Science.gov

Sample records for heavy ion spectrometers

  1. Relativistic heavy ion fragmentation at HISS (Heavy Ion Spectrometer System)

    SciTech Connect

    Tull, C.E.

    1990-10-01

    An experiment was conducted at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to measure projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions. Charge identification was obtained by the use of a Cerenkov Hodoscope operating above the threshold for total internal reflection, while velocity measurement was performed by use of a second set of Cerenkov radiators operating at the threshold for total internal reflection. Charge and mass resolution for the system was {sigma}{sub Z} = 0.2 e and {sigma}{sub A} = 0.2 u. Measurements of the elemental and isotopic production cross sections for the fragmentation of {sup 40}Ar at 1.65{center dot}A GeV have been compared with an Abrasion-Ablation Model based on the evaporation computer code GEMINI. The model proves to be an accurate predictor of the cross sections for fragments between Chlorine and Boron. The measured cross section were reproduced using simple geometry with charge dispersions induced by zero-point vibrations of the giant dipole resonance for the prompt abrasion stage, and injecting an excitation energy spectrum based on a final state interaction with scaling factor E{sub fsi} = 38.8 MeV/c. Measurement of the longitudinal momentum distribution widths for projectile fragments are consistent with previous experiment and can be interpreted as reflecting the Fermi momentum distribution in the initial projectile nucleus. Measurement of the transverse momentum indicate an additional, unexplained dependence of the reduced momentum widths on fragment mass. This dependence has the same sign and similar slope to previously measured fragments of {sup 139}La, and to predictions based on phase-space constraints on the final state of the system.

  2. A heavy ion spectrometer system for the measurement of projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Engelage, J.; Crawford, H.J.; Greiner, L.; Kuo, C.

    1996-06-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) at the LBL Bevalac provided a unique facility for measuring projectile fragmentation cross sections important in deconvolving the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) source composition. The general characteristics of the apparatus specific to this application are described and the main features of the event reconstruction and analysis used in the TRANSPORT experiment are discussed.

  3. System for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOEpatents

    Fries, D.P.; Browning, J.F.

    1998-07-21

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high (n,f) reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu. 3 figs.

  4. Method for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOEpatents

    Fries, D.P.; Browning, J.F.

    1999-02-16

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu. 3 figs.

  5. Method for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOEpatents

    Fries, David P.; Browning, James F.

    1999-01-01

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu.

  6. System for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOEpatents

    Fries, David P.; Browning, James F.

    1998-01-01

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu.

  7. Pion correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions at Heavy Ion Spectrometer Systems (HISS)

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, W.B. Jr.

    1990-05-01

    This thesis contains the setup, analysis and results of experiment E684H Multi-Pion Correlations in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions''. The goals of the original proposal were: (1) To initiate the use of the HISS facility in the study of central Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions (RHIC). (2) To perform a second generation experiment for the detailed study of the pion source in RHIC. The first generation experiments, implied by the second goal above, refer to pion correlation studies which the Riverside group had performed at the LBL streamer chamber. The major advantage offered by moving the pion correlation studies to HISS is that, being an electronic detector system, as opposed to the Streamer Chamber which is a visual detector, one can greatly increase the statistics for a study of this sort. An additional advantage is that once one has written the necessary detector and physics analysis code to do a particular type of study, the study may be extended to investigate the systematics, with much less effort and in a relatively short time. This paper discusses the Physics motivation for this experiment, the experimental setup and detectors used, the pion correlation analysis, the results, and the conclusions possible future directions for pion studies at HISS. If one is not interested in all the details of the experiment, I believe that by reading the sections on intensity interferometry, the section the fitting of the correlation function and the systematic corrections applied, and the results section, one will get a fairly complete synopsis of the experiment.

  8. An interactive, multitask computer system for heavy-ion physics research with the spin spectrometer: (Progress report, 1982)

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    The scope of this proposal is to assemble an interactive off-line data analysis system based on a DEC VAX 11/780 computer interfaced with an array processor, which is capable of meeting the needs of modern heavy-ion physics experiments involving data of large dimensionality as created in the Spin Spectrometer at the Holifield Heavy-ion Research Facility, to adapt the existing PDP 11 software for the Spin Spectrometer for this computer system in a form completely compatible with other laboratories with VAX 11 computers, and to develop new general and efficient software for automatic but fully interactive data analysis making use of an attach array processor.

  9. Miniaturized Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, William J. (Inventor); Stimac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    By utilizing the combination of a unique electronic ion injection control circuit in conjunction with a particularly designed drift cell construction, the instantly disclosed ion mobility spectrometer achieves increased levels of sensitivity, while achieving significant reductions in size and weight. The instant IMS is of a much simpler and easy to manufacture design, rugged and hermetically sealed, capable of operation at high temperatures to at least 250.degree. C., and is uniquely sensitive, particularly to explosive chemicals.

  10. The Pickup Ion Composition Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jason A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Battel, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Observations of newly ionized atoms that are picked up by the magnetic field in the expanding solar wind contain crucial information about the gas or dust compositions of their origins. The pickup ions (PUIs) are collected by plasma mass spectrometers and analyzed for their density, composition, and velocity distribution. In addition to measurements of PUIs from planetary sources, in situ measurements of interstellar gas have been made possible by spectrometers capable of differentiating between heavy ions of solar and interstellar origin. While important research has been done on these often singly charged ions, the instruments that have detected many of them were designed for the energy range and ionic charge states of the solar wind and energized particle populations, and not for pickup ions. An instrument optimized for the complete energy and time-of-flight characterization of pickup ions will unlock a wealth of data on these hitherto unobserved or unresolved PUI species. The Pickup Ion Composition Spectrometer (PICSpec) is one such instrument and can enable the next generation of pickup ion and isotopic mass composition measurements. By combining a large-gap time-of-flight-energy sensor with a -100 kV high-voltage power supply for ion acceleration, PUIs will not only be above the detection threshold of traditional solid-state energy detectors but also be resolved sufficiently in time of flight that isotopic composition can be determined. This technology will lead to a new generation of space composition instruments, optimized for measurements of both heliospheric and planetary pickup ions.

  11. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-08-08

    A method and apparatus are described for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected auto-ionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy. 8 figs.

  12. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected autoionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy.

  13. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-12-26

    A charged particle spectrometer is described for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode. 12 figs.

  14. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A charged particle spectrometer for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode.

  15. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  16. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  17. A cometary ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.; Simpson, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of flight suitable analyzer units for that part of the GIOTTO Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) experiment designated the High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) is discussed. Topics covered include: design of the total ion-optical system for the HERS analyzer; the preparation of the design of analyzing magnet; the evaluation of microchannel plate detectors and associated two-dimensional anode arrays; and the fabrication and evaluation of two flight-suitable units of the complete ion-optical analyzer system including two-dimensional imaging detectors and associated image encoding electronics.

  18. Miniature Ion-Array Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    A figure is shown that depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would share many features of design and operation of the instrument described in another article. The main differences between that instrument and this one would lie in the configuration and mode of operation of the filter and detector electrodes. A filter electrode and detector electrodes would be located along the sides of a drift tube downstream from the accelerator electrode. These electrodes would apply a combination of (1) a transverse AC electric field that would effect differential transverse dispersal of ions and (2) a transverse DC electric field that would drive the dispersed ions toward the detector electrodes at different distances along the drift tube. The electric current collected by each detector electrode would be a measure of the current, and thus of the abundance of the species of ions impinging on that electrode. The currents collected by all the detector electrodes could be measured simultaneously to obtain continuous readings of abundances of species. The downstream momentum of accelerated ions would be maintained through neutralization on the electrodes; the momentum of the resulting neutral atoms would serve to expel gases from spectrometer, without need for a pump.

  19. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained.

  20. Miniature Ion-Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would be fabricated by micromachining. Unlike prior ion-mobility spectrometers, the proposed instrument would not be based on a time-of-flight principle and, consequently, would not have some of the disadvantageous characteristics of prior time-of-flight ion-mobility spectrometers. For example, one of these characteristics is the need for a bulky carrier-gas-feeding subsystem that includes a shutter gate to provide short pulses of gas in order to generate short pulses of ions. For another example, there is need for a complex device to generate pulses of ions from the pulses of gas and the device is capable of ionizing only a fraction of the incoming gas molecules; these characteristics preclude miniaturization. In contrast, the proposed instrument would not require a carrier-gas-feeding subsystem and would include a simple, highly compact device that would ionize all the molecules passing through it. The ionization device in the proposed instrument would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several megavolts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. Ionization (but not avalanche arcing) would occur because the distance between the ionizing electrodes would be less than the mean free path of gas molecules at the operating pressure of instrument. An accelerating grid would be located inside the instrument, downstream from the ionizing membrane. The electric potential applied to this grid would be negative relative to the potential on the inside electrode of the ionizing membrane and would be of a magnitude sufficient to

  1. A spectrometer on chemical vapour deposition-diamond basis for the measurement of the charge-state distribution of heavy ions in a laser-generated plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cayzac, Witold; Frank, Alexander; Schumacher, Dennis; Roth, Markus; Blazevic, Abel; Wamers, Felix; Traeger, Michael; Berdermann, Eleni; Voss, Bernd; Hessling, Thomas

    2013-04-15

    This article reports on the development and the first applications of a new spectrometer which enables the precise and time-resolved measurement of both the energy loss and the charge-state distribution of ion beams with 10 < Z < 30 at energies of 4-8 MeV/u after their interaction with a laser-generated plasma. The spectrometer is based on five 20 Multiplication-Sign 7 mm{sup 2} large and 20 {mu}m thick polycrystalline diamond samples produced via the Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) process and was designed with the help of ion-optical simulations. First experiments with the spectrometer were successfully carried out at GSI using {sup 48}Ca ions at an energy of 4.8 MeV/u interacting with a carbon plasma generated by the laser irradiation of a thin foil target. Owing to the high rate capability and the short response time of the spectrometer, pulsed ion beams with 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} ions per bunch at a bunch frequency of 108 MHz could be detected. The temporal evolution of the five main charge states of the calcium ion beams as well as the corresponding energy loss values could be measured simultaneously. Due to the outstanding properties of diamond as a particle detector, a beam energy resolution ({Delta}E/E) Almost-Equal-To 0.1% could be reached using the presented experimental method, while a precision of 10% in the energy loss and charge-state distribution data was obtained.

  2. Heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Jacak, B.V.

    1994-11-01

    Heavy ion collisions at very high energies provide an opportunity to recreate in the laboratory the conditions which existed very early in the universe, just after the big bang. We prepare matter at very high energy density and search for evidence that the quarks and gluons are deconfined. I describe the kinds of observables that are experimentally accessible to characterize the system and to search for evidence of new physics. A wealth of information is now available from CERN and BNL heavy ion experiments. I discuss recent results on two particle correlations, strangeness production, and dilepton and direct photon distributions.

  3. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  4. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system.

  5. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1990-11-27

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component is disclosed. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system. 8 figs.

  6. Moon originating heavy ions associated with CIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Nishino, Masaki; Tsunakawa, Hideo

    2014-05-01

    Existance of a tenuous alkali atmosphere around the Moon was discovered by ground-based optical observations in 1980s. Since then the generation mechanism of the alkali atmosphere has been actively investigated. Currently, photon-stimulated desorption is regarded as the major generation process of the lunar alkai atmosphere such as sodium and potassium. MAP-PACE-IMA on Kaguya found four typical ion populations on the dayside of the Moon. These includes (1) solar wind protons backscattered at the lunar surface, (2) solar wind protons reflected by magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface, (3) reflected/backscattered protons picked-up by the solar wind, and (4) ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar exosphere. One of these populations: (4) ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar exosphere usually consisted of heavy ions such as carbon, oxygen, sodium, and potassium. Some of these ions were generated on the lunar surface by photon-stimulated desorption especially for alkali ions such as sodium and potassium and some others were generated by solar wind sputtering. Photo-ionized neutral particles were also included in these ions. These heavy ions were accelerated by the solar wind convection electric field and detected by the ion energy mass spectrometer MAP-PACE-IMA on Kaguya. Since the gyro-radius of these heavy ions was much larger than the Moon, the energy of these ions detected at 100km altitude was in most cases lower than the incident solar wind ion energy. Two special examples were found where the energy of the heavy ions was higher than the incident solar wind ion energy. These high-energy heavy ions were observed on the dayside of the Moon when CIR (Corotating Interaction Region) passed the Moon. The high energy heavy ions were observed for several hours with the highest heavy ion flux observed when the solar wind pressure increased due to the passage of the CIR. The mass spectrum of the heavy ions observed associated with CIR showed H+, He++, He

  7. Spectrometer for cluster ion beam induced luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Ryuto, H. Sakata, A.; Takeuchi, M.; Takaoka, G. H.; Musumeci, F.

    2015-02-15

    A spectrometer to detect the ultra-weak luminescence originated by the collision of cluster ions on the surfaces of solid materials was constructed. This spectrometer consists of 11 photomultipliers with band-pass interference filters that can detect the luminescence within the wavelength ranging from 300 to 700 nm and of a photomultiplier without filter. The calibration of the detection system was performed using the photons emitted from a strontium aluminate fluorescent tape and from a high temperature tungsten filament. Preliminary measurements show the ability of this spectrometer to detect the cluster ion beam induced luminescence.

  8. Heavy ion tumour therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, M.

    2000-03-01

    Ion beams represent a promising radiotherapy modality for the treatment of deep seated tumours. Compared to conventional photon beams, in particular beams of heavier ions like e.g. carbon show several advantages which are related to their different physical and radiobiological properties: The dose increases with penetration depth and shows a sharp distal fall off at the end of the particle range, i.e., the depth dose profile is inverted compared to photon beams. They exhibit an increased biological effectiveness in particular at the end of their range and thus in the target volume. The spatial distribution of stopping particles can be monitored by means of PET-techniques making use of the small amount of radioactive projectile fragments. Ion beams were first used for medical applications in 1954 in Berkeley. Since then, several treatment facilities for tumour therapy have been established worldwide, and approximately 25 000 patients have been treated with protons and 3000 patients with heavier ions successfully. As an example, the specific advantages of the heavy ion therapy facility at GSI Darmstadt established in cooperation with the Radiological Clinics and DKFZ Heidelberg and FZ Rossendorf will be described. In contrast to most existing facilities, it is based on an active beam delivery system, using magnetic deflection of a pencil beam (raster scan) and accelerator energy variation to adjust the penetration depth. Thus, an optimal conformation of the dose to the target volume is achieved. PET-measurements allow for a quasi on-line monitoring of the 3D distribution of stopping particles and in particular of the position of the distal edge of the dose distribution. Furthermore, in the treatment planning procedure the radiobiological properties of ion beams are taken into account in great detail. In December 1997, patient treatments started at GSI, and up to now 42 patients were treated with carbon ions alone or in a mixed carbon/photon beam regime.

  9. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rumpf, Arthur N.

    2010-11-23

    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  10. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  11. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka, Deborah E; Austin, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS)The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.3 AcronymsIMSion mobility spectrometryMAAMaterial Access AreaMSmass spectrometryoaTOForthogonal acceleration time

  12. Heavy ion beam probing

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R L

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included.

  13. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered. (GHH)

  14. Halo ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Austin, Daniel E; Wang, Miao; Tolley, Samuel E; Maas, Jeffrey D; Hawkins, Aaron R; Rockwood, Alan L; Tolley, H Dennis; Lee, Edgar D; Lee, Milton L

    2007-04-01

    We describe a novel radio frequency ion trap mass analyzer based on toroidal trapping geometry and microfabrication technology. The device, called the halo ion trap, consists of two parallel ceramic plates, the facing surfaces of which are imprinted with sets of concentric ring electrodes. Radii of the imprinted rings range from 5 to 12 mm, and the spacing between the plates is 4 mm. Unlike conventional ion traps, in which hyperbolic metal electrodes establish equipotential boundary conditions, electric fields in the halo ion trap are established by applying different radio frequency potentials to each ring. The potential on each ring can be independently optimized to provide the best trapping field. The halo ion trap features an open structure, allowing easy access for in situ ionization. The toroidal geometry provides a large trapping and analyzing volume, increasing the number of ions that can be stored and reducing the effects of space-charge on mass analysis. Preliminary mass spectra show resolution (m/Deltam) of 60-75 when the trap is operated at 1.9 MHz and 500 Vp-p. PMID:17335180

  15. Imaging using accelerated heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.

    1982-05-01

    Several methods for imaging using accelerated heavy ion beams are being investigated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using the HILAC (Heavy-Ion Linear Accelerator) as an injector, the Bevalac can accelerate fully stripped atomic nuclei from carbon (Z = 6) to krypton (Z = 34), and partly stripped ions up to uranium (Z = 92). Radiographic studies to date have been conducted with helium (from 184-inch cyclotron), carbon, oxygen, and neon beams. Useful ranges in tissue of 40 cm or more are available. To investigate the potential of heavy-ion projection radiography and computed tomography (CT), several methods and instrumentation have been studied.

  16. Microscale ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Witten, William B.; Kornienko, Oleg

    2002-01-01

    An ion trap for mass spectrometric chemical analysis of ions is delineated. The ion trap includes a central electrode having an aperture; a pair of insulators, each having an aperture; a pair of end cap electrodes, each having an aperture; a first electronic signal source coupled to the central electrode; a second electronic signal source coupled to the end cap electrodes. The central electrode, insulators, and end cap electrodes are united in a sandwich construction where their respective apertures are coaxially aligned and symmetric about an axis to form a partially enclosed cavity having an effective radius r.sub.0 and an effective length 2z.sub.0, wherein r.sub.0 and/or z.sub.0 are less than 1.0 mm, and a ratio z.sub.0 /r.sub.0 is greater than 0.83.

  17. Ion Composition in Titan's Exosphere from the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodson, A.; Smith, H. T.; Johnson, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    A primary goal of the Cassini mission has been to characterize the complex interaction between Saturn's magnetosphere and Titan's ionosphere. To this end, the Cassini spacecraft carries two instruments-the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS)-capable of energy- and mass-analysis. The Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS), one of three instruments composing CAPS, is designed to characterize diffuse plasmas throughout the magnetosphere while the INMS is optimized for measurements within Titan's upper atmosphere. As such, mass-resolved ion compositions confirming a variety of hydrocarbons and nitriles have been extracted from INMS data for numerous Titan encounters. Similar analysis of IMS data, however, has largely been resolution-limited to the identification of 'light' and 'heavy' ion groups in the wake. Herein we present a technique for extracting Dalton-resolved ion compositions from IMS spectra acquired below ~5 Titan radii. The method is then applied to data from the T40 encounter and the resulting relative abundances compared with those derived from the INMS data for the same encounter.

  18. A survey of heavy ions in Titan's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crary, Frank

    2016-06-01

    The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) has observed heavy positive ions, with masses up to approximately 300 amu, as well as negative ions with even higher masses. The abundance and density of these positive ions have been reported for selected encounters, especially during those where comparisons with Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) data are possible. The present work presents a survey of all available encounters, showing the density of ions in various mass ranges and their spatial distribution. The influence of the broad mass distribution on ionospheric conductivity will also be discussed.

  19. Electron-ion-x-ray spectrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, S.H.; Deslattes, R.D.; MacDonald, M.A.; LeBrun, T.

    1993-10-01

    The authors describe a spectrometer system developed for electron, ion, and x-ray spectroscopy of gas-phase atoms and molecules following inner-shell excitation by tunable synchrotron radiation. The spectrometer has been used on beamline X-24A at the National Synchrotron Light Source for excitation-dependent studies of Ar L-shell and K-shell photoexcitation and vacancy decay processes. The instrumentation and experimental methods are discussed, and examples are given of electron spectra and coincidence spectra between electrons and fluorescent x-rays.

  20. Nuclear interactions of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Tabak, M.; Bangerter, R.

    1982-02-24

    A possible source of preheat for heavy ion driven inertial fusion targets is the production of fast precursors by nuclear interactions between the incident heavy ions and the outer parts of the target. A model has been developed which roughly describes these interactions for all beam-target combinations for all incident energies. This interaction model has been applied to a specific capsule design. The resultant preheat is an order of magnitude below the level which could impair target performance.

  1. Ion mobility spectrometers and methods for ion mobility spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, David A; Scott, Jill R; Appelhans, Anthony D; McJunkin, Timothy R; Olson, John E

    2009-04-14

    An ion mobility spectrometer may include an inner electrode and an outer electrode arranged so that at least a portion of the outer electrode surrounds at least a portion of the inner electrode and defines a drift space therebetween. The inner and outer electrodes are electrically insulated from one another so that a non-linear electric field is created in the drift space when an electric potential is placed on the inner and outer electrodes. An ion source operatively associated with the ion mobility spectrometer releases ions to the drift space defined between the inner and outer electrodes. A detector operatively associated with at least a portion of the outer electrode detects ions from the drift space.

  2. AFE ion mass spectrometer design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1989-01-01

    This final technical report covers the activities engaged in by the University of Texas at Dallas, Center for Space Sciences in conjunction with the NASA Langley Research Center, Systems Engineering Division in design studies directed towards defining a suitable ion mass spectrometer to determine the plasma parameter around the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment vehicle during passage through the earth's upper atmosphere. Additional studies relate to the use of a Langmuir probe to measure windward ion/electron concentrations and temperatures. Selected instrument inlet subsystems were tested in the NASA Ames Arc-Jet Facility.

  3. Computerized Heavy-Ion Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley, W. R.; Tobias, C. A.; Fabrikant, J. I.; Llacer, J.; Chu, W. T.; Benton, E. V.

    1981-07-01

    Several techniques for heavy-ion computerized tomography are being investigated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using beams of carbon and neon from the Bevalac, we have demonstrated that these methods are feasible and capable of high resolution. We describe in some detail the method of heavy-ion CT imaging using nuclear track detectors, including a discussion of procedures for optical scanning and digitization of data and computerized distortion corrections. Comparisons between a heavy-ion CT image and X-ray CT image of a simple phantom are discussed. Preliminary results from two techniques using active, online detector systems for performing heavy-ion computerized tomography are presented. One method uses a multiplane, multiwire ionization chamber for detecting the heavy ions in a mode allowing true three-dimensional reconstructions. The other technique uses a system of position-sensitive silicon solid-state detectors for spacial information and high-purity germanium detectors to measure accurately the residual energy of the ions.

  4. Augmenting Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers Using a Frequency Modulated Drift Tube Ion Mobility Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Kelsey A; Siems, William F; Clowers, Brian H

    2016-03-15

    Historically, high pressure ion mobility drift tubes have suffered from low ion duty cycles and this problem is magnified when such instrumentation is coupled with ion trap mass spectrometers. To significantly alleviate these issues, we outline the result from coupling an atmospheric pressure, dual-gate drift tube ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) to a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LIT-MS) via modulation of the ion beam with a linear frequency chirp. The time-domain ion current, once Fourier transformed, reveals a standard ion mobility drift spectrum that corresponds to the standard mode of mobility analysis. By multiplexing the ion beam, it is possible to successfully obtain drift time spectra for an assortment of simple peptide and protein mixtures using an LIT-MS while showing improved signal intensity versus the more common signal averaging technique. Explored here are the effects of maximum injection time, solution concentration, total experiment time, and frequency swept on signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and resolving power. Increased inject time, concentration, and experiment time all generally led to an improvement in SNR, while a greater frequency swept increases the resolving power at the expense of SNR. Overall, chirp multiplexing of a dual-gate IMS system coupled to an LIT-MS improves ion transmission, lowers analyte detection limits, and improves spectral quality. PMID:26854901

  5. Chemistry of heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1988-10-01

    The use of heavy ions to induce nuclear reactions was reported as early as 1950. Since that time it has been one of the most active areas of nuclear research. Intense beams of ions as heavy as uranium with energies high enough to overcome the Coulomb barriers of even the heaviest elements are available. The wide variety of possible reactions gives rise to a multitude of products which have been studied by many ingenious chemical and physical techniques. Chemical techniques have been of special value for the separation and unequivocal identification of low yield species from the plethora of other nuclides present. Heavy ion reactions have been essential for the production of the trans-Md elements and a host of new isotopes. The systematics of compound nucleus reactions, transfer reactions, and deeply inelastic reactions have been elucidated using chemical techniques. A review of the variety of chemical procedures and techniques which have been developed for the study of heavy ion reactions and their products is given. Determination of the chemical properties of the trans-Md elements, which are very short-lived and can only be produced an ''atom-at-a-time'' via heavy ion reactions, is discussed. 53 refs., 19 figs.

  6. Heavy ion fusion--Using heavy ions to make electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Celata, C.M.

    2004-03-15

    The idea of using nuclear fusion as a source of commercial electrical power has been pursued worldwide since the 1950s. Two approaches, using magnetic and inertial confinement of the reactants, are under study. This paper describes the difference between the two approaches, and discusses in more detail the heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion concept. A multibeam induction linear accelerator would be used to bring {approx}100 heavy ion beams to a few GeV. The beams would then heat and compress a target of solid D-T. This approach is unique among fusion concepts in its ability to protect the reaction chamber wall from neutrons and debris.

  7. Swift Heavy Ions in Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothard, Hermann; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina

    2015-12-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM). This conference was held in Darmstadt, from 18 to 21 May 2015. SHIM is a triennial series, which started about 25 years ago by a joint initiative of CIRIL - Caen and GSI - Darmstadt, with the aim of promoting fundamental and applied interdisciplinary research in the field of high-energy, heavy-ion interaction processes with matter. SHIM was successively organized in Caen (1989), Bensheim (1992), Caen (1995), Berlin (1998), Catania (2002), Aschaffenburg (2005), Lyon (2008), and Kyoto (2012). The conference attracts scientists from many different fields using high-energy heavy ions delivered by large accelerator facilities and characterized by strong and short electronic excitations.

  8. Intense Pulsed Heavy Ion Beam Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masugata, Katsumi; Ito, Hiroaki

    Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator technology is described for the application of materials processing. Gas puff plasma gun and vacuum arc discharge plasma gun were developed as an active ion source for magnetically insulated pulsed ion diode. Source plasma of nitrogen and aluminum were successfully produced with the gas puff plasma gun and the vacuum arc plasma gun, respectively. The ion diode was successfully operated with gas puff plasma gun at diode voltage 190 kV, diode current 2.2 kA and nitrogen ion beam of ion current density 27 A/cm2 was obtained. The ion composition was evaluated by a Thomson parabola spectrometer and the purity of the nitrogen ion beam was estimated to be 86%. The diode also operated with aluminum ion source of vacuum arc plasma gun. The ion diode was operated at 200 kV, 12 kA, and aluminum ion beam of current density 230 A/cm2 was obtained. The beam consists of aluminum ions (Al(1-3)+) of energy 60-400 keV, and protons (90-130 keV), and the purity was estimated to be 89 %. The development of the bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA) was reported. A double coaxial type bipolar pulse generator was developed as the power supply of the BPA. The generator was tested with dummy load of 7.5 ohm, bipolar pulses of -138 kV, 72 ns (1st pulse) and +130 kV, 70 ns (2nd pulse) were succesively generated. By applying the bipolar pulse to the drift tube of the BPA, nitrogen ion beam of 2 A/cm2 was observed in the cathode, which suggests the bipolar pulse acceleration.

  9. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-10-01

    Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985.

  10. Method of multiplexed analysis using ion mobility spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-06-02

    A method for analyzing analytes from a sample introduced into a Spectrometer by generating a pseudo random sequence of a modulation bins, organizing each modulation bin as a series of submodulation bins, thereby forming an extended pseudo random sequence of submodulation bins, releasing the analytes in a series of analyte packets into a Spectrometer, thereby generating an unknown original ion signal vector, detecting the analytes at a detector, and characterizing the sample using the plurality of analyte signal subvectors. The method is advantageously applied to an Ion Mobility Spectrometer, and an Ion Mobility Spectrometer interfaced with a Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer.

  11. Heavy ions in Jupiter's environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The extended atmosphere of the Jupiter system consists of atoms and ions of heavy elements. This material originates on the satellite Io. Energy is lost from the thermal plasma in collisionally excited optical and ultraviolet emission. The juxtaposition of Earth and spacecraft measurements provide insight concerning the underlying processes of particle transport and energy supply.

  12. In situ measurement of ions parameters of laser produced ion source using high resolution Thomson Parabola Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasia, S.; Kaur, C.; Rastogi, V.; Poswal, A. K.; Munda, D. S.; Bhatia, R. K.; Nataraju, V.

    2016-08-01

    The laser produced plasma based heavy ion source has become an outstanding front end for heavy ion accelerators. Before being implemented in the heavy ion accelerators its detailed characterization is required. For this purpose, a high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola spectrometer comprising of Time-of-Flight diagnostics has been developed for the characterization of ions with energy in the range from 1 keV to 1 MeV/nucleon and incorporated in the Laser plasma experimental chamber. The ion spectrometer is optimized with graphite target. The carbon ions of charge states C1+ to C6+ are observed in the energy range from 3 keV to 300 keV, which has also been verified by Time-of-Flight measurement. Experimental results were matched with simulation done by SIMION 7.0 code which is used for the design of the spectrometer. We also developed data analysis software using Python language to measure in situ ion's parameters and the results are in better agreement to the experimental results than the commercially available software SIMION 7.0. The resolution of the spectrometer is ΔE/E = 0.026 @ 31 keV for charge state (C4+) of carbon.

  13. Exotics from Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, Akira; Jido, Daisuke; Cho, Sungtae; Furumoto, Takenori; Yazaki, Koichi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Nielsen, Marina; Sekihara, Takayasu; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2011-10-21

    Discriminating hadronic molecular and multi-quark states is a long standing problem in hadronic physics. We propose here to utilize relativistic heavy ion collisions to resolve this problem, as exotic hadron yields are expected to be strongly affected by their structures. Using the coalescence model, we find that the exotic hadron yield relative to the statistical model result is typically an order of magnitude smaller for a compact multi-quark state, and larger by a factor of two or more for a loosely bound hadronic molecule. We further find that some of the newly proposed heavy exotic states could be produced and realistically measured at RHIC and LHC.

  14. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  15. The Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Geiss, J.; Balsiger, H.; Bedini, P.; Cain, J. C.; Fisher, J.; Fisk, L. A.; Galvin, A. B.; Gliem, F.; Hamilton, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) on Ulysses is designed to determine uniquely the elemental and ionic-charge composition, and the temperatures and mean speeds of all major solar-wind ions, from H through Fe, at solar wind speeds ranging from 175 km/s (protons) to 1280 km/s (Fe(8+)). The instrument, which covers an energy per charge range from 0.16 to 59.6 keV/e in about 13 min, combines an electrostatic analyzer with postacceleration, followed by a time-of-flight and energy measurement. The measurements made by SWICS will have an impact on many areas of solar and heliospheric physics, in particular providing essential and unique information on: (1) conditions and processes in the region of the corona where the solar wind is accelerated; (2) the location of the source regions of the solar wind in the corona; (3) coronal heating processes; (4) the extent and causes of variations in the composition of the solar atmosphere; (5) plasma processes in the solar wind; (6) the acceleration of energetic particles in the solar wind; (7) the thermalization and acceleration of interstellar ions in the solar wind, and their composition; and (8) the composition, charge states, and behavior of the plasma in various regions of the Jovian magnetosphere.

  16. Superconducting heavy ion injector linac

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual design for a very low velocity (.007 < v/c < .07) superconducting heavy-ion linac is reviewed. This type of linac may have significant cost and performance advantages over room-temperature linacs, at least for applications requiring modest beam currents. Some general features of the design of very-low velocity superconducting accelerating structures are discussed and a design for a 48.5 MHz, v/c = .009 structure, together with the status of a niobium prototype, is discussed in detail. Preliminary results of a beam dynamics study indicate that the low velocity linac may be able to produce heavy-ion beams with time-energy spreads of a few keV-nsec. 11 refs, 4 figs.

  17. Central collisions of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Sun-yiu.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R D project was performed.

  18. Heavy Ion Fusion Injector Program

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.W.

    1993-05-01

    A program is underway to construct a 2 MV, 800 mA, K{sup +} injector for heavy ion fusion. The Electrostatic Quadrupole (ESQ) injector configuration consists of a zeolite source, a diode of up to 1 MV, together with several electrostatic quadrupole units to simultaneously focus and accelerate the beam to 2 MV. The key issues of source technology, high voltage breakdown, beam aberrations, and transient effects will be discussed. Results from ongoing experiments and simulations will be presented.

  19. Progress Toward Heavy Ion IFE

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Logan, B G; Waldron, W L; Sabbi, G L; Callahan-Miller, D A; Peterson, P F; Goodin, D T

    2002-01-17

    Successful development of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) will require scientific and technology advances in areas of targets, drivers and chambers. Design work on heavy ion targets indicates that high gain (60-130) may be possible with a -3-6 MJ driver depending on the ability to focus the beams to small spot sizes. Significant improvements have been made on key components of heavy ion drivers, including sources, injectors, insulators and ferromagnetic materials for long-pulse induction accelerator cells, solid-state pulsers, and superconducting quadrupole magnets. The leading chamber concept for HIF is the thick-liquid-wall HYLEE-II design, which uses an array of flibe jets to protect chamber structures from x-ray, debris, and neutron damage. Significant progress has been made in demonstrating the ability to create and control the types of flow needed to form the protective liquid blanket. Progress has also been made on neutron shielding for the final focus magnet arrays with predicted lifetimes now exceeding the life of the power plant. Safety analyses have been completed for the HYLEE-II design using state-of-the-art codes. Work also continues on target fabrication and injection for HE. A target injector experiment capable of > 5 Hz operation has been designed and construction will start in 2002. Methods for mass production of hohlraum targets are being evaluated with small-scale experiments and analyses. Progress in these areas will be reviewed.

  20. THOR Ion Mass Spectrometer instrument - IMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retinò, Alessandro; Kucharek, Harald; Saito, Yoshifumi; Fraenz, Markus; Verdeil, Christophe; Leblanc, Frederic; Techer, Jean-Denis; Jeandet, Alexis; Macri, John; Gaidos, John; Granoff, Mark; Yokota, Shoichiro; Fontaine, Dominique; Berthomier, Matthieu; Delcourt, Dominique; Kistler, Lynn; Galvin, Antoniette; Kasahara, Satoshi; Kronberg, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. Specifically, THOR will study how turbulent fluctuations at kinetic scales heat and accelerate particles in different turbulent environments within the near-Earth space. To achieve this goal, THOR payload is being designed to measure electromagnetic fields and particle distribution functions with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Here we present the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) instrument that will measure the full three-dimensional distribution functions of near-Earth main ion species (H+, He+, He++ and O+) at high time resolution (~ 150 ms for H+ , ~ 300 ms for He++) with energy resolution down to ~ 10% in the range 10 eV/q to 30 keV/q and angular resolution ~ 10°. Such high time resolution is achieved by mounting multiple sensors around the spacecraft body, in similar fashion to the MMS/FPI instrument. Each sensor combines a top-hat electrostatic analyzer with deflectors at the entrance together with a time-of-flight section to perform mass selection. IMS electronics includes a fast sweeping high voltage board that is required to make measurements at high cadence. Ion detection includes Micro Channel Plates (MCP) combined with Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for charge amplification, discrimination and time-to-digital conversion (TDC). IMS is being designed to address many of THOR science requirements, in particular ion heating and acceleration by turbulent fluctuations in foreshock, shock and magnetosheath regions. The IMS instrument is being designed and will be built by an international consortium of scientific institutes with main hardware contributions from France, USA, Japan and Germany.

  1. Non-destructive ion trap mass spectrometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Frankevich, Vladimir E.; Soni, Manish H.; Nappi, Mario; Santini, Robert E.; Amy, Jonathan W.; Cooks, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    The invention relates to an ion trap mass spectrometer of the type having an ion trapping volume defined by spaced end caps and a ring electrode. The ion trap includes a small sensing electrode which senses characteristic motion of ions trapped in said trapping volume and provides an image current. Ions are excited into characteristic motion by application of an excitation pulse to the trapped ions. The invention also relates to a method of operating such an ion trap.

  2. Radiation Design of Ion Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Ed; Cooper, John; Christian, Eric; Moore, Tom; Sturner, Steve; Paschalidis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    In the harsh radiation environment of Jupiter and with the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE) mission including two Europa flybys where local intensities are approx. 150 krad/month behind 100 mils of Al shielding, so background from penetrating radiation can be a serious issue for detectors inside an Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS). This can especially be important for minor ion detection designs. Detectors of choice for time-of-flight (TOF) designs are microchannel plates (MCP) and some designs may include solid state detectors (SSD). The standard approach is to use shielding designs so background event rates are low enough that the detector max rates and lifetimes are first not exceeded and then the more stringent requirement that the desired measurement can successfully be made (i.e., desired signal is sufficiently greater than background noise after background subtraction is made). GEANT codes are typically used along with various electronic techniques, but such designs need to know how the detectors will respond to the simulated primary and secondary radiations produced within the instrument. We will be presenting some preliminary measurements made on the response of MCPs to energetic electrons (20 ke V to 1400 ke V) using a Miniature TOF (MTOF) device and the High Energy Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center which has a Van de Graaff accelerator.

  3. Toward an Intelligent Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. McJunkin; Jill R. Scott; Carla J. Miller

    2003-07-01

    The ultimate goal is to design and build a very smart ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) that can operate autonomously. To accomplish this, software capable of interpreting spectra so that it can be used in control loops for data interpretation as well as adjusting instrument parameters is being developed. Fuzzy logic and fuzzy numbers are used in this IMS spectra classification scheme. Fuzzy logic provides a straight forward method for developing a classification/detection system, whenever rules for classifying the spectra can be described linguistically. Instead of using 'max' and 'min' values, the product of the truth values is used to determine class membership. Using the product allows rule-bases that utilize the AND function to allow each condition to discount truth value in determining membership, while rule-bases with an OR function are allowed to accumulate membership. Fuzzy numbers allow encapsulation of the uncertainties due to ion mobility peak widths as well as measured instrumental parameters, such as pressure and temperature. Associating a peak with a value of uncertainty, in addition to making adjustments to the mobility calculation based on variations in measured parameters, enables unexpected shifts to be more reliably detected and accounted for; thereby, reducing the opportunity for 'false negative' results. The measure of uncertainty is anticipated to serve the additional purpose of diagnosing the operational conditions of the IMS instrument.

  4. THERMALIZATION OF HEAVY IONS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, Patrick J.; Kasper, Justin C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Raines, Jim M.; Shearer, Paul; Gilbert, Jason

    2015-10-20

    Observations of velocity distribution functions from the Advanced Composition Explorer/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer heavy ion composition instrument are used to calculate ratios of kinetic temperature and Coulomb collisional interactions of an unprecedented 50 ion species in the solar wind. These ions cover a mass per charge range of 1–5.5 amu/e and were collected in the time range of 1998–2011. We report the first calculation of the Coulomb thermalization rate between each of the heavy ion (A > 4 amu) species present in the solar wind along with protons (H{sup +}) and alpha particles (He{sup 2+}). From these rates, we find that protons are the dominant source of Coulomb collisional thermalization for heavy ions in the solar wind and use this fact to calculate a collisional age for those heavy ion populations. The heavy ion thermal properties are well organized by this collisional age, but we find that the temperature of all heavy ions does not simply approach that of protons as Coulomb collisions become more important. We show that He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+} follow a monotonic decay toward equal temperatures with protons with increasing collisional age, but O{sup 6+} shows a noted deviation from this monotonic decay. Furthermore, we show that the deviation from monotonic decay for O{sup 6+} occurs in solar wind of all origins, as determined by its Fe/O ratio. The observed differences in heavy ion temperature behavior point toward a local heating mechanism that favors ions depending on their charge and mass.

  5. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  6. Mass spectrometer and methods of increasing dispersion between ion beams

    DOEpatents

    Appelhans, Anthony D.; Olson, John E.; Delmore, James E.

    2006-01-10

    A mass spectrometer includes a magnetic sector configured to separate a plurality of ion beams, and an electrostatic sector configured to receive the plurality of ion beams from the magnetic sector and increase separation between the ion beams, the electrostatic sector being used as a dispersive element following magnetic separation of the plurality of ion beams. Other apparatus and methods are provided.

  7. Ion-induced x-ray studies with a high luminosity von Hamos crystal spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Vane, C.R.; Smith, M.; Raman, S.; Heard, J.; Walkiewicz, T.

    1986-01-01

    A high-resolution, high-efficiency, von Hamos geometry, Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer has been developed and mounted on a beamline at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Measurements have been made of K and L x-rays emitted from a variety of targets and projectiles. Instrument performance characteristics are reported here along with spectra from fast projectile ions and very low intensity target emission - areas of measurement for which this spectrometer is especially suitable.

  8. Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer Measurements from Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. H., Jr.; Niemann, H.; Yelle, R. V.; Kasprzak, W.; Cravens, T.; Luhmann, J.; McNutt, R.; Ip, W.-H.; Gell, D.; Muller-Wordag, I. C. F.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) aboard the Cassini orbiter has obtained the first in situ composition measurements of the neutral densities of molecular nitrogen, methane, argon, and a host of stable carbon-nitrile compounds in its first flyby of Titan. The bulk composition and thermal structure of the moon s upper atmosphere do not appear to be changed since the Voyager flyby in 1979. However, the more sensitive techniques provided by modern in-situ mass spectrometry also give evidence for large-spatial-scale large-amplitude atmospheric waves in the upper atmosphere and for a plethora of stable carbon-nitrile compounds above 1174 km. Furthermore, they allow the first direct measurements of isotopes of nitrogen, carbon, and argon, which provide interesting clues about the evolution of the atmosphere. The atmosphere was first accreted as ammonia and ammonia ices from the Saturn sub-nebula. Subsequent photochemistry likely converted the atmosphere into molecular nitrogen. The early atmosphere was 1.5 to 5 times more substantial and was lost via escape over the intervening 4.5 billion years due to the reduced gravity associated with the relatively small mass of Titan. Carbon in the form of methane has continued to outgas over time from the interior with much of it being deposited in the form of complex hydrocarbons on the surface and some of it also being lost to space.

  9. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS: EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, Erwin M.; Heckman, Harry H.

    1982-04-01

    Relativistic heavy ion physics began as a 'no man's land' between particle and nuclear physics, with both sides frowning upon it as 'unclean', because on one hand, hadronic interactions and particle production cloud nuclear structure effects, while on the other, the baryonic environment complicates the interpretation of production experiments. They have attempted to review here the experimental evidence on RHI collisions from the point of view that it represents a new endeavor in the understanding of strong interaction physics. Such an approach appears increasingly justified; first, by the accumulation of data and observations of new features of hadronic interactions that could not have been detected outside a baryonic environment; second, by the maturation of the field owing to the advances made over the past several years in experimental inquiries on particle production by RHI, including pions, kaons, hyperons, and searches for antiprotons; and third, by the steady and progressive increase in the energy and mass ranges of light nuclear beams that have become available to the experiment; indeed the energy range has widened from the {approx} 0.2 to 2 AGeV at the Bevalac to {approx}4 AGeV at Dubna and recently, to the quantum jump in energies to {approx} 1000 equivalent AGeV at the CERN PS-ISR. Accompanying these expansions in the energy frontier are the immediate prospects for very heavy ion beams at the Bevalac up to, and including, 1 AGeV {sup 238}U, thereby extending the 'mass frontier' to its ultimate extent.

  10. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Wolfram

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), shown in Fig. 1, was build to study the interactions of quarks and gluons at high energies [Harrison, Ludlam and Ozaki (2003)]. The theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) describes these interactions. One of the main goals for the RHIC experiments was the creation and study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), which was expected to be formed after the collision of heavy ions at a temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (or equivalently an energy of 150 MeV). The QGP is the substance which existed only a few microseconds after the Big Bang. The QGP was anticipated to be weakly interacting like a gas but turned out to be strongly interacting and more like a liquid. Among its unusual properties is its extremely low viscosity [Auerbach and Schlomo (2009)], which makes the QGP the substance closest to a perfect liquid known to date. The QGP is opaque to moderate energy quarks and gluons leading to a phenomenon called jet quenching, where of a jet and its recoil jet only one is observable and the other suppressed after traversing and interacting with the QGP [Jacak and Müller (2012)]...

  11. HISS spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, D.E.

    1984-11-01

    This talk describes the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. Three completed experiments and their results are illustrated. The second half of the talk is a detailed discussion of the response of drift chambers to heavy ions. The limitations of trajectory measurement over a large range in incident particle charge are presented.

  12. Time-of-flight direct recoil ion scattering spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.; Lamich, G.J.

    1994-09-13

    A time-of-flight direct recoil and ion scattering spectrometer beam line is disclosed. The beam line includes an ion source which injects ions into pulse deflection regions and separated by a drift space. A final optics stage includes an ion lens and deflection plate assembly. The ion pulse length and pulse interval are determined by computerized adjustment of the timing between the voltage pulses applied to the pulsed deflection regions. 23 figs.

  13. Time-of-flight direct recoil ion scattering spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.; Lamich, George J.

    1994-01-01

    A time of flight direct recoil and ion scattering spectrometer beam line (10). The beam line (10) includes an ion source (12) which injects ions into pulse deflection regions (14) and (16) separated by a drift space (18). A final optics stage includes an ion lens and deflection plate assembly (22). The ion pulse length and pulse interval are determined by computerized adjustment of the timing between the voltage pulses applied to the pulsed deflection regions (14) and (16).

  14. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-12-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  15. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  16. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. However we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. In 2014, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  17. Progress in Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1988-09-01

    The progress of the field of Heavy Ion Fusion has been documented in the proceedings of the series of International Symposia that, in recent years, have occurred every second year. The latest of these conferences was hosted by Gesellshaft fuer Schwerionenforshung (GSI) in Darmstadt, West Germany, June 28-30, 1988. For this report, a few highlights from the conference are selected, stressing experimental progress and prospects for future advances. A little extra time is devoted to report on the developments at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is the center for most of the HIFAR program. The Director of the HIFAR program at LBL is Denis Keefe, who presented the HIF report at the last two of the meetings in this series, and in whose place the author is appearing now. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Compact mass spectrometer for plasma discharge ion analysis

    DOEpatents

    Tuszewski, Michel G.

    1997-01-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry which are useful in characterizing a plasma. This mass spectrometer for determining type and quantity of ions present in a plasma is simple, compact, and inexpensive. It accomplishes mass analysis in a single step, rather than the usual two-step process comprised of ion extraction followed by mass filtering. Ions are captured by a measuring element placed in a plasma and accelerated by a known applied voltage. Captured ions are bent into near-circular orbits by a magnetic field such that they strike a collector, producing an electric current. Ion orbits vary with applied voltage and proton mass ratio of the ions, so that ion species may be identified. Current flow provides an indication of quantity of ions striking the collector.

  19. Compact mass spectrometer for plasma discharge ion analysis

    DOEpatents

    Tuszewski, M.G.

    1997-07-22

    A mass spectrometer and methods are disclosed for mass spectrometry which are useful in characterizing a plasma. This mass spectrometer for determining type and quantity of ions present in a plasma is simple, compact, and inexpensive. It accomplishes mass analysis in a single step, rather than the usual two-step process comprised of ion extraction followed by mass filtering. Ions are captured by a measuring element placed in a plasma and accelerated by a known applied voltage. Captured ions are bent into near-circular orbits by a magnetic field such that they strike a collector, producing an electric current. Ion orbits vary with applied voltage and proton mass ratio of the ions, so that ion species may be identified. Current flow provides an indication of quantity of ions striking the collector. 7 figs.

  20. Microfabricated quadrupole ion trap for mass spectrometer applications.

    PubMed

    Pau, S; Pai, C S; Low, Y L; Moxom, J; Reilly, P T A; Whitten, W B; Ramsey, J M

    2006-03-31

    An array of miniaturized cylindrical quadrupole ion traps, with a radius of 20 microm, is fabricated using silicon micromachining using phosphorus doped polysilicon and silicon dioxide for the purpose of creating a mass spectrometer on a chip. We have operated the array for mass-selective ion ejection and mass analysis using Xe ions at a pressure of 10(-4). The scaling rules for the ion trap in relation to operating pressure, voltage, and frequency are examined. PMID:16605890

  1. Comet Encke: Meteor metallic ion identification by mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.; Aikin, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    Positive metallic ions have been measured in the earth's atmosphere between 85 and 120 km, during the period of the beta Taurids meteor shower, which is associated with Comet Encke. The ions originate during and following ablation of extraterrestrial debris by the earth's atmosphere. The enhancement of metal ion density during meteor showers is primary evidence for their extraterrestrial origin. The present results were obtained from a rocket-borne ion mass spectrometer.

  2. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density C{sub s}+ sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac.

  3. Process in high energy heavy ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinev, D.

    2009-03-01

    A review of processes that occur in high energy heavy ion acceleration by synchrotrons and colliders and that are essential for the accelerator performance is presented. Interactions of ions with the residual gas molecules/atoms and with stripping foils that deliberately intercept the ion trajectories are described in details. These interactions limit both the beam intensity and the beam quality. The processes of electron loss and capture lie at the root of heavy ion charge exchange injection. The review pays special attention to the ion induced vacuum pressure instability which is one of the main factors limiting the beam intensity. The intrabeam scattering phenomena which restricts the average luminosity of ion colliders is discussed. Some processes in nuclear interactions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions that could be dangerous for the performance of ion colliders are represented in the last chapter.

  4. Ion mobility spectrometer for online monitoring of trace compounds1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Xie, Z.; Schmidt, H.; Sielemann, S.; Baumbach, J. I.

    2002-10-01

    The principle, character and developments of the instrumentation of ion mobility spectrometry are reviewed. The application of ion mobility spectrometers in monitoring chemical warfare agents, explosives, drugs, environmental hazardous compounds and industrial process control are discussed. Process applications with respect to miniaturization of the instrument are presented.

  5. Research relative to the heavy isotope spectrometer telescope experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Edward C.; Mewaldt, Richard A.

    1993-01-01

    The Heavy Isotope Spectrometer Telescope (HIST) was launched during August 1978 on ISEE-3 (ICE). HIST was designed to measure the isotopic composition of solar, galactic, and interplanetary cosmic ray nuclei for the elements from H to Ni (1 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 28) in the energy range from approximately 5 to approximately 200 MeV/nucleon. The results of these measurements have been used in studies of the composition of solar matter and galactic cosmic ray sources, the study of nucleosynthesis processes, studies of particle acceleration and propagation, and studies of the life-history of cosmic rays in the heliosphere and in the galaxy. On December 1, 1978, after 110 days in orbit, HIST suffered an electronic failure in its readout system. After that point, only one-half of the telemetry bits associated with the pulse heights measured by HIST were transmitted to Earth. As a result, the resolution of HIST was significantly degraded, and it served as an element rather than an isotope spectrometer. Fortunately, HIST was able to measure the isotopic composition of heavy nuclei in the 9/23/78 solar event (the largest solar energetic particle event since 1972) during the brief period that it operated at full resolution. This grant funded the analysis of data from the HIST instrument over the period from 12/1/85 to 11/30/92. In section 2 of this final report, we summarize the scientific accomplishments that have resulted from HIST measurements during this time period. A bibliography of tasks and papers that resulted is attached.

  6. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment.

    PubMed

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is (96)Ru + (96)Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  7. Integrated experiments for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, J. J.; Ahle, L. E.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Celata, C. M.; Davidson, R. C.; Henestroza, E.; Friedman, A.; Kwan, J. W.; Logan, B. G.; Lee, E. P.; Lund, S. M.; Meier, W. R.; Sabbi, G.-L.; Seidl, P. A.; Sharp, W. M.; Shuman, D. B.; Waldron, W. L.; Qin, H.; Yu, S. S.

    2003-10-01

    We describe the next set of experiments proposed in the U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory, the so-called Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). The purpose of IBX is to investigate in an integrated manner the processes and manipulations necessary for a heavy ion fusion induction accelerator. The IBX experiment will demonstrate injection, acceleration, compression, bending, and final focus of a heavy ion beam at significant line charge density. Preliminary conceptual designs are presented and issues and trade-offs are discussed. Plans are also described for the step after IBX, the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE), which will carry out significant target experiments.

  8. Simulating data processing for an Advanced Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Clowers, Brian H.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Belov, Mikhail E.

    2007-11-03

    We have designed and implemented a Cray XD-1-based sim- ulation of data capture and signal processing for an ad- vanced Ion Mobility mass spectrometer (Hadamard trans- form Ion Mobility). Our simulation is a hybrid application that uses both an FPGA component and a CPU-based soft- ware component to simulate Ion Mobility mass spectrome- try data processing. The FPGA component includes data capture and accumulation, as well as a more sophisticated deconvolution algorithm based on a PNNL-developed en- hancement to standard Hadamard transform Ion Mobility spectrometry. The software portion is in charge of stream- ing data to the FPGA and collecting results. We expect the computational and memory addressing logic of the FPGA component to be portable to an instrument-attached FPGA board that can be interfaced with a Hadamard transform Ion Mobility mass spectrometer.

  9. Historical aspects of heavy ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, M.R.

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents historical developments of heavy-ion radiotherapy including discussion of HILAC and HIMAC and discussion of cooperation between Japan and the United States, along with personal reflections.

  10. Solenoid transport for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Edward

    2004-06-15

    Solenoid transport of high current, heavy ion beams is considered for several stages of a heavy ion fusion driver. In general this option is more efficient than magnetic quadrupole transport at sufficiently low kinetic energy and/or large e/m, and for this reason it has been employed in electron induction linacs. Ideally an ion beam would be transported in a state of Brillouin flow, i.e. cold in the transverse plane and spinning at one half the cyclotron frequency. The design of appropriate solenoids and the equilibrium and stability of transported ion beams are discussed. An outline of application to a fusion driver is also presented.

  11. A retarding ion mass spectrometer for the Dynamics Explorer-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, W.

    1985-01-01

    The Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) for Dynamics Explorer-1 is an instrument designed to measure the details of the thermal plasma distribution. It combines the ion temperature determining capability of the retarding potential analyzer with the compositional capabilities of the mass spectrometer and adds multiple sensor heads to sample all directions relative to the spacecraft ram direction. This manual provides a functional description of the RIMS, the instrument calibration, and a description of the commands which can be stored in the instrument logic to control its operation.

  12. Formation of energetic heavy ion tracks in polyimide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deslandes, Alec; Murugaraj, Pandiyan; Mainwaring, David E.; Ionescu, Mihail; Cohen, David D.; Siegele, Rainer

    2013-11-01

    Polyimide thin films have been irradiated with a high energy beam of heavy ions to a fluence of approximately 4 × 1013 ions/cm2. Proton backscattering spectroscopy was used to measure the composition of the films, which showed that oxygen was the element that exhibited the most rapid loss from the film. The gases evolved from the film during polymer modification were monitored using a quadrupole mass spectrometer for residual gas analysis (RGA). The fluence dependence of RGA signals were indicative of multi-step processes of gas release, whereby the passage of an ion through a region of pristine film changes the local molecular structure to one that will more readily form volatile species when subsequent ions pass.

  13. Beam dynamics in heavy ion induction LINACS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.

    1981-10-01

    Interest in the use of an induction linac to accelerate heavy ions for the purpose of providing the energy required to initiate an inertially confined fusion reaction has stimulated a theoretical effort to investigate various beam dynamical effects associated with high intensity heavy ion beams. This paper presents a summary of the work that has been done so far; transverse, longitudinal and coupled longitudinal transverse effects are discussed.

  14. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Linear electronic field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.

    2010-08-24

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometer comprising a first drift region and a second drift region enclosed within an evacuation chamber; a means of introducing an analyte of interest into the first drift region; a pulsed ionization source which produces molecular ions from said analyte of interest; a first foil positioned between the first drift region and the second drift region, which dissociates said molecular ions into constituent atomic ions and emits secondary electrons; an electrode which produces secondary electrons upon contact with a constituent atomic ion in second drift region; a stop detector comprising a first ion detection region and a second ion detection region; and a timing means connected to the pulsed ionization source, to the first ion detection region, and to the second ion detection region.

  16. Ion mobility spectrometer using frequency-domain separation

    DOEpatents

    Martin, S.J.; Butler, M.A.; Frye, G.C.; Schubert, W.K.

    1998-08-04

    An apparatus and method are provided for separating and analyzing chemical species in an ion mobility spectrometer using a frequency-domain technique wherein the ions generated from the chemical species are selectively transported through an ion flow channel having a moving electrical potential therein. The moving electrical potential allows the ions to be selected according to ion mobility, with certain of the ions being transported to an ion detector and other of the ions being effectively discriminated against. The apparatus and method have applications for sensitive chemical detection and analysis for monitoring of exhaust gases, hazardous waste sites, industrial processes, aerospace systems, non-proliferation, and treaty verification. The apparatus can be formed as a microelectromechanical device (i.e. a micromachine). 6 figs.

  17. Ion mobility spectrometer using frequency-domain separation

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Stephen J.; Butler, Michael A.; Frye, Gregory C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method is provided for separating and analyzing chemical species in an ion mobility spectrometer using a frequency-domain technique wherein the ions generated from the chemical species are selectively transported through an ion flow channel having a moving electrical potential therein. The moving electrical potential allows the ions to be selected according to ion mobility, with certain of the ions being transported to an ion detector and other of the ions being effectively discriminated against. The apparatus and method have applications for sensitive chemical detection and analysis for monitoring of exhaust gases, hazardous waste sites, industrial processes, aerospace systems, non-proliferation, and treaty verification. The apparatus can be formed as a microelectromechanical device (i.e. a micromachine).

  18. A gated atmospheric pressure drift tube ion mobility spectrometer-time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Heptner, Andre; Reinecke, Tobias; Langejuergen, Jens; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2014-08-22

    Identifying the compounds of an unknown gas mixture by using an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) is a difficult task, because several ion species can be generated in the ionization process. One method to analyze the occurring peaks in an IMS spectrum is coupling an IMS to a mass spectrometer (MS). In our setup we coupled a (3)H drift tube IMS to a Bruker micrOTOF II. Therefore, the detector plate of the IMS is pierced and a transfer capillary is inserted. The ions are transferred via gas flow and electric fields into the MS. The transmission of the ions through the transfer capillary can be shuttered very precisely by increasing the electric potential of the detector generating a repulsive electric field. Thus, it is possible to transfer single ion clouds of generated IMS spectra into the mass spectrometer where a corresponding mass spectrum is generated. In this work we analyze the positive and negative IMS spectra of single analytes as well as gas mixtures and characterize the occurring ion species. PMID:25015244

  19. A gated atmospheric pressure drift tube ion mobility spectrometer-time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Heptner, Andre; Reinecke, Tobias; Langejuergen, Jens; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2014-08-22

    Identifying the compounds of an unknown gas mixture by using an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) is a difficult task, because several ion species can be generated in the ionization process. One method to analyze the occurring peaks in an IMS spectrum is coupling an IMS to a mass spectrometer (MS). In our setup we coupled a (3)H drift tube IMS to a Bruker micrOTOF II. Therefore, the detector plate of the IMS is pierced and a transfer capillary is inserted. The ions are transferred via gas flow and electric fields into the MS. The transmission of the ions through the transfer capillary can be shuttered very precisely by increasing the electric potential of the detector generating a repulsive electric field. Thus, it is possible to transfer single ion clouds of generated IMS spectra into the mass spectrometer where a corresponding mass spectrum is generated. In this work we analyze the positive and negative IMS spectra of single analytes as well as gas mixtures and characterize the occurring ion species.

  20. Design and development of a fast ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Two Fast Ion Mass Spectrometers (FIMS A and FIMS B) were developed. The design, development, construction, calibration, integration, and flight of these instruments, along with early results from the data analysis efforts are summarized. A medium energy ion mass spectrometer that covers mass velocity space with significantly higher time resolution, improved mass resolution, (particularly for heavier ions), and wider energy range than existing instruments had achieved was completed. The initial design consisted of a dual channel cylindrical electrostatic analyzer followed by a dual channel cylindrical velocity filter. The gain versus count rate characteristics of the high current channel electron multipliers (CEM's), which were chosen for ion detection, revealed a systematic behavior that can be used as a criterion for selection of CEM's for long counting lifetimes.

  1. Heavy ion beams for inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Godlove, T.F.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1980-05-01

    The United States' program in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is described in this paper, with emphasis on the studies of the use of intense high energy beams of heavy ions to provide the power and energy needed to initiate thermonuclear burn. Preliminary calculations of the transport of intense ion beams in an electrostatic quadrupole focussing structure are discussed.

  2. Ultra Heavy Ion Collector (UHIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this final report is to study the propagation of heavy nuclei in cosmic radiation. Topics include: Mass Distributions of Fragments from the Interactions of 600 MeV/n Silver Nuclei; Charge-pickup by Heavy Relativistic Nuclei; Fragmentation and Propagation Heavy UH Cosmic Ray Nuclei; Nuclear Fragmentation Parameters Needed for Interpretation of Observed Fluxes of UH Cosmic Ray Nuclei; Fragmentation and Electromagnetic Dissociation of 10.6 GeV/nucleon (197) Au Nuclei; Nuclear Interaction Cross Sections for UltraHeavy Nuclei; The Charge-Changing Fragmentation of 10.6 GeV/nucleon 197 Au Nuclei; Fragmentation Cross Sections of Relativistic 84/36 Kr and 109/47 Ag Nuclei in Targets from Hydrogen to Lead; Mission Concept for the Study of Ultraheavy Galactic Cosmic Rays; and Propagation of the Heaviest UH - Cosmic Ray Nuclei.

  3. Signal processing for ION mobility spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, S.; Hinton, M.; Turner, R.

    1995-01-01

    Signal processing techniques for systems based upon Ion Mobility Spectrometry will be discussed in the light of 10 years of experience in the design of real-time IMS. Among the topics to be covered are compensation techniques for variations in the number density of the gas - the use of an internal standard (a reference peak) or pressure and temperature sensors. Sources of noise and methods for noise reduction will be discussed together with resolution limitations and the ability of deconvolution techniques to improve resolving power. The use of neural networks (either by themselves or as a component part of a processing system) will be reviewed.

  4. A simple photoionization scheme for characterizing electron and ion spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wituschek, A.; von Vangerow, J.; Grzesiak, J.; Stienkemeier, F.; Mudrich, M.

    2016-08-01

    We present a simple diode laser-based photoionization scheme for generating electrons and ions with well-defined spatial and energetic (≲2 eV) structures. This scheme can easily be implemented in ion or electron imaging spectrometers for the purpose of off-line characterization and calibration. The low laser power ˜1 mW needed from a passively stabilized diode laser and the low flux of potassium atoms in an effusive beam make our scheme a versatile source of ions and electrons for applications in research and education.

  5. Ion mass spectrometer experiment for ISIS-2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John H.

    1987-01-01

    The International Satellite for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program of NASA was the longest duration program in NASA history. A number of satellites were flown under this program, the last being called ISIS-2, which was launched on April 1, 1971 and operated successfully for over 13 years. An experiment called the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) was flown on the ISIS-2 spacecraft. It operated for 10 years providing a large data base of positive ion composition and ion flow velocities along the orbit of the satellite, the latter being circular at 1400 km with a 90 degree inclination. The data were processed and reside in the National Space Sciences Data Center.

  6. A simple photoionization scheme for characterizing electron and ion spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Wituschek, A; von Vangerow, J; Grzesiak, J; Stienkemeier, F; Mudrich, M

    2016-08-01

    We present a simple diode laser-based photoionization scheme for generating electrons and ions with well-defined spatial and energetic (≲2 eV) structures. This scheme can easily be implemented in ion or electron imaging spectrometers for the purpose of off-line characterization and calibration. The low laser power ∼1 mW needed from a passively stabilized diode laser and the low flux of potassium atoms in an effusive beam make our scheme a versatile source of ions and electrons for applications in research and education. PMID:27587098

  7. A novel Laser Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göbel, J.; Kessler, M.; Langmeier, A.

    2009-05-01

    IMS is a well know technology within the range of security based applications. Its main advantages lie in the simplicity of measurement, along with a fast and sensitive detection method. Contemporary technology often fails due to interference substances, in conjunction with saturation effects and a low dynamic detection range. High throughput facilities, such as airports, require the analysis of many samples at low detection limits within a very short timeframe. High detection reliability is a requirement for safe and secure operation. In our present work we developed a laser based ion-mobility-sensor which shows several advantages over known IMS sensor technology. The goal of our research was to increase the sensitivity compared to the range of 63Ni based instruments. This was achieved with an optimised geometric drift tube design and a pulsed UV laser system at an efficient intensity. In this intensity range multi-photon ionisation is possible, which leads to higher selectivity in the ion-formation process itself. After high speed capturing of detection samples, a custom designed pattern recognition software toolbox provides reliable auto-detection capability with a learning algorithm and a graphical user interface.

  8. Product ion scanning using a Q-q-Q linear ion trap (Q TRAP) mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Hager, James W; Yves Le Blanc, J C

    2003-01-01

    The use of a Q-q-Q(linear ion trap) instrument to obtain product ion spectra is described. The instrument is based on the ion path of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with Q3 operable as either a conventional RF/DC quadrupole mass filter or a linear ion trap mass spectrometer with axial ion ejection. This unique ion optical arrangement allows de-coupling of precursor ion isolation and fragmentation from the ion trap itself. The result is a high sensitivity tandem mass spectrometer with triple quadrupole fragmentation patterns and no inherent low mass cut-off. The use of the entrance RF-only section of the instrument as accumulation ion trap while the linear ion trap mass spectrometer is scanning enhances duty cycles and results in increased sensitivities by as much as a factor of 20. The instrument is also capable of all of the triple quadrupole scans including multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) as well as precursor and constant neutral loss scanning. The high product ion scanning sensitivity allows the recording of useful product ion spectra near the MRM limit of quantitation.

  9. Biomolecular Emission by Swift Heavy Ion Bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Wakamatsu, Yoshinobu; Yamada, Hideaki; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Matsuo, Jiro; Jones, Brian N.; Webb, Roger; Seki, Toshio; Aoki, Takaaki

    2011-01-07

    Secondary Ion Mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been generally used in the field of material sciences. In recent years, it has also been applied for molecular imaging of biological samples. Nevertheless, molecular ions derived from the large molecules (more than 1 kDa) were detected with very low sensitivity. Plasma desorption mass spectrometry (PDMS) is known as mass spectrometry for large organic molecule. In PDMS, fission fragments bombard samples and the impact induces molecular ionization by electronic excitation. Large organic molecules are detected by using swift heavy ions in SIMS. In this work, 6 MeV Cu{sup 4+} we irradiated angiotensin II, a class of peptides. The intact molecular ions generated by swift heavy ion irradiation were analyzed by time-of-flight (TOF) measurement. The yields are compared with some other probe ions, bismuth or flurane. Swift heavy ion bombardment ionized large organic molecules more effectively than other probes. Therefore, high energy ion can be applied in high resolution molecular imaging.

  10. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2015-01-19

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry provides unparalleled mass accuracy and resolving power.[1],[2] With electrospray ionization (ESI), ions are typically transferred into the mass spectrometer through a skimmer, which serves as a conductance-limiting orifice. However, the skimmer allows only a small fraction of incoming ions to enter the mass spectrometer. An ion funnel, originally developed by Smith and coworkers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)[3-5] provides much more efficient ion focusing and transfer. The large entrance aperture of the ion funnel allows almost all ions emanating from a heated capillary to be efficiently captured and transferred, resulting in nearly lossless transmission.

  11. An ion mobility mass spectrometer for investigating photoisomerization and photodissociation of molecular ions

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, B. D.; Coughlan, N. J. A.; Markworth, P. B.; Bieske, E. J.; Continetti, R. E.

    2014-12-15

    An ion mobility mass spectrometry apparatus for investigating the photoisomerization and photodissociation of electrosprayed molecular ions in the gas phase is described. The device consists of a drift tube mobility spectrometer, with access for a laser beam that intercepts the drifting ion packet either coaxially or transversely, followed by a quadrupole mass filter. An ion gate halfway along the drift region allows the instrument to be used as a tandem ion mobility spectrometer, enabling mobility selection of ions prior to irradiation, with the photoisomer ions being separated over the second half of the drift tube. The utility of the device is illustrated with photoisomerization and photodissociation action spectra of carbocyanine molecular cations. The mobility resolution of the device for singly charged ions is typically 80 and it has a mass range of 100-440 Da, with the lower limit determined by the drive frequency for the ion funnels, and the upper limit by the quadrupole mass filter.

  12. HEAVY-ION IMAGING APPLIED TO MEDICINE

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Capp, M.P.; Benton, E.V.; Holley, W.R.

    1980-02-01

    Heavy particle radiography is a newly developed noninvasive low dose imaging procedure with increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the BEVALAC accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program applied to medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures and brain and spinal neoplasms. The presentation will be illustrated with clinical cases under study. Discussion will include the potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, as an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for the applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, but also for the early detection of small soft tissue tumors at low radiation dose.

  13. Ion mobility spectrometer, spectrometer analyte detection and identification verification system, and method

    DOEpatents

    Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for ion mobility spectrometry and analyte detection and identification verification system are disclosed. The apparatus is configured to be used in an ion mobility spectrometer and includes a plurality of reactant reservoirs configured to contain a plurality of reactants which can be reacted with the sample to form adducts having varying ion mobilities. A carrier fluid, such as air or nitrogen, is used to carry the sample into the spectrometer. The plurality of reactants are configured to be selectively added to the carrier stream by use inlet and outlet manifolds in communication with the reagent reservoirs, the reservoirs being selectively isolatable by valves. The invention further includes a spectrometer having the reagent system described. In the method, a first reactant is used with the sample. Following a positive result, a second reactant is used to determine whether a predicted response occurs. The occurrence of the second predicted response tends to verify the existence of a component of interest within the sample. A third reactant can also be used to provide further verification of the existence of a component of interest. A library can be established of known responses of compounds of interest with various reactants and the results of a specific multi-reactant survey of a sample can be compared against the library to determine whether a component detected in the sample is likely to be a specific component of interest.

  14. PIPE: A versatile photon-ion spectrometer at PETRAIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricsóka, T.; Ricz, S.; Schippers, S.; Müller, A.; Klumpp, S.; Martins, M.; Flesch, R.; Mondes, V.; Rühl, E.; Schmidt, L.; Dörner, R.; Ullrich, J.; Wolf, A.

    2009-11-01

    A German research collaboration is currently setting up a versatile photon-ion spectrometer at PE-TRA III (PIPE) the new synchrotron radiation source at the DESY site in Hamburg, Germany. PIPE will be operated as a user facility at the Variable Polarization XUV beamline which will deliver some 1012 photons per second per 0.01% bandwidth in the photon energy range 250-3000 eV. The PIPE setup will allow users to study photon interactions with ionized matter in the gas phase, such as multiply charged atomic ions, small and large (bio-)molecular ions, solvate ions, and cluster ions with mass/charge ratios of up to 30 000.

  15. Laser desorption in an ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Eiden, G.C.; Cisper, M.E.; Alexander, M.L.; Hemberger, P.H.; Nogar, N.S.

    1993-02-01

    Laser desorption in a ion-trap mass spectrometer shows significant promise for both qualitative and trace analysis. Several aspects of this methodology are discussed in this work. We previously demonstrated the generation of both negative and positive ions by laser desorption directly within a quadrupole ion trap. In the present work, we explore various combinations of d.c., r.f., and time-varying fields in order to optimize laser generated signals. In addition, we report on the application of this method to analyze samples containing compounds such as amines, metal complexes, carbon clusters, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. In some cases the ability to rapidly switch between positive and negative ion modes provides sufficient specificity to distinguish different compounds of a mixture with a single stage of mass spectrometry. In other experiments, we combined intensity variation studies with tandem mass spectrometry experiments and positive and negative ion detection to further enhance specificity.

  16. New developments in heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1983-04-01

    Beginning in 1984, the US Department of Energy plans a program aimed at determining the feasibility of using heavy ion accelerators as pellet drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). This paper will describe the events in the field of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) that have occurred in the three years since the Lausanne conference in this series. The emphasis will be on the events leading towards the new energy oriented program. in addition to providing an overview of progress in HIF, such a discussion may prove useful for promoters of any emerging energy technology.

  17. Jets In Heavy Ion Collisions with CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salur, Sevil

    2016-08-01

    Jet physics in heavy ion collisions is a rich field which has been rapidly evolving since the first observations of medium interactions at RHIC through back-to-back hadron correlations and at LHC via reconstructed jets. In order to completely characterize the final state via jet-medium interactions and distinguish between competing energy loss mechanisms, complementary and robust jet observables are investigated. Latest developments of jet finding techniques and their applications to heavy ion environments are discussed with an emphasis given on experimental results from CMS experiment.

  18. The Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer on Dynamics Explorer-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, C. R.; Fields, S. A.; Baugher, C. R.; Hoffman, J. H.; Hanson, W. B.; Wright, W. W.; Hammack, H. D.; Carignan, G. R.; Nagy, A. F.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal component of the magnetospheric plasma plays a key role in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes, acting as a strong influence on ionospheric structure at low altitudes and as a source and modifier of the hotter plasma population at high altitudes. The Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) instrument on Dynamics Explorer-A is designed to measure this important thermal plasma component. Using a combination of retarding potential analysis and magnetic ion mass spectrometer techniques, the RIMS instrument will measure the bulk plasma parameters of ion density (0.1 to 1,000,000 ions/cu cm), temperature (0-45 eV), and bulk flow (greater than 0.5 km/sec) in the inner plasmasphere and ionosphere, and the specific ion pitch angle and energy spectral characteristics in the outer plasmasphere and plasma trough for a mass range of 1-32 amu. The energy and mass spectral step sequences, as well as the multiplexing of the resultant data, can be tailored to accomplish a variety of thermal ion measurements throughout the inner magnetosphere.

  19. Dual mode ion mobility spectrometer and method for ion mobility spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Miller, Carla J [Idaho Falls, ID; Tremblay, Paul L [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2007-08-21

    Ion mobility spectrometer apparatus may include an ion interface that is operable to hold positive and negative ions and to simultaneously release positive and negative ions through respective positive and negative ion ports. A first drift chamber is operatively associated with the positive ion port of the ion interface and encloses an electric field therein. A first ion detector operatively associated with the first drift chamber detects positive ions from the first drift chamber. A second drift chamber is operatively associated with the negative ion port of the ion interface and encloses an electric field therein. A second ion detector operatively associated with the second drift chamber detects negative ions from said second drift chamber.

  20. "Fast excitation" CID in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Murrell, J; Despeyroux, D; Lammert, S A; Stephenson, J L; Goeringer, D E

    2003-07-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer is usually performed by applying a small amplitude excitation voltage at the same secular frequency as the ion of interest. Here we disclose studies examining the use of large amplitude voltage excitations (applied for short periods of time) to cause fragmentation of the ions of interest. This process has been examined using leucine enkephalin as the model compound and the motion of the ions within the ion trap simulated using ITSIM. The resulting fragmentation information obtained is identical with that observed by conventional resonance excitation CID. "Fast excitation" CID deposits (as determined by the intensity ratio of the a(4)/b(4) ion of leucine enkephalin) approximately the same amount of internal energy into an ion as conventional resonance excitation CID where the excitation signal is applied for much longer periods of time. The major difference between the two excitation techniques is the higher rate of excitation (gain in kinetic energy) between successive collisions with helium atoms with "fast excitation" CID as opposed to the conventional resonance excitation CID. With conventional resonance excitation CID ions fragment while the excitation voltage is still being applied whereas for "fast excitation" CID a higher proportion of the ions fragment in the ion cooling time following the excitation pulse. The fragmentation of the (M + 17H)(17+) of horse heart myoglobin is also shown to illustrate the application of "fast excitation" CID to proteins.

  1. "Fast Excitation" CID in Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Murrell, J.; Despeyroux, D.; Lammert, Stephen {Steve} A; Stephenson Jr, James {Jim} L; Goeringer, Doug

    2003-01-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer is usually performed by applying a small amplitude excitation voltage at the same secular frequency as the ion of interest. Here we disclose studies examining the use of large amplitude voltage excitations (applied for short periods of time) to cause fragmentation of the ions of interest. This process has been examined using leucine enkephalin as the model compound and the motion of the ions within the ion trap simulated using ITSIM. The resulting fragmentation information obtained is identical with that observed by conventional resonance excitation CID. ''Fast excitation'' CID deposits (as determined by the intensity ratio of the a{sub 4}/b{sub 4} ion of leucine enkephalin) approximately the same amount of internal energy into an ion as conventional resonance excitation CID where the excitation signal is applied for much longer periods of time. The major difference between the two excitation techniques is the higher rate of excitation (gain in kinetic energy) between successive collisions with helium atoms with ''fast excitation'' CID as opposed to the conventional resonance excitation CID. With conventional resonance excitation CID ions fragment while the excitation voltage is still being applied whereas for ''fast excitation'' CID a higher proportion of the ions fragment in the ion cooling time following the excitation pulse. The fragmentation of the (M + 17H){sup 17+} of horse heart myoglobin is also shown to illustrate the application of ''fast excitation'' CID to proteins.

  2. Cataracts Heavy Ions and Individual Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E.; Worgul, B.; Brenner, D.; Smilenov, L.

    Ocular cataracts represents one of the few legacies of space flight evident in a significant proportion of astronauts X-rays are known to induce cataracts Heavy ions are known to be much more effective per unit dose than gamma -rays The object of this present study was to identify genes that confer individual susceptibility and to estimate RBE values Wild type mice were compared with animals heterozygous for Atm Mrad9 or BRCA1 or animals that were double heterozygotes for pairs of genes Mice were irradiated with x-rays at Columbia University in New York City or with heavy ions 1GeV amu 56 Fe ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory Haploinsufficiency for either Atm or mRAD9 resulted in cataracts appearing earlier than in wild type animals whether exposed to gamma -rays or heavy ions Double heterozygotes were more radiosensitive than animals haploinsufficient for either gene alone Heavy ions were much more effective than x-rays in inducing cataracts of all grades in animals of all genotypes A detailed analysis suggest that the RBE varies to some extent with the genotype of the animal and the cataract grade

  3. Biomedical research with heavy ions at the IMP accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang

    The main ion-beam acceleration facilities and research activities at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly introduced. Some of the biomedical research with heavy ions such as heavy-ion biological effect, basic research related to heavy-ion cancer therapy and radiation breeding at the IMP accelerators are presented.

  4. COMMISSIONING OF THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER.

    SciTech Connect

    TRBOJEVIC,D.; AHRENS,L.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN,M.; BAI,M.; CAMERON,P.; CARDONA,J.; CONNOLLY,R.; ET AL; TSOUPAS,N.; VAN ZEIJTS,J.

    2001-06-18

    This report describes in detail steps performed in bringing the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) from the commissioning into the operational stage when collisions between 60 bunches of fully striped gold ions, were routinely provided. Corrections of the few power supplies connections by the beam measurements are described. Beam lifetime improvements at injection, along the acceleration are shown. The beam diagnostic results; like Schottky detector, beam profile monitor, beam position monitors, tune meter and others, are shown [1].

  5. Proton and heavy ion therapy.

    PubMed

    Larsson, B

    1975-01-01

    Penetrating ion beams are considered interesting supplements to the types of radiation, mostly electrons and gamma rays, that have dominated in radiation research and radiotherapy during the last decades. Biomedical experimentations and clinical studies ar larger ion accelerators (100-1000 MeV/amu) are therefore undertaken in order to exploit their possible clinical use in cancer therapy. It is concluded that an accelerator that permits effective use of protons (ca. 200 MeV) and deutrons (ca. 50 MeV, for neutron therapy) located in a central hospital would represent a convenient tool for clinical investigations at a larger scale. PMID:1201773

  6. Dynamics Explorer 1: Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer (EICS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.; Peterson, W. K.; Collin, H. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer (EICS) experiment was selected as part of the Dynamics Explorer (DE) Program. One of the primary goals of the DE program was to investigate in detail the plasma physics processes responsible for energizing thermal (approximately 1 eV) ionospheric ions and transporting them to the earth's plasma sheet and distant polar cap. The results of the EICS data analysis (including support of other investigators) and of the archiving efforts supported by this contract are summarized in this document. Also reported are some aspects of our operational support activities.

  7. Linear electric field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Feldman, William C.

    2008-06-10

    A linear electric field ion mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating a linear electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the linear electric field. A source of pulsed ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the linear electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between ionization of atoms or molecules and arrival of an ion out of the ionized atoms or molecules at a predetermined position.

  8. Heavy ion irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Eduardo Seperuelo; Domaracka, Alicja; Boduch, Philippe; Rothard, Hermann; Balanzat, Emmanuel; Dartois, Emmanuel; Pilling, Sergio; Farenzena, Lucio; da Silveira, Enio Frota

    Icy grain mantles consist of small molecules containing hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen atoms (e.g. H2O, CO, CO2, NH3). Such ices, present in different astrophysical environments (giant planets satellites, comets, dense clouds, and protoplanetary disks), are subjected to irradiation of different energetic particles: UV radiation, ion bombardment (solar and stellar wind as well as galactic cosmic rays), and secondary electrons due to cosmic ray ionization of H2. The interaction of these particles with astrophysical ice analogs has been the object of research over the last decades. However, there is a lack of information on the effects induced by the heavy ion component of cosmic rays in the electronic energy loss regime. The aim of the present work is to simulate of the astrophysical environment where ice mantles are exposed to the heavy ion cosmic ray irradiation. Sample ice films at 13K were irradiated by nickel ions with energies in the 1-10 MeV/u range and analyzed by means of FTIR spectrometry. Nickel ions were used because their energy deposition is similar to that deposited by iron ions, which are particularly abundant cosmic rays amongst the heaviest ones. In this work the effects caused by nickel ions on condensed gases are studied (destruction and production of molecules as well as associated cross sections, sputtering yields) and compared with respective values for light ions and UV photons.

  9. Super high energy heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, W.M.

    1987-12-01

    Basic theoretical ideas on a phase transition to a plasma of free quarks and gluons in heavy ion collisions are outlined. First results from experiments with oxygen beams at 14.5 GeV/c/N (BNL), 60 and 200 GeV/c/N (CERN) are discussed. 30 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

  11. Relativistic Hydrodynamics for Heavy-Ion Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is essential to our current understanding of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies (current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, forthcoming experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). This is an introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics for graduate students. It includes a detailed…

  12. Resonant structures in heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, S.J.; Henning, W.; Ernst, H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Jachcinski, C.; Kovar, D.G.; Paul, M.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of heavy-ion resonance structures using the /sup 24/Mg(/sup 16/O, /sup 12/C)/sup 28/Si reaction is presented. The data are analyzed in the context of Breit-Wigner resonances added to a direct-reaction background.

  13. Pion probes of heavy ion collision dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.O.

    1985-03-01

    Pion interferometry data (2-pion correlation) are examined for information on size and lifetime of the pion-emitting matter. The temperatures inferred from pion, proton and kaon spectra are considered. An explanation consistent with the above size and temperature data is proposed. New theoretical Monte Carlo results on spectator effects on heavy-ion pion spectra are presented. 23 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Dynamics of fission and heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.

    1984-05-01

    Recent advances in a unified macroscopic-microscopic description of large-amplitude collective nuclear motion such as occurs in fission and heavy ion reactions are discussed. With the goal of finding observable quantities that depend upon the magnitude and mechanism of nuclear dissipation, one-body dissipation and two-body viscosity within the framework of a generalized Fokker-Planck equation for the time dependence of the distribution function in phase space of collective coordinates and momenta are considered. Proceeding in two separate directions, the generalized Hamilton equations of motion for the first moments of the distribution function with a new shape parametrization and other technical innovations are first solved. This yields the mean translational fission-fragment kinetic energy and mass of a third fragment that sometimes forms between the two end fragments, as well as the energy required for fusion in symmetric heavy-ion reactions and the mass transfer and capture cross section in asymmetric heavy-ion reactions. In a second direction, we specialize to an inverted-oscillator fission barrier and use Kramers' stationary solution to calculate the mean time from the saddle point to scission for a heavy-ion-induced fission reaction for which experimental information is becoming available. 25 references.

  15. Heavy Ion Fragmentation Experiments at the Bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using the heavy-ion capability of the Bevatron were studied. The purpose was to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Attempts were also made to: (1) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (2) test the applicability of high-energy multi-particle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (3) apply the cross-section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (4) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross sections.

  16. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Ions using X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, Daniel Bristol

    2008-11-19

    Spectroscopy of K-shell transitions in highly charged heavy ions, like hydrogen-like uranium, has the potential to yield information about quantum electrodynamics (QED) in extremely strong nuclear fields as well as tests of the standard model, specifically parity violation in atomic systems. These measurements would represent the 'holy grail' in high-Z atomic spectroscopy. However, the current state-of-the-art detection schemes used for recording the K-shell spectra from highly charged heavy ions does not yet have the resolving power to be able to attain this goal. As such, to push the field of high-Z spectroscopy forward, new detectors must be found. Recently, x-ray calorimeter spectrometers have been developed that promise to make such measurements. In an effort to make the first steps towards attaining the 'holy grail', measurements have been performed with two x-ray calorimeter spectrometers (the XRS/EBIT and the ECS) designed and built at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The calorimeter spectrometers have been used to record the K-shell spectra of highly charged ions produced in the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. Measurements performed with the XRS/EBIT calorimeter array found that the theoretical description of well-above threshold electron-impact excitation cross sections for hydrogen-like iron and nickel ions are correct. Furthermore, the first high-resolution spectrum of hydrogen-like through carbon-like praseodymium ions was recorded with a calorimeter. In addition, the new high-energy array on the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) was used to resolve the K-shell x-ray emission spectrum of highly charged xenon ions, where a 40 ppm measurement of the energy of the K-shell resonance transition in helium-like xenon was achieved. This is the highest precision result, ever, for an element with such high atomic number. In addition, a first-of-its-kind measurement of the effect of the

  17. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mueller; L. Grisham; I. Kaganovich; R. L. Watson; V. Horvat; K. E. Zaharakis; Y. Peng

    2002-06-25

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters.

  18. Experimental Verification of Heavy Ion Irradiation Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shengyun; Iwata, T.; Xu, Yongjun; Zheng, Yongnan; Zhou, Dongmei; Zhu, Jiazheng; Wang, Zhiqqiang; Yuan, Daqing; Du, Enpeng; Zuo, Yi

    The heavy ion irradiation simulation of neutron and/or proton irradiation has been verified experimentally by the detailed study of radiation damage in α-Al2O3 irradiated at the equivalent dose by 5.28×1015 cm-285 MeV 19F ions and by 3×1020 cm-2 En≥1MeV neutrons, respectively. The radiation damage created by irradiation was examined by a positron annihilation lifetime technique. The positron annihilation parameters of lifetime and intensity obtained for both irradiations in α-Al2O3 are all in good agreement. This demonstrates that the heavy ion irradiation can well simulate the neutron and/or proton irradiation.

  19. Calorimetric low temperature detectors for mass identification of heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, S.; Bleile, A.; Egelhof, P.; Golser, R.; Kisselev, O.; Kutschera, W.; Liechtenstein, V.; Meier, H. J.; Priller, A.; Shrivastava, A.; Steier, P.; Vockenhuber, C.; Weber, M.

    2002-02-01

    The energy sensitive detection of heavy ions with calorimetric low temperature detectors (CLTDs) is investigated for the energy range E=0.1-1 MeV/u, commonly used for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Such measurements complement earlier investigations [1, 2] at higher energies (E=5-300 MeV/u) where an energy resolution of ΔE/E=1-2×10-3 was obtained for various ion species. The detectors used consist of sapphire absorbers and superconducting transition edge thermometers operated at T~1.5 K. They were irradiated with various heavy ion beams (13C, 197Au, 238U) provided by the VERA tandem accelerator in Vienna, Austria. An energy resolution of ΔE/E=5-6×10-3 has been obtained even for heaviest ions like 197Au and 238U at E=0.1-0.3 MeV/u, thereby exceeding the resolution of conventional semiconductor detectors in this energy range by at least one order of magnitude. In addition, no evidence for pulse height defects has been observed. With the achieved performance, the present CLTDs bear a large potential for applications in various fields of heavy ion research. Of special interest is isotope mass identification via combined energy and time-of-flight (TOF) measurement. In present test measurements, including a standard TOF spectrometer, a clear separation of the isotopes 206Pb and 208Pb at E~0.1 MeV/u has been obtained. Such a detection scheme may in future provide substantial background suppression for AMS measurements. .

  20. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  1. Nonresonant interaction of heavy ions with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berchem, J.; Gendrin, R.

    1985-01-01

    The motion of a heavy ion in the presence of an intense ultralow-frequency electromagnetic wave propagating along the dc magnetic field is analyzed. Starting from the basic equations of motion and from their associated two invariants, the heavy ion velocity-space trajectories are drawn. It is shown that after a certain time, particles whose initial phase angles are randomly distributed tend to bunch together, provided that the wave intensity b-sub-1 is sufficiently large. The importance of these results for the interpretation of the recently observed acceleration of singly charged He ions in conjunction with the occurrence of large-amplitude ion cyclotron waves in the equatorial magnetosphere is discussed.

  2. Cassini Orbiter Ion and Neutral Gas Mass Spectrometer (INMS) Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.; Yelle, R.; Cravens, T. E.; Luhmann, J.; McNutt, R.; Ip, W.; Robertson, I. P.; Ledvina, S.; Niemann, H. B.; Fletcher, G.; Thorpe, R.; Gell, D.; Magee, B.

    The Cassini Orbiter Ion and Neutral Gas Mass Spectrometer was built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. After the spacecraft's launch, data analysis and operations are being conducted by a facility science team. The instrument measures in-situ neutral gas and positive thermal energy ions in the upper atmosphere of Titan, in the vicinity of the icy satellites and rings, and in the magnetosphere of Saturn, wherever the signal is above the detection threshold. The instrument was opened to the environment of Saturn immediately after the completion of the Saturn orbit capture burn.The Cassini Orbiter Ion and Neutral Gas Mass Spectrometer was built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. After the spacecraft's launch, data analysis and operations are being conducted by a facility science team. The instrument measures in-situ neutral gas and positive thermal energy ions in the upper atmosphere of Titan, in the vicinity of the icy satellites and rings, and in the magnetosphere of Saturn, wherever the signal is above the detection threshold. The instrument was opened to the environment of Saturn immediately after the completion of the Saturn orbit capture burn.

  3. Modeling Transport of Secondary Ion Fragments into a Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warmenhoven, J.; Demarche, J.; Palitsin, V.; Kirkby, K. J.; Webb, R. P.

    The Surrey Ion Beam Centre was awarded the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) grant for "Promoting Cross Disciplinary Research: Engineering and Physical Sciences and Social Sciences" allowing continued research into the characteristics of desorption of secondary ions by the impact of fast primary ions in the ambient pressure at the sub-micron scale. To carry out this research a new beamline has been constructed consisting of a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer combined with the current 2MV Tandem accelerator. This research has already returned many significant results such as the first simultaneous SIMS, PIXE and RBS measurement preformed on an organic sample in vacuum. However, further optimization and validation of the new beamline is still being worked on. This work focuses on the optimization of the end station geometry to allow for high sensitivity ambient pressure measurements. It is concluded that a common geometry can be adopted for a wide variety of smooth samples to ensure optimum sensitivity provided a hard edge of the sample can be found to place the mass spectrometer capillary near.

  4. Medical heavy ion accelerator proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, R. A.

    1985-05-01

    For several decades, accelerators designed primarily for research in nuclear and high energy physics have been adapted for biomedical research including radiotherapeutic treatment of human diseases such as pituitary disorders, cancer, and more recently, arteriovascular malformations. The particles used in these treatments include pions, protons and heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon and argon. Maximum beam energies must be available to penetrate into an equivalent of about 30 cm of water, requiring treatment beams of 250 to 1000 MeV/nucleon. Intensities must be adequate to complete a 100 rad treatment fraction in about 1 minute. The favored technical approach in these proposals utilizes a conventional, strong-focusing synchrotron capable of fast switching between ions and energies, and servicing multiple treatment rooms. Specialized techniques for shaping the dose to conform to irregularly-shaped target volumes, while simultaneously sparing surrounding, healthy tissue and critical structures, are employed in each treatment room, together with the sophisticated dosimetry necessary for verification, monitoring, and patient safety.

  5. The ion mobility spectrometer for high explosive vapor detection

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.J.; Stimac, R.M.; Wernlund, R.F.

    1984-07-01

    The Phemto-Chem /SUP R/ Model 100 Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) operates in air and measures a number of explosive vapors at levels as low as partsper-trillion in seconds. The theory and operation of this instrument is discussed. The IMS inhales the vapor sample in a current of air and generates characteristic ions which are separated by time-of -ion drift in the atmospheric pressure gas. Quantitative results, using a dilution tunnel and standard signal generator with TNT, nitroglycerine, ethylene glycol dinitrate, cyclohexanone, methylamine, octafluoronaphthalene and hexafluorobenzene, are given. Rapid sample treatment with sample concentrations, microprocessor signal readout and chemical identification, offer a realistic opportunity of rapid explosive vapor detection at levels down to 10/sup -14/ parts by volume in air.

  6. Dynamic multiplexed analysis method using ion mobility spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, Mikhail E

    2010-05-18

    A method for multiplexed analysis using ion mobility spectrometer in which the effectiveness and efficiency of the multiplexed method is optimized by automatically adjusting rates of passage of analyte materials through an IMS drift tube during operation of the system. This automatic adjustment is performed by the IMS instrument itself after determining the appropriate levels of adjustment according to the method of the present invention. In one example, the adjustment of the rates of passage for these materials is determined by quantifying the total number of analyte molecules delivered to the ion trap in a preselected period of time, comparing this number to the charge capacity of the ion trap, selecting a gate opening sequence; and implementing the selected gate opening sequence to obtain a preselected rate of analytes within said IMS drift tube.

  7. Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, W. J.

    1995-05-31

    This report describes an on-going research initiative for the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR): investigating the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy ions, i.e. collisions between massive nuclei which have been accelerated to kinetic energies so large that the rest mass of the ions is a negligible fraction of their total mass-energy. This progress report is being submitted in conjunction with a 3-year grant-renewal proposal, containing additional materials. Three main categories drive the UALRGultra-relativistic heavy ion research. (1) investigations of multi-particle Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) correlations in the CERN and RHIC energy domains strongly influence the URHI experimental effort, (2) participation in the NA49 Experiment to study 33 TeV (160 GeV/nucleon) Pb on Pb collisions using the SPS facili& at CERN, and (3) participation in the STAR collaboration which is developing a major detector for use with the STAR Experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), being built at BNL.

  8. Medium energy heavy ion operations at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.M.C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Brennan, M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Hulsart, R.; Ingrassia, P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Marr, G.; Mapes. M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.S.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; van Kuik, B.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    As part of the search for a phase transition or critical point on the QCD phase diagram, an energy scan including 5 different energy settings was performed during the 2010 RHIC heavy ion run. While the top beam energy for heavy ions is at 100 GeV/n and the lowest achieved energy setpoint was significantly below RHICs injection energy of approximately 10 GeV/n, we also provided beams for data taking in a medium energy range above injection energy and below top beam energy. This paper reviews RHIC experience and challenges for RHIC medium energy operations that produced full experimental data sets at beam energies of 31.2 GeV/n and 19.5 GeV/n. The medium energy AuAu run covered two beam energies, both above the RHIC injection energy of 9.8 GeV but well below the standard store energy of 100 GeV (see table 1). The low energy and full energy runs with heavy ions in FY10 are summarized in [1] and [2]. Stochastic Cooling ([3]) was only used for 100 GeV beams and not used in the medium energy run. The efficiency of the transition from 100 GeV operation to 31.2 GeV and then to 19.5 GeV was remarkable. Setup took 32 h and 19 h respectively for the two energy settings. The time in store, defined to be the percentage of time RHIC provides beams in physics conditions versus calendar time, was approximately 52% for the entire FY10 heavy ion run. In both medium energy runs it was well above this average, 68% for 31.5 GeV and 82% for 19.5 GeV. For both energies RHIC was filled with 111 bunches with 1.2 10{sup 9} and 1.3 10{sup 9} ions per bunch respectively.

  9. High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2005-02-15

    Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

  10. Mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Krasavin, E. A.; Kozubek, S.

    1994-10-01

    Various mutagenic effects by heavy ions were studied in bacteria, irradiated at accelerators in Dubna, Prague, Berkeley or Darmstadt. Endpoints investigated are histidine reversion (B. subtilis, S. typhimurium), azide resistance (B. subtilis), mutation in the lactose operon (E. coli), SOS chromotest (E. coli) and λ-prophage induction (E. coli). It was found that the cross sections of the different endpoints show a similar dependence on energy. For light ions (Z <= 4) the cross section decreases with increasing energy. For ions of Z = 10, it is nearly independent of energy. For heavier ions (Z >= 26) it increases with energy up to a maximum or saturation. The increment becomes steeper with increasing Z. This dependence on energy suggests a ``mutagenic belt'' inside the track that is restricted to an area where the density of departed energy is low enough not to kill the cell, but high enough to induce mutations.

  11. Calibrating the DARHT Electron Spectrometer with Negative Ions

    SciTech Connect

    R. Trainham , A. P. Tipton , and R. R. Bartech

    2005-11-01

    Negative ions of hydrogen and oxygen have been used to calibrate the DARHT electron spectrometer over the momentum range of 2 to 20 MeV/c. The calibration was performed on September 1, 3, and 8, 2004, and it is good to 0.5% absolute, provided that instrument alignment is carefully controlled. The momentum in MeV/c as a function of magnetic field (B in Gauss) and position in the detector plane (X in mm) is: P = (B-6.28)/(108.404-0.1935*X)

  12. Continuous time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Feldman, William C.

    2004-10-19

    A continuous time-of-flight mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating an electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the electric field. A source of continuous ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between arrival of a secondary electron out of said ionized atoms or molecules at a first predetermined location and arrival of a sample ion out of said ionized atoms or molecules at a second predetermined location.

  13. Chiral Magnetic Effect in Heavy Ion Collisions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liao, Jinfeng

    2016-12-01

    The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is a remarkable phenomenon that stems from highly nontrivial interplay of QCD chiral symmetry, axial anomaly, and gluonic topology. We show it is of fundamental importance to search for the CME in experiments. The heavy ion collisions provide a unique environment where a hot chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma is created, gluonic topological fluctuations generate chirality imbalance, and very strong magnetic fields |Β→|~m2π are present during the early stage of such collisions. Significant efforts have been made to look for CME signals in heavy ion collision experiments. Lastly, in this contribution we give a brief overview onmore » the status of such efforts.« less

  14. Viscous photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, Maxime; Paquet, Jean-François; Schenke, Björn; Young, Clint; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical studies of the production of real thermal photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are performed. The space-time evolution of the colliding system is modelled using music, a 3+1D relativistic hydrodynamic simulation, using both its ideal and viscous versions. The inclusive spectrum and its azimuthal angular anisotropy are studied separately, and the relative contributions of the different photon sources are highlighted. It is shown that the photon v2 coefficient is especially sensitive to the details of the microscopic dynamics like the equation of state, the ratio of shear viscosity over entropy density, η/s, and to the morphology of the initial state.

  15. Dynamical processes in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1988-07-25

    In this report I review the physical assumptions of the Boltzmann Master Equation (BME). Comparisons of the model with experimental neutron spectra gated on evaporation residues for a range of incident projectile energies and masses are presented; next, I compare n spectra gated on projectile-like fragments, followed by comparisons with ungated, inclusive proton spectra. I will then consider secondary effects from the nucleon-nucleon processes involved in the heavy ion relaxation processes, specifically the high energy ..gamma..-rays which have been observed at energies up to 140 MeV in collisions of heavy ions of 20/endash/84 MeV/..mu... Another secondary effect, subthreshold pion production, was covered in the XVII School and will not be repeated. 39 refs., 16 figs.

  16. Chamber propagation physics for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    Chamber transport is an important area of study for heavy ion fusion. Final focus and chamber-transport are high leverage areas providing opportunities to significantly decrease the cost of electricity from a heavy ion fusion power plant. Chamber transport in two basic regimes is under consideration. In the low chamber density regime ({approx_lt}0.003 torr), ballistic or nearly-ballistic transport is used. Partial beam neutralization has been studied to offset the effects of beam stripping. In the high chamber density regime ({approx_gt}.1 torr), two transport modes (pinched transport and channel transport) are under investigation. Both involve focusing the beam outside the chamber then transporting it at small radius ({approx} 2 mm). Both high chamber density modes relax the constraints on the beam quality needed from the accelerator which will reduce the driver cost and the cost of electricity.

  17. Chromosomal instability induced by heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limoli, C. L.; Ponnaiya, B.; Corcoran, J. J.; Giedzinski, E.; Morgan, W. F.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish the dose-response relationship for the induction of chromosomal instability in GM10115 cells exposed to high-energy iron ions (1 GeV/nucleon, mean LET 146 keV/microm) and gold ions (11 GeV/nucleon, mean LET 1450 keV/microm). Past work has established that sparsely ionizing X-rays can induce a long-lived destabilization of chromosomes in a dose-dependent manner at an incidence of approximately 3% per gray. The present investigation assesses the capacity of High-Z and High-energy (HZE) particles to elicit this same endpoint. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clonal populations derived from single progenitor cells surviving heavy-ion irradiation were analyzed cytogenetically to identify those clones showing a persistent destablization of chromosomes. RESULTS: Dose-response data, with a particular emphasis at low dose (< 1.0 Gy), indicate a frequency of approximately 4% per gray for the induction of chromosomal instability in clones derived from single progenitor cells surviving exposure to iron ions. The induction of chromosomal instability by gold ions was, however, less responsive to applied dose, as the observed incidence of this phenotype varied from 0 to 10% over 1-8 Gy. Both iron and gold ions gave dose-dependent increases in the yield of chromosomal aberrations (both chromosome- and chromatid-type) measured at the first mitosis following irradiation, as well as shoulderless survival curves having D0=0.87 and 1.1 Gy respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present dose-response data, the relative biological effectiveness of iron ions is 1.3 for the induction of chromosomal instability, and this indicates that heavy ions are only slightly more efficient than X-rays at eliciting this delayed phenotype.

  18. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design of a Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RACK) to be constructed in the existing 3.8 km tunnel at Brookhaven has been developed. The collider has been designed to provide collisions of gold ions at six intersection points with a luminosity of about 5 /times/ 10/sup 26/cm/sup /minus/2/sec/sup /minus/1/ at an energy of 100 GeV/u in each beam. Collisions with different ion species, including protons, will be possible. The collider consists of two interlaced, but otherwise separate, superconducting magnet rings. The 9.7 m long dipoles will operate at 3.5 T. Their 8 cm aperture was determined by the dimensions of gold ion beams taking into account diffusion due to intrabeam scattering. Heavy ion beams will be available from the Tandem Van de Graaff/Booster/AGS complex. The salient design features and the reasons for major design choices of the proposed machine are discussed in this paper. 24 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Faster Heavy Ion Transport for HZETRN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, Tony C.

    2013-01-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN was developed to enable fast and accurate space radiation transport through materials. As more complex transport solutions are implemented for neutrons, light ions (Z < 2), mesons, and leptons, it is important to maintain overall computational efficiency. In this work, the heavy ion (Z > 2) transport algorithm in HZETRN is reviewed, and a simple modification is shown to provide an approximate 5x decrease in execution time for galactic cosmic ray transport. Convergence tests and other comparisons are carried out to verify that numerical accuracy is maintained in the new algorithm.

  20. Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility: Users handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Auble, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this handbook is to provide information for those who plan to carry out research programs at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The accelerator systems and experimental apparatus available are described. The mechanism for obtaining accelerator time and the responsibilities of those users who are granted accelerator time are described. The names and phone numbers of ORNL personnel to call for information about specific areas are given. (LEW)

  1. Heavy ion fusion 2 MV injector

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1995-04-01

    A heavy-ion-fusion driver-scale injector has been constructed and operated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The injector has produced 2.3 MV and 950 mA of K{sup +}, 15% above original design goals in energy and current. Normalized edge emittance of less than 1 {pi} mm-mr was measured over a broad range of parameters. The head-to-tail energy flatness is less than {+-} 0.2% over the 1 {micro}s pulse.

  2. Femtoscopy in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa, M; Pratt, S; Soltz, R A; Wiedemann, U

    2005-07-29

    Analyses of two-particle correlations have provided the chief means for determining spatio-temporal characteristics of relativistic heavy ion collisions. We discuss the theoretical formalism behind these studies and the experimental methods used in carrying them out. Recent results from RHIC are put into context in a systematic review of correlation measurements performed over the past two decades. The current understanding of these results are discussed in terms of model comparisons and overall trends.

  3. Heavy ion fragmentation experiments at the bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1976-01-01

    Collaborative research efforts to study the fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using heavy ion beams of the Bevatron/Bevalac are described. The goal of the program is to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Effects were also made to: (a) study processes of heavy nuclei in matter, (b) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (c) test the applicability of high energy multiparticle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (d) apply the cross section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (e) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross-sections.

  4. Progress in Heavy Ion Fusion Research*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celata, Christine

    2002-11-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program has recently transitioned from small scaled experiments to experiments with driver-scale currents at low energy. Two new experiments are in operation, the High Current Experiment (HCX), and the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX). The space charge in these experiments is similar to that of a driver, and enables investigation of the interaction of the beam with electrons, both those produced by beam halo scraping surfaces, and also electrons intentionally introduced to assist a neutralized focus. Other HIF-VNL experiments are being used to investigate a new approach to beam injectors. At the University of Maryland, an electron ring is being used to explore transport issues of interest. The design of all of these experiments, their goals, and recent experimental results and computer simulation, will be described. Future programmatic plans for Heavy Ion Fusion will also be discussed, including the scientific objectives and physics design of a proposed new next-step proof-of-principle experiment for Heavy Ion Fusion, the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). This experiment would constitute an integrated source-to-target test of beam dynamics using a driver-scale beam. Many beam manipulations, such as drift compression (integrated with final focus and subsequent neutralization), long-length-scale transport, longitudinal wave dynamics, and bending of space-charge-dominated beams would be tested at scale for the first time in this experiment. Finally, the programmatic importance, parameters, and scientific mission of a proof-of-performance experiment, the Integrated Research Experiment, will be discussed.

  5. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P; Covo, Kireeff M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.; Prost, L.

    2004-11-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  6. Heavy ion driven LMF design concept. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.

    1995-07-01

    From 1988 to 1991, the US Department of Energy conducted a study of the requirements, designs and costs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The primary purpose of the LMF would be testing of weapons physics and effects simulation using the output from microexplosions of inertial fusion targets. It does not need a high repetition rate, efficient driver system as required by an electrical generating plant; however there would be so many features in common that the design, construction and operation of an LMF would considerably advance the application of inertial confinement fusion to energy production. The DOE study concentrated particularly on the LMF driver, with design and component development undertaken at several national laboratories. Heavy Ions, although considered a possible LMF driver, did not receive attention until the final stages of this study since its program management was through the Office of Energy Research rather than Defense Programs. However, during preparation of the summary report for the study it was decided that an account of heavy ions was needed for a complete survey of the driver candidates. The conceptual heavy ion LMF driver design created for the DOE report did not receive the level of scrutiny of the other driver concepts and, unlike the others, no cost analysis by an independent contractor was performed.

  7. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.

    2005-06-23

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  8. Heavy Ion Irradiation Effects in Zirconium Nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Egeland, G.W.; Bond, G.M.; Valdez, J.A.; Swadener, J.G.; McClellan, K.J.; Maloy, S.A.; Sickafus, K.E.; Oliver, B.

    2004-07-01

    Polycrystalline zirconium nitride (ZrN) samples were irradiated with He{sup +}, Kr{sup ++}, and Xe{sup ++} ions to high (>1.10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}) fluences at {approx}100 K. Following ion irradiation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) were used to analyze the microstructure and crystal structure of the post-irradiated material. For ion doses equivalent to approximately 200 displacements per atom (dpa), ZrN was found to resist any amorphization transformation, based on TEM observations. At very high displacement damage doses, GIXRD measurements revealed tetragonal splitting of some of the diffraction maxima (maxima which are associated with cubic ZrN prior to irradiation). In addition to TEM and GIXRD, mechanical property changes were characterized using nano-indentation. Nano-indentation revealed no change in elastic modulus of ZrN with increasing ion dose, while the hardness of the irradiated ZrN was found to increase significantly with ion dose. Finally, He{sup +} ion implanted ZrN samples were annealed to examine He gas retention properties of ZrN as a function of annealing temperature. He gas release was measured using a residual gas analysis (RGA) spectrometer. RGA measurements were performed on He-implanted ZrN samples and on ZrN samples that had also been irradiated with Xe{sup ++} ions, in order to introduce high levels of displacive radiation damage into the matrix. He evolution studies revealed that ZrN samples with high levels of displacement damage due to Xe implantation, show a lower temperature threshold for He release than do pristine ZrN samples. (authors)

  9. Genetic effects on heavy ions in drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kale, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal mutation test was used to study the dose response relation and relative biological effectiveness of heavy ions. The experiments were performed using the heavy ion beams at BEVALAC of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. These experiments were undertaken according to the proposed milestones and included Ne-20, A-40 and Fe-65 ions with respective energies of 600 MeV, 840 MeV and 850 MeV. At these energies several doses of these radiations ranging from 20 to 1280 R were used. Space radiation exposure to astronauts is supposed to be quite low and therefore very low dose experiments i.e., 20 R, were also performed for the three ions. The mutation response was measured in all germ cell types i.e., spermatozoa, spermatids, spermatocytes and spermatogonia of treated Drosophila males. A linear dose frequency relation was observed for most of the range except at high doses where the saturation effect was observed. Also, a very significant difference was observed among the sensitivity of the four germ cell stages where spermatozoa and spermatids were more sensitive. At the higher doses of this range, most of the spermatogonia and spermatocytes were killed. Although comparative and identical experiments with X-rays or neutrons have not been performed, the compassion of our data with the ones available in literature suggest that the heavy ions have a high rbe and that they are several times more effective than low LET X-rays. The rbe compared to neutrons however appears to be only slightly higher.

  10. High-resolution mass spectrometer for liquid metal ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wortmann, Martin; Ludwig, Arne; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D.; Meijer, Jan

    2013-09-15

    Recently, a mass spectrometer for liquid metal ion sources (LMIS) has been built and set into operation. This device uses an E×B-filter as mass dispersive element and provides sufficient resolution to analyse the emission of clusters from LMIS to much higher mass ranges (>2000 amu) than commercially available mass filters for focused ion beam systems. It has also been shown that for small masses the composition of clusters from different isotopes can be resolved. Furthermore, a rather high fluence of monodisperse clusters in the range of 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} clusters/s can be achieved with this setup. This makes it a promising tool for the preparation of mass selected clusters. In this contribution, theoretical considerations as well as technical details and the results of first measurements are presented.

  11. High-resolution mass spectrometer for liquid metal ion sources.

    PubMed

    Wortmann, Martin; Ludwig, Arne; Meijer, Jan; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D

    2013-09-01

    Recently, a mass spectrometer for liquid metal ion sources (LMIS) has been built and set into operation. This device uses an E × B-filter as mass dispersive element and provides sufficient resolution to analyse the emission of clusters from LMIS to much higher mass ranges (>2000 amu) than commercially available mass filters for focused ion beam systems. It has also been shown that for small masses the composition of clusters from different isotopes can be resolved. Furthermore, a rather high fluence of monodisperse clusters in the range of 10(6)-10(7) clusters/s can be achieved with this setup. This makes it a promising tool for the preparation of mass selected clusters. In this contribution, theoretical considerations as well as technical details and the results of first measurements are presented.

  12. Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) Results from Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravens, T. E.; Waite, J. H.; Niemann, H.; Yelle, R. V.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; McNutt, R. L.; Ip, W.; Gell, D.; de La Haye, V.; Müller-Wordag, I.; Ledvina, S. L.; Robertson, I. P.; Borggren, N.

    2005-05-01

    The Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) onboard the Cassini Orbiter measured the neutral composition and structure of the upper atmosphere of Titan during the first flyby (Ta) of this satellite. The INMS detected N2, CH4, and H2, the noble gas argon, and a host of more complex hydrocarbon and nitrile species. INMS also made neutral measurements during the Tb flyby. During the T5 Titan flyby, which took place in April 2005, the INMS measured both the neutral and the ion composition of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. These measurements will be summarized in this talk. The implications of these measurements for our current understanding of the photochemistry, dynamics, and energetics of Titan's upper atmosphere and ionosphere will also be discussed.

  13. Heavy ion observations by MARIE in cruise phase and Marsorbit

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kerry T.; Cleghorn, Timothy F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Pinsky, Lawrence S.; Zeitlin, Cary

    2004-12-01

    The charged particle spectrum for nuclei from protons to neon, (charge Z = 10) was observed during the cruise phase and orbit around Mars by the MARIE charged particle spectrometer on the Odyssey spacecraft. The cruise data were taken between April 23, 2001 and mid-August 2001. The Mars orbit data were taken March 5, 2002 through May 2002 and are scheduled to continue until August 2004. Charge peaks are clearly separated for charges up to Z = 10. Especially prominent are the carbon and oxygen peaks, with boron and nitrogen also clearly visible. Although heavy ions are much less abundant than protons in the cosmic ray environment, it is important to determine their abundances because their ionization energy losses (proportional to Z2) are far more dangerous to humans and to instruments. Thus the higher charged nuclei make a significant contribution to dose and dose equivalent received in space. Results of the charged particle spectrum measurements will be reported.

  14. The effective temperature of ions stored in a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Donald, William A; Khairallah, George N; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2013-06-01

    The extent of internal energy deposition into ions upon storage, radial ejection, and detection using a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer is investigated as a function of ion size (m/z 59 to 810) using seven ion-molecule thermometer reactions that have well characterized reaction entropies and enthalpies. The average effective temperatures of the reactants and products of the ion-molecule reactions, which were obtained from ion-molecule equilibrium measurements, range from 295 to 350 K and do not depend significantly on the number of trapped ions, m/z value, ion trap q z value, reaction enthalpy/entropy, or the number of vibrational degrees of freedom for the seven reactions investigated. The average of the effective temperature values obtained for all seven thermometer reactions is 318 ± 23 K, which indicates that linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometers can be used to study the structure(s) and reactivity of ions at near ambient temperature.

  15. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2015-01-19

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry provides unparalleled mass accuracy and resolving power.[1],[2] With electrospray ionization (ESI), ions are typically transferred into the mass spectrometer through a skimmer, which serves as a conductance-limiting orifice. However, the skimmer allows only a small fraction of incoming ions to enter the mass spectrometer. An ion funnel, originally developed by Smith and coworkers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)[3-5] provides much more efficient ion focusing and transfer. The large entrance aperture of the ion funnel allows almost all ions emanating from a heated capillary to be efficiently captured and transferred, resulting inmore » nearly lossless transmission.« less

  16. Composition Of The Inner Source Measured With The Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer On Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.; Geiss, J.

    2010-03-25

    To explain the unexpected discovery of C{sup +}, the existence of an inner source of pickup ions close to the Sun was proposed. We report on detailed analyses of the composition and the radial and latitudinal variations of inner source pickup ions measured with the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on Ulysses from 1991 to 1998, approaching and during solar minimum. We find that the C{sup +} intensity drops off with radial distance R as R{sup -1.53}, peaks at mid latitudes and drops to its lowest value in the ecliptic. In addition to C{sup +}, N{sup +}, O{sup +}, Ne{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Mg{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, S{sup +}, K{sup +}, CH{sup +}, NH{sup +}, OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, MgH{sup +}, HCN{sup +}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}{sup +}, SO{sup +} and many other heavy ions and molecular ions are observed. Possible causes for the unexpected latitudinal variations and the neutral source(s) producing the inner source pickup ions are discussed.

  17. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E; Kaiser, Nathan K; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Norheim, Randolph V; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Marshall, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Enhancements to the ion source and transfer optics of our 9.4 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometer have resulted in improved ion transmission efficiency for more sensitive mass measurement of complex mixtures at the MS and MS/MS levels. The tube lens/skimmer has been replaced by a dual ion funnel and the following octopole by a quadrupole for reduced ion cloud radial expansion before transmission into a mass-selective quadrupole. The number of ions that reach the ICR cell is increased by an order of magnitude for the funnel/quadrupole relative to the tube lens/skimmer/octopole.

  18. HISTRAP proposal: heavy ion storage ring for atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Dowling, D.T.; Haynes, D.L.; Hudson, E.D.; Johnson, J.W.; Lee, I.Y.; Lord, R.S.

    1986-11-01

    HISTRAP, Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics, is a proposed 46.8-m-circumference synchrotron-cooling-storage ring optimized to accelerate, decelerate, and store beams of highly charged very-heavy ions at energies appropriate for advanced atomic physics research. The ring is designed to allow studies of electron-ion, photon-ion, ion-atom, and ion-ion interactions. An electron cooling system will provide ion beams with small angular divergence and energy spread for precision spectroscopic studies and also is necessary to allow the deceleration of heavy ions to low energies. HISTRAP will have a maximum bending power of 2.0 Tm and will be injected with ions from either the existing Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility 25-MV tandem accelerator or from a dedicated ECR source and 250 keV/nucleon RFQ linac.

  19. SCAPS, a two-dimensional ion detector for mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2014-05-01

    Faraday Cup (FC) and electron multiplier (EM) are of the most popular ion detector for mass spectrometer. FC is used for high-count-rate ion measurements and EM can detect from single ion. However, FC is difficult to detect lower intensities less than kilo-cps, and EM loses ion counts higher than Mega-cps. Thus, FC and EM are used complementary each other, but they both belong to zero-dimensional detector. On the other hand, micro channel plate (MCP) is a popular ion signal amplifier with two-dimensional capability, but additional detection system must be attached to detect the amplified signals. Two-dimensional readout for the MCP signals, however, have not achieve the level of FC and EM systems. A stacked CMOS active pixel sensor (SCAPS) has been developed to detect two-dimensional ion variations for a spatial area using semiconductor technology [1-8]. The SCAPS is an integrated type multi-detector, which is different from EM and FC, and is composed of more than 500×500 pixels (micro-detectors) for imaging of cm-area with a pixel of less than 20 µm in square. The SCAPS can be detected from single ion to 100 kilo-count ions per one pixel. Thus, SCAPS can be accumulated up to several giga-count ions for total pixels, i.e. for total imaging area. The SCAPS has been applied to stigmatic ion optics of secondary ion mass spectrometer, as a detector of isotope microscope [9]. The isotope microscope has capabilities of quantitative isotope images of hundred-micrometer area on a sample with sub-micrometer resolution and permil precision, and of two-dimensional mass spectrum on cm-scale of mass dispersion plane of a sector magnet with ten-micrometer resolution. The performance has been applied to two-dimensional isotope spatial distribution for mainly hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen of natural (extra-terrestrial and terrestrial) samples and samples simulated natural processes [e.g. 10-17]. References: [1] Matsumoto, K., et al. (1993) IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 40

  20. Identifying Multiquark Hadrons from Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Sungtae; Furumoto, Takenori; Yazaki, Koichi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Jido, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Akira; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Nielsen, Marina; Sekihara, Takayasu; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2011-05-27

    Identifying hadronic molecular states and/or hadrons with multiquark components either with or without exotic quantum numbers is a long-standing challenge in hadronic physics. We suggest that studying the production of these hadrons in relativistic heavy ion collisions offers a promising resolution to this problem as yields of exotic hadrons are expected to be strongly affected by their structures. Using the coalescence model for hadron production, we find that, compared to the case of a nonexotic hadron with normal quark numbers, the yield of an exotic hadron is typically an order of magnitude smaller when it is a compact multiquark state and a factor of 2 or more larger when it is a loosely bound hadronic molecule. We further find that some of the newly proposed heavy exotic states could be produced and realistically measured in these experiments.

  1. Pickup ions at Dione and Enceladus: Cassini Plasma Spectrometer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, Ed C.; Johnson, R. E.; Jurac, S.; Richardson, J. D.; McGrath, M.; Crary, F.; Young, D. T.; Nordholt, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Voyager images of the icy satellites of Saturn, Dione and Enceladus, suggest that they may have been geologically active and are not only composed of ice. Recent observations by the Hubble Space Telescope have shown the presence of ozone at both Dione and Rhea, which also implies the presence of molecular oxygen at these bodies. Observations of Ariel, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto indicate the presence of CO2, so its presence on the Saturnian satellites is also expected. The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) will provide the capability to determine the global composition of these bodies by measuring the pickup ions produced by the ionization of their sputter-produced atmospheres. We will present a model of these atmospheres and associated pickup ions and demonstrate CAPS ability to distinguish the freshly produced picked up ions from the ambient plasma. Such ions are expected to form a ring distribution that will have a uniquely different energy-angle dependence than the ambient plasma ions. In the case of Dione we expect the potential for a moderate strength interaction for which both Voyager 1 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft measured ion cyclotron waves centered on the Dione L shell and near the equatorial plane. SKR radio emissions also displayed emissions occurring at the orbital period of Dione which could indicate some intrinsic activity due to Dione. So again, something interesting may be going on at Dione. Since Enceladus, or material in orbit near Enceladus, may be the source of the E-ring, some surprises may be encountered during its close encounter with the Cassini spacecraft. In the case of Dione we will show that a wake pass at 500 km altitude is more than an order of magnitude better than an upstream pass at 500 km altitude. Pickup ion detection for minor ion species such as NH3+ is possible for 500 km altitude wake pass but not for ≈500 km altitude upstream pass at closest approach. For navigation reasons a 100 km pass is not allowed. Therefore it is

  2. Heavy Ion Radiation Effects Studies With Ion Photon Emission Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Branson, J. V.; Hattar, K.; Vizkelethy, G.; Powell, C. J.; Doyle, B. L.; Rossi, P.

    2011-06-01

    The development of a new radiation effects microscopy (REM) technique is crucial as emerging semiconductor technologies demonstrate smaller feature sizes and thicker back end of line (BEOL) layers. To penetrate these materials and still deposit sufficient energy into the device to induce single event effects, high energy heavy ions are required. Ion photon emission microscopy (IPEM) is a technique that utilizes coincident photons, which are emitted from the location of each ion impact to map out regions of radiation sensitivity in integrated circuits and devices, circumventing the obstacle of focusing high-energy heavy ions. Several versions of the IPEM have been developed and implemented at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). One such instrument has been utilized on the microbeam line of the 6 MV tandem accelerator at SNL. Another IPEM was designed for ex-vacu use at the 88'' cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Extensive engineering is involved in the development of these IPEM systems, including resolving issues with electronics, event timing, optics, phosphor selection, and mechanics. The various versions of the IPEM and the obstacles, as well as benefits associated with each will be presented. In addition, the current stage of IPEM development as a user instrument will be discussed in the context of recent results.

  3. Progress in understanding heavy-ion stopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, P.; Schinner, A.

    2016-09-01

    We report some highlights of our work with heavy-ion stopping in the energy range where Bethe stopping theory breaks down. Main tools are our binary stopping theory (PASS code), the reciprocity principle, and Paul's data base. Comparisons are made between PASS and three alternative theoretical schemes (CasP, HISTOP and SLPA). In addition to equilibrium stopping we discuss frozen-charge stopping, deviations from linear velocity dependence below the Bragg peak, application of the reciprocity principle in low-velocity stopping, modeling of equilibrium charges, and the significance of the so-called effective charge.

  4. Modular TPC's for relativistic heavy ion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Etkin, A.; Eiseman, S.E.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1989-02-10

    We have developed a TPC system for use in relativistic heavy ion experiments that permits the efficient reconstruction of high multiplicity events including events with decay vertices. It operates with the beam through the middle of the chamber giving good efficiency, two-track separation and spatial resolution. The three-dimensional points in this system allow the reconstruction of the complex events of interest. The use of specially developed hybrid electronics allows us to build a compact and cost-effective system. 11 figs.

  5. Thermodynamical Aspects in Heavy Ion Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, M.; Cannata, F.; D'Agostino, M.; de Sanctis, J.; Fabbri, S.; Fuschini, E.; Geraci, E.; Guiot, B.; Vannini, G.; Verondini, E.; Gulminelli, F.; Chomaz, Ph.; Casini, G.; Chiari, M.; Nannini, A.; Barlini, S.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V.; Lanchais, A.; Vannucci, L.; Moroni, A.; Ordine, A.; Abbondanno, U.; Margagliotti, G. V.

    2005-12-01

    The excited nuclear systems formed in heavy ion collisions can be studied from a thermodynamical point of view. Charged finite systems have different behaviors with respect to infinite ones. After experimental selection of such equilibrated systems the extraction of thermodynamic coordinates is performed. Different signals compatible with a liquid-gas phase transition have been obtained. In particular a bimodal distribution of the asymmetry between the first two heaviest fragments is presented. Abnormally large fluctuations, which in thermodynamic equilibrium are associated to a negative branch of the heat capacity give indications of a first order phase transition. Perspectives for new generation experiments are indicated.

  6. Jet reconstruction in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciari, Matteo; Rojo, Juan; Salam, Gavin P.; Soyez, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    We examine the problem of jet reconstruction at heavy-ion colliders using jet-area-based background subtraction tools as provided by FastJet. We use Monte Carlo simulations with and without quenching to study the performance of several jet algorithms, including the option of filtering, under conditions corresponding to RHIC and LHC collisions. We find that most standard algorithms perform well, though the anti- k t and filtered Cambridge/Aachen algorithms have clear advantages in terms of the reconstructed p t offset and dispersion.

  7. Vorticity in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wei-Tian; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-06-01

    We study the event-by-event generation of flow vorticity in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Au +Au collisions and CERN Large Hadron Collider Pb +Pb collisions by using the hijing model. Different definitions of the vorticity field and velocity field are considered. A variety of properties of the vorticity are explored, including the impact parameter dependence, the collision energy dependence, the spatial distribution, the event-by-event fluctuation of the magnitude and azimuthal direction, and the time evolution. In addition, the spatial distribution of the flow helicity is also studied.

  8. Non abelian hydrodynamics and heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetta, E.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC) program is to create a state of matter where color degrees of freedom are deconfined. The dynamics of matter in this state, in spite of the complexities of quantum chromodynamics, is largely determined by the conservation laws of energy momentum and color currents. Therefore it is possible to describe its main features in hydrodynamic terms, the very short color neutralization time notwithstanding. In this lecture we shall give a simple derivation of the hydrodynamics of a color charged fluid, by generalizing the usual derivation of hydrodynamics from kinetic theory to the non abelian case.

  9. The heavy ions in space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Beahm, L. P.; Stiller, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Heavy Ions in Space (HIIS) experiment was developed and is currently in orbit onboard the long duration facility (LDEF). The HIIS will record relativistic cosmic ray nuclei heavier than magnesium and stopping nuclei down to helium. The experiment uses plastic track detectors that have a charge resolution of 0.15 charge units at krypton and 0.10 charge units, or better, for nuclei lighter than cobalt. The HIIS has a collecting power of 2 square meter steradians and it has already collected more than a year's data.

  10. Economic aspects of heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    The usual parameter space for examining scenarios for heavy ion fusion power plants has generally been based on large, slow cycling, reactor chambers which are only marginally different from chambers proposed for laser drivers. This paper will examine the economic implications of assuming that an inexpensive, low gain pellet is available and that a suitable high-repetition rate reactor has been devised. Interesting scenarios are found that generate economically feasible power from a system with a minimum net capacity of approx. 1 GWe compared to the larger approx. 4 GWe required in previous studies.

  11. Non abelian hydrodynamics and heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Calzetta, E.

    2014-01-14

    The goal of the relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC) program is to create a state of matter where color degrees of freedom are deconfined. The dynamics of matter in this state, in spite of the complexities of quantum chromodynamics, is largely determined by the conservation laws of energy momentum and color currents. Therefore it is possible to describe its main features in hydrodynamic terms, the very short color neutralization time notwithstanding. In this lecture we shall give a simple derivation of the hydrodynamics of a color charged fluid, by generalizing the usual derivation of hydrodynamics from kinetic theory to the non abelian case.

  12. Method for selective detection of explosives in mass spectrometer or ion mobility spectrometer at parts-per-quadrillion level

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Clowers, Brian H.

    2015-09-01

    A method for selective detection of volatile and non-volatile explosives in a mass spectrometer or ion mobility spectrometer at a parts-per-quadrillion level without preconcentration is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of ionizing a carrier gas with an ionization source to form reactant ions or reactant adduct ions comprising nitrate ions (NO.sub.3.sup.-); selectively reacting the reactant ions or reactant adduct ions with at least one volatile or non-volatile explosive analyte at a carrier gas pressure of at least about 100 Ton in a reaction region disposed between the ionization source and an ion detector, the reaction region having a length which provides a residence time (tr) for reactant ions therein of at least about 0.10 seconds, wherein the selective reaction yields product ions comprising reactant ions or reactant adduct ions that are selectively bound to the at least one explosive analyte when present therein; and detecting product ions with the ion detector to determine presence or absence of the at least one explosive analyte.

  13. A compact high resolution electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Reinecke, T; Kirk, A T; Ahrens, A; Raddatz, C-R; Thoben, C; Zimmermann, S

    2016-04-01

    Electrospray is a commonly used ionization method for the analysis of liquids. An electrospray is a dispersed nebular of charged droplets produced under the influence of a strong electrical field. Subsequently, ions are produced in a complex process initiated by evaporation of neutral solvent molecules from these droplets. We coupled an electrospray ionization source to our previously described high resolution ion mobility spectrometer with 75 mm drift tube length and a drift voltage of 5 kV. When using a tritium source for chemical gas phase ionization, a resolving power of R=100 was reported for this setup. We replaced the tritium source and the field switching shutter by an electrospray needle, a desolvation region with variable length and a three-grid shutter for injecting ions into the drift region. Preliminary measurements with tetraalkylammonium halides show that the current configuration with the electrospray ionization source maintains the resolving power of R=100. In this work, we present the characterization of our setup. One major advantage of our setup is that the desolvation region can be heated separately from the drift region so that the temperature in the drift region stays at room temperature even up to desolvation region temperatures of 100 °C. We perform parametric studies for the investigation of the influence of temperature on solvent evaporation with different ratios of water and methanol in the solvent for different analyte substances. Furthermore, the setup is operated in negative mode and spectra of bentazon with different solvents are presented.

  14. Heavy-ion radiolysis of cyclooctane

    SciTech Connect

    LaVerne, J.A.; Wojnarovits, L.

    1995-06-15

    The major products produced in radiolysis of cyclooctane with 1-15 MeV protons, 10-30 MeV carbon ions, and 20-30 MeV oxygen ions were investigated in the absence and presence of iodine radical scavenger and compared with the {gamma} and 5-20 MeV helium ion radiolysis published in a previous work. While almost 70% of the cyclooctyl radicals survive until a few microseconds in {gamma}-radiolysis, the yields with carbon ions and oxygen ions are about an order of magnitude lower. It appears that all of the hydrogen atoms produced in {gamma}-radiolysis react by hydrogen atom abstraction from the medium molecules, whereas in the heavy-ion tracks enhanced intratrack reactions eliminate most of the hydrogen atoms before such reactions can occur to any significant extent. The yield of products derived from the excited singlet state steadily decreases with the linear energy transfer (LET), and in carbon and oxygen ion radiolysis its yield is less than 20% of that found in {gamma}-radiolysis. Product formation through radical mechanisms first slightly increases with particle LET until about 50 eV/nm, and then the total yields of all products decrease to half of that found in {gamma}-radiolysis. Much of the change in product yields with increasing LET can be explained by a radical mechanism, but it also appears that there is a change in initial radical formation due to a shift toward an increased probability of triplet excited-state formation over that of singlet excited states. 27 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Theoretical overview: Light ion lessons, heavy ion hopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, S.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments using light ion beams of atomic masses A [approximately] 30 have been underway since 1986 at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS at the respective energies [radical]s [approximately] 5 A GeV and 20 A GeV. The first truly heavy ion runs with a gold beam began this spring at the AGS. In this talk I will survey our progress towards an understanding of nuclear collision dynamics, focusing on those issues that are relevant to Au+Au at the AGS. In view of what we have already learned from the light ion data, I will argue that the prospects for producing matter at extreme density in these experiments are excellent.

  16. Theoretical overview: Light ion lessons, heavy ion hopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, S.

    1992-12-31

    Experiments using light ion beams of atomic masses A {approximately} 30 have been underway since 1986 at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS at the respective energies {radical}s {approximately} 5 A GeV and 20 A GeV. The first truly heavy ion runs with a gold beam began this spring at the AGS. In this talk I will survey our progress towards an understanding of nuclear collision dynamics, focusing on those issues that are relevant to Au+Au at the AGS. In view of what we have already learned from the light ion data, I will argue that the prospects for producing matter at extreme density in these experiments are excellent.

  17. Fast Monitoring Soil Environmental Qualities of Heavy Metal by Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao; Yu, Jian-xin; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wen-you; Chang, Qing

    2015-06-01

    Portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometer as a new type of equipment for quick test has a prominent prospect, but there are also shortcomings of detection range and limition, therefore this paper studied the suitability of PXRF spectrometer in monitoring soil environmental qualities of heavy metals included Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As and Hg, the aim of this paper is to screen elements which can be detected by this kind of instrument and evaluate the accuracy of test results. The research method is to test heavy metals contaminated soil samples by PXRF spectrometer, evaluate the accuracy of test results of PXRF compared with inductively coupled plasma mass(ICP-MS), then establish linear regression relationship between analysis results of PXRF and ICP-MS method. The results show that, (1) When measuring the soil environmental quality, PXRF spectrometer is appropriate to measure the content of Pb, Zn, Cr and Cu, except Ni, Cd, As and Hg. (2) Compared with the test value of ICP-MS, the test value of Pb and Zn is lower, the test value of Cu is higher, the test value of Cr is too high, all the results of PXRF spectrometer should be linear corrected according to standard analysis method. In conclusion, PXRF spectrometer is suitable for monitoring environmental quality of soil which is polluted by heavy metal such as Pb, Zn, Cr and Cu, it is an analysis means with characteristics of simple and rapid, accurate and reliable. The innovation of this article is that reasonable avoiding the shortcomings of PXRF spectrometer as using the instrument to monitor soil environmental quality, at last improved the application value of test results.

  18. Fluorescence Imaging for Visualization of the Ion Cloud in a Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, Francis O.; Sciuto, Stephen V.; Jockusch, Rebecca A.

    2013-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is used to visualize populations of gaseous ions stored in a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometer. Presented images include the first fluorescence image of molecular ions collected under conditions typically used in mass spectrometry experiments. Under these "normal" mass spectrometry conditions, the radial ( r) and axial ( z) full-width at half maxima (FWHM) of the detected ion cloud are 615 and 214 μm, respectively, corresponding to ~6 % of r 0 and ~3 % of z 0 for the QIT used. The effects on the shape and size of the ion cloud caused by varying the pressure of helium bath gas, the number of trapped ions, and the Mathieu parameter q z are visualized and discussed. When a "tickle voltage" is applied to the exit end-cap electrode, as is done in collisionally activated dissociation, a significant elongation in the axial, but not the radial, dimension of the ion cloud is apparent. Finally, using spectroscopically distinguishable fluorophores of two different m/ z values, images are presented that illustrate stratification of the ion cloud; ions of lower m/ z (higher q z ) are located in the center of the trapping region, effectively excluding higher m/ z (lower q z ) ions, which form a surrounding layer. Fluorescence images such as those presented here provide a useful reference for better understanding the collective behavior of ions in radio frequency (rf) trapping devices and how phenomena such as collisions and space-charge affect ion distribution.

  19. Ion Mass Spectrometer for Sporadic-E Rocket Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heelis, R. A.; Earle, G. D.; Pfaff, Robert

    2000-01-01

    NASA grant NAG5-5086 provided funding for the William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences at the University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) to design, fabricate, calibrate, and ultimately fly two ion mass spectrometer instruments on a pair of sounding rocket payloads. Drs. R.A. Heelis and G.D. Earle from UTD were co-investigators on the project. The principal investigator for both rocket experiments was Dr. Robert Pfaff of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The overall project title was "Rocket/Radar Investigation of Lower Ionospheric Electrodynamics Associated with Intense Mid-Latitude Sporadic-E Layers". This report describes the overall objectives of the project, summarizes the instrument design and flight experiment details, and presents representative data obtained during the flights.

  20. Improved Ion Optics for Introduction of Ions into a 9.4 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancements to the ion source and transfer optics of our 9.4 T FT-ICR mass spectrometer have resulted in improved ion transmission efficiency for more sensitive mass measurement of complex mixtures at the MS and MS/MS levels. The tube lens/skimmer has been replaced by a dual ion funnel and the following octopole by a quadrupole for reduced ion cloud radial expansion before transmission into a mass-selective quadrupole. The number of ions that reach the ICR cell is increased by an order of magnitude for the funnel/quadrupole relative to the tube lens/skimmer/octopole. PMID:25601704

  1. Material Removes Heavy Metal Ions From Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W.; Hill, Carol; Savino, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    New high capacity ion-exchange polymer material removes toxic metal cations from contaminated water. Offers several advantages. High sensitivities for such heavy metals as lead, cadmium, and copper and capable of reducing concentrations in aqueous solutions to parts-per-billion range. Removes cations even when calcium present. Material made into variety of forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As result, adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water, usually hard wherever found, whether in wastewater-treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or homes. Another important feature that adsorbed metals easily reclaimed by either destructive or nondestructive process. Other tests show ion-exchange polymer made inexpensively; easy to use; strong, flexible, not easily torn; and chemically stable in storage, in aqueous solutions, and in acidic or basic solution.

  2. Focal-surface detector for heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, John R.; Braid, Thomas H.; Stoltzfus, Joseph C.

    1979-01-01

    A detector of the properties of individual charged particles in a beam includes a gridded ionization chamber, a cathode, a plurality of resistive-wire proportional counters, a plurality of anode sections, and means for controlling the composition and pressure of gas in the chamber. Signals generated in response to the passage of charged particles can be processed to identify the energy of the particles, their loss of energy per unit distance in an absorber, and their angle of incidence. In conjunction with a magnetic spectrograph, the signals can be used to identify particles and their state of charge. The detector is especially useful for analyzing beams of heavy ions, defined as ions of atomic mass greater than 10 atomic mass units.

  3. Heavy Ion Reaction Modeling for Hadrontherapy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Enghardt, W.; Gadioli, E.; Mairani, A.; Parodi, K.; Sommerer, F.

    2007-10-26

    A comprehensive and reliable description of nucleus-nucleus interactions represents a crucial need in different interdisciplinary fields. In particular, hadrontherapy monitoring by means of in-beam positron emission tomography (PET) requires, in addition to measuring, the capability of calculating the activity of {beta}{sup +}-decaying nuclei produced in the irradiated tissue. For this purpose, in view of treatment monitoring at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy (HIT) facility, the transport and interaction Monte Carlo code FLUKA is a promising candidate. It is provided with the description of heavy ion reactions at intermediate and low energies by two specific event generators. In-beam PET experiments performed at GSI for a few beam-target combinations have been simulated and first comparisons between the measured and calculated {beta}{sup +}-activity are available.

  4. Crystal blocking in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    del Campo, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The crystal blocking technique, used to measure very short lifetime (10/sup -18/ sec), was developed during the 1960's primarily in connection with the study of the channeling effect. Early blocking lifetime measurements involved light ion resonance reactions yielding typical lifetime values down to the order of 10/sup -17/ sec. Recently, studies of heavy-ion induced fission and fusion have extended the technique into the 10/sup -18/ to 10/sup -19/ sec scale. In this work measurements of fusion for /sup 16/O + Ge and deep inelastic reactions for /sup 28/Si + Ge are presented for bombarding energies around 8 nucleon. Also measurements of the projectile fragmenatation of 44 MeV/nucleon /sup 40/Ar + Ge are discussed. In all reactions studied the presence of particle evaporation is the dominant mechanism that determines the reaction times of about 10/sup -18/ sec extracted with the blocking technique. 16 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Differential Mobility Spectrometer with Spatial Ion Detector and Methods Related Thereto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Kanik, Isik (Inventor); Duong, Vu A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Differential mobility spectrometer with spatial ion detector and methods related thereto are disclosed. The use of one or more spatial detector within differential mobility spectrometry can provide for the identification and separation of ions with similar mobility and mass.

  6. Experimental atomic physics in heavy-ion storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S.; Andersen, L.H.; Briand, J.P.; Liesen, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines the discussion which took place at the ''round table'' on experimental atomic physics in heavy-ion storage rings. Areas of discussion are: electron-ion interactions, ion-ion collisions, precision spectroscopy of highly charged ions, beta decay into bound final states, and atomic binding energies from spectroscopy of conversion elections. 18 refs., 1 tab. (LSP)

  7. Bremsstrahlung from relativistic heavy ions in matter

    SciTech Connect

    Soerensen, Allan H.

    2010-02-15

    The emission of electromagnetic radiation by relativistic bare heavy ions penetrating ordinary matter is investigated. Our main aim is to determine the bremsstrahlung which we define as the radiation emitted when the projectile does not break up. It pertains to collisions without nuclear contact ('ultraperipheral collisions'). Requirement of coherent action of the nucleons in order to keep the penetrating projectile intact limits bremsstrahlung to relatively soft photons. The spectrum shows a resonance structure with peak position near 2{gamma} times the position of the giant dipole resonance, that is, near 25{gamma} MeV for a lead ion ({gamma}{identical_to}E/Mc{sup 2} is the Lorentz factor of the projectile of energy E and mass M). The maximum exceeds the bremsstrahlung from a hypothetical structureless, pointlike particle of the same charge and mass as the incoming nucleus, but rapid depletion follows on the high-energy side of the peak. As a result of its relative softness, bremsstrahlung never dominates the energy-loss process for heavy ions. As to the emission of electromagnetic radiation in collisions with nuclear break-up, it appears modest when pertaining to incoherent action of the projectile nucleons in noncontact collisions. In collisions with nuclear contact, though, substantial radiation is emitted. It overshoots the bremsstrahlung. However, despite the violence of contact events, the associated photon emission only exceeds the radiation from a hypothetical structureless pointlike nucleus [emitted energy per unit photon-energy interval essentially constant up to ({gamma}-1)Mc{sup 2}] at relatively low photon energies (for lead roughly below 0.2{gamma} GeV, a limit which is about an order of magnitude above the position of the bremsstrahlung peak). Results are presented for bare lead ions penetrating a solid lead target at energies of 158 GeV/n ({gamma}=170) and beyond.

  8. Bremsstrahlung from relativistic heavy ions in matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Allan H.

    2010-02-01

    The emission of electromagnetic radiation by relativistic bare heavy ions penetrating ordinary matter is investigated. Our main aim is to determine the bremsstrahlung which we define as the radiation emitted when the projectile does not break up. It pertains to collisions without nuclear contact (“ultraperipheral collisions”). Requirement of coherent action of the nucleons in order to keep the penetrating projectile intact limits bremsstrahlung to relatively soft photons. The spectrum shows a resonance structure with peak position near 2γ times the position of the giant dipole resonance, that is, near 25γ MeV for a lead ion (γ≡E/Mc2 is the Lorentz factor of the projectile of energy E and mass M). The maximum exceeds the bremsstrahlung from a hypothetical structureless, pointlike particle of the same charge and mass as the incoming nucleus, but rapid depletion follows on the high-energy side of the peak. As a result of its relative softness, bremsstrahlung never dominates the energy-loss process for heavy ions. As to the emission of electromagnetic radiation in collisions with nuclear break-up, it appears modest when pertaining to incoherent action of the projectile nucleons in noncontact collisions. In collisions with nuclear contact, though, substantial radiation is emitted. It overshoots the bremsstrahlung. However, despite the violence of contact events, the associated photon emission only exceeds the radiation from a hypothetical structureless pointlike nucleus [emitted energy per unit photon-energy interval essentially constant up to (γ-1)Mc2] at relatively low photon energies (for lead roughly below 0.2γ GeV, a limit which is about an order of magnitude above the position of the bremsstrahlung peak). Results are presented for bare lead ions penetrating a solid lead target at energies of 158 GeV/n (γ=170) and beyond.

  9. Heavy Ion Formation in Titan's Ionosphere: Magnetospheric Introduction of Free Oxygen and Source of Titan's Aerosols?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Johnson, R. E.; Coates, A.; dePater, imke; Strom, Daphne; Simoes, F.; Steele, A.; Robb, F.

    2007-01-01

    With the recent discovery of heavy ions, positive and negative, by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instrument in Titan's ionosphere, it reveals new possibilities for aerosol formation at Titan and the introduction of free oxygen to the aerosol chemistry from Saturn's magnetosphere with Enceladus as the primary oxygen source. One can estimate whether the heavy ions in the ionosphere are of sufficient number to account for all the aerosols, under what conditions are favorable for heavy ion formation and how they are introduced as seed particles deeper in Titan's atmosphere where the aerosols form and eventually find themselves on Titan's surface where unknown chemical processes can take place. Finally, what are the possibilities with regard to their chemistry on the surface with some free oxygen present in their seed particles?

  10. Quantum Electrodynamics Effects in Heavy Ions and Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Shabaev, V. M.; Andreev, O. V.; Bondarev, A. I.; Glazov, D. A.; Kozhedub, Y. S.; Maiorova, A. V.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Plunien, G.; Volotka, A. V.

    2011-05-11

    Quantum electrodynamics theory of heavy ions and atoms is considered. The current status of calculations of the binding energies, the hyperfine splitting and g factor values in heavy few-electron ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions are compared with available experimental data. A special attention is focused on tests of quantum electrodynamics in strong electromagnetic fields and on determination of the fundamental constants. Recent progress in calculations of the parity nonconservation effects with heavy atoms and ions is also reported.

  11. Local brain heavy ion irradiation induced Immunosuppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Runhong; Deng, Yulin; Huiyang Zhu, Bitlife.; Zhao, Tuo; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Yingqi; Ma, Hong; Wang, Xiao; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Qing, Hong

    Purpose: To investigate the long term effect of acute local brain heavy ion irradiation on the peripheral immune system in rat model. Methodology: Only the brain of adult male Wistar rats were radiated by heavy ions at the dose of 15 Gy. One, two and three months after irradiation, thymus and spleen were analyzed by four ways. Tunel assay was performed to evaluate the percentage of apoptotic cells in thymus and spleen, level of Inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, SSAO, and TNF-α) was detected by ELISA assay, the differentiation of thymus T lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry and the relative expression levels of genes related to thymus immune cell development were measured by using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Thymus and spleen showed significant atrophy from one month to three months after irradiation. A high level of apoptosis in thymus and spleen were obtained and the latter was more vulnerable, also, high level of inflammatory cytokines were found. Genes (c-kit, Rag1, Rag2 and Sca1) related to thymus lymphocytes’ development were down-regulated. Conclusion: Local area radiation in the rat brain would cause the immunosuppression, especially, the losing of cell-mediated immune functions. In this model, radiation caused inflammation and then induced apoptosis of cells in the immune organs, which contributed to immunosuppression.

  12. Heavy-ion physics with CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, R. R.; CMS Collaboration

    2007-08-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will collide protons at \\sqrt{s_NN} = 14 \\ TeV and lead ions at \\sqrt{s_NN} = 5.5 \\ TeV . The research program of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment includes a strong heavy-ion physics agenda, especially in the measurement of hard processes. The high centre-of-mass energies available at the LHC will allow high statistics studies of high-density QCD with hard probes: heavy quarks and quarkonia with an emphasis on the J/ψ and Upsilon, high-pT jets, direct photons as well as Z0 bosons. In addition to the detailed studies of hard probes, CMS will measure charged particle multiplicity and energy flow with respect to the reaction plane on an event-by-event basis. Studies of the CMS capabilities and physics reach for different high-density QCD observables, using the full detector simulation and reconstruction, are presented.

  13. Constraining relativistic models through heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Menezes, D. P.; Providencia, C.; Chiapparini, M.; Bracco, M. E.; Delfino, A.; Malheiro, M.

    2007-12-15

    Relativistic models can be successfully applied to the description of compact star properties in nuclear astrophysics as well as to nuclear matter and finite nuclei properties, these studies taking place at low and moderate temperatures. Nevertheless, all results are model dependent, and so far it is unclear whether some of them should be discarded. Moreover, in the regime of hot hadronic matter, very few calculations exist using these relativistic models, in particular when applied to particle yields in heavy ion collisions. A very important investigation is the simulation of a supernova explosion that is based on the construction of an adequate equation of state that needs to be valid within very large ranges of temperatures (0 to 100 MeV at least) and densities (very low to ten times the nuclear saturation density at least). In the present work, we comment on the known constraints that can help the selection of adequate models in this wide regime and investigate the main differences that arise when the particle production during a Au+Au collision at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider is calculated with different relativistic models. We conclude that most of the models investigated in the present work give a very good overall description of the data and make predictions for not yet measured particle ratios.

  14. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted.

  15. Robust target implosion in heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Shigeo; Iizuka, Yoshifumi; Kodera, Tomohiro; Ogoyski, Alexandar

    2008-11-01

    In heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF) a robust mode of target implosion is proposed to mitigate the beam illumination non-uniformity and the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability growth. In the HIF target implosion, key issues include uniformity of heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination, target implosion symmetry, compressed fuel ignition, reduction of the R-T instability growth, etc [1]. In the robust target in HIF, an oscillating implosion acceleration is employed to reduce the R-T instability growth, and a low-density foam layer is also inserted to enhance the radiation conversion efficiency from. The oscillating acceleration can be introduced by HIB axis oscillation, which can be easily realized in an actual accelerator final element. The oscillating acceleration introduces a new method of the R-T instability growth control. In the robust foam target, the radiation converted is confined and reduces the HIB illumination non-uniformity, though the HIBs illumination scheme is spherically symmetric and the target is also spherically symmetric. Therefore, the foam target irradiated by the oscillating HIBs can serve a robust direct-indirect hybrid mode of the symmetric target implosion in HIF. [1] Phys. of Plasmas, 12 (2005) 122702; NIMA, 577 (2007) 21.

  16. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  17. Hydrodynamic approaches in relativistic heavy ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derradi de Souza, R.; Koide, T.; Kodama, T.

    2016-01-01

    We review several facets of the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic heavy ion collisions, starting from the historical motivation to the present understandings of the observed collective aspects of experimental data, especially those of the most recent RHIC and LHC results. In this report, we particularly focus on the conceptual questions and the physical foundations of the validity of the hydrodynamic approach itself. We also discuss recent efforts to clarify some of the points in this direction, such as the various forms of derivations of relativistic hydrodynamics together with the limitations intrinsic to the traditional approaches, variational approaches, known analytic solutions for special cases, and several new theoretical developments. Throughout this review, we stress the role of course-graining procedure in the hydrodynamic description and discuss its relation to the physical observables through the analysis of a hydrodynamic mapping of a microscopic transport model. Several questions to be answered to clarify the physics of collective phenomena in the relativistic heavy ion collisions are pointed out.

  18. Miniature GC: Minicell ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for astrobiology planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Holland, Paul M.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    Astrobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of volatile chemical species and minerals present in the atmospheres and surfaces of planets, moons, and asteroids. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The use of land rovers and balloon aero-rovers place additional emphasis on miniaturization of the analytical instrumentation. In addition, smaller instruments, using tiny amounts of consumables, allow the use of more instrumentation and/or longer mission life for stationary landers/laboratories. We describe here the development of a miniature GC - Minicell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) under development through NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development (ASTID) Program and NASA's Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program.

  19. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, N.C.; Limbach, P.A.; Shomo, R.E. II; Marshall, A.G. ); Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E. )

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF{sup {minus}}{sub 6} fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H){sup +} ions) of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with {ital tetra}-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol{sup ( )} sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon{sup ( )}. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  20. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Nicholas C.; Limbach, Patrick A.; Shomo, Ronald E., II; Marshall, Alan G.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Delmore, James E.

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF-6 fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis [e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H)+ ions] of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with tetra-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol■ sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon■. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  1. UV photodissociation of trapped ions following ion mobility separation in a Q-ToF mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Bellina, Bruno; Brown, Jeffery M; Ujma, Jakub; Murray, Paul; Giles, Kevin; Morris, Michael; Compagnon, Isabelle; Barran, Perdita E

    2014-12-21

    An ion mobility mass spectrometer has been modified to allow optical interrogation of ions with different mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios and/or mobilities (K). An ion gating and trapping procedure has been developed which allows us to store ions for several seconds enabling UV photodissociation (UVPD).

  2. HISTRAP proposal: heavy ion storage ring for atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Dowling, D.T.; Haynes, D.L.; Hudson, E.D.; Johnson, J.W.; Lee, I.Y.; Lord, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    HISTRAP is a proposed synchrotron-cooling-storage ring optimized to accelerate, decelerate, and store beams of highly charged very-heavy ions at energies appropriate for advanced atomic physics research. The ring is designed to allow studies of electron-ion, photon-ion, ion-atom, and ion-ion interactions. An electron cooling system will provide ion beams with small angular divergence and energy spread for precision spectroscopic studies and also is necessary to allow the deceleration of heavy ions to low energies. HISTRAP will be injected with ions from either the existing Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility 25-MV tandem accelerator or from a dedicated ECR source and 250 keV/nucleon RFQ linac. The ring will have a maximum bending power of 2.0 T.m and have a circumference of 46.8 m.

  3. Mass spectra of heavy ions near comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korth, A.; Richter, A. K.; Loidl, A.; Anderson, K. A.; Carlson, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    The heavy-ion analyzer, RPA2-PICCA, aboard the Giotto spacecraft, detected the first cometary ions at a distance of about 1.05 million km from the nucleus of comet Halley. In the inner coma the major ions identified are associated with the H2O, CO and CO2 groups. Ions of larger atomic mass unit are also present, corresponding possibly to various hydrocarbons, heavy metals of the iron-group or to sulphur compounds.

  4. Heavy-ion-induced electronic desorption of gas from metals.

    PubMed

    Molvik, A W; Kollmus, H; Mahner, E; Covo, M Kireeff; Bellachioma, M C; Bender, M; Bieniosek, F M; Hedlund, E; Krämer, A; Kwan, J; Malyshev, O B; Prost, L; Seidl, P A; Westenskow, G; Westerberg, L

    2007-02-01

    During heavy-ion operation in several particle accelerators worldwide, dynamic pressure rises of orders of magnitude were triggered by lost beam ions that bombarded the vacuum chamber walls. This ion-induced molecular desorption, observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL, can seriously limit the ion beam lifetime and intensity of the accelerator. From dedicated test stand experiments we have discovered that heavy-ion-induced gas desorption scales with the electronic energy loss (dE_{e}/dx) of the ions slowing down in matter; but it varies only little with the ion impact angle, unlike electronic sputtering. PMID:17358950

  5. Heavy-ion induced electronic desorption of gas from metals

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A W; Kollmus, H; Mahner, E; Covo, M K; Bellachioma, M C; Bender, M; Bieniosek, F M; Hedlund, E; Kramer, A; Kwan, J; Malyshev, O B; Prost, L; Seidl, P A; Westenskow, G; Westerberg, L

    2006-12-19

    During heavy ion operation in several particle accelerators world-wide, dynamic pressure rises of orders of magnitude were triggered by lost beam ions that bombarded the vacuum chamber walls. This ion-induced molecular desorption, observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL, can seriously limit the ion beam lifetime and intensity of the accelerator. From dedicated test stand experiments we have discovered that heavy-ion induced gas desorption scales with the electronic energy loss (dE{sub e}/d/dx) of the ions slowing down in matter; but it varies only little with the ion impact angle, unlike electronic sputtering.

  6. Fundamental studies of ion injection and trapping of electrosprayed ions on a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarmby, Scott Thomas

    The quadrupole ion trap is a highly versatile and sensitive analytical mass spectrometer. Because of the advantages offered by the ion trap, there has been intense interest in coupling it to ionization techniques such as electrospray which form ions externally to the ion trap. In this work, experiments and computer simulations were employed to study the injection of electrosprayed ions into the ion trap of a Finnigan MAT LCQ LC/MS n mass spectrometer. The kinetic energy distribution of the ion beam was characterized and found to be relatively wide, a result of the high pressures from the atmospheric pressure source. One of the most important experimental parameters which affects ion injection efficiency is the RF voltage applied to the ring electrode. A theoretical model was fit to experimental data allowing the optimum RF voltage for trapping a given m/z ion to be predicted. Computer simulations of ion motion were performed to study the effect of various instrumental parameters on trapping efficiency. A commercially available ion optics program, SIMION v6.0, was chosen because it allowed the actual ion trap electrode geometry including endcap holes to be simulated. In contrast to previous computer simulations, SIMION provided the ability to start ions outside the ion trap and to simulate more accurately the injection of externally formed ions. The endcap holes were found to allow the RF field to penetrate out of the ion trap and affect ions as they approached the ion trap. From these simulations, a model for the process by which injected ions are trapped was developed. Using these computer simulations, techniques of improving trapping efficiency were investigated. Most previous techniques perturb ions which are already in the ion trap and therefore cannot be used to accumulate ions; the ability to accumulate ions is a necessity with ionization sources such as electrospray which form ions continuously. One such novel technique for improving trapping efficiency

  7. Double-differential heavy-ion production cross sections.

    PubMed

    Miller, T M; Townsend, L W

    2004-01-01

    Current computational tools used for space or accelerator shielding studies transport energetic heavy ions either using a one-dimensional straight-ahead approximation or by dissociating the nuclei into protons and neutrons and then performing neutron and proton transport using Monte Carlo techniques. Although the heavy secondary particles generally travel close to the beam direction, a proper treatment of the light ions produced in these reactions requires that double-differential cross sections should be utilised. Unfortunately, no fundamental nuclear model capable of serving as an event generator to provide these cross sections for all ions and energies of interest exists currently. Herein, we present a model for producing double-differential heavy-ion production cross sections that uses heavy-ion fragmentation yields produced by the NUCFRG2 fragmentation code coupled with a model of energy degradation in nucleus-nucleus collisions and systematics of momentum distributions to provide energy and angular dependences of the heavy-ion production.

  8. A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron?ion and ion?ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Advanced Light Source; Kilcoyne, Arthur L; Rolles, D.; Pesic, Z.D.; Perri, M.; Bilodeau, R.C.; Ackerman, G.D.; Rude, B.S.; Kilcoyne, A.L.D.; Bozek, J.D.; Berrah, N.

    2007-04-27

    We have built a velocity imaging (VMI) spectrometer optimized for angle-resolved photoionization experiments with synchrotron radiation (SR) in the VUV and soft X-tay range. The spectrometer is equiped with four electrostatic lenses that focus the charged photoionization products onto a position-sensitive multi-hit delay-line anode. The use of two additional electrostatic lens elements as compared to the standard design of Eppink and Parker [T.J.B. Eppink and D.H. Parker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68 (1997) 3477]provides better focusing of an extended interaction region, which is crucial for most SR applications. Furthermore, the apparatus is equipped with a second micro-channel plate detector opposite to the VMI spectrometer, enabling electron-ion coincidence experiments and thereby mass-resolved ion spectroscopy independent of the time structure of the synchrotron radiation. First results for the photofragmentation of CO2 molecules are presented.

  9. An ion Doppler spectrometer instrument for ion temperature and flow measurements on SSPXa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. D.; McLean, H. S.; Wood, R. D.; Romero-Talamás, C. A.; Moller, J. M.; Morse, E. C.

    2008-10-01

    A high-resolution ion Doppler spectrometer (IDS) has been installed on the sustained spheromak plasma experiment to measure ion temperatures and plasma flow. The system is composed of a 1m focal length Czerny-Turner spectrometer with a diffraction grating line density of 2400lines/mm, which allows for first order spectra between 300 and 600nm. A 16-channel photomultiplier tube detection assembly combined with output coupling optics provides a spectral resolution of 0.0126nm/channel. We calculate in some detail the mapping of curved slit images onto the linear detector array elements. This is important in determining the wavelength resolution and setting the optimum vertical extent of the slit. Also, because of the small wavelength window of the IDS, a miniature fiber-optic survey spectrometer sensitive to a wavelength range 200-1100nm and having a resolution of 0.2nm is used to obtain a time-integrated spectrum for each shot to verify specific impurity line radiation. Several measurements validate the systems operation. Doppler broadening of CIII 464.72nm line in the plasma shows time-resolved ion temperatures up to 250eV for hydrogen discharges, which is consistent with neutral particle energy analyzer measurements. Flow measurements show a sub-Alfvénic plasma flow ranging from 5to45km /s for helium discharges.

  10. Heavy Ion Accelerator-Driven Inertial Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Ingo

    The idea of using accelerators in the production of energy by inertial confinement fusion has been developed since the mid-1970s. The basic concept is to use accelerated beams of heavy ions to provide energy to implode and ignite a small fusion pellet. Accelerators have been seen as attractive for this application due to their reliability, high repetition rate, and potential efficiency. They are therefore competitive with high power lasers at least for the commercial production of electrical power. This review summarizes part of the development and scientific efforts directed toward this application, which has been realized over time to be an extremely demanding one. Here we focus primarily on the rf linac/storage ring driver system approach and summarize the specific development that culminated in the European HIDIF study of the late 1990s. We also discuss some of the relevant followup accelerator studies.

  11. Nuclei at HERA and heavy ion physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, S.; Strikman, M.

    1995-12-31

    Copies of 16 viewgraph sets from a workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, 17-18 November, 1995. Titles of talks: HERA: The Present; HERA: Potential with Nuclei; Review of Hadron-Lepton Nucleus Data; Fermilab E665: results in muon scattering; Interactions of Quarks and Gluons with Nuclear Matter; Rescattering in Nuclear Targets for Photoproduction and DIS; Structure Functions and Nuclear Effect at PHENIX; Probing Spin-Averaged and Spin-Dependent Parton Distributions Using the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR); Jet Quenching in eA, pA, AA; Nuclear Gluon Shadowing via Continuum Lepton Pairs; What can we learn from HERA with a colliding heavy ion beam? The limiting curve of leading particles at infinite A; Coherent Production of Vector Mesons off Light Nuclei in DIS; A Model of High Parton Densities in PQCD; Gluon Production for Weizaecker-Williams Field in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions; Summary Talk.

  12. Latchup in CMOS devices from heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, K.; Nichols, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    It is noted that complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microcircuits are inherently latchup prone. The four-layer n-p-n-p structures formed from the parasitic pnp and npn transistors make up a silicon controlled rectifier. If properly biased, this rectifier may be triggered 'ON' by electrical transients, ionizing radiation, or a single heavy ion. This latchup phenomenon might lead to a loss of functionality or device burnout. Results are presented from tests on 19 different device types from six manufacturers which investigate their latchup sensitivity with argon and krypton beams. The parasitic npnp paths are identified in general, and a qualitative rationale is given for latchup susceptibility, along with a latchup cross section for each type of device. Also presented is the correlation between bit-flip sensitivity and latchup susceptibility.

  13. Prompt processes in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1987-12-01

    We test a relaxation model based on two body nucleon-nucleon scattering processes to interpret phenomena observed in heavy ion reactions. We use the Boltzmann Master Equation to accomplish this. By assuming that the projectile nucleons partition the total excitation with equal a-priori probability of all configurations, we are able to reproduce several sets of neutron spectra from /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C induced reactions on /sup 165/Ho and from reactions of /sup 40/Ar or /sup 40/Ca. We point out ambiguities in deducing angle-integrated energy spectra from double differential spectra. With no additional free parameters, our model successfully reproduces a large body of high energy ..gamma..-ray spectra by assuming an incoherent n-p-bremsstrahlung mechanism. 45 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Jet Structure in Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaizot, J.-P.; Mehtar-Tani, Y.

    We review recent theoretical developments in the study of the structure of jets that are produced in ultra relativistic heavy ion collisions. The core of the review focusses on the dynamics of the parton cascade that is induced by the interactions of a fast parton crossing a quark-gluon plasma. We recall the basic mechanisms responsible for medium induced radiation, underline the rapid disappearance of coherence effects, and the ensuing probabilistic nature of the medium induced cascade. We discuss how large radiative corrections modify the classical picture of the gluon cascade, and how these can be absorbed in a renormalization of the jet quenching parameter hat q. Then, we analyze the (wave)-turbulent transport of energy along the medium induced cascade, and point out the main characteristics of the angular structure of such a cascade. Finally, color decoherence of the incone jet structure is discussed. Modest contact with phenomenology is presented towards the end of the review.

  15. Jet structure in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaizot, J.-P.; Mehtar-Tani, Y.

    2015-10-01

    We review recent theoretical developments in the study of the structure of jets that are produced in ultra relativistic heavy ion collisions. The core of the review focusses on the dynamics of the parton cascade that is induced by the interactions of a fast parton crossing a quark-gluon plasma. We recall the basic mechanisms responsible for medium induced radiation, underline the rapid disappearance of coherence effects, and the ensuing probabilistic nature of the medium induced cascade. We discuss how large radiative corrections modify the classical picture of the gluon cascade, and how these can be absorbed in a renormalization of the jet quenching parameter q̂. Then, we analyze the (wave)-turbulent transport of energy along the medium induced cascade, and point out the main characteristics of the angular structure of such a cascade. Finally, color decoherence of the in-cone jet structure is discussed. Modest contact with phenomenology is presented towards the end of the review.

  16. HEAVY ION PHYSICS WITH THE ATLAS DETECTOR.

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, S.

    2005-02-05

    Soon after the LHC is commissioned with proton beams the ATLAS experiment will begin studies of Pb-Pb collisions with a center of mass energy of {radical}s{sub NN} = 5.5 TeV. The ATLAS program is a natural extension of measurements at RHIC in a direction that exploits the higher LHC energies and the superb ATLAS calorimeter and tracking coverage. At LHC energies, collisions will be produced with even higher energy density than observed at RHIC. The properties of the resulting hot medium can be studied with higher energy probes, which are more directly interpreted through modification of jet properties emerging from these collisions, for example. Other topics which are enabled by the 30-fold increase in center of mass energy include probing the partonic structure of nuclei with hard photoproduction (in UltraPeripheral collisions) and in p-Pb collisions. Here we report on evaluation of ATLAS capabilities for Heavy Ion Physics.

  17. Rapidity dependence in holographic heavy ion collisions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wilke van der Schee; Schenke, Bjorn

    2015-12-11

    We present an attempt to closely mimic the initial stage of heavy ion collisions within holography, assuming a decoupling of longitudinal and transverse dynamics in the very early stage. We subsequently evolve the obtained initial state using state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations and compare results with experimental data. We present results for charged hadron pseudorapidity spectra and directed and elliptic flow as functions of pseudorapidity for √sNN = 200GeV Au-Au and 2.76TeV Pb-Pb collisions. As a result, the directed flow interestingly turns out to be quite sensitive to the viscosity. The results can explain qualitative features of the collisions, but the rapiditymore » spectra in our current model is narrower than the experimental data.« less

  18. Rapidity dependence in holographic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke van der Schee; Schenke, Bjorn

    2015-12-11

    We present an attempt to closely mimic the initial stage of heavy ion collisions within holography, assuming a decoupling of longitudinal and transverse dynamics in the very early stage. We subsequently evolve the obtained initial state using state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations and compare results with experimental data. We present results for charged hadron pseudorapidity spectra and directed and elliptic flow as functions of pseudorapidity for √sNN = 200GeV Au-Au and 2.76TeV Pb-Pb collisions. As a result, the directed flow interestingly turns out to be quite sensitive to the viscosity. The results can explain qualitative features of the collisions, but the rapidity spectra in our current model is narrower than the experimental data.

  19. Superconducting heavy-ion linac at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Aron, J.; Benaroya, R.; Bollinger, L.M.; Clifft, B.G.; Johnson, K.W.; Nixon, J.M.; Markovich, P.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    The design, status, and performance of the first operating superconducting heavy-ion accelerator, a linac used to boost the energies of beams from a 9-MV tandem, is summarized. When completed in 1981, the linac will consist of 24 independently-phased split-ring niobium resonators operating at 97 MHz. This linac is designed to provide 29 MV of acceleration. Because of the modular character of the system, the linac has been operable and useful since mid-1978, when a beam was accelerated through 2 units and the first nuclear-physics experiments were preformed. Now, 16 resonators are in use, and a beam has been accelerated for approx. 6000 h. Resonator performance has been remarkably stable, in spite of vacuum accidents, and the linac as a whole operates reliably without operators in attendance during nights and weekends. The ease and speed with which the beam energy can be changed is proving to be unexpectedly valuable to users.

  20. HEAVY ION FUSION SCIENCE VIRTUAL NATIONAL LABORATORY2nd QUARTER 2010 MILESTONE REPORTDevelop the theory connecting pyrometer and streak camera spectrometer data to the material properties of beam heatedtargets and compare to the data

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.M.; Barnard, J. J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.

    2010-04-01

    This milestone has been accomplished. We have extended the theory that connects pyrometer and streak spectrometer data to material temperature on several fronts and have compared theory to NDCX-I experiments. For the case of NDCX-I, the data suggests that as the metallic foils are heated they break into droplets (cf. HIFS VNL Milestone Report FY 2009 Q4). Evaporation of the metallic surface will occur, but optical emission should be directly observable from the solid or liquid surface of the foil or from droplets. However, the emissivity of hot material may be changed from the cold material and interference effects will alter the spectrum emitted from small droplets. These effects have been incorporated into a theory of emission from droplets. We have measured emission using streaked spectrometry and together with theory of emission from heated droplets have inferred the temperature of a gold foil heated by the NDCX-I experiment. The intensity measured by the spectrometer is proportional to the emissivity times the blackbody intensity at the temperature of the foil or droplets. Traditionally, a functional form for the emissivity as a function of wavelength (such as a quadratic) is assumed and the three unknown emissivity parameters (for the case of a quadratic) and the temperature are obtained by minimizing the deviations from the fit. In the case of the NDCX-I experiment, two minima were obtained: at 7200 K and 2400 K. The best fit was at 7200 K. However, when the actual measured emissivity of gold was used and when the theoretical corrections for droplet interference effects were made for emission from droplets having radii in the range 0.2 to 2.0 microns, the corrected emissivity was consistent with the 2400 K value, whereas the fit emissivity at 7200 K shows no similarity to the corrected emissivity curves. Further, an estimate of the temperature obtained from beam heating is consistent with the lower value. This exercise proved to be a warning to be skeptical

  1. EVIDENCE FOR LOCAL ACCELERATION OF SUPRATHERMAL HEAVY ION OBSERVATIONS DURING INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gruesbeck, Jacob R.; Lepri, Susan T.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Christian, Eric R.

    2015-01-20

    Suprathermal particles are an important seed population for a variety of energetic particles found throughout the heliosphere, but their origin is in debate. We present, for the first time, high-cadence observations of suprathermal heavy ions during interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), from the Suprathermal Ion Composition Spectrometer on board the Wind spacecraft, and investigate their ionic composition and compare it to the bulk solar wind plasma composition, observed from the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on board the Advanced Composition Explorer. We find that the composition of the suprathermal plasma is related to the local bulk solar wind plasma and not to the plasma upstream of the ICME. This implies that the suprathermal plasma is accelerated from the local bulk solar wind plasma and not the upstream solar wind plasma.

  2. Emission source functions in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, V. M.; Sinyukov, Yu. M.; Karpenko, Iu. A.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional pion and kaon emission source functions are extracted from hydrokinetic model (HKM) simulations of central Au+Au collisions at the top Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy sNN=200 GeV. The model describes well the experimental data, previously obtained by the PHENIX and STAR collaborations using the imaging technique. In particular, the HKM reproduces the non-Gaussian heavy tails of the source function in the pair transverse momentum (out) and beam (long) directions, observed in the pion case and practically absent for kaons. The role of rescatterings and long-lived resonance decays in forming the mentioned long-range tails is investigated. The particle rescattering contribution to the out tail seems to be dominating. The model calculations also show substantial relative emission times between pions (with mean value 13 fm/c in the longitudinally comoving system), including those coming from resonance decays and rescatterings. A prediction is made for the source functions in Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Pb+Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV, which are still not extracted from the measured correlation functions.

  3. Theoretical Concepts for Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran,L.

    2009-07-27

    Various forms of matter may be produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. These are the Quark GluonPlasma, the Color Glass Condensate , the Glasma and Quarkyoninc Matter. A novel effect that may beassociated with topological charge fluctuations is the Chiral Magnetic Effect. I explain these concepts andexplain how they may be seen in ultra-relatvistic heavy ion collisions

  4. Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, R K; Townsend, L W

    1994-07-01

    Using a fully self-consistent quantum statistical model, we demonstrate the possibility of Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions. The most favorable conditions of high densities and low temperatures are usually associated with astrophysical processes and may be difficult to achieve in heavy ion collisions. Nonetheless, some suggestions for the possible experimental verification of the existence of this phenomenon are made.

  5. Recent Progress in Isospin Physics with Heavy-Ion Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liewen; Ko, Che Ming; Li Baoan

    2008-11-11

    We review recent progress in the determination of the subsaturation density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy from heavy-ion collisions as well as the theoretical progress in probing the high density behavior of the symmetry energy in heavy-ion reactions induced by future high energy radioactive beams. Implications of these results for the nuclear effective interactions are also discussed.

  6. Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1994-01-01

    Using a fully self-consistent quantum statistical model, we demonstrate the possibility of Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions. The most favorable conditions of high densities and low temperatures are usually associated with astrophysical processes and may be difficult to achieve in heavy ion collisions. Nonetheless, some suggestions for the possible experimental verification of the existence of this phenomenon are made.

  7. NSAC Recommends a Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes the plan submitted by the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee to the Department of Energy and National Science Foundation urging construction of an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collider designed to accelerate nucleon beams of ions as heavy as uranium. Discusses the process of selecting the type of facility as well as siting. (JM)

  8. Compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer with Ion Drifts, Temperatures and Neutral Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, Nikolaos

    2016-07-01

    In situ measurements of atmospheric neutral and ion composition and density, temperatures, ion drifts and neutral winds, are in high demand to study the dynamics of the ionosphere-theremosphere-mesosphere system. This paper presents a compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) with impended ion drifts and temperature, and neutral winds capability for in situ measurements of ions and neutrals H, He, N, O, N2, O2. The mass resolution M/dM is approximately 10 at an incoming energy range of 0-20eV. The goal is to resolve ion drifts in the range 0 to 3000m/sec with a resolution better than 50m/sec, and neutral winds in the range of 0 to 1000m/sec with similar resolution. For temperatures the goal is to cover a dynamic range of 0 to 5000K. The INMS is based on front end optics for ions and neutrals, pre acceleration, gated time of flight, top hat ESA, MCP detectors and compact electronics. The instrument is redundant for ions and neutrals with the ion and neutral sensor heads on opposite sides and with full electronics in the middle. The ion front end includes RPA for temperature scanning and neutral front end includes angular modulation and thermionic ionization and ion blocking grids. The electronics include fast electric gating, TOF electronics, TOF binning and C&DH digital electronics. The data package includes 400 mass bins each for ions and neutrals and key housekeeping data for instrument health and calibration. The data sampling can be commanded from 0.1 to 10 sec with 1sec nominal setting. The instrument has significant onboard storage capability and a data compression scheme. The mass spectrometer version of the instrument has been flown on the Exocube mission. The instrument occupied 1.5U volume, weighed only 560 g and required nominal power of 1.6W The ExoCube mission was designed to acquire global knowledge of in-situ densities of [H], [He], [O] and H+, He+, O+ in the upper ionosphere and lower exosphere in combination with incoherent scatter radar and

  9. A hand-portable digital linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bing; Sun, Lulu; Huang, Zhengxu; Gao, Wei; Fan, Rongrong; Cheng, Ping; Ding, Li; Ma, Li; Zhou, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    A hand-portable digital linear ion trap mass spectrometer (DLIT-MS) has been developed for VOC analysis. It has a weight of 18 kg with dimensions of 49 cm × 39 cm × 16 cm, and consumes an average power of ca. 60 W. As a result of the introduction of a digital waveform, the DLIT-MS can be driven at a lower voltage (±100 V) to cover a mass range of 30-300 Th with a unit resolution. Compact electronics has been designed to control the DLIT-MS and record mass spectra. The mass drift was reduced after the improvement in electronics to stabilize the digital waveform voltage during the mass scan. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS) has been achieved by using digital asymmetric waveform isolation (DAWI), forward and reverse scan, and collision induced dissociation (CID). The isolation and CID efficiency for methyl salicylate were 83.9% and 81.3%, respectively. A novel buffer gas inlet system was designed to enhance the sensitivity and allow easy and safe use of the instrument. Limits of detection below 1 ppbv were obtained for several mixed gaseous samples. PMID:27396834

  10. A hand-portable digital linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bing; Sun, Lulu; Huang, Zhengxu; Gao, Wei; Fan, Rongrong; Cheng, Ping; Ding, Li; Ma, Li; Zhou, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    A hand-portable digital linear ion trap mass spectrometer (DLIT-MS) has been developed for VOC analysis. It has a weight of 18 kg with dimensions of 49 cm × 39 cm × 16 cm, and consumes an average power of ca. 60 W. As a result of the introduction of a digital waveform, the DLIT-MS can be driven at a lower voltage (±100 V) to cover a mass range of 30-300 Th with a unit resolution. Compact electronics has been designed to control the DLIT-MS and record mass spectra. The mass drift was reduced after the improvement in electronics to stabilize the digital waveform voltage during the mass scan. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS) has been achieved by using digital asymmetric waveform isolation (DAWI), forward and reverse scan, and collision induced dissociation (CID). The isolation and CID efficiency for methyl salicylate were 83.9% and 81.3%, respectively. A novel buffer gas inlet system was designed to enhance the sensitivity and allow easy and safe use of the instrument. Limits of detection below 1 ppbv were obtained for several mixed gaseous samples.

  11. Time-of-flight secondary neutral & ion mass spectrometry using swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, L.; Meinerzhagen, F.; Bender, M.; Severin, D.; Wucher, A.

    2015-12-01

    We report on a new time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer designed to investigate sputtering phenomena induced by swift heavy ions in the electronic stopping regime. In this experiment, particular emphasis is put on the detection of secondary ions along with their emitted neutral counterparts in order to examine the ionization efficiency of the sputtered material. For the detection of neutral species, the system is equipped with a pulsed VUV laser for post-ionization of sputtered neutral atoms and molecules via single photon ionization at a wavelength of 157 nm (corresponding to 7.9 eV photon energy). For alignment purposes and in order to facilitate comparison to nuclear sputtering conditions, the system also includes a 5 keV Ar+ ion beam directed to the same sample area. The instrument has been added to the M1-branch beam line at the German accelerator facility in Darmstadt (GSI) and was tested with 4.8 MeV/u Au26+ ions impinging onto various samples including metals, salts and organic films. It is found that secondary ion and neutral spectra obtained under both bombardment conditions can be acquired in an interleaved manner throughout a single accelerator pulse cycle, thus making efficient use of valuable beam time. In addition, the keV ion beam can be intermittently switched to dc mode between subsequent data acquisition windows and accelerator pulses in order to ensure reproducible surface conditions. For the case of a dynamically sputter cleaned metal surface, comparison of secondary ion and neutral signals obtained under otherwise identical instrumental conditions reveals a nearly identical ionization probability of atoms emitted under electronic and nuclear sputtering conditions.

  12. Heavy ion fusion experiments at LBNL and LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L

    1998-08-19

    The long-range goal of the US Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program is to develop heavy ion accelerators capable of igniting inertial fusion targets to generate fusion energy for electrical power production. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion consist of several subsystems: ion sources, injectors, matching sections, combiners, induction acceleration sections with electric and magnetic focusing, beam compression and bending sections, and a final-focus system to focus the beams onto the target. We are currently assembling or performing experiments to address the physics of all these subsystems. This paper will discuss some of these experiments.

  13. Development of an atmospheric pressure ion mobility spectrometer-mass spectrometer with an orthogonal acceleration electrostatic sector TOF mass analyzer.

    PubMed

    Sysoev, Alexey A; Chernyshev, Denis M; Poteshin, Sergey S; Karpov, Alexander V; Fomin, Oleg I; Sysoev, Alexander A

    2013-10-01

    Recently developed ion mobility mass spectrometer is described. The instrument is based on a drift tube ion mobility spectrometer and an orthogonal acceleration electrostatic sector time-of-flight mass analyzer. Data collection is performed using a specially developed fast ADC-based recorder that allows real-time data integration in an interval between 3 and 100 s. Primary tests were done with positive ion electrospray. The tests have shown obtaining 100 ion mobility resolving power and 2000 mass resolving power. Obtained for 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine in electrosprayed liquid samples during 100 s analysis and full IMS/MS data collection mode were 4 nM relative limits of detection and a 1 pg absolute limit of detection (S/N=3). Characteristic ion mobility/mass distributions were recorded for selected antibiotics, including amoxicillin, ampicillin, lomefloxacin, and ofloxacin. At studied conditions, lomefloxacin forms only a protonated molecule-producing reduced ion mobility peak at 1.082 cm(2)/(V s). Both amoxicillin and ampicillin produce [M + H](+), [M + CH3OH + H](+), and [M + CH3CN + H](+). Amoxicillin shows two peaks at 0.909 cm(2)/(V s) and 0.905 cm(2)/(V s). Ampicillin shows one peak at 0.945 cm(2)/(V s). Intensity of protonated methanol containing cluster for both ampicillin and amoxicillin has a clear tendency to rise with sample keeping time. Ofloxacin produces two peaks in the ion mobility distribution. A lower ion mobility peak at 1.051 cm(2)/(V s) is shown to be formed by [M + H](+) ions. A higher ion mobility peak appearing for samples kept more than 48 h is shown to be formed by both [M + H](+) ion and a component identified as the [M + 2H + M](+2) cluster. The cluster probably partly dissociates in the interface producing the [M + H](+) ion.

  14. High resolution Thomson Parabola Spectrometer for full spectral capture of multi-species ion beams.

    PubMed

    Alejo, A; Kar, S; Tebartz, A; Ahmed, H; Astbury, S; Carroll, D C; Ding, J; Doria, D; Higginson, A; McKenna, P; Neumann, N; Scott, G G; Wagner, F; Roth, M; Borghesi, M

    2016-08-01

    We report on the experimental characterisation of laser-driven ion beams using a Thomson Parabola Spectrometer (TPS) equipped with trapezoidally shaped electric plates, proposed by Gwynne et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033304 (2014)]. While a pair of extended (30 cm long) electric plates was able to produce a significant increase in the separation between neighbouring ion species at high energies, deploying a trapezoidal design circumvented the spectral clipping at the low energy end of the ion spectra. The shape of the electric plate was chosen carefully considering, for the given spectrometer configuration, the range of detectable ion energies and species. Analytical tracing of the ion parabolas matches closely with the experimental data, which suggests a minimal effect of fringe fields on the escaping ions close to the wedged edge of the electrode. The analytical formulae were derived considering the relativistic correction required for the high energy ions to be characterised using such spectrometer. PMID:27587110

  15. High resolution Thomson Parabola Spectrometer for full spectral capture of multi-species ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Tebartz, A.; Ahmed, H.; Astbury, S.; Carroll, D. C.; Ding, J.; Doria, D.; Higginson, A.; McKenna, P.; Neumann, N.; Scott, G. G.; Wagner, F.; Roth, M.; Borghesi, M.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the experimental characterisation of laser-driven ion beams using a Thomson Parabola Spectrometer (TPS) equipped with trapezoidally shaped electric plates, proposed by Gwynne et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033304 (2014)]. While a pair of extended (30 cm long) electric plates was able to produce a significant increase in the separation between neighbouring ion species at high energies, deploying a trapezoidal design circumvented the spectral clipping at the low energy end of the ion spectra. The shape of the electric plate was chosen carefully considering, for the given spectrometer configuration, the range of detectable ion energies and species. Analytical tracing of the ion parabolas matches closely with the experimental data, which suggests a minimal effect of fringe fields on the escaping ions close to the wedged edge of the electrode. The analytical formulae were derived considering the relativistic correction required for the high energy ions to be characterised using such spectrometer.

  16. High resolution Thomson Parabola Spectrometer for full spectral capture of multi-species ion beams.

    PubMed

    Alejo, A; Kar, S; Tebartz, A; Ahmed, H; Astbury, S; Carroll, D C; Ding, J; Doria, D; Higginson, A; McKenna, P; Neumann, N; Scott, G G; Wagner, F; Roth, M; Borghesi, M

    2016-08-01

    We report on the experimental characterisation of laser-driven ion beams using a Thomson Parabola Spectrometer (TPS) equipped with trapezoidally shaped electric plates, proposed by Gwynne et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033304 (2014)]. While a pair of extended (30 cm long) electric plates was able to produce a significant increase in the separation between neighbouring ion species at high energies, deploying a trapezoidal design circumvented the spectral clipping at the low energy end of the ion spectra. The shape of the electric plate was chosen carefully considering, for the given spectrometer configuration, the range of detectable ion energies and species. Analytical tracing of the ion parabolas matches closely with the experimental data, which suggests a minimal effect of fringe fields on the escaping ions close to the wedged edge of the electrode. The analytical formulae were derived considering the relativistic correction required for the high energy ions to be characterised using such spectrometer.

  17. Optical methods for the detection of heavy metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglov, A. N.; Bessmertnykh-Lemeune, A.; Guilard, R.; Averin, A. D.; Beletskaya, I. P.

    2014-03-01

    The review covers an important area of the modern chemistry, namely, the detection of heavy metal ions using optical molecular detectors. The role of this method in metal ion detection and the physicochemical grounds of operation of chemosensors are discussed, and examples of detection of most abundant heavy metal ions and synthetic approaches to molecular detectors are presented. The immobilization of molecular detectors on solid substrates for the design of analytical sensor devices is described. The bibliography includes 178 references.

  18. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  19. Mass- and energy-analyses of ions from plasma by means of a miniature Thomson spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, M. J.; Czaus, K.; Malinowski, K.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Zebrowski, J.

    2009-05-15

    The paper presents an improved version of a miniature mass-spectrometer of the Thomson-type, which has been adopted for ion analysis near the dense plasma region inside a vacuum chamber. Problems connected with the separation of ions from plasma streams are considered. Input diaphragms and pumping systems, needed to ensure good vacuum inside the analyzing region, are described. The application of the miniature Thomson-type analyzer is illustrated by ion parabolas recorded in plasma-focus facility and rod plasma injector experiment. A quantitative analysis of the recorded ion parabolas is presented. Factors influencing accuracy of the ion analysis are discussed and methods of the spectrometer calibration are described.

  20. Observations of plasma dynamics in the coma of P/Halley by the Giotto Ion Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.; Neugebauer, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Shelley, E. G.; Balsiger, H.; Kettmann, G.; Ip, W.-H.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.

    1991-01-01

    Observations in the coma of P/Halley by the Giotto Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) are reported. The High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) of the IMS obtained measurements of protons and alpha particles from the far upstream region to the near ionopause region and of ions from mass 12 to 32 at distances of about 250,000 to 40,000 km from the nucleus. Plasma parameters from the High Intensity Spectrometer (HIS) of the IMS obtained between 150,000 to 5000 km from the nucleus are also discussed. The distribution functions of water group ions (water group will be used to refer to ions of 16 to 18 m/q, where m is in AMU and q is in unit charges) are observed to be spherically symmetric in velocity space, indicating strong pitch angle scattering. The discontinuity known as the magnetic pile-up boundary (MPB) is apparent only in proton, alpha, and magnetometer data, indicating that it is a tangential discontinuity of solar wind origin. HERS observations show no significant change in the properties of the heavy ions across the MPB. A comparison of the observations to an MHD model is made. The plasma flow directions at all distances greater than 30,000 km from the nucleus are in agreement with MHD calculations. However, despite the agreement in flow direction, within 200,000 km of the nucleus the magnitude of the velocity is lower than predicted by the MHD model and the density is much larger (a factor of 4). Within 30,000 km of the nucleus there are large theoretical differences between the MHD model flow calculations for the plane containing the magnetic field and for the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The observations agreed much better with the pattern calculated for the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The data obtained by the High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) of the IMS that are published herein were provided to the International Halley Watch archive.

  1. Skyrme tensor force in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, P. D.; Suckling, E. B.; Fracasso, S.; Barton, M. C.; Umar, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Background: It is generally acknowledged that the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) method provides a useful foundation for a fully microscopic many-body theory of low-energy heavy ion reactions. The TDHF method is also known in nuclear physics in the small-amplitude domain, where it provides a useful description of collective states, and is based on the mean-field formalism, which has been a relatively successful approximation to the nuclear many-body problem. Currently, the TDHF theory is being widely used in the study of fusion excitation functions, fission, and deep-inelastic scattering of heavy mass systems, while providing a natural foundation for many other studies. Purpose: With the advancement of computational power it is now possible to undertake TDHF calculations without any symmetry assumptions and incorporate the major strides made by the nuclear structure community in improving the energy density functionals used in these calculations. In particular, time-odd and tensor terms in these functionals are naturally present during the dynamical evolution, while being absent or minimally important for most static calculations. The parameters of these terms are determined by the requirement of Galilean invariance or local gauge invariance but their significance for the reaction dynamics have not been fully studied. This work addresses this question with emphasis on the tensor force. Method: The full version of the Skyrme force, including terms arising only from the Skyrme tensor force, is applied to the study of collisions within a completely symmetry-unrestricted TDHF implementation. Results: We examine the effect on upper fusion thresholds with and without the tensor force terms and find an effect on the fusion threshold energy of the order several MeV. Details of the distribution of the energy within terms in the energy density functional are also discussed. Conclusions: Terms in the energy density functional linked to the tensor force can play a non

  2. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

    2010-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented.

  3. Double focusing ion mass spectrometer of cylindrical symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coplan, M. A.; Moore, J. H.; Hoffman, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    A mass spectrometer consisting of an electric sector followed by a magnetic sector is described. The geometry is a cylindrically symmetric generalization of the Mattauch-Herzog spectrometer (1934). With its large annular entrance aperture and a position-sensitive detector, the instrument provides a large geometric factor and 100-percent duty factor, making it appropriate for spacecraft experiments.

  4. Experimental Evaluation of a Negative Ion Source for a Heavy Ion Fusion Negative Ion Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L. R.; Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.

    2004-06-16

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 45 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that i s used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 45 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  5. Ion sources for induction linac driven heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.W.

    1993-08-01

    The use of ion sources in induction linacs for heavy ion fusion is fundamentally different from their use in the rf linac-storage rings approach. Induction linacs require very high current, short pulse extraction usually with large apertures which are dictated by the injector design. One is faced with the problem of extracting beams in a pulsed fashion while maintaining high beam quality during the pulse (low-emittance). Four types of sources have been studied for this application. The vacuum arc and the rf cusp field source are the plasma types and the porous plug and hot alumino-silicate surface source are the thermal types. The hot alumino-silicate potassium source has proved to be the best candidate for the next generation of scaled experiments. The porous plug for potassium is somewhat more difficult to use. The vacuum arc suffers from noise and lifetime problems and the rf cusp field source is difficult to use with very short pulses. Operational experience with all of these types of sources is presented.

  6. Review on heavy ion radiotherapy facilities and related ion sources (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Kitagawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Biri, S.

    2010-02-15

    Heavy ion radiotherapy awakens worldwide interest recently. The clinical results obtained by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan have clearly demonstrated the advantages of carbon ion radiotherapy. Presently, there are four facilities for heavy ion radiotherapy in operation, and several new facilities are under construction or being planned. The most common requests for ion sources are a long lifetime and good stability and reproducibility. Sufficient intensity has been achieved by electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the present facilities.

  7. 10 K Ring Electrode Trap - Tandem Mass Spectrometer for Infrared Spectroscopy of Mass Selected Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Goebbert, Daniel J.; Meijer, Gerard; Asmis, Knut R.

    2009-03-17

    A novel instrumental setup for measuring infrared photodissociation spectra of buffer gas cooled, mass-selected ions is described and tested. It combines a cryogenically cooled, linear radio frequency ion trap with a tandem mass spectrometer, optimally coupling continuous ion sources to pulsed laser experiments. The use of six independently adjustable DC potentials superimposed over the trapping radio frequency field provides control over the ion distribution within, as well as the kinetic energy distribution of the ions extracted from the ion trap. The scheme allows focusing the ions in space and time, such that they can be optimally irradiated by a pulsed, widely tunable infrared photodissociation laser. Ion intensities are monitored with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer mounted orthogonally to the ion trap axis.

  8. Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy Ion Energy and LET Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Mike; Barth, Janet; Stauffer, Craig; Jordan, Tom; Mewaldt, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy ion energy and lineary energy transfer (LET) spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy ion fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy ion fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions.

  9. Swift heavy ion irradiation of polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanzat, E.; Bouffard, S.; Bousquerel, A.; Devy, J.; Gaté, Chr.

    1996-08-01

    We have studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy the chemical modifications induced by swift heavy ions in polystyrene. The overall destruction yield becomes very significant at high electronic stopping power ( {dE }/{dx }) e and the radiation sensitivity of this aromatic polymer merges typical values of equivalent aliphatic polymers as polyethylene. So, the radiation resistance conferred, at low ( {dE }/{dx }) e, to polystyrene by the phenyl side group is lost at high ( {dE }/{dx }) e. The creation of different unsaturated groups is also observed. They correspond to the vibration frequencies of alkyne, allene, vinylidene, vinyl and trans-vinylene groups. Moreover, the emergence of a wide band without any structure around 1600 cm -1 reveals the presence of double bonds with different degrees of conjugation. By comparison with the modifications induced in polyethylene, we discuss the role played by the phenyl side group and we consider the multiple ionisation of the aromatic ring as one possible way to induce the observed modifications.

  10. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bock, R.; Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D.

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  11. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. ); Bangerter, R.O. ); Bock, R. ); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. )

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  12. Heavy ion action on single cells: Cellular inactivation capability of single accelerated heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kost, M.; Pross, H.-D.; Russmann, C.; Schneider, E.; Kiefer, J.; Kraft, G.; Lenz, G.; Becher, W.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy ions (HZE-particles) constitute an important part of radiation in space. Although their number is small the high amount of energy transferred by individual particles may cause severe biological effects. Their investigation requires special techniques which were tested by experiments performed at the UNILAC at the GSI (Darmstadt). Diploid yeast was used which is a suitable eucaryotic test system because of its resistance to extreme conditions like dryness and vacuum. Cells were placed on nuclear track detector foils and exposed to ions of different atomic number and energy. To assess the action of one single ion on an individual cell, track parameters and the respective colony forming abilities (CFA) were determined with the help of computer aided image analysis. There is mounting evidence that not only the amount of energy deposited along the particle path, commonly given by the LET, is of importance but also the spatial problem of energy deposition at a submicroscopical scale. It is virtually impossible to investigate track structure effects in detail with whole cell populations and (globally applied) high particle fluences. It is, therefore, necessary to detect the action of simple ions in individual cells. The results show that the biological action depends on atomic number and specific energy of the impinging ions, which can be compared with model calculations of recent track structure models.

  13. A cheap and compact mass spectrometer for radioactive ions based on a Wien filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierret, C.; Maunoury, L.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Saint-Laurent, M.-G.; Tuske, O.

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents simulations of a mass spectrometer composed of one or two Wien filters. The ion source used is MONO1000 ECRIS. This ion source can produce singly charged ions with high efficiency, especially for gaseous materials. After extraction, the ions are mass selected and can be injected either into a beam line towards an experiment area or in an N+ charge booster. Due to its compactness and simplicity the proposed spectrometer is well adapted for preparing and analyzing radioactive beams. The simulations are based on the SIMION 3D [www.simion.com/] software.

  14. Heavy ion transport in the straight ahead approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    An as yet unsolved problem in space radiation protection is the necessary relation between the external cosmic ray heavy ion fluence and the resultant environment within the spacecraft. Such a relation involves the transport of such ions through extended materials. Presented is a derivation of the solution of the transport equation for heavy ions in the straight ahead approximation for directed beam applications. An iterative scheme for the solution of the inhomogeneous integral transport equations is applied to a neon ion beam in water. The iterative scheme requires transport coefficients as input, which are determined from the available data on ion nuclear reactions. The iteration converged for the neon beam in water. Thus this iterative scheme appears to be a suitable approximation of heavy ion transport.

  15. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics FOCUS ON HEAVY IONS IN BIOPHYSICS AND MEDICAL PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco

    2008-07-01

    Interest in energetic heavy ions is rapidly increasing in the field of biomedicine. Heavy ions are normally excluded from radiation protection, because they are not normally experienced by humans on Earth. However, knowledge of heavy ion biophysics is necessary in two fields: charged particle cancer therapy (hadrontherapy), and radiation protection in space missions. The possibility to cure tumours using accelerated heavy charged particles was first tested in Berkeley in the sixties, but results were not satisfactory. However, about 15 years ago therapy with carbon ions was resumed first in Japan and then in Europe. Heavy ions are preferable to photons for both physical and biological characteristics: the Bragg peak and limited lateral diffusion ensure a conformal dose distribution, while the high relative biological effectiveness and low oxygen enhancement ration in the Bragg peak region make the beam very effective in treating radioresistant and hypoxic tumours. Recent results coming from the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba (see the paper by Dr Tsujii and co-workers in this issue) and GSI (Germany) provide strong clinical evidence that heavy ions are indeed an extremely effective weapon in the fight against cancer. However, more research is needed in the field, especially on optimization of the treatment planning and risk of late effects in normal tissue, including secondary cancers. On the other hand, high-energy heavy ions are present in galactic cosmic radiation and, although they are rare as compared to protons, they give a major contribution in terms of equivalent dose to the crews of manned space exploratory-class missions. Exploration of the Solar System is now the main goal of the space program, and the risk caused by exposure to galactic cosmic radiation is considered a serious hindrance toward this goal, because of the high uncertainty on late effects of energetic heavy nuclei, and the lack of effective countermeasures. Risks

  16. Heavy Quarkonium Dissociation Cross Sections in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    C.-Y. Wong; Eric Swanson; Ted Barnes

    2001-12-01

    Many of the hadron-hadron cross sections required for the study of the dynamics of matter produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions can be calculated using the quark-interchange model. Here we evaluate the low-energy dissociation cross sections of J/{psi}, {psi}', {chi}, {Upsilon}, and {Upsilon}' in collision with {pi}, {rho}, and K, which are important for the interpretation of heavy-quarkonium suppression as a signature for the quark gluon plasma. These comover dissociation processes also contribute to heavy-quarkonium suppression, and must be understood and incorporated in simulations of heavy-ion collisions before QGP formation can be established through this signature.

  17. Operation of an E parallel B end-loss ion spectrometer on the Tara tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, J.A.; Horne, S.F.; Irby, J.H.; Post, R.S.; Sevillano, E.; Foote, J.H.

    1988-08-01

    An E parallel B end-loss ion spectrometer from the Livermore TMX-U tandem mirror experiment was installed on Tara for high-resolution ion spectroscopy. This diagnostic contains parallel electric and magnetic fields, separating the masses and energies of the ions over 128 collector plates. The ion energy distribution nominally yields confining potentials and parallel ion temperatures. Additional experiments have diagnosed the resonance position of the central cell ion cyclotron heating, rf enhanced losses of high-energy sloshing ions in the axicell (''plug''), and observation of MHD instabilities at higher time resolution (20 kHz).

  18. Silicon Carbide Power Device Performance Under Heavy-Ion Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Topper, Alyson; Wilcox, Edward; Phan, Anthony; Ikpe, Stanley; LaBel, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-ion induced degradation and catastrophic failure data for SiC power MOSFETs and Schottky diodes are examined to provide insight into the challenge of single-event effect hardening of SiC power devices.

  19. Simple parametrization of fragment reduced widths in heavy ion collisions.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, R K; Townsend, L W

    1994-04-01

    A systematic analysis of the observed reduced widths obtained in relativistic heavy ion fragmentation reactions is used to develop a phenomenological parametrization of these data. The parametrization is simple, accurate, and completely general in applicability.

  20. Heavy Ion Effects on Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability: Hybrid Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, D.; Lin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) is a candidate mechanism for solar wind tansportation into the magnetosphere. The statistical study of Bouhram et al. 2005 has shown that heavy ions could dominate the magnetopause for as much as 30% of the time on the dusk side. Thus the influence of heavy ions in solar wind-magnetosphere coupling should not be neglected. However, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) linear theory for KHI does not include any ion effects, and people working on the heavy ion effects have not come to an agreement either. Whether the heavy ions promote or inhibit the KHI still remains not well addressed. With a two-dimensional hybrid model, we investigated the effects of ion mass number on the KHI growth rate, starting from the simplest case of uniform density and uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the shear flow. It is shown that the growth rate of the KHI is lower with a heavier mass number. We try to to derive the linear theory for the kinetic KHI and compare it with the hybrid simulation results. The linear theory with ion effects considered is going to be further verified with varying heavy ion fractions and finite magnetic shear. More implications for the dawn-dusk asymmetry of KHI on planetary magnetopause are desirable when comparing the results of opposite magnetic field directions relative to the flow vorticity.

  1. Data for Users of Handheld Ion Mobility Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Keith A. Daum; Sandra L. Fox

    2008-05-01

    Chemical detection technology end-user surveys conducted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in 2005 and 2007 indicated that first responders believed manufacturers’ claims for instruments sometimes were not supported in field applications, and instruments sometimes did not meet their actual needs. Based on these findings, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) asked INL to conduct a similar survey for handheld ion mobility spectrometers (IMS), which are used by a broad community of first responders as well as for other applications. To better access this broad community, the INL used the Center for Technology Commercialization, Inc. (CTC), Public Safety Technology Center (PSTC) to set up an online framework to gather information from users of handheld IMS units. This framework (Survey Monkey) was then used to perform an online Internet survey, augmented by e-mail prompts, to get information from first responders and personnel from various agencies about their direct experience with handheld IMS units. Overall, 478 individuals responded to the survey. Of these, 174 respondents actually owned a handheld IMS. Performance and satisfaction data from these 174 respondents are captured in this report. The survey identified the following observations: • The most common IMS unit used by respondents was the Advanced Portable Detector (APD 2000), followed by ChemRae, Sabre 4000, Sabre 2000, Draeger Multi IMS, Chemical Agent Monitor-2, Chemical Agent Monitor, Vapor Tracer, and Vapor Tracer 2. • The primary owners were HazMat teams (20%), fire services (14%), local police (12%), and sheriffs’ departments (9%). • IMS units are seldom used as part of an integrated system for detecting and identifying chemicals but instead are used independently. • Respondents are generally confused about the capabilities of their IMS unit. This is probably a result of lack of training. • Respondents who had no training or fewer than 8 hours were not satisfied with the overall

  2. Intensity-sensitive and position-resolving cavity for heavy-ion storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Sanjari, M. S.; Hülsmann, P.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Nolden, F.; Piotrowski, J.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, Th.; Walker, P. M.

    2016-08-01

    A heavy-ion storage ring can be adapted for use as an isochronous mass spectrometer if the ion velocity matches the transition energy of the ring. Due to the variety of stored ion species, the isochronous condition cannot be fulfilled for all the ions. In order to eliminate the measurement uncertainty stemming from the velocity spread, an intensity-sensitive and position-resolving cavity is proposed. In this paper we first briefly discuss the correction method for the anisochronism effect in the measurement with the cavity. Then we introduce a novel design, which is operated in the monopole mode and offset from the central beam orbit to one side. The geometrical parameters were optimized by analytic and numerical means in accordance with the beam dynamics of the future collector ring at FAIR. Afterwards, the electromagnetic properties of scaled prototypes were measured on a test bench. The results were in good agreement with the predictions.

  3. Classical gluon production amplitude in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirilli, Giovanni Antonio

    2016-03-01

    The distribution of quarks and gluons produced in the initial stages of nuclear collisions, known as the initial condition of the Quark-Gluon Plasma formation, is the fundamental building block of heavy-ion theory. I will present the scattering amplitude, beyond the leading order, of the classical gluon produced in heavy-ion collisions. The result is obtained in the framework of saturation physics and Wilson lines formalism.

  4. An optical dosimeter for monitoring heavy metal ions in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, Anna G.; Regan, Fiona; Leamy, D.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Ciaccheri, L.

    2005-05-01

    This work presents an optochemical dosimeter for determining and discriminating nickel, copper, and cobalt ions in water that can be used as an early warning system for water pollution. An inexpensive fiber optic spectrophotometer monitors the sensor's spectral behavior under exposure to water solutions of heavy metal ions in the 1-10 mg/l concentration range. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method quantitatively determines the heavy metals and discriminates their type and combination.

  5. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, T.S.; Barton, D.S.; Oerter, B.R.

    1997-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system has been used in the commissioning of the AGS to RHIC transfer line and in the first RHIC sextant test. Much of the controls infrastructure for networks and links has been installed throughout the collider. All of the controls hardware modules needed to be built for early RHIC operations have been designed and tested. Many of these VME modules are already being used in normal AGS operations. Over 150 VME based front end computers and device controllers will be installed by the Summer of 1998 in order to be ready for Fall of 1998. A few features are being added to the front end computer core software. The bulk of the Accelerator Device Objects (ADOs) which are instantiated in the FECs, have been written and tested in the early commissioning. A configuration database has been designed. Generic control and display of ADO parameters via a spreadsheet like program on the console level computers was provided early on in the control system development. User interface tools that were developed for the AGS control system have been used in RHIC applications. Some of the basic operations programs, like alarm display and save/restore, that are used in the AGS operations have been or will be expanded to support RHIC operations. A model for application programs which involves a console level manager servicing ADOs have been verified with a few RHIC applications. More applications need to be written for the Fall of 1998 commissioning effort. A sequencer for automatic control of the fill is being written with the expectation that it will be useful in early commissioning.

  6. String theory and relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friess, Joshua J.

    It has long been known that string theory describes not only quantum gravity, but also gauge theories with a high degree of supersymmetry. Said gauge theories also have a large number of colors in a regime with a large effective coupling constant that does not depend on energy scale. Supersymmetry is broken in nature, if it is present at all, however the gauge theory described by string theory shares many common features with QCD at temperatures above the quark deconfinement transition. It is generally though not entirely accepted that collisions of gold nuclei at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) produce a thermalized Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) at temperatures distinctly above the transition temperature as determined from lattice simulations. Hence, we might hope that a string theoretic description of gauge dynamics can elucidate some otherwise intractable physics of the strongly coupled plasma. Here we use string theory to calculate the outgoing energy flux from a RHIC process called "jet quenching", in which a high-momentum quark or gluon traverses a large distance in the QGP. Our setup is in the context of the highly supersymmetric string dual gauge theory, but we nevertheless find that the gross features of the resulting stress-energy tensor match reasonably well with experimental data. We will furthermore discuss the technology behind computations of the leading-order corrections to gauge theory observables that are uniquely string-induced, and we will describe a potential solution to string theory that could resolve a number of discrepancies between the traditional highly supersymmetric setup and QCD---in particular, a significant reduction in the amount of supersymmetry, and a finite effective coupling that is still greater than unity but does depend on energy scale.

  7. Ion exchange extraction of heavy metals from wastewater sludges.

    PubMed

    Al-Enezi, G; Hamoda, M F; Fawzi, N

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metals are common contaminants of some industrial wastewater. They find their way to municipal wastewaters due to industrial discharges into the sewerage system or through household chemicals. The most common heavy metals found in wastewaters are lead, copper, nickel, cadmium, zinc, mercury, arsenic, and chromium. Such metals are toxic and pose serious threats to the environment and public health. In recent years, the ion exchange process has been increasingly used for the removal of heavy metals or the recovery of precious metals. It is a versatile separation process with the potential for broad applications in the water and wastewater treatment field. This article summarizes the results obtained from a laboratory study on the removal of heavy metals from municipal wastewater sludges obtained from Ardhiya plant in Kuwait. Data on heavy metal content of the wastewater and sludge samples collected from the plant are presented. The results obtained from laboratory experiments using a commercially available ion exchange resin to remove heavy metals from sludge were discussed. A technique was developed to solubilize such heavy metals from the sludge for subsequent treatment by the ion exchange process. The results showed high efficiency of extraction, almost 99.9%, of heavy metals in the concentration range bound in wastewater effluents and sludges. Selective removal of heavy metals from a contaminated wastewater/sludge combines the benefits of being economically prudent and providing the possibility of reuse/recycle of the treated wastewater effluents and sludges.

  8. High latitude minor ion enhancements: A clue for studies of magnetosphere-atmosphere coupling. [using OGO 6 ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Unexpectedly abrupt and pronounced distributions of the thermal molecular ions NO(+), O2(+) and N2(+) were observed at mid and high latitudes by the OGO-6 ion mass spectrometer. These minor ions may reach concentration levels exceeding 1000 ions/cu cm at altitudes as great as 1000 km, suggestive of scale heights well in excess of those inferred from low and mid-latitude measurements, under relatively undisturbed conditions. The high latitude ion enhancements were observed to be narrowly defined in time and space, with molecular ion concentrations changing by as much as an order of magnitude between successive orbits.

  9. Final Report - Ion Production and Transport in Atmospheric Pressure Ion Source Mass Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, Paul B.; Spencer, Ross L.

    2014-05-14

    This document is the final report on a project that focused in the general theme of atmospheric-pressure ion production and transport for mass spectrometry. Within that general theme there were two main projects: the fundamental study of the transport of elemental ions through the vacuum interface of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS), and fundamental studies of the ionization mechanisms in ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources for molecular mass spectrometry. In both cases the goal was to generate fundamental understanding of key instrumental processes that would lead to the development of instruments that were more sensitive and more consistent in their performance. The emphasis on consistency derives from the need for instruments that have the same sensitivity, regardless of sample type. In the jargon of analytical chemistry, such instruments are said to be free from matrix effects. In the ICPMS work each stage of ion production and of ion transport from the atmospheric pressure to the high-vacuum mass analyzer was studied. Factors controlling ion transport efficiency and consistency were identified at each stage of pressure reduction. In the ADI work the interactions between an electrospray plume and a fluorescent sample on a surface were examined microscopically. A new mechanism for analyte ion production in desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) was proposed. Optical spectroscopy was used to track the production of reactive species in plasmas used as ADI sources. Experiments with mixed-gas plasmas demonstrated that the addition of a small amount of hydrogen to a helium ADI plasma could boost the sensitivity for some analytes by over an order of magnitude.

  10. Depth-dose relations for heavy ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation transport of heavy ions in matter is of interest to radiological protection in space and high-altitude aircraft. In addition, heavy ion beams are expected to be of advantage in radiotherapy since their characteristic Bragg curve allows a relative reduction of the dose in reaching a tumor site and the near elimination of exposure beyond the tumor region as the beam exits the body. Furthermore, the radioresistance of tumorous cells due to their hypoxic state may be reduced or eliminated by the high specific ionization of heavy ion beams. The depth-dose distribution of heavy ion beams consists of energy deposited by the attenuated primary beam with its characteristic Bragg curve and a relatively unstructured background due to secondary radiations produced in nuclear reactions. As the ion mass increases, the secondary contribution becomes more structured and may add significantly to the Bragg peak of the primary ions. The result for heavy ions (z greater than 20) is a greatly broadened Bragg peak region, especially in comparison to straggling effects, which may prove to be of importance in radiotherapy and biomedical research.

  11. Miniature GC-Minicell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) for In Situ Measurements in Astrobiology Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Holland, Paul M.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    Astrobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of volatile chemical species and minerals present in the atmospheres and surfaces of planets, moons, and asteroids. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The use of land rovers and balloon aero-rovers place additional emphasis on miniaturization of the analytical instrumentation. In addition, smaller instruments, using tiny amounts of consumables, allow the use of more instrumentation and/or ionger mission life for stationary landers/laboratories. The miniCometary Ice and Dust Experiment (miniCIDEX), which combined Gas Chromatography (GC) with helium Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), was capable of providing the wide range of analytical information required for Astrobiology missions. The IMS used here was based on the PCP model 111 IMS. A similar system, the Titan Ice and Dust Experiment (TIDE), was proposed as part of the Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission (TOAM). Newer GC systems employing Micro Electro- Mechanical System (MEMS) based technology have greatly reduced both the size and resource requirements for space GCs. These smaller GCs, as well as the continuing miniaturization of Astrobiology analytical instruments in general, has highlighted the need for smaller, dry helium IMS systems. We describe here the development of a miniature, MEMS GC-IMS system (MEMS GC developed by Thorleaf Research Inc.), employing the MiniCell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS), from Ion Applications Inc., developed through NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development (ASTID) Program and NASA s Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program.

  12. Continuation of data analysis from the ion mass spectrometer on the ISIS-2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The spectrometer measures the composition and number density of the positive ion species in the ionosphere as well as the ion flux normal to the spacecraft trajectory. The measurement of high latitude ionospheric dynamics is reported. Plans for an empirical composition model of the polar ionosphere at 1400 km altitude consisting of maps of the major constituent are also reported.

  13. High resolution extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for an electron beam ion trap

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Hayato; Yatsurugi, Junji; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.

    2011-08-15

    An extreme ultraviolet spectrometer has been developed for spectroscopic studies of highly charged ions with an electron beam ion trap. It has a slit-less configuration with a spherical varied-line-spacing grating that provides a flat focal plane for grazing incidence light. Alternative use of two different gratings enables us to cover the wavelength range 1-25 nm. Test observations with the Tokyo electron beam ion trap demonstrate the high performance of the present spectrometer such as a resolving power of above 1000.

  14. A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer for ion source characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L. Wan, X.; Jin, D. Z.; Tan, X. H.; Huang, Z. X.; Tan, G. B.

    2015-03-15

    A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer with overall dimension of about 413 × 250 × 414 mm based on orthogonal injection and angle reflection has been developed for ion source characterization. Configuration and principle of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer are introduced in this paper. The mass resolution is optimized to be about 1690 (FWHM), and the ion energy detection range is tested to be between about 3 and 163 eV with the help of electron impact ion source. High mass resolution and compact configuration make this spectrometer useful to provide a valuable diagnostic for ion spectra fundamental research and study the mass to charge composition of plasma with wide range of parameters.

  15. Composition measurements of the topside ionosphere using a magnetic mass spectrometer, ion mass spectrometer on ISIS-2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The ion mass spectrometer (IMS) on the ISIS-II satellite is described; it measures the composition and distribution of positive ions in the earth's ionosphere in the mass range of 1 to 64 atomic mass units. Significant data were received which show a wide variation in ion composition at night near the equator and in the daytime poleward of the plasmapause. It was found that these data enable further study of the polar wind and that the experiment produced timely data during the August, 1972 magnetic storm to show the development of a unique ionosphere above the plasmapause during the period of the storm. The scientific objectives and results of the experiment, the technical description of the instrument, a bibliography with sample papers attached, and a summary of recommendations for further study are presented.

  16. Novel laser atomic fluorescence spectrometer for environmental and biomedical analyses of heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dergachev, Alex Y.; Mirov, Sergey B.; Pitt, Robert E.; Parmer, Keith D.

    1997-05-01

    We report on the development of a novel experimental set-up using laser atomic fluorescence for detection and concentration measurements of heavy metal atoms for environmental and biomedical analyses. This spectrometer is based on the application of tunable LiF:F2+** and LiF:F2- color center and alexandrite lasers with nonlinear converters for narrowband excitation of atomic fluorescence and the use of gated multichannel CCD detectors for fluorescence measurements. A standard graphite furnace module was used for sample atomization. The laser sources used provide narrowband selective laser excitation continuously tunable in the 200 - 400 nm range and are therefore suitable for resonant excitation of atomic transitions in practically all known heavy metal atoms. In the first experiments, water samples containing Cu, Pb and Fe impurities were studied and detection levels of less than 1 ppb were observed. Comparison of the results of atomic laser fluorescence analysis and traditional atomic absorption spectrometry showed good qualitative agreement between these two methods. It is projected that full optimization of our experimental set up will allow for improved detection levels of several orders of magnitude. Possible optimization and simplification of the spectrometer are discussed in the context of developing a portable instrument for field use.

  17. Proceedings of the third workshop on experiments and detectors for a relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Shivakumar, B.; Vincent, P.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: the RHIC Project; summary of the working group on calorimetry; J//Psi/ measurements in heavy ion collisions at CERN; QCD jets at RHIC; tracking and particle identification; a 4..pi.. tracking spectrometer for RHIC; Bose-Einstein measurements at RHIC in light of new data; summary of working group on read-out electronics; data acquisition for RHIC; summary of the working group on detector simulation; B-physics at RHIC; and CP violation revisited at BNL, B-physics at RHIC.

  18. [Reaction mechanism studies of heavy ion induced nuclear reactions]. Annual progress report, [January 1992--February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mignerey, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    Completed work is summarized on the topics of excitation energy division in deep-inelastic reactions and the onset of multifragmentation in La-induced reactions at E/A = 45 MeV. Magnetic fields are being calculated for the PHOBOS detector system, a two-arm multiparticle spectrometer for studying low-transverse-momentum particles produced at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The Maryland Forward Array is being developed for detection of the reaction products from very peripheral collisions; it consists of two individual units of detectors: the annular silicon detector in front and the plastic phoswich detector at back.

  19. Development and Evaluation of a Variable-Temperature Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Derkits, David; Wiseman, Alex; Snead, Russell F; Dows, Martina; Harge, Jasmine; Lamp, Jared A; Gronert, Scott

    2016-02-01

    A new, variable-temperature mass spectrometer system is described. By applying polyimide heating tape to the end-cap electrodes of a Bruker (Bremen, Germany) Esquire ion trap, it is possible to vary the effective temperature of the system between 40 and 100°C. The modification does not impact the operation of the ion trap and the heater can be used for extended periods without degradation of the system. The accuracy of the ion trap temperatures was assessed by examining two gas-phase equilibrium processes with known thermochemistry. In each case, the variable-temperature ion trap provided data that were in good accord with literature data, indicating the effective temperature in the ion trap environment was being successfully modulated by the changes in the set-point temperatures on the end-cap electrodes. The new design offers a convenient and effective way to convert commercial ion trap mass spectrometers into variable-temperature instruments. PMID:26483183

  20. Pulsed discharge ionization source for miniature ion mobility spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Jun; Ramsey, J. Michael; Whitten, William B.

    2004-11-23

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for flowing a sample gas and a reactant gas (38, 43) past a corona discharge electrode (26) situated at a first location in an ion drift chamber (24), applying a pulsed voltage waveform comprising a varying pulse component and a dc bias component to the corona discharge electrode (26) to cause a corona which in turn produces ions from the sample gas and the reactant gas, applying a dc bias to the ion drift chamber (24) to cause the ions to drift to a second location (25) in the ion drift chamber (24), detecting the ions at the second location (25) in the drift chamber (24), and timing the period for the ions to drift from the corona discharge electrode to the selected location in the drift chamber.

  1. Characterizing the Energetic Heavy Ion Environment Inside 4 Jovian Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, C. M.; Stone, E. C.

    2004-05-01

    On 21 September 2003 Galileo impacted Jupiter to end its 8-year tour of the Jovian magentosphere. During this last phase data was collected in the very inner part of the magnetosphere at distances < 4 Rj. The region from 2 to 4 Rj was previously explored by Galileo during its 34th orbit around Jupiter. We present the combined data from these two passes obtained by the Heavy Ion Counter (HIC) for heavy ions at energies above 2 MeV/nucleon. In particular we discuss the significant ion absorption near the moons Thebe and Amalthea, the anisotropic pitch angle distribution and the dramatic increase in heavy ion intensity with decreasing radius seen in this region

  2. Ultra-relativistic heavy ions and cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    1983-05-01

    The collisions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions, E/sub /N/ greater than or equal to 1 TeV/nucleon are most interesting, since, at these energies, matter is produced at sufficiently high energy density that a quark-gluon plasma has a good chance to form. Very heavy ions are also most interesting since the matter forms in a larger volume than for light ions, and the matter is at a somewhat higher energy density. At very high energies with very heavy ions there is great flexibility in the experimental signals which might be studied, as well as the nature of the matter which is produced. The fragmentation region and central region provide different environments where a plasma might form. The former is baryon rich while the central region is high temperature with low baryon number density and is not accessible except at very high energies.

  3. Heavy Ion Heating at Shocks in the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korreck, K. E.; Stevens, M. L.; Lepri, S. T.; Kasper, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Ions heavier than protons can be used as tracers for heating mechamisms in solar wind plasma. Measurments by the ACE and WIND satellites provide information on the relative heating of the heavy ions versus the protons. Greater than mass proportional heating has been seen at coronal mass ejections (CME) shock fronts. Using ACE SWICS heavy ions data from CME associated shocks, heavy ion heating and the non-thermal nature of helium and oxygen distributions at 1AU is examined. The WIND SWE data set is used to examine the helium distributions at the shock fronts observed at the spacecraft. Understanding the heating and source of energetic particles and their evolution through the heliosphere is relevant to predicting space weather events and the evolution of the solar wind.

  4. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  5. Development and Deployment of Retrofit PolarisQ Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for Isotope Ratio Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Cyril V.; Whitten, William B.

    2015-11-01

    This report describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL) FY15 progress in support of National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Portable Mass Spectrometer project. A retrofit PolarisQ ion trap mass spectrometer (RPMS) has been assembled from components of two PolarisQ ion trap mass spectrometers used in previous isotope ratio programs. The retrofit mass spectrometer includes a custom Hastelloy vacuum chamber which is about ¼ the size of the standard aluminum vacuum chamber and reduces the instrument weight from the original by nine pounds. In addition, the new vacuum chamber can be independently heated to reduce impurities such as water, which reacts with UF6 to produce HF in the vacuum chamber. The analyzer and all components requiring service are mounted on the chamber lid, facilitating quick and easy replacement of consumable components such as the filament and electron multiplier.

  6. A high-resolution compact Johann crystal spectrometer with the Livermore electron beam ion trap.

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, D L; Chen, H; Beiersdorfer, P; Faenov, A Y; Pikuz, T A; May, M J; Dunn, J; Smith, A J

    2004-04-14

    A compact high-resolution ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx} 10000) spherically bent crystal spectrometer in the Johann geometry was recently installed and tested on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap. The curvature of the mica (002) crystal grating allows for higher collection efficiency compared to the flat and cylindrically bent crystal spectrometers commonly used on the Livermore electron beam ion traps. The spectrometer's Johann configuration enables orientation of its dispersion plane to be parallel to the electron beam propagation. Used in concert with a crystal spectrometer, whose dispersion plane is perpendicular to the electron beam propagation, the polarization of x-ray emission lines can be measured.

  7. ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion sources and applications with heavy-ion linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed in the last few years into a reliable source of high charge-state heavy ions. The availability of heavy ions with relatively large charge-to-mass ratios (0.1--0.5) has made it possible to contemplate essentially new classes of heavy-ion linear accelerators. In this talk, I shall review the state-of-the-art in ECR source performance and describe some of the implications this performance level has for heavy-ion linear accelerator design. The present linear accelerator projects using ECR ion sources will be noted and the performance requirements of the ECR source for these projects will be reviewed. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Robust heavy-ion-beam illumination in direct-driven heavy-ion inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, S.; Miyazawa, K.; Ogoyski, A. I.; Someya, T.; Kikuchi, T.

    2007-07-01

    In heavy ion beam (HIB) inertial confinement fusion (HIF), implosion asymmetry should be less than a few percent in order to compress a fuel sufficiently and release fusion energy effectively. It is known that the HIB illumination nonuniformity and implosion symmetry are sensitive to a little pellet displacement from a reactor chamber center. We present a new HIB illumination scheme which is robust against the displacement of a direct-driven fuel pellet in an HIF reactor chamber. In conventional HIB illumination schemes a pellet displacement of 25-100 μm was tolerable. The new robust HIB illumination scheme is examined by three-dimensional computer simulations. In the new HIB illumination scheme the tolerable pellet displacement is about 200-300 μm.

  9. Comparison of functional group selective ion-molecule reactions of trimethyl borate in different ion trap mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Habicht, S C; Vinueza, Nelson R; Amundson, Lucas M; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2011-02-01

    We report here a comparison of the use of diagnostic ion–molecule reactions for the identification of oxygen-containing functional groups in Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) and linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT) mass spectrometers. The ultimate goal of this research is to be able to identify functionalities in previously unknown analytes by using many different types of mass spectrometers. Previous work has focused on the reactions of various boron reagents with protonated oxygen-containing analytes in FTICR mass spectrometers. By using a LQIT modified to allow the introduction of neutral reagents into the helium buffer gas, this methodology has been successfully implemented to this type of an ion trap instrument. The products obtained from the reactions of trimethyl borate (TMB) with various protonated analytes are compared for the two instruments. Finally, the ability to integrate these reactions into LC-MS experiments on the LQIT is demonstrated.

  10. L X-ray emission induced by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajek, M.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Semaniak, J.; Fijał-Kirejczyk, I.; Jaskóła, M.; Czarnacki, W.; Korman, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Mukoyama, T.; Trautmann, D.

    2015-11-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique is usually applied using typically 1 MeV to 3 MeV protons or helium ions, for which the ion-atom interaction is dominated by the single ionization process. For heavier ions the multiple ionization plays an increasingly important role and this process can influence substantially both the X-ray spectra and atomic decay rates. Additionally, the subshell coupling effects are important for the L- and M-shells ionized by heavy ions. Here we discuss the main features of the X-ray emission induced by heavy ions which are important for PIXE applications, namely, the effects of X-ray line shifts and broadening, vacancy rearrangement and change of the fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields in multiple ionized atoms. These effects are illustrated here by the results of the measurements of L X-ray emission from heavy atoms bombarded by 6 MeV to 36 MeV Si ions, which were reported earlier. The strong L-subshell coupling effects are observed, in particular L2-subshell, which can be accounted for within the coupling subshell model (CSM) developed within the semiclassical approximation. Finally, the prospects to use heavy ions in PIXE analysis are discussed.

  11. Interfacing an ion mobility spectrometry based explosive trace detector to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Kozole, Joseph; Stairs, Jason R; Cho, Inho; Harper, Jason D; Lukow, Stefan R; Lareau, Richard T; DeBono, Reno; Kuja, Frank

    2011-11-15

    Hardware from a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) based explosive trace detector (ETD) has been interfaced to an AB/SCIEX API 2000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. To interface the COTS IMS based ETD to the API 2000, the faraday plate of the IMS instrument and the curtain plate of the mass spectrometer were removed from their respective systems and replaced by a custom faraday plate, which was fabricated with a hole for passing the ion beam to the mass spectrometer, and a custom interface flange, which was designed to attach the IMS instrument onto the mass spectrometer. Additionally, the mass spectrometer was modified to increase the electric field strength and decrease the pressure in the differentially pumped interface, causing a decrease in the effect of collisional focusing and permitting a mobility spectrum to be measured using the mass spectrometer. The utility of the COTS-ETD/API 2000 configuration for the characterization of the gas phase ion chemistry of COTS-ETD equipment was established by obtaining mass and tandem mass spectra in the continuous ion flow and selected mobility monitoring operating modes and by obtaining mass-selected ion mobility spectra for the explosive standard 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT). This analysis confirmed that the product ion for TNT is [TNT - H](-), the predominant collision-induced dissociation pathway for [TNT- H](-) is the loss of NO and NO(2), and the reduced mobility value for [TNT - H](-) is 1.54 cm(2)V(-1) s(-1). Moreover, this analysis was attained for sample amounts of 1 ng and with a resolving power of 37. The objective of the research is to advance the operational effectiveness of COTS IMS based ETD equipment by developing a platform that can facilitate the understanding of the ion chemistry intrinsic to the equipment.

  12. Clinical trial of cancer therapy with heavy ions at heavy ion research facility in lanzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong

    With collaborative efforts of scientists from the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences and hospitals in Gansu, initial clinical trial on cancer therapy with heavy ions has been successfully carried out in China. From November 2006 to December 2007, 51 patients with superficially-placed tumors were treated with carbon ions at Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) within four beam time blocks of 6-11 days, collaborating with the General Hospital of Lanzhou Command and the Tumor Hospital of Gansu Province. Patients and Methods: There were 51 patients (31 males and 20 females) with superficially-placed tumors (squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, basal cell carcinoma of the skin, malignant skin melanoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, breast cancer, metastatic lymph nodes of carcinomas and other skin lesions). The tumors were less than 2.1 cm deep to the skin surface. All patients had histological confirmation of their tumors. Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) of all patients was more than 70. The majority of patients were with failures or recurrences of conventional therapies. Median age at the time of radiotherapy (RT) was 55.5 years (range 5-85 years). Patients were immobilized with a vacuum cushion or a head mask and irradiated by carbon ion beams with energy 80-100 MeV/u at spread-out Bragg peak field generated from HIRFL, with two and three-dimensional conformal irradiation methods. Target volume was defined by physical palpation [ultrasonography and Computerized tomography (CT), for some cases]. The clinical target volume (CTV) was defined as the gross total volume GTV with a 0.5-1.0cm margin axially. Field placement for radiation treatment planning was done based on the surface markings. RBE of 2.5-3 within the target volume, and 40-75 GyE with a weekly fractionation of 7 × 3-15 GyE/fraction were used in the trial. Patients had follow-up examinations performed 1 month after treatment, in 1 or 2 months for the first 6 months, and 3

  13. Study of the storm time fluxes of heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The characteristics of the storm time ring current ions in the energy range of 0.5 to 16 keV were investigated. Data were processed and analyzed from the energetic ion mass spectrometer aboard the S3-3 satellite. Results are used for planning and operating the ion mass spectrometer experiment on the ISEE spacecraft, for selecting and processing the ISEE ion data, and for planning and conducting coordinated satellite experiments in support of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS). It is established from the S3-3 ion data that relatively large fluxes of energetic (keV) 0(+) and H(+) ions are frequently flowing upward from the ionosphere along magnetic field lines in the polar auroral regions. Also, from investigations with the same instrument during the main phase of three moderate (D sub ST approximately 100) magnetic storms, it is found that the number density of 0(+) ions in the ring current was comparable to H(+) ion density the range 0.5 to 15 keV.

  14. Heavy-ion tumor therapy: Physical and radiobiological benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schardt, Dieter; Elsässer, Thilo; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    High-energy beams of charged nuclear particles (protons and heavier ions) offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors in comparison to conventional megavolt photon therapy. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range with a sharp fall-off at the distal edge. Taking full advantage of the well-defined range and the small lateral beam spread, modern scanning beam systems allow delivery of the dose with millimeter precision. In addition, projectiles heavier than protons such as carbon ions exhibit an enhanced biological effectiveness in the Bragg peak region caused by the dense ionization of individual particle tracks resulting in reduced cellular repair. This makes them particularly attractive for the treatment of radio-resistant tumors localized near organs at risk. While tumor therapy with protons is a well-established treatment modality with more than 60 000 patients treated worldwide, the application of heavy ions is so far restricted to a few facilities only. Nevertheless, results of clinical phase I-II trials provide evidence that carbon-ion radiotherapy might be beneficial in several tumor entities. This article reviews the progress in heavy-ion therapy, including physical and technical developments, radiobiological studies and models, as well as radiooncological studies. As a result of the promising clinical results obtained with carbon-ion beams in the past ten years at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator facility (Japan) and in a pilot project at GSI Darmstadt (Germany), the plans for new clinical centers for heavy-ion or combined proton and heavy-ion therapy have recently received a substantial boost.

  15. Heavy-ion tumor therapy: Physical and radiobiological benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Schardt, Dieter; Elsaesser, Thilo; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2010-01-15

    High-energy beams of charged nuclear particles (protons and heavier ions) offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors in comparison to conventional megavolt photon therapy. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range with a sharp fall-off at the distal edge. Taking full advantage of the well-defined range and the small lateral beam spread, modern scanning beam systems allow delivery of the dose with millimeter precision. In addition, projectiles heavier than protons such as carbon ions exhibit an enhanced biological effectiveness in the Bragg peak region caused by the dense ionization of individual particle tracks resulting in reduced cellular repair. This makes them particularly attractive for the treatment of radio-resistant tumors localized near organs at risk. While tumor therapy with protons is a well-established treatment modality with more than 60 000 patients treated worldwide, the application of heavy ions is so far restricted to a few facilities only. Nevertheless, results of clinical phase I-II trials provide evidence that carbon-ion radiotherapy might be beneficial in several tumor entities. This article reviews the progress in heavy-ion therapy, including physical and technical developments, radiobiological studies and models, as well as radiooncological studies. As a result of the promising clinical results obtained with carbon-ion beams in the past ten years at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator facility (Japan) and in a pilot project at GSI Darmstadt (Germany), the plans for new clinical centers for heavy-ion or combined proton and heavy-ion therapy have recently received a substantial boost.

  16. Infrared ion spectroscopy in a modified quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer at the FELIX free electron laser laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Jonathan; Berden, Giel; Gebhardt, Christoph R.; Oomens, Jos

    2016-10-01

    We report on modifications made to a Paul-type quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer and discuss its application in infrared ion spectroscopy experiments. Main modifications involve optical access to the trapped ions and hardware and software coupling to a variety of infrared laser sources at the FELIX infrared free electron laser laboratory. In comparison to previously described infrared ion spectroscopy experiments at the FELIX laboratory, we find significant improvements in efficiency and sensitivity. Effects of the trapping conditions of the ions on the IR multiple photon dissociation spectra are explored. Enhanced photo-dissociation is found at lower pressures in the ion trap. Spectra obtained under reduced pressure conditions are found to more closely mimic those obtained in the high-vacuum conditions of an Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. A gas-mixing system is described enabling the controlled addition of a secondary gas into helium buffer gas flowing into the trap and allows for ion/molecule reactions in the trap. The electron transfer dissociation (ETD) option of the mass spectrometer allows for IR structure characterization of ETD-generated peptide dissociation products.

  17. Microirradiation of cells with energetic heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollinger, G.; Hable, V.; Hauptner, A.; Krücken, R.; Reichart, P.; Friedl, A. A.; Drexler, G.; Cremer, T.; Dietzel, S.

    2005-04-01

    The ion microprobe SNAKE (superconducting nanoscope for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments) at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator achieves beam focusing by a superconducting quadrupole doublet and can make use of a broad range of ions and ion energies, from 20 MeV protons to 200 MeV gold ions. This allows to adjust the number of DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs) per ion and per cell nucleus from about 0.1 DSBs per ion to several 100 DSBs per ion. When irradiating with single 100 MeV 16O ions, the adapted setup permits a fwhm irradiation accuracy of 0.55 μm in x-direction and 0.4 μm in y-direction, as demonstrated by retrospective track etching of polycarbonate foils. The experiments point to investigate protein dynamics after targeted irradiation. As an example for such experiments we show a kind of three dimensional representation of foci of γ-H2AX which are visible 0.5 h after the irradiation with 100 MeV 16O ions took place. It shows the gross correlation with the irradiation pattern but also distinct deviations which are attributed to protein dynamics in the cell.

  18. Electrospray Ionization/Ion Mobility Spectrometer/Cylindrical Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer System for In-Situ Detection of Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanik, I.; Johnson, P. V.; Beegle, L. W.; Cooks, R. G.; Laughlin, B. C.; Hill, H. H.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of an Electrospray Ionization/Ion Mobility Spectrometer/Cylindrical Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (ESI/IMS/CIT-MS) as an analytical instrument for analyzing material extracted from rock and soil samples as part of a suite of instruments on the proposed 2009 Mars Science Lander (MSL) will be demonstrated. This instrument will be able to identify volatile compounds as well as resident organic molecules on the parts-per-billion (ppb) level. Also, it will be able to obtain an inventory of chemical species on the surface of Mars which will result in a better understanding of ongoing surface chemistry. Finally, questions relevant to biological processes will be answered with the complete inventory of surface and near surface organic molecules that the ESI/IMS/CIT is capable of performing.

  19. Advances in U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, JJ; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Perkins, L.J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Waldron, W.L.

    2007-09-03

    During the past two years, the US heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high-brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target physics for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression {pi} of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2008, these results enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year. They are assessing how these new techniques apply to higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  20. Advances in U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Perkins, L. J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Waldron, W.L.

    2007-09-01

    During the past two years, the US heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high-brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target physics for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression {pi} of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2008, these results enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year. They are assessing how these new techniques apply to higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  1. Anti-biofilm activity of Fe heavy ion irradiated polycarbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, R. P.; Hareesh, K.; Bankar, A.; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D.; Dahiwale, S. S.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dhole, S. D.

    2016-10-01

    Polycarbonate (PC) polymers were investigated before and after high energy heavy ion irradiation for anti-bacterial properties. These PC films were irradiated by Fe heavy ions with two energies, viz, 60 and 120 MeV, at different fluences in the range from 1 × 1011 ions/cm2 to 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. UV-Visible spectroscopic results showed optical band gap decreased with increase in ion fluences due to chain scission mainly at carbonyl group of PC which is also corroborated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic results. X-ray diffractogram results showed decrease in crystallinity of PC after irradiation which leads to decrease in molecular weight. This is confirmed by rheological studies and also by differential scanning calorimetric results. The irradiated PC samples showed modification in their surfaces prevents biofilm formation of human pathogen, Salmonella typhi.

  2. High precision electric gate for time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Edward C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer having a chamber with electrodes to generate an electric field in the chamber and electric gating for allowing ions with a predetermined mass and velocity into the electric field. The design uses a row of very thin parallel aligned wires that are pulsed in sequence so the ion can pass through the gap of two parallel plates, which are biased to prevent passage of the ion. This design by itself can provide a high mass resolution capability and a very precise start pulse for an ion mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the ion will only pass through the chamber if it is within a wire diameter of the first wire when it is pulsed and has the right speed so it is near all other wires when they are pulsed.

  3. Microirradiation of cells with energetic heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Hauptner, A; Dietzel, S; Drexler, G A; Reichart, P; Krücken, R; Cremer, T; Friedl, A A; Dollinger, G

    2004-02-01

    The ion microprobe SNAKE at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator achieves beam focussing by a superconducting quadrupole doublet and can make use of a broad range of ions and ion energies, from 20 MeV protons to 200 MeV gold ions. Because of these properties, SNAKE is particularly attractive for biological microbeam experiments. Here we describe the adaptation of SNAKE for microirradiation of cell samples. This includes enlarging of the focal distance in order to adjust the focal plane to the specimen stage of a microscope, construction of a beam exit window in a flexible nozzle and of a suitable cell containment, as well as development of procedures for on-line focussing of the beam, preparation of single ions and scanning by electrostatic deflection of the beam. When irradiating with single 100 MeV (16)O ions, the adapted set-up permits an irradiation accuracy of 0.91 microm (full width at half maximum) in the x-direction and 1.60 microm in the y-direction, as demonstrated by retrospective track etching of polycarbonate foils. Accumulation of the repair protein Rad51, as detected by immunofluorescence, was used as a biological track detector after irradiation of HeLa cells with geometric patterns of counted ions. Observed patterns of fluorescence foci agreed reasonably well with irradiation patterns, indicating successful adaptation of SNAKE. In spite of single ion irradiation, we frequently observed split fluorescence foci which might be explained by small-scale chromatin movements.

  4. Beam halo collimation in heavy ion synchrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strašík, I.; Prokhorov, I.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a systematic study of the halo collimation of ion beams from proton up to uranium in synchrotrons. The projected Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research synchrotron SIS100 is used as a reference case. The concepts are separated into fully stripped (e.g., 238U92+ ) and partially stripped (e.g., 238U28+ ) ion collimation. An application of the two-stage betatron collimation system, well established for proton accelerators, is intended also for fully stripped ions. The two-stage system consists of a primary collimator (a scattering foil) and secondary collimators (bulky absorbers). Interaction of the particles with the primary collimator (scattering, momentum losses, and nuclear interactions) was simulated by using fluka. Particle-tracking simulations were performed by using mad-x. Finally, the dependence of the collimation efficiency on the primary ion species was determined. The influence of the collimation system adjustment, lattice imperfections, and beam parameters was estimated. The concept for the collimation of partially stripped ions employs a thin stripping foil in order to change their charge state. These ions are subsequently deflected towards a dump location using a beam optical element. The charge state distribution after the stripping foil was obtained from global. The ions were tracked by using mad-x.

  5. Inferring Magnetospheric Heavy Ion Density using EMIC Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Kim, Hyomin; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to infer heavy ion concentration ratios from EMIC wave observations that result from ionion hybrid (IIH) resonance. A key feature of the ion-ion hybrid resonance is the concentration of wave energy in a field-aligned resonant mode that exhibits linear polarization. This mode converted wave is localized at the location where the frequency of a compressional wave driver matches the IIH resonance condition, which depends sensitively on the heavy ion concentration. This dependence makes it possible to estimate the heavy ion concentration ratio. In this letter, we evaluate the absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance at Earth's geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of He+ and field-aligned wave numbers using a dipole magnetic field. Although wave absorption occurs for a wide range of heavy ion concentrations, it only occurs for a limited range of field-aligned wave numbers such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Using the wave absorption and observed EMIC waves from GOES-12 satellite, we demonstrate how this technique can be used to estimate that the He+ concentration is around 4% near L = 6.6.

  6. Instrument manual for the retarding ion mass spectrometer on Dynamics Explorer-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, S. A.; Baugher, C. R.; Chappell, C. R.; Reasoner, D. L.; Hammack, H. D.; Wright, W. W.; Hoffman, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) for Dynamics Explorer-1 is an instrument designed to measure the details of the thermal plasma distribution. It combines the ion temperature determining capability of the retarding potential analyzer with the compositional capabilities of the mass spectrometer and adds multiple sensor heads to sample all directions relative to the spacecraft ram direction. This manual provides a functional description of the RIMS, the instrument calibration, and a description of the commands which can be stored in the instrument logic to control its operation.

  7. Direct-driven target implosion in heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kurosaki, T.; Barada, D.; Kawata, S.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    In inertial confinement fusion, the driver beam illumination non-uniformity leads a degradation of fusion energy output. A fuel target alignment error would happen in a fusion reactor; the target alignment error induces heavy ion beam illumination non-uniformity on a target. On the other hand, heavy ion beam accelerator provides a capability to oscillate a beam axis with a high frequency. The wobbling beams may provide a new method to reduce or smooth the beam illumination non-uniformity. First we study the effect of driver irradiation non-uniformity induced by the target alignment error (dz) on the target implosion. We found that dz should be less than about 130 μm for a sufficient fusion energy output. We also optimize the wobbling scheme. The spiral wobbling heavy ion beams would provide a promissing scheme to the uniform beam illumination.

  8. The Path to Heavy Ions at LHC and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutbrod, Hans H.

    My appreciation of Rolf Hagedorn motivates me to look back at my more than 40 years of trial and error in relativistic heavy ion physics. More than once, wise colleagues helped me move forward to new and better understandings. Rolf Hagedorn was one of these important people. At first, I met him anonymously in the mid 1970s when reading his 1971 Cargèse Lectures in Physics, and later in person for many years in and around CERN. I wonder what this modest person would say about his impact on physics in this millennium. As he is not here to answer, I and others give our answers in this book. I focus my report on the beginning of the research program with relativistic heavy ions, the move to CERN-SPS and the development of the heavy ion collaboration at the CERN-LHC.

  9. The n-p bremsstrahlung in heavy ion collision processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blann, M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal is to summarize the current status of the interpretation of energetic gamma-rays in heavy ion collisions via the n-p-bremsstrahlung mechanism. An essential element of the topic is a transport equation to approximate the fast non-equilibrium nucleon-nucleon cascade/emission stage of the heavy ion reactions. It is during this stage that it was expected that the n-p-bremsstrahlung processes produced energetic photons. The Boltzmann master equation (BME) model which will be used as the transport code is briefly described, deferring to earlier works for a more complete description, and present but a single representative comparison with an experimental neutron emission spectrum. The status of the elementary n-p-gamma cross section needed to extend the transport code to photon emission in heavy ion reactions, and the status of these comparisons with data are summarized.

  10. Sputtering Threshold Energies of Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, Maris A.

    1999-01-01

    Sputter erosion in ion thrusters has been measured in lifetests at discharge voltages as low as 25 V. Thruster operation at this discharge voltage results in component erosion rates sufficiently low to satisfy most mission requirements. It has been recognized that most of the internal sputtering in ion thrusters is done by doubly charged ions. Knowledge of the sputtering threshold voltage of a xenon molybdenum system would be beneficial in understanding the sputtering process as well as making more accurate calculations of the sputtering rates of ion thruster components. Sputtering threshold energies calculated from various formulations found in the literature results in values ranging from 28 to 200 eV. It is evident that some of these formulations cannot be relied upon to provide sputtering thresholds with any degree of accuracy. This paper re-examines the threshold energies measurements made in the early sixties by Askerov and Sena, and Stuart and Wehner. The threshold voltages as derived by Askerov and au have been reevaluated by using a different extrapolation method of sputter yields at low ion energies. The resulting threshold energies are in general similar to those measured by Stuart and Wehner. An empirical relationship is derived,for mercury and xenon ions for the ratio of the sputtering threshold energy to the sublimation energy as a function of the ratio of target to ion atomic mass.

  11. An electrodynamic ion funnel interface for greater sensitivity and higher throughput with linear ion trap mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Jason S.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-09-01

    An electrospray ionization interface incorporating an electrodynamic ion funnel has been designed and implemented on a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, LTQ). We found ion transmission to be greatly improved by replacing the standard capillary-skimmer interface with the capillary-ion funnel interface. An infusion study using a serial dilution of a reserpine solution showed that ion injection (accumulation) times to fill the ion trap at a given automatic gain control (AGC) target value were reduced by ~90% which resulted in an ~10-fold increase in peak intensities. In liquid chromatography tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) experiments performed using a global protein digest sample from the bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis, more peptides and proteins were identified when the ion funnel interface was used in place of the standard interface. This improvement was most pronounced at lower sample concentrations, where extended ion accumulation times are required, resulting in an ~2-fold increase in the number of protein identifications. Implementation of the ion funnel interface on a LTQ Fourier transform (FT) mass spectrometer showed a ~25-50% reduction in spectrum acquisition time. The duty cycle improvement in this case was due to the ion accumulation event contributing a larger portion to the total spectrum acquisition time.

  12. An Experimental Review on Heavy-Flavor v 2 in Heavy-Ion Collision

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nasim, Md.; Esha, Roli; Huang, Huan Zhong

    2016-01-01

    For overmore » a decade now, the primary purpose of relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been to study the properties of QCD matter under extreme conditions—high temperature and high density. The heavy-ion experiments at both RHIC and LHC have recorded a wealth of data in p+p, p+Pb, d+Au, Cu+Cu, Cu+Au, Au+Au, Pb+Pb, and U+U collisions at energies ranging from s N N = 7.7  GeV to 7 TeV. Heavy quarks are considered good probe to study the QCD matter created in relativistic collisions due to their very large mass and other unique properties. A precise measurement of various properties of heavy-flavor hadrons provides an insight into the fundamental properties of the hot and dense medium created in these nucleus-nucleus collisions, such as transport coefficient and thermalization and hadronization mechanisms. The main focus of this paper is to present a review on the measurements of azimuthal anisotropy of heavy-flavor hadrons and to outline the scientific opportunities in this sector due to future detector upgrade. We will mainly discuss the elliptic flow of open charmed meson ( D -meson), J / ψ , and leptons from heavy-flavor decay at RHIC and LHC energy.« less

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics FOCUS ON HEAVY IONS IN BIOPHYSICS AND MEDICAL PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco

    2008-07-01

    Interest in energetic heavy ions is rapidly increasing in the field of biomedicine. Heavy ions are normally excluded from radiation protection, because they are not normally experienced by humans on Earth. However, knowledge of heavy ion biophysics is necessary in two fields: charged particle cancer therapy (hadrontherapy), and radiation protection in space missions. The possibility to cure tumours using accelerated heavy charged particles was first tested in Berkeley in the sixties, but results were not satisfactory. However, about 15 years ago therapy with carbon ions was resumed first in Japan and then in Europe. Heavy ions are preferable to photons for both physical and biological characteristics: the Bragg peak and limited lateral diffusion ensure a conformal dose distribution, while the high relative biological effectiveness and low oxygen enhancement ration in the Bragg peak region make the beam very effective in treating radioresistant and hypoxic tumours. Recent results coming from the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba (see the paper by Dr Tsujii and co-workers in this issue) and GSI (Germany) provide strong clinical evidence that heavy ions are indeed an extremely effective weapon in the fight against cancer. However, more research is needed in the field, especially on optimization of the treatment planning and risk of late effects in normal tissue, including secondary cancers. On the other hand, high-energy heavy ions are present in galactic cosmic radiation and, although they are rare as compared to protons, they give a major contribution in terms of equivalent dose to the crews of manned space exploratory-class missions. Exploration of the Solar System is now the main goal of the space program, and the risk caused by exposure to galactic cosmic radiation is considered a serious hindrance toward this goal, because of the high uncertainty on late effects of energetic heavy nuclei, and the lack of effective countermeasures. Risks

  14. Heating of heavy ions on auroral field lines

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, K.I.; Okuda, H., Hasegawa, A.

    1983-01-01

    Heating of heavy ions is studied in the presence of large amplitude hydrogen cyclotron waves. A three wave decay process, in which a large amplitude pump hydrogen cyclotron wave decays into a daughter hydrogen cyclotron wave and a low frequency oxygen cyclotron wave, is studied theoretically and by numerical simulations. The numerical simulations show a decay instability resulting in strong heating of both the oxygen ions and the hydrogen ions. In particular, the high energy tail of the oxygen ions is observed in the perpendicular distribution.

  15. Effect of heavy ion irradiation on C 60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotha, S.; Ingale, A.; Avasthi, D. K.; Mittal, V. K.; Mishra, S.; Rustagi, K. C.; Gupta, A.; Kulkarni, V. N.; Khathing, D. T.

    1999-06-01

    Thin films of C 60 were subjected to swift heavy ion irradiation spanning the region from 2 to 11 keV/nm of electronic excitation. Studies of the irradiated films by Raman spectroscopy indicated polymerization and damage of the film with an ion fluence. The ion track radii are estimated for various ions using the Raman data. Photoluminescence spectroscopy of the irradiated film indicated a decrease in the C 60 phase with a dose, and an increase in the intensity at the 590 nm wavelength, which is attributed to an increase in the oxygen content.

  16. Comet Encke: Meteor metallic ion identification by mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.; Aikin, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Metal ions including Na-40(+), Mg-24(+), Si-28(+), K-39(+), Ca-40(+), Sc-45(+), Cr-52(+), Fe-56(+), and Ni-58(+) were detected in the upper atmosphere during the beta Taurids meteor shower. Abundances of these ions relative to Si(+) show agreement in most instances with chondrites. A notable exception is 45(+), which is Sc(+), is 100 times more abundant than neutral scandium found in chondrites.

  17. Comet encke: meteor metallic ion identification by mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, R A; Aikin, A C

    1973-04-20

    Metal ions including 23(+) (Na(+)), 24(+) (Mg(+)) 28(+) (Si(+)), 39(+) (K(+)), 40(+) (Ca(+)), 45(+) (Sc(+)), 52(+) Cr(+)). 56(+) (Fe(+)), and 58(+) (Ni(+)) have been detected in the upper atmosphere during the period of the Beta Taurids meteor shower. The abundances of these ions relative to Si(+) show, agreement in most instances with abundances in chondrites. A notable exception is 45(+), which, if it is Sc(+), is 100 times more abundant than neutral scandium found in chondrites. PMID:17816288

  18. Comet encke: meteor metallic ion identification by mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, R A; Aikin, A C

    1973-04-20

    Metal ions including 23(+) (Na(+)), 24(+) (Mg(+)) 28(+) (Si(+)), 39(+) (K(+)), 40(+) (Ca(+)), 45(+) (Sc(+)), 52(+) Cr(+)). 56(+) (Fe(+)), and 58(+) (Ni(+)) have been detected in the upper atmosphere during the period of the Beta Taurids meteor shower. The abundances of these ions relative to Si(+) show, agreement in most instances with abundances in chondrites. A notable exception is 45(+), which, if it is Sc(+), is 100 times more abundant than neutral scandium found in chondrites.

  19. Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, M.; Deng, H.; Lu, Y.; Zhuang, C.; Liu, Z.; Qiu, Q.; Qiu, Y.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurrence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants.

  20. Open charm and beauty at ultrarelativistic heavy ion colliders.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Magdalena; Gyulassy, Miklos; Wicks, Simon

    2005-03-25

    Important goals of BNL RHIC and CERN LHC experiments with ion beams include the creation and study of new forms of matter, such as the quark gluon plasma. Heavy quark production and attenuation provide unique tomographic probes of that matter. We predict the suppression pattern of open charm and beauty in Au+Au collisions at RHIC and LHC energies based on the DGLV formalism of radiative energy loss. A cancellation between effects due to the sqrt[s] energy dependence of the high p(T) slope and heavy quark energy loss is predicted to lead to surprising similarity of heavy quark suppression at RHIC and LHC. PMID:15903848

  1. Solar wind heavy ions from flare-heated coronal plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bame, S. J.; Asbridge, J. R.; Feldman, W. C.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gosling, J. T.

    1979-01-01

    Information concerning the coronal expansion is carried by solar-wind heavy ions. Distinctly different energy-per-charge ion spectra are found in two classes of solar wind having the low kinetic temperatures necessary for E/q resolution of the ion species. Heavy-ion spectra which can be resolved are most frequently observed in the low-speed interstream (IS) plasma found between high speed streams; the streams are thought to originate from coronal holes. Although the sources of the IS plasma are uncertain, the heavy-ion spectra found there contain identifiable peaks of O, Si, and Fe ions. Such spectra indicate that the IS ionization state of O is established in coronal gas at a temperature of approximately 1.6 million K, while that of Fe is frozen in farther out at about 1.5 million K. On occasion anomalous spectra are found outside IS flows in solar wind with abnormally depressed local kinetic temperatures. The anomalous spectra contain Fe(16+) ions, not usually found in IS flows, and the derived coronal freezing-in temperatures are significantly higher. The coronal sources of some of these ionizationally hot flows are identified as solar flares.

  2. Development of Superconducting Focusing Quadrupoles for Heavy Ion Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N; Manahan, R; Lietzke, A F

    2001-09-10

    Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is exploring a promising path to a practical inertial-confinement fusion reactor. The associated heavy ion driver will require a large number of focusing quadrupole magnets. A concept for a superconducting quadrupole array, using many simple racetrack coils, was developed at LLNL. Two, single-bore quadrupole prototypes of the same design, with distinctly different conductor, were designed, built, and tested. Both prototypes reached their short sample currents with little or no training. Magnet design, and test results, are presented and discussed.

  3. Heavy ions at steamboat: summary of parallel sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    The interest in heavy ions at the intersection between particle and nuclear physics is motivated by the opportunity for an entirely new approach to the understanding of fundamental interactions by studying extreme states of nuclear matter. At this conference we have seen important new results on some of the central issues including: (1) how well can we predict the landscape of the extremes - that is, the phase structure of QCD and nuclear matter; (2) can we explore it with heavy ion collisions; and (3) can we recognize the appearance of new terrain. Our present understanding of the behavior of nuclear matter under extreme conditions is briefly discussed. 16 references. (WHK)

  4. Reducing hazardous heavy metal ions using mangium bark waste.

    PubMed

    Khabibi, Jauhar; Syafii, Wasrin; Sari, Rita Kartika

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mangium bark and its biosorbent ability to reduce heavy metal ions in standard solutions and wastewater and to assess changes in bark characteristics after heavy metal absorption. The experiments were conducted to determine heavy metal absorption from solutions of heavy metals alone and in mixtures as well as from wastewater. The results show that mangium bark can absorb heavy metals. Absorption percentages and capacities from single heavy metal solutions showed that Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Pb(2+) > Hg(2+), while those from mixture solutions showed that Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Ni(2+). Wastewater from gold mining only contained Cu, with an absorption percentage and capacity of 42.87 % and 0.75 mg/g, respectively. The highest absorption percentage and capacity of 92.77 % and 5.18 mg/g, respectively, were found for Hg(2+) in a mixture solution and Cu(2+) in single-metal solution. The Cu(2+) absorption process in a single-metal solution changed the biosorbent characteristics of the mangium bark, yielding a decreased crystalline fraction; changed transmittance on hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups; and increased the presence of Cu. In conclusion, mangium bark biosorbent can reduce hazardous heavy metal ions in both standard solutions and wastewater. PMID:27179811

  5. Reducing hazardous heavy metal ions using mangium bark waste.

    PubMed

    Khabibi, Jauhar; Syafii, Wasrin; Sari, Rita Kartika

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mangium bark and its biosorbent ability to reduce heavy metal ions in standard solutions and wastewater and to assess changes in bark characteristics after heavy metal absorption. The experiments were conducted to determine heavy metal absorption from solutions of heavy metals alone and in mixtures as well as from wastewater. The results show that mangium bark can absorb heavy metals. Absorption percentages and capacities from single heavy metal solutions showed that Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Pb(2+) > Hg(2+), while those from mixture solutions showed that Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Ni(2+). Wastewater from gold mining only contained Cu, with an absorption percentage and capacity of 42.87 % and 0.75 mg/g, respectively. The highest absorption percentage and capacity of 92.77 % and 5.18 mg/g, respectively, were found for Hg(2+) in a mixture solution and Cu(2+) in single-metal solution. The Cu(2+) absorption process in a single-metal solution changed the biosorbent characteristics of the mangium bark, yielding a decreased crystalline fraction; changed transmittance on hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups; and increased the presence of Cu. In conclusion, mangium bark biosorbent can reduce hazardous heavy metal ions in both standard solutions and wastewater.

  6. Properties of the suprathermal heavy ion population near 1 AU during solar cycles 23 and 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayeh, Maher A.; Desai, Mihir I.; Ebert, Robert W.; Mason, Glenn M.

    2016-03-01

    Using measurements from the Advanced Composition Explorer/Ultra-Low Energy Isotope Spectrometer (ACE/ULEIS) near 1 AU, we surveyed the composition and spectra of heavy ions (He-through-Fe) during interplanetary quiet times from 1998 January 1 to 2014 December 31 at suprathermal energies between ˜0.11 and ˜1.28 MeV nucleon-1. The selected time period covers the maxima of solar cycles 23 and 24 and the extended solar minimum in between. We find the following: (1) The number of quiet-hours in each year correlates well with the sunspot number, year 2009 was the quietest for about 90% of the time; (2) The composition of the quiet-time suprathermal heavy ion population (3He, C-through-O, and Fe) correlates well with the level of solar activity, exhibiting SEP-like composition signatures during solar maximum, and CIR- or solar wind-like composition during solar minimum; (3) The heavy ion spectra at ˜0.11-0.32 MeV nucleon-1 exhibit suprathermal tails with power-law spectral indices ranging from 1.4 to 2.7. (4) Fe spectral indices get softer (steeper) from solar minimum of cycle 23 to solar cycle 24 maximum. These results imply that during IP quiet times and at energies above ˜0.1 MeV nucleon-1, the IP medium is dominated by material from prior solar and interplanetary events.

  7. Hadron production in relativistic heavy ion interactions and the search for the quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1989-12-01

    The course starts with an introduction, from the experimentalist's point of view, of the challenge of measuring Relativistic Heavy Ion interactions. A review of some theoretical predictions for the expected signatures of the quark gluon plasma will be made, with a purpose to understand how they relate to quantities which may be experimentally measured. A short exposition of experimental techniques and details is given including charged particles in matter, momentum resolution, kinematics and Lorentz Transformations, calorimetry. Principles of particle identification including magnetic spectrometers, time of flight measurement. Illustrations using the E802 spectrometer and other measured results. Resolution smearing of spectra, and binning effects. Parent to daughter effects in decay, with {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma} {gamma} as an example. The experimental situation from the known data in p -- p collisions and proton-nucleus reactions is reviewed and used as a basis for further discussions. The Cronin Effect'' and the Seagull Effect'' being two arcana worth noting. Then, selected experiments from the BNL and CERN heavy ion programs are discussed in detail. 118 refs., 45 figs.

  8. Fourth workshop on experiments and detectors for a relativistic heavy ion collider

    SciTech Connect

    Fatyga, M.; Moskowitz, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: physics at RHIC; flavor flow from quark-gluon plasma; space-time quark-gluon cascade; jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions; parton distributions in hard nuclear collisions; experimental working groups, two-arm electron/photon spectrometer collaboration; total and elastic pp cross sections; a 4{pi} tracking TPC magnetic spectrometer; hadron spectroscopy; efficiency and background simulations for J/{psi} detection in the RHIC dimuon experiment; the collision regions beam crossing geometries; Monte Carlo simulations of interactions and detectors; proton-nucleus interactions; the physics of strong electromagnetic fields in collisions of relativistic heavy ions; a real time expert system for experimental high energy/nuclear physics; the development of silicon multiplicity detectors; a pad readout detector for CRID/tracking; RHIC TPC R D progress and goals; development of analog memories for RHIC detector front-end electronic systems; calorimeter/absorber optimization for a RHIC dimuon experiment; construction of a highly segmented high resolution TOF system; progress report on a fast, particle-identifying trigger based on ring-imaging and highly integrated electronics for a TPC detector.

  9. Nonuniformity mitigation of beam illumination in heavy ion inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, S.; Noguchi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kurosaki, T.; Barada, D.; Ogoyski, A. I.; Zhang, W.; Xie, J.; Zhang, H.; Dai, D.

    2014-08-01

    In inertial fusion, a target DT fuel should be compressed to typically 1000 times the solid density. The target implosion nonuniformity is introduced by a driver beam’s illumination nonuniformity, for example. The target implosion should be robust against the implosion nonuniformities. In this paper, the requirement for implosion uniformity is first discussed. The implosion non-uniformity should be less than a few percent. The implosion dynamics is also briefly reviewed in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). Heavy ions deposit their energy inside the target energy absorber, and the energy deposition layer is rather thick, depending on the ion particle energy. Then nonuniformity mitigation mechanisms of the heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination in HIF are discussed. A density valley appears in the energy absorber, and the large-scale density valley also works as a radiation energy confinement layer, which contributes to a radiation energy smoothing. In HIF, wobbling heavy ion beam illumination was also introduced to realize a uniform implosion. The wobbling HIB axis oscillation is precisely controlled. In the wobbling HIBs’ illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space on an HIF target. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may contribute to the reduction of the HIBs’ illumination nonuniformity by its smoothing effect on the HIB illumination nonuniformity and also by a growth mitigation effect on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  10. On the analysis of inhomogeneous magnetic field spectrometer for laser-driven ion acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, D.; Senje, L.; McCormack, O.; Dromey, B.; Zepf, M.; Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Letzring, S.; Gautier, D. C.; Fernandez, J. C.; Toncian, T.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2015-03-15

    We present a detailed study of the use of a non-parallel, inhomogeneous magnetic field spectrometer for the investigation of laser-accelerated ion beams. Employing a wedged yoke design, we demonstrate the feasibility of an in-situ self-calibration technique of the non-uniform magnetic field and show that high-precision measurements of ion energies are possible in a wide-angle configuration. We also discuss the implications of a stacked detector system for unambiguous identification of different ion species present in the ion beam and explore the feasibility of detection of high energy particles beyond 100 MeV/amu in radiation harsh environments.

  11. Plasma composition in Jupiter's magnetosphere - Initial results from the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiss, J.; Gloeckler, G.; Balsiger, H.; Fisk, L. A.; Galvin, A. B.; Gliem, F.; Hamilton, D. C.; Ipavich, F. M.; Livi, S.; Mall, U.

    1992-01-01

    The ion composition in the Jovian environment was investigated with the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on board Ulysses. A hot tenuous plasma was observed throughout the outer and middle magnetosphere. In some regions two thermally different components were identified. Oxygen and sulfur ions with several different charge states, from the volcanic satellite Io, make the largest contribution to the mass density of the hot plasma, even at high latitude. Solar wind particles were observed in all regions investigated. Ions from Jupiter's ionosphere were abundant in the middle magnetosphere, particularly in the high-latitude region on the dusk side, which was traversed for the first time.

  12. Plasma Composition in Jupiter's Magnetosphere: Initial Results from the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Geiss, J; Gloeckler, G; Balsiger, H; Fisk, L A; Galvin, A B; Gliem, F; Hamilton, D C; Ipavich, F M; Livi, S; Mall, U; Ogilvie, K W; von Steiger, R; Wilken, B

    1992-09-11

    The ion composition in the Jovian environment was investigated with the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on board Ulysses. A hot tenuous plasma was observed throughout the outer and middle magnetosphere. In some regions two thermally different components were identified. Oxygen and sulfur ions with several different charge states, from the volcanic satellite lo, make the largest contribution to the mass density of the hot plasma, even at high latitude. Solar wind particles were observed in all regions investigated. Ions from Jupiter's ionosphere were abundant in the middle magnetosphere, particularly in the highlatitude region on the dusk side, which was traversed for the first time.

  13. Calculations of heavy ion charge state distributions for nonequilibrium conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhn, A.; Hovestadt, D.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical calculations of the charge state distributions of test ions in a hot plasma under nonequilibrium conditions are presented. The mean ionic charges of heavy ions for finite residence times in an instantaneously heated plasma and for a non-Maxwellian electron distribution function are derived. The results are compared with measurements of the charge states of solar energetic particles, and it is found that neither of the two simple cases considered can explain the observations.

  14. Range and etching behaviour of swift heavy ions in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Lakhwant; Singh, Mohan; Samra, Kawaljeet Singh; Singh, Ravinder

    Aliphatic (CR-39) and aromatic (Lexan polycarbonate) polymers have been irradiated with a variety of heavy ions such as 58Ni, 93Nb, 132Xe, 139La, 197Au, 208Pb, 209Bi, and 238U having energy ranges of 5.60-8.00 MeV/n in order to study the range and etching kinetics of heavy ion tracksE The ion fluence (range ˜104-105 ions/cm2) was kept low to avoid the overlapping of etched tracks. The measured values of maximum etched track length were corrected due to bulk etching and over etching to obtain the actual range. The experimental results of range profiles were compared with those obtained by the most used procedures employed in obtaining range and stopping power. The range values of present ions have been computed using the semiempirical codes (SRIM-98, SRIM-2003.26, and LISE++:0-[Hub90]) in order to check their accuracy. The merits and demerits of the adopted formulations have been highlighted in the present work. It is observed that the range of heavy ions is greater in aromatic polymers (Lexan polycarbonate) as compared to the aliphatic polymers (CR-39) irradiated with similar ions having same incident energies. The SRIM-98 and SRIM2003.26 codes don't show any significant trend in deviations, however, LISE++:0-[Hub90] code provides overall good agreement with the experimental values. The ratio of track etch rate (along projectile trajectory) to the bulk etch rate has also been studied as a function of energy loss of heavy ions in these polymers.

  15. SIMULATION OF CHAMBER TRANSPORT FOR HEAVY-ION FUSION DRIVERS

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W M; Callahan, D A; Tabak, M; Yu, S S; Peterson, P F; Rose, D V; Welch, D R

    2004-05-20

    The heavy-ion fusion (HIF) community recently developed a power-plant design that meets the various requirements of accelerators, final focus, chamber transport, and targets. The point design is intended to minimize physics risk and is certainly not optimal for the cost of electricity. Recent chamber-transport simulations, however, indicate that changes in the beam ion species, the convergence angle, and the emittance might allow more-economical designs.

  16. Preliminary result of rapid solenoid for controlling heavy-ion beam parameters of laser ion source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Okamura, M.; Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Kanesue, T.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.

    2015-03-13

    To realize a heavy ion inertial fusion driver, we have studied a possibility of laser ion source (LIS). A LIS can provide high current high brightness heavy ion beams, however it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters. To overcome the issue, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The rapid ramping magnetic field could enhance limited time slice of the current and simultaneously the beam emittance changed accordingly. This approach may also useful to realize an ion source for HIF power plant.

  17. EPA method 8270 (semivolatiles) using a GC/ion trap spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Barshick, S.A.; Worthy, S.; Griest, W.H.

    1995-12-31

    EPA method 8270 describes the analysis of over 70 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in groundwater, soils, and solid and mixed wastes. Estimated quantitation limits for this method using a quadrupole mass spectrometer are in the pg/L or pg/kg range. To achieve these concentrations levels, liter volumes of water or tens of grams of solid waste must be extracted and concentrated to 1-2 mL prior to GC/MS analysis. The inherent sensitivity of the ion trap mass spectrometer (ITS) and its compatibility with GC introduction makes GC/ITS ideal for use in EPA methods, The goal of this work was to demonstrate the improvements possible in EPA protocols using an ion trap mass spectrometer. Method 8270 was chosen for this evaluation.

  18. Development and characterization of a multiple-coincidence ion-momentum imaging spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Laksman, J.; Céolin, D.; Månsson, E. P.; Sorensen, S. L.; Gisselbrecht, M.

    2013-12-15

    The design and performance of a high-resolution momentum-imaging spectrometer for ions which is optimized for experiments using synchrotron radiation is presented. High collection efficiency is achieved by a focusing electrostatic lens; a long drift tube improves mass resolution and a position-sensitive detector enables measurement of the transverse momentum of ions. The optimisation of the lens for particle momentum measurement at the highest resolution is described. We discuss the overall performance of the spectrometer and present examples demonstrating the momentum resolution for both kinetics and for angular measurements in molecular fragmentation for carbon monoxide and fullerenes. Examples are presented that confirm that complete space-time focussing is possible for a two-field three-dimensional imaging spectrometer.

  19. First operation of the PWO crystal calorimeter as a mass spectrometer in a heavy-load high energy physics experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blick, A. M.; Kachanov, V. A.; Khaustov, G. V.; Kolosov, V. N.; Korzhik, M. V.; Lednev, A. A.; Peigneux, J.-P.; Polovnikov, S. A.; Prokoshkin, Yu. D.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Shagin, P. M.; Singovsky, A. V.; Sugonyaev, V. P.

    1997-02-01

    The lead tungstate (PWO) heavy crystal calorimeter is tested in a GAMS-type experiment detecting 50 000 π0-mesons produced in a 32.5 GeV/ c intensive π- beam of the 70 GeV IHEP accelerator. In spite of a huge beam load of the calorimeter cells (up to 10 6 π -/s), a clean π0 → 2 γ signal is observed. The measured PWO spectrometer mass resolution is in good accordance with previous electron beam tests and GEANT calculations. A high precision of the real-time PWO spectrometer calibration, using the π0 signal during the physics run, is achieved. The results of these very first spectrometric beam tests demonstrate a high performance of multicell PWO spectrometers in heavy-load high energy physics experiments of both fixed target and collider types.

  20. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions.

  1. Heavy ion induced changes in small intestinal parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, K. E.; McCullough, J. S.; Brennan, P.; Hayes, T. L.; Ainsworth, E. J.; Nelson, A. C.

    1994-10-01

    The effects on 17 different structural parameters of mouse small intestine three days after treatment with three types of heavy ion (neon, iron and niobium) are compared, the first two being of particular relevance to space flight. The data for niobium are given in full, showing that changes after niobium ion treatment are not standard and are concentrated in the epithelial compartment, with few of the parameters having a response which is dose dependent. When comparisons are made for the three types of heavy ion, the damage is greatest after neon ion irradiation, implying that the additional non-epithelial damage produced as LET rises from X rays through neutrons to neon ions is not necessarily maintained as LET continues to rise. Further understanding is therefore needed of the balance between changes affecting the vascular and absorptive components of the organ. Variation from group to group is also important, as is variation of strain or gastrointestinal status. All such factors are important in the understanding of changes in multicellular organs after exposure to heavy ion radiation.

  2. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. PMID:20656104

  3. Bennett ion mass spectrometers on the Pioneer Venus Bus and Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Brinton, H. C.; Wagner, T. C. G.; Blackwell, B. H.; Cordier, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Identical Bennett radio-frequency ion mass spectrometer instruments on the Pioneer Venus Bus and Orbiter have provided the first in-situ measurements of the detailed composition of the planet's ionosphere. The sensitivity, resolution, and dynamic range are sufficient to provide measurements of the solar-wind-induced bow-shock, the ionopause, and highly structured distributions of up to 16 thermal ion species within the ionosphere. The use of adaptive scan and detection circuits and servo-controlled logic for ion mass and energy analysis permits detection of ion concentrations as low as 5 ions/cu cm and ion flow velocities as large as 9 km/sec for O(+). A variety of commandable modes provides ion sampling rates ranging from 0.1 to 1.6 sec between measurements of a single constituent. A lightweight sensor and electronics housing are features of a compact instrument package.

  4. Heavy Ion Carcinogenesis and Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Durante, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Prior to the human exploration of Mars or long duration stays on the Earth s moon, the risk of cancer and other diseases from space radiation must be accurately estimated and mitigated. Space radiation, comprised of energetic protons and heavy nuclei, has been show to produce distinct biological damage compared to radiation on Earth, leading to large uncertainties in the projection of cancer and other health risks, while obscuring evaluation of the effectiveness of possible countermeasures. Here, we describe how research in cancer radiobiology can support human missions to Mars and other planets.

  5. Heavy ion carcinogenesis and human space exploration.

    PubMed

    Durante, Marco; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2008-06-01

    Before the human exploration of Mars or long-duration missions on the Earth's moon, the risk of cancer and other diseases from space radiation must be accurately estimated and mitigated. Space radiation, comprised of energetic protons and heavy nuclei, has been shown to produce distinct biological damage compared with radiation on Earth, leading to large uncertainties in the projection of cancer and other health risks, and obscuring evaluation of the effectiveness of possible countermeasures. Here, we describe how research in cancer radiobiology can support human missions to Mars and other planets. PMID:18451812

  6. Source dimensions in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, M.; Bertsch, G.F.

    1994-05-16

    Recent experiments on pion correlations, interpreted as interferometric measurements of the collision zone, are compared with models that distinguish a prehadronic phase and a hadronic phase. The models include prehadronic longitudinal expansion, conversion to hadrons in local kinetic equilibrium, and rescattering of the produced hadrons. The longitudinal radius measured in collisions of 200 GeV/u sulfur nuclei on a heavy target require the existence of a prehadronic phase which converts to the hadronic phase at densities around 0.8 GeV/fm{sup 3}. The transverse radii cannot be reproduced without introducing more complex dynamics into the transverse expansion.

  7. Modeling Electron-Cloud Effects in Heavy-Ion Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Lund, S M; Molvik, A W; Lee, E P; Azevedo, T; Vay, J; Stoltz, P; Veitzer, S

    2004-09-21

    Stray electrons can arise in positive-ion accelerators for heavy ion fusion or other applications as a result of ionization of ambient gas or gas released from walls due to halo-ion impact, or as a result of secondary- electron emission. We summarize results from several studies undertaken in conjunction with an effort to develop a self-consistent modeling capability: (1) Calculation of the electron cloud produced by electron desorption from computed beam-ion loss, which illustrates the importance of retaining ion reflection at the walls; (2) Simulation of the effect of specified electron cloud distributions on ion beam dynamics; and (3) analysis of an instability associated with a resonance between the beam-envelope ''breathing'' mode and the electron perturbation. We also report first results from a long-timestep algorithm for electron dynamics, which holds promise for efficient simultaneous solution of electron and ion dynamics. One conclusion from study (2) is that heavy-ion beams are surprisingly robust to electron clouds, compared to a priori expectations.

  8. Heavy ion collisions and the pre-equilibrium exciton model

    SciTech Connect

    Betak, E.

    2012-10-20

    We present a feasible way to apply the pre-equilibrium exciton model in its masterequation formulation to heavy-ion induced reactions including spin variables. Emission of nucleons, {gamma}'s and also light clusters is included in our model.

  9. The chromatic correction in RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Dell, G.F.; Hahn, H.; Parzen, G.

    1987-01-01

    The scheme for the correction of chromatic effects in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL is discussed. This scheme uses six families of sextupoles excited by four independent power supplies, and provides adequate control of linear and quadratic terms in the tune vs momentum dependence and reduces the variation of the betatron amplitude, vs momentum.

  10. Probing the nuclear structure with heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Broglia, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclei display distortions in both ordinary space and in gauge space. It is suggested that it is possible to learn about the spatial distribution of the Nilsson orbitals and about the change of the pairing gap with the rotational frequency through the analysis of one- and two-nucleon transfer reactions induced in heavy-ion collisions.

  11. Mechanism of dissipation in heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss a new surface-plus-window mechanism for the conversion of nuclear collective energy into internal degrees of freedom at intermediate excitation energies. This novel dissipation mechanism, which results from the long mean free path of nucleons inside a nucleus, involves interactions of either one or two nucleons with the moving nuclear surface and also, for dumbbell-like shapes encountered in heavy-ion reactions and fission, the transfer of nucleons through the window separating the two portions of the system. To illustrate the effect of surface-plus-window dissipation on heavy-ion-fusion reactions we present dynamical calculations for values of the dissipation strength corresponding to 27% and 100% of the Swiatecki wall-formula value, as well as for no dissipation. In addition to dynamical thresholds for compound-nucleus formation in heavy-ion reactions, our new picture describes such other phenomena as experimental mean fission-fragment kinetic energies for the fission of nuclei throughout the periodic system, enhancement in neutron emission prior to fission, short scission-to-scission times in sequential ternary fission, widths of mass and charge distributions in deep-inelastic heavy-ion reactions, and widths of isoscalar giant quadrupole and giant octupole resonances. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Overview of US heavy-ion fusion progress and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    2004-06-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators seek to provide the scientific and technical basis for the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX), an integrated source-to-target physics experiment recently included in the list of future facilities planned by the U.S. Department of Energy. To optimize the design of IBX and future inertial fusion energy drivers, current HIF-VNL research is addressing several key issues (representative, not inclusive): gas and electron cloud effects which can exacerbate beam loss at high beam perveance and magnet aperture fill factors; ballistic neutralized and assisted-pinch focusing of neutralized heavy ion beams; limits on longitudinal compression of both neutralized and un-neutralized heavy ion bunches; and tailoring heavy ion beams for uniform target energy deposition for high energy density physics (HEDP) studies.

  13. Photon and dilepton production in high energy heavy ion collisions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sakaguchi, Takao

    2015-05-07

    The recent results on direct photons and dileptons in high energy heavy ion collisions, obtained particularly at RHIC and LHC are reviewed. The results are new not only in terms of the probes, but also in terms of the precision. We shall discuss the physics learned from the results.

  14. Electromagnetic dissociation effects in galactic heavy-ion fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for calculating cross sections for the breakup of galactic heavy ions by the Coulomb fields of the interacting nuclei are presented. By using the Weizsacker-Williams method of virtual quanta, estimates of electromagnetic dissociation cross sections for a variety of reactions applicable to galactic cosmic ray shielding studies are presented and compared with other predictions and with available experimental data.

  15. Entropy and hadrochemical composition in heavy ion collision

    SciTech Connect

    Biro, T.; Barz, H.W.; Lukacs, B.; Zimanyi, J.

    1983-06-01

    The composite particle production in a heavy ion collision is calculated in the framework of a hadrochemical model. A critical comparison is performed between the produced entropy and the observables. The entropy production during the hadrochemical processes is found to be negligible.

  16. Comments about the electromagnetic field in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLerran, L.; Skokov, V.

    2014-09-01

    In this article we discuss the properties of electromagnetic fields in heavy-ion collisions and consequences for observables. We address quantitatively the issue of the magnetic field lifetime in a collision including the electric and chiral magnetic conductivities. We show that for reasonable parameters, the magnetic field created by spectators in a collision is not modified by the presence of matter.

  17. Tumor Therapy with High-Energy Heavy-Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schardt, D.

    2001-09-01

    Heavy-ion beams offer favourable conditions for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors. The well defined range and the small lateral beam spread make it possible to deliver the dose with millimeter precision. In addition, heavy ions have an enhanced biological efficiency in the Bragg peak region which is caused by the dense ionization and the resulting reduced cellular repair rate. Furthermore, heavy ions offer the unique possibility of in-vivo range monitoring by applying Positron-Emission-Tomography (PET) techniques. Taking advantage of these clinically relevant properties, a therapy unit using 12C beams with energies of 80-430 MeV/u was constructed at GSI. The fully active beam delivery system includes a magnetic raster scan device providing a high degree of dose conformation to the target volume while healthy tissue and radiosensitive structures are spared to a maximum extent. In the framework of a clinical study 68 patients have been treated since December 1997 with promising results so far. Plans for a dedicated heavy-ion treatment center at the Radiological Clinic Heidelberg will be further pursued.

  18. Trends in Device SEE Susceptibility from Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Coss, J. R.; McCarty, K. P.; Schwartz, H. R.; Swift, G. M.; Watson, R. K.; Koga, R.; Crain, W. R.; Crawford, K. B.; Hansel, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    The sixth set of heavy ion single event effects (SEE) test data have been collected since the last IEEE publications in December issues of IEEE - Nuclear Science Transactions for 1985, 1987, 1989, 1991, and the IEEE Workshop Record, 1993. Trends in SEE susceptibility (including soft errors and latchup) for state-of- are evaluated.

  19. Update on parts SEE susceptibility from heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickols, D. K.; Smith, L. S.; Schwartz, H. R.; Soli, G.; Watson, K.

    1992-10-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and The Aerospace Corporation have collected a fourth set of heavy ion single event effects (SEE) test data since their last joint contributions to IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science in December 1985, 1987, and 1989. Trends in SEE susceptibility (including soft errors and latchup) for state-of-the-art parts are displayed.

  20. Three-dimensional Model of Tissue and Heavy Ions Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Huff, Janice L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional tissue model was incorporated into a new Monte Carlo algorithm that simulates passage of heavy ions in a tissue box . The tissue box was given as a realistic model of tissue based on confocal microscopy images. The action of heavy ions on the cellular matrix for 2- or 3-dimensional cases was simulated. Cells were modeled as a cell culture monolayer in one example, where the data were taken directly from microscopy (2-d cell matrix), and as a multi-layer obtained from confocal microscopy (3-d case). Image segmentation was used to identify cells with precise areas/volumes in an irradiated cell culture monolayer, and slices of tissue with many cell layers. The cells were then inserted into the model box of the simulated physical space pixel by pixel. In the case of modeled tissues (3-d), the tissue box had periodic boundary conditions imposed, which extrapolates the technique to macroscopic volumes of tissue. For the real tissue (3-d), specific spatial patterns for cell apoptosis and necrosis are expected. The cell patterns were modeled based on action cross sections for apoptosis and necrosis estimated from current experimental data. A spatial correlation function indicating a higher spatial concentration of damaged cells from heavy ions relative to the low-LET radiation cell damage pattern is presented. The spatial correlation effects among necrotic cells can help studying microlesions in organs, and probable effects of directionality of heavy ion radiation on epithelium and endothelium.

  1. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-15

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams.

  2. Is laser cooling for heavy-ion fusion feasible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, D. D.-M.; Brandon, S. T.

    2010-12-01

    Heavy-ion beams, each with current in the kiloampere range and particle energy in the giga-electronvolt range, must be focused onto a millimetre-size spot to provide the power required for ignition of high-gain targets for inertial confinement fusion. However, the focal spot size is always enlarged by chromatic aberration generated by the thermal spread of the beam ions in the direction of beam propagation. Enlarged focal spot degrades the target performance. For high-current beams, the conventional remedy for chromatic aberration using sextupole magnets has been shown to be ineffective. If novel correction schemes can be found, then the spot size can be reduced to below that previously believed possible. Smaller spots can mean lower energy targets so that the heavy-ion fusion (HIF) scenario can look more attractive. Success in laser cooling of ion beams in storage rings has inspired us to explore the feasibility of applying laser cooling for HIF, and the recirculator configuration proposed for HIF appears to be well suited for this purpose. However, using particle-in-cell simulations and theoretical arguments, we demonstrate in this paper that although laser cooling of heavy-ion beams is feasible in principle, the rapid velocity-space diffusion of ions in the bump-in-tail distribution, set up by the cooling lasers, limits the velocity-space compressibility of the thermal spread along the beam. Consequently, laser cooling is impractical for high-current, heavy-ion beams for the proposed recirculator configuration. Nevertheless, if the recirculator architecture or the target requirement can reduce the beam current, then the cooling scheme described here would be useful. This scheme may also be applicable to the RF linac and storage ring approach to HIF.

  3. Means for obtaining a metal ion beam from a heavy-ion cyclotron source

    DOEpatents

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1975-08-01

    A description is given of a modification to a cyclotron ion source used in producing a high intensity metal ion beam. A small amount of an inert support gas maintains the usual plasma arc, except that it is necessary for the support gas to have a heavy mass, e.g., xenon or krypton as opposed to neon. A plate, fabricated from the metal (or anything that can be sputtered) to be ionized, is mounted on the back wall of the ion source arc chamber and is bombarded by returning energetic low-charged gas ions that fail to cross the initial accelerating gap between the ion source and the accelerating electrode. Some of the atoms that are dislodged from the plate by the returning gas ions become ionized and are extracted as a useful beam of heavy ions. (auth)

  4. An electrodynamic ion funnel interface for greater sensitivity and higher throughput with linear ion trap mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Jason S.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-09-01

    An electrospray ionization interface incorporating an electrodynamic ion funnel has been designed and implemented in conjunction with a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, LTQ). We found ion transmission to be greatly improved by replacing the standard capillary-skimmer interface with the capillary-ion funnel interface. An infusion study using a serial dilution of a reserpine solution showed that ion injection times to fill the ion trap were reduced by ~90% which resulted in an ~10-fold increase in reported peak intensities. In liquid chromatography (LC)-MS and LC tandem MS (MS/MS) experiments performed using a proteomic sample from the bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis, the ion funnel interface provided an ~7-fold reduction in ion injection (accumulation) times. In a series of LC-MS/MS experiments we found that more dilute S. oneidensis samples provided more peptide and protein identifications when the ion funnel interface was used in place of the standard interface. This improvement was most pronounced at lower sample concentrations, where extended ion accumulation times are required, resulting in an ~2-fold increase in the number of protein identifications. Implementation of the ion funnel interface with a LTQ Fourier transform (FT) MS requiring much greater ion populations resulted in spectrum acquisition times reduced by ~25 to 50%.

  5. Double Coincidence Studies of Molecular Dissociation Induced by Heavy Ion Impact.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampoll Ramirez, Gabriel

    Multielectron removal from an atom or molecule may be accomplished with high efficiency by the impact of a fast, highly-charged, heavy ion. When a diatomic molecule suffers the loss of electrons, it will generally dissociate into ions having considerable amounts of kinetic energy as a result of their mutual Coulomb repulsion. In the present work, experiments designed to examine the yield and kinetic energy distributions associated with different charge division pathways for the dissociation of multicharged CO, N_2 and O_2 molecular ions were performed. A beam of 96 MeV Ar ^{14+} ions was directed through a differentially pumped gas cell containing the molecules of interest into a microchannel plate detector. Dissociation products produced in ionizing collisions were accelerated out of the gas cell by an electric field into a time-of -flight (TOF) spectrometer. Upon reaching the end of the flight tube, the ions were detected by another set of microchannel plates. An acceptable binary dissociation event was one for which both dissociation-product ions were detected. The TOF of the first ion to reach the detector and the time difference between the arrival of the first ion and its partner were recorded on magnetic tape event-by-event so as to maintain their correlation. Separation of the time-difference (Delta t) distributions into sets correlated with the charge of the first ion was accomplished by off-line sorting of the event-by-event data. Transformation of the Deltat distributions into total kinetic energy distributions (TKED) required a detailed simulation of the ion trajectories in order to construct the response matrix of the spectrometer system. The average total kinetic energies were determined for all the observed dissociation channels and used to calculate the average excitation energies of the parent molecular ions. The TKED of CO^{2+} was in very good agreement with previous measurements obtained in a photoionization study using synchroton radiation. The

  6. Development of an ion time-of-flight spectrometer for neutron depth profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit

    signal. Without loss of generality, the secondary signal is obtained by the passage of the ion through a thin carbon foil, which produces ion-induced secondary electron emission (IISEE). The time-of-flight spectrometer physically acts as an ion/electron separator. The electrons that enter the active volume of the spectrometer are transported onto the microchannel plate detector to generate the secondary signal. The electron optics can be designed in variety of ways depending on the nature of the measurement and physical requirements. Two ion time-of-flight spectrometer designs are introduced: the parallel electric and magnetic (PEM) field spectrometer and the cross electric and magnetic (CEM) field spectrometer. The CEM field spectrometers have been extensively used in a wide range of applications where precise mass differentiation is required. The PEM field spectrometers have lately found interest in mass spectroscopy applications. The application of the PEM field spectrometer for energy measurements is a novel approach. The PEM field spectrometer used in the measurements employs axial electric and magnetic fields along the nominal direction of the incident ion. The secondary electrons are created by a thin carbon foil on the entrance disk and transported on the microchannel plate that faces the carbon foil. The initial angular distribution of the secondary electrons has virtually no effect on the transport time of the secondary electrons from the surface of the carbon foil to the electron microchannel plate detector. Therefore, the PEM field spectrometer can offer high-resolution energy measurement for relatively lower electric fields. The measurements with the PEM field spectrometer were made with the Tandem linear particle accelerator at the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center at Yorktown Heights, NY. The CEM field spectrometer developed for the thesis employs axial electric field along the nominal direction of the ion, and has perpendicular magnetic field. As the

  7. Cosmic heavy ion tracks in mesoscopic biological test objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Facius, R.

    1994-01-01

    Since more than 20 years ago, when the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council of the U.S.A. released their report on 'HZE particle effects in manned spaced flight', it has been emphasized how difficult - if not even impossible - it is to assess their radiobiological impact on man from conventional studies where biological test organisms are stochastically exposed to 'large' fluences of heavy ions. An alternative, competing approach had been realized in the BIOSTACK experiments, where the effects of single cosmic as well as accelerator - heavy ions on individual biological test organisms could be investigated. Although presented from the beginning as the preferable approach for terrestrial investigations with accelerator heavy ions too ('The BIOSTACK as an approach to high LET radiation research'), only recently this insight is gaining more widespread recognition. In space flight experiments, additional constraints imposed by the infrastructure of the vehicle or satellite further impede such investigations. Restrictions concern the physical detector systems needed for the registration of the cosmic heavy ions' trajectories as well as the biological systems eligible as test organisms. Such optimized procedures and techniques were developed for the investigations on chromosome aberrations induced by cosmic heavy ions in cells of the stem meristem of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and for the investigation of the radiobiological response of Wolffia arriza, which is the smallest flowering (water) plant. The biological effects were studied by the coworkers of the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) which in cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA organized the exposure in the Biosatellites of the Cosmos series. Since biological investigations and physical measurements of particle tracks had to be performed in laboratories widely separated, the preferred fixed contact between biological test objects and the particle detectors

  8. Heavy-ion radiation induced bystander effect in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shujian; Sun, Yeqing; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Wei; Cui, Changna

    2012-07-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect is defined as the induction of damage in neighboring non-hit cells by signals released from directly-irradiated cells. Recently, Low dose of high LET radiation induced bystander effects in vivo have been reported more and more. It has been indicated that radiation induced bystander effect was localized not only in bystander tissues but also in distant organs. Genomic, epigenetic, metabolomics and proteomics play significant roles in regulating heavy-ion radiation stress responses in mice. To identify the molecular mechanism that underlies bystander effects of heavy-ion radiation, the male mice head were exposed to 2000mGy dose of 12C heavy-ion radiation and the distant organ liver was detected on 1h, 6h, 12h and 24h after radiation, respectively. MSAP was used to monitor the level of polymorphic DNA methylation changes. The results show that heavy-ion irradiate mouse head can induce liver DNA methylation changes significantly. The percent of DNA methylation changes are time-dependent and highest at 6h after radiation. We also prove that the hypo-methylation changes on 1h and 6h after irradiation. But the expression level of DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a is not changed. UPLC/Synapt HDMS G2 was employed to detect the proteomics of bystander liver 1h after irradiation. 64 proteins are found significantly different between treatment and control group. GO process show that six of 64 which were unique in irradiation group are associated with apoptosis and DNA damage response. The results suggest that mice head exposed to heavy-ion radiation can induce damage and methylation pattern changed in distant organ liver. Moreover, our findings are important to understand the molecular mechanism of radiation induced bystander effects in vivo.

  9. Cosmic heavy ion tracks in mesoscopic biological test objects

    SciTech Connect

    Facius, R.

    1994-12-31

    Since more than 20 years ago, when the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council of the U.S.A. released their report on `HZE particle effects in manned spaced flight`, it has been emphasized how difficult - if not even impossible - it is to assess their radiobiological impact on man from conventional studies where biological test organisms are stochastically exposed to `large` fluences of heavy ions. An alternative, competing approach had been realized in the BIOSTACK experiments, where the effects of single cosmic as well as accelerator - heavy ions on individual biological test organisms could be investigated. Although presented from the beginning as the preferable approach for terrestrial investigations with accelerator heavy ions too (`The BIOSTACK as an approach to high LET radiation research`), only recently this insight is gaining more widespread recognition. In space flight experiments, additional constraints imposed by the infrastructure of the vehicle or satellite further impede such investigations. Restrictions concern the physical detector systems needed for the registration of the cosmic heavy ions` trajectories as well as the biological systems eligible as test organisms. Such optimized procedures and techniques were developed for the investigations on chromosome aberrations induced by cosmic heavy ions in cells of the stem meristem of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and for the investigation of the radiobiological response of Wolffia arriza, which is the smallest flowering (water) plant. The biological effects were studied by the coworkers of the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) which in cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA organized the exposure in the Biosatellites of the Cosmos series.

  10. Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Energy: Summaries of Program Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G

    2011-02-28

    The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. Ion beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic energy {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient energy coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy Ion Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical ion energy deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy Ion Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.

  11. Systematics of heavy-ion charge-exchange straggling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, P.; Schinner, A.

    2016-10-01

    The dependence of heavy-ion charge-exchange straggling on the beam energy has been studied theoretically for several ion-target combinations. Our previous work addressed ions up to krypton, while the present study focuses on heavier ions, especially uranium. Particular attention has been paid to a multiple-peak structure which has been predicted theoretically in our previous work. For high-Z1 and high-Z2 systems, exemplified by U in Au, we identify three maxima in the energy dependence of charge-exchange straggling, while the overall magnitude is comparable with that of collisional straggling. Conversely, for U in C, charge-exchange straggling dominates, but only two peaks lie in the energy range where we presently are able to produce credible predictions. For U-Al we find good agreement with experiment in the energy range around the high-energy maximum. The position of the high-energy peak - which is related to processes in the projectile K shell - is found to scale as Z12 , in contrast to the semi-empirical Z13/2 dependence proposed by Yang et al. Measurements for heavy ions in heavy targets are suggested in order to reconcile a major discrepancy between the present calculations and the frequently-used formula by Yang et al.

  12. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Yablinsky, Clarissa; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, T. R.

    2015-05-14

    We have examined microstructural evolution in irradiated ceria (CeO2) using swift heavy ion irradiation, electron microscopy, and atomistic simulation. CeO2, a UO2 fuel surrogate, was irradiated with gold ions at an energy of 1 GeV to fluences up to 1x1014 ions/cm2. Transmission electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showed that the ion tracks were of similar size at all fluences, and that there was no chemical change in the ion track core. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolated point defects at the lower energy and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.

  13. Electron-Cloud Effects on Heavy-Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, T; Friedman, A; Cohen, R; Vay, J

    2004-03-29

    Stray electrons can be introduced in positive-charge accelerators for heavy ion fusion (or other applications) as a result of ionization of ambient gas or gas released from walls due to halo-ion impact, or as a result of secondary-electron emission. We are developing a capability for self-consistent simulation of ion beams with the electron clouds they produce. We report on an ingredient in this capability, the effect of specified electron cloud distributions on the dynamics of a coasting ion beam. We consider here electron distributions with axially varying density, centroid location, or radial shape, and examine both random and sinusoidally varying perturbations. We find that amplitude variations are most effective in spoiling ion beam quality, though for sinusoidal variations which match the natural ion beam centroid oscillation or breathing mode frequencies, the centroid and shape perturbations can also be effective. We identify a possible instability associated with resonance with the beam-envelope ''breathing'' mode. One conclusion from this study is that heavy-ion beams are surprisingly robust to electron clouds, compared to a priori expectations.

  14. Activation of accelerator construction materials by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katrík, P.; Mustafin, E.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Pavlovič, M.; Strašík, I.

    2015-12-01

    Activation data for an aluminum target irradiated by 200 MeV/u 238U ion beam are presented in the paper. The target was irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The purpose of the experiment was to study the role of primary particles, projectile fragments, and target fragments in the activation process using the depth profiling of residual activity. The study brought information on which particles contribute dominantly to the target activation. The experimental data were compared with the Monte Carlo simulations by the FLUKA 2011.2c.0 code. This study is a part of a research program devoted to activation of accelerator construction materials by high-energy (⩾200 MeV/u) heavy ions at GSI Darmstadt. The experimental data are needed to validate the computer codes used for simulation of interaction of swift heavy ions with matter.

  15. Development of heavy-ion radiotherapy technology with HIMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Koji

    2016-09-01

    Since 1994, HIMAC has carried out clinical studies and treatments for more than 9000 cancer patients with carbon-ion beams. During the first decade of the HIMAC study, a single beam-wobbling method, adopted as the HIMAC beam-delivery technique, was improved for treatments of moving tumors and for obtaining more conformal dose distribution. During the second decade, a pencil-beam 3D scanning method has been developed toward an “adaptive cancer treatment” for treatments of both static and moving tumors. A new treatment research facility was constructed with HIMAC in order to verify the developed 3D scanning technology through a clinical study that has been successfully conducted since 2011. As the next stage, a compact heavy-ion rotating gantry with a superconducting technology has been developed for the more accurate and shorter-course treatments. The twenty-year development of the heavy-ion radiotherapy technologies including accelerator technologies with HIMAC is reviewed.

  16. Multiple beam induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Peter A.; Barnard, John J.; Faltens, Andris; Friedman, Alex; Waldron, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Induction accelerators are appealing for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy (HIF) because of their high efficiency and their demonstrated capability to accelerate high beam current (≥10 kA in some applications). For the HIF application, accomplishments and challenges are summarized. HIF research and development has demonstrated the production of single ion beams with the required emittance, current, and energy suitable for injection into an induction linear accelerator. Driver scale beams have been transported in quadrupole channels of the order of 10% of the number of quadrupoles of a driver. We review the design and operation of induction accelerators and the relevant aspects of their use as drivers for HIF. We describe intermediate research steps that would provide the basis for a heavy-ion research facility capable of heating matter to fusion relevant temperatures and densities, and also to test and demonstrate an accelerator architecture that scales well to a fusion power plant.

  17. Ion Composition in Titan’s Exosphere from the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodson, Adam K.; Johnson, R. E.

    2013-10-01

    A primary goal of the Cassini mission has been to characterize the complex interaction between Saturn’s magnetosphere and Titan’s ionosphere. To this end, the Cassini spacecraft carries two instruments-the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS)-capable of energy- and mass-analysis. The Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS), one of three instruments composing CAPS, is designed to characterize diffuse plasmas throughout the magnetosphere while the INMS is optimized for measurements within Titan’s upper atmosphere. As such, mass-resolved ion compositions confirming a variety of hydrocarbons and nitriles have been extracted from INMS data for numerous Titan encounters. Similar analysis of IMS data, however, has been resolution-limited to the identification of “light” and “heavy” ion groups in the wake. Herein we present a technique for extracting Dalton-resolved ion compositions from IMS spectra acquired at altitudes below 5 Titan radii. The method is then applied to data from the T40 encounter and the resulting composition and fluxes compared with those derived from the INMS data for the same encounter.

  18. Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Armesto, N; Borghini, N; Jeon, S; Wiedemann, U A; Abreu, S; Akkelin, V; Alam, J; Albacete, J L; Andronic, A; Antonuv, D; Arleo, F; Armesto, N; Arsene, I C; Barnafoldi, G G; Barrette, J; Bauchle, B; Becattini, F; Betz, B; Bleicher, M; Bluhm, M; Boer, D; Bopp, F W; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Busza, W; Cacciari, M; Capella, A; Casalderrey-Solana, J; Chatterjee, R; Chen, L; Cleymans, J; Cole, B A; delValle, Z C; Csernai, L P; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; de Deus, J D; Ding, H; Djordjevic, M; Drescher, H; Dremin, I M; Dumitru, A; El, A; Engel, R; d'Enterria, D; Eskola, K J; Fai, G; Ferreiro, E G; Fries, R J; Frodermann, E; Fujii, H; Gale, C; Gelis, F; Goncalves, V P; Greco, V; Gyulassy, M; van Hees, H; Heinz, U; Honkanen, H; Horowitz, W A; Iancu, E; Ingelman, G; Jalilian-Marian, J; Jeon, S; Kaidalov, A B; Kampfer, B; Kang, Z; Karpenko, I A; Kestin, G; Kharzeev, D; Ko, C M; Koch, B; Kopeliovich, B; Kozlov, M; Kraus, I; Kuznetsova, I; Lee, S H; Lednicky, R; Letessier, J; Levin, E; Li, B; Lin, Z; Liu, H; Liu, W; Loizides, C; Lokhtin, I P; Machado, M T; Malinina, L V; Managadze, A M; Mangano, M L; Mannarelli, M; Manuel, C; Martinez, G; Milhano, J G; Mocsy, A; Molnar, D; Nardi, M; Nayak, J K; Niemi, H; Oeschler, H; Ollitrault, J; Paic, G; Pajares, C; Pantuev, V S; Papp, G; Peressounko, D; Petreczky, P; Petrushanko, S V; Piccinini, F; Pierog, T; Pirner, H J; Porteboeuf, S; Potashnikova, I; Qin, G Y; Qiu, J; Rafelski, J; Rajagopal, K; Ranft, J; Rapp, R; Rasanen, S S; Rathsman, J; Rau, P; Redlich, K; Renk, T; Rezaeian, A H; Rischke, D; Roesler, S; Ruppert, J; Ruuskanen, P V; Salgado, C A; Sapeta, S; Sarcevic, I; Sarkar, S; Sarycheva, L I; Schmidt, I; Shoski, A I; Sinha, B; Sinyukov, Y M; Snigirev, A M; Srivastava, D K; Stachel, J; Stasto, A; Stocker, H; Teplov, C Y; Thews, R L; Torrieri, G; Pop, V T; Triantafyllopoulos, D N; Tuchin, K L; Turbide, S; Tywoniuk, K; Utermann, A; Venugopalan, R; Vitev, I; Vogt, R; Wang, E; Wang, X N; Werner, K; Wessels, E; Wheaton, S; Wicks, S; Wiedemann, U A; Wolschin, G; Xiao, B; Xu, Z; Yasui, S; Zabrodin, E; Zapp, K; Zhang, B

    2008-02-25

    In August 2006, the CERN Theory Unit announced to restructure its visitor program and to create a 'CERN Theory Institute', where 1-3 month long specific programs can take place. The first such Institute was held from 14 May to 10 June 2007, focusing on 'Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions'. It brought together close to 100 scientists working on the theory of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The aim of this workshop was to review and document the status of expectations and predictions for the heavy ion program at the Large Hadron Collider LHC before its start. LHC will explore heavy ion collisions at {approx} 30 times higher center of mass energy than explored previously at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC. So, on the one hand, the charge of this workshop provided a natural forum for the exchange of the most recent ideas, and allowed to monitor how the understanding of heavy ion collisions has evolved in recent years with the data from RHIC, and with the preparation of the LHC experimental program. On the other hand, the workshop aimed at a documentation which helps to distinguish pre- from post-dictions. An analogous documentation of the 'Last Call for Predictions' [1] was prepared prior to the start of the heavy-ion program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC, and it proved useful in the subsequent discussion and interpretation of RHIC data. The present write-up is the documentation of predictions for the LHC heavy ion program, received or presented during the CERN TH Institute. The set-up of the CERN TH Institute allowed us to aim for the wide-most coverage of predictions. There were more than 100 presentations and discussions during the workshop. Moreover, those unable to attend could still participate by submitting predictions in written form during the workshop. This followed the spirit that everybody interested in making a prediction had the right to be heard. To arrive at a concise document, we required that

  19. Flowing gas in mass spectrometer: method for characterization and impact on ion processing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Zheng

    2014-10-21

    Mass spectrometers are complex instrumentation systems where ions are transferred though different pressure regions and mass-analyzed under high vacuum. In this work, we have investigated the impact of the gas flows that exit almost universally in all pressure regions. We developed a method that incorporates the dynamic gas field with the electric field in the simulation of ion trajectories. The scope of the electro-hydrodynamic simulation (EHS) method was demonstrated for characterizing the ion optical systems at atmospheric pressure interfaces. With experimental validation, the trapping of the externally injected ions in a linear ion trap at low pressure was also studied. Further development of the EHS method and the knowledge acquired in this research are expected to be useful in the design of hybrid instruments and the study of ion energetics. PMID:25121805

  20. Flowing Gas in Mass Spectrometer: Method for Characterization and Impact on Ion Processing

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometers are complex instrumentation systems with ions transferred though different pressure regions and mass analyzed at high vacuum. In this work, we have investigated the impacts of the gas flows that exit almost universally in all pressure regions and developed a method incorporating the dynamic gas field with the electric (E) field in the simulation of ion trajectories. The capability of the electro-hydrodynamic simulation (EHS) method was demonstrated for characterizing the ion optical systems in atmospheric pressure interfaces. With experimental validation, the trapping of the externally-injected ions in a linear ion trap at low pressure has also been studied. Further development of the EHS method and the knowledge acquired in this research are expected to be useful in the design of hybrid instruments and study of ion energetics. PMID:25121805

  1. Quadrupole Ion Mass Spectrometer for Masses of 2 to 50 Da

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, William; Griffin, Timothy P.; Ottens, Andrew; Harrison, Willard

    2005-01-01

    A customized quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer (QITMS) has been built to satisfy a need for a compact, rugged instrument for measuring small concentrations of hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and argon in a nitrogen atmosphere. This QITMS can also be used to perform quantitative analyses of other gases within its molecular-mass range, which is 2 to 50 daltons (Da). (More precisely, it can be used to perform quantitative analysis of gases that, when ionized, are characterized by m/Z ratios between 2 and 50, where m is the mass of an ion in daltons and Z is the number of fundamental electric charges on the ion.

  2. Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation of Peptide Cations in a Dual Pressure Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Myles W.; Smith, Suncerae I.; Ledvina, Aaron R.; Madsen, James A.; Coon, Joshua J.; Schwartz, Jae C.; Stafford, George C.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    A dual pressure linear ion trap mass spectrometer was modified to permit infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) in each of the two cells - the first a high pressure cell operated at nominally 5 × 10-3 Torr and the second a low pressure cell operated at nominally 3 × 10-4 Torr. When IRMPD was performed in the high pressure cell, most peptide ions did not undergo significant photodissociation; however, in the low pressure cell peptide cations were efficiently dissociated with less than 25 ms of IR irradiation regardless of charge state. IRMPD of peptide cations allowed the detection of low m/z product ions including the y1 fragments and immonium ions which are not typically observed by ion trap collision induced dissociation (CID). Photodissociation efficiencies of ~100% and MS/MS (tandem mass spectrometry) efficiencies of greater than 60% were observed for both multiply and singly protonated peptides. In general, higher sequence coverage of peptides was obtained using IRMPD over CID. Further, greater than 90% of the product ion current in the IRMPD mass spectra of doubly charged peptide ions was composed of singly charged product ions compared to the CID mass spectra in which the abundances of the multiply and singly charged product ions were equally divided. Highly charged primary product ions also underwent efficient photodissociation to yield singly charged secondary product ions, thus simplifying the IRMPD product ion mass spectra. PMID:19739654

  3. Experimental Developments for the Lamb Shift Investigation in Heavy Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Reuschl, R.; Beyer, H. F.; Hess, S.; Liesen, D.; Spillmann, U.; Stoehlker, Th.; Trotsenko, S.; Weber, G.; Banas, D.; Gumberidze, A.; Indelicato, P.; Protic, D.; Trassinelli, M.

    2009-04-19

    Novel high-resolution spectrometer setups are presently commissioned for X-ray experiments at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI, Darmstadt, aiming at an accurate determination of QED corrections in the critical field limit via an accurate determination of the ground-state binding energy in a high-Z, H-like ion. Until now for H-like uranium, an accuracy of 1% could be reached in an experiment performed at the electron cooler, due to the deceleration capability of the ESR. A further improvement by almost one order of magnitude is envisaged by a transmission x-ray spectrometer setup in the FOcusing Compensated Asymmetric Laue (FOCAL) geometry, as well as by the implementation of high-resolution microcalorimeter devices.Here we report on the latest commissioning experiment of a two-arm transmission X-ray spectrometer, along with high-performance position-sensitive microstrip germanium detectors. Due to a photon efficiency of only 10{sup -8}, the position sensitivity, as well as the energy and time resolution of segmented solid-state germanium detectors, are absolutely essential for the experiment. In combination with the FOCAL spectrometer, these position-sensitive detectors permit the simultaneous measurement of all energies in the regime of interest.

  4. ON THE FEASIBILITY OF POLARIZED HEAVY IONS IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    MACKAY, W.W.

    2006-06-23

    Heavy nonspherical ions such as uranium have been proposed for collisions in RHIC[1]. When two such ions collide with their long axes aligned parallel to the beams (large helicities), then the plasma density might be as much as 60% higher. Since the collisions might have any orientation of the two nuclei, the alignment of the nuclei must be inferred from a complicated unfolding of multiplicity distributions. Instead, if it would be possible to polarize the ions and control the orientation in RHIC, then a much better sensitivity might be obtained. This paper investigates the manipulation of such polarized ions with highly distorted shapes in RHIC. A number of ion species are considered as possibilities with either full or partial Siberian snakes in RHIC.

  5. Analysis of ion dynamics and peak shapes for delayed extraction time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, V. M.; Ponciano, C. R.; Fernandez-Lima, F. A.; da Silveira, E. F.

    2004-06-01

    The dependence of time-of-flight (TOF) peak shapes on time-dependent extraction electric fields is studied theoretically. Conditions for time focusing are analyzed both analytically and numerically for double-acceleration-region TOF spectrometers. Expressions for the spectrometer mass resolution and for the critical delay time are deduced. Effects due to a leakage field in the first acceleration region are shown to be relevant under certain conditions. TOF peak shape simulations for the delayed extraction method are performed for emitted ions presenting a Maxwellian initial energy distribution. Calculations are compared to experimental results of Cs+ emission due to CsI laser ablation.

  6. Mutation induction in bacteria after heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horneck, G.; Kozubek, S.

    1994-01-01

    From a compilation of experimental data on the mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria, main conclusions have been drawn as follows: (1) The mutagenic efficacy of heavy ions in bacteria depends on physical and biological variables. Physical variables are the radiation dose, energy and charge of the ion; the biological variables are the bacterial strain, the repair genotype of bacteria, and the endpoint investigated (type of mutation, induction of enzymes related to mutagenesis); (2) The responses on dose or fluence are mainly linear or linear quadratic. The quadratic component, if found for low LET radiation, is gradually reduced with increasing LET; (3) At low values of Z and LET the cross section of mutation induction sigma m (as well as SOS response, sigma sos. and lambda phage induction, sigma lambda versus LET curves can be quite consistently described by a common function which increases up to approximately 100 keV/mu m. For higher LET values, the sigma(m) versus LET curves show the so-called 'hooks' observed also for other endpoints; (4) For light ions (Z is less than or equal to 4), the cross sections mostly decrease with increasing ion energy, which is probably related to the decrease of the specific energy departed by the ion inside the sensitive volume (cell). For ions in the range of Z = 10, sigma(m) is nearly independent on the ion energy. For heavier ions (Z is greater than or equal to 16), sigma(m) increases with the energy up to a maximum or saturation around 10 MeV/u. The increment becomes steeper with increasing atomic number of the ion. It correlates with the increasing track radius of the heavy ion; (5) The mutagenic efficiency per lethal event changes slightly with ion energy, if Z is small indicating a rough correlation between cellular lethality and mutation induction, only. For ions of higher Z this relation increases with energy, indicating a change in the 'mode' of radiation action from 'killing-prone' to 'mutation-prone'; and (6

  7. Collisional electrostatic ion cyclotron waves as a possible source of energetic heavy ions in the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Providakes, Jason; Seyler, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    A new mechanism is proposed for the source of energetic heavy ions (NO/+/, O2/+/, and O/+/) found in the magnetosphere. Simulations using a multispecies particle simulation code for resistive current-driven electrostatic ion cyclotron waves show transverse and parallel bulk heating of bottomside ionospheric heavy ion populations. The dominant mechanism for the transverse bulk heating is resonant ion heating by wave-particle ion trapping. Using a linear kinetic dispersion relation for a magnetized, collisional, homogenous, and multiion plasma, it is found that collisional electrostatic ion cyclotron waves near the NO(+), O2(+), and O(+) gyrofrequencies are unstable to field-aligned currents of 50 microA/sq m for a typical bottomside ionosphere.

  8. Super-Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources: Application and Coupling to API Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md. Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    Pressurizing the ionization source to gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a new tactic aimed at further improving the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources. In principle, all API sources, such as ESI, APCI and AP-MALDI, can be operated at pressure higher than 1 atm if suitable vacuum interface is available. The gas pressure in the ion source can have different role for different ionization. For example, in the case of ESI, stable electrospray could be sustained for high surface tension liquid (e.g., pure water) under super-atmospheric pressure, owing to the absence of electric discharge. Even for nanoESI, which is known to work well with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity were found to be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source was pressurized. For the gas phase ionization like APCI, measurement of gaseous compound also showed an increase in ion intensity with the ion source pressure until an optimum pressure at around 4–5 atm. The enhancement was due to the increased collision frequency among reactant ion and analyte that promoted the ion/molecule reaction and a higher intake rate of gas to the mass spectrometer. Because the design of vacuum interface for API instrument is based on the upstream pressure of 1 atm, some coupling aspects need to be considered when connecting the high pressure ion source to the mass spectrometer. Several coupling strategies are discussed in this paper. PMID:26819896

  9. Super-Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources: Application and Coupling to API Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    Pressurizing the ionization source to gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a new tactic aimed at further improving the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources. In principle, all API sources, such as ESI, APCI and AP-MALDI, can be operated at pressure higher than 1 atm if suitable vacuum interface is available. The gas pressure in the ion source can have different role for different ionization. For example, in the case of ESI, stable electrospray could be sustained for high surface tension liquid (e.g., pure water) under super-atmospheric pressure, owing to the absence of electric discharge. Even for nanoESI, which is known to work well with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity were found to be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source was pressurized. For the gas phase ionization like APCI, measurement of gaseous compound also showed an increase in ion intensity with the ion source pressure until an optimum pressure at around 4-5 atm. The enhancement was due to the increased collision frequency among reactant ion and analyte that promoted the ion/molecule reaction and a higher intake rate of gas to the mass spectrometer. Because the design of vacuum interface for API instrument is based on the upstream pressure of 1 atm, some coupling aspects need to be considered when connecting the high pressure ion source to the mass spectrometer. Several coupling strategies are discussed in this paper.

  10. Super-Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources: Application and Coupling to API Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    Pressurizing the ionization source to gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a new tactic aimed at further improving the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources. In principle, all API sources, such as ESI, APCI and AP-MALDI, can be operated at pressure higher than 1 atm if suitable vacuum interface is available. The gas pressure in the ion source can have different role for different ionization. For example, in the case of ESI, stable electrospray could be sustained for high surface tension liquid (e.g., pure water) under super-atmospheric pressure, owing to the absence of electric discharge. Even for nanoESI, which is known to work well with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity were found to be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source was pressurized. For the gas phase ionization like APCI, measurement of gaseous compound also showed an increase in ion intensity with the ion source pressure until an optimum pressure at around 4-5 atm. The enhancement was due to the increased collision frequency among reactant ion and analyte that promoted the ion/molecule reaction and a higher intake rate of gas to the mass spectrometer. Because the design of vacuum interface for API instrument is based on the upstream pressure of 1 atm, some coupling aspects need to be considered when connecting the high pressure ion source to the mass spectrometer. Several coupling strategies are discussed in this paper. PMID:26819896

  11. Heavy-Ion-Acoustic Solitary and Shock Waves in an Adiabatic Multi-Ion Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossen, M. A.; Rahman, M. M.; Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    The standard reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the Korteweg-deVries (K-dV) and Burgers (BG) equations to investigate the basic properties of heavy-ion-acoustic (HIA) waves in a plasma system which is supposed to be composed of nonthermal electrons, Boltzmann distributed light ions, and adiabatic positively charged inertial heavy ions. The HIA solitary and shock structures are found to exist with either positive or negative potential. It is found that the effects of adiabaticity of inertial heavy ions, nonthermality of electrons, and number densities of plasma components significantly modify the basic properties of the HIA solitary and shock waves. The implications of our results may be helpful in understanding the electrostatic perturbations in various laboratory and astrophysical plasma environments.

  12. Proof-of-Concept Experiments for Negative Ion Driver Beams for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    L.R. Grisham; S.K. Hahto; S.T. Hahto; J.W. Kwan; K.N. Leung

    2003-05-06

    Negative halogen ion beams have recently been proposed as heavy ion fusion drivers. They would avoid the problem of electron accumulation in positive ion beams, and could be efficiently photo-detached to neutrals if desired. Initial experiments using chlorine produced a current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} of 99.5% atomic negative Cl with an e/Cl- ratio as low as 7:1 and good emittance.

  13. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Yablinsky, Clarissa A.; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-04

    Swift heavy ion induced radiation damage is investigated for ceria (CeO2), which serves as a UO2 fuel surrogate. Microstructural changes resulting from an irradiation with 940 MeV gold ions of 42 keV/nm electronic energy loss are investigated by means of electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showing that there exists a small density reduction in the ion track core. While chemical changes in the ion track are not precluded, evidence of them was not observed. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with an energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolated point defects at 12 keV/nm, and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.

  14. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yablinsky, Clarissa A.; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-04

    Swift heavy ion induced radiation damage is investigated for ceria (CeO2), which serves as a UO2 fuel surrogate. Microstructural changes resulting from an irradiation with 940 MeV gold ions of 42 keV/nm electronic energy loss are investigated by means of electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showing that there exists a small density reduction in the ion track core. While chemical changes in the ion track are not precluded, evidence of them was not observed. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with an energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolatedmore » point defects at 12 keV/nm, and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Furthermore, inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.« less

  15. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Yablinsky, Clarissa A.; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-04

    Swift heavy ion induced radiation damage is investigated for ceria (CeO2), which serves as a UO2 fuel surrogate. Microstructural changes resulting from an irradiation with 940 MeV gold ions of 42 keV/nm electronic energy loss are investigated by means of electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showing that there exists a small density reduction in the ion track core. While chemical changes in the ion track are not precluded, evidence of them was not observed. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with an energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolated point defects at 12 keV/nm, and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Furthermore, inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.

  16. Energy loss of heavy ions at high velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, J. U.; Ball, G. C.; Davies, J. A.; Davies, W. G.; Forster, J. S.; Geiger, J. S.; Geissel, H.; Ryabov, V. A.

    1994-05-01

    The slowing down of heavy ions by electronic stopping at high velocity is discussed. The ions are nearly fully stripped and have a well defined charge with relatively small fluctuations. Owing to the large charge of the ions, the classical Bohr formula applies instead of the Bethe formula, which is based on a quantum perturbation calculation. It is essential to include the Barkas effect in the description since it becomes quite large for heavy ions, especially in high-Z materials. In Lindhard's treatment [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 132 (1976) l], the Barkas correction is viewed as an effect of dynamic screening of the ion potential in the initial phase of a collision with an electron, which reduces the relative velocity and therefore enhances the cross section. With inclusion of this enhancement factor for all impact parameters, as evaluated by Jackson and McCarthy for distant collisions [Phys. Rev. B 6 (1972) 4131], the description reproduces within a few percent measurements for 15 MeV/u Br on Si, Ni, and Au and for 10 MeV/u Kr on Al, Ni, and Au. The procedure is shown also to apply at lower velocities near the stopping maximum, albeit with less accuracy. The straggling in energy loss has been analyzed for a measurement on Si and it is well described by a combination of about equal contributions from fluctuations in the number of violent collisions with single electrons (Bohr straggling) and from fluctuations in ion charge state.

  17. Electron-ion merged-beam experiments at heavy-ion storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    In the past two decades, the electron-ion merged-beams technique has extensively been exploited at heavy-ion storage rings equipped with electron coolers for spectroscopic studies of highly charged ions as well as for measuring absolute cross sections and rate coefficients for electron-ion recombination and electron-impact ionization of multiply charged atoms ions. Some recent results are highlighted and future perspectives are pointed out, in particular, in view of novel experimental possibilities at the FAIR facility in Darmstadt and at the Cryogenic Storage Ring at the Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg.

  18. Simulations of heavy ion heating by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves driven by proton temperature anisotropies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, M.

    1985-01-01

    Heating of heavy ions by the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, which are driven by proton temperature anisotropies, is studied by means of hybrid particle simulations. Initially, relaxation of the temperature anisotropies in the proton distribution and isotropic heating of the heavy ions are observed (phase I), followed by substantial perpendicular heating of the heavy ions (phase II). The heavy ions are distinctly gyrophase modulated by the EMIC waves. The isotropic heating in phase I is due to magnetic trapping by the excited proton cyclotron waves. The perpendicular heating in phase II is attributed to cyclotron resonance with the EMIC waves, which becomes possible by means of the preceding heating in phase I. Saturation of the EMIC instability is instead attributed to magnetic trapping of the majority ions: protons. When the proton anisotropy is very large, frequency shift (decrease) of the proton cyclotron waves to less than 1/2 Ohm(p) is observed. The present mechanism is not only relevant to He(+) heating in the dayside equator of the magnetosphere, but it also predicts hot He2(+) ions behind the earth's bow shock.

  19. HIBRA: A computer code for heavy ion binary reaction analysis employing ion track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Khalid; Ahmad, Siraj-ul-Islam; Manzoor, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Collisions of heavy ions many times result in production of only two reaction products. Study of heavy ions using ion track detectors allows experimentalists to observe the track length in the plane of the detector, depth of the tracks in the volume of the detector and angles between the tracks on the detector surface, all known as track parameters. How to convert these into useful physics parameters such as masses, energies, momenta of the reaction products and the Q-values of the reaction? This paper describes the (a) model used to analyze binary reactions in terms of measured etched track parameters of the reaction products recorded in ion track detectors, and (b) the code developed for computing useful physics parameters for fast and accurate analysis of a large number of binary events. A computer code, HIBRA (Heavy Ion Binary Reaction Analysis) has been developed both in C++ and FORTRAN programming languages. It has been tested on the binary reactions from 12.5 MeV/u 84Kr ions incident upon U (natural) target deposited on mica ion track detector. The HIBRA code can be employed with any ion track detector for which range-velocity relation is available including the widely used CR-39 ion track detectors. This paper provides the source code of HIBRA in C++ language along with input and output data to test the program.

  20. Design of An Improved Miniature Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer for NASA Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swaminathan, Viji K.; Alig, Roger C.

    1997-01-01

    The ion optics of NASA's Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) sensor was simulated with three dimensional models of the open source, the quadrupole deflector, the exit lens system and the quadrupole mass analyzer to design more compact models with lower weight. Comparison of calculated transmission with experimental results shows good agreement. Transmission analyses with varying geometrical parameters and voltages throw light on possible ways of reducing the size of the sensor. Trajectories of ions of mass 1-99 amu were simulated to analyze and optimize transmission. Analysis of open source transmission with varying angle of attack shows that the angular acceptance can be considerably increased by programming the voltages on the ion trap/ collimator. Analysis of transmission sensitivity to voltages and misalignments of the quadrupole deflector rods indicate that increased transmission is possible with a geometrically asymmetrical deflector and a deflector can be designed with much lower sensitivities of transmission. Bringing the disks closer together can decrease the size of the quadrupole deflector and also increase transmission. The exit lens system can be redesigned to be smaller by eliminating at least one electrode entirely without loss of transmission. Ceramic materials were investigated to find suitable candidates for use in the construction of lighter weight mass spectrometer. A high-sensitivity, high-resolution portable gas chromatograph mass spectrometer with a mass range of 2-700 amu has been built and will be commercialized in Phase 3.

  1. High-time resolution measurements of solar wind heavy ions with SOHO/CELIAS/CTOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janitzek, N. P.; Taut, A.; Berger, L.; Bochsler, P.; Drews, C.; Klecker, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2016-03-01

    The Charge Time-Of-Flight (CTOF) mass spectrometer as part of the Charge, ELement and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) onboard the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is designed to measure the kinetic properties and elemental/ionic composition of solar wind ions heavier than protons, which we refer to as heavy ions. This is achieved by the combined measurements of the energy-per-charge, the time-of-flight and the energy of incident ions. The CTOF instrument combines a remarkable time-of-flight resolution with a large effective area and a high measurement cadence. This allows to determine the Velocity Distribution Functions (VDFs) of a wide range of heavy ions with 5-minute time resolution which ensures that the complete VDF is measured under nearly identical solar wind and magnetic field conditions. For the measurement period between Day Of Year (DOY) 150 and 220 in 1996, which covers a large part of the instrument's short life time, we analyzed VDFs of solar wind iron Fe8+, Fe9+ and Fe10+ for differential streaming relative to the solar wind proton speed measured simultaneously with the CELIAS Proton Monitor (PM). We find an increasing differential streaming with increasing solar wind proton speed for all investigated ions up to ion-proton velocity differences of 30 - 50 km s-1 at proton velocities of 500 km s-1, which is contradictory to an earlier CTOF study by [7]. We believe this difference is because in this study we used raw Pulse Height Analysis (PHA) data with a significantly increased mass and mass-per-charge resolution compared to the earlier used onboard preprocessed data.

  2. Observations of plasma dynamics in the coma of P/Halley by the Giotto ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.; Neugebauer, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Shelley, E. G.; Balsiger, H.; Kettmann, G.; Ip, W.-H.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports observations of plasma dynamics in the coma of P/Halley by the Giotto ion mass spectrometer. Measurements of protons and alpha particles from the far upstream region to the near ionopause region and of ions of mass 12-32 at distances of about 250,000 to 40,000 km from the nucleus are presented. The discontinuity known as the magnetic pileup boundary (MPB) is apparent only in proton, alpha particle, and magnetometer data, indicating that it is a tangential discontinuity of solar wind origin. No significant change is found in the properties of the heavy ions across the MPB. The issue of whether a cometopause was unambiguously observed at Comet Halley is discussed; it is concluded that the observations do not convincingly support the idea of a boundary due to internal cometary processes. A comparison of the observations to MHD models is made. The plasma flow directions at all distances greater than 30,000 km from the nucleus are in agreement with MHD calculations.

  3. On the transmission function of an ion-energy and mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamers, E. A. G.; van Sark, W. G. J. H. M.; Bezemer, J.; Goedheer, W. J.; van der Weg, W. F.

    1998-01-01

    The operation of a mass spectrometer system with an electrostatic energy analyser, designed for measurements of mass-resolved ion-energy distributions, is discussed. We show how the electric fields in the different electrostatic lenses present in the system can be optimized. These lenses direct the ions entering the system into the energy filter and the quadrupole mass filter. These lenses can exhibit chromatic aberration. The conditions without chromatic aberration have been found by simulating the ion trajectories in the part of the system up to the energy filter. Also, an experimental method is presented to find these settings. We show that the energy-dependent transmission of ions through the system is mainly determined by its acceptance angle. Ionenergy spectra from an argon plasma have been measured and corrected for the transmission of the ions through the system. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Light and heavy ion beam analysis of thin biological sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joonsup; Siegele, Rainer; Pastuovic, Zeljko; Hackett, Mark J.; Hunt, Nicholas H.; Grau, Georges E.; Cohen, David D.; Lay, Peter A.

    2013-07-01

    The application of ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques to thin biological sections (ThBS) presents unique challenges in sample preparation, data acquisition and analysis. These samples are often the end product of expensive, time-consuming experiments, which involve many steps that require careful attention. Analysis via several techniques can maximise the information that is collected from these samples. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) spectroscopy are two generally non-destructive IBA techniques that use the same MeV ions and can be performed simultaneously. The use of heavy ion PIXE applied to thick samples has, in the past, resulted in X-ray spectra of a poorer quality when compared to those obtained with proton beams. One of the reasons for this is the shorter probing depth of the heavy ions, which does not affect thin sample analysis. Therefore, we have investigated and compared 3-MeV proton and 36-MeV carbon ion beams on 7-μm thick mouse brain sections at the ANSTO Heavy ion microprobe (HIMP). The application of a 36-MeV C4+ ion beam for PIXE mapping of ThBS on thin Si3N4 substrate windows produced spectra of high quality that displayed close to a nine-times gain in signal yield (Z2/q) when compared to those obtained for 3-MeV protons for P, S, Cl and K but not for Fe, Cu and Zn. Image quality was overall similar; however, some elements showed better contrast and features with protons whilst others showed improved contrast with a carbon ion beam. RBS spectra with high enough counting statistics were easily obtained with 3-MeV proton beams resulting in high resolution carbon maps, however, the count rate for nitrogen and oxygen was too low. The results demonstrate that on thin samples, 36-MeV C4+ will produce good quality PIXE spectra in less time; therefore, carbon ions may be advantageous depending on which element is being studied. However, these advantages may be outweighed by the inherent disadvantages including

  5. Determination of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene by means of an ion mobility spectrometer device using photoionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonhardt, J. W.; Bensch, H.; Berger, D.; Nolting, M.; Baumbach, J. I.

    1995-01-01

    The continuous monitoring of changes on the quality of ambient air is a field of advantage of ion mobility spectrometry. Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene are substances of special interest because of their toxicity. We present an optimized drift tube for ion mobility spectrometers, which uses photo-ionization tubes to produce the ions to be analyzed. The actual version of this drift tube has a length of 45 mm, an electric field strength established within the drift tube of about 180 V/cm and a shutter-opening-time of 400 mus. With the hydrogen tube used for ionisation a mean flux of 10(exp 12) photons/sq cm s was established for the experiments described. We discuss the results of investigations on Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene in normal used gasoline SUPER. The detection limits obtained with the ion mobility spectrometer developed in co-operation are in the range of 10 ppbv in this case. Normally, charge transfer from Benzene ions to Toluene takes place. Nevertheless the simultaneous determination in mixtures is possible by a data evaluation procedure developed for this case. The interferences found between Xylene and others are rather weak. The ion mobility spectra of different concentrations of gasoline SUPER are attached as an example for the resolution and the detection limit of the instrument developed. Resolution and sensitivity of the system are well demonstrated. A hand-held portable device produced just now is to be tested for special environmental analytical problems in some industrial and scientific laboratories in Germany.

  6. Formation of charge states of heavy ions in SEP events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartavykh, J. Y.; Kocharov, L.

    2007-12-01

    One can divide the formation of charge states of heavy ions in SEP events into two stages - formation of charge states during ion acceleration and their transformation due to coronal and interplanetary propagation. At the first stage the charge states of ions are formed as a result of competition of ionization and recombination processes, with possible charge-dependent acceleration. If ions were moving with a constant speed through a plasma for infinitely long time, the ionic charge of energetic ions would asymptotically reach an upper limit, the equilibrium mean charge, so that the mean charge of accelerated ions is between its thermal and equilibrium value. Coronal and interplanetary propagation can modify the charge spectra; coronal propagation by additional stripping after acceleration in a sufficiently dense environment, interplanetary propagation due to adiabatic deceleration in the expanding solar wind by shifting the charge spectra towards lower energies. The absolute value of this shift depends on the mean free path of energetic ions in interplanetary space that can be derived from the observed intensity-time profiles and anisotropies. In this paper we review recent achievements in the modeling of the charge-consistent acceleration and transport of solar ions as applied to the ionic charge states of iron.

  7. MEMS Fabrication of Micro Cylindrical Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for CubeSats Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology is used to fabricate arrays of micro Cylindrical Ion Traps (μCIT) which are integrated into a miniaturized mass spectrometer (MS). The micro μCITs are built from silicon wafers and requires high machining precision, smooth surface, and high dimensional uniformity across the array for optimum mass spectrometer performance. In order to build these 3D miniature structures several MEMS processing techniques were explored and a process was developed and tested. By using the developed MEMS process, the required μCIT 4 x 4 arrays were fabricated. This included a chip design variation in which mechanical locking pits and posts were machined in the Ring Electrode (RE) chip and End Plate (EP) chips respectively, for self-assembly. The size of the assembled μCIT is only 12 mm x 12 mm x 1.5 mm. It is a key component for the miniature mass spectrometer. The micro cylindrical ion trap mass spectrometer has the advantages of low-power operation, simpler electronics and less-stringent vacuum system requirements. The MEMS batch production capabilities will also greatly lower the cost. It is a promising candidate for CubeSat and nanoSats applications for exploration of chemical distributions in space.

  8. Theoretical aspects of high-energy heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    1987-01-01

    An elementary introduction is given to the subject of nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies. It begins with a discussion on the relevant kinematic variables to establish the language for these collisions. It examines the question of particle production and the characteristics of the loss of baryon energy in an inelastic nucleon-nucleon collision. The geometrical aspect of a nucleus-nucleus collision is then described in terms of the Glauber multiple-collision model. As the theory of relativistic heavy-ion collision has not yet reached a stage whereby the dynamics can be examined from a fundamental theory, various phenomenological models have been proposed. The assumptions used in various models are described. Future use of relativistic heavy-ion collisions to study the quark-gluon plasma is briefly discussed.

  9. Quasimolecular single-nucleon effects in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Erb, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Several experimental examples are discussed to illustrate that single-particle molecular orbital behavior has become an established reality in nuclear physics over the last several years. Measurements and analyses of inelastic scattering in the /sup 13/C + /sup 12/C and /sup 17/O + /sup 12/C systems, and of neutron transfer in the /sup 13/C(/sup 13/C, /sup 12/C)/sup 14/C reaction, show that the motion of valence nucleons can be strongly and simultaneously influenced by both collision partners in heavy-ion collisions. This bvehavior is characteristic of a molecular (single-particle) rather than a direct (DWBA) mechanism: it demonstrates that the single-particle analog of atomic molecular motion plays an important role in nuclear reactions at bombarding energies near the Coulomb barrier. Such behavior may be even more pronounced in the collisions of massive nuclei that will be studied with the new generation of heavy-ion accelerators. 19 references.

  10. Solutions to heavy ion induced avalanche burnout in power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrobel, Theodore F.; Beutler, David E.

    1992-12-01

    A review of normal breakdown and current induced avalanche (CIA) breakdown mechanisms in silicon power transistors is presented. The applicability of the CIA model to heavy ion induced burnout is shown, and solutions to CIA in silicon power semiconductors are given. It is noted that solving the problem of CIA burnout in npn bipolar and n-channel DMOS devices is, at best, difficult. Several techniques of hardening these devices to the effects of heavy ion, dose-rate induced failure, and any other condition producing CIA are discussed. The most effective techniques are those that minimize the emitter current injection by reducing the emitter injection efficiency or making the parasitic bipolar more difficult to turn on. However, it is believed that the simplest solution to the problem is to use pnp bipolar and p-channel DMOS devices whenever possible.

  11. Uniform fuel target implosion in heavy ion inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, S.; Karino, T.; Kondo, S.; Iinuma, T.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    For a steady operation of a fusion power plant the target implosion should be robust against the implosion non-uniformities. In this paper the non-uniformity mitigation mechanisms in the heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination are discussed in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). A density valley appears in the energy absorber, and the large-scale density valley also works as a radiation energy confinement layer, which contributes to the radiation energy smoothing for the HIB illumination non-uniformity. The large density-gradient scale, which is typically ∼500μm in HIF targets, also contributes to a reduction of the Rayleigh- Taylor instability growth rate. In HIF a wobbling HIBs illumination would also reduce the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth and to realize a uniform implosion.

  12. Clustered DNA damage induced by heavy ion particles.

    PubMed

    Terato, Hiroaki; Ide, Hiroshi

    2004-12-01

    Clustered DNA damage (locally multiply damaged site) is thought to be a critical lesion caused by ionizing radiation, and high LET radiation such as heavy ion particles is believed to produce high yields of such damage. Since heavy ion particles are major components of ionizing radiation in a space environment, it is important to clarify the chemical nature and biological consequences of clustered DNA damage and its relationship to the health effects of exposure to high LET particles in humans. The concept of clustered DNA damage emerged around 1980, but only recently has become the subject of experimental studies. In this article, we review methods used to detect clustered DNA damage, and the current status of our understanding of the chemical nature and repair of clustered DNA damage. PMID:15858387

  13. Dosimetry of heavy ions by use of CCD detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schott, J. U.

    1994-01-01

    The design and the atomic composition of Charge Coupled Devices (CCD's) make them unique for investigations of single energetic particle events. As detector system for ionizing particles they detect single particles with local resolution and near real time particle tracking. In combination with its properties as optical sensor, particle transversals of single particles are to be correlated to any objects attached to the light sensitive surface of the sensor by simple imaging of their shadow and subsequent image analysis of both, optical image and particle effects, observed in affected pixels. With biological objects it is possible for the first time to investigate effects of single heavy ions in tissue or extinguished organs of metabolizing (i.e. moving) systems with a local resolution better than 15 microns. Calibration data for particle detection in CCD's are presented for low energetic protons and heavy ions.

  14. Mars heavy ion precipitating flux as measured by MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.

    2015-12-01

    Mars' atmospheric escape induced by heavy planetary ions accelerated by the solar wind and reimpacting Mars' atmosphere has been suggested to occur. The sputtering of Mars' atmosphere has been even suggested to lead to a significant cumulated loss along Mars' history. Up to now, only a limited number of observations have been possible. ASPERA-3/Mars Express observed such precipitation only during extreme solar conditions events suggesting that sputtering might be not as intense as theoretically predicted. Based on MAVEN first six months of observations, we here show that precipitation of heavy ions also occur during quiet solar conditions and that the average precipitating flux during this period is significant and globally in good agreement with predictions. From these measured precipitating flux, we propose a first estimate of the atmospheric escape induced by sputtering. Up to 8.8×105 O/cm2/s was lost by Mars' atmosphere between November 2014 and April 2015.

  15. Factorization, the Glasma and the Ridge in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Venugopalan, Raju

    2008-10-13

    High energy heavy ion collisions can be efficiently described as the collision of two sheets of Color Glass Condensate. The dynamics of the collision can be studied ab initio in a systematic effective field theory approach. This requires factorization theorems that separate the initial state evolution of the wave functions with energy from the final state interactions that produce matter with high energy densities called the Glasma. We discuss how this matter is formed, its remarkable properties and its relevance for understanding thermalization of the Quark Gluon Plasma in heavy ion collisions. Long range rapidity correlations in the collision that have a remarkable ridge like structure may allow us to probe early times in the collision and infer directly the properties of the Glasma.

  16. High-brightness heavy-ion injector experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westenskow, G. A.; Kwan, J. W.; Grote, D. P.; Bieniosek, F.

    2007-07-01

    To provide a compact high-brightness heavy-ion beam source for Heavy Ion Fusion, we have performed experiments to study a proposed merging beamlet approach for the injector. We used an RF plasma source to produce the initial beamlets. An array of converging beamlets was used to produce a beam with the envelope radius, convergence, and ellipticity matched to an electrostatic quadrupole channel. Experimental results were in good quantitative agreement with simulation and have demonstrated the feasibility of this concept. The size of a driver-scale injector system using this approach will be several times smaller than one designed using traditional single large-aperture beams. The success of this experiment has possible significant economical and technical impacts on the architecture of HIF drivers.

  17. Compact High-Current Heavy-Ion Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G A; Grote, D P; Kwan, J W; Bieniosek, F

    2006-04-13

    To provide a compact high-brightness heavy-ion beam source for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF), we have been experimenting with merging multi-beamlets in an injector which uses an RF plasma source. An array of converging beamlets was use to produce a beam with the envelope radius, convergence, and ellipticity matched to an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) channel. Experimental results were in good quantitative agreement with simulation and have demonstrated the feasibility of this concept. The size of a driver-scale injector system using this approach will be several times smaller than one designed using traditional single large-aperture beams. The success of this experiment has possible significant economical and technical impacts on the architecture of HIF drivers.

  18. On compositional variations of heavy ions during solar particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klecker, B.; Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Fan, C. Y.; Fisk, L. A.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Intensity-time profiles of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions (C, O, Fe) in the MeV/nucleon energy range have been analyzed for one solar particle event following the solar flare on September 23, 1978. The data have been obtained with the wide angle double dE/dx-E sensor of the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland experiment onboard ISEE-3. Time variations in the iron to helium ratio of up to 2 orders of magnitude and a significant variation of the O/He ratio during this event have been found, whereas the C/O-ratio at the same energy/nucleon appears to be time independent. The influence of a rigidity dependent mean free path in interplanetary space and of rigidity dependent coronal propagation on heavy ion ratios during solar particle events was investigated.

  19. The magnet system of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, A.; Anerella, M.; Cozzolino, J.

    1995-07-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a colliding ring accelerator to be completed in 1999. Through collisions of heavy ions it is hoped to observe the creation of matter at extremely high temperatures and densities, similar to what may have occurred in the original ``Big Bang.`` The collider rings will consist of 1740 superconducting magnet elements. Some of elements are being manufactured by industrial partners (Northrop Grumman and Everson Electric). Others are being constructed or assembled at BNL. A description is given of the magnet designs, the plan for manufacturing and test results. In the manufacturing of the magnets, emphasis has been placed on uniformity of their performance and on quality. Results so far indicate that this emphasis has been very successful.

  20. The magnet system of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, A.; Anerella, M.; Cozzolino, J.

    1996-07-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a colliding ring accelerator to be completed in 1999. Through collisions of heavy ions it is hoped to observe the creation of matter at extremely high temperatures and densities, similar to what may have occurred in the original ``Big Bang``. The collider rings will consist of 1,740 superconducting magnet elements. Some of these elements are being manufactured by industrial partners (Northrop Grumman and Everson Electric). Others are being constructed or assembled at BNL. A description is given of the magnet designs, the plan for manufacturing and test results. In the manufacturing of the magnets, emphasis has been placed on uniformity of their performance and on quality. Results so far indicate that this emphasis has been very successful.

  1. Selected experimental results from heavy-ion collisions at LHC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Singh, Ranbir; Kumar, Lokesh; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Mohanty, Bedangadas

    2013-01-01

    We reviewmore » a subset of experimental results from the heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) facility at CERN. Excellent consistency is observed across all the experiments at the LHC (at center of mass energysNN=2.76 TeV) for the measurements such as charged particle multiplicity density, azimuthal anisotropy coefficients, and nuclear modification factor of charged hadrons. Comparison to similar measurements from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at lower energy (sNN=200 GeV) suggests that the system formed at LHC has a higher energy density and larger system size and lives for a longer time. These measurements are compared to model calculations to obtain physical insights on the properties of matter created at the RHIC and LHC.« less

  2. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF CHARGED PARTICLE PRODUCTION IN HEAVY ION COLLISIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.A.FOR THE PHOBOS COLLABORATION

    2002-07-24

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two observations indicate universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/{bar p}p and e{sup +}e{sup -} data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with {radical}s in a similar way as N{sub ch} in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. These features may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  3. Proximity potential for heavy ion reactions on deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, A. J.; Bayman, B. F.

    1982-01-01

    The usual treatment of the deformed optical model for analysis of heavy ion induced inelastic scattering data involves a deformed (target) radius, a spherical (projectile) radius and a potential strength dependent on the surface separation along the line between the two centers. Several authors using various approaches have shown that this center line potential is geometrically inadequate especially for description of higher L deformation parameters probed in heavy ion induced inelastic scattering experiments. A quantitatively adequate form of the deformed proximity potential suitable for use with a coupled channels reaction code in the analysis of inelastic scattering data above the Coulomb barrier is described. A major objective is to be able to extract reliably higher deformed multipole moments from such data. The deformed potential calculated in the folding model will serve as a geometrically exact benchmark to evaluate the accuracy of the proximity potential prescriptions. (WHK)

  4. Experimental evaluation of a negative ion source for a heavy ionfusion negative ion driver

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leung, K.N.

    2005-01-18

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photodetached to neutrals [1,2,3]. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that is used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  5. An Efficient Method for Heavy Ion Dose Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Dandini, Vincent J.; Prinja, Anil K.

    1997-06-01

    Heavy charged particles deposit much of their kinetic energy at very high rates in small volumes near the end of their range. This characteristic, coupled with the availability of modern particle accelerators, has sparked a revival of interest in the use of ions as a possible treatment tool for certain types of cancers. Collisions between projectile ions and atoms in the target medium can result in ion fragments that are different from the original projectile species. The energy deposition characteristics of these fragments differ from those of the projectile in a manner that allows them to travel beyond the range of the original particle. This can result in deposition of doses in healthy tissue beyond the tumor. The loss of projectiles due to the fragmentation process will also affect the dose deposited in the target tumor. An accurate dose calculation requires that these effects be taken into account. Monte Carlo calculations are expensive, time consuming, and can be limited in the number of ion species considered. Linear methods can yield high-order accuracy but can sometimes exhibit the undesirable characteristic of calculating negative fluxes. In order to bypass these difficulties, we have applied the recently developed exponential discontinuous (ED) finite- element method to a calculation of dose deposition by relativistic heavy ion projectiles and fragments. The ED method has been shown to yield strictly -- positive solutions for positive sources of neutral particles.

  6. Self-aligned nanostructures created by swift heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, Hans-Gregor; Nix, Anne-Katrin; Hofsaess, Hans; Krauser, Johann; Trautmann, Christina; Weidinger, Alois

    2010-05-15

    In tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) swift heavy ions create conducting tracks of about 8 nm in diameter. To apply these nanowires and implement them into nanodevices, they have to be contacted and gated. In the present work, we demonstrate the fabrication of conducting vertical nanostructures in ta-C together with self-aligned gate electrodes. A multilayer assembly is irradiated with GeV heavy ions and subsequently exposed to several selective etching processes. The samples consist of a Si wafer as substrate covered by a thin ta-C layer. On top is deposited a SiN{sub x} film for insulation, a Cr layer as electrode, and finally a polycarbonate film as ion track template. Chemical track etching opens nanochannels in the polymer which are self-aligned with the conducting tracks in ta-C because they are produced by the same ions. Through the pores in the polymer template, the Cr and SiN{sub x} layers are opened by ion beam sputtering and plasma etching, respectively. The resulting structure consists of nanowires embedded in the insulating carbon matrix with a built in gate electrode and has potential application as gated field emission cathode.

  7. Heavy duty diesel engine exhaust aerosol particle and ion measurements.

    PubMed

    Lähde, Tero; Rönkkö, Topi; Virtanen, Annele; Schuck, Tanja J; Pirjola, Liisa; Hämeri, Kaarle; Kulmala, Markku; Arnold, Frank; Rothe, Dieter; Keskinen, Jorma

    2009-01-01

    Heavy duty EURO 4 diesel engine exhaust particle and ion size distributions were measured atthetailpipe using dynamometer testing. Measurements of particle volatility and electrical charge were undertaken to clarify diesel exhaust nucleation mode characteristics with different exhaust after-treatment systems. Nucleation mode particle volatility and charging probability were dependent on exhaust after-treatment particles were volatile and uncharged when the engine was equipped with diesel particulate filter and partly volatile and partly charged in exhaust without any after-treatment or with an oxidation catalyst only. The absence of charged particles in the nucleation mode of diesel particulate filtered exhaust excludes the ion mediated process as a nucleation particle formation mechanism.

  8. Chamber transport of ''foot'' pulses for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan-Miller, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.

    2002-02-20

    Indirect-drive targets for heavy-ion fusion must initially be heated by ''foot'' pulses that precede the main heating pulses by tens of nanoseconds. These pulses typically have a lower energy and perveance than the main pulses, and the fusion-chamber environment is different from that seen by later pulses. The preliminary particle-in-cell simulations of foot pulses here examine the sensitivity of the beam focusing to ion-beam perveance, background-gas density, and pre-neutralization by a plasma near the chamber entry port.

  9. Theory of nuclear excitation by electron capture for heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Palffy, Adriana; Scheid, Werner; Harman, Zoltan

    2006-01-15

    We investigate the resonant process of nuclear excitation by electron capture (NEEC), in which a continuum electron is captured into a bound state of an ion with the simultaneous excitation of the nucleus. In order to derive the cross section a Feshbach projection operator formalism is introduced. Nuclear states and transitions are described by a nuclear collective model and making use of experimental data. Transition rates and total cross sections for NEEC followed by the radiative decay of the excited nucleus are calculated for various heavy-ion collision systems.

  10. HEAVY ION COLLISIONS AND NEW FORMS OF MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    MCLERRAN,L.

    2007-07-02

    I discuss forms of high energy density matter in QCD. These include the Color Glass Condensate, the Glasma and the Quark Gluon Plasma. These all might be studied in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, and the Color Glass Condensate might also be probed in electron-hadron collisions. I present the properties of such matter, and some aspects of what is known of their properties.

  11. Isotope analysis in central heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraci, E.; Abbondanno, U.; Bardelli, L.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Bruno, M.; Cannata, F.; Casini, G.; Chiari, M.; D'Agostino, M.; de Sanctis, J.; Giussani, A.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Lanchais, A. L.; Marini, P.; Moroni, A.; Nannini, A.; Olmi, A.; Ordine, A.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.; Poggi, G.; Vannini, G.; Nucl-Ex Collaboration

    2007-11-01

    Symmetry energy is a key quantity in the study of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. Heavy ion collisions at low and intermediate energies, performed at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, can be used to extract information on the symmetry energy coefficient Csym, which is currently poorly known but relevant both for astrophysics and for deeper knowledge of the structure of exotic nuclei.

  12. Measurements of Thermal Photons in Heavy Ion Collisions with PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Dahms, T.; Awes, Terry C; Cianciolo, Vince; Efremenko, Yuri V; Enokizono, Akitomo; Hornback, Donald; Read Jr, Kenneth F; Silvermyr, David O; Sorensen, Soren P; Stankus, Paul W; Young, Glenn R; PHENIX, Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    Thermal photons are thought to be the ideal probe to measure the temperature of the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy ion collisions. PHENIX has measured direct photons with p{sub T} < 5 GeV/c via their internal conversions into e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs in Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV and has now provided a baseline measurement from p + p data.

  13. Momentum transfer in relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    Relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions yield fragments (Delta-Z = + 1) whose longitudinal momentum distributions are downshifted by larger values than those associated with the remaining fragments (Delta-Z = 1, -2,...). Kinematics alone cannot account for the observed downshifts; therefore, an additional contribution from collision dynamics must be included. In this work, an optical model description of collision momentum transfer is used to estimate the additional dynamical momentum downshift. Good agreement between theoretical estimates and experimental data is obtained.

  14. An integrated systems model for heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R O; Faltens, A; Meier, W R

    1998-09-02

    A source-to-target computer model for an induction linac driver for heavy ion fusion has been developed and used to define a reference case driver that meets the requirements of one current target design. Key features of the model are discussed, and the design parameters of the reference case design are described. Examples of the systems analyses leading to the point design are given, and directions for future work are noted.

  15. Production of 14 MeV neutrons by heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Brugger, Robert M.; Miller, Lowell G.; Young, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a neutron generator and a method for the production of 14 MeV neutrons. Heavy ions are accelerated to impinge upon a target mixture of deuterium and tritium to produce recoil atoms of deuterium and tritium. These recoil atoms have a sufficient energy such that they interact with other atoms of tritium or deuterium in the target mixture to produce approximately 14 MeV neutrons.

  16. Six tesla analyzing magnet for heavy-ion beam transport

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.P.; Bollinger, L.; Erskine, J.; Genens, L.; Hoffman, J.

    1980-01-01

    A superconducting analyzer magnet for particle beam deflection has been designed and is being fabricated for use at the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). This six tesla magnet will provide 45/sup 0/ of deflection for the heavy-ion beams from the ATLAS tandem electrostatic accelerator and together with its twin will replace the existing conventional 90/sup 0/ analyzer magnet which will become inadequate when ATLAS is completed.

  17. Coherent rho(0) production in ultraperipheral heavy-ion collisions.

    PubMed

    Adler, C; Ahammed, Z; Allgower, C; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bichsel, H; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Deng, W S; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Filimonov, K; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Guedon, M; Gushin, E; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Ivanshin, Yu I; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Konstantinov, A S; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R Kh; Kuznetsov, A A; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lebedev, A; Lednický, R; Leontiev, V M; LeVine, M J; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; LoCurto, G; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mitchell, J; Moiseenko, V A; Moore, C F; Morozov, V; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Nystrand, J; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, C; Rykov, V; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Saulys, A C; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schüttauf, A; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskii, S S; Shvetcov, V S; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stephenson, E J; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thomas, J H; Thompson, M; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; VanderMolen, A M; Vasilevski, I M; Vasiliev, A N; Vigdor, S E; Voloshin, S A; Wang, F; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zoulkarneev, R; Zubarev, A N

    2002-12-30

    The STAR Collaboration reports the first observation of exclusive rho(0) photoproduction, AuAu-->AuAurho(0), and rho(0) production accompanied by mutual nuclear Coulomb excitation, AuAu-->Au*Au*rho(0), in ultraperipheral heavy-ion collisions. The rho(0) have low transverse momenta, consistent with coherent coupling to both nuclei. The cross sections at sqrt[s(NN)]=130 GeV agree with theoretical predictions treating rho(0) production and Coulomb excitation as independent processes. PMID:12513197

  18. Aspects of heavy-ion collisions at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Wolschin, G.

    2014-01-14

    Three aspects of relativistic heavy-ion collisions are considered in this article: (1) Stopping and baryon transport in a QCD-based approach, (2) charged-hadron production in a nonequilibrium-statistical relativistic diffusion model (RDM), and (3) quarkonia suppression and in particular, Υ suppression in PbPb at the current LHC energy of √(s{sub NN}) = 2.76TeV.

  19. Dynamics of heavy ion beams during longitudinal compression

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, D.D.M.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lee, E.P.; Brandon, S.; Mark, J.W.K.

    1987-03-13

    Heavy ion beams with initially uniform line charge density can be compressed longitudinally by an order of magnitude in such a way that the compressed beam has uniform line charge density and velocity-tilt profiles. There are no envelope mismatch oscillations during compression. Although the transverse temperature varies along the beam and also varies with time, no substantial longitudinal and transverse emittance growth has been observed. Scaling laws for beam radius and transport system parameters are given.

  20. LHC INTERACTION REGION CORRECTION IN HEAVY ION OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    PTITSIN,V.; FISCHER,W.; WEI,J.

    1999-09-07

    In heavy ion operation the LHC interaction region at IP2 will have a low-{beta} optics for collisions. The dynamic aperture is therefore sensitive to magnetic field errors in the interaction region quadrupoles and dipoles. The authors investigate the effect of the magnetic field errors on the dynamic aperture and evaluate the effectiveness of local interaction region correctors. The dynamic aperture and the tune space are computed for different crossing angles.

  1. BRAHMS collaboration results for relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsene, I.

    2008-12-01

    In this work we review very briefly a few of the most important results obtained by the BRAHMS Collaboration on the properties of the collisions of heavy ions at relativistic energies. The discussion is general and aims to illustrate the most important achievements of our collaboration during the RHIC run period with short discussions and references to articles that treat the subjects in more detail.

  2. Calculation of cross sections for binary reactions between heavy ion projectiles and heavy actinide targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.; Hoffman, M.M.

    1990-11-01

    The computer program, described in this report, is identified as PWAVED5. It was developed to calculate cross sections for nucleon transfer reactions in low energy heavy ion bombardments. The objective was to calculate cross sections that agree with experimental results for ions of different charge and mass and to develop a predictive capability. It was undertaken because previous heavy ion calculations, for which programs were readily available, appeared to focus primarily on reactions resulting in compound nucleus formation and were not particularly applicable to calculations of binary reaction cross sections at low interaction energies. There are to principal areas in which this computation differs from several other partial wave calculations of heavy-ion reaction cross sections. First, this program is designed specifically to calculate cross sections for nucleon exchange interactions and to exclude interactions that are expected to result in fusion of the two nuclei. A second major difference in this calculation is the use of a statistical distribution to assign the total interaction cross section to individual final mass states.

  3. Preliminary results from the heavy ions in space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Beahm, Lorraine P.; Tylka, Allan J.

    1992-01-01

    The Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment has two primary objectives: (1) to measure the elemental composition of ultraheavy galactic cosmic rays, beginning in the tin-barium region of the periodic table; and (2) to study heavy ions which arrive at LDEF below the geomagnetic cutoff, either because they are not fully stripped of electrons or because their source is within the magnetosphere. Both of these objectives have practical as well as astrophysical consequences. In particular, the high atomic number of the ultraheavy galactic cosmic rays puts them among the most intensely ionizing particles in Nature. They are therefore capable of upsetting electronic components normally considered immune to such effects. The below cutoff heavy ions are intensely ionizing because of their low velocity. They can be a significant source of microelectronic anomalies in low inclination orbits, where Earth's magnetic field protects satellites from most particles from interplanetary space. The HIIS results will lead to significantly improved estimates of the intensely ionizing radiation environment.

  4. Uniformity of fuel target implosion in heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, S.; Noguchi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Karino, T.; Barada, D.; Ogoyski, A. I.; Ma, Y. Y.

    2015-12-01

    In inertial confinement fusion the target implosion non-uniformity is introduced by a driver beams' illumination non-uniformity, a fuel target alignment error in a fusion reactor, the target fabrication defect, et al. For a steady operation of a fusion power plant the target implosion should be robust against the implosion non-uniformities. In this paper the requirement for the implosion uniformity is first discussed. The implosion uniformity should be less than a few percent. A study on the fuel hotspot dynamics is also presented and shows that the stagnating plasma fluid provides a significant enhancement of vorticity at the final stage of the fuel stagnation. Then non-uniformity mitigation mechanisms of the heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination are also briefly discussed in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). A density valley appears in the energy absorber, and the large-scale density valley also works as a radiation energy confinement layer, which contributes to a radiation energy smoothing. In HIF a wobbling heavy ion beam illumination was also introduced to realize a uniform implosion. In the wobbling HIBs illumination, the illumination non-uniformity oscillates in time and space on a HIF target. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may contribute to the reduction of the HIBs' illumination non-uniformity by its smoothing effect on the HIB illumination non-uniformity and also by a growth mitigation effect on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  5. Superhydrogels of nanotubes capable of capturing heavy-metal ions.

    PubMed

    Song, Shasha; Wang, Haiqiao; Song, Aixin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembly regulated by hydrogen bonds was successfully achieved in the system of lithocholic acid (LCA) mixed with three organic amines, ethanolamine (EA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA), in aqueous solutions. The mixtures of DEA/LCA exhibit supergelation capability and the hydrogels consist of plenty of network nanotubes with uniform diameters of about 60 nm determined by cryogenic TEM. Interestingly, the sample with the same concentration in a system of EA and LCA is a birefringent solution, in which spherical vesicles and can be transformed into nanotubes as the amount of LCA increases. The formation of hydrogels could be driven by the delicate balance of diverse noncovalent interactions, including electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, steric effects, van der Waals forces, and mainly hydrogen bonds. The mechanism of self-assembly from spherical bilayer vesicles into nanotubes was proposed. The dried hydrogels with nanotubes were explored to exhibit the excellent capability for capturing heavy-metal ions, for example, Cu(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), and Hg(2+). The superhydrogels of nanotubes from the self-assembly of low-molecular-weight gelators mainly regulated by hydrogen bonds used for the removal of heavy-metal ions is simple, green, and high efficiency, and provide a strategic approach to removing heavy-metal ions from industrial sewage.

  6. Ion densities and composition of Titan's upper atmosphere derived from the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer: Analysis methods and comparison of measured ion densities to photochemical model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandt, Kathleen E.; Gell, David A.; Perry, Mark; Hunter Waite, J., Jr.; Crary, Frank A.; Young, David; Magee, Brian A.; Westlake, Joseph H.; Cravens, Thomas; Kasprzak, Wayne; Miller, Greg; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Ågren, Karin; Edberg, Niklas J. T.; Heays, Alan N.; Lewis, Brenton R.; Gibson, Stephen T.; de la Haye, V.; Liang, Mao-Chang

    2012-10-01

    The Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) has measured both neutral and ion species in Titan's upper atmosphere and ionosphere and the Enceladus plumes. Ion densities derived from INMS measurements are essential data for constraining photochemical models of Titan's ionosphere. The objective of this paper is to present an optimized method for converting raw data measured by INMS to ion densities. To do this, we conduct a detailed analysis of ground and in-flight calibration to constrain the instrument response to ion energy, the critical parameter on which the calibration is based. Data taken by the Cassini Radio Plasma Wave Science Langmuir Probe and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Ion Beam Spectrometer are used as independent measurement constraints in this analysis. Total ion densities derived with this method show good agreement with these data sets in the altitude region (˜1100-1400 km) where ion drift velocities are low and the mass of the ions is within the measurement range of the INMS (1-99 Daltons). Although ion densities calculated by the method presented here differ slightly from those presented in previous INMS publications, we find that the implications for the science presented in previous publications is mostly negligible. We demonstrate the role of the INMS ion densities in constraining photochemical models and find that (1) cross sections having high resolution as a function of wavelength are necessary for calculating the initial photoionization products and (2) there are disagreements between the measured ion densities representative of the initial steps in Titan photochemistry that require further investigation.

  7. A compact high-resolution X-ray ion mobility spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Reinecke, T; Kirk, A T; Heptner, A; Niebuhr, D; Böttger, S; Zimmermann, S

    2016-05-01

    For the ionization of gaseous samples, most ion mobility spectrometers employ radioactive ionization sources, e.g., containing (63)Ni or (3)H. Besides legal restrictions, radioactive materials have the disadvantage of a constant radiation with predetermined intensity. In this work, we replaced the (3)H source of our previously described high-resolution ion mobility spectrometer with 75 mm drift tube length with a commercially available X-ray source. It is shown that the current configuration maintains the resolving power of R = 100 which was reported for the original setup containing a (3)H source. The main advantage of an X-ray source is that the intensity of the radiation can be adjusted by varying its operating parameters, i.e., filament current and acceleration voltage. At the expense of reduced resolving power, the sensitivity of the setup can be increased by increasing the activity of the source. Therefore, the performance of the setup can be adjusted to the specific requirements of any application. To investigate the relation between operating parameters of the X-Ray source and the performance of the ion mobility spectrometer, parametric studies of filament current and acceleration voltage are performed and the influence on resolving power, peak height, and noise is analyzed.

  8. A composition analyzer for microparticles using a spark ion source. [using time of flight spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S. O.; Berg, O. E.

    1975-01-01

    Iron microparticles were fired onto a capacitor-type microparticle detector which responded to an impact with a spark discharge. Ion currents were extracted from the spark and analyzed in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The mass spectra showed the element of both detector and particle materials. The total extracted ion currents was typically 10A within a period of 100ns, indicating very efficient vaporization of the particle and ionization of the vapor. Potential applications include research on cosmic dust, atmospheric aerosols and cloud droplets, particles ejected by rocket or jet engines, by machining processes, or by nuclear bomb explosions.

  9. Conceptual design of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider: RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Samios, Nicholas P.

    1986-05-01

    The complete Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility will be a complex set of accelerators and beam transfer equipment connecting them. A significant portion of the total facility either exists or is under construction. Two existing Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators will serve for the initial ion acceleration. Ions with a charge of -1 would be accelerated from ground to +15 MV potential, pass through a stripping foil, and accelerate back to ground potential, where they would pass through a second stripping foil. From there the ions will traverse a long transfer line to the AGS tunnel and be injected into the Booster accelerator. The Booster accelerates the ion bunch, and then the ions pass through one more stripper and then enter the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), where they are accelerated to the top AGS energy and transferred to the collider. Bending and focusing of ion beams is to be achieved by superconducting magnets. The physics goals behind the RHIC are enumerated, particularly as regards the study of quark matter and the characteristics of high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. The design of the collider and all its components is described, including the injector, the lattice, magnet system, cryogenic and vacuum systems, beam transfer, injection, and dump, rf system, and beam instrumentation and control system. Also given are cost estimates, construction schedules, and a management plan. (LEW)

  10. Chitosan removes toxic heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Xu, Ying; Wang, Dongfeng; Zhou, Shilu

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the removal of heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke using chitosan. Chitosan of various deacetylation degrees and molecular weights were manually added to cigarette filters in different dosages. The mainstream smoke particulate matter was collected by a Cambridge filter pad, digested by a microwave digestor, and then analyzed for contents of heavy metal ions, including As(III/V), Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The results showed that chitosan had a removal effect on Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II). Of these, the percent removal of Ni(II) was elevated with an increasing dosage of chitosan. Chitosan of a high deace tylation degree exhibited good binding performance toward Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), though with poor efficiency for Pb(II). Except As(III/V), all the tested metal ions showed similar tendencies in the growing contents with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Nonetheless, the percent removal of Cr(III/VI) peaked with a chitosan molecular weight of 200 kDa, followed by a dramatic decrease with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Generally, chitosan had different removal effects on four out of five tested metal ions, and the percent removal of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II) was approximately 55%, 45%, 50%, and 16%, respectively. In a word, chitosan used in cigarette filter can remove toxic heavy metal ions in the mainstream smoke, improve cigarette safety, and reduce the harm to smokers.

  11. Micro-machined planar field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer as a gas chromatographic detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiceman, G. A.; Nazarov, E. G.; Miller, R. A.; Krylov, E. V.; Zapata, A. M.

    2002-01-01

    A planar high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometer (PFAIMS) with a micro-machined drift tube was characterized as a detector for capillary gas chromatography. The performance of the PFAIMS was compared directly to that of a flame ionization detector (FID) for the separation of a ketone mixture from butanone to decanone. Effluent from the column was continuously sampled by the detector and mobility scans could be obtained throughout the chromatographic analysis providing chemical inforrmation in mobility scans orthogonal to retention time. Limits of detection were approximately I ng for measurement of positive ions and were comparable or slightly better than those for the FID. Direct comparison of calibration curves for the FAIMS and the FID was possible over four orders of magnitude with a semi-log plot. The concentration dependence of the PFAIMS mobility scans showed the dependence between ion intensity and ion clustering, evident in other mobility spectrometers and atmospheric pressure ionization technologies. Ions were identified using mass spectrometry as the protonated monomer and the proton bound dimer of the ketones. Residence time for column effluent in the PFAIMS was calculated as approximately 1 ms and a 36% increase in extra-column broadening versus the FID occurred with the PFAIMS.

  12. Plasticizer contamination from vacuum system O-rings in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Verge, Kent M; Agnes, George R

    2002-08-01

    The outgassing of plasticizers from Buna-N and Viton o-rings under vacuum lead to undesired ion-molecule chemistry in an Electrospray Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer. In experiments with the helium bath gas pressure >1.2 mTorr, or whenever analyte ions were stored for >100 ms, extensive loss of analyte ions by proton transfer or adduction with o-ring plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate occurred. A temporary solution to this contamination problem was found to be overnight refluxing in hexane of all the o-rings in the vacuum system. This procedure alleviated this plasticizer contamination for approximately 100 hours of operation. These results, and those that lead to identification of the contamination as plasticizers outgassing from o-rings are described. PMID:12216729

  13. Modified Thomson spectrometer design for high energy, multi-species ion sources.

    PubMed

    Gwynne, D; Kar, S; Doria, D; Ahmed, H; Cerchez, M; Fernandez, J; Gray, R J; Green, J S; Hanton, F; MacLellan, D A; McKenna, P; Najmudin, Z; Neely, D; Ruiz, J A; Schiavi, A; Streeter, M; Swantusch, M; Willi, O; Zepf, M; Borghesi, M

    2014-03-01

    A modification to the standard Thomson parabola spectrometer is discussed, which is designed to measure high energy (tens of MeV/nucleon), broad bandwidth spectra of multi-species ions accelerated by intense laser plasma interactions. It is proposed to implement a pair of extended, trapezoidal shaped electric plates, which will not only resolve ion traces at high energies, but will also retain the lower energy part of the spectrum. While a longer (along the axis of the undeflected ion beam direction) electric plate design provides effective charge state separation at the high energy end of the spectrum, the proposed new trapezoidal shape will enable the low energy ions to reach the detector, which would have been clipped or blocked by simply extending the rectangular plates to enhance the electrostatic deflection.

  14. Operation of TFTR neutral beams with heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Stevenson, T.N.; Wright, K.E.; Dudek, L.E.; Grisham, L.R.; Newman, R.A.; O'Connor, T.E.; Oldaker, M.E.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1991-07-01

    High Z neutral atoms have been injected into TFTR plasmas in an attempt to enhance plasma confinement through modification of the edge electric field. TFTR ion sources have extracted 9 A of 62 keV Ne{sup +} for up to 0.2 s during injection into deuterium plasmas, and for 0.5 s during conditioning pulses. Approximately 400 kW of Ne{sup 0} have been injected from each of two ion sources. Operation was at full bending magnet current, with the Ne{sup +} barely contained on the ion dump. Beamline design modifications to permit operation up to 120 keV with krypton or xenon are described. Such ions are too massive to be deflected up to the ion dump. The plan, therefore, is to armor those components receiving these ions. Even with this armor, modest increases in the bending magnet current capability are necessary to safely reach 120 kV with Kr or Xe. Information relevant to heavy ion operation was also acquired when several ion sources were inadvertently operated with water contamination. Spectroscopic analysis of certain pathological pulses indicate that up to 6% of the extracted ions were water. After dissociation in the neutralizer, water yields oxygen ions which, as with Ne, Kr, and Xe, are under-deflected by the magnet. Damage to a calorimeter scraper, due to the focal properties of the magnet, has resulted. A magnified power density of 6 KW/cm{sup 2} for 2 s, from {approximately} 90 kW of O{sup +}, is the suspected cause. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Heavy ion observations by MARIE in cruise phase and Mars orbit.

    PubMed

    Lee, K T; Cleghorn, T; Cucinotta, F; Pinsky, L; Zeitlin, C

    2004-01-01

    The charged particle spectrum for nuclei from protons to neon, (charge Z=10) was observed during the cruise phase and orbit around Mars by the MARIE charged particle spectrometer on the Odyssey spacecraft. The cruise data were taken between April 23, 2001 and mid-August 2001. The Mars orbit data were taken March 5, 2002 through May 2002 and are scheduled to continue until August 2004. Charge peaks are clearly separated for charges up to Z=10. Especially prominent are the carbon and oxygen peaks, with boron and nitrogen also clearly visible. Although heavy ions are much less abundant than protons in the cosmic ray environment, it is important to determine their abundances because their ionization energy losses (proportional to Z2) are far more dangerous to humans and to instruments. Thus the higher charged nuclei make a significant contribution to dose and dose equivalent received in space. Results of the charged particle spectrum measurements will be reported.

  16. Characteristics of low energy ions in the Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleis, Thomas; Tylka, Allan J.; Boberg, Paul R.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Beahm, Lorraine P.

    1995-01-01

    We present preliminary data on heavy ions (Z greater than or equal to 10) detected in the topmost Lexan sheets of the track detector stacks of the Heavy Ions in space (HIIS) experiment (M0001) on LDEF. The energy interval covered by these observations varies with the element, with (for example) Ne observable at 18-100 MeV nuc and Fe at 45-200 MeV/nuc. All of the observed ions are at energies far below the geomagnetic cutoff for fully-ionized particles at the LDEF orbit. Above 50 MeV/nuc (where most of our observed particles are Fe), the ions arrive primarily from the direction of lowest geomagnetic cutoff. This suggests that these particles originate outside the magnetosphere from a source with a steeply-falling spectrum and may therefore be associated with solar energetic particle (SEP) events. Below 50 MeV/nuc, the distribution of arrival directions suggests that most of the observed heavy ions are trapped in the Earth's magnetic field. Preliminary analysis, however, shows that these trapped heavy ions have a very surprising composition: they include not only Ne and Ar, which are expected from the trapping of anomalous cosmic rays (ACR's), but also Mg and Si, which are not part of the anomalous component. Our preliminary analysis shows that trapped heavy ions at 12 less than or equal to Zeta less than or equal to 14 have a steeply-falling spectrum, similar to that reported by the Kiel experiment (exp 1,2,3) on LDEF (M0002) for trapped Ar and Fe at E less than 50 MeV/nuc. The trapped Mg, Si, and Fe may also be associated with SEP events, but the mechanism by which they have appeared to deep in the inner magnetosphere requires further theoretical investigation.

  17. Late degeneration in rabbit tissues after irradiation by heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lett, J. T.; Cox, A. B.; Keng, P. C.; Lee, A. C.; Su, C. M.; Bergtold, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for investigations of the late effects of heavy-ion irradiation on rabbit tissues which were undertaken to assess the hazards associated with the long-term exposure of humans to heavy ions in space during such activities as the construction of solar power stations or voyages to Mars. White rabbits approximately six weeks old were exposed to various doses of collimated beams of 400-MeV/n Ne ions, 570 MeV/n Ar ions and Co-60 gamma rays directed through both eyes, and the responses of the various tissues (hair follicles, skin, cornea, lens, retina, Harderian glands, bone and forebrain) were examined. Proliferating tissues are found to exhibit high damage levels in the early and late periods following irradiation, while terminally differentiating tissues repond to radiation most intensely in the late period, years after irradiation, with no intermediate recovery. The results obtained from rabbits are used to predict the occurrence of late tissue degeneration in the central nervous system, terminally differentiating systems and stem cells of humans one or more decades following exposure to radiation levels anticipated during long-duration space flights. The studies also indicate that tissues may be prematurely aged in the sense that tissue life spans may be shortened without the development of malignancies.

  18. The composition of heavy ions in solar energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, C. Y.; Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.

    1983-01-01

    Recent advances in determining the elemental, charge state, and isotopic composition of or approximate to 1 to or approximate to 20 MeV per nucleon ions in solar energetic particle (SEP) events and outline our current understanding of the nature of solar and interplanetary processes which may explain the observations. Average values of relative abundances measured in a large number of SEP events were found to be roughly energy independent in the approx. 1 to approx. 20 MeV per nucleon range, and showed a systematic deviation from photospheric abundances which seems to be organized in terms of the first ionization potential of the ion. Direct measurements of the charge states of SEPs revealed the surprisingly common presence of energetic He(+) along with heavy ion with typically coronal ionization states. High resolution measurements of isotopic abundance ratios in a small number of SEP events showed these to be consistent with the universal composition except for the puzzling overabundance of the SEP(22)Ne/(20)Ne relative to this isotopes ratio in the solar wind. The broad spectrum of observed elemental abundance variations, which in their extreme result in composition anomalies characteristic of (3)He rich, heavy ion rich and carbon poor SEP events, along with direct measurements of the ionization states of SEPs provided essential information on the physical characteristics of, and conditions in the source regions, as well as important constraints to possible models for SEP production.

  19. Modeling Chamber Transport for Heavy-Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W M; Niller, D A C; Tabak, M; Yu, S S; Peterson, P F; Welch, D R; Rose, D V; Olson, C L

    2002-08-02

    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  20. Modeling chamber transport for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.

    2002-10-01

    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  1. The composition of heavy ions in solar energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, C. Y.; Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recent advances in determining the elemental, charge state, and isotopic composition of or approximate to 1 to or approximate to 20 MeV per nucleon ions in solar energetic particle (SEP) events and outline our current understanding of the nature of solar and interplanetary processes which may explain the observations. Average values of relative abundances measured in a large number of SEP events were found to be roughly energy independent in the approx. 1 to approx. 20 MeV per nucleon range, and showed a systematic deviation from photospheric abundances which seems to be organized in terms of the first ionization potential of the ion. Direct measurements of the charge states of SEPs revealed the surprisingly common presence of energetic He(+) along with heavy ion with typically coronal ionization states. High resolution measurements of isotopic abundance ratios in a small number of SEP events showed these to be consistent with the universal composition except for the puzzling overabundance of the SEP(22)Ne/(20)Ne relative to this isotopes ratio in the solar wind. The broad spectrum of observed elemental abundance variations, which in their extreme result in composition anomalies characteristic of (3)He rich, heavy ion rich and carbon poor SEP events, along with direct measurements of the ionization states of SEPs provided essential information on the physical characteristics of, and conditions in the source regions, as well as important constraints to possible models for SEP production. Previously announced in STAR as N83-20886

  2. Electromagnetic heavy-lepton pair production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengül, M. Y.; Güçlü, M. C.; Mercan, Ö.; Karakuş, N. G.

    2016-08-01

    We calculate the cross sections of electromagnetic productions of muon- and tauon-pair productions from the ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Since the Compton wavelengths of muon and tauon are comparable to the radius of the colliding ions, nuclear form factors play important roles for calculating the cross sections. Recent measurement (Abrahamyan et al., Phys Rev Lett 108:112502, 2012) indicates that the neutrons are differently distributed from the protons; therefore this affects the cross section of the heavy-lepton pair production. In order to see the effects of the neutron distributions in the nucleus, we used analytical expression of the Fourier transforms of the Wood-Saxon distribution. Cross section calculations show that the Wood-Saxon distribution function is more sensitive to the parameter R compared to the parameter a.

  3. Developments of multiplexed and miniature two-dimensional quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Scott A.

    Quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (QIT MS) is a powerful and commonly-employed method for the specific analysis of mass, composition, and structure of gas-phase ionic chemical species. Useful for a wide variety of tasks, applications of ion traps include environmental monitoring, surface analysis (including depth profiling and imaging), ion thermochemical property elucidation, protein and DNA sequencing, and high-resolution chemical separations (through ion soft-landing). Though the principles of QIT MS have been known for over half a century, innovations in instrumentation and applications continue. As new needs for specific and sensitive chemical analysis arise, so also do new and more efficient analytical devices and methods of analysis. Such a trend is exemplified through the construction of a dual-source QIT mass spectrometer (described herein) capable of multi-source chemical analyses for the purposes of enhanced proteomic sequence coverage and for the strictly-controlled comparison of the structural differences in ion populations generated by different ionization techniques. Furthermore, as mass spectrometry becomes increasingly commonplace outside the bounds of the analytical laboratory, demand for capable researcher equipment is also increasing. Advances in instrument performance, such as can be had through enhanced power efficiency and the enabling of chemical analysis of high mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) species (e.g., proteins), will open new doors to in situ chemical analysis hand-portable mass spectrometers. Hence, research into new mass analyzer designs and methods of fabrication using stereolithography apparatus (SLA) for the purpose of creating enhanced-performance mass spectrometers are accordingly described in the text of this dissertation.

  4. The new Heavy-ion MCP-based Ancillary Detector DANTE for the CLARA-PRISMA Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Gadea, A.; Corradi, L.; De Angelis, G.; Della Vedova, F.; Fioretto, E.; Marginean, N.; Napoli, D. R.; Orlandi, R.; Pokrovsky, I.; Sahin, E.; Stefanini, A. M.; Brambilla, S.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Beghini, S.; Farnea, E.; Lunardi, S.; Montagnoli, G.; Ur, C. A.

    2006-08-14

    The CLARA-PRISMA setup is a powerful tool for spectroscopic studies of neutron-rich nuclei produced in multi-nucleon transfer and deep-inelastic reactions. It combines the large acceptance spectrometer PRISMA with the {gamma}-ray array CLARA. At present, the ancillary heavy-ion detector DANTE, based on Micro-Channel Plates to be installed at the CLARA-PRISMA setup, is being constructed at LNL. DANTE will open the possibility of measuring {gamma}-{gamma} Doppler-corrected coincidences for the events outside the acceptance of PRISMA. In this presentation, it is described the heavy-ion detector DANTE, as well as the performances of the first prototype.

  5. Multiple-electron losses in uranium ion beams in heavy ion synchrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozyk, L.; Chill, F.; Litsarev, M. S.; Tolstikhina, I. Yu.; Shevelko, V. P.

    2016-04-01

    Charge changing processes as the result of collisions with residual gas particles are the main cause of beam loss in high energy medium charge state heavy ion beams. To investigate the magnitude of this effect for heavy ion synchrotrons like the planned SIS100 at GSI, the multiple-electron and the total electron-loss cross sections are calculated for Uq+ ions, q = 10, 28, 40, 73, colliding with typical gas components H2, He, C, N2, O2, and Ar at ion energies E = 1 MeV/u-10 GeV/u. The total electron-capture cross sections for U28+ and U73+ ions interacting with these gases are also calculated. Most of these cross sections are new and presented for the first time. Calculated charge-changing cross sections are used to determine the ion-beam lifetimes τ for U28+ ions which agree well with the recently measured values at SIS18/GSI in the energy range E = 10-200 MeV/u. Using simulations made by the StrahlSim code with the reference ion U28+, it is found that in SIS100 the beam loss caused by single and multiple electron losses has only little impact on the residual gas density due to the high efficiency of the ion catcher system.

  6. Analysis of Titan's neutral upper atmosphere from Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Waite, J. H.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Gell, D. A.; Niemann, H. B.; Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Borggren, N.; Fletcher, G. G.; Patrick, E. L.; Raaen, E.; Magee, B. A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we present an in-depth study of the distributions of various neutral species in Titan's upper atmosphere, between 950 and 1500 km for abundant species (N 2, CH 4, H 2) and between 950 and 1200 km for other minor species. Our analysis is based on a large sample of Cassini/INMS (Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer) measurements in the CSN (Closed Source Neutral) mode, obtained during 15 close flybys of Titan. To untangle the overlapping cracking patterns, we adopt Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to determine simultaneously the densities of different species. Except for N 2, CH 4, H 2 and 40Ar (as well as their isotopes), all species present density enhancements measured during the outbound legs. This can be interpreted as a result of wall effects, which could be either adsorption/desorption of these molecules or heterogeneous surface chemistry of the associated radicals on the chamber walls. In this paper, we provide both direct inbound measurements assuming ram pressure enhancement only and abundances corrected for wall adsorption/desorption based on a simple model to reproduce the observed time behavior. Among all minor species of photochemical interest, we have firm detections of C 2H 2, C 2H 4, C 2H 6, CH 3C 2H, C 4H 2, C 6H 6, CH 3CN, HC 3N, C 2N 2 and NH 3 in Titan's upper atmosphere. Upper limits are given for other minor species. The globally averaged distributions of N 2, CH 4 and H 2 are each modeled with the diffusion approximation. The N 2 profile suggests an average thermospheric temperature of 151 K. The CH 4 and H 2 profiles constrain their fluxes to be 2.6×10 cms and 1.1×10 cms, referred to Titan's surface. Both fluxes are significantly higher than the Jeans escape values. The INMS data also suggest horizontal/diurnal variations of temperature and neutral gas distribution in Titan's thermosphere. The equatorial region, the ramside, as well as the nightside hemisphere of Titan appear to be warmer and present some evidence for the depletion

  7. Development of a linear ion trap/orthogonal-time-of-flight mass spectrometer for time-dependent observation of product ions by ultraviolet photodissociation of peptide ions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Young; Schwartz, Jae C; Reilly, James P

    2009-11-01

    A hybrid linear ion trap/orthogonal time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer has been developed to observe time-dependent vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation product ions. In this apparatus, a reflectron TOF mass analyzer is orthogonally interfaced to an LTQ using rf-only octopole and dc quadrupole ion guides. Precursor ions are generated by electrospray ionization and isolated in the ion trap. Subsequently they are directed to the TOF source where photodissociation occurs and product ions are extracted for mass analysis. To detect photodissociation product ions having axially divergent trajectories, a large rectangular detector is utilized. With variation of the time between photodissociation and orthogonal extraction in the TOF source, product ions formed over a range of times after photoexcitation can be sampled. Time-dependent observation of product ions following 157 nm photodissociation of a singly charged tryptic peptide ion (NWDAGFGR) showed that prompt photofragment ions (x- and v-type ions) dominate the tandem mass spectrum up to 1 micros after the laser shot, but the intensities of low energy thermal fragment ions (y-type ions) become comparable several microseconds later. Different proton mobilization time scales were observed for arginine- and lysine-terminated tryptic peptides.

  8. Using metal complex ion-molecule reactions in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer to detect chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Graichen, Adam M; Vachet, Richard W

    2013-06-01

    The gas-phase reactions of a series of coordinatively unsaturated [Ni(L)n](y+) complexes, where L is a nitrogen-containing ligand, with chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer were investigated as part of a new approach to detect CWAs. Results show that upon entering the vacuum system via a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane introduction, low concentrations of several CWA simulants, including dipropyl sulfide (simulant for mustard gas), acetonitrile (simulant for the nerve agent tabun), and diethyl phosphite (simulant for nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX), can react with metal complex ions generated by electrospray ionization (ESI), thereby providing a sensitive means of detecting these compounds. The [Ni(L)n](2+) complexes are found to be particularly reactive with the simulants of mustard gas and tabun, allowing their detection at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. These detection limits are well below reported exposure limits for these CWAs, which indicates the applicability of this new approach, and are about two orders of magnitude lower than electron ionization detection limits on the same mass spectrometer. The use of coordinatively unsaturated metal complexes as reagent ions offers the possibility of further tuning the ion-molecule chemistry so that desired compounds can be detected selectively or at even lower concentrations.

  9. How much do heavy quarks thermalize in a heavy ion collision?

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Guy D.; Teaney, Derek

    2005-06-01

    We investigate the thermalization of charm quarks in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. To this end, we calculate the diffusion coefficient in the perturbative quark gluon plasma and relate it to collisional energy loss and momentum broadening. We then use these transport properties to formulate a Langevin model for the evolution of the heavy quark spectrum in the hot medium. The model is strictly valid in the nonrelativistic limit and for all velocities {gamma}v<{alpha}s{sup -1/2} to leading logarithm in T/m{sub D}. The corresponding Fokker-Planck equation can be solved analytically for a Bjorken expansion and the solution gives a simple estimate for the medium modifications of the heavy quark spectrum as a function of the diffusion coefficient. Finally we solve the Langevin equations numerically in a hydrodynamic simulation of the heavy-ion reaction. The results of this simulation are the medium modifications of the charm spectrum R{sub AA} and the expected elliptic flow v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) as a function of the diffusion coefficient.

  10. Beam Compression in Heavy-Ion Induction Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.A.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Calanog, J.; Chen, A.X.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E.P.; Grote, D.P.; Jung, J.Y.; Leitner, M.; Lidia, S.M.; Logan, B.G.; Ni, P.; Roy, P.K.; Van den Bogert, K.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Heavy-Ion Fusion Sciences Virtual National Laboratory is pursuing an approach to target heating experiments in the Warm Dense Matter regime, using space-charge-dominated ion beams that are simultaneously longitudinally bunched and transversely focused. Longitudinal beam compression by large factors has been demonstrated in the LBNL Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) experiment with controlled ramps and forced neutralization. The achieved peak beam current and energy can be used in experiments to heat targets and create warm dense matter. Using an injected 30 mA K{sup +} ion beam with initial kinetic energy 0.3 MeV, axial compression leading to {approx}50x current amplification and simultaneous radial focusing to beam radii of a few mm have led to encouraging energy deposition approaching the intensities required for eV-range target heating experiments. We discuss experiments that are under development to reach the necessary higher beam intensities and the associated beam diagnostics.

  11. Heavy-ion irradiation induced diamond formation in carbonaceous materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Daulton, T. L.

    1999-01-08

    The basic mechanisms of metastable phase formation produced under highly non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions within high-energy particle tracks are investigated. In particular, the possible formation of diamond by heavy-ion irradiation of graphite at ambient temperature is examined. This work was motivated, in part, by earlier studies which discovered nanometer-grain polycrystalline diamond aggregates of submicron-size in uranium-rich carbonaceous mineral assemblages of Precambrian age. It was proposed that the radioactive decay of uranium formed diamond in the fission particle tracks produced in the carbonaceous minerals. To test the hypothesis that nanodiamonds can form by ion irradiation, fine-grain polycrystalline graphite sheets were irradiated with 400 MeV Kr ions. The ion irradiated graphite (and unirradiated graphite control) were then subjected to acid dissolution treatments to remove the graphite and isolate any diamonds that were produced. The acid residues were then characterized by analytical and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The acid residues of the ion-irradiated graphite were found to contain ppm concentrations of nanodiamonds, suggesting that ion irradiation of bulk graphite at ambient temperature can produce diamond.

  12. Development of analytically capable time-of-flight mass spectrometer with continuous ion introduction.

    PubMed

    Hárs, György; Dobos, Gábor

    2010-03-01

    The present article describes the results and findings explored in the course of the development of the analytically capable prototype of continuous time-of-flight (CTOF) mass spectrometer. Currently marketed pulsed TOF (PTOF) instruments use ion introduction with a 10 ns or so pulse width, followed by a waiting period roughly 100 micros. Accordingly, the sample is under excitation in 10(-4) part of the total measuring time. This very low duty cycle severely limits the sensitivity of the PTOF method. A possible approach to deal with this problem is to use linear sinusoidal dual modulation technique (CTOF) as described in this article. This way the sensitivity of the method is increased, due to the 50% duty cycle of the excitation. All other types of TOF spectrometer use secondary electron multiplier (SEM) for detection, which unfortunately discriminates in amplification in favor of the lighter ions. This discrimination effect is especially undesirable in a mass spectrometric method, which targets high mass range. In CTOF method, SEM is replaced with Faraday cup detector, thus eliminating the mass discrimination effect. Omitting SEM is made possible by the high ion intensity and the very slow ion detection with some hundred hertz detection bandwidth. The electrometer electronics of the Faraday cup detector operates with amplification 10(10) V/A. The primary ion beam is highly monoenergetic due to the construction of the ion gun, which made possible to omit any electrostatic mirror configuration for bunching the ions. The measurement is controlled by a personal computer and the intelligent signal generator Type Tabor WW 2571, which uses the direct digital synthesis technique for making arbitrary wave forms. The data are collected by a Labjack interface board, and the fast Fourier transformation is performed by the software. Noble gas mixture has been used to test the analytical capabilities of the prototype setup. Measurement presented proves the results of the

  13. Development of analytically capable time-of-flight mass spectrometer with continuous ion introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hars, Gyoergy; Dobos, Gabor

    2010-03-15

    The present article describes the results and findings explored in the course of the development of the analytically capable prototype of continuous time-of-flight (CTOF) mass spectrometer. Currently marketed pulsed TOF (PTOF) instruments use ion introduction with a 10 ns or so pulse width, followed by a waiting period roughly 100 {mu}s. Accordingly, the sample is under excitation in 10{sup -4} part of the total measuring time. This very low duty cycle severely limits the sensitivity of the PTOF method. A possible approach to deal with this problem is to use linear sinusoidal dual modulation technique (CTOF) as described in this article. This way the sensitivity of the method is increased, due to the 50% duty cycle of the excitation. All other types of TOF spectrometer use secondary electron multiplier (SEM) for detection, which unfortunately discriminates in amplification in favor of the lighter ions. This discrimination effect is especially undesirable in a mass spectrometric method, which targets high mass range. In CTOF method, SEM is replaced with Faraday cup detector, thus eliminating the mass discrimination effect. Omitting SEM is made possible by the high ion intensity and the very slow ion detection with some hundred hertz detection bandwidth. The electrometer electronics of the Faraday cup detector operates with amplification 10{sup 10} V/A. The primary ion beam is highly monoenergetic due to the construction of the ion gun, which made possible to omit any electrostatic mirror configuration for bunching the ions. The measurement is controlled by a personal computer and the intelligent signal generator Type Tabor WW 2571, which uses the direct digital synthesis technique for making arbitrary wave forms. The data are collected by a Labjack interface board, and the fast Fourier transformation is performed by the software. Noble gas mixture has been used to test the analytical capabilities of the prototype setup. Measurement presented proves the results of

  14. Development of analytically capable time-of-flight mass spectrometer with continuous ion introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hárs, György; Dobos, Gábor

    2010-03-01

    The present article describes the results and findings explored in the course of the development of the analytically capable prototype of continuous time-of-flight (CTOF) mass spectrometer. Currently marketed pulsed TOF (PTOF) instruments use ion introduction with a 10 ns or so pulse width, followed by a waiting period roughly 100 μs. Accordingly, the sample is under excitation in 10-4 part of the total measuring time. This very low duty cycle severely limits the sensitivity of the PTOF method. A possible approach to deal with this problem is to use linear sinusoidal dual modulation technique (CTOF) as described in this article. This way the sensitivity of the method is increased, due to the 50% duty cycle of the excitation. All other types of TOF spectrometer use secondary electron multiplier (SEM) for detection, which unfortunately discriminates in amplification in favor of the lighter ions. This discrimination effect is especially undesirable in a mass spectrometric method, which targets high mass range. In CTOF method, SEM is replaced with Faraday cup detector, thus eliminating the mass discrimination effect. Omitting SEM is made possible by the high ion intensity and the very slow ion detection with some hundred hertz detection bandwidth. The electrometer electronics of the Faraday cup detector operates with amplification 1010 V/A. The primary ion beam is highly monoenergetic due to the construction of the ion gun, which made possible to omit any electrostatic mirror configuration for bunching the ions. The measurement is controlled by a personal computer and the intelligent signal generator Type Tabor WW 2571, which uses the direct digital synthesis technique for making arbitrary wave forms. The data are collected by a Labjack interface board, and the fast Fourier transformation is performed by the software. Noble gas mixture has been used to test the analytical capabilities of the prototype setup. Measurement presented proves the results of the mathematical

  15. A transverse electron target for heavy ion storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, Sabrina Meusel, Oliver; Kester, Oliver

    2015-01-09

    Electron-ion interaction processes are of fundamental interest for several research fields like atomic and astrophysics as well as plasma applications. To address this topic, a transverse electron target based on the crossed beam technique was designed and constructed for the application in storage rings. Using a sheet beam of free electrons in crossed beam geometry promises a good energy resolution and gives access to the interaction region for spectroscopy. The produced electron beam has a length of 10 cm in ion beam direction and a width in the transverse plane of 5 mm. Therewith, electron densities of up to 10{sup 9} electrons/cm{sup 3} are reachable in the interaction region. The target allows the adjustment of the electron beam current and energy in the region of several 10 eV to a few keV. Simulations have been performed regarding the energy resolution for electron-ion collisions and its influence on spectroscopic measurements. Also, the effect on ion-beam optics due to the space charge of the electron beam was investigated. Presently the electron target is integrated into a test bench to evaluate its performance for its dedicated installation at the storage rings of the FAIR facility. Therefore, optical diagnostics of the interaction region and charge state analysis with a magnetic spectrometer is used. Subsequently, the target will be installed temporarily at the Frankfurt Low-Energy Storage Ring (FLSR) for further test measurements.

  16. Heavy-ion induced genetic changes and evolution processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. H.; Craise, L. M.; Durante, M.; Mei, M.

    1994-10-01

    On Moon and Mars, there will be more galactic cosmic rays and higher radiation doses than on earth. Our experimental studies showed that heavy ion radiation can effectively cause mutation and chromosome aberrations and that high-LET heavy-ion induced mutants can be irreversible. Chromosome translocations and deletions are common in cells irradiated by heavy particles, and ionizing radiations are effective in causing hyperploidy. The importance of the genetic changes in the evolution of life is an interesting question. Through evolution, there is an increase of DNA content in cells from lower forms of life to higher organisms. The DNA content, however, reached a plateau in vertebrates. By increasing DNA content, there can be an increase of information in the cell. For a given DNA content, the quality of information can be changed by rearranging the DNA. Because radiation can cause hyperploidy, an increase of DNA content in cells, and can induce DNA rearrangement, it is likely that the evolution of life on Mars will be effected by its radiation environment. A simple analysis shows that the radiation level on Mars may cause a mutation frequency comparable to that of the spontaneous mutation rate on Earth. To the extent that mutation plays a role in adaptation, radiation alone on Mars may thus provide different mutation for the evolution of life.

  17. Heavy-ion induced genetic changes and evolution processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C. H.; Craise, L. M.; Durante, M.; Mei, M.

    1994-01-01

    On Moon and Mars, there will be more galactic cosmic rays and higher radiation doses than on Earth. Our experimental studies showed that heavy ion radiation can effectively cause mutation and chromosome aberrations and that high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) heavy-ion induced mutants can be irreversible. Chromosome translocations and deletions are common in cells irradiated by heavy particles, and ionizing radiations are effective in causing hyperploidy. The importance of the genetic changes in the evolution of life is an interesting question. Through evolution, there is an increase of DNA content in cells from lower forms of life to higher organisms. The DNA content, however, reached a plateau in vertebrates. By increasing DNA content, there can be an increase of information in the cell. For a given DNA content, the quality of information can be changed by rearranging the DNA. Because radiation can cause hyperploidy, an increase of DNA content in cells, and can induce DNA rearrangement, it is likely that the evolution of life on Mars will be effected by its radiation environment. A simple analysis shows that the radiation level on Mars may cause a mutation frequency comparable to that of the spontaneous mutation rate on Earth. To the extent that mutation plays a role in adaptation, radiation alone on Mars may thus provide sufficient mutation for the evolution of life.

  18. K-shell transitions in L-shell ions with the EBIT calorimeter spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hell, Natalie; Brown, G. V.; Wilms, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.

    2015-08-01

    With the large improvement in effective area of Astro-H's micro-calorimeter soft X-ray spectrometer (SXS) over grating spectrometers, high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with good signal to noise will become more commonly available, also for faint and extended sources. This will result in a range of spectral lines being resolved for the first time in celestial sources, especially in the Fe region. However, a large number of X-ray line energies in the atomic databases are known to a lesser accuracy than that expected for Astro-H/SXS, or have no known uncertainty at all. To benchmark the available calculations, we have therefore started to measure reference energies of K-shell transition in L-shell ions for astrophysically relevant elements in the range 11 ≤ Z ≤ 28 (Na to Ni), using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT-I electron beam ion trap coupled with the NASA/GSFC EBIT calorimeter spectrometer (ECS). The ECS has a resolution of ~5eV, i.e., similar to Astro-H/SXS and Chandra/HETG. A comparison to crystal spectra of lower charge states of sulfur with ~0.6eV resolution shows that the analysis of spectra taken at ECS resolution allows us to determine the transition energies of the strongest components.Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of DOE under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by NASA's APRA program.

  19. Mid-Infrared Nice-Ohms Spectrometer for the Study of Cold Molecular Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porambo, Michael; Pearson, Jessica; Talicska, Courtney; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2014-06-01

    Molecular ions are involved in the chemistry of many interesting systems, such as the atmosphere, combustion reactions, and the interstellar medium. Challenging aspects of studying molecular ions spectroscopically include producing ions in enough abundance and, for large or fluxional ions, overcoming the problem of quantum dilution at high vibrational and rotational temperature. Furthermore, highly precise transition frequencies are needed to answer many questions involving molecular ions, such as the presence of specific candidate ions in the interstellar medium. To address these challenges, we have constructed a mid-infrared spectrometer that uses a difference frequency generation (DFG) light source to probe cooled molecular ions produced in a continuous supersonic expansion discharge source. The cooling of the ions achieved through supersonic expansion mitigates the problem of quantum dilution. High sensitivity to detect the 1012 ions per cm3 produced is accomplished through the use of noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) as a detection technique. Finally, an optical frequency comb is used to measure the transition frequencies of molecular ions precisely. This talk will present the current status of the instrument and preliminary studies to optimize and characterize its performance. Initial studies of room temperature methane allowed us to verify the use of NICE-OHMS for inferring rotational temperature of a molecular sample through Boltzmann plot analysis. Spectroscopy of H_3^+ and HN_2^+ extended this temperature verification to molecular ions. Future work on H_2CO^+, with the goal of determining its rovibrational transitions to a precision on the order of 1 MHz to aid in astronomical detection, will also be presented.

  20. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-01

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms.