; Rideout, Greg; Meyer, Norman; Beregszaszy, Chris

    2007-07-15

    This study evaluated the effects of various combinations of fuels and emission control technologies on exhaust emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine tested on an engine dynamometer. Ten fuels were studied in twenty four combinations of fuel and emission control technology configurations. Emission control systems evaluated were diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CRDPF), and the CRDPF coupled with an exhaust gas recirculation system (EGRT). The effects of fuel type and emission control technology on emissions of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), and 1,3-butadiene, elemental carbon and organic carbon (EC/OC), carbonyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-PAHs (n-PAHs) are presented in this paper. Regulated gaseous criteria pollutants of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have been reported elsewhere. In general, individual unregulated emission with a CRDPF or an EGRT system is similar (at very low emission level) or much lower than that operating solely with a DOC and choosing a "best" fuel. The water emulsion PuriNO(x) fuel exhibited higher BTEX, carbonyls and PAHs emissions compared to other ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels tested in this study while n-PAH emissions were comparable to that from other ULSD fuels. Naphthalene accounted for greater than 50% of the total PAH emissions in this study and there was no significant increase of n-PAHs with the usage of CRDPF.

  7. Wear and wear mechanism simulation of heavy-duty engine intake valve and seat inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. S.; Narasimhan, S.; Larson, J. M.; Schaefer, S. K.

    1998-02-01

    A silicon-chromium alloy frequently used for heavy-duty diesel engine intake valves was tested against eight different insert materials with a valve seat wear simulator. Wear resistance of these combinations was ranked. For each test, the valve seat temperature was controlled at approximately 510 °C, the number of cycles was 864,000 (or 24 h), and the test load was 17,640 N. The combination of the silicon-chromium valve against a cast iron insert produced the least valve seat wear, whereas a cobalt-base alloy insert produced the highest valve seat wear. In the overall valve seat recession ranking, however, the combination of the silicon-chromium valve and an iron-base chromium-nickel alloy insert had the least total seat recession, whereas the silicon-chromium valve against cobalt-base alloy, cast iron, and nickel-base alloy inserts had significant seat recession. Hardness and microstructure compatibility of valve and insert materials are believed to be significant factors in reducing valve and insert wear. The test results indicate that the mechanisms of valve seat and insert wear are a complex combination of adhesion and plastic deformation. Adhesion was confirmed by material transfer, while plastic deformation was verified by shear strain (or radial flow) and abrasion. The oxide films formed during testing also played a significant role. They prevented direct metal-to-metal contact and reduced the coefficient of friction on seat surfaces, thereby reducing adhesive and deformation-controlled wear.

  8. Transformation toughened ceramics for the heavy duty diesel engine technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musikant, S.; Feingold, E.; Rauch, H.; Samanta, S.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an advanced high temperature oxide structural ceramic for application to the heavy duty diesel engine. The approach is to employ transformation toughening by additions of ZrO.5HfO.5O2 solid solution to the oxide ceramics, mullite (2Al2O3S2SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3). The study is planned for three phases, each 12 months in duration. This report covers Phase 1. During this period, processing techniques were developed to incorporate the ZrO.5HfO.5O2 solid solution in the matrices while retaining the necessary metastable tetragonal phase. Modulus of rupture and of elasticity, coefficient of thermal expansion, fracture toughness by indent technique and thermal diffusivity of representative specimens were measured. In Phase 2, the process will be improved to provide higher mechanical strength and to define the techniques for scale up to component size. In Phase 3, full scale component prototypes will be fabri-]cated.

  9. Emission characteristics of a heavy-duty diesel engine at simulated high altitudes.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei; Liu, Zhihua; Wang, Chu; Yu, Linxiao; Ding, Yan

    2011-08-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of altitude on the pollutant emissions of a diesel engine, an experimental research was carried out using an engine test bench with an altitude simulation system. The emissions of HC, CO, NOx, smoke, and particle number of a heavy-duty diesel engine were measured under steady state operating conditions at sea level and simulated altitudes of 1000 and 2000 m. The experimental results indicate that the high altitude increases the emissions of HC, CO and smoke of the diesel engine, the average increasing rates of which are 30%, 35% and 34% with addition of altitude of 1000 m, respectively. The effect of high altitudes on the NOx emission varies with the engine types and working conditions. At 1000 m the particles number emissions are 1.6 to 4.2 times the levels at the low altitude. The pattern of the particle size distributions at 1000 m is similar with that at sea-level, which is the mono-modal lognormal distribution with geometric mean diameter around 0.1 μm. However, the peak number concentrations of particles are bigger and the exhausted particles are smaller at the high altitude.

  10. Nanoparticle emissions from a heavy-duty engine running on alternative diesel fuels.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Juha; Virtanen, Annele; Rönkkö, Topi; Keskinen, Jorma; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Murtonen, Timo

    2009-12-15

    We have studied the effect of three different fuels (fossil diesel fuel (EN590); rapeseed methyl ester (RME); and synthetic gas-to-liquid (GTL)) on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. Our main focus was on nanoparticle emissions of the engine. Our results show that the particle emissions from a modern diesel engine run with EN590, GTL, or RME consisted of two partly nonvolatile modes that were clearly separated in particle size. The concentration and geometric mean diameter of nonvolatile nucleation mode cores measured with RME were substantially greater than with the other fuels. The soot particle concentration and soot particle size were lowest with RME. With EN590 and GTL, a similar engine load dependence of the nonvolatile nucleation mode particle size and concentration imply a similar formation mechanism of the particles. For RME, the nonvolatile core particle size was larger and the concentration dependence on engine load was clearly different from that of EN590 and GTL. This indicates that the formation mechanism of the core particles is different for RME. This can be explained by differences in the fuel characteristics.

  11. Clutch fill control of an automatic transmission for heavy-duty vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fei; Chen, Huiyan; Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper an integrated clutch filling phase control for gearshifts on wet clutch transmissions is developed. In a clutch-to-clutch shift of an automatic transmission, in order to obtain smooth gearshift, it should synchronize the oncoming clutch and the off-going clutch timely as well as precise pressure control for the engagement of the oncoming clutch. However, before the oncoming clutch pressure starts to increase, the initial cavity of the clutch chamber has to be filled first. The filling time and stability of the fill phase are very important for the clutch control. In order to improve the shift quality of the automatic transmission which is equipped on heavy-duty vehicles, the electro-hydraulic clutch actuation system is analysed and modelled. A new fill phase control strategy is proposed based on the system analysis as well as the control parameters are optimized according to the variation of the oil temperature and engine speed. The designed strategy is validated by a simulation work. The results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy and parameters modified method can transit the shift process from the fill phase to the torque phase effectively.

  12. A Vector Approach to Regression Analysis and Its Implications to Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, H.T.

    2001-02-14

    An alternative approach is presented for the regression of response data on predictor variables that are not logically or physically separable. The methodology is demonstrated by its application to a data set of heavy-duty diesel emissions. Because of the covariance of fuel properties, it is found advantageous to redefine the predictor variables as vectors, in which the original fuel properties are components, rather than as scalars each involving only a single fuel property. The fuel property vectors are defined in such a way that they are mathematically independent and statistically uncorrelated. Because the available data set does not allow definitive separation of vehicle and fuel effects, and because test fuels used in several of the studies may be unrealistically contrived to break the association of fuel variables, the data set is not considered adequate for development of a full-fledged emission model. Nevertheless, the data clearly show that only a few basic patterns of fuel-property variation affect emissions and that the number of these patterns is considerably less than the number of variables initially thought to be involved. These basic patterns, referred to as ''eigenfuels,'' may reflect blending practice in accordance with their relative weighting in specific circumstances. The methodology is believed to be widely applicable in a variety of contexts. It promises an end to the threat of collinearity and the frustration of attempting, often unrealistically, to separate variables that are inseparable.

  13. Radiative Heat Transfer and Turbulence-Radiation Interactions in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, C.; Sircar, A.; Ferreyro, S.; Imren, A.; Haworth, D. C.; Roy, S.; Ge, W.; Modest, M. F.

    2016-11-01

    Radiation in piston engines has received relatively little attention to date. Recently, it is being revisited in light of current trends towards higher operating pressures and higher levels of exhaust-gas recirculation, both of which enhance molecular gas radiation. Advanced high-efficiency engines also are expected to function closer to the limits of stable operation, where even small perturbations to the energy balance can have a large influence on system behavior. Here several different spectral radiation property models and radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers have been implemented in an OpenFOAM-based engine CFD code, and simulations have been performed for a heavy-duty diesel engine. Differences in computed temperature fields, NO and soot levels, and wall heat transfer rates are shown for different combinations of spectral models and RTE solvers. The relative importance of molecular gas radiation versus soot radiation is examined. And the influence of turbulence-radiation interactions is determined by comparing results obtained using local mean values of composition and temperature to compute radiative emission and absorption with those obtained using a particle-based transported probability density function method. DOE, NSF.

  14. Human health impacts of biodiesel use in on-road heavy duty diesel vehicles in Canada.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Mathieu; Egyed, Marika; Taylor, Brett; Chen, Jack; Samaali, Mehrez; Davignon, Didier; Morneau, Gilles

    2013-11-19

    Regulatory requirements for renewable content in diesel fuel have been adopted in Canada. Fatty acid alkyl esters, that is, biodiesel, will likely be used to meet the regulations. However, the impacts on ambient atmospheric pollutant concentrations and human health outcomes associated with the use of biodiesel fuel blends in heavy duty diesel vehicles across Canada have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess the potential human health implications of the widespread use of biodiesel in Canada compared to those from ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD). The health impacts/benefits resulting from biodiesel use were determined with the Air Quality Benefits Assessment Tool, based on output from the AURAMS air quality modeling system and the MOBILE6.2C on-road vehicle emissions model. Scenarios included runs for ULSD and biodiesel blends with 5 and 20% of biodiesel by volume, and compared their use in 2006 and 2020. Although modeling and data limitations exist, the results of this study suggested that the use of biodiesel fuel blends compared to ULSD was expected to result in very minimal changes in air quality and health benefits/costs across Canada, and these were likely to diminish over time.

  15. Pump-to-Wheels Methane Emissions from the Heavy-Duty Transportation Sector.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nigel N; McKain, David L; Johnson, Derek R; Wayne, W Scott; Li, Hailin; Akkerman, Vyacheslav; Sandoval, Cesar; Covington, April N; Mongold, Ronald A; Hailer, John T; Ugarte, Orlando J

    2017-01-17

    Pump-to-wheels (PTW) methane emissions from the heavy-duty (HD) transportation sector, which have climate change implications, are poorly documented. In this study, methane emissions from HD natural gas fueled vehicles and the compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueling stations that serve them were characterized. A novel measurement system was developed to quantify methane leaks and losses. Engine related emissions were characterized from twenty-two natural gas fueled transit buses, refuse trucks, and over-the-road (OTR) tractors. Losses from six LNG and eight CNG stations were characterized during compression, fuel delivery, storage, and from leaks. Cryogenic boil-off pressure rise and pressure control venting from LNG storage tanks were characterized using theoretical and empirical modeling. Field and laboratory observations of LNG storage tanks were used for model development and evaluation. PTW emissions were combined with a specific scenario to view emissions as a percent of throughput. Vehicle tailpipe and crankcase emissions were the highest sources of methane. Data from this research are being applied by the authors to develop models to forecast methane emissions from the future HD transportation sector.

  16. Cost of lower NO x emissions: Increased CO 2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Mohan; Carder, Daniel K.; Thompson, Gregory; Gautam, Mridul

    This paper highlights the effect of emissions regulations on in-use emissions from heavy-duty vehicles powered by different model year engines. More importantly, fuel economy data for pre- and post-consent decree engines are compared. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in brake-specific emissions of NO x as a result of emission regulations, and to highlight the effect these have had on brake-specific CO 2 emission; hence, fuel consumption. For this study, in-use, on-road emission measurements were collected. Test vehicles were instrumented with a portable on-board tailpipe emissions measurement system, WVU's Mobile Emissions Measurement System, and were tested on specific routes, which included a mix of highway and city driving patterns, in order to collect engine operating conditions, vehicle speed, and in-use emission rates of CO 2 and NO x. Comparison of on-road in-use emissions data suggests NO x reductions as high as 80% and 45% compared to the US Federal Test Procedure and Not-to-Exceed standards for model year 1995-2002. However, the results indicate that the fuel consumption; hence, CO 2 emissions increased by approximately 10% over the same period, when the engines were operating in the Not-to-Exceed region.

  17. Energetic, structural, thermal and fatigue analysis of heavy duty process pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipej, A.; Mitrusevski, D.; Zafosnik, B.

    2016-11-01

    Design of heavy duty process pumps usually based on the end user requirements. Operating conditions of pumps in the system dictate technical solution to reach high performance pump design. Pumps for special application like nuclear power plants, petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industry should reach very high design criteria and have to fulfil requirements of different international standards for pumps. Usually energetic and cavitation characteristics are necessary issues of the development procedure. In this paper structural analysis that include thermo-mechanical loading and fatigue phenomena are also considered, because they are very important for estimation of long service life. Repeated thermomechanical loading and unloading which leads to fatigue of pumps are obtained using unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) with taking into account also thermodynamics equations. Complete numerical analysis is done for an example of centrifugal pump with the specific speed around nq=24. The results show energetic characteristics, thermal stresses and deformations and maximal number of operation cycles for safe and reliable operation.

  18. Influence of methane emissions and vehicle efficiency on the climate implications of heavy-duty natural gas trucks.

    PubMed

    Camuzeaux, Jonathan R; Alvarez, Ramón A; Brooks, Susanne A; Browne, Joshua B; Sterner, Thomas

    2015-06-02

    While natural gas produces lower carbon dioxide emissions than diesel during combustion, if enough methane is emitted across the fuel cycle, then switching a heavy-duty truck fleet from diesel to natural gas can produce net climate damages (more radiative forcing) for decades. Using the Technology Warming Potential methodology, we assess the climate implications of a diesel to natural gas switch in heavy-duty trucks. We consider spark ignition (SI) and high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) natural gas engines and compressed and liquefied natural gas. Given uncertainty surrounding several key assumptions and the potential for technology to evolve, results are evaluated for a range of inputs for well-to-pump natural gas loss rates, vehicle efficiency, and pump-to-wheels (in-use) methane emissions. Using reference case assumptions reflecting currently available data, we find that converting heavy-duty truck fleets leads to damages to the climate for several decades: around 70-90 years for the SI cases, and 50 years for the more efficient HPDI. Our range of results indicates that these fuel switches have the potential to produce climate benefits on all time frames, but combinations of significant well-to-wheels methane emissions reductions and natural gas vehicle efficiency improvements would be required.

  19. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development for Auxiliary Power in Heavy Duty Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel T. Hennessy

    2010-06-15

    Changing economic and environmental needs of the trucking industry is driving the use of auxiliary power unit (APU) technology for over the road haul trucks. The trucking industry in the United States remains the key to the economy of the nation and one of the major changes affecting the trucking industry is the reduction of engine idling. Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC (Delphi) teamed with heavy-duty truck Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) PACCAR Incorporated (PACCAR), and Volvo Trucks North America (VTNA) to define system level requirements and develop an SOFC based APU. The project defines system level requirements, and subsequently designs and implements an optimized system architecture using an SOFC APU to demonstrate and validate that the APU will meet system level goals. The primary focus is on APUs in the range of 3-5 kW for truck idling reduction. Fuels utilized were derived from low-sulfur diesel fuel. Key areas of study and development included sulfur remediation with reformer operation; stack sensitivity testing; testing of catalyst carbon plugging and combustion start plugging; system pre-combustion; and overall system and electrical integration. This development, once fully implemented and commercialized, has the potential to significantly reduce the fuel idling Class 7/8 trucks consume. In addition, the significant amounts of NOx, CO2 and PM that are produced under these engine idling conditions will be virtually eliminated, inclusive of the noise pollution. The environmental impact will be significant with the added benefit of fuel savings and payback for the vehicle operators / owners.

  20. Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2009-02-02

    Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel-fueled trucks driving through a 1 km-long California highway tunnel in August 2006. Emission factors were based on concurrent increases in BC, PN, and CO{sub 2}B concentrations (measured at 1 Hz) that corresponded to the passage of individual HD trucks. The distributions of BC and PN emission factors from individual HD trucks are skewed, meaning that a large fraction of pollution comes from a small fraction of the in-use vehicle fleet. The highest-emitting 10% of trucks were responsible for {approx} 40% of total BC and PN emissions from all HD trucks. BC emissions were log-normally distributed with a mean emission factor of 1.7 g kg {sup -1} and maximum values of {approx} 10 g kg{sup -1}. Corresponding values for PN emission factors were 4.7 x 10{sup 15} and 4 x 10{sup 16} kg{sup -1}. There was minimal overlap among high-emitters of these two pollutants: only 1 of the 226 HD trucks measured was found to be among the highest 10% for both BC and PN. Monte Carlo resampling of the distribution of BC emission factors observed in this study revealed that uncertainties (1{sigma}) in extrapolating from a random sample of n HD trucks to a population mean emission factor ranged from {+-} 43% for n = 10 to {+-} 8% for n = 300, illustrating the importance of sufficiently large vehicle sample sizes in emissions studies. Studies with low sample sizes are also more easily biased due to misrepresentation of high-emitters. As vehicles become cleaner on average in future years, skewness of the emissions distributions will increase, and thus sample sizes needed to extrapolate reliably from a subset of vehicles to the entire in-use vehicle fleet are expected to become more of a challenge.

  1. Comparative risk analysis of dioxins in fish and fine particles from heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Leino, Olli; Tainio, Marko; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2008-02-01

    Dioxins and airborne fine particles are both environmental health problems that have been the subject of active public debate. Knowledge on fine particles has increased substantially during the last 10 years, and even the current, lowered levels in the Europe and in the United States appear to be a major public health problem. On the other hand, dioxins are ubiquitous persistent contaminants, some being carcinogens at high doses, and therefore of great concern. Our aim was to (a) quantitatively analyze the two pollutant health risks and (b) study the changes in risk in view of the current and forthcoming EU legislations on pollutants. We performed a comparative risk assessment for both pollutants in the Helsinki metropolitan area (Finland) and estimated the health effects with several scenarios. For primary fine particles: a comparison between the present emission situation for heavy-duty vehicles and the new fine particle emission standards set by the EU. For dioxins: an EU directive that regulates commercial fishing of Baltic salmon and herring that exceed the dioxin concentration limit set for fish meat, and a derogation (= exemption) from the directive for these two species. Both of these two decisions are very topical issues and this study estimates the expected changes in health effects due to these regulations. It was found that the estimated fine particle risk clearly outweighed the estimated dioxin risk. A substantial improvement to public health could be achieved by initiating reductions in emission standards; about 30 avoided premature deaths annually in the study area. In addition, the benefits of fish consumption due to omega-3 exposure were notably higher than the potential dioxin cancer risk. Both regulations were instigated as ways of promoting public health.

  2. The effect of fuel processes on heavy duty automotive diesel engine emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, E.G.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of fuel quality on exhaust emissions from 2 heavy duty diesel engines has been measured over the ECE R49 test cycle. The engines were selected to represent technologies used to meet Euro 1 and 2 emission standards (1992/93 and 1995/96); engines 1 and 2 respectively. The test fuels were prepared by a combination of processing, blending and additive treatment. When comparing the emissions from engines 1 and 2, using base line data generated on the CEC reference fuel RF73-T-90, engine technology had the major effect on emission levels. Engine 2 reduced both particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide levels by approximately 50%, with total hydrocarbon (THC) being approximately 75% lower. Oxides of nitrogen levels were similar for both engines. The variations in test fuel quality had marginal effects on emissions, with the two engines giving directionally opposite responses in some cases. For instance, there was an effect on CO and NOx but where one engine showed a reduction the other gave an increase. There were no significant changes in THC emissions from either engine when operating on any of the test fuels. When the reference fuel was hydrotreated, engine 1 showed a trend towards reduced particulate and NOx but with CO increasing. Engine 2 also showed a trend for reduced particulate levels, with an increase in NOx and no change in CO. Processing to reduce the final boiling point of the reference fuel showed a trend towards reduced particulate emissions with CO increasing on engine 1 but decreasing on engine 2.

  3. The transportable heavy-duty engine emissions testing laboratory. Annual progress report, April 1990--April 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    West Virginia University has designed and constructed a Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for measuring emissions from heavy duty vehicles, such as buses and trucks operating on conventional and alternative fuels. The laboratory facility can be transported to a test site located at, or nearby, the home base of the vehicles to be tested. The laboratory has the capability of measuring vehicle emissions as the vehicle is operated under either transient or steady state loads and speeds. The exhaust emissions from the vehicle is sampled and the levels of the constituents of the emission are measured. The laboratory consists of two major units; a power absorber unit and an emissions measurement unit. A power absorber unit allows for the connection of a dynamic load to the drive train of the vehicle so that the vehicle can be ``driven`` through a test cycle while actually mounted on a stationary test bed. The emissions unit contains instrumentation and equipment which allows for the dilution of the vehicle`s exhaust with air. The diluteed exhaust is sampled and analyzed to measure the level of concentration of those constituents which have been identified to have impact on the clean environment. Sampling probes withdraw diluted exhaust which is supplied to a number of different exhaust gas analysis instruments. The exhaust gas analysis instruments have the capability to measure the levels of the following exhaust gas constituents: carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), formaldehyde (HCHO), methane and particulate matter. Additional instruments or sampling devices can be installed whenever measurements of additional constituents are desired. A computer based, data acquisition system is used to continuously monitor a wide range of parameters important to the operation of the test and to record the test results.

  4. Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Slone; Jeffrey Birkel

    2007-10-31

    The Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks program (DE-FC26-04NT42189), commonly referred to as the AES program, focused on areas that will primarily benefit fuel economy and improve heat rejection while driving over the road. The AES program objectives were to: (1) Analyze, design, build, and test a cooling system that provided a minimum of 10 percent greater heat rejection in the same frontal area with no increase in parasitic fan load. (2) Realize fuel savings with advanced power management and acceleration assist by utilizing an integrated starter/generator (ISG) and energy storage devices. (3) Quantify the effect of aerodynamic drag due to the frontal shape mandated by the area required for the cooling system. The program effort consisted of modeling and designing components for optimum fuel efficiency, completing fabrication of necessary components, integrating these components into the chassis test bed, completing controls programming, and performance testing the system both on a chassis dynamometer and on the road. Emission control measures for heavy-duty engines have resulted in increased engine heat loads, thus introducing added parasitic engine cooling loads. Truck electrification, in the form of thermal management, offers technological solutions to mitigate or even neutralize the effects of this trend. Thermal control offers opportunities to avoid increases in cooling system frontal area and forestall reduced fuel economy brought about by additional aerodynamic vehicle drag. This project explored such thermal concepts by installing a 2007 engine that is compliant with current regulations and bears additional heat rejection associated with meeting these regulations. This newer engine replaced the 2002 engine from a previous project that generated less heat rejection. Advanced power management, utilizing a continuously optimized and controlled power flow between electric components, can offer additional

  5. Opportunities for Low Cost Titanium in Reduced Fuel Consumption, Improved Emissions, and Enhanced Durability Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, E.H.

    2002-07-22

    The purpose of this study was to determine which components of heavy-duty highway vehicles are candidates for the substitution of titanium materials for current materials if the cost of those Ti components is very significantly reduced from current levels. The processes which could be used to produce those low cost components were also investigated. Heavy-duty highway vehicles are defined as all trucks and busses included in Classes 2C through 8. These include heavy pickups and vans above 8,500 lbs. GVWR, through highway tractor trailers. Class 8 is characterized as being a very cyclic market, with ''normal'' year volume, such as in 2000, of approximately 240,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-7 are less cyclic, with ''normal'' i.e., year 2000, volume totaling approximately 325,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-8 are powered about 88.5% by diesel engines, and Class 2C at very roughly 83% diesel. The engine portion of the study therefore focused on diesels. Vehicle production volumes were used in estimates of the market size for candidate components.

  6. Recycling of Malaysia's electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste into heavy-duty green ceramic tile.

    PubMed

    Teo, Pao-Ter; Anasyida, Abu Seman; Basu, Projjal; Nurulakmal, Mohd Sharif

    2014-12-01

    flexural strength, lowest apparent porosity and water absorption of EAF slag based tile was attained at the composition of 40 wt.% EAF slag--30 wt.% ball clay--10 wt.% feldspar--20 wt.% silica. The properties of ceramic tile made with EAF slag waste (up to 40 wt.%), especially flexural strength are comparable to those of commercial ceramic tile and are, therefore, suitable as high flexural strength and heavy-duty green ceramic floor tile. Continuous development is currently underway to improve the properties of tile so that this recycling approach could be one of the potential effective, efficient and sustainable solutions in sustaining our nature.

  7. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  8. [Applied physiology: the work of driving an industrial heavy-duty truck on the highway].

    PubMed

    Wyss, V; Cavalli, S

    1983-07-01

    Scope of this work was the investigation of the following parameters: energetic metabolism, by O2 consumption measurement using the open-circuit technique; pulmonary ventilation; cardio-circulatory activity behaviour, by recording heart rate, E.C.G., arterial blood pressure and plethysmography of lower limbs; body temperature pattern; visual function, through the determination of the visual field; kidney function through urine analysis; body joints flexibility, by proper test. The subjects chosen for this investigation are three experienced heavy-duty vehicle drivers that where submitted to proper checks before, during and after having driven a 190.38 Model truck fitted with spoiler and an S.R. Viber, high cargo body tarpaulin, PTT, 43.2 tons overall weight truck, over 9 different courses including town traffic, level highway, up and downhill highway with different gradients, in a period from 9 a.m. to 8 p.m. Along the total run of 404 kilometres, covered in 364 minutes, recording of the parameters under investigation was carried out over 249 kilometres covered 240 minutes (72% of overall driving time). Energy expenditure (1.20 +/- .19 Kcal/min at rest) resulted higher on steep uphill stretches with many bends (2.28 +/- .44 Kcal/min) than on less steep up- and downhill stretches and in city traffic (1.82 +/- .21 Kcal/min). The lowest energy expenditure--in some cases lower than the value found in the experimental rest--was recorded during motorway driving (1.28 +/- .19 Kcal/min). Pulmonary ventilation was characterized by frequent changes in rate and tidal air, in strict relationship with driving work bio-mechanical requirements (operation of the steering wheel). Also heart rate underwent ariations well in line with the energy expenditure pattern: of limited magnitude in uphill driving (+33% max over the value at rest), up to values identical with those at rest in the level highway drive. No appreciable variations were recorded in the respiratory quotient, calories

  9. Powertrain Test Procedure Development for EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Paul H.; Deter, Dean D.

    2016-07-01

    xiii ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to develop and evaluate powertrain test procedures that can accurately simulate real-world operating conditions, and to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of advanced medium- and heavy-duty engine and vehicle technologies. ORNL used their Vehicle System Integration Laboratory to evaluate test procedures on a stand-alone engine as well as two powertrains. Those components where subjected to various drive cycles and vehicle conditions to evaluate the validity of the results over a broad range of test conditions. Overall, more than 1000 tests were performed. The data are compiled and analyzed in this report.

  10. Computer simulation of the heavy-duty turbo-compounded diesel cycle for studies of engine efficiency and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assanis, D. N.; Ekchian, J. A.; Heywood, J. B.; Replogle, K. K.

    1984-01-01

    Reductions in heat loss at appropriate points in the diesel engine which result in substantially increased exhaust enthalpy were shown. The concepts for this increased enthalpy are the turbocharged, turbocompounded diesel engine cycle. A computer simulation of the heavy duty turbocharged turbo-compounded diesel engine system was undertaken. This allows the definition of the tradeoffs which are associated with the introduction of ceramic materials in various parts of the total engine system, and the study of system optimization. The basic assumptions and the mathematical relationships used in the simulation of the model engine are described.

  11. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines

    PubMed Central

    Khalek, Imad A.; Blanks, Matthew G.; Merritt, Patrick M.; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines’ regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially

  12. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MCMA-2003 Field Measurement Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, M.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L.; Slott, R. S.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Shorter, J. H.; Worsnop, D.; Zahniser, M.; Onasch, T.; Kolb, C. E.; Rogers, T.; Knighton, B.

    2004-12-01

    On-road vehicle emissions were measured in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) as part of an intensive, five-week, field campaign held in the spring of 2003 (April 1 - May 5). Vehicle emissions measurements were made during vehicle chase experiments using the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory. The mobile lab was equipped with a large suite of state-of-the-art analytical instruments for measuring both gas and particle phase chemical components from vehicle emissions in real time. The experiment represents a real-world sample of more than 200 in-use vehicles. The results presented here focus on heavy-duty gasoline (HDGT) and heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT), although measurements included pick up trucks, colectivos (microbuses), and private automobiles as well. The use of covariance and fitting methods for individual species vs. CO2 allows the estimation of individual emission ratios in a real time plume-based analysis. The variability of emission ratios within a vehicle class and during different driving modes (acceleration, idling, etc.) are explored. Results are reported as molar emission ratios of emission gases with carbon dioxide. These and other vehicle-related emissions measured during the campaign will be presented and discussed. These types of studies are important for the development of emission inventories and their use in air quality modeling studies in urban areas.

  13. Study and application of acoustic emission testing in fault diagnosis of low-speed heavy-duty gears.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lixin; Zai, Fenlou; Su, Shanbin; Wang, Huaqing; Chen, Peng; Liu, Limei

    2011-01-01

    Most present studies on the acoustic emission signals of rotating machinery are experiment-oriented, while few of them involve on-spot applications. In this study, a method of redundant second generation wavelet transform based on the principle of interpolated subdivision was developed. With this method, subdivision was not needed during the decomposition. The lengths of approximation signals and detail signals were the same as those of original ones, so the data volume was twice that of original signals; besides, the data redundancy characteristic also guaranteed the excellent analysis effect of the method. The analysis of the acoustic emission data from the faults of on-spot low-speed heavy-duty gears validated the redundant second generation wavelet transform in the processing and denoising of acoustic emission signals. Furthermore, the analysis illustrated that the acoustic emission testing could be used in the fault diagnosis of on-spot low-speed heavy-duty gears and could be a significant supplement to vibration testing diagnosis.

  14. Study and Application of Acoustic Emission Testing in Fault Diagnosis of Low-Speed Heavy-Duty Gears

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lixin; Zai, Fenlou; Su, Shanbin; Wang, Huaqing; Chen, Peng; Liu, Limei

    2011-01-01

    Most present studies on the acoustic emission signals of rotating machinery are experiment-oriented, while few of them involve on-spot applications. In this study, a method of redundant second generation wavelet transform based on the principle of interpolated subdivision was developed. With this method, subdivision was not needed during the decomposition. The lengths of approximation signals and detail signals were the same as those of original ones, so the data volume was twice that of original signals; besides, the data redundancy characteristic also guaranteed the excellent analysis effect of the method. The analysis of the acoustic emission data from the faults of on-spot low-speed heavy-duty gears validated the redundant second generation wavelet transform in the processing and denoising of acoustic emission signals. Furthermore, the analysis illustrated that the acoustic emission testing could be used in the fault diagnosis of on-spot low-speed heavy-duty gears and could be a significant supplement to vibration testing diagnosis. PMID:22346592

  15. A critical review of the effectiveness of I/M programs for monitoring PM emissions from heavy duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Van Houtte, Jeroen; Niemeier, Deb

    2008-11-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) are estimated to contribute up to 36% of particulate matter (PM) emissions in urban areas. In response, many agencies have established HDV inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs designed to target and repair vehicles with excess emissions. In this review, we conduct an international comparison of legislative context and HDV I/M program characteristics across Europe, North America, and Australia. The results of this analysis show that HDV-I/M programs vary greatly in terms of the ways in which testing is organized, for example, roadside versus periodic testing, whether the fleet is self-tested, and how nonfleet and age exemptions are handled. We also show how the I/M test criteria have changed little in the last 15 years while regulations for new heavy-duty diesel engine emissions have become increasingly stringent. In the U.S., HDV engine PM emissions limits were reduced by a factor of 26 between 1997 and 2007. Most I/M programs have continued to test according to EPA (and often with state legislative confirmation) guidance procedures having cut-points established in 1992. An analysis of data from Washington State show that only a minority of post-1997 vehicles actually exceeds the detection levels of the free-acceleration smoke-opacity test procedures, with the result that malfunctions of these vehicles may not actually be detected. From our review, it is clear that even with the potential adoption of new technologies and a more systematic and efficient framework for HDV-I/M, more research must be conducted in the efficacies of periodic versus roadside testing (and location selection), the use of evaluation methods like fail rates and opacity distributions, and finally, in development of better methods for identifying excess emissions with sensors and duty cycles.

  16. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Khalek, Imad A; Blanks, Matthew G; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines' regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially (90

  17. Di-Hadron Angular Correlation Dependence on Leading Hadron Identity in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauder, Kolja

    A unique state of matter is created in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). It displays the properties of a near-perfect liquid of quarks and gluons (partons) interacting collectively via the strong force. Properties of this medium can be explored using high-energy probes created in the form of back-to-back pairs (jets) in hard scatterings. A distinct feature of the QGP is jet quenching, which describes the large energy loss of such probes observed in measurements of hadron distributions in head-on heavy ion collisions. A more differential measurement of jet quenching is achieved using di-hadron correlations, where relative angular distributions are studied with respect to a leading (high energy) "trigger" hadron. Two striking features found in di-hadron correlations are the emergence of a long-range plateau on the near-side (at small relative azimuth), the so-called "ridge", and a broadening and deformation of the away-side, back to back with the trigger. Using 200 GeV central gold-gold and minimum bias deuteron-gold collision data collected by the STAR detector at RHIC, a systematic study of the dependence of di-hadron correlation structures on the identity of the trigger particle is carried out in this work by statistically separating pion from non-pion (i.e. proton and kaon) triggers, offering new insights into the hadronization mechanisms in the QGP. The jet-like yield at small relative angles is found enhanced for leading pions in Au+Au data with respect to the d+Au reference, while leading non-pions (protons and kaons) do not elicit such an enhancement. These findings are discussed within the context of quark recombination. At large angles, the correlated yield is significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. Parameters extracted from two-dimensional model fits are used to test consistency with the constituent quark scaling assumptions

  18. Development and Demonstration of a Low Cost Hybrid Drive Train for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Strangas, Elias; Schock, Harold; Zhu, Guoming; Moran, Kevin; Ruckle, Trevor; Foster, Shanelle; Cintron-Rivera, Jorge; Tariq, Abdul; Nino-Baron, Carlos

    2011-04-30

    The DOE sponsored effort is part of a larger effort to quantify the efficiency of hybrid powertrain systems through testing and modeling. The focus of the DOE sponsored activity was the design, development and testing of hardware to evaluate the efficiency of the electrical motors relevant to medium duty vehicles. Medium duty hybrid powertrain motors and generators were designed, fabricated, setup and tested. The motors were a permanent magnet configuration, constructed at Electric Apparatus Corporation in Howell, Michigan. The purpose of this was to identify the potential gains in terms of fuel cost savings that could be realized by implementation of such a configuration. As the electric motors constructed were prototype designs, the scope of the project did not include calculation of the costs of mass production of the subject electrical motors or generator.

  19. The impact of mass flow and masking on the pressure drop of air filter in heavy-duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoseeinzadeh, Sepideh; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation approach to predict and evaluate the impact of the mass-flow inlet on the pressure drop of turbocharger`s air filtfer in heavy-duty diesel engine. The numerical computations were carried out using a commercial CFD program whereas the inlet area of the air filter consisted of several holes connected to a channel. After entering through the channel, the air passes among the holes and enters the air filter. The effect of masking holes and hydraulic diameter is studied and investigated on pressure drop. The results indicate that pressure drop increase with decreasing of hydraulic diameter and masking of the holes has considerable affect on the pressure drop.

  20. Pre- and post-injection flow characterization in a heavy-duty diesel engine using high-speed PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegers, R. P. C.; Luijten, C. C. M.; Dam, N. J.; de Goey, L. P. H.

    2012-09-01

    High-speed particle image velocimetry (HS-PIV) using hollow microspheres has been applied to characterize the flow in a heavy-duty diesel engine during and after fuel injection. The injection timings were varied in the range representing those used in premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) regimes, and multiple injections have been applied to investigate their influence on the flow inside the combustion chamber. By injecting into pure nitrogen, combustion is avoided and the flow can be studied long after injection. The results show a sudden change of air motion at the start of injection as a result of the air entrainment at the core of the spray. Furthermore, as expected, spray injection causes a considerable increase in the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations of the flow pattern, the more so for longer injection durations.

  1. Heat transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled blades for heavy-duty gas turbines.

    PubMed

    Weigand, B; Semmler, K; von Wolfersdorf, J

    2001-05-01

    The present review paper, although far from being complete, aims to give an overview about the present state of the art in the field of heat transfer technology for internal cooling of gas turbine blades. After showing some typical modern cooled blades, the different methods to enhance heat transfer in the internal passages of air-cooled blades are discussed. The complicated flows occurring in bends are described in detail, because of their increasing importance for modern cooling designs. A short review about testing of cooling design elements is given, showing the interaction of the different cooling features as well. The special focus of the present review has been put on the cooling of blades for heavy-duty gas turbines, which show several differences compared to aero-engine blades.

  2. The influence of fuel type on the cooling system heat exchanger parameters in heavy-duty engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsztynowicz, B.

    2016-09-01

    The paper discuses the problem of selection of cooling systems for heavy-duty engines fitted in city buses. Aside from diesel engines, engine manufacturers also have in their portfolio engines fueled with natural gas, whose design is based on that of a conventional diesel engine. Based on the parameters of the engines from this type-series (the same displacement and rated power) an analysis has been performed of the influence of the applied fuel on the heat flows directed to the radiators and charge air coolers, hence, their size and space necessary for their proper installation. A replacement of a diesel engine with a natural gas fueled engine of the same operating parameters results in an increased amount of heat released to the coolant and a reduced heat from the engine charging system. This forces a selection of different heat exchangers that require more space for installation. A universal cooling module for different engines is not an optimal solution.

  3. Optimal design of an electro-hydraulic valve for heavy-duty vehicle clutch actuator with certain constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fei; Shi, Peng; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Zhang, Hui

    2016-02-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the sensitivity analysis and optimal design of a proportional solenoid valve (PSV) operated pressure reducing valve (PRV) for heavy-duty automatic transmission clutch actuators. The nonlinear electro-hydraulic valve model is developed based on fluid dynamics. In order to implement the sensitivity analysis and optimization for the PRV, the PSV model is validated by comparing the results with data obtained from a real test-bench. The sensitivity of the PSV pressure response with regard to the structural parameters is investigated by using Sobol's method. Finally, simulations and experimental investigations are performed on the optimized prototype and the results reveal that the dynamical characteristics of the valve have been improved in comparison with the original valve.

  4. Exhaust emissions from light- and heavy-duty vehicles: chemical composition, impact of exhaust after treatment, and fuel parameters.

    PubMed Central

    Westerholm, R; Egebäck, K E

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents results from the characterization of vehicle exhaust that were obtained primarily within the Swedish Urban Air Project, "Tätortsprojektet." Exhaust emissions from both gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles have been investigated with respect to regulated pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], hydrocarbon [HC], nitrogen oxides [NOx], and particulate), unregulated pollutants, and in bioassay tests (Ames test, TCDD receptor affinity tests). Unregulated pollutants present in both the particle- and the semi-volatile phases were characterized. Special interest was focused on the impact of fuel composition on heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions. It was confirmed that there exists a quantifiable relationship between diesel-fuel variables of the fuel blends, the chemical composition of the emissions, and their biological effects. According to the results from the multivariate analysis, the most important fuel parameters are: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content, 90% distillation point, final boiling point, specific heat, aromatic content, density, and sulfur content. PMID:7529699

  5. Size-resolved emissions of organic tracers from light- and heavy-duty vehicles measured in a California roadway tunnel.

    PubMed

    Phuleria, Harish C; Geller, Michael D; Fine, Philip M; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2006-07-01

    Individual organic compounds found in particulate emissions from vehicles have proven useful in source apportionment of ambient particulate matter. Species of interest include the hopanes, originating in lube oil, and selected PAHs generated via combustion. Most efforts to date have focused on emissions and apportionment PM10 or PM2.5 However, examining how these compounds are segregated by particle size in both emissions and ambient samples will help efforts to apportion size-resolved PM, especially ultrafine particles which have been shown to be more potent toxicologically. To this end, high volume size-resolved (coarse, accumulation, and ultrafine) PM samples were collected inside the Caldecott tunnel in Orinda, California to determine the relative emission factors for these compounds in different size ranges. Sampling occurred in two bores, one off-limits to heavy-duty diesel vehicles, which allows determination of the different emissions profiles for diesel and gasoline vehicles. Although tunnel measurements do not measure emissions over a full engine duty cycle, they do provide an average emissions profile over thousands of vehicles that can be considered characteristic of "freeway" emissions. Results include size-fractionated emission rates for hopanes, PAHs, elemental carbon, and other potential organic markers apportioned to diesel and gasoline vehicles. The results are compared to previously conducted PM2.5 emissions testing using dynamometer facilities and othertunnel environments.

  6. Effect of advanced aftertreatment for PM and NOx reduction on heavy-duty diesel engine ultrafine particle emissions.

    PubMed

    Herner, Jorn Dinh; Hu, Shaohua; Robertson, William H; Huai, Tao; Chang, M-C Oliver; Rieger, Paul; Ayala, Alberto

    2011-03-15

    Four heavy-duty and medium-duty diesel vehicles were tested in six different aftertreament configurations using a chassis dynamometer to characterize the occurrence of nucleation (the conversion of exhaust gases to particles upon dilution). The aftertreatment included four different diesel particulate filters and two selective catalytic reduction (SCR) devices. All DPFs reduced the emissions of solid particles by several orders of magnitude, but in certain cases the occurrence of a volatile nucleation mode could increase total particle number emissions. The occurrence of a nucleation mode could be predicted based on the level of catalyst in the aftertreatment, the prevailing temperature in the aftertreatment, and the age of the aftertreatment. The particles measured during nucleation had a high fraction of sulfate, up to 62% of reconstructed mass. Additionally the catalyst reduced the toxicity measured in chemical and cellular assays suggesting a pathway for an inverse correlation between particle number and toxicity. The results have implications for exposure to and toxicity of diesel PM.

  7. Contribution of transition metals in the reactive oxygen species activity of PM emissions from retrofitted heavy-duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Vishal; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2010-12-01

    We assessed the contribution of water-soluble transition metals to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) from four heavy-duty vehicles in five retrofitted configurations (V-SCRT, Z-SCRT, DPX, hybrid, and school bus). A heavy-duty truck without any control device served as the baseline vehicle. Particles were collected from all vehicle-configurations on a chassis dynamometer under three driving conditions: cruise (80 km h -1), transient UDDS, and idle. A sensitive macrophage-based in vitro assay was used to determine the ROS activity of collected particles. The contribution of water-soluble transition metals in the measured activity was quantified by their removal using a Chelex ® complexation method. The study demonstrates that despite an increase in the intrinsic ROS activity (per mass basis) of exhaust PM with use of most control technologies, the overall ROS activity (expressed per km or per h) was substantially reduced for retrofitted configurations compared to the baseline vehicle. Chelex treatment of DEPs water extracts removed a substantial (≥70%) and fairly consistent fraction of the ROS activity, which ascertains the dominant role of water-soluble metals in PM-induced cellular oxidative stress. However, relatively lower removal of the activity in few vehicle-configurations (V-SCRT, DPX and school bus idle), despite a large aggregate metals removal, indicated that not all species were associated with the measured activity. A univariate regression analysis identified several transition metals (Fe, Cr, Co and Mn) as significantly correlated ( R > 0.60; p < 0.05) with the ROS activity. Multivariate linear regression model incorporating Fe, Cr and Co explained 90% of variability in ROS levels, with Fe accounting for the highest (84%) fraction of the variance.

  8. Exhaust Fine Particle and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks at the Port of Oakland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2010-12-01

    Heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks are a source of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions as well as primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. Heavy-duty trucks contribute significantly to elevated levels of diesel particulate matter found near highways and in communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. To reduce the air quality impact of diesel engine emissions, the California Air Resources Board has adopted new rules requiring the retrofit or replacement of in-use HD trucks. These rules take effect during 2010 at ports and railyards, and apply to all trucks operating in California by 2014. This study involves on-road measurements of PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factor distributions from individual HD trucks driving into the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay area. Measurements of exhaust plumes from individual trucks were made using a mobile laboratory equipped with fast time response (1 Hz) PM2.5, BC, NOx, and carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors. The mobile laboratory was stationed on an overpass above an arterial roadway that connects the Port to a nearby highway (I-880). The air sampling inlet was thereby located above the vertical exhaust pipes of HD diesel trucks passing by on the arterial roadway below. Fuel-specific PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which concentrations of these species in an exhaust plume are normalized to CO2 concentrations. Initial field sampling was conducted in November, 2009 prior to the implementation of new emission rules. Additional emission measurements were made at the same location during June 2010 and emission factor distributions and averages will be compared.

  9. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles...-methane Hydrocarbons (NOX +NMHC) for engines fueled with either petroleum fuel, natural gas, or liquefied... percent of exhaust gas flow at curb idle (methanol-, natural gas-, and liquefied petroleum...

  10. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles...-methane Hydrocarbons (NOX +NMHC) for engines fueled with either petroleum fuel, natural gas, or liquefied... percent of exhaust gas flow at curb idle (methanol-, natural gas-, and liquefied petroleum...

  11. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles...-methane Hydrocarbons (NOX +NMHC) for engines fueled with either petroleum fuel, natural gas, or liquefied... percent of exhaust gas flow at curb idle (methanol-, natural gas-, and liquefied petroleum...

  12. Program Guide for Diesel Engine Mechanics 8742000 (IN47.060500) and Heavy Duty Truck and Bus Mechanics DIM0991 (IN47.060501).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Coll. of Education.

    This competency-based program guide provides course content information and procedures for secondary schools, postsecondary vocational schools, and community colleges in Florida that conduct programs in diesel engine mechanics and heavy duty truck and bus mechanics. The first section is on legal authority, which applies to all vocational education…

  13. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of selective catalytic reduction control technologies for highway, nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  14. Quantifying on-road emissions from gasoline-powered motor vehicles: accounting for the presence of medium- and heavy-duty diesel trucks.

    PubMed

    Dallmann, Timothy R; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; DeMartini, Steven J; Harley, Robert A

    2013-12-03

    Vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic aerosol (OA), and black carbon (BC) were measured at the Caldecott tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Measurements were made in bore 2 of the tunnel, where light-duty (LD) vehicles accounted for >99% of total traffic and heavy-duty trucks were not allowed. Prior emission studies conducted in North America have often assumed that route- or weekend-specific prohibitions on heavy-duty truck traffic imply that diesel contributions to pollutant concentrations measured in on-road settings can be neglected. However, as light-duty vehicle emissions have declined, this assumption can lead to biased results, especially for pollutants such as NOx, OA, and BC, for which diesel-engine emission rates are high compared to corresponding values for gasoline engines. In this study, diesel vehicles (mostly medium-duty delivery trucks with two axles and six tires) accounted for <1% of all vehicles observed in the tunnel but were nevertheless responsible for (18 ± 3)%, (22 ± 6)%, and (45 ± 8)% of measured NOx, OA, and BC concentrations. Fleet-average OA and BC emission factors for light-duty vehicles are, respectively, 10 and 50 times lower than for heavy-duty diesel trucks. Using measured emission factors from this study and publicly available data on taxable fuel sales, as of 2010, LD gasoline vehicles were estimated to be responsible for 85%, 18%, 18%, and 6% of emissions of CO, NOx, OA, and BC, respectively, from on-road motor vehicles in the United States.

  15. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Port Drayage Drive Cycle Characterization and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Prohaska, Robert; Konan, Arnaud; Kelly, Kenneth; Lammert, Michael

    2016-10-06

    In an effort to better understand the operational requirements of port drayage vehicles and their potential for adoption of advanced technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers collected over 36,000 miles of in-use duty cycle data from 30 Class 8 drayage trucks operating at the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles in Southern California. These data include 1-Hz global positioning system location and SAE J1939 high-speed controller area network information. Researchers processed the data through NREL's Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation tool to examine vehicle kinematic and dynamic patterns across the spectrum of operations. Using the k-medoids clustering method, a repeatable and quantitative process for multi-mode drive cycle segmentation, the analysis led to the creation of multiple drive cycles representing four distinct modes of operation that can be used independently or in combination. These drive cycles are statistically representative of real-world operation of port drayage vehicles. When combined with modeling and simulation tools, these representative test cycles allow advanced vehicle or systems developers to efficiently and accurately evaluate vehicle technology performance requirements to reduce cost and development time while ultimately leading to the commercialization of advanced technologies that meet the performance requirements of the port drayage vocation. The drive cycles, which are suitable for chassis dynamometer testing, were compared to several existing test cycles. This paper presents the clustering methodology, accompanying results of the port drayage duty cycle analysis and custom drive cycle creation.

  16. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Port Drayage Drive Cycle Characterization and Development: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Prohaska, Robert; Konan, Arnaud; Kelly, Kenneth; Lammert, Michael

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to better understand the operational requirements of port drayage vehicles and their potential for adoption of advanced technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers collected over 36,000 miles of in-use duty cycle data from 30 Class 8 drayage trucks operating at the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles in Southern California. These data include 1-Hz global positioning system location and SAE J1939 high-speed controller area network information. Researchers processed the data through NREL's Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation tool to examine vehicle kinematic and dynamic patterns across the spectrum of operations. Using the k-medoids clustering method, a repeatable and quantitative process for multi-mode drive cycle segmentation, the analysis led to the creation of multiple drive cycles representing four distinct modes of operation that can be used independently or in combination. These drive cycles are statistically representative of real-world operation of port drayage vehicles. When combined with modeling and simulation tools, these representative test cycles allow advanced vehicle or systems developers to efficiently and accurately evaluate vehicle technology performance requirements to reduce cost and development time while ultimately leading to the commercialization of advanced technologies that meet the performance requirements of the port drayage vocation. The drive cycles, which are suitable for chassis dynamometer testing, were compared to several existing test cycles. This paper presents the clustering methodology, accompanying results of the port drayage duty cycle analysis and custom drive cycle creation.

  17. Simulated Fuel Economy and Emissions Performance during City and Interstate Driving for a Heavy-Duty Hybrid Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C. Stuart; Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.; Laclair, Tim J.; Pihl, Josh A.; Edwards, K. Dean

    2013-04-08

    We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.

  18. System, energy, and flavor dependence of jets through di-hadron correlations in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nattrass, Christine

    QCD predicts a phase transition in nuclear matter at high energy densities. This matter, called a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), should have very different properties from normal nuclear matter due to its high temperature and density. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was built to study the QGP. Jets can act as a calibrated probe to examine the QGP, however, reconstruction of jets in a heavy ion environment is difficult. Therefore jets have been studied in heavy ion collisions by investigating the spatial correlations between two intermediate to high-pT hadrons in an event. Previous studies have shown that the near-side di-hadron correlation peak can be decomposed into two components, a jet-like correlation and the Ridge. The jet-like correlation is narrow in both azimuth and pseudorapidity, while the Ridge is narrow in azimuth but independent of pseudorapidity within STAR's acceptance. STAR's data from Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sNN = 62 GeV and sNN = 200 GeV allow comparative studies of these components in different systems and at different energies. Data on correlations with both identified trigger particles and identified associated particles are presented, including the first studies of identified particle correlations in Cu+Cu and the energy dependence of these correlations. The yields are studied as a function of collision centrality, transverse momentum of the trigger particle, transverse momentum of the associated particle, and trigger and associated particle type. The data in this thesis indicate that the jet-like correlation component in heavy ion collisions is dominantly produced by vacuum fragmentation of hard scattered partons. The Ridge component is not present in p+p or d+Au collisions. The Ridge yield is consistent between systems for the same Npart and has properties similar to the bulk. Theoretical mechanisms for the production of the Ridge include parton recombination, collisional energy loss in the medium (momentum kicks), and gluon

  19. Comparison of life cycle greenhouse gases from natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fan; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-06-16

    The low-cost and abundant supply of shale gas in the United States has increased the interest in using natural gas for transportation. We compare the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs). For Class 8 tractor-trailers and refuse trucks, none of the natural gas pathways provide emissions reductions per unit of freight-distance moved compared to diesel trucks. When compared to the petroleum-based fuels currently used in these vehicles, CNG and centrally produced LNG increase emissions by 0-3% and 2-13%, respectively, for Class 8 trucks. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) powered with natural gas-produced electricity are the only fuel-technology combination that achieves emission reductions for Class 8 transit buses (31% reduction compared to the petroleum-fueled vehicles). For non-Class 8 trucks (pick-up trucks, parcel delivery trucks, and box trucks), BEVs reduce emissions significantly (31-40%) compared to their diesel or gasoline counterparts. CNG and propane achieve relatively smaller emissions reductions (0-6% and 19%, respectively, compared to the petroleum-based fuels), while other natural gas pathways increase emissions for non-Class 8 MHDVs. While using natural gas to fuel electric vehicles could achieve large emission reductions for medium-duty trucks, the results suggest there are no great opportunities to achieve large emission reductions for Class 8 trucks through natural gas pathways with current technologies. There are strategies to reduce the carbon footprint of using natural gas for MHDVs, ranging from increasing vehicle fuel efficiency, reducing life cycle methane leakage rate, to achieving the same payloads and cargo volumes as conventional diesel trucks.

  20. Heavy metal contamination of the Sacca di Goro lagoon area (Po River Delta, Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapti-Caputo, Dimitra

    2010-05-01

    The lagoon area of the Sacca di Goro, within the Po River delta, is ca. 20 km2 wide, with a mean depth of 1.5 m and a mean salinity of 29%o. It holds a major naturalistic interest as well as an economic one due to the aquaculture activities (mussels and clams). In this lagoon system, the quality of the sea-bottom sediments is crucial not only for the cultivated species, but also for the potential bio-accumulation problems in heavy metals. The definition of the qualitative status of the lagoon sediments is crucial for adopting the best management strategies and the protection of the environmental conditions. We determined the concentration in SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, MnO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, La, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, V, Y, Zn, Cu, Ga, Nd, S and Sr, of 31 samples homogeneously collected over the lagoon area. This large dataset allowed i) to define the environmental quality of the sediments, ii) to recognise the areas with the higher contamination risk; and iii) to emphasise the local occurrence of polluting phenomena associated to chromium, nickel, vanadium, cobalt, lead, zinc and copper.

  1. Utilization of compressed natural gas in medium- and heavy-duty engine route vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koplow, M.; Norman, T.

    1991-12-01

    The final report describes the early development process of a dedicated compressed natural gas medium-duty truck. The three key technological developments successfully undertaken were: (1) The design and implementation of an optimized CNG spark ignition engine to meet the performance requirements of the marketplace. (2) The design and development of an electronically controlled, electronically injected fuel system specifically for compressed natural gas utilizing pulse width modulated fuel injector technology. (3) The adaptation of a production OEM electronic engine controller to perform closed loop engine control for the CNG engine. The overarching technical goal was to provide a clear path to OEM production levels of performance reliability and economy for CNG vehicles. In this way it was intended that the OEM would commit to a production intent CNG vehicle program. The successful completion of the three technological tasks described in the report allowed the integration into a first test vehicle which has performed well. The manufacturer, by witnessing and participating in the rapid progress, has committed to pursue production of CNG vehicles. A brief description of this follow-on effort is also found in the report.

  2. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  3. Progress in reducing aerodynamic drag for higher efficiency of heavy duty trucks (class 7-8)

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Heineck, J T; Leonard, A; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Rutledge, W; Salari, K; Storms, B

    1999-04-01

    This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. In addition, greater use of newly developed computational tools holds promise for reducing the number of prototype tests, for cutting manufacturing costs, and for reducing overall time to market. Experimental verification and validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California. Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology using state-of-the-art techniques, with the intention of implementing more complex methods in the future.

  4. Progress in Reducing Aerodynamic Drag for Higher Efficiency of Heavy Duty Trucks (Class 7-8)

    SciTech Connect

    Rose McCallen; Richard Couch; Juliana Hsu; Fred Browand; Mustapha Hammache; Anthony Leonard; Mark Brady; Kambiz Salari; Walter Rutledge; James Ross; Bruce Storms; J.T. Heineck; David Driver; James Bell; Gregory Zilliac

    1999-12-31

    This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. In addition, greater use of newly developed computational tools holds promise for reducing the number of prototype tests, for cutting manufacturing costs, and for reducing overall time to market. Experimental verification and validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California. Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology using state-of-the-art techniques, with the intention of implementing more complex methods in the future.

  5. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  6. First online measurements of sulfuric acid gas in modern heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust: implications for nanoparticle formation.

    PubMed

    Arnold, F; Pirjola, L; Rönkkö, T; Reichl, U; Schlager, H; Lähde, T; Heikkilä, J; Keskinen, J

    2012-10-16

    To mitigate the diesel particle pollution problem, diesel vehicles are fitted with modern exhaust after-treatment systems (ATS), which efficiently remove engine-generated primary particles (soot and ash) and gaseous hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, ATS can promote formation of low-vapor-pressure gases, which may undergo nucleation and condensation leading to formation of nucleation particles (NUP). The chemical nature and formation mechanism of these particles are only poorly explored. Using a novel mass spectrometric method, online measurements of low-vapor-pressure gases were performed for exhaust of a modern heavy-duty diesel engine operated with modern ATS and combusting low and ultralow sulfur fuels and also biofuel. It was observed that the gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) concentration varied strongly, although engine operation was stable. However, the exhaust GSA was observed to be affected by fuel sulfur level, exhaust after-treatment, and driving conditions. Significant GSA concentrations were measured also when biofuel was used, indicating that GSA can be originated also from lubricant oil sulfur. Furthermore, accompanying NUP measurements and NUP model simulations were performed. We found that the exhaust GSA promotes NUP formation, but also organic (acidic) precursor gases can have a role. The model results indicate that that the measured GSA concentration alone is not high enough to grow the particles to the detected sizes.

  7. Sources of fine organic aerosol. 2. Noncatalyst and catalyst-equipped automobiles and heavy-duty diesel trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Rogge, W.F.; Hildemann, L.M.; Mazurek, M.A.; Cass, G.R. ); Simoneit, B.R.T. )

    1993-04-01

    Gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles are known to contribute appreciable amounts of inhalable fine particulate matter to the atmosphere in urban areas. Internal combustion engines burning gasoline and diesel fuel contribute more than 21% of the primary fine particulate organic carbon emitted to the Los Angeles atmosphere. In the present study, particulate (d[sub p] [le] 2 [mu]m) exhaust emissions from six noncatalyst automobiles, seven catalyst-equipped automobiles, and two heavy-duty diesel trucks are examined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The purposes of this study are as follows: (a) to search for conservative marker compounds suitable for tracing the presence of vehicular particulate exhaust emissions in the urban atmosphere, (b) to compile quantitative source profiles, and (c) to study the contributions of fine organic particulate vehicular exhaust to the Los Angeles atmosphere. More than 100 organic compounds are quantified, including n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, benzoic acids, benzaldehydes, PAH, oxy-PAH, steranes, pentacyclic triterpanes, azanaphthalenes, and others. Although fossil fuel markers such as steranes and pentacyclic triterpanes can be emitted from other sources, it can be shown that their ambient concentrations measured in the Los Angeles atmosphere are attributable mainly to vehicular exhaust emissions. 102 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Heavy-duty diesel engine NO{sub x} reduction with nitrogen-enriched combustion air. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, S.; Energy Systems

    2010-07-28

    The concept of engine emissions control by modifying intake combustion gas composition from that of ambient air using gas separation membranes has been developed during several programs undertaken at Argonne. These have led to the current program which is targeted at heavy-duty diesel truck engines. The specific objective is reduction of NO{sub x} emissions by the target engine to meet anticipated 2007 standards while extracting a maximum of 5 percent power loss and allowing implementation within commercial constraints of size, weight, and cost. This report includes a brief review of related past programs, describes work completed to date during the current program, and presents interim conclusions. Following a work schedule adjustment in August 2002 to accommodate problems in module procurement and data analysis, activities are now on schedule and planned work is expected to be completed in September, 2004. Currently, we believe that the stated program requirements for the target engine can be met, based upon extrapolation of the work completed. Planned project work is designed to experimentally confirm these projections and result in a specification for a module package that will meet program objectives.

  9. Heavy duty piezoresistivity induced strain sensing natural rubber/carbon black nanocomposites reinforced with different carbon nanofillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingliang; Yuan, Tingting; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Shimei; Liu, Jingjing; Liu, Jiurong; Liu, Xinyu; Sun, Luyi; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2014-09-01

    Durable piezoresistive effects of natural rubber nanocomposites have been demonstrated, i.e., with stable and reversible electrical resistance change within the tested 3000 cycles upon applying a small compressive strain (˜16.7%) under a relatively high frequency (0.5 Hz, 2 s/cycle). This unique function was achieved for the first time by combining carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers with natural rubber composites pretreated with carbon black. Even though the combination of different carbon nanomaterials, such as graphene nanosheets and carbon nanotubes, can improve the dispersion quality of both the nanostructures in solution or in polymer matrices, this type of synergistic effect between carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers in producing stable and reversible piezoresistive effect has been rarely reported. Besides, the strong reinforcement (compressive stress at a maximum strain of 16.7% was increased from 12.6 for untreated to 18.5 MPa for the natural rubber/carbon black composites treated with a combination of 1.0 wt% carbon nanotubes and 1.0 wt% carbon nanofibers) makes the as-prepared composites promising for heavy duty pressure sensors, i.e., healthy motion monitoring of industrial machinery vibrations.

  10. Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Chen, Hsun-Jung; Young, Li-Hao; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2015-10-30

    Three biodiesels and two aftertreatments were tested on a heavy-duty diesel engine under the US FTP transient cycle and additional four steady engine loads. The objective was to examine their effects on the gaseous and particulate emissions, with emphasis given to the organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the total particulate matter. Negligible differences were observed between the low-sulfur (B1S50) and ultralow-sulfur (B1S10) biodiesels, whereas small reductions of OC were identified with the 10% biodiesel blend (B10). The use of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC1) showed moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well below unity. The use of DOC plus diesel particulate filter (DOC2+DPF) yielded substantial reductions of OC and particularly EC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well above unity. The OC/EC ratios were substantially above unity at idle and low load, whereas below unity at medium and high load. The above changes in particulate OC and EC are discussed with respect to the fuel content, pollutant removal mechanisms and engine combustion conditions. Overall, the present study shows that the carbonaceous composition of PM could change drastically with engine load and aftertreatments, and to a lesser extent with the biodiesels under study.

  11. Effect of post injections on mixture preparation and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    DOE PAGES

    O'Connor, Jacqueline; Musculus, Mark P. B.; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2016-05-30

    This work explores the mechanisms by which a post injection can reduce unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions in heavy-duty diesel engines operating at low-temperature combustion conditions. Post injections, small, close-coupled injections of fuel after the main injection, have been shown to reduce UHC in the authors’ previous work. In this work, we analyze optical data from laser-induced fluorescence of both CH2O and OH and use chemical reactor modeling to better understand the mechanism by which post injections reduce UHC emissions. The results indicate that post-injection efficacy, or the extent to which a post injection reduces UHC emissions, is a strong functionmore » of the cylinder pressure variation during the post injection. However, the data and analysis indicate that the pressure and temperature rise from the post injection combustion cannot solely explain the UHC reduction measured by both engine-out and optical diagnostics. In conclusion, the fluid-mechanic, thermal, and chemical interaction of the post injection with the main-injection mixture is a key part of UHC reduction; the starting action of the post jet and the subsequent entrainment of surrounding gases are likely both important processes in reducing UHC with a post injection.« less

  12. Effect of post injections on mixture preparation and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Jacqueline; Musculus, Mark P. B.; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2016-05-30

    This work explores the mechanisms by which a post injection can reduce unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions in heavy-duty diesel engines operating at low-temperature combustion conditions. Post injections, small, close-coupled injections of fuel after the main injection, have been shown to reduce UHC in the authors’ previous work. In this work, we analyze optical data from laser-induced fluorescence of both CH2O and OH and use chemical reactor modeling to better understand the mechanism by which post injections reduce UHC emissions. The results indicate that post-injection efficacy, or the extent to which a post injection reduces UHC emissions, is a strong function of the cylinder pressure variation during the post injection. However, the data and analysis indicate that the pressure and temperature rise from the post injection combustion cannot solely explain the UHC reduction measured by both engine-out and optical diagnostics. In conclusion, the fluid-mechanic, thermal, and chemical interaction of the post injection with the main-injection mixture is a key part of UHC reduction; the starting action of the post jet and the subsequent entrainment of surrounding gases are likely both important processes in reducing UHC with a post injection.

  13. Total fuel-cycle analysis of heavy-duty vehicles using biofuels and natural gas-based alternative fuels.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Patrick E; Green, Erin H; Corbett, James J; Mas, Carl; Winebrake, James J

    2011-03-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) present a growing energy and environmental concern worldwide. These vehicles rely almost entirely on diesel fuel for propulsion and create problems associated with local pollution, climate change, and energy security. Given these problems and the expected global expansion of HDVs in transportation sectors, industry and governments are pursuing biofuels and natural gas as potential alternative fuels for HDVs. Using recent lifecycle datasets, this paper evaluates the energy and emissions impacts of these fuels in the HDV sector by conducting a total fuel-cycle (TFC) analysis for Class 8 HDVs for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to ultra low sulfur diesel; (2) petroleum and soyoil to biodiesel (methyl soy ester); (3) petroleum, ethanol, and oxygenate to e-diesel; (4) petroleum and natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel; (5) natural gas to compressed natural gas; and (6) natural gas to liquefied natural gas. TFC emissions are evaluated for three greenhouse gases (GHGs) (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five other pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and sulfur oxides), along with estimates of total energy and petroleum consumption associated with each of the six fuel pathways. Results show definite advantages with biodiesel and compressed natural gas for most pollutants, negligible benefits for e-diesel, and increased GHG emissions for liquefied natural gas and Fischer-Tropsch diesel (from natural gas).

  14. The heavy-duty vehicle future in the United States: A parametric analysis of technology and policy tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2015-02-14

    Here, we present a parametric analysis of factors that can influence advanced fuel and technology deployments in U.S. Class 7–8 trucks through 2050. The analysis focuses on the competition between traditional diesel trucks, natural gas vehicles (NGVs), and ultra-efficient powertrains. Underlying the study is a vehicle choice and stock model of the U.S. heavy-duty vehicle market. Moreover, the model is segmented by vehicle class, body type, powertrain, fleet size, and operational type. We find that conventional diesel trucks will dominate the market through 2050, but NGVs could have significant market penetration depending on key technological and economic uncertainties. Compressed natural gas trucks conducting urban trips in fleets that can support private infrastructure are economically viable now and will continue to gain market share. Ultra-efficient diesel trucks, exemplified by the U.S. Department of Energy's SuperTruck program, are the preferred alternative in the long haul segment, but could compete with liquefied natural gas (LNG) trucks if the fuel price differential between LNG and diesel increases. However, the greatest impact in reducing petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions is had by investing in efficiency technologies that benefit all powertrains, especially the conventional diesels that comprise the majority of the stock, instead of incentivizing specific alternatives.

  15. The heavy-duty vehicle future in the United States: A parametric analysis of technology and policy tradeoffs

    DOE PAGES

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett; West, Todd H.; ...

    2015-02-14

    Here, we present a parametric analysis of factors that can influence advanced fuel and technology deployments in U.S. Class 7–8 trucks through 2050. The analysis focuses on the competition between traditional diesel trucks, natural gas vehicles (NGVs), and ultra-efficient powertrains. Underlying the study is a vehicle choice and stock model of the U.S. heavy-duty vehicle market. Moreover, the model is segmented by vehicle class, body type, powertrain, fleet size, and operational type. We find that conventional diesel trucks will dominate the market through 2050, but NGVs could have significant market penetration depending on key technological and economic uncertainties. Compressed naturalmore » gas trucks conducting urban trips in fleets that can support private infrastructure are economically viable now and will continue to gain market share. Ultra-efficient diesel trucks, exemplified by the U.S. Department of Energy's SuperTruck program, are the preferred alternative in the long haul segment, but could compete with liquefied natural gas (LNG) trucks if the fuel price differential between LNG and diesel increases. However, the greatest impact in reducing petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions is had by investing in efficiency technologies that benefit all powertrains, especially the conventional diesels that comprise the majority of the stock, instead of incentivizing specific alternatives.« less

  16. THE EFFECTS OF BIODIESEL BLENDS AND ARCO EC-DIESEL ON EMISSIONS from LIGHT HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, Thomas

    2001-08-05

    Chassis dynamometer tests were performed on 7 light heavy-duty diesel trucks comparing the emissions of a California diesel fuel with emissions from 4 other fuels: ARCO EC-diesel (EC-D) and three 20% biodiesel blends (1 yellow grease and 2 soy-based). The EC-D and the yellow grease biodiesel blend both showed significant reductions in THC and CO emissions over the test vehicle fleet. EC-D also showed reductions in PM emission rates. NOx emissions were comparable for the different fuel types over the range of vehicles tested. The soy-based biodiesel blends did not show significant or consistent emissions differences over all test vehicles. Total carbon accounted for more than 70% of the PM mass for 4 of the 5 sampled vehicles. Elemental and organic carbon ratios varied significantly from vehicle-to-vehicle but showed very little fuel dependence. Inorganic species represented a smaller portion of the composite total, ranging from 0.2 to 3.3% of the total PM. Total PAH emissions ranged from approximately 1.8 mg/mi to 67.8 mg/mi over the different vehicle/fuel combinations representing between 1.6 and 3.8% of the total PM mass.

  17. Emission rates of regulated pollutants from current technology heavy-duty diesel and natural gas goods movement vehicles.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Thiruvengadam, Pragalath; Pradhan, Saroj; Carder, Daniel; Kappanna, Hemanth; Gautam, Mridul; Oshinuga, Adewale; Hogo, Henry; Miyasato, Matt

    2015-04-21

    Chassis dynamometer emissions testing of 11 heavy-duty goods movement vehicles, including diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel technology, compliant with US-EPA 2010 emissions standard were conducted. Results of the study show that three-way catalyst (TWC) equipped stoichiometric natural gas vehicles emit 96% lower NOx emissions as compared to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) equipped diesel vehicles. Characteristics of drayage truck vocation, represented by the near-dock and local drayage driving cycles, were linked to high NOx emissions from diesel vehicles equipped with a SCR. Exhaust gas temperatures below 250 °C, for more than 95% duration of the local and near-dock driving cycles, resulted in minimal SCR activity. The low percentage of activity SCR over the local and near-dock cycles contributed to a brake-specific NOx emissions that were 5-7 times higher than in-use certification limit. The study also illustrated the differences between emissions rate measured from chassis dynamometer testing and prediction from the EMFAC model. The results of the study emphasize the need for model inputs relative to SCR performance as a function of driving cycle and engine operation characteristics.

  18. A computer program (HEVSIM) for heavy duty vehicle fuel economy and performance simulation. Volume II: Users' manual. Final report Mar-Oct 80

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    Volume II is the second volume of a three volume document describing the computer program HEVSIM for use with buses and heavy duty trucks. This volume is a user's manual describing how to prepare data input and execute the program. A strong effort has been made to prepare this manual from a user's viewpoint. Sample cases have been included to illustrate the various simulation methods available, and the most frequently used HEVSIM options.

  19. Preventing chatter vibrations in heavy-duty turning operations in large horizontal lathes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbikain, G.; Campa, F.-J.; Zulaika, J.-J.; López de Lacalle, L.-N.; Alonso, M.-A.; Collado, V.

    2015-03-01

    Productivity and surface finish are typical user manufacturer requirements that are restrained by chatter vibrations sooner or later in every machining operation. Thus, manufacturers are interested in knowing, before building the machine, the dynamic behaviour of each machine structure with respect to another. Stability lobe graphs are the most reliable approach to analyse the dynamic performance. During heavy rough turning operations a model containing (a) several modes, or (b) modes with non-conventional (Cartesian) orientations is necessary. This work proposes two methods which are combined with multimode analysis to predict chatter in big horizontal lathes. First, a traditional single frequency model (SFM) is used. Secondly, the modern collocation method based on the Chebyshev polynomials (CCM) is alternatively studied. The models can be used to identify the machine design features limiting lathe productivity, as well as the threshold values for choosing good cutting parameters. The results have been compared with experimental tests in a horizontal turning centre. Besides the model and approach, this work offers real worthy values for big lathes, difficult to be got from literature.

  20. EPA GHG certification of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles: Development of road grade profiles representative of US controlled access highways

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-09-27

    In collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has conducted a national analysis of road grade characteristics experienced by U.S. medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. These characteristics have been developed using TomTom's commercially available street map and road grade database. Using the TomTom national road grade database, national statistics on road grade and hill distances were generated for the U.S. network of controlled access highways. These statistical distributions were then weighted using data provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for activity of medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. Here, the national activity-weighted road grade and hill distance distributions were then used as targets for development of a handful of sample grade profiles potentially to be used in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model certification tool as well as in dynamometer testing of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles and their powertrains.

  1. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Allen

    The recent natural gas boom has opened much discussion about the potential of natural gas and specifically Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the United States transportation sector. The switch from diesel to natural gas vehicles would reduce foreign dependence on oil, spur domestic economic growth, and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. LNG provides the most potential for the medium to heavy-duty vehicle market partially due to unstable oil prices and stagnant natural gas prices. As long as the abundance of unconventional gas in the United States remains cheap, fuel switching to natural gas could provide significant cost savings for long haul freight industry. Amid a growing LNG station network and ever increasing demand for freight movement, LNG heavy-duty truck sales are less than anticipated and the industry as a whole is less economic than expected. In spite of much existing and mature natural gas infrastructure, the supply chain for LNG is different and requires explicit and careful planning. This thesis proposes research to explore the claim that the largest obstacle to widespread LNG market penetration is sub-optimal infrastructure planning. No other study we are aware of has explicitly explored the LNG transportation fuel supply chain for heavy-duty freight trucks. This thesis presents a novel methodology that links a network infrastructure optimization model (represents supply side) with a vehicle stock and economic payback model (represents demand side). The model characterizes both a temporal and spatial optimization model of future LNG transportation fuel supply chains in the United States. The principal research goal is to assess the economic feasibility of the current LNG transportation fuel industry and to determine an optimal pathway to achieve ubiquitous commercialization of LNG vehicles in the heavy-duty transport sector. The results indicate that LNG is not economic as a heavy-duty truck fuel until 2030 under current market conditions

  2. Joint measurements of black carbon and particle mass for heavy-duty diesel vehicles using a portable emission measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xuan; Wu, Ye; Zhang, Shaojun; Baldauf, Richard W.; Zhang, K. Max; Hu, Jingnan; Li, Zhenhua; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2016-09-01

    The black carbon (BC) emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) is an important source of urban atmospheric pollution and creates strong climate-forcing impacts. The emission ratio of BC to total particle mass (PM) (i.e., BC/PM ratio) is an essential variable used to estimate total BC emissions from historical PM data; however, these ratios have not been measured using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) in order to obtain real-world measurements over a wide range of driving conditions. In this study, we developed a PEMS platform by integrating two Aethalometers and an electric low pressure impactor to realize the joint measurement of real-world BC and PM emissions for ten HDDVs in China. Test results showed that the average BC/PM ratio for five HDDVs equipped with mechanical fuel injection (MI) engines was 0.43 ± 0.06, significantly lower (P < 0.05) than another five HDDVs equipped with electronically-controlled fuel injection (EI) engines (0.56 ± 0.12). Traffic conditions also affected the BC/PM ratios with higher ratios on freeway routes than on local roads. Furthermore, higher ratios were observed for HDDVs equipped with EI engines than for the MI engines for the highway and local road routes. With an operating mode binning approach, we observed that the instantaneous BC/PM ratios of EI engine vehicles were above those of the MI engine vehicles in all operating modes except for the braking mode (i.e., Bin 0). Therefore, the complex impacts from engine technology and traffic conditions on BC/PM ratios should be carefully considered when estimating real-world BC emissions from HDDVs based on overall PM emissions data.

  3. Combustion of hydrotreated vegetable oil and jatropha methyl ester in a heavy duty engine: emissions and bacterial mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Rosenkranz, Nina; Schröder, Olaf; Schaak, Jens; Pabst, Christoph; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2013-06-04

    Research on renewable fuels has to assess possible adverse health and ecological risks as well as conflicts with global food supply. This investigation compares the two newly developed biogenic diesel fuels hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and jatropha methyl ester (JME) with fossil diesel fuel (DF) and rapeseed methyl ester (RME) for their emissions and bacterial mutagenic effects. Samples of exhaust constituents were compared after combustion in a Euro III heavy duty diesel engine. Regulated emissions were analyzed as well as particle size and number distributions, carbonyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and bacterial mutagenicity of the exhausts. Combustion of RME and JME resulted in lower particulate matter (PM) compared to DF and HVO. Particle numbers were about 1 order of magnitude lower for RME and JME. However, nitrogen oxides (NOX) of RME and JME exceeded the Euro III limit value of 5.0 g/kWh, while HVO combustion produced the smallest amount of NOX. RME produced the lowest emissions of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) followed by JME. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several other carbonyls were found in the emissions of all investigated fuels. PAH emissions and mutagenicity of the exhausts were generally low, with HVO revealing the smallest number of mutations and lowest PAH emissions. Each fuel showed certain advantages or disadvantages. As proven before, both biodiesel fuels produced increased NOX emissions compared to DF. HVO showed significant toxicological advantages over all other fuels. Since jatropha oil is nonedible and grows in arid regions, JME may help to avoid conflicts with the food supply worldwide. Hydrogenated jatropha oil should now be investigated if it combines the benefits of both new fuels.

  4. Effects of particulate oxidation catalyst on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics from heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), soot, soluble organic fractions (SOF) and sulphate emissions emitted from a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted with a POC were investigated on a diesel bench. The particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust was collected by Teflon membrane, and the PAHs and VOCs were analysed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The results indicate that the POC exhibits good performance on the emission control of VOCs, PAHs and PM. The POC and the diesel particulate filters (DPF) both show a good performance on reducing the VOCs emission. Though the brake-specific emission (BSE) reductions of the total PAHs by the POC were lower than those by the DPF, the POC still removed almost more than 50% of the total PAHs emission. After the engine was retrofitted with the POC, the reductions of the PM mass, SOF and soot emissions were 45.2-89.0%, 7.8-97.7% and 41.7-93.3%, respectively. The sulphate emissions decreased at low and medium loads, whereas at high load, the results were contrary. The PAHs emissions were decreased by 32.4-69.1%, and the contributions of the PAH compounds were affected by the POC, as well as by load level. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) of PAHs emissions were reduced by 35.9-97.6% with the POC. The VOCs emissions were reduced by 21.8-94.1% with the POC, and the reduction was more evident under high load.

  5. Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.

    PubMed

    Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions.

  6. Chemical characterization of PM2.5 emitted from on-road heavy-duty diesel trucks in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingzhi; Yao, Zhiliang; Shen, Xianbao; Liu, Huan; He, Kebin

    2015-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) are gaining more attention because of their contribution to NOX and PM2.5 emissions. To evaluate their contribution to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), not only their emission factors, but also their source profile is required. We conducted on-road emissions tests to characterize the PM2.5 emission, documenting per second mass emission rates from in-use HDDTs in China, using portable emissions measurement systems. The average PM2.5 emission factors for pre-EURO and EURO 1 HDDTs were 1.104 g/km and 0.822 g/km, equivalent to 6.106 g/kg and 3.132 g/kg based on fuel consumption. Element carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) were the major components: EC accounted for 45-65% of PM2.5 for pre-EURO HDDTs and 36-69% for EURO 1 HDDTs, while the OC fraction for pre-EURO and EURO 1 HDDTs ranged from 20 to 31% and 19-31%, respectively. Thus, the average EC emission factors for pre-EURO and EURO 1 HDDTs were 0.667 g/km and 0.502 g/km, showing that implementation of tighter emission standards resulted in a 25% EC output reduction from pre-EURO to EURO 1 vehicles. Sulfate, comprising about 1% of PM2.5 mass, is still an abundant species in PM2.5 from HDDTs because of the high sulfur content in diesel fuel in China. Using these data, we updated national PM2.5 emission profiles for pre-EURO and EURO 1 HDDTs.

  7. Dependence between nonvolatile nucleation mode particle and soot number concentrations in an EGR equipped heavy-duty Diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Lähde, Tero; Rönkkö, Topi; Virtanen, Annele; Solla, Anu; Kytö, Matti; Söderström, Christer; Keskinen, Jorma

    2010-04-15

    Heavy duty diesel engine exhaust characteristics were studied with direct tailpipe sampling on an engine dynamometer. The exhaust particle size distributions, total particle mass, and gaseous emissions were measured with different load conditions without after-treatment. The measured particle size distributions were bimodal; distinctive accumulation and nucleation modes were detected for both volatile and dry particle samples. The condensing volatile compounds changed the characteristics of the nonvolatile nucleation mode while the soot/accumulation mode characteristics (concentration and diameter) were unchanged. A clear dependence between the soot and the nonvolatile nucleation mode number concentrations was detected. While the concentration of the soot mode decreased, the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration increased. The soot mode number concentration decrease was related to soot-NOx trade-off; the decrease of the exhaust gas recirculation rate decreased soot emission and increased NOx emission. Simultaneously detected increase of the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration may be caused by the decrease of the soot mode sink or by changed combustion characteristics. However, the total particle number concentration increased with decreasing soot mode number concentration. The proportion of the particle number concentration between the nonvolatile nucleation and soot mode followed the NO2:NO ratio linearly. While ratio NO2:NO increased the proportion of soot mode number concentration in total number concentration increased. Regardless of the mechanism that causes the balance between the soot mode and the nonvolatile nucleation mode emissions, the changes in the particle number size distribution should be taken into account while the particle mass emissions are controlled with combustion optimization.

  8. Ammonia concentration distribution measurements in the exhaust of a heavy duty diesel engine based on limited data absorption tomography.

    PubMed

    Stritzke, Felix; van der Kley, Sani; Feiling, Alexander; Dreizler, Andreas; Wagner, Steven

    2017-04-03

    A multichannel tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer is used to measure absolute ammonia concentrations and their distributions in exhaust gas applications with intense CO2 and H2O background. Designed for in situ diagnostics in SCR after treatment systems with temperatures up to 800 K, the system employs a fiber coupled near-infrared distributed feedback diode laser. With the laser split into eight coplanar beams crossing the exhaust pipe, the sensor provides eight concentration measurements simultaneously. Three ammonia ro-vibrational transitions coinciding near 2200.5 nm with rather weak temperature dependency and negligible CO2/H2O interference were probed during the measurements. The line-of-sight averaged channel concentrations are transformed into 2-D ammonia distributions using limited data IR species tomography based on Tikhonov regularization. This spectrometer was successfully applied in the exhaust system of a 340 kW heavy duty diesel engine operated without oxidation catalyst or particulate filter. In this harsh environment the multi-channel sensor achieved single path ammonia detection limits of 25 to 80 ppmV with a temporal resolution of 1 Hz whereas, while operated as a single-channel sensor, these characteristics improved to 10 ppmV and 100 Hz. Spatial averaging of the reconstructed 2-D ammonia distributions shows good agreement to cross-sectional extractive measurements. In contrast to extractive methods more information about spatial inhomogeneities and transient operating conditions can be derived from the new spectrometer.

  9. EPA GHG certification of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles: Development of road grade profiles representative of US controlled access highways

    DOE PAGES

    Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-09-27

    In collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has conducted a national analysis of road grade characteristics experienced by U.S. medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. These characteristics have been developed using TomTom's commercially available street map and road grade database. Using the TomTom national road grade database, national statistics on road grade and hill distances were generated for the U.S. network of controlled access highways. These statistical distributions were then weighted using data provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for activity of medium- and heavy-dutymore » trucks on controlled access highways. Here, the national activity-weighted road grade and hill distance distributions were then used as targets for development of a handful of sample grade profiles potentially to be used in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model certification tool as well as in dynamometer testing of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles and their powertrains.« less

  10. Ultrafine PM emissions from natural gas, oxidation-catalyst diesel, and particle-trap diesel heavy-duty transit buses.

    PubMed

    Holmén, Britt A; Ayala, Alberto

    2002-12-01

    This paper addresses how current technologies effective for reducing PM emissions of heavy-duty engines may affect the physical characteristics of the particles emitted. Three in-use transit bus configurations were compared in terms of submicron particle size distributions using simultaneous SMPS measurements under two dilution conditions, a minidiluter and the legislated constant volume sampler (CVS). The compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled and diesel particulate filter (DPF)-equipped diesel configurations are two "green" alternatives to conventional diesel engines. The CNG bus in this study did not have an oxidation catalyst whereas the diesel configurations (with and without particulate filter) employed catalysts. The DPF was a continuously regenerating trap (CRT). Particle size distributions were collected between 6 and 237 nm using 2-minute SMPS scans during idle and 55 mph steady-state cruise operation. Average particle size distributions collected during idle operation of the diesel baseline bus operating on ultralow sulfur fuel showed evidence for nanoparticle growth under CVS dilution conditions relative to the minidiluter. The CRT effectively reduced both accumulation and nuclei mode concentrations by factors of 10-100 except under CVS dilution conditions where nuclei mode concentrations were measured during 55 mph steady-state cruise that exceeded baseline diesel concentrations. The CVS data suggest some variability in trap performance. The CNG bus had accumulation mode concentrations 10-100x lower than the diesel baseline but often displayed large nuclei modes, especially under CVS dilution conditions. Partly this may be explained by the lack of an oxidation catalyst on the CNG, but differences between the minidiluter and CVS size distributions suggest that dilution ratio, temperature-related wall interactions, and differences in tunnel background between the diluters contributed to creating nanoparticle concentrations that sometimes exceeded diesel

  11. Effect of biodiesel fuel on "real-world", nonroad heavy duty diesel engine particulate matter emissions, composition and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nathan; Lombard, Melissa; Jensen, Kirk R; Kelley, Patrick; Pratt, Tara; Traviss, Nora

    2017-05-15

    Biodiesel is regarded by many as a "greener" alternative fuel to petroleum diesel with potentially lower health risk. However, recent studies examining biodiesel particulate matter (PM) characteristics and health effects are contradictive, and typically utilize PM generated by passenger car engines in laboratory settings. There is a critical need to analyze diesel and biodiesel PM generated in a "real-world" setting where heavy duty-diesel (HDD) engines and commercially purchased fuel are utilized. This study compares the mass concentrations, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of real-world PM from combustion of both petroleum diesel and a waste grease 20% biodiesel blend (B20) at a community recycling center operating HDD nonroad equipment. PM was analyzed for metals, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Cytotoxicity in a human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) following 24h exposure to the real-world particles was also evaluated. On average, higher concentrations for both EC and OC were measured in diesel PM. B20 PM contained significantly higher levels of Cu and Mo whereas diesel PM contained significantly higher concentrations of Pb. Principal component analysis determined Mo, Cu, and Ni were the metals with the greatest loading factor, suggesting a unique pattern related to the B20 fuel source. Total PAH concentration during diesel fuel use was 1.9 times higher than during B20 operations; however, total N-PAH concentration was 3.3 times higher during B20 use. Diesel PM cytotoxicity was 8.5 times higher than B20 PM (p<0.05) in a BEAS-2B cell line. This study contributes novel data on real-world, nonroad engine sources of metals, PAH and N-PAH species, comparing tailpipe PM vs. PM collected inside the equipment cabin. Results suggest PM generated from burning petroleum diesel in nonroad engines may be more harmful to human health, but the links between exposure

  12. Comparison of particle mass and solid particle number (SPN) emissions from a heavy-duty diesel vehicle under on-road driving conditions and a standard testing cycle.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhongqing; Durbin, Thomas D; Xue, Jian; Johnson, Kent C; Li, Yang; Hu, Shaohua; Huai, Tao; Ayala, Alberto; Kittelson, David B; Jung, Heejung S

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the differences between emissions from standard laboratory testing cycles and those from actual on-road driving conditions, especially for solid particle number (SPN) emissions now being regulated in Europe. This study compared particle mass and SPN emissions from a heavy-duty diesel vehicle operating over the urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) and actual on-road driving conditions. Particle mass emissions were calculated using the integrated particle size distribution (IPSD) method and called MIPSD. The MIPSD emissions for the UDDS and on-road tests were more than 6 times lower than the U.S. 2007 heavy-duty particulate matter (PM) mass standard. The MIPSD emissions for the UDDS fell between those for the on-road uphill and downhill driving. SPN and MIPSD measurements were dominated by nucleation particles for the UDDS and uphill driving and by accumulation mode particles for cruise and downhill driving. The SPN emissions were ∼ 3 times lower than the Euro 6 heavy-duty SPN limit for the UDDS and downhill driving and ∼ 4-5 times higher than the Euro 6 SPN limit for the more aggressive uphill driving; however, it is likely that most of the "solid" particles measured under these conditions were associated with a combination release of stored sulfates and enhanced sulfate formation associated with high exhaust temperatures, leading to growth of volatile particles into the solid particle counting range above 23 nm. Except for these conditions, a linear relationship was found between SPN and accumulation mode MIPSD. The coefficient of variation (COV) of SPN emissions of particles >23 nm ranged from 8 to 26% for the UDDS and on-road tests.

  13. Near and long term efficiency improvements to natural gas heavy duty engines. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-10

    Trucking Research Institute (TRI) in cooperation with the Department of Energy Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (DOE), South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), and Gas Research Institute (GRI), requests proposals designed to support the Natural Gas Engine Enhanced Efficiency Program. This effort, which contains Programs A & B, is designed to fund projects that advance both the part and full load fuel efficiency of heavy-duty (250 hp plus) natural gas engines. Approximately $1.2 million will be available in Program A to fund up to three projects. These projects may target either or both near-term, and longer-term engine efficiency goals in addition, it is possible that one of the projects funded under Program A will be selected for additional funding for up to 42 months under Program B funding amounts are to be determined.

  14. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection...

  16. Comparison of the particle size distribution of heavy-duty diesel exhaust using a dilution tailpipe sampler and an in-plume sampler during on-road operation.

    PubMed

    Brown, J E; Clayton, M J; Harris, D B; King, F G

    2000-08-01

    Originally constructed to develop gaseous emission factors for heavy-duty diesel trucks, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility has been modified to incorporate particle measurement instrumentation. An electrical low-pressure impactor designed to continuously measure and record size distribution data was used to monitor the particle size distribution of heavy-duty diesel truck exhaust. For this study, which involved a high-mileage (900,000 mi) truck running at full load, samples were collected by two different methods. One sample was obtained directly from the exhaust stack using an adaptation of the University of Minnesota's air-ejector-based mini-dilution sampler. The second sample was pulled from the plume just above the enclosed trailer, at a point approximately 11 m from the exhaust discharge. Typical dilution ratios of about 300:1 were obtained for both the dilution and plume sampling systems. Hundreds of particle size distributions were obtained at each sampling location. These were compared both selectively and cumulatively to evaluate the performance of the dilution system in simulating real-world exhaust plumes. The data show that, in its current residence-time configuration, the dilution system imposes a statistically significant bias toward smaller particles, with substantially more nanoparticles being collected than from the plume sample.

  17. The relationship between heavy alcohol use and work productivity loss in active duty military personnel: a secondary analysis of the 1995 Department of Defense Worldwide Survey.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C A; Hoffman, K J; Austin-Lane, J; Kao, T C

    2000-05-01

    This cross-sectional study examines the association between heavy alcohol use among active duty military personnel and five work productivity loss events that may have an adverse effect on military performance and readiness. Data for light (N = 3,147) and heavy (N = 2,242) drinkers, categorized by gender and pay grade, were obtained from the 1995 Department of Defense Worldwide Survey. Drinking classification was predefined using a standard algorithm that factored quantity and frequency of wine, beer, and liquor consumed. The relative risks of experiencing a productivity loss event at a particular level and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by applying the Mantel-Haenszel method after adjusting for age. The relative risks for increased self-reported lateness, leaving early, low performance, and on-the-job injury were all higher for heavy drinkers than for light drinkers. This association between the heavy-drinking population and four of five work productivity loss events indicates that prevention programs should target all personnel.

  18. Gradient effects on two-color soot optical pyrometry in a heavy-duty DI diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark P.B.; Singh, Satbir; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2008-04-15

    Two-color soot optical pyrometry is a widely used technique for measuring soot temperature and volume fraction in many practical combustion devices, but line-of-sight soot temperature and volume fraction gradients can introduce significant uncertainties in the measurements. For diesel engines, these uncertainties usually can only be estimated based on assumptions about the soot property gradients along the line of sight, because full three-dimensional transient diesel soot distribution data are not available. Such information is available, however, from multidimensional computer model simulations, which are phenomenologically based, and have been validated against available in-cylinder soot measurements and diesel engine exhaust soot emissions. Using the model-predicted in-cylinder soot distributions, uncertainties in diesel two-color pyrometry data are assessed, both for a conventional high-sooting, high-temperature combustion (HTC) operating condition, and for a low-sooting, low-temperature combustion (LTC) condition. The simulation results confirm that the two-color soot measurements are strongly biased toward the properties of the hot soot. For the HTC condition, line-of-sight gradients in soot temperature span 600 K, causing relatively large errors. The two-color temperature is 200 K higher than the soot-mass-averaged value, while the two-color volume fraction is 50% lower. For the LTC condition, the two-color measurement errors are half as large as for the HTC condition, because the model-predicted soot temperature gradients along the line of sight are half as large. By contrast, soot temperature and volume fraction gradients across the field of view introduce much smaller errors of less than 50 K in temperature and 20% in volume fraction. (author)

  19. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... affixed to the engine or vehicle in a readily visible location, which contains the following information...-duty engines and vehicles used as LEVs, ULEVs, and ZEVs that are also regulated under 40 CFR part 86... shall also include an unconditional statement on the label indicating that the engine or vehicle is...

  20. Real-world emissions of carbonyl compounds from in-use heavy-duty diesel trucks and diesel Back-Up Generators (BUGs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Aniket A.; Shah, Sandip D.; Zhu, Xiaona; Miller, J. Wayne; Cocker, David R.

    Emissions of carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein are of interest to the scientific and regulatory communities due to their suspected or likely impacts on human health. The present work investigates emissions of carbonyl compounds from nine Class 8 heavy-duty diesel (HDD) tractors and also from nine diesel-powered backup generators (BUGs); the former were chosen because of their ubiquity as an emission source, and the latter because of their proximity to centers of human activity. The HDD tractors were operated on the ARB 4-Mode heavy heavy-duty diesel truck (HHDDT) driving cycle, while the BUGs were operated on the ISO 8178 Type D2 5-mode steady-state cycle and sampled using a mobile emissions laboratory (UCR MEL) equipped with a full-scale dilution tunnel. Samples were analyzed using the SAE930142 (Auto/Oil) method for 11 aldehydes, from formaldehyde to hexanaldehyde, and 2 ketones (acetone and methyl ethyl ketone). Although absolute carbonyl emissions varied widely by BUG, the relative contributions of the different carbonyls were similar (e.g., median: 56% for formaldehyde). A slight increasing trend with engine load was observed for relative formaldehyde contribution, but not for acetaldehyde contribution, for the BUGs. On-road per-mile carbonyl emission factors were a strong function of operating mode of the ARB HHDDT cycle, and found to decrease in the order Creep>Transient>Cruise. This order is qualitatively similar to emission factors for PAHs and n-alkanes determined for the same set of Class 8 diesel tractors in an earlier work. In general, relative carbonyl contributions for the HDD tractors were similar to those for BUGs (e.g., median: 54% for formaldehyde). These results indicate that while engine operating mode and application appear to exert a strong influence on the total absolute mass emission rate of the carbonyls measured, they do not appear to exert as strong an influence on the relative mass emission rates of

  1. Effects of Particle Filters and Accelerated Engine Replacement on Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Emissions of Black Carbon, Nitrogen Oxides, and Ultrafine Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchstetter, T.; Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; DeMartini, S. J.; Tang, N. W.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Diesel particle filters have become widely used in the United States since the introduction in 2007 of a more stringent exhaust particulate matter emission standard for new heavy-duty diesel vehicle engines. California has instituted additional regulations requiring retrofit or replacement of older in-use engines to accelerate emission reductions and air quality improvements. This presentation summarizes pollutant emission changes measured over several field campaigns at the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay Area associated with diesel particulate filter use and accelerated modernization of the heavy-duty truck fleet. Pollutants in the exhaust plumes of hundreds of heavy-duty trucks en route to the Port were measured in 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2013. Ultrafine particle number, black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were measured at a frequency ≤ 1 Hz and normalized to measured carbon dioxide concentrations to quantify fuel-based emission factors (grams of pollutant emitted per kilogram of diesel consumed). The size distribution of particles in truck exhaust plumes was also measured at 1 Hz. In the two most recent campaigns, emissions were linked on a truck-by-truck basis to installed emission control equipment via the matching of transcribed license plates to a Port truck database. Accelerated replacement of older engines with newer engines and retrofit of trucks with diesel particle filters reduced fleet-average emissions of BC and NOx. Preliminary results from the two most recent field campaigns indicate that trucks without diesel particle filters emit 4 times more BC than filter-equipped trucks. Diesel particle filters increase emissions of NO2, however, and filter-equipped trucks have NO2/NOx ratios that are 4 to 7 times greater than trucks without filters. Preliminary findings related to particle size distribution indicate that (a) most trucks emitted particles characterized by a single mode of approximately

  2. Characteristics of particle number and mass emissions during heavy-duty diesel truck parked active DPF regeneration in an ambient air dilution tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David C.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Collins, John F.; Burnitzki, Mark; Chernich, Donald; Herner, Jorn D.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel particle number and mass emissions were measured during parked active regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPF) in two heavy-duty diesel trucks: one equipped with a DPF and one equipped with a DPF + SCR (selective catalytic reduction), and compliant with the 2007 and 2010 emission standards, respectively. The emission measurements were conducted using an ambient air dilution tunnel. During parked active regeneration, particulate matter (PM) mass emissions measured from a 2007 technology truck were significantly higher than the emissions from a 2010 technology truck. Particle number emissions from both trucks were dominated by nucleation mode particles having a diameter less than 50 nm; nucleation mode particles were orders of magnitude higher than accumulation mode particles having a diameter greater than 50 nm. Accumulation mode particles contributed 77.8 %-95.8 % of the 2007 truck PM mass, but only 7.3 %-28.2 % of the 2010 truck PM mass.

  3. Analysis of the CO2, NOx emission and fuel consumption from a heavy-duty vehicle designed for carriage of timber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuc, P.; Lijewski, P.; Ziolkowski, A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the results of measurements of the CO2 and NOx emission and fuel consumption recorded under actual operating conditions of a heavy-duty vehicle designed for loading and carriage of timber. The tests were performed on a specially designed test route that reflected the arrival of the vehicle to the felling site in the forest, the loading process and return to the lumberyard. The route ran through paved (asphalt) and unpaved (forest) portions. Its total length was 8.6 km. An advanced PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) device was used for the measurement of the exhaust emissions - SEMTECH DS by Sensors Inc. The paper analyses the CO2 and NOx emission and fuel consumption on all portions of the test route and presents a comparison between the forest and asphalt roads.

  4. Comparative efficiency and driving range of light- and heavy-duty vehicles powered with biomass energy stored in liquid fuels or batteries

    PubMed Central

    Laser, Mark; Lynd, Lee R.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question, “When using cellulosic biomass for vehicular transportation, which field-to-wheels pathway is more efficient: that using biofuels or that using bioelectricity?” In considering the question, the level of assumed technological maturity significantly affects the comparison, as does the intended transportation application. Results from the analysis indicate that for light-duty vehicles, over ranges typical in the United States today (e.g., 560–820 miles), field-to-wheels performance is similar, with some scenarios showing biofuel to be more efficient, and others indicating the two pathways to be essentially the same. Over the current range of heavy-duty vehicles, the field-to-wheels efficiency is higher for biofuels than for electrically powered vehicles. Accounting for technological advances and range, there is little basis to expect mature bioelectricity-powered vehicles to have greater field-to-wheels efficiency (e.g., kilometers per gigajoule biomass or per hectare) compared with mature biofuel-powered vehicles. PMID:24550477

  5. Comparative efficiency and driving range of light- and heavy-duty vehicles powered with biomass energy stored in liquid fuels or batteries.

    PubMed

    Laser, Mark; Lynd, Lee R

    2014-03-04

    This study addresses the question, "When using cellulosic biomass for vehicular transportation, which field-to-wheels pathway is more efficient: that using biofuels or that using bioelectricity?" In considering the question, the level of assumed technological maturity significantly affects the comparison, as does the intended transportation application. Results from the analysis indicate that for light-duty vehicles, over ranges typical in the United States today (e.g., 560-820 miles), field-to-wheels performance is similar, with some scenarios showing biofuel to be more efficient, and others indicating the two pathways to be essentially the same. Over the current range of heavy-duty vehicles, the field-to-wheels efficiency is higher for biofuels than for electrically powered vehicles. Accounting for technological advances and range, there is little basis to expect mature bioelectricity-powered vehicles to have greater field-to-wheels efficiency (e.g., kilometers per gigajoule biomass or per hectare) compared with mature biofuel-powered vehicles.

  6. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of alternative or reformulated liquid fuels, fuel additives, fuel emulsions, and lubricants for highway and nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Environmental Technology Verification Program test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR P...

  7. ON-ROAD EMISSION SAMPLING OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first known program to characterize mobile heavy diesel vehicle emissions for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during highway and in-city driving routes was successfully conducted. The post-muffler exhaust of a diesel tractor haul...

  8. Impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel on emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases on a 2000 heavy duty diesel truck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Kwangsam; Biswas, Subhasis; Robertson, William; Sahay, Keshav; Okamoto, Robert; Mitchell, Alexander; Lemieux, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    As part of a broad evaluation of the environmental impacts of biodiesel and renewable diesel as alternative motor fuels and fuel blends in California, the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) Heavy-duty Diesel Emission Testing Laboratory conducted chassis dynamometer exhaust emission measurements on in-use heavy-heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDT). The results presented here detail the impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels and fuel blends as compared to CARB ULSD on particulate matter (PM), regulated gases, and two greenhouse gases emissions from a HHDDT with a 2000 C15 Caterpillar engine with no exhaust after treatment devices. This vehicle was tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the cruise portion of the California HHDDT driving schedule. Three neat blend stocks (soy-based and animal-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesels, and a renewable diesel) and CARB-certified ultra-low sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD) along with their 20% and 50% blends (blended with CARB ULSD) were tested. The effects of blend level on emission characteristics were discussed on g·km-1 basis. The results showed that PM, total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were dependent on driving cycles, showing higher emissions for the UDDS cycles with medium load than the highway cruise cycle with high load on per km basis. When comparing CARB ULSD to biodiesels and renewable diesel blends, it was observed that the PM, THC, and CO emissions decreased with increasing blend levels regardless of the driving cycles. Note that biodiesel blends showed higher degree of emission reductions for PM, THC, and CO than renewable diesel blends. Both biodiesels and renewable diesel blends effectively reduced PM emissions, mainly due to reduction in elemental carbon emissions (EC), however no readily apparent reductions in organic carbon (OC) emissions were observed. When compared to CARB ULSD, soy- and animal-based biodiesel blends showed statistically

  9. 40 CFR 86.099-17 - Emission control diagnostic system for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-17 Emission control diagnostic system for 1999 and later light-duty.... On vehicles with fuel tank capacity greater than 25 gallons, the Administrator may, following...

  10. Emissions of toxic pollutants from compressed natural gas and low sulfur diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested over multiple driving cycles.

    PubMed

    Kado, Norman Y; Okamoto, Robert A; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Kobayashi, Reiko; Ayala, Alberto; Gebel, Michael E; Rieger, Paul L; Maddox, Christine; Zafonte, Leo

    2005-10-01

    The number of heavy-duty vehicles using alternative fuels such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and new low-sulfur diesel fuel formulations and equipped with after-treatment devices are projected to increase. However, few peer-reviewed studies have characterized the emissions of particulate matter (PM) and other toxic compounds from these vehicles. In this study, chemical and biological analyses were used to characterize the identifiable toxic air pollutants emitted from both CNG and low-sulfur-diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested on a chassis dynamometer over three transient driving cycles and a steady-state cruise condition. The CNG bus had no after-treatment, and the diesel bus was tested first equipped with an oxidation catalyst (OC) and then with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Emissions were analyzed for PM, volatile organic compounds (VOCs; determined on-site), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and mutagenic activity. The 2000 model year CNG-fueled vehicle had the highest emissions of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbonyls (e.g., formaldehyde) of the three vehicle configurations tested in this study. The 1998 model year diesel bus equipped with an OC and fueled with low-sulfur diesel had the highest emission rates of PM and PAHs. The highest specific mutagenic activities (revertants/microg PM, or potency) and the highest mutagen emission rates (revertants/mi) were from the CNG bus in strain TA98 tested over the New York Bus (NYB) driving cycle. The 1998 model year diesel bus with DPF had the lowest VOCs, PAH, and mutagenic activity emission. In general, the NYB driving cycle had the highest emission rates (g/mi), and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) had the lowest emission rates for all toxics tested over the three transient test cycles investigated. Also, transient emissions were, in general, higher than steady-state emissions. The emissions of toxic compounds from an in-use CNG transit bus (without an oxidation

  11. A Shallow Layer Model for Heavy Gas Dispersion from Natural Sources: Application at Caldara di Manziana, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, G.; Costa, A.; Hankin, R. K.; Granieri, D.; Cardellini, C.; Caliro, S.; Avino, R.

    2006-12-01

    Many volcanic and non-volcanic areas in Italy emit a very large amount of gas into the atmosphere. Several non-volcanic sources in Central Italy emit a huge amount of cold carbon dioxide (CO2). These degassing areas are generally fed by buried carbonate reservoirs, covered by low permeability formations, where the gas produced at depth accumulates before the expulsion at the surface. Under stable atmospheric conditions and/or in presence of topographic depressions, its concentration can reach high values resulting in lethal effects to humans or animals. In fact, several episodes of this phenomenon were recorded in Central Italy and in different areas. Although from a theoretical point of view, gas dispersion can be fully studied by solving the complete equations system for mass, momentum and energy transport, in actual practice, different simplified models able to describe only specific phases or aspects have to be used. In order to simulate dispersion of a heavy gas and to assess the consequent hazard we used TWODEE model based on a shallow layer approach. This technique which uses depth-averaged variables to describe the flow behavior of dense gas over complex topography represents a good compromise between the complexity of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models and the simpler integral models. Here as an application we present results for a vented CO2 release at Caldara di Manziana in Central Italy using the TWODEE model. We studied as different meteorological conditions, windspeed and topography can affect the dispersion pattern of the gas river. A comparison with the values measured during an apposite campaign is also presented. The obtained results show the potential of the applied model for hazard assessment and risk mitigation.

  12. Real-world PM, NO x, CO, and ultrafine particle emission factors for military non-road heavy duty diesel vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dongzi; Nussbaum, Nicholas J.; Kuhns, Hampden D.; Chang, M.-C. Oliver; Sodeman, David; Moosmüller, Hans; Watson, John G.

    2011-05-01

    Training on US military bases involves nonroad diesel vehicles with emissions that can affect base personnel, nearby communities, and attainment of air quality standards. Nonroad diesel engines contribute 44% of diesel PM and 12% of total NO x emissions from mobile sources nationwide. Although military sector fuel use accounts for only ≈0.4% of distillate fuel use in US, emissions factors measured for these engines improve the representation of the relatively small (as compared to onroad sources) database of nonroad emission factors. Heavy-duty multi-axle, all-wheel drive military trucks are not compatible with regular single-axle dynamometers and their emissions cannot be measured under standard laboratory conditions. We have developed a novel in-plume technique to measure in-use emissions from vehicles with elevated stack. Real-world gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emission factors (EFs) from ten 7-ton 6-wheel drive trucks and two 8-wheel drive heavy tactical Logistics Vehicle System (LVS) vehicles were measured using in-plume sampling. The EFs of these trucks are comparable to those of onroad trucks while the PM EFs of 2-stroke LVS are ≈10 times higher than those of onroad vehicles. Lower EC/PM ratio was observed for LVS compared with MTVR. PM number emission factors were 5.9 × 10 14 particles km -1 for the trucks and 2.5 × 10 16 particles km -1 for the LVSs, three orders of magnitude higher than the proposed European Union standard of 6 × 10 11 particles km -1. The EFs sampled can be extended to engines used in the broader nonroad sector including agriculture and mining and used as inputs to the NONROAD model.

  13. Impact of biodiesel on regulated and unregulated emissions, and redox and proinflammatory properties of PM emitted from heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Gysel, Nicholas; Schmitz, Debra A; Cho, Arthur K; Sioutas, Constantinos; Schauer, James J; Cocker, David R; Durbin, Thomas D

    2017-04-15

    The emissions and the potential health effects of particulate matter (PM) were assessed from two heavy-duty trucks with and without emission control aftertreatment systems when operating on CARB ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and three different biodiesel blends. The CARB ULSD was blended with soy-based biodiesel, animal fat biodiesel, and waste cooking oil biodiesel at 50vol%. Testing was conducted over the EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) in triplicate for both trucks. The aftertreatment controls effectively decreased PM mass and number emissions, as well as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared to the uncontrolled truck. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) exhibited increases with the biodiesel blends, showing some feedstock dependency for the controlled truck. The oxidative potential of the emitted PM, measured by means of the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, showed reductions with the use of biodiesel blends relative to CARB ULSD for the uncontrolled truck. Overall, the cellular responses to the particles from each fuel were reflective of the chemical content, i.e., particles from CARB ULSD were the most reactive and exhibited the highest cellular responses.

  14. Emission characterization of an alcohol/diesel-pilot fueled compression-ignition engine and its heavy-duty diesel counterpart. Final report, August 1980-August 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Ullman, T.L.; Hare, C.T.

    1981-08-01

    This report describes results from emissions testing of a prototype diesel engine, developed by Volvo Truck Corporation of Sweden, which uses pilot injection of diesel fuel for compression ignition of alcohol fuel injection for main combustion. In addition to this dual-fuel engine, emission testing was also conducted on a heavy-duty diesel engine of similar design. Both engines were tested over the 1979 13-mode FTP, or shorter versions of this modal test, and over the 1984 Transient FTP as well as an experimental bus cycle. The dual-fuel engine was characterized with methanol, ethanol and ethanol with 30 percent water (wt %). An oxidation catalyst was also used with methanol and ethanol. Emission characterization included regulated emissions (HC, CO, and NOX) along with total particulate, unburned alcohols, individual hydrocarbons, aldehydes, phenols, and odor. The particulate matter was characterized in terms of particle size distribution, sulfate content, C, H, S, metal content, and soluble organic fraction. The soluble organic fraction was studied by determining its elemental composition (C,H,S,N), boiling point distribution, BaP content, relative make-up of polar compounds, and bioactivity by Ames testing.

  15. PM2.5 emissions from different types of heavy-duty truck: a case study and meta-analysis of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

    PubMed

    Song, Liying; Song, Hongqing; Lin, Jingyi; Wang, Cheng; Yu, Mingxu; Huang, Xiaoxia; Guan, Yu; Wang, Xing; Du, Li

    2017-03-14

    Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region in China is affected seriously by the hazy weather that has a large impact on human health. PM2.5 is one of the most important reasons for hazy weather. Understanding the PM2.5 emission characteristics from different types of heavy-duty trucks (HDTs) is valuable in policies and regulations to improve urban air quality and mitigate vehicle emission in China. The investigation and analysis on HDT population and PM2.5 emission in BTH region are carried out. The results show that the population and PM2.5 emission of HDTs in BTH has risen for the last four consecutive years, from 404 thousand and 1795 tons in 2012 to 551 thousand and 2303 tons in 2015. The PM2.5 emission from HDTs in Hebei is about 10 times more than that of Beijing and 9 times more than that of Tianjin. The proportion of natural gas HDTs is about 5%; however, its PM2.5 emission only accounts for 0.94% in 2015, which indicates the utilization of HDTs powered by natural gas facilitate PM2.5 mitigation more than diesel in BTH. The tractor and pickup trucks are the main source of PM2.5 emission from different types of HDT, while special and dump trucks are relatively clean. This study has provided insights for management method and policy-making of vehicle in terms of environmental demand.

  16. Effects of Particle Filters and Selective Catalytic Reduction on Heavy-Duty Diesel Drayage Truck Emissions at the Port of Oakland.

    PubMed

    Preble, Chelsea V; Dallmann, Timothy R; Kreisberg, Nathan M; Hering, Susanne V; Harley, Robert A; Kirchstetter, Thomas W

    2015-07-21

    Effects of fleet modernization and use of diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on heavy-duty diesel truck emissions were studied at the Port of Oakland in California. Nitrogen oxides (NOx), black carbon (BC), particle number (PN), and size distributions were measured in the exhaust plumes of ∼1400 drayage trucks. Average NOx, BC, and PN emission factors for newer engines (2010-2013 model years) equipped with both DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32%, and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than 2004-2006 engines without these technologies. Intentional oxidation of NO to NO2 for DPF regeneration increased tailpipe NO2 emissions, especially from older (1994-2006) engines with retrofit DPFs. Increased deployment of advanced controls has further skewed emission factor distributions; a small number of trucks emit a disproportionately large fraction of total BC and NOx. The fraction of DPF-equipped drayage trucks increased from 2 to 99% and the median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years between 2009 and 2013. Over this period, fleet-average BC and NOx emission factors decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. Emission changes occurred rapidly compared to what would have been observed due to natural (i.e., unforced) turnover of the Port truck fleet. These results provide a preview of more widespread emission changes expected statewide and nationally in the coming years.

  17. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Young, Li-Hao; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Cheng, Man-Ting; Lu, Jau-Huai; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2012-01-15

    Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC+DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N(TOT)) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N(TOT) and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N(TOT) at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC+DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N(TOT) post the DOC+DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of ≈ 10(4)cm(-3). This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the after treatment is highly favored.

  18. High-resolution diffraction for residual stress determination in the NiCrMoV wheel of an axial compressor for a heavy-duty gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogante, M.; Török, G.; Ceschini, G. F.; Tognarelli, L.; Füzesy, I.; Rosta, L.

    2004-07-01

    The wheel of an axial compressor for a heavy-duty gas turbine has been investigated for residual stresses (RS) evaluation of the teeth-section where SANS measurements have previously been performed. Such a component can contain internal RS, either due to the manufacturing process, or to the operating cycles fatigue. The constitutive material is a NiCrMoV steel to ASTM A 471 (type 2) norms (equivalent to B50A420B10); this material is usually adopted in the manufacturing of forged components for gas turbines. Internal radial and hoop RS have been determined, whose values are under the limit of 200kPa. Hoop RS, in general, resulted in higher value than the radial ones. The present experiment represents a particularly important step in the RS determination for gas turbine components, since the measurements reveal that the fatigue of the wheel is also a lifetime limiting factor although, in the same technological field, the available data in the actual neutron techniques literature mainly concern turbine buckets.

  19. Genotoxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles using the in vivo Vicia faba L. micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Albertina X R; Cotelle, Sylvie; Millet, Maurice; Somensi, Cleder A; Wagner, Theodoro M; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) can have an impact on the environment due to its chemical constitution. A large number of substances such as organic compounds, sulfates, nitrogen derivatives and metals are adsorbed to the particles and desorption of these contaminants could promote genotoxic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo genotoxicity profile of diesel exhaust PM from heavy-duty engines. Extracts were obtained through leaching with pure water and chemical extraction using three organic solvents (dichloromethane, hexane, and acetone). The in vivo Vicia faba micronucleus test (ISO 29200 protocol) was used to assess the environmental impact of the samples collected from diesel exhaust PM. The solid diesel PM (soot) dissolved in water, and the different extracts, showed positive results for micronucleus formation. After the addition of EDTA, the aqueous extracts did not show a genotoxic effect. The absence of metals in the organic solvent extract indicated that organic compounds also had a genotoxic effect, which was not observed for a similar sample cleaned in a C18 column. Thus, considering the ecological importance of higher plants in relation to ecosystems (in contrast to Salmonella spp., which are commonly used in mutagenicity studies), the Vicia micronucleus test was demonstrated to be appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests on diesel exhaust particulate matter included in risk assessments.

  20. Influence of real-world engine load conditions on nanoparticle emissions from a DPF and SCR equipped heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Carder, Daniel K; Oshinuga, Adewale; Gautam, Mridul

    2012-02-07

    The experiments aimed at investigating the effect of real-world engine load conditions on nanoparticle emissions from a Diesel Particulate Filter and Selective Catalytic Reduction after-treatment system (DPF-SCR) equipped heavy-duty diesel engine. The results showed the emission of nucleation mode particles in the size range of 6-15 nm at conditions with high exhaust temperatures. A direct result of higher exhaust temperatures (over 380 °C) contributing to higher concentration of nucleation mode nanoparticles is presented in this study. The action of an SCR catalyst with urea injection was found to increase the particle number count by over an order of magnitude in comparison to DPF out particle concentrations. Engine operations resulting in exhaust temperatures below 380 °C did not contribute to significant nucleation mode nanoparticle concentrations. The study further suggests the fact that SCR-equipped engines operating within the Not-To-Exceed (NTE) zone over a critical exhaust temperature and under favorable ambient dilution conditions could contribute to high nanoparticle concentrations to the environment. Also, some of the high temperature modes resulted in DPF out accumulation mode (between 50 and 200 nm) particle concentrations an order of magnitude greater than typical background PM concentrations. This leads to the conclusion that sustained NTE operation could trigger high temperature passive regeneration which in turn would result in lower filtration efficiencies of the DPF that further contributes to the increased solid fraction of the PM number count.

  1. Effect of fuel composition and engine operating conditions on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from a fleet of heavy-duty diesel buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Rohan Jayaratne, E.

    Emissions from 12 in-service heavy-duty buses powered by low- (LSD) and ultra low-sulfur (ULSD) diesel fuels were measured with the aim to characterize the profile of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the exhaust and to identify the effect of different types of fuels on the emissions. To mimic on-road conditions as much as possible, sampling was conducted on a chassis dynamometer at four driving modes, namely: mode 7 or idle (0% power), mode 11 (25% power), mode 10 (50% power) and mode 8 (100% power). Irrespective of the type of fuel used, naphthalene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluorene, fluoranthene and pyrene were found to be the dominant PAHs in the exhaust emissions of the buses. However, the PAH composition in the exhausts of ULSD buses were up to 91±6% less than those in the LSD buses. In particular, three- and four-ringed PAHs were more abundant in the later than in the former. Lowering of fuel sulfur content not only reduced PAH emission, but also decreased the benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BAP eq) and hence the toxicity of the exhaust. Result from multicriteria decision-making and multivariate data analysis techniques showed that the use of ULSD afforded cleaner exhaust compositions and emissions with characteristics that are distinct from those obtained by the use of LSD.

  2. A new alternative paraffinic-palmbiodiesel fuel for reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chen, Yan-Min; Wu, Tzi-Yi

    2011-01-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs) fuelled with paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends have been rarely addressed in the literature. A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) was used to analyze 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results indicate that the main species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD (octachlorinated debenzo-p-dioxin) and OCDF (octachlorodibenzofuran), and they accounted for 40-50% of the total PCDD/Fs for all test fuels. Paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends decreased PCDD/Fs by 86.1-88.9%, toxic PCDD/Fs by 91.9-93.0%, THC (total hydrocarbons) by 13.6-23.3%, CO (carbon monoxide) by 27.2-28.3%, and PM (particulate matter) by 21.3-34.2%. Using biodiesel blends, particularly BP9505 or BP8020, instead of premium diesel fuel (PDF) significantly reduced emissions of both PCDD/Fs and traditional pollutants. Using BP9505 (95vol% paraffinic fuel+5vol% palmbiodiesel) and BP8020 instead of PDF can decrease PCDD/F emissions by 5.93 and 5.99gI-TEQyear(-1) in Taiwan, respectively.

  3. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, G.B.; DelVecchio, K.A.; Hays, W.J.; Hiltner, J.D.; Nagaraj, R.; Emmer, C.

    2000-03-02

    This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. The authors completed four tasks under this phase of the subcontract. (1) They developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system and used it to identify DING ignition/combustion system improvements. The results were a 20% improvement in efficiency compared to Phase 1 testing. (2) The authors designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. During preliminary testing, the engine ran successfully at low loads for approximately 2 hours before injector tip and check failures terminated the test. The problems are solvable; however, this phase of the program was terminated. (3) They developed a Decision & Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. The model shows the most likely commercial applications for DING technology and can also be used to identify the sensitivity of variables that impact commercial viability. (4) MVE, Inc., completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3,000 psi LNG pump. A primary concern is the life of pump seals and piston rings. Plans for the next phase of this program (Phase 3) have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine. However, based on results from this program, the authors believe that DI natural gas technology is viable for allowing a natural gas-fueled engine to achieve diesel power density and thermal efficiency for both the near and long terms.

  4. Ecotoxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles: influence of leaching conditions.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Albertina X R; Testolin, Renan C; Torres, Mariana M; Cotelle, Sylvie; Schwartz, Jean-Jacques; Millet, Maurice; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-04-01

    Concerns regarding the environmental impact of diesel exhaust particulate matter (DPM) have increased in recent years. Following emission to the atmosphere, these fine materials can sorb many contaminants at their surface, which can subsequently be released, for instance, due to physicochemical environmental changes. The desorption of contaminants from particulate matter will increase the environmental pollution and can promote ecotoxicological effects. In this context, the objective of this study was to assess the aquatic ecotoxicity profile of extracts of DPM obtained at two different pH values. Thus, after collecting particulate matter from the diesel exhaust of heavy engines, extracts were obtained with pure water (at pH 2.00 and 5.00) and with a mixture of three organic solvents (dichloromethane, n-hexane, and acetone). To assess the environmental impact of DPM, the exhaust extracts were used in a battery of aquatic bioassays including key organisms of the food chain: bacteria (Aliivibrio fischeri), algae (Scenedesmus subspicatus), daphnids (Daphnia magna), and fishes (Danio rerio). The aqueous leachate at natural pH (2.0) and solvent extracts were extremely ecotoxic, while the aqueous leachate at pH = 5.0 showed the lowest ecotoxicity. The global ranking of sensitivity for the biotests tested was daphnids > algae > bacteria > fishes. Thus, the use of this bioassay battery could improve our understanding of the impact of DPM on aquatic environments, which is dependent on the pH of the leaching process.

  5. Exhaust particle and NOx emission performance of an SCR heavy duty truck operating in real-world conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, Sampo; Karjalainen, Panu; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Pirjola, Liisa; Matilainen, Pekka; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2016-02-01

    Particle and NOx emissions of an SCR equipped HDD truck were studied in real-world driving conditions using the "Sniffer" mobile laboratory. Real-time CO2 measurement enables emission factor calculation for NOx and particles. In this study, we compared three different emission factor calculation methods and characterised their suitability for real-world chasing experiments. The particle number emission was bimodal and dominated by the nucleation mode particles (diameter below 23 nm) having emission factor up to 1 × 1015 #/kgfuel whereas emission factor for soot (diameter above 23 nm that is consistent with the PMP standard) was typically 1 × 1014 #/kgfuel. The effect of thermodenuder on the exhaust particles indicated that the nucleation particles consisted mainly of volatile compounds, but sometimes there also existed a non-volatile core. The nucleation mode particles are not controlled by current regulations in Europe. However, these particles consistently form under atmospheric dilution in the plume of the truck and constitute a health risk for the human population that is exposed to those. Average NOx emission was 3.55 g/kWh during the test, whereas the Euro IV emission limit over transient testing is 3.5 g NOx/kWh. The on-road emission performance of the vehicle was very close to the expected levels, confirming the successful operation of the SCR system of the tested vehicle. Heavy driving conditions such as uphill driving increased both the NOx and particle number emission factors whereas the emission factor for soot particle number remains rather constant.

  6. Very High Fuel Economy, Heavy Duty, Constant Speed, Truck Engine Optimized Via Unique Energy Recovery Turbines and Facilitated High Efficiency Continuously Variable Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect

    Bahman Habibzadeh

    2010-01-31

    The project began under a corporative agreement between Mack Trucks, Inc and the Department of Energy starting from September 1, 2005. The major objective of the four year project is to demonstrate a 10% efficiency gain by operating a Volvo 13 Litre heavy-duty diesel engine at a constant or narrow speed and coupled to a continuously variable transmission. The simulation work on the Constant Speed Engine started on October 1st. The initial simulations are aimed to give a basic engine model for the VTEC vehicle simulations. Compressor and turbine maps are based upon existing maps and/or qualified, realistic estimations. The reference engine is a MD 13 US07 475 Hp. Phase I was completed in May 2006 which determined that an increase in fuel efficiency for the engine of 10.5% over the OICA cycle, and 8.2% over a road cycle was possible. The net increase in fuel efficiency would be 5% when coupled to a CVT and operated over simulated highway conditions. In Phase II an economic analysis was performed on the engine with turbocompound (TC) and a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). The system was analyzed to determine the payback time needed for the added cost of the TC and CVT system. The analysis was performed by considering two different production scenarios of 10,000 and 60,000 units annually. The cost estimate includes the turbocharger, the turbocompound unit, the interstage duct diffuser and installation details, the modifications necessary on the engine and the CVT. Even with the cheapest fuel and the lowest improvement, the pay back time is only slightly more than 12 months. A gear train is necessary between the engine crankshaft and turbocompound unit. This is considered to be relatively straight forward with no design problems.

  7. Gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty engine equipped with SCR aftertreatment system and fuelled with diesel and biodiesel: assessment of pollutant dispersion and health risk.

    PubMed

    Tadano, Yara S; Borillo, Guilherme C; Godoi, Ana Flávia L; Cichon, Amanda; Silva, Thiago O B; Valebona, Fábio B; Errera, Marcelo R; Penteado Neto, Renato A; Rempel, Dennis; Martin, Lucas; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Godoi, Ricardo H M

    2014-12-01

    The changes in the composition of fuels in combination with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems bring new insights into the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The major goal of our study was to quantify NOx, NO, NO2, NH3 and N2O emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine operated with diesel and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel. Exhaust fume samples were collected from bench dynamometer tests using a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with SCR. The target gases were quantified by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The use of biodiesel blend presented lower concentrations in the exhaust fumes than using ultra-low sulfur diesel. NOx and NO concentrations were 68% to 93% lower in all experiments using SCR, when compared to no exhaust aftertreatment. All fuels increased NH3 and N2O emission due to SCR, a precursor secondary aerosol, and major greenhouse gas, respectively. An AERMOD dispersion model analysis was performed on each compound results for the City of Curitiba, assumed to have a bus fleet equipped with diesel engines and SCR system, in winter and summer seasons. The health risks of the target gases were assessed using the Risk Assessment Information System For 1-h exposure of NH3, considering the use of low sulfur diesel in buses equipped with SCR, the results indicated low risk to develop a chronic non-cancer disease. The NOx and NO emissions were the lowest when SCR was used; however, it yielded the highest NH3 concentration. The current results have paramount importance, mainly for countries that have not yet adopted the Euro V emission standards like China, India, Australia, or Russia, as well as those already adopting it. These findings are equally important for government agencies to alert the need of improvements in aftertreatment technologies to reduce pollutants emissions.

  8. Emissions of organic aerosol mass, black carbon, particle number, and regulated and unregulated gases from scooters and light and heavy duty vehicles with different fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirico, R.; Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Giechaskiel, B.; Heringa, M. F.; Elsasser, M.; Martini, G.; Manfredi, U.; Streibel, T.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Astorga, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Prevot, A. S. H.

    2014-06-01

    A sampling campaign with seven different types of vehicles was conducted in 2009 at the vehicle test facilities of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy). The vehicles chosen were representative of some categories circulating in Europe and were fueled either with standard gasoline or diesel and some with blends of rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel. The aim of this work was to improve the knowledge about the emission factors of gas phase and particle-associated regulated and unregulated species from vehicle exhaust. Unregulated species such as black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (OA) content, particle number (PN), monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and a~selection of unregulated gaseous compounds, including nitrous acid (N2O), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and methane (CH4), were measured in real time with a suite of instruments including a high-resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer, a resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Diesel vehicles, without particle filters, featured the highest values for particle number, followed by gasoline vehicles and scooters. The particles from diesel and gasoline vehicles were mostly made of BC with a low fraction of OA, while the particles from the scooters were mainly composed of OA. Scooters were characterized by super high emissions factors for OA, which were orders of magnitude higher than for the other vehicles. The heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) featured the highest nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while the scooters had the highest emissions for total hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds due to the unburned and partially burned gasoline and lubricant oil mixture. Generally, vehicles fuelled with biodiesel blends showed lower emission factors of OA and total aromatics than those from the standard fuels

  9. Effects of diesel fuel combustion-modifier additives on In-cylinder soot formation in a heavy-duty Dl diesel engine.

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark P. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Dietz, Jeff

    2005-07-01

    Based on a phenomenological model of diesel combustion and pollutant-formation processes, a number of fuel additives that could potentially reduce in-cylinder soot formation by altering combustion chemistry have been identified. These fuel additives, or ''combustion modifiers'', included ethanol and ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, polyethylene glycol dinitrate (a cetane improver), succinimide (a dispersant), as well as nitromethane and another nitro-compound mixture. To better understand the chemical and physical mechanisms by which these combustion modifiers may affect soot formation in diesel engines, in-cylinder soot and diffusion flame lift-off were measured, using an optically-accessible, heavy-duty, direct-injection diesel engine. A line-of-sight laser extinction diagnostic was employed to measure the relative soot concentration within the diesel jets (''jetsoot'') as well as the rates of deposition of soot on the piston bowl-rim (''wall-soot''). An OH chemiluminescence imaging technique was utilized to measure the lift-off lengths of the diesel diffusion flames so that fresh oxygen entrainment rates could be compared among the fuels. Measurements were obtained at two operating conditions, using blends of a base commercial diesel fuel with various combinations of the fuel additives. The ethanol additive, at 10% by mass, reduced jet-soot by up to 15%, and reduced wall-soot by 30-40%. The other fuel additives also affected in-cylinder soot, but unlike the ethanol blends, changes in in-cylinder soot could be attributed solely to differences in the ignition delay. No statistically-significant differences in the diesel flame lift-off lengths were observed among any of the fuel additive formulations at the operating conditions examined in this study. Accordingly, the observed differences in in-cylinder soot among the fuel formulations cannot be attributed to differences in fresh oxygen entrainment upstream of the soot-formation zones after ignition.

  10. Reducing carbonyl emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine at US transient cycle test by use of paraffinic/biodiesel blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Wu, Chia-Chieh; Lin, Yu-Sheng

    2009-12-01

    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are toxic carcinogens so their reductions in diesel-engine emissions are desirable. This study investigated emissions of carbonyl compounds (CBCs) from an HDDE (heavy-duty diesel engine) at US transient cycle test, using five test fuels: premium diesel fuel (D100), P100 (100% palm-biodiesel), P20 (20% palm-biodiesel + 80% premium diesel fuel), PF80P20 (80% paraffinic fuel + 20% palm-biodiesel), and PF95P05 (95% paraffinic fuel + 5% palm-biodiesel). Experimental results indicate that formaldehyde was the major carbonyl in the exhaust, accounting for 70.1-76.2% of total CBC concentrations for all test fuels. In comparison with D100 (172 mg BHP -1 h -1), the reductions of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emission factor for P100, P20, PF80P20, and PF95P05 were (-16.8%, -61.8%), (-10.0%, -39.0%), (21.3%, 1.10%), and (31.1%, 19.5%), respectively. Using P100 and P20 instead of D100 in the HDDE increased CBC concentrations by 14.5% and 3.28%, respectively, but using PF80P20 and PF95P05 significantly reduced CBC concentrations by 30.3% and 23.7%, respectively. Using P100 and P20 instead of D100 (2867 ton yr -1) in the HDDE increased CBC emissions by 240 and 224 ton yr -1, respectively, but using PF80P20, and PF95P05 instead of D100 in the HDDE decreased CBC emissions by 711 and 899 ton yr -1, respectively. The above results indicate that the wide usage of paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends as alternative fuels could protect the environment.

  11. Regulated and unregulated emissions from highway heavy-duty diesel engines complying with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2007 emissions standards.

    PubMed

    Khalek, Imad A; Bougher, Thomas L; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2011-04-01

    As part of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES), regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from four different 2007 model year U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-compliant heavy-duty highway diesel engines were measured on an engine dynamometer. The engines were equipped with exhaust high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filters (C-DPFs) that are actively regenerated or cleaned using the engine control module. Regulated emissions of carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and particulate matter (PM) were on average 97, 89, and 86% lower than the 2007 EPA standard, respectively, and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were on average 9% lower. Unregulated exhaust emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions were on, average 1.3 and 2.8 times higher than the NO, emissions reported in previous work using 1998- and 2004-technology engines, respectively. However, compared with other work performed on 1994- to 2004-technology engines, average emission reductions in the range of 71-99% were observed for a very comprehensive list of unregulated engine exhaust pollutants and air toxic contaminants that included metals and other elements, elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, and gas- and particle-phase volatile and semi-volatile organic carbon (OC) compounds. The low PM mass emitted from the 2007 technology ACES engines was composed mainly of sulfate (53%) and OC (30%), with a small fraction of EC (13%) and metals and other elements (4%). The fraction of EC is expected to remain small, regardless of engine operation, because of the presence of the high-efficiency C-DPF in the exhaust. This is different from typical PM composition of pre-2007 engines with EC in the range of 10-90%, depending on engine operation. Most of the particles emitted from the 2007 engines were mainly volatile nuclei mode in the sub-30-nm size range. An increase in volatile nanoparticles was observed during C-DPF active regeneration, during which the observed particle number was

  12. Effects on aerosol size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the heavy-duty diesel generator fueled with feedstock palm-biodiesel blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Yang, Chi-Ru; Wu, C. H. Jim; Wu, Tzi-Yi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    Biodiesels are promoted as alternatives to fossil fuels and their applications in diesel engine have been studied extensively. However, the size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and generator particulate material (GPM) emitted from heavy-duty diesel generator fueled with biodiesel blends has seldom been addressed. Seven different biodiesel blends with volume fractions of biodiesel ranging from 0% to 30% were studied. Experimental results indicate that the mean reductions of sum of PAHi/GPM 0.056-18 (generator particulate material with aerodynamic diameter 0.056-18 μm) and BaP eqi [=(benzo[ a]pyrene equivalent)i]/GPM 0.056-18 of B5, B10, B15, B20, B25 and B30 are (-8.21%, -5.72%), (-36.7%, -29.7%), (-1.25%, 2.32%), (16.2%, 18.6%), (33.4%, 35.0%) and (40.5%, 42.4), respectively, compared with B0. Both PAHi/GPMi and BaP eqi/GPMi in stage 1 (0.056 - 0.166 μm) and stage 2 (0.166 - 0.31 μm) of all test fuels are higher than those in the other stages due to higher specific surface area of smaller particles. It is also observed that there are more highly toxic PAHs in stage 2. It should be noticed that the trend of particle-phase PAH contents is different from the trend of particle-phase PAH concentration and opposite to the trend of total GPM 0.056-18 emission. The differences are due to a higher number of particles with diameters between 0.056 and 0.31 μm. The above results indicate that fuel blends with less than 15% biodiesel would increase PAH content at particle size between 0.056 and 0.31 μm. Therefore, the blending fraction should be between 15% and 30%. Moreover, particle-size control is needed in future emission regulations which would necessitate further improvements in combustion quality. Besides, researches on health effects of biodiesel blends are needed as well.

  13. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used − rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. Results High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than

  14. Fleet test evaluation of fully formulated heavy-duty coolant technology maintained with a delayed-release filter compared with coolant inhibited with a nitrited organic acid technology: An interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Aroyan, S.S.; Eaton, E.R.

    1999-08-01

    This paper is a controlled extended service interval (ESI) study of the comparative behaviors of a nitrite/borate/low-silicate, low total dissolved solids (TDS) coolant maintained with delayed-release filters, and an organic acid inhibited coolant technology in heavy-duty engines. It reports both laboratory and fleet test data from 66 trucks, powered with different makes of heavy-duty diesel engines. The engines were cooled with three different types of inhibitors and two different glycol base (ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) coolants for an initial period exceeding two years and 500,000 km (300,000 miles). The data reported include chemical depletion rates, periodic coolant chemical analyses, and engine/cooling system reliability experience. The ongoing test will continue for approximately five years and a 1.6 million km (1 million miles) duration. Thirteen trucks were retained as controls, operating with ASTM D 4985 specification (GM-6038 type) coolant maintained with a standard ASTM D 57542 supplemental coolant additive (SCA). Engines produced by Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel Corp., Cummins Engine Co., and Mack Trucks are included in the test mix.

  15. Optical properties of urban aerosols, aircraft emissions, and heavy-duty diesel trucks using aerosol light extinction measurements by an Aerodyne Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Particle Extinction Monitor (CAPS PMex)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, A.; Massoli, P.; Wood, E. C.; Allan, J. D.; Fortner, E.; Yu, Z.; Herndon, S. C.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Onasch, T. B.

    2010-12-01

    We present results of optical property characterization of ambient particulate during several field deployments where measurements of aerosol light extinction (σep) are obtained using an Aerodyne Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Particle Extinction Monitor (CAPS PMex). The CAPS PMex is able to provide extinction measurements with 3-σ detection limit of 3 Mm-1 for 1s integration time. The CAPS PMex (630 nm) is integrated in the Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) mobile laboratory where a co-located Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) provides particle light absorption coefficient at 632 nm. The combination of the CAPS with the MAAP data allows estimating the single scattering albedo (ω) of the ambient aerosol particles. The ARI mobile laboratory was deployed in winter 2010 at the Chicago O’Hare International Airport to measure gas phase and particulate emissions from different aircraft engines, and during summer 2010 in Oakland, CA, to characterize vehicular gaseous and particulate emissions (mainly exhaust from heavy-duty diesel trucks) from the Caldecott Tunnel. We provide estimates of black carbon emission factors from individual aircraft engines and diesel trucks, in addition to characterizing the optical properties of these ambient samples studying fleet-average emissions for both light-duty passenger vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Two CAPS PMex instruments (measuring σep at 630 and 532 nm) were also deployed during the CalNex 2010 study (May 14 - June 16) at the CalTech ground site in Pasadena, CA. During the same time, a photo-acoustic spectrometer (PAS, DMT) and an aethalometer instrument (Magee Sci.) measured particle light absorption of submicron aerosol particles from the same sample line as the CAPS PMex monitors. We combine these data to provide multi-wavelength ω trends for the one-month campaign. Our results show the high potential of the CAPS as light weight, compact instrument to perform precise and accurate σep measurements of

  16. 40 CFR 86.004-9 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  17. 40 CFR 86.004-9 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  18. 40 CFR 86.004-9 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  19. 40 CFR 86.004-9 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  20. A shallow-layer model for heavy gas dispersion from natural sources: Application and hazard assessment at Caldara di Manziana, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, A.; Chiodini, G.; Granieri, D.; Folch, A.; Hankin, R. K. S.; Caliro, S.; Avino, R.; Cardellini, C.

    2008-03-01

    Several nonvolcanic sources in central Italy emit a large amount of carbon dioxide (CO2). Under stable atmospheric conditions and/or in the presence of topographic depressions, the concentration of CO2, which has a molecular mass greater than that of air, can reach high values that are lethal to humans or animals. Several episodes of this phenomenon were recorded in central Italy and elsewhere. In order to validate a model for the dispersion of a heavy gas and to assess the consequent hazard, we applied and tested the code TWODEE-2, an improved version of the established TWODEE model, which is based on a shallow-layer approach that uses depth-averaged variables to describe the flow behavior of dense gas over complex topography. We present results for a vented CO2 release at Caldara di Manziana in central Italy. We find that the model gives reliable results when the input quantity can be properly defined. Moreover, we show that the model can be a useful tool for gas hazard assessment by evaluating where and when lethal concentrations for humans and animals are reached.

  1. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Regulations Requiring Onboard Diagnostic Systems on 2010 and Later Heavy-Duty Engines Used in Highway Applications Over 14,000 Pounds

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Regulations Requiring Onboard Diagnostic Systems on 2010 and Later Heavy-Duty Engines Used in Highway Applications Over 14,000 Pounds

  2. Reducing emissions of carbonyl compounds and regulated harmful matters from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with paraffinic/biodiesel blends at one low load steady-state condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Wu, Tzi-Yi; Ou-Yang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Chung-Bang

    This study investigated the emissions of carbonyl compounds (CBCs) and regulated harmful matters (traditional pollutants) from an HDDE (heavy-duty diesel engine) at one low load steady-state condition, 24.5% of the max load (40 km h -1), using five test fuels: premium diesel fuel (D100), P100 (100% palm-biodiesel), P20 (20% palm-biodiesel + 80% premium diesel fuel), PF80P20 (80% paraffinic fuel + 20% palm-biodiesel), and PF95P05 (95% paraffinic fuel + 5% palm-biodiesel). Experimental results indicate that formaldehyde was the major carbonyl in the exhaust, accounting for 70.3-75.4% of total CBC concentrations for all test fuels. Using P100 and P20 instead of D100 in the HDDE increased CBC concentrations by 9.74% and 2.89%, respectively. However, using PF80P20 and PF95P05 as alternative fuels significantly reduced CBC concentrations by 30.3% and 24.2%, respectively. Using PF95P05 instead of D100 decreased CBCs by 30.3%, PM by 11.1%, THC by 39.0%, CO by 34.0%, NOx by 24.3%, and CO 2 by 7.60%. The wide usage of paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends as alternative fuels could protect the environment. However, it should be noted that only one engine operated at one low load steady-state condition was investigated.

  3. 40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Greenhouse gas emission standards for... Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1818-12 Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty... group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane,...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Greenhouse gas emission standards for... Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1818-12 Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty... group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane,...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Greenhouse gas emission standards for... Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1818-12 Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty... group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane,...

  6. 76 FR 168 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... COMMISSION Heavy Forged Hand Tools From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of five-year reviews concerning the antidumping duty orders on heavy forged hand tools from China... antidumping duty orders on heavy forged hand tools from China would be likely to lead to continuation...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1814-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1815-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1815-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-02 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1814-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-02 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1814-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1815-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1812-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1812-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1811-01 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1811-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1813-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1813-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  16. Energy 101: Heavy Duty Vehicle Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-14

    Although Class 8 Trucks only make up 4% of the vehicles on the road, they use about 20% of the nation's transportation fuel. In this video, learn how new fuel-efficient technologies are making our country's big rigs quieter, less polluting, more energy-efficient, and less expensive to operate over time.

  17. Energy 101: Heavy Duty Vehicle Efficiency

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Although Class 8 Trucks only make up 4% of the vehicles on the road, they use about 20% of the nation's transportation fuel. In this video, learn how new fuel-efficient technologies are making our country's big rigs quieter, less polluting, more energy-efficient, and less expensive to operate over time.

  18. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Johnson

    2000-01-31

    The objectives are to Provide Key Enabling Materials Technologies to Increase Energy Efficiency and Reduce Exhaust Emissions. The following goals are listed: Goal 1: By 3rd quarter 2002, complete development of materials enabling the maintenance or improvement of fuel efficiency {ge} 45% of class 7-8 truck engines while meeting the EPA/Justice Department ''Consent Decree'' for emissions reduction. Goal 2: By 4th quarter 2004, complete development of enabling materials for light-duty (class 1-2) diesel truck engines with efficiency over 40%, over a wide range of loads and speeds, while meeting EPA Tier 2 emission regulations. Goal 3: By 4th quarter 2006, complete development of materials solutions to enable heavy-duty diesel engine efficiency of 50% while meeting the emission reduction goals identified in the EPA proposed rule for heavy-duty highway engines.''

  19. Cosmetology Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for three occupations in the cosmetology series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  20. Microcomputer Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for eight occupations in the microcomputer series. Each occupation is divided into 5 to 11 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  1. Printing Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 10 occupations in the printing series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for…

  2. Welding Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for six occupations in the welding series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for…

  3. Piston Bowl Optimization for RCCI Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Reed M; Curran, Scott; Wagner, Robert M; Reitz, Rolf; Kokjohn, Sage

    2012-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that that produces low NO{sub x} and PM emissions with high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI research has been investigated in single-cylinder heavy-duty engines. The current study investigates RCCI operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine at 3 operating points. These operating points were chosen to cover a range of conditions seen in the US EPA light-duty FTP test. The operating points were chosen by the Ad Hoc working group to simulate operation in the FTP test. The fueling strategy for the engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of diesel fuel. At these 3 points, the stock engine configuration is compared to operation with both the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and custom machined pistons designed for RCCI operation. The pistons were designed with assistance from the KIVA 3V computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. By using a genetic algorithm optimization, in conjunction with KIVA, the piston bowl profile was optimized for dedicated RCCI operation to reduce unburned fuel emissions and piston bowl surface area. By reducing these parameters, the thermal efficiency of the engine was improved while maintaining low NOx and PM emissions. Results show that with the new piston bowl profile and an optimized injection schedule, RCCI brake thermal efficiency was increased from 37%, with the stock EURO IV configuration, to 40% at the 2,600 rev/min, 6.9 bar BMEP condition, and NOx and PM emissions targets were met without the need for exhaust after-treatment.

  4. Light Duty Vehicle Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View a fact sheet on how the Final Endangerment Finding will allow EPA to finalize the first greenhouse gas standards for new light-duty vehicles as part of the joint rulemaking with the Department of Transportation.

  5. 40 CFR 86.1815-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-01 Emission standards... monoxide: 5.0 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 1.1 grams per mile except diesel fueled vehicles... mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 1.53 grams per mile. (v) Particulate matter: 0.12 grams per mile. (b)...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1814-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-01 Emission standards... mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.7 grams per mile except diesel-fueled vehicles which have no standard... mile. (iii) Carbon monoxide: 6.4 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.98 grams per mile....

  7. 40 CFR 86.1813-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1813-01 Emission standards... grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.7 grams per mile except diesel fueled vehicles which have no... monoxide: 5.5 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.97 grams per mile. (v) Particulate matter:...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1815-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-02 Emission standards... per mile. (iii) Carbon monoxide: 5.0 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 1.1 grams per mile...) Carbon monoxide: 7.3 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 1.53 grams per mile. (v) Particulate...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1814-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-02 Emission standards... monoxide: 4.4 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.7 grams per mile except diesel-fueled vehicles... hydrocarbons: 0.46 grams per mile. (iii) Carbon monoxide: 6.4 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen:...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1815-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-02 Emission standards... per mile. (iii) Carbon monoxide: 5.0 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 1.1 grams per mile...) Carbon monoxide: 7.3 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 1.53 grams per mile. (v) Particulate...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1814-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-02 Emission standards... monoxide: 4.4 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.7 grams per mile except diesel-fueled vehicles... hydrocarbons: 0.46 grams per mile. (iii) Carbon monoxide: 6.4 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen:...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1814-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-01 Emission standards... mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.7 grams per mile except diesel-fueled vehicles which have no standard... mile. (iii) Carbon monoxide: 6.4 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.98 grams per mile....

  13. 40 CFR 86.1813-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1813-01 Emission standards... grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.7 grams per mile except diesel fueled vehicles which have no... monoxide: 5.5 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.97 grams per mile. (v) Particulate matter:...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1815-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-01 Emission standards... monoxide: 5.0 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 1.1 grams per mile except diesel fueled vehicles... mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 1.53 grams per mile. (v) Particulate matter: 0.12 grams per mile. (b)...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1815-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-02 Emission standards... per mile. (iii) Carbon monoxide: 5.0 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 1.1 grams per mile...) Carbon monoxide: 7.3 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 1.53 grams per mile. (v) Particulate...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1813-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1813-01 Emission standards... grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.7 grams per mile except diesel fueled vehicles which have no... monoxide: 5.5 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.97 grams per mile. (v) Particulate matter:...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1814-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-02 Emission standards... monoxide: 4.4 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.7 grams per mile except diesel-fueled vehicles... hydrocarbons: 0.46 grams per mile. (iii) Carbon monoxide: 6.4 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen:...

  18. 76 FR 31631 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools From China; Scheduling of Expedited Five-Year Reviews Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Heavy Forged Hand Tools From China; Scheduling of Expedited Five- Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Heavy Forged Hand Tools From China. AGENCY: United States International Trade... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on heavy forged hand tools from China would...

  19. Balancing Duties and Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha M.; Webb, L. Dean

    2000-01-01

    Schools are legally obligated to protect students from injury, report child abuse, and curtail harassment and hate crimes. Educators' duties to maintain safe school environments often conflict with students' constitutionally protected rights governing expression, appearance, unreasonable searches, and due process regarding zero-tolerance policies…

  20. Heavy Truck Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Christopher

    2009-01-08

    The Heavy Duty Truck Engine Program at Cummins embodied three significant development phases. All phases of work strove to demonstrate a high level of diesel engine efficiency in the face of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Concurrently, aftertreatment system development and refinement was pursued in support of these efficiency demonstrations. The program's first phase focused on the demonstration in-vehicle of a high level of heavy duty diesel engine efficiency (45% Brake Thermal Efficiency) at a typical cruise condition while achieving composite emissions results which met the 2004 U.S. EPA legislated standards. With a combination of engine combustion calibration tuning and the development and application of Urea-based SCR and particulate aftertreatment, these demonstrations were successfully performed by Q4 of 2002. The second phase of the program directed efforts towards an in-vehicle demonstration of an engine system capable of meeting 2007 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements while achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency at cruise conditions. Through further combustion optimization, the refinement of Cummins Cooled EGR architecture, the application of a high pressure common rail fuel system and the incorporation of optimized engine parasitics, Cummins Inc. successfully demonstrated these deliverables in Q2 of 2004. The program's final phase set a stretch goal of demonstrating 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency from a heavy duty diesel engine system capable of meeting 2010 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements. Cummins chose to pursue this goal through further combustion development and refinement of the Cooled EGR system architecture and also applied a Rankine cycle Waste Heat Recovery technique to convert otherwise wasted thermal energy to useful power. The engine and heat recovery system was demonstrated to achieve 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency while operating at a torque peak condition in second quarter, 2006. The 50% efficient engine

  1. 40 CFR 86.000-8 - Emission standards for 2000 and later model year light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86... model year light-duty vehicles. 86.000-8 Section 86.000-8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New...

  2. 40 CFR 86.000-8 - Emission standards for 2000 and later model year light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86... model year light-duty vehicles. 86.000-8 Section 86.000-8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New...

  3. 40 CFR 86.000-8 - Emission standards for 2000 and later model year light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86... model year light-duty vehicles. 86.000-8 Section 86.000-8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New...

  4. 40 CFR 86.000-8 - Emission standards for 2000 and later model year light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86... model year light-duty vehicles. 86.000-8 Section 86.000-8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New...

  5. Emergency Medical Technician Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 12 duties in the occupation of emergency medical technician. Each duty is divided into a number of tasks. A separate page for each duty lists the task with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for comments. The 12 duties…

  6. Auto Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for eight occupations in the auto mechanics series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  7. Residential Carpentry Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for nine occupations in the residential carpentry series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to…

  8. Data Processing Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for five occupations in the data processing series. Each occupation is divided into 5 to 11 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  9. Occupational Food Service Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for six occupations in the occupational food service series. Each occupation is divided into three to eight duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and…

  10. Business & Office Secretarial Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 11 occupations in the business and office secretarial series. Each occupation is divided into three to seven duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught…

  11. Diesel Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 11 occupations in the diesel mechanics series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  12. Fashion Merchandising Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for seven occupations in the fashion merchandising series. Each occupation is divided into 6 to 15 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to…

  13. Word Processing Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for two occupations in the word processing series. Each occupation is divided into 9 or 10 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  14. Application for certification 1988 model year light-duty vehicles - Volvo Cars of North America

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings that describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems.

  15. Application for certification, 1989 model year light-duty vehicles - Volvo

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The application for 1989 LDV and LDT Chrysler Motors gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems.

  16. Application for certification, 1989 model year light-duty vehicles emission - Sentra/Pulsar - NX (TBI)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The application for 1989 LDV and LDT Chrysler Motors gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems.

  17. 40 CFR 86.1812-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1812-01 Emission standards... monoxide: 3.4 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.4 grams per mile except diesel fuel which have a 1... per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.6 grams per mile except diesel fuel which have a 1.25 gram...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1812-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1812-01 Emission standards... monoxide: 3.4 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.4 grams per mile except diesel fuel which have a 1... per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.6 grams per mile except diesel fuel which have a 1.25 gram...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1811-01 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1811-01 Emission standards... per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.4 grams per mile except diesel fuel which has a 1.0 gram per mile...: 4.2 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.6 grams per mile except diesel fuel which has a...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1811-01 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1811-01 Emission standards... per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.4 grams per mile except diesel fuel which has a 1.0 gram per mile...: 4.2 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.6 grams per mile except diesel fuel which has a...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1811-01 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1811-01 Emission standards... per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.4 grams per mile except diesel fuel which has a 1.0 gram per mile...: 4.2 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.6 grams per mile except diesel fuel which has a...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1812-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1812-01 Emission standards... monoxide: 3.4 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.4 grams per mile except diesel fuel which have a 1... per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.6 grams per mile except diesel fuel which have a 1.25 gram...

  3. Effects of Injector Conditions on the Flame Lift-Off Length of DI Diesel Sprays

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Siebers; B. S. Higgins

    2000-07-01

    The effects of injection pressure and orifice diameter on the lift-off length of a direct-injection (DI) diesel spray (defined as the farthest upstream location of high temperature combustion) were investigated using a natural light emission imaging technique. The lift-off length experiments were conducted in a constant-volume combustion vessel under quiescent, heavy-duty DI diesel engine conditions using a Phillips research grade No.2 diesel fuel. The results show that natural light emission at 310 nm provides an excellent marker of the lift-off length. At this location, natural light emission at 310 nm is dominated by OH chemiluminescence generated by high-temperature combustion chemistry. Lift-off lengths determined from images of natural light emission at 310 nm show that as either injection pressure (i.e., injection velocity) or orifice diameter increase, the lift-off length increases. The observed lift-off length increase was linearly dependent on injection velocity, the same dependency as previously noted for gas jets. The lift-off length increase with increasing orifice diameter, however, is different than the independence of lift-off length on orifice diameter noted for gas jets An important overall observation was made by considering the lift-off length data in conjunction with data from recent investigations of liquid-phase fuel penetration and spray development. The combined data suggests that a systematic evolution of the relationship and interaction between various processes in a DI diesel spray has been occurring over time, as injection pressures have been increased and orifice diameters reduced as part of efforts to meet emissions regulations. The trends observed may eventually help explain effects of parameters such as injection pressure and orifice diameter on emissions.

  4. 75 FR 68312 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for New Medium- and Heavy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... proposing fuel consumption standards under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA),\\2\\ and... Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for New Medium- and Heavy-Duty Fuel Efficiency Improvement... fuel consumption standards for commercial medium- and heavy-duty on-highway vehicles and work...

  5. 76 FR 50755 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... COMMISSION Heavy Forged Hand Tools From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty orders on heavy forged hand tools from China would be likely to lead to continuation or... Forged Hand Tools From China: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-457-A-D (Third Review). Issued: August 10,...

  6. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Prohaska, Robert; Duran, Adam; Ragatz, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-05-03

    In an effort to help commercialize technologies for electric vehicles (EVs) through deployment and demonstration projects, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) provided funding to participating U.S. companies to cover part of the cost of purchasing new EVs. Within the medium- and heavy-duty commercial vehicle segment, both Smith Electric Newton and and Navistar eStar vehicles qualified for such funding opportunities. In an effort to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new technologies deployed in these vehicles operating under real world conditions, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium-duty EVs were collected, compiled, and analyzed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Fleet Test and Evaluation team over a period of 3 years. More than 430 Smith Newton EVs have provided data representing more than 150,000 days of operation. Similarly, data have been collected from more than 100 Navistar eStar EVs, resulting in a comparative total of more than 16,000 operating days. Combined, NREL has analyzed more than 6 million kilometers of driving and 4 million hours of charging data collected from commercially operating medium-duty electric vehicles in various configurations. In this paper, extensive duty-cycle statistical analyses are performed to examine and characterize common vehicle dynamics trends and relationships based on in-use field data. The results of these analyses statistically define the vehicle dynamic and kinematic requirements for each vehicle, aiding in the selection of representative chassis dynamometer test cycles and the development of custom drive cycles that emulate daily operation. In this paper, the methodology and accompanying results of the duty-cycle statistical analysis are presented and discussed. Results are presented in both graphical and tabular formats illustrating a number of key relationships between parameters observed within the data set that relate to

  7. 40 CFR 86.709-99 - In-use emission standards for 1999 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards (g/mi) for Light Light-Duty Trucks Fuel LVW (lbs) THC NMHC THCE NMHCE CO NOX PM Gasoline 0-3750 0... occurs. Table H99-2—Full Useful Life Standards (g/mi) for Light Light-Duty Trucks Fuel LVW (lbs) THC 2.../mi) for Heavy Light-Duty Trucks Fuel ALVW (lbs) THC NMHC THCE NMHCE CO NOX PM Gasoline 3751-5750...

  8. 40 CFR 86.709-99 - In-use emission standards for 1999 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards (g/mi) for Light Light-Duty Trucks Fuel LVW (lbs) THC NMHC THCE NMHCE CO NOX PM Gasoline 0-3750 0... occurs. Table H99-2—Full Useful Life Standards (g/mi) for Light Light-Duty Trucks Fuel LVW (lbs) THC 2.../mi) for Heavy Light-Duty Trucks Fuel ALVW (lbs) THC NMHC THCE NMHCE CO NOX PM Gasoline 3751-5750...

  9. 40 CFR 86.709-99 - In-use emission standards for 1999 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards (g/mi) for Light Light-Duty Trucks Fuel LVW (lbs) THC NMHC THCE NMHCE CO NOX PM Gasoline 0-3750 0... occurs. Table H99-2—Full Useful Life Standards (g/mi) for Light Light-Duty Trucks Fuel LVW (lbs) THC 2.../mi) for Heavy Light-Duty Trucks Fuel ALVW (lbs) THC NMHC THCE NMHCE CO NOX PM Gasoline 3751-5750...

  10. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    developed by GM, DaimlerChrysler and BMW in a consortium is also a power-split design with two electric machines and two planetary gear sets plus coupling...Architecture .................................................. 41 Figure 7: Planetary Type Power-Split Parallel-Series Full Hybrid...partially compensated for with transmissions having more gears in order to multiply the engine power for greater tractive effort. The remaining

  11. Positive displacement compounding of a heavy duty diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.

    1983-01-01

    A helical screw type positive displacement (PD) compressor and expander was considered as an alternative to the turbocharger and the power turbine in the Cummins advanced turbocompound engine. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) completed the design, layout, and performance prediction of the PD machines. The results indicate that a screw compressor-expander system is feasible up to at least 750 HP, dry operation of the rotors is feasible, cost and producibility are uncertain, and the system will yield about 4% improvement in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) over the advanced turbocompound engine.

  12. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, HEAVY DUTY COATINGS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    f" , i , , , I ' , ' J " .... r, "~ I" ~ • ~ , Rr ,·111 j , • ; I!" " G. .. -j ..... t ,r 1" ~ "- -j I, - I - , , " , f I • • " ; . c. ' t. < ' , , I .. • I!'-<' v ", j! . " f'. (I f " .... Q I ' • ,I 1. \\ ...

  13. HEAVY-DUTY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS MODEL (GEM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Class 2b-8 vocational truck manufacturers and Class 7/8 tractor manufacturers would be subject to vehicle-based fuel economy and emission standards that would use a truck simulation model to evaluate the impact of the truck tires and/or tractor cab design on vehicle compliance wi...

  14. MOVES2014: Heavy-duty Vehicle Emissions Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report updates MOVES methods for evaluating current HD diesel NOx emission rates based on comparisons to independent data from EPA’s IUVP and Houston drayage programs. The report also details methods/assumptions made for HD gasoline HC, CO and NOx emission rates using reduct...

  15. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, Donald W.

    2011-06-03

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of our objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded.

  16. 40 CFR 86.097-9 - Emission standards for 1997 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards (g/mi) for Light Light-Duty Trucks Fuel LVW (lbs) THC NMHC THCE NMHCE CO NOX PM Gasoline 0-3750 0... LVW (lbs) THC 1 NMHC THCE 1 NMHCE CO NOX PM Gasoline 0-3750 0.80 0.31 4.2 0.6 0.10 Gasoline 3751-5750...—Intermediate Useful Life Standards (g/mi) for Heavy Light-Duty Trucks Fuel ALVW (lbs) THC NMHC THCE NMHCE...

  17. Electricity Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in electricity. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 10 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: residential electrician apprentice, material handler/supply clerk, maintenance electrician apprentice,…

  18. 77 FR 39997 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools, Finished or Unfinished, With or Without Handles From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... International Trade Administration Heavy Forged Hand Tools, Finished or Unfinished, With or Without Handles From... and is amending the final results of the antidumping duty review on heavy forged hand tools, finished... Heavy Forged Hand Tools, Finished or Unfinished, With or Without Handles, From the People's Republic...

  19. 19 CFR 151.65 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.65 Duties. Duties on wool or hair... determination of clean yield. Estimated and liquidated duties on wool or hair tested for clean yield pursuant to... appropriate adjustment of the estimated percentage clean yield shown on the entry summary for the wool or...

  20. 19 CFR 151.65 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.65 Duties. Duties on wool or hair... determination of clean yield. Estimated and liquidated duties on wool or hair tested for clean yield pursuant to... appropriate adjustment of the estimated percentage clean yield shown on the entry summary for the wool or...

  1. 19 CFR 151.65 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.65 Duties. Duties on wool or hair... determination of clean yield. Estimated and liquidated duties on wool or hair tested for clean yield pursuant to... appropriate adjustment of the estimated percentage clean yield shown on the entry summary for the wool or...

  2. 19 CFR 151.65 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.65 Duties. Duties on wool or hair... determination of clean yield. Estimated and liquidated duties on wool or hair tested for clean yield pursuant to... appropriate adjustment of the estimated percentage clean yield shown on the entry summary for the wool or...

  3. 19 CFR 151.65 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.65 Duties. Duties on wool or hair... determination of clean yield. Estimated and liquidated duties on wool or hair tested for clean yield pursuant to... appropriate adjustment of the estimated percentage clean yield shown on the entry summary for the wool or...

  4. 5 CFR 550.182 - Unscheduled duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unscheduled duty. 550.182 Section 550.182 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.182 Unscheduled duty. (a) Unscheduled Duty Hours....

  5. 5 CFR 550.182 - Unscheduled duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unscheduled duty. 550.182 Section 550.182 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.182 Unscheduled duty. (a) Unscheduled Duty Hours....

  6. 5 CFR 550.182 - Unscheduled duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unscheduled duty. 550.182 Section 550.182 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.182 Unscheduled duty. (a) Unscheduled Duty Hours....

  7. 5 CFR 550.182 - Unscheduled duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unscheduled duty. 550.182 Section 550.182 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.182 Unscheduled duty. (a) Unscheduled Duty Hours....

  8. 5 CFR 550.182 - Unscheduled duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unscheduled duty. 550.182 Section 550.182 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.182 Unscheduled duty. (a) Unscheduled Duty Hours....

  9. 47 CFR 51.100 - General duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General duty. 51.100 Section 51.100 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Telecommunications Carriers § 51.100 General duty. (a) Each telecommunications carrier has the duty: (1)...

  10. Heavy Flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, B.; Soni, A.

    This is a summary report of the working group on Heavy Flavors. Discussions at the workshop were centered on B physics and on the signals for heavy quarks and leptons at the SSC. The Working Group Members were: V. Barger, H.-U. Bengtsson, C. Buchanan, I. Bigi, M. Block, B. Cox, N. Glover, J. Hewett, W.Y. Keung, B. Margolis, T. Rizzo, M. Suzuki, A. Soni, D. Stork, and S. Willenbrock.

  11. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle Drive Cycles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Prohaska, R.; Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Kelly, K.

    2015-05-03

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts real-world performance evaluations of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles. Evaluation results can help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and assist fleet managers in selecting fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their economic and operational goals. In 2011, NREL launched a large-scale performance evaluation of medium-duty electric vehicles. With support from vehicle manufacturers Smith and Navistar, NREL research focused on characterizing vehicle operation and drive cycles for electric delivery vehicles operating in commercial service across the nation.

  12. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-10 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-09 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-10 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty... standards apply for purposes of in-use testing only and does not apply to certification or...

  15. 75 FR 54596 - Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review: Heavy Iron Construction Castings from Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... International Trade Administration Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review: Heavy Iron Construction Castings... of the countervailing duty order (``CVD'') on heavy iron construction castings from Brazil pursuant... review of the CVD order on iron construction castings from Brazil pursuant to section 751(c) of the...

  16. Is there a moral duty to die?

    PubMed

    Corlett, J A

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of philosophical discussion about the alleged moral right to die. If there is such a moral right, then it would seem to imply a moral duty of others to not interfere with the exercise of the right. And this might have important implications for public policy insofar as public policy ought to track what is morally right. But is there a moral duty to die? If so, under what conditions, if any, ought one to have such a duty, and why? In this paper, I distinguish between different moral grounds for the putative moral duty to die: deontological, intuitionist, and contractarian. Subsequently, I argue in support of Paul Menzel's theory of health care distribution. More precisely, I concur with his claim that there is a moral duty to die inexpensively in health care contexts. Then I provide and defend a philosophical analysis of the conditions in which such a duty could exist.

  17. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Stanton

    2010-12-31

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx

  18. Application for certification, 1991 model year light-duty vehicles - Sports Car America, Puma Division Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The report deals with light-duty vehicles from Sports Car America, PUMA Division Incorporated. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  19. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  20. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  1. Individual rights versus societal duties.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, E

    1999-10-29

    In 'bioethics', the rights to self-determination and to informed consent of the patient are prerequisites to every medical decision: paternalism is no longer a justifiable attitude. Hence, it seems that compulsory vaccination is an unacceptable praxis. Even John Stuart Mill. however, took into account other values: e.g. the duty not to harm others. This article is dedicated to the analysis of the historical development of these values and to their relevance for the ethics of vaccination. The acceptability of coercion is upheld, but no clear-cut answers are given in general: in every case the pros and cons of coercion are to be weighed carefully against each other.

  2. 7 CFR 1207.328 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.328 Duties. The Board...

  3. 7 CFR 1207.328 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.328 Duties. The Board...

  4. 7 CFR 1207.328 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.328 Duties. The Board...

  5. 7 CFR 1207.328 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.328 Duties. The Board...

  6. 7 CFR 1207.328 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.328 Duties. The Board...

  7. 40 CFR 86.001-9 - Emission standards for 2001 and later model year light-duty trucks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86... per liter) of fuel dispensed. (iv) Refueling receptacle (for natural gas-fueled vehicles). Refueling receptacles on natural gas-fueled vehicles shall comply with the receptacle provisions of the ANSI/AGA...

  8. 40 CFR 86.001-9 - Emission standards for 2001 and later model year light-duty trucks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86... per liter) of fuel dispensed. (iv) Refueling receptacle (for natural gas-fueled vehicles). Refueling receptacles on natural gas-fueled vehicles shall comply with the receptacle provisions of the ANSI/AGA...

  9. 40 CFR 86.001-9 - Emission standards for 2001 and later model year light-duty trucks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86... per liter) of fuel dispensed. (iv) Refueling receptacle (for natural gas-fueled vehicles). Refueling receptacles on natural gas-fueled vehicles shall comply with the receptacle provisions of the ANSI/AGA...

  10. 40 CFR 86.001-9 - Emission standards for 2001 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86... per liter) of fuel dispensed. (iv) Refueling receptacle (for natural gas-fueled vehicles). Refueling receptacles on natural gas-fueled vehicles shall comply with the receptacle provisions of the ANSI/AGA...

  11. 19 CFR 159.38 - Rates for estimated duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.38 Rates for estimated duties. For purposes of calculating estimated duties, the port director shall use the rate or rates... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rates for estimated duties. 159.38 Section...

  12. 19 CFR 159.38 - Rates for estimated duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.38 Rates for estimated duties. For purposes of calculating estimated duties, the port director shall use the rate or rates... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rates for estimated duties. 159.38 Section...

  13. Business & Office Accounting/Bookkeeping Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for five occupations in the business and office accounting/bookkeeping series. Each occupation is divided into four to six duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has…

  14. Banking and Financial Services Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for five occupations in the banking and financial services series. Each occupation is divided into seven or eight duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been…

  15. Heavy Truck Clean Diesel Cooperative Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Milam, David

    2006-12-31

    This report is the final report for the Department of Energy on the Heavy Truck Engine Program (Contract No. DE-FC05-00OR22806) also known as Heavy Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program. Originally, this was scoped to be a $38M project over 5 years, to be 50/50 co-funded by DOE and Caterpillar. The program started in June 2000. During the program the timeline was extended to a sixth year. The program completed in December 2006. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to enable compliance with the 2007 and 2010 (0.2g/bhph NOx, 0.01g/bhph PM) on-highway emission standards for Heavy Duty Trucks in the US with improvements in fuel efficiency compared to today's engines. Thermal efficiency improvement from a baseline of 43% to 50% was targeted.

  16. 28 CFR 35.164 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duties. 35.164 Section 35.164 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.164 Duties. This subpart does not require a public entity to take any...

  17. 28 CFR 35.164 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duties. 35.164 Section 35.164 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.164 Duties. This subpart does not require a public entity to take any...

  18. 28 CFR 35.164 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duties. 35.164 Section 35.164 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.164 Duties. This subpart does not require a public entity to take any...

  19. 28 CFR 35.164 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duties. 35.164 Section 35.164 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.164 Duties. This subpart does not require a public entity to take any...

  20. 28 CFR 35.164 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duties. 35.164 Section 35.164 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.164 Duties. This subpart does not require a public entity to take any...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.332 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Secretary, a program of research, advertising, and sales promotion projects, together with a... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.332 Duties. The Board shall have the following duties:...

  2. 34 CFR 97.403 - IRB duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false IRB duties. 97.403 Section 97.403 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.403 IRB duties. In addition to other responsibilities...

  3. 34 CFR 97.403 - IRB duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false IRB duties. 97.403 Section 97.403 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.403 IRB duties. In addition to other responsibilities...

  4. 34 CFR 97.403 - IRB duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false IRB duties. 97.403 Section 97.403 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.403 IRB duties. In addition to other responsibilities...

  5. 34 CFR 97.403 - IRB duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false IRB duties. 97.403 Section 97.403 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.403 IRB duties. In addition to other responsibilities...

  6. 34 CFR 97.403 - IRB duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false IRB duties. 97.403 Section 97.403 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.403 IRB duties. In addition to other responsibilities...

  7. 7 CFR 930.31 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conditions with respect to cherries; (k) To apprise the Secretary of all Board meetings in a timely manner... together with a budget(s) which shall show the estimated cost to be incurred for such plan or project; (2... Administrative Body § 930.31 Duties. The Board shall have, among others, the following duties: (a) To select...

  8. 40 CFR 94.105 - Duty cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 94.105 Duty cycles. (a) Overview. For...) General cycle. Propulsion engines that are used with (or intended to be used with) fixed-pitch propellers, propeller-law auxiliary engines, and any other engines for which the other duty cycles of this section...

  9. Light Duty Truck Aftertreatment - Experience and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Redon, Fabien

    2000-08-20

    Detroit Diesel's test experience on light duty truck PM aftertreatment technology development will be presented. The Tier-II extremely low emissions standards combined with the light-duty test cycle impose a significant challenge for the development of production-viable emissions technologies. A robust general path to achieve these emissions targets will be outlined.

  10. Duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Dharan, Nadiv; Farago, Oded

    2012-02-01

    Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body and have many different and important roles. These micromachines move along filament tracks and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty ratios, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II (a nonprocessive molecular machine with a low duty ratio), cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty ratio of nonprocessive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty ratio of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track.

  11. Automatic control of clock duty cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Xiaoxin (Inventor); Roper, Weston (Inventor); Seefeldt, James D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    In general, this disclosure is directed to a duty cycle correction (DCC) circuit that adjusts a falling edge of a clock signal to achieve a desired duty cycle. In some examples, the DCC circuit may generate a pulse in response to a falling edge of an input clock signal, delay the pulse based on a control voltage, adjust the falling edge of the input clock signal based on the delayed pulse to produce an output clock signal, and adjust the control voltage based on the difference between a duty cycle of the output clock signal and a desired duty cycle. Since the DCC circuit adjusts the falling edge of the clock cycle to achieve a desired duty cycle, the DCC may be incorporated into existing PLL control loops that adjust the rising edge of a clock signal without interfering with the operation of such PLL control loops.

  12. Duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharan, Nadiv; Farago, Oded

    2012-02-01

    Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body and have many different and important roles. These micromachines move along filament tracks and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty ratios, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II (a nonprocessive molecular machine with a low duty ratio), cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty ratio of nonprocessive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty ratio of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track.

  13. Single SOA based 16 DWDM channels all-optical NRZ-to-RZ format conversions with different duty cycles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Xinliang; Rosas-Fernández, J B; Huang, Dexiu; Penty, R V; White, I H

    2008-09-29

    We demonstrate simultaneous NRZ-to-RZ conversion for 16 DWDM channels, using a single SOA and a subsequent delay interferometer (DI) acting as a comb-like filter to control the obtained pulse-width for all of the channels. The SOA is operated in deep saturation, resulting in weak cross gain modulation and cross phase modulation induced crosstalk between different NRZ channels. By adjusting the detuning between the peaks in the DI spectrum and each corresponding carrier, good quality RZ signals with different duty cycles can be achieved. Bit-error-rate measurements show negative power penalties for the obtained RZ signals with different duty cycles. Significant timing jitter reductions for all channels show the good regenerative performance of the proposed converter.

  14. [Patients' rights--doctors' duties].

    PubMed

    Jaeger, L; Bertram, E; Grate, S; Mischkowsky, T; Paul, D; Probst, J; Scala, E; Wbllenweber, H D

    2015-06-01

    On 26 February 2013 the new "Law on Patients' Rights" (hereinafter also the "Law") became effective. This Law strengthens patients' rights vis-à-vis the insurdnce company and also regulates patients' rights regarding their relation to the doctor. This has consequences for the laws on medical liability all doctors must consider. The doctor's performance is and remains a service and such service does not hold any guarantee of success. Nevertheless, this Law primarily reads as a "law on the duties of physicians". To duly take into account these duties and to avoid mistakes and misinterpretation of the Law, the Ethics Committee of the Consortium of Osteosynthesis Trauma Germany (AOTRAUMA-D) has drafted comments on the Law. Brief summaries of its effects are to be found at the end of the respective comment under the heading "Consequences for Practice". The text of the law was influenced particularly by case law, as continuously developed by the German Federal Court of Justice ("BGH"). The implementation of the Law on Patients' Rights was effected by the newly inserted sections 630a to 630h of the German Civil Code (the "BGB"), which are analysed below. The following comments are addressed to physicians only and do not deal with the specific requirements and particularities of the other medical professions such as physiotherapy, midwifery and others so on. Special attention should be paid to the comments on the newly inserted Duty to inform, which has to be fullfilled prior to any diagnostic or therapeutic procedure (sec. 630c para 2 sentence 1 BGB). Under certain conditions the doctor also has to inform the patient about the circumstances that lead to the presumed occurance of a therapeutic or diagnostic malpractice (sec. 630c para. 2 sentence 2 BGB), based on the manifestation of an undesired event or an undesired outcome. As before, the patient's valid consent to any procedure (sec. 630d BGB) is directly linked to the comprehensive and timely provision of information

  15. 19 CFR 134.2 - Additional duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING General Provisions § 134.2 Additional duties. Articles not marked as required by... container) to indicate the English name of the country of origin of the article or to include words...

  16. 19 CFR 134.2 - Additional duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING General Provisions § 134.2 Additional duties. Articles not marked as required by... container) to indicate the English name of the country of origin of the article or to include words...

  17. 49 CFR 272.5 - General duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS PLANS General § 272.5 General duty. A railroad subject to this part shall adopt a written critical incident stress plan approved by the Federal Railroad Administration...

  18. 7 CFR 987.30 - Duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... salaries, define the duties and where desirable fix the bonds of such employees. (f) To cause the books of the Committee to be audited by a certified public accountant at least once each crop year and at...

  19. 38 CFR 3.6 - Duty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... from an injury incurred or aggravated in line of duty or from an acute myocardial infarction, a cardiac... means any of the following: (i) An acute myocardial infarction. (ii) A cardiac arrest. (iii)...

  20. 38 CFR 3.6 - Duty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... from an injury incurred or aggravated in line of duty or from an acute myocardial infarction, a cardiac... means any of the following: (i) An acute myocardial infarction. (ii) A cardiac arrest. (iii)...

  1. 38 CFR 3.6 - Duty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... from an injury incurred or aggravated in line of duty or from an acute myocardial infarction, a cardiac... means any of the following: (i) An acute myocardial infarction. (ii) A cardiac arrest. (iii)...

  2. 38 CFR 3.6 - Duty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... from an injury incurred or aggravated in line of duty or from an acute myocardial infarction, a cardiac... means any of the following: (i) An acute myocardial infarction. (ii) A cardiac arrest. (iii)...

  3. Mental Health Concerns: Veterans & Active Duty

    MedlinePlus

    ... through My Health e Vet , the VA’s online personal health record. This site for veterans, active duty ... their families provides access to health records, a personal health journal, online VA prescription refill information and ...

  4. 19 CFR 151.66 - Duty on samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duty on samples. 151.66 Section 151.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.66 Duty on samples....

  5. 19 CFR 151.66 - Duty on samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duty on samples. 151.66 Section 151.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.66 Duty on samples....

  6. 19 CFR 151.66 - Duty on samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duty on samples. 151.66 Section 151.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.66 Duty on samples....

  7. 19 CFR 151.66 - Duty on samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duty on samples. 151.66 Section 151.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.66 Duty on samples....

  8. 19 CFR 151.66 - Duty on samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duty on samples. 151.66 Section 151.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.66 Duty on samples....

  9. 19 CFR 10.625 - Refunds of excess customs duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refunds of excess customs duties. 10.625 Section 10.625 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... and Apparel Goods § 10.625 Refunds of excess customs duties. (a) Applicability. Section 205 of...

  10. Marketing Education/Business Management & Ownership Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for eight occupations in the marketing education/business management and ownership series. Each occupation is divided into 4 to 12 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular…

  11. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  12. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  13. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  14. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  15. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  16. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle Drive Cycles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Prohaska, R.; Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Kelly, K.

    2015-05-01

    In an effort to help commercialize technologies for electric vehicles (EVs) through deployment and demonstration projects, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE's) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) provided funding to participating U.S. companies to cover part of the cost of purchasing new EVs. Within the medium- and heavy-duty commercial vehicle segment, both Smith Electric Newton and and Navistar eStar vehicles qualified for such funding opportunities. In an effort to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new technologies deployed in these vehicles operating under real world conditions, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium-duty EVs were collected, compiled, and analyzed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Fleet Test and Evaluation team over a period of 3 years. More than 430 Smith Newton EVs have provided data representing more than 150,000 days of operation. Similarly, data have been collected from more than 100 Navistar eStar EVs, resulting in a comparative total of more than 16,000 operating days. Combined, NREL has analyzed more than 6 million kilometers of driving and 4 million hours of charging data collected from commercially operating medium-duty electric vehicles in various configurations. In this paper, extensive duty-cycle statistical analyses are performed to examine and characterize common vehicle dynamics trends and relationships based on in-use field data. The results of these analyses statistically define the vehicle dynamic and kinematic requirements for each vehicle, aiding in the selection of representative chassis dynamometer test cycles and the development of custom drive cycles that emulate daily operation. In this paper, the methodology and accompanying results of the duty-cycle statistical analysis are presented and discussed. Results are presented in both graphical and tabular formats illustrating a number of key relationships between parameters observed within the data set that relate to

  17. Past Childhood Abuse and Present Alcohol Use as Risk Factors for Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt in United States Military Active Duty Personnel, 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Abuse and Alcoholism, Research Findings on Underage Drinking and the Minimum Legal Drinking Age, 28 Aug 2008, URL: http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/AboutNIAAA...a notable rate of current heavy drinking among members. Prior studies in the general population demonstrated associations between childhood abuse...of active duty military revealed a high prevalence of members with past childhood abuse and a notable rate of current heavy drinking among members

  18. Lifecycle-analysis for heavy vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.

    1998-04-16

    Various alternative fuels and improved engine and vehicle systems have been proposed in order to reduce emissions and energy use associated with heavy vehicles (predominantly trucks). For example, oil companies have proposed improved methods for converting natural gas to zero-aromatics, zero-sulfur diesel fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch process. Major heavy-duty diesel engine companies are working on ways to simultaneously reduce particulate-matter and NOX emissions. The trend in heavy vehicles is toward use of lightweight materials, tires with lower rolling resistance, and treatments to reduce aerodynamic drag. In this paper, we compare the Mecycle energy use and emissions from trucks using selected alternatives, such as Fisher-Tropsch diesel fuel and advanced fuel-efficient engines. We consider heavy-duty, Class 8 tractor-semitrailer combinations for this analysis. The total life cycle includes production and recycling of the vehicle itself, extraction, processing, and transportation of the fuel itself, and vehicle operation and maintenance. Energy use is considered in toto, as well as those portions that are imported, domestic, and renewable. Emissions of interest include greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Angonne's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is used to generate per-vehicle fuel cycle impacts. Energy use and emissions for materials manufacturing and vehicle disposal are estimated by means of materials information from Argonne studies. We conclude that there are trade-offs among impacts. For example, the lowest fossil energy use does not necessarily result in lowest total energy use, and lower tailpipe emissions may not necessarily result in lower lifecycle emissions of all criteria pollutants.

  19. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1717-01 - Emission control diagnostic system for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks. 86.1717-01 Section 86.1717-01 Protection of... Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1717-01 Emission control diagnostic system for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks. (a) The provisions of §...