Science.gov

Sample records for heavy vehicle tires

  1. Energy Efficiency in Heavy Vehicle Tires, Drivetrains, and Braking Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peter J. Blau

    2000-04-26

    This document was prepared to support the primary goals of the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. These were recently stated as follows: ''Develop by 2004 the enabling technologies for a class 7-8 truck with a fuel efficiency of 10 mpg (at 65 mph) which will meet prevailing emission standards. For Class 3-6 trucks operating on an urban driving cycle, develop by 2004 commercially viable vehicles that achieve at least double the fuel economy of comparable current vehicles (1999), and as a research goal, reduce criteria pollutants to 30% below EPA standards. Develop by 2004 the diesel engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of Class 1 and 2 trucks, achieving a 35 % fuel efficiency improvement over comparable gasoline-fueled trucks, while meeting applicable emissions standards.'' The enabling technologies for improving the fuel efficiency of trucks, include not only engine technologies but also technologies involved with lowering the rolling resistance of tires, reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag, improving thermal management, and reducing parasitic frictional losses in drive train components. Opportunities also exist for making better use of the energy that might ordinarily be dissipated during vehicle braking. Braking systems must be included in this evaluation since safety in truck operations is vital, and braking requirements are greater for vehicles having lowered resistance to rolling. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has initiated a program to improve the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles through wind tunnel testing, computational modeling, and on-road evaluations. That activity is described in a separate multi-year plan; therefore, emphasis in this document will be on tires, drive trains, and braking systems. Recent, dramatic fluctuations in diesel fuel prices have emphasized the importance of effecting savings in truck fuel economy by implementing new component designs and materials.

  2. 75 FR 60036 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...This NPRM proposes to upgrade Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 119, which specifies requirements for new truck tires. We propose to amend FMVSS No. 119 to adopt more stringent endurance test requirements and a new high speed test for several heavy load range tires for vehicles with gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of more than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds). We are also......

  3. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-11-11

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  4. Characterization of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Kouji; Tainosho, Yoshiaki

    2004-10-01

    Tire dust is a significant pollutant, especially as a source of zinc in the urban environment. This study characterizes the morphology and chemical composition of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust and traffic-related materials (brake dust, yellow paint, and tire tread) as measured by a field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX). In 60 samples of tire dust, we detected 2288 heavy metal particles, which we classified into four groups using cluster analysis according to the following typical elements: cluster 1: Fe, cluster 2: Cr/Pb, cluster 3: multiple elements (Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Pb), cluster 4: ZnO. According to their morphologies and chemical compositions, the possible sources of each cluster were as follows: (1) brake dust (particles rich in Fe and with trace Cu, Sb, and Ba), (2) yellow paint (CrPbO(4) particles), (3) brake dust (particulate Ti, Fe, Cu, Sb, Zr, and Ba) and heavy minerals (Y, Zr, La, and Ce), (4) tire tread (zinc oxide). When the chemical composition of tire dust was compared to that of tire tread, the tire dust was found to have greater concentrations of heavy metal elements as well as mineral or asphalt pavement material characterized by Al, Si, and Ca. We conclude that tire dust consists not only of the debris from tire wear but also of assimilated heavy metal particles emitted from road traffic materials such as brake lining and road paint.

  5. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-01-01

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle’s cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data. PMID:26569246

  6. Rolling resistance of electric vehicle tires from track tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.; Slavik, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Special low-rolling-resistance tires were made for DOE's ETV-1 electric vehicle. Tests were conducted on these tires and on a set of standard commercial automotive tires to determine the rolling resistance as a function of time during both constant-speed tires and SAE J227a driving cycle tests. The tests were conducted on a test track at ambient temperatures that ranged from 15 to 32 C (59 to 89 F) and with tire pressures of 207 to 276 kPa (30 to 40 psi). At a contained-air temperature of 38 C (100 F) and a pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi) the rolling resistances of the electric vehicle tires and the standard commercial tires, respectively, were 0.0102 and 0.0088 kilogram per kilogram of vehicle weight. At a contained-air temperature of 38 C (100 F) and a pressure of 276 kPa (40 psi) the rolling resistances were 0.009 and 0.0074 kilogram per kilogram of vehicle weight, respectively.

  7. Environmental health implications of heavy metal pollution from car tires.

    PubMed

    Horner, J M

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential for environmental pollution by heavy metals from the disposal of used car tires and describes laboratory work and field research exploring the magnitude of the problem. The metals considered here are cadmium, lead, and zinc; their respective mean concentrations for ten makes of tires used in the United Kingdom ranged from 0-3.0, 8.1-22.3, and 2524-6012 ppm. The metals were extracted from tires by simulated acid-rain solutions (pH 2.5); zinc concentrations of the leachate ranged from 169-463 ppm, but cadmium and lead concentrations were negligible. A significant increase in surface soil concentrations of all three metals was measured with increasing proximity to a tire dump in West London. The respective mean concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in soil at the base of the dump were 22, 1160, and 1235 ppm, indicating contamination by each metal.

  8. 75 FR 73998 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR... Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) that applies to new pneumatic tires for use on vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) greater than 10,000 pounds and motorcycles. In the...

  9. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... radial tires for light vehicles. S1. Scope and purpose. This standard specifies tire dimensions, test... tire means a pneumatic tire in which the ply cords that extend to the beads are laid at alternate... physical dimension requirements. Open splice means any parting at any junction of tread, sidewall, or...

  10. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... radial tires for light vehicles. S1. Scope and purpose. This standard specifies tire dimensions, test... tire means a pneumatic tire in which the ply cords that extend to the beads are laid at alternate... physical dimension requirements. Open splice means any parting at any junction of tread, sidewall, or...

  11. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... radial tires for light vehicles. S1. Scope and purpose. This standard specifies tire dimensions, test... tire means a pneumatic tire in which the ply cords that extend to the beads are laid at alternate... physical dimension requirements. Open splice means any parting at any junction of tread, sidewall, or...

  12. Heavy Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sid Diamond; Richard Wares; Jules Routbort

    2000-04-11

    Heavy Vehicle (HV) systems are a necessary component of achieving OHVT goals. Elements are in place for a far-ranging program: short, intermediate, and long-term. Solicitation will bring industrial input and support. Future funding trend is positive, outlook for HV systems is good.

  13. Tires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-15

    conclusions from individual tire tests/tire data is with a radar or spider plot. An example plot is shown in Figure 14. The radar plot visually shows in a...Radar ( Spider ) plot of tire performance. TOP 02-2-704A 15 December 2015 A-1 APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY. Term Definition Aspect ratio Ratio

  14. Lifecycle-analysis for heavy vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.

    1998-04-16

    Various alternative fuels and improved engine and vehicle systems have been proposed in order to reduce emissions and energy use associated with heavy vehicles (predominantly trucks). For example, oil companies have proposed improved methods for converting natural gas to zero-aromatics, zero-sulfur diesel fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch process. Major heavy-duty diesel engine companies are working on ways to simultaneously reduce particulate-matter and NOX emissions. The trend in heavy vehicles is toward use of lightweight materials, tires with lower rolling resistance, and treatments to reduce aerodynamic drag. In this paper, we compare the Mecycle energy use and emissions from trucks using selected alternatives, such as Fisher-Tropsch diesel fuel and advanced fuel-efficient engines. We consider heavy-duty, Class 8 tractor-semitrailer combinations for this analysis. The total life cycle includes production and recycling of the vehicle itself, extraction, processing, and transportation of the fuel itself, and vehicle operation and maintenance. Energy use is considered in toto, as well as those portions that are imported, domestic, and renewable. Emissions of interest include greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Angonne's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is used to generate per-vehicle fuel cycle impacts. Energy use and emissions for materials manufacturing and vehicle disposal are estimated by means of materials information from Argonne studies. We conclude that there are trade-offs among impacts. For example, the lowest fossil energy use does not necessarily result in lowest total energy use, and lower tailpipe emissions may not necessarily result in lower lifecycle emissions of all criteria pollutants.

  15. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each motor...

  16. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each motor...

  17. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each motor...

  18. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each...

  19. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each...

  20. Passenger vehicle tire rolling resistance can be predicted from a flat-belt test rig

    SciTech Connect

    Ivens, J.

    1989-01-01

    The rolling resistance of fifteen different types of tire was determined on-road by coastdown tests, using several vehicles variously fitted with 14 and 15 inch wheels. Corrections for tire pressure, and for external temperature, were deduced by data regression. The rolling resistance of the same tires was measured on a flat-belt tire test machine, and correction for tire pressure was determined in a like manner. In this paper, the results, in terms of the characteristic rolling resistance, are compared between rig and road. The various test procedures are discussed.

  1. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assault Vehicle

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-07-27

    Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the CV990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.

  2. Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benzing, II, James Alfred (Inventor); Kish, James Christopher (Inventor); Asnani, Vivake Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A tire includes a plurality of helical springs. Each helical spring includes a first end portion, a second end portion, and an arching middle portion. Each helical spring is interlaced with at least one other helical spring thereby forming a laced toroidal structure extending about an entire circumference of the tire.

  3. 40 CFR 1037.650 - Tire manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tire manufacturers. 1037.650 Section... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Special Compliance Provisions § 1037.650 Tire manufacturers. This section describes how the requirements of this part apply with respect to tire manufacturers...

  4. 40 CFR 1037.650 - Tire manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tire manufacturers. 1037.650 Section... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Special Compliance Provisions § 1037.650 Tire manufacturers. This section describes how the requirements of this part apply with respect to tire manufacturers...

  5. 40 CFR 1037.650 - Tire manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tire manufacturers. 1037.650 Section... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Special Compliance Provisions § 1037.650 Tire manufacturers. This section describes how the requirements of this part apply with respect to tire manufacturers...

  6. 49 CFR 571.110 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vehicle trailer load carrying capacity information for motor vehicles with a GVWR of 4,536 kilograms (10... and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity information for motor vehicles with a... requirements for tire selection to prevent tire overloading and for motor home/recreation vehicle trailer...

  7. 49 CFR 571.110 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vehicle trailer load carrying capacity information for motor vehicles with a GVWR of 4,536 kilograms (10... and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity information for motor vehicles with a... requirements for tire selection to prevent tire overloading and for motor home/recreation vehicle trailer...

  8. 49 CFR 571.110 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vehicle trailer load carrying capacity information for motor vehicles with a GVWR of 4,536 kilograms (10... and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity information for motor vehicles with a... requirements for tire selection to prevent tire overloading and for motor home/recreation vehicle trailer...

  9. 49 CFR 571.110 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vehicle trailer load carrying capacity information for motor vehicles with a GVWR of 4,536 kilograms (10... and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity information for motor vehicles with a... requirements for tire selection to prevent tire overloading and for motor home/recreation vehicle trailer...

  10. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Donley, Tim

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  11. Vehicle Tire and Wheel Creation in BRL-CAD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    when raytracing . Creating more complex models to better approximate the tire’s shape almost always requires more resources than can be justified...patterns can slow down a raytrace considerably. A strategy for models that will have a variety of uses is to include both treaded and slick (nontreaded...insert the default tire model. 12 8. Structure of a Tire Model Although it is not visible to the eye in normal raytracing , the tire models do include

  12. 78 FR 3843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic and Certain Specialty Tires

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK42 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 109, New pneumatic and certain specialty tires, to change the... Pneumatic Tyres For Passenger-Use Motor Vehicles, Annex, 1-2-5. We believed that existing 60-psi T-type...

  13. 78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL24 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 110 to make it clear that special trailer (ST) tires are permitted to be installed on new trailers with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR)...

  14. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Johnson

    2000-01-31

    The objectives are to Provide Key Enabling Materials Technologies to Increase Energy Efficiency and Reduce Exhaust Emissions. The following goals are listed: Goal 1: By 3rd quarter 2002, complete development of materials enabling the maintenance or improvement of fuel efficiency {ge} 45% of class 7-8 truck engines while meeting the EPA/Justice Department ''Consent Decree'' for emissions reduction. Goal 2: By 4th quarter 2004, complete development of enabling materials for light-duty (class 1-2) diesel truck engines with efficiency over 40%, over a wide range of loads and speeds, while meeting EPA Tier 2 emission regulations. Goal 3: By 4th quarter 2006, complete development of materials solutions to enable heavy-duty diesel engine efficiency of 50% while meeting the emission reduction goals identified in the EPA proposed rule for heavy-duty highway engines.''

  15. T.R.I.C.K.-Tire/Road Interaction Characterization & Knowledge - A tool for the evaluation of tire and vehicle performances in outdoor test sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farroni, Flavio

    2016-05-01

    The most powerful engine, the most sophisticated aerodynamic devices or the most complex control systems will not improve vehicle performances if the forces exchanged with the road are not optimized by proper employment and knowledge of tires. The vehicle interface with the ground is constituted by the sum of small surfaces, wide about as one of our palms, in which tire/road interaction forces are exchanged. From this it is clear to see how the optimization of tire behavior represents a key-factor in the definition of the best setup of the whole vehicle. Nowadays, people and companies playing a role in automotive sector are looking for the optimal solution to model and understand tire's behavior both in experimental and simulation environments. The studies carried out and the tool developed herein demonstrate a new approach in tire characterization and in vehicle simulation procedures. This enables the reproduction of the dynamic response of a tire through the use of specific track sessions, carried out with the aim to employ the vehicle as a moving lab. The final product, named TRICK tool (Tire/Road Interaction Characterization and Knowledge), comprises of a vehicle model which processes experimental signals acquired from vehicle CAN bus and from sideslip angle estimation additional instrumentation. The output of the tool is several extra "virtual telemetry" channels, based on the time history of the acquired signals and containing force and slip estimations, useful to provide tire interaction characteristics. TRICK results can be integrated with the physical models developed by the Vehicle Dynamics UniNa research group, providing a multitude of working solutions and constituting an ideal instrument for the prediction and the simulation of the real tire dynamics.

  16. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, S.; Johnson, D.R.

    1999-04-26

    The objective of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program is to develop the enabling materials technology for the clean, high-efficiency diesel truck engines of the future. The development of cleaner, higher-efficiency diesel engines imposes greater mechanical, thermal, and tribological demands on materials of construction. Often the enabling technology for a new engine component is the material from which the part can be made. The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program is a partnership between the Department of Energy (DOE), and the diesel engine companies in the United States, materials suppliers, national laboratories, and universities. A comprehensive research and development program has been developed to meet the enabling materials requirements for the diesel engines of the future. Advanced materials, including high-temperature metal alloys, intermetallics, cermets, ceramics, amorphous materials, metal- and ceramic-matrix composites, and coatings, are investigated for critical engine applications.

  17. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  18. All-Metal Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, Donald B.; Sword, Lee F.; Lindemann, Randel A.

    1994-01-01

    Tires used where elastomeric and pneumatic tires would not function. Metal tires withstand extreme temperatures. Used on Earth for vehicles and robots that fight fires or clean up dangerous chemicals.

  19. Spring Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  20. Environmental Correlates of Abundances of Mosquito Species and Stages in Discarded Vehicle Tires

    PubMed Central

    YEE, DONALD A.; KNEITEL, JAMIE M.; JULIANO, STEVEN A.

    2012-01-01

    Discarded vehicle tires are a common habitat for container mosquito larvae, although the environmental factors that may control their presence or abundance within a tire are largely unknown. We sampled discarded vehicle tires in six sites located within four counties of central Illinois during the spring and summer of 2006 to determine associations between a suite of environmental factors and community composition of container mosquitoes. Our goal was to find patterns of association between environmental factors and abundances of early and late instars. We hypothesized that environmental factors correlated with early instars would be indicative of oviposition cues, whereas environmental factors correlated with late instars would be those important for larval survival. We collected 13 species of mosquitoes, with six species (Culex restuans, Cx. pipiens, Aedes albopictus, Cx. salinarius, Ae. atropalpus, and Ae. triseriatus) accounting for ≈95% of all larvae. There were similar associations between congenerics and environmental factors, with Aedes associated with detritus type (fine detritus, leaves, seeds) and Culex associated with factors related to the surrounding habitat (human population density, canopy cover, tire size) or microorganisms (bacteria, protozoans). Although there was some consistency in factors that were important for early and late instar abundance, there were few significant associations between early and late instars for individual species. Lack of correspondence between factors that explain variation in early versus late instars, most notable for Culex, suggests a difference between environmental determinants of oviposition and survival within tires. Environmental factors associated with discarded tires are important for accurate predictions of mosquito occurrence at the generic level. PMID:20180308

  1. Environmental correlates of abundances of mosquito species and stages in discarded vehicle tires.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A; Kneitel, Jamie M; Juliano, Steven A

    2010-01-01

    Discarded vehicle tires are a common habitat for container mosquito larvae, although the environmental factors that may control their presence or abundance within a tire are largely unknown. We sampled discarded vehicle tires in six sites located within four counties of central Illinois during the spring and summer of 2006 to determine associations between a suite of environmental factors and community composition of container mosquitoes. Our goal was to find patterns of association between environmental factors and abundances of early and late instars. We hypothesized that environmental factors correlated with early instars would be indicative of oviposition cues, whereas environmental factors correlated with late instars would be those important for larval survival. We collected 13 species of mosquitoes, with six species (Culex restuans, Cx. pipiens, Aedes albopictus, Cx. salinarius, Ae. atropalpus, and Ae. triseriatus) accounting for r95% of all larvae. There were similar associations between congenerics and environmental factors, with Aedes associated with detritus type (fine detritus, leaves, seeds) and Culex associated with factors related to the surrounding habitat (human population density, canopy cover, tire size) or microorganisms (bacteria, protozoans). Although there was some consistency in factors that were important for early and late instar abundance, there were few significant associations between early and late instars for individual species. Lack of correspondence between factors that explain variation in early versus late instars, most notable for Culex, suggests a difference between environmental determinants of oviposition and survival within tires. Environmental factors associated with discarded tires are important for accurate predictions of mosquito occurrence at the generic level.

  2. Demonstration of Heavy Diesel Hybrid Fleet Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    levels, brake wear, ease-of-use, maintainability, and drivability. Heavy Duty Vehicle , Hybrid Electric , Hybrid Hydraulic, Utility Truck, Refuse Truck...heavy hybrid electric vehicle technologies feature a supplemental power system that substantially improves efficiency. Similar to light duty hybrids... electrical energy via a generator, as shown in Figure 2-1. The vehicle stores that energy in on-board batteries for driving the wheels at another time

  3. Robot Drills Holes To Relieve Excess Tire Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrott, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Small, relatively inexpensive, remotely controlled robot called "tire assault vehicle" (TAV) developed to relieve excess tire pressures to protect ground crew, aircraft equipment, and nearby vehicles engaged in landing tests of CV-990 Landing System Research Aircraft. Reduces costs and saves time in training, maintenance, and setup related to "yellow" and "red" tire conditions. Adapted to any heavy-aircraft environment in which ground-crew safety at risk because of potential for tire explosions. Also ideal as scout vehicle for performing inspections in hazardous locations.

  4. 49 CFR 523.6 - Heavy-duty vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heavy-duty vehicle. 523.6 Section 523.6... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.6 Heavy-duty vehicle. (a) A heavy-duty vehicle is any commercial medium- and heavy-duty on highway vehicle or a work truck, as defined in 49...

  5. 49 CFR 523.8 - Heavy-duty vocational vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heavy-duty vocational vehicle. 523.8 Section 523.8... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.8 Heavy-duty vocational vehicle. Heavy-duty vocational vehicles are vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) above 8,500 pounds...

  6. 49 CFR 523.8 - Heavy-duty vocational vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heavy-duty vocational vehicle. 523.8 Section 523.8... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.8 Heavy-duty vocational vehicle. Heavy-duty vocational vehicles are vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) above 8,500...

  7. 49 CFR 523.8 - Heavy-duty vocational vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heavy-duty vocational vehicle. 523.8 Section 523.8... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.8 Heavy-duty vocational vehicle. Heavy-duty vocational vehicles are vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) above 8,500...

  8. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Defects Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Siekmann, Adam; Capps, Gary J

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), along with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), has an interest in overweight commercial motor vehicles, how they affect infrastructure, and their impact on safety on the nation s highways. To assist both FHWA and FMCSA in obtaining more information related to this interest, data was collected and analyzed from two separate sources. A large scale nationwide data collection effort was facilitated by the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance as part of a special study on overweight vehicles and an additional, smaller set, of data was collected from the state of Tennessee which included a much more detailed set of data. Over a six-month period, 1,873 Level I inspections were performed in 18 different states that volunteered to be a part of this study. Of the 1,873 inspections, a vehicle out-of-service (OOS) violation was found on 44.79% of the vehicles, a rate significantly higher than the national OOS rate of 27.23%. The main cause of a vehicle being placed OOS was brake-related defects, with approximately 30% of all vehicles having an OOS brake violation. Only about 4% of vehicles had an OOS tire violation, and even fewer had suspension and wheel violations. Vehicle weight violations were most common on an axle group as opposed to a gross vehicle weight violation. About two thirds of the vehicles cited with a weight violation were overweight on an axle group with an average amount of weight over the legal limit of about 2,000 lbs. Data collection is scheduled to continue through January 2014, with more potentially more states volunteering to collect data. More detailed data collections similar to the Tennessee data collection will also be performed in multiple states.

  9. Tire-road friction estimation and traction control strategy for motorized electric vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Li-Qiang; Yue, Weiqiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal longitudinal slip ratio system for real-time identification of electric vehicle (EV) with motored wheels is proposed based on the adhesion between tire and road surface. First and foremost, the optimal longitudinal slip rate torque control can be identified in real time by calculating the derivative and slip rate of the adhesion coefficient. Secondly, the vehicle speed estimation method is also brought. Thirdly, an ideal vehicle simulation model is proposed to verify the algorithm with simulation, and we find that the slip ratio corresponds to the detection of the adhesion limit in real time. Finally, the proposed strategy is applied to traction control system (TCS). The results showed that the method can effectively identify the state of wheel and calculate the optimal slip ratio without wheel speed sensor; in the meantime, it can improve the accelerated stability of electric vehicle with traction control system (TCS). PMID:28662053

  10. Tire-road friction estimation and traction control strategy for motorized electric vehicle.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li-Qiang; Ling, Mingze; Yue, Weiqiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal longitudinal slip ratio system for real-time identification of electric vehicle (EV) with motored wheels is proposed based on the adhesion between tire and road surface. First and foremost, the optimal longitudinal slip rate torque control can be identified in real time by calculating the derivative and slip rate of the adhesion coefficient. Secondly, the vehicle speed estimation method is also brought. Thirdly, an ideal vehicle simulation model is proposed to verify the algorithm with simulation, and we find that the slip ratio corresponds to the detection of the adhesion limit in real time. Finally, the proposed strategy is applied to traction control system (TCS). The results showed that the method can effectively identify the state of wheel and calculate the optimal slip ratio without wheel speed sensor; in the meantime, it can improve the accelerated stability of electric vehicle with traction control system (TCS).

  11. 49 CFR 523.6 - Heavy-duty vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heavy-duty vehicle. 523.6 Section 523.6... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.6 Heavy-duty vehicle. (a) A heavy-duty vehicle is any commercial medium- and heavy-duty on highway vehicle or a work truck, as defined in 49 U.S...

  12. 49 CFR 523.6 - Heavy-duty vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heavy-duty vehicle. 523.6 Section 523.6... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.6 Heavy-duty vehicle. (a) A heavy-duty vehicle is any commercial medium- and heavy-duty on highway vehicle or a work truck, as defined in 49 U.S...

  13. Heavy-lift launch vehicle propulsion considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordway, Wayne L.

    1991-01-01

    Information on heavy-lift launch vehicle (HLLV) propulsion is given in viewgraph form. The objective was to investigate Earth to orbit options which minimize on-orbit operations and impacts to Space Station Freedom, have a reasonable capability to support Mars missions, and minimize mass in low Earth orbit. Potential synergism with the Space Transportation System is considered. Launch vehicle sizing results, HLLV thrust requirements, and propulsion system reliability are covered.

  14. Transport of fecal bacteria by boots and vehicle tires in a rural Alaskan community.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Molly K; Ford, Malcolm R; White, Daniel M; Barnes, David L; Schiewer, Silke

    2009-02-01

    People living without piped water and sewer can be at increased risk for diseases transmitted via the fecal-oral route. One rural Alaskan community that relies on hauling water into homes and sewage from homes was studied to determine the pathways of fecal contamination of drinking water and the human environment so that barriers can be established to protect health. Samples were tested for the fecal indicator, Escherichia coli, and the less specific indicator group, total coliforms. Shoes transported fecal contamination from outside to floor material inside buildings. Contamination in puddles on the road, in conjunction with contamination found on all-terrain vehicle (ATV) tires, supports vehicle traffic as a mechanism for transporting contamination from the dumpsite or other source areas to the rest of the community. The abundance of fecal bacteria transported around the community on shoes and ATV tires suggests that centralized measures for waste disposal as well as shoe removal in buildings could improve sanitation and health in the community.

  15. A novel integrated approach for path following and directional stability control of road vehicles after a tire blow-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Hong; Guo, Konghui; Cao, Dongpu

    2017-09-01

    The path following and directional stability are two crucial problems when a road vehicle experiences a tire blow-out or sudden tire failure. Considering the requirement of rapid road vehicle motion control during a tire blow-out, this article proposes a novel linearized decoupling control procedure with three design steps for a class of second order multi-input-multi-output non-affine system. The evaluating indicators for controller performance are presented and a performance related control parameter distribution map is obtained based on the stochastic algorithm which is an innovation for non-blind parameter adjustment in engineering implementation. The analysis on the robustness of the proposed integrated controller is also performed. The simulation studies for a range of driving conditions are conducted, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  16. Integrated optimal dynamics control of 4WD4WS electric ground vehicle with tire-road frictional coefficient estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongrong; Hu, Chuan; Wang, Zejiang; Yan, Fengjun; Chen, Nan

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an integrated optimal dynamics control of four-wheel driving and four-wheel steering (4WD4WS) electric ground vehicles via hierarchical control methodology. In the higher-level design, an LQR controller is proposed to obtain the integrated lateral force and yaw moment, according to their respective reference values. The lower-level controller is designed to ensure all the tires work in the stable region while realizing the tracking control of the vehicle dynamics. The tire-road friction coefficient is estimated through the integrated longitudinal force and lateral force, respectively, using a brush tire model. To reduce the estimation error, a novel data fusion function is employed to generate the final estimation value. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control and estimation strategies is validated via CarSim-Simulink joint simulation.

  17. Tire Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  18. Markets for scrap tires

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    It is the goal of the EPA to eliminate illegal dumping altogether and to reduce the stockpiling and landfilling of discarded tires as much as possible. Interestingly enough, over the last 40 years, tires have been somewhat of a success story for source reduction. The advent of the 40,000-mile tire means that tires last longer before they wear out. Potential source reduction measures for tires include the design of longer lived tires, reuse of tires removed from vehicles, and retreading. These practices all extend the useful life of tires before they are discarded. In the report, tire utilization methods are described and the market barriers to their utilization. Also discussed are options to address the waste tire problem.

  19. Mobility potential of a robotic six-wheeled omnidirectional drive vehicle (ODV) with z-axis and tire inflation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witus, Gary

    2000-07-01

    Robot vehicle mobility is the product of the physical configuration, mechatronics (sensors, actuators, and control) and the motion programs for different obstacles, terrain conditions, and maneuver objectives. This paper examines the mobility potential of a robotic 6-by-6 wheeled omni-directional drive vehicle (ODV) with z-axis and tire inflation control. Ad ODV can steer and drive all wheels independently. The direction of motion is independent of the orientation of the body. Z- axis control refers to independent control of the suspension elevation at each wheel. Pneumatic tire inflation control provides the ability to inflate and deflate individual tires. The paper describes motion programs for various discrete obstacles and challenging terrain conditions. The paper illustrates how ODV control, z-axis control and tire inflation control interact to provide high mobility with respect to cornering, maneuvering on slopes, negotiating vertical step and horizontal gap obstacles, and braking/acceleration on soft soil and slick surfaces. The paper derives guidelines for the physical dimensions of the vehicle needed to achieve these capabilities.

  20. Lightweight Composite Materials for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pruez, Jacky; Shoukry, Samir; Williams, Gergis; Shoukry, Mark

    2013-08-31

    The main objective of this project is to develop, analyze and validate data, methodologies and tools that support widespread applications of automotive lightweighting technologies. Two underlying principles are guiding the research efforts towards this objective: • Seamless integration between the lightweight materials selected for certain vehicle systems, cost-effective methods for their design and manufacturing, and practical means to enhance their durability while reducing their Life-Cycle-Costs (LCC). • Smooth migration of the experience and findings accumulated so far at WVU in the areas of designing with lightweight materials, innovative joining concepts and durability predictions, from applications to the area of weight savings for heavy vehicle systems and hydrogen storage tanks, to lightweighting applications of selected systems or assemblies in light–duty vehicles.

  1. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-06-19

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  2. Phenomena of Pneumatic Tire Hydroplaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreher, R. C.; Horne, W. B.

    1963-01-01

    Recent research on pneumatic tire hydroplaning has been collected and summarized with the aim of describing what is presently known about the phenomena of tire hydroplaning. A physical description of tire hydroplaning is given along with formulae for estimating the ground speed at which it occurs. Eight manifestations of tire hydroplaning which have been experimentally observed are presented and discussed. These manifestations are: detachment of tire footprint, hydrodynamic ground pressure, spin-down of wheel, suppression of tire bow wave, scouring action of escaping fluid in tire-ground footprint region, peaking of fluid displacement drag, loss in braking traction, and loss of tire directional stability. The vehicle, pavement, tire, and fluid parameters of importance to tire hydroplaning are listed and described. Finally, the hazards of tire hydroplaning to ground and air-vehicle-ground performance are listed, and procedures are given to minimize these effects.

  3. Stereo Vision Inside Tire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-21

    measures the three dimensional deformation of the inside of a tire as it rolls over the terrain. The system is designed to work in conjunction with...the inside of a tire as it rolls over the terrain. The system is designed to work in conjunction with the previously developed Vehicle Dynamics Group...tire. The complete T2-CAM system, in conjunction with the VDG wheel force transducer, is mounted on a test vehicle as indicated in Figure 6. Several

  4. Turning tires into electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Tikalsky, S.

    1991-05-01

    Nationally, nearly one million tires a day are retired from vehicles. With landfill space at a premium, old tires are usually heaped in growing piles across the country. Old tires have not only become a highly visible environmental problem, but a health menace as well. Mounds of discarded tires are perfect breeding grounds for mosquitoes and other insects. In addition, hazards to air and water quality from tire fires are well documented. At Wisconsin Power and Light Co, the author has been experimenting with using scrap tires as fuel to create electricity. In 1990, the utility burned 130,000 tons of tire chips in a cyclone furnace, saving about $75,000 in fuel cost. The project is a joint experiment with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources to determine the feasibility of using old tires to create electricity.

  5. 78 FR 2236 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    .... The tire strength test was designed to evaluate the strength of the reinforcing materials in bias ply... that the strength test stringency was comparable for different tire cord materials.\\4\\ As a result... requirements, including a strength test. When FMVSS No. 119 was established in 1973, it adopted the...

  6. Tire/runway friction interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  7. Heavy metals from non-exhaust vehicle emissions in urban and motorway road dusts.

    PubMed

    Adamiec, Ewa; Jarosz-Krzemińska, Elżbieta; Wieszała, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The main sources of non-exhaust vehicular emissions that contribute to road dust are tire, brake and clutch wear, road surface wear, and other vehicle and road component degradation. This study is an attempt to identify and investigate heavy metals in urban and motorway road dusts as well as in dust from brake linings and tires. Road dust was collected from sections of the A-4 motorway in Poland, which is part of European route E40, and from urban roads in Katowice, Poland. Dust from a relatively unpolluted mountain road was collected and examined as a control sample. Selected metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Se, Sr, Ba, Ti, and Pd were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-optical emission spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy on a range of size-fractionated road dust and brake lining dust (<20, 20-56, 56-90, 90-250, and >250 μm). The compositions of brake lining and tire dust were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy. To estimate the degree of potential environmental risk of non-exhaust emissions, comparison with the geochemical background and the calculations of geo-accumulation indices were performed. The finest fractions of urban and motorway dusts were significantly contaminated with all of the investigated metals, especially with Ti, Cu, and Cr, which are well-recognized key tracers of non-exhaust brake wear. Urban dust was, however, more contaminated than motorway dust. It was therefore concluded that brake lining and tire wear strongly contributed to the contamination of road dust.

  8. Camera that takes pictures of aircraft and ground vehicle tires can save lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Yair

    2013-10-01

    Damaged tires cause many fatal car accidents that claim lives worldwide. The use of a regular digital camera that can generate JPEG images, so as to become aware of damaged tires, is proposed. The digital camera repeatedly takes pictures of the car's tires. When there is a drastic change in a particular block of JPEG, the value of many of its frequency coefficients will be high and it will be compressed into many more bits; therefore, if the image is overly large, an embedded computer system will turn on a noticeable light-emitting diode in the car. The driver will be aware of the damaged tire before a severe accident would possibly happen.

  9. DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Pointer, D; Browand, F; Ross, J; Storms, B

    2007-01-04

    Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At highway speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present a 12% improvement in fuel economy at highway speeds, equivalent to about 130 midsize tanker ships per year. Specific goals include: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; (2) Develop innovative drag reducing concepts that are operationally and economically sound; and (3) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate the potential of new drag-reduction devices. The studies described herein provide a demonstration of the applicability of the experience developed in the analysis of the standard configuration of the Generic Conventional Model. The modeling practices and procedures developed in prior efforts have been applied directly to the assessment of new configurations including a variety of geometric modifications and add-on devices. Application to the low-drag 'GTS' configuration of the GCM has confirmed that the error in predicted drag coefficients increases as the relative contribution of the base drag resulting from the vehicle wake to the total drag increases and it is recommended that more advanced turbulence modeling strategies be applied under those circumstances. Application to a commercially-developed boat tail device has confirmed that this restriction does not apply to geometries where the relative contribution of the base drag to the total drag is reduced by modifying the geometry in that region. Application to a modified GCM geometry with an open grille and radiator has confirmed that the underbody flow, while important for underhood cooling, has little impact on the drag coefficient of

  10. Prediction of In-Sand Tire and Wheeled Vehicle Drawbar Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    respectively, and e la void ratio for the before-tire-pass sand condi- tion. A givmi value of mortar sand C (G^ in Figura 5) was converted to Yuaui...evidenced in Figura Sb by the shift of the aortar sand tire test data to locations clustered about the V2Q versus Ns curve for Yuaa sand. Reference 5...the original and the 1983 curves showed almost perfect agreement for the Padre Island site, very close agreement for the Mississippi River Bridge site

  11. A high performance pneumatic braking system for heavy vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jonathan I.; Cebon, David

    2010-12-01

    Current research into reducing actuator delays in pneumatic brake systems is opening the door for advanced anti-lock braking algorithms to be used on heavy goods vehicles. However, these algorithms require the knowledge of variables that are impractical to measure directly. This paper introduces a sliding mode braking force observer to support a sliding mode controller for air-braked heavy vehicles. The performance of the observer is examined through simulations and field testing of an articulated heavy vehicle. The observer operated robustly during single-wheel vehicle simulations, and provided reasonable estimates of surface friction from test data. The effect of brake gain errors on the controller and observer are illustrated, and a recursive least squares estimator is derived for the brake gain. The estimator converged within 0.3 s in simulations and vehicle trials.

  12. Scenario analysis of hybrid class 3-7 heavy vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    An, F.; Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Eberhardt, J. J.

    1999-12-23

    The effects of hybridization on heavy-duty vehicles are not well understood. Heavy vehicles represent a broader range of applications than light-duty vehicles, resulting in a wide variety of chassis and engine combinations, as well as diverse driving conditions. Thus, the strategies, incremental costs, and energy/emission benefits associated with hybridizing heavy vehicles could differ significantly from those for passenger cars. Using a modal energy and emissions model, they quantify the potential energy savings of hybridizing commercial Class 3-7 heavy vehicles, analyze hybrid configuration scenarios, and estimate the associated investment cost and payback time. From the analysis, they conclude that (1) hybridization can significantly reduce energy consumption of Class 3-7 heavy vehicles under urban driving conditions; (2) the grid-independent, conventional vehicle (CV)-like hybrid is more cost-effective than the grid-dependent, electric vehicle (EV)-like hybrid, and the parallel configuration is more cost-effective than the series configuration; (3) for CV-like hybridization, the on-board engine can be significantly downsized, with a gasoline or diesel engine used for SUVs perhaps being a good candidate for an on-board engine; (4) over the long term, the incremental cost of a CV-like, parallel-configured Class 3-4 hybrid heavy vehicle is about %5,800 in the year 2005 and $3,000 in 2020, while for a Class 6-7 truck, it is about $7,100 in 2005 and $3,300 in 2020; and (5) investment payback time, which depends on the specific type and application of the vehicle, averages about 6 years under urban driving conditions in 2005 and 2--3 years in 2020.

  13. Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles Reporting Period January 15, 2004 through April 15, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, A; Chatelain, P; Heineck, J; Browand, F; Mehta, R; Ortega, J; Salari, K; Storms, B; Brown, J; DeChant, L; Rubel, M; Ross, J; Hammache, M; Pointer, D; Roy, C; Hassan, B; Arcas, D; Hsu, T; Payne, J; Walker, S; Castellucci, P; McCallen, R

    2004-04-13

    Listed are summaries of the activities and accomplishments during this second-quarter reporting period for each of the consortium participants. The following are some highlights for this reporting period: (1) Experiments and computations guide conceptual designs for reduction of drag due to tractor-trailer gap flow (splitter plate), trailer underbody (wedges), and base drag (base-flap add-ons). (2) Steady and unsteady RANS simulations for the GTS geometry are being finalized for development of clear modeling guidelines with RANS. (3) Full geometry and tunnel simulations on the GCM geometry are underway. (4) CRADA with PACCAR is supporting computational parametric study to determine predictive need to include wind tunnel geometry as limits of computational domain. (5) Road and track test options are being investigated. All is ready for field testing of base-flaps at Crows Landing in California in collaboration with Partners in Advanced Transportation Highways (PATH). In addition, MAKA of Canada is providing the device and Wabash is providing a new trailer. (6) Apparatus to investigate tire splash and spray has been designed and is under construction. Michelin has offered tires with customized threads for this study. (7) Vortex methods have improved techniques for the treatment of vorticity near surfaces and spinning geometries like rotating tires. (8) Wind tunnel experiments on model rail cars demonstrate that empty coal cars exhibit substantial aerodynamic drag compared to full coal cars, indicating that significant fuel savings could be obtained by reducing the drag of empty coal cars. (9) Papers are being prepared for an exclusive conference session on the Heavy Vehicle DOE Aerodynamic Drag Project at the 34th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference in Portland, Oregon, June 28-July 1, 2004.

  14. Preventive Maintenance and Operating Techniques for Heavy Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide students who are acquainted with motor transport and tactical heavy vehicles with information on how to operate and perform preventive maintenance of those vehicles. The course contains five study units covering 2.5-ton M-Series tactical trucks, 5-ton and…

  15. Dynamic interactions of an integrated vehicle-electromagnetic energy harvester-tire system subject to uneven road excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jing Tang; Sun, Zhe; Zhou, Sulian; Tan, Mingyi

    2017-03-01

    An investigation is undertaken of an integrated mechanical-electromagnetic coupling system consisting of a rigid vehicle with heave, roll, and pitch motions, four electromagnetic energy harvesters and four tires subject to uneven road excitations in order to improve the passengers' riding comfort and harvest the lost engine energy due to uneven roads. Following the derived mathematical formulations and the proposed solution approaches, the numerical simulations of this interaction system subject to a continuous sinusoidal road excitation and a single ramp impact are completed. The simulation results are presented as the dynamic response curves in the forms of the frequency spectrum and the time history, which reveals the complex interaction characteristics of the system for vibration reductions and energy harvesting performance. It has addressed the coupling effects on the dynamic characteristics of the integrated system caused by: (1) the natural modes and frequencies of the vehicle; (2) the vehicle rolling and pitching motions; (3) different road excitations on four wheels; (4) the time delay of a road ramp to impact both the front and rear wheels, etc., which cannot be tackled by an often used quarter vehicle model. The guidelines for engineering applications are given. The developed coupling model and the revealed concept provide a means with analysis idea to investigate the details of four energy harvester motions for electromagnetic suspension designs in order to replace the current passive vehicle isolators and to harvest the lost engine energy. Potential further research directions are suggested for readers to consider in the future.

  16. Dynamic interactions of an integrated vehicle-electromagnetic energy harvester-tire system subject to uneven road excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jing Tang; Sun, Zhe; Zhou, Sulian; Tan, Mingyi

    2017-04-01

    An investigation is undertaken of an integrated mechanical-electromagnetic coupling system consisting of a rigid vehicle with heave, roll, and pitch motions, four electromagnetic energy harvesters and four tires subject to uneven road excitations in order to improve the passengers' riding comfort and harvest the lost engine energy due to uneven roads. Following the derived mathematical formulations and the proposed solution approaches, the numerical simulations of this interaction system subject to a continuous sinusoidal road excitation and a single ramp impact are completed. The simulation results are presented as the dynamic response curves in the forms of the frequency spectrum and the time history, which reveals the complex interaction characteristics of the system for vibration reductions and energy harvesting performance. It has addressed the coupling effects on the dynamic characteristics of the integrated system caused by: (1) the natural modes and frequencies of the vehicle; (2) the vehicle rolling and pitching motions; (3) different road excitations on four wheels; (4) the time delay of a road ramp to impact both the front and rear wheels, etc., which cannot be tackled by an often used quarter vehicle model. The guidelines for engineering applications are given. The developed coupling model and the revealed concept provide a means with analysis idea to investigate the details of four energy harvester motions for electromagnetic suspension designs in order to replace the current passive vehicle isolators and to harvest the lost engine energy. Potential further research directions are suggested for readers to consider in the future.

  17. 49 CFR 397.17 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tires. 397.17 Section 397.17 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.17 Tires. (a) A driver must examine each tire on a motor vehicle at the... to paragraph (a) of this section, or otherwise, a tire if found to be flat, leaking, or improperly...

  18. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tires. 325.93 Section 325.93 Transportation Other... Systems and Tires § 325.93 Tires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a motor vehicle does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate Motor...

  19. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  20. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tires. 325.93 Section 325.93 Transportation Other... Systems and Tires § 325.93 Tires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a motor vehicle does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate Motor...

  1. 49 CFR 397.17 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tires. 397.17 Section 397.17 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.17 Tires. (a) A driver must examine each tire on a motor vehicle at the... to paragraph (a) of this section, or otherwise, a tire if found to be flat, leaking, or improperly...

  2. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  4. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tires. 325.93 Section 325.93 Transportation Other... Systems and Tires § 325.93 Tires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a motor vehicle does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate Motor...

  5. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  6. 49 CFR 397.17 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to paragraph (a) of this section, or otherwise, a tire if found to be flat, leaking, or improperly... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tires. 397.17 Section 397.17 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.17 Tires. (a) A driver must examine each tire on a motor vehicle at the...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  8. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tires. 325.93 Section 325.93 Transportation Other... Systems and Tires § 325.93 Tires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a motor vehicle does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate Motor...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  10. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  11. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  12. 49 CFR 397.17 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tires. 397.17 Section 397.17 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.17 Tires. (a) A driver must examine each tire on a motor vehicle at the... to paragraph (a) of this section, or otherwise, a tire if found to be flat, leaking, or improperly...

  13. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tires. 325.93 Section 325.93 Transportation Other... Systems and Tires § 325.93 Tires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a motor vehicle does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate Motor...

  14. Calculation of ground vibration spectra from heavy military vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, V. V.; Pickup, S.; McNuff, J.

    2010-07-01

    The demand for reliable autonomous systems capable to detect and identify heavy military vehicles becomes an important issue for UN peacekeeping forces in the current delicate political climate. A promising method of detection and identification is the one using the information extracted from ground vibration spectra generated by heavy military vehicles, often termed as their seismic signatures. This paper presents the results of the theoretical investigation of ground vibration spectra generated by heavy military vehicles, such as tanks and armed personnel carriers. A simple quarter car model is considered to identify the resulting dynamic forces applied from a vehicle to the ground. Then the obtained analytical expressions for vehicle dynamic forces are used for calculations of generated ground vibrations, predominantly Rayleigh surface waves, using Green's function method. A comparison of the obtained theoretical results with the published experimental data shows that analytical techniques based on the simplified quarter car vehicle model are capable of producing ground vibration spectra of heavy military vehicles that reproduce basic properties of experimental spectra.

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Vehicle Stability and Handling Characteristics as Affected by ’Generic’ Tire Mixtures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    T---A cliContract: DAAE07-73-C- 0293 Rep uerod’uced4 From A•pprove d.• f or 1) ,Ullmte’oes Best Available COPY .J istributiOnunite The findings in...Tire Type Wheel Revolutions Per Mile Percent Radial 1044 104 Bias 1005 100 - t40- APPENDICES -"i- Appendix I Graphic Supplement -42- Nerd 7 Au :2f

  16. Fuel and emission impacts of heavy hybrid vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    An, F.; Eberhardt, J. J.; Stodolsky, F.

    1999-03-02

    Hybrid powertrains for certain heavy vehicles may improve fuel economy and reduce emissions. Of particular interest are commercial vehicles, typically in Classes 3-6, that travel in urban areas. Hybrid strategies and associated energy/emissions benefits for these classes of vehicles could be significantly different from those for passenger cars. A preliminary analysis has been conducted to investigate the energy and emissions performance of Class 3 and 6 medium-duty trucks and Class 6 school buses under eight different test cycles. Three elements are associated with this analysis: (1) establish baseline fuel consumption and emission scenario's from selected, representative baseline vehicles and driving schedules; (2) identify sources of energy inefficiency from baseline technology vehicles; and (3) assess maximum and practical potentials for energy savings and emissions reductions associated with heavy vehicle hybridization under real-world driving conditions. Our analysis excludes efficiency gains associated with such other measures as vehicle weight reduction and air resistance reduction, because such measures would also benefit conventional technology vehicles. Our research indicates that fuel economy and emission benefits of hybridization can be very sensitive to different test cycles. We conclude that, on the basis of present-day technology, the potential fuel economy gains average about 60-75% for Class 3 medium-duty trucks and 35% for Class 6 school buses. The fuel economy gains can be higher in the future, as hybrid technology continues to improve. The practical emissions reduction potentials associated with vehicle hybridization are significant as well.

  17. Tire Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    The workshop was organized into six sessions dealing with finite element developments, applications to tire dynamic problems, solution techniques for tire contact problems, experimental data, tire thermal studies, and current design practices.

  18. Heavy Vehicle Crash Characteristics in Oman 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bulushi, Islam; Edwards, Jason; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry; Al-Reesi, Hamed; Al-Shamsi, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Oman has seen a shift in the burden of diseases towards road accidents. The main objective of this paper, therefore, is to describe key characteristics of heavy vehicle crashes in Oman and identify the key driving behaviours that influence fatality risks. Crash data from January 2009 to December 2011 were examined and it was found that, of the 22,543 traffic accidents that occurred within this timeframe, 3,114 involved heavy vehicles. While the majority of these crashes were attributed to driver behaviours, a small proportion was attributed to other factors. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for a more thorough crash investigation process in Oman. Future research should explore the reporting processes used by the Royal Oman Police, cultural influences on heavy vehicle operations in Oman and improvements to the current licensing system. PMID:26052451

  19. DEVELOPMENT WORK FOR IMPROVED HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE MODELING CAPABILITY DATA MINING--FHWA DATASETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A heavy-duty vehicle can produce 10 to 100 times the emissions (of NOx and PM emissions especially) of a light-duty vehicle, so heavy-duty vehicle activity needs to be well characterized. Key uncertainties with the use of MOBILE6 regarding heavy-duty vehicle emissions include th...

  20. DEVELOPMENT WORK FOR IMPROVED HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE MODELING CAPABILITY DATA MINING--FHWA DATASETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A heavy-duty vehicle can produce 10 to 100 times the emissions (of NOx and PM emissions especially) of a light-duty vehicle, so heavy-duty vehicle activity needs to be well characterized. Key uncertainties with the use of MOBILE6 regarding heavy-duty vehicle emissions include th...

  1. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program: Progress and Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    D. Ray Johnson; Sidney Diamond

    2000-06-19

    The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program was begun in 1997 to support the enabling materials needs of the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). The technical agenda for the program grew out of the technology roadmap for the OHVT and includes efforts in materials for: fuel systems, exhaust aftertreatment, valve train, air handling, structural components, electrochemical propulsion, natural gas storage, and thermal management. A five-year program plan was written in early 2000, following a stakeholders workshop. The technical issues and planned and ongoing projects are discussed. Brief summaries of several technical highlights are given.

  2. Large Scale Composite Manufacturing for Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stavana, Jacob; Cohen, Leslie J.; Houseal, Keth; Pelham, Larry; Lort, Richard; Zimmerman, Thomas; Sutter, James; Western, Mike; Harper, Robert; Stuart, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Risk reduction for the large scale composite manufacturing is an important goal to produce light weight components for heavy lift launch vehicles. NASA and an industry team successfully employed a building block approach using low-cost Automated Tape Layup (ATL) of autoclave and Out-of-Autoclave (OoA) prepregs. Several large, curved sandwich panels were fabricated at HITCO Carbon Composites. The aluminum honeycomb core sandwich panels are segments of a 1/16th arc from a 10 meter cylindrical barrel. Lessons learned highlight the manufacturing challenges required to produce light weight composite structures such as fairings for heavy lift launch vehicles.

  3. Civil markets for buoyant heavy-lift vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettam, P. J.; Hansen, D.; Ardema, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide civil markets for heavy lift airships were investigated. Substantial potential market demand was identified for payloads of from 13 to 800 tons. The largest markets appear to be in applications to relieve port congestion, construction of power generating plants, and, most notably, logging. Because of significant uncertainties both in vehicle and market characteristics, further analysis will be necessary to verify the identified market potential of heavy lift airship concepts.

  4. Energy 101: Heavy Duty Vehicle Efficiency

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Although Class 8 Trucks only make up 4% of the vehicles on the road, they use about 20% of the nation's transportation fuel. In this video, learn how new fuel-efficient technologies are making our country's big rigs quieter, less polluting, more energy-efficient, and less expensive to operate over time.

  5. Energy 101: Heavy Duty Vehicle Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-14

    Although Class 8 Trucks only make up 4% of the vehicles on the road, they use about 20% of the nation's transportation fuel. In this video, learn how new fuel-efficient technologies are making our country's big rigs quieter, less polluting, more energy-efficient, and less expensive to operate over time.

  6. Heavy Lift Vehicle (HLV) Avionics Flight Computing Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert F.; Chen, Yuan; Morgan, Dwayne R.; Butler, A. Marc; Sdhuh, Joseph M.; Petelle, Jennifer K.; Gwaltney, David A.; Coe, Lisa D.; Koelbl, Terry G.; Nguyen, Hai D.

    2011-01-01

    A NASA multi-Center study team was assembled from LaRC, MSFC, KSC, JSC and WFF to examine potential flight computing architectures for a Heavy Lift Vehicle (HLV) to better understand avionics drivers. The study examined Design Reference Missions (DRMs) and vehicle requirements that could impact the vehicles avionics. The study considered multiple self-checking and voting architectural variants and examined reliability, fault-tolerance, mass, power, and redundancy management impacts. Furthermore, a goal of the study was to develop the skills and tools needed to rapidly assess additional architectures should requirements or assumptions change.

  7. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaghar Anzabi, R.; Nobes, D. S.; Lipsett, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  8. More Durable Tracks for Heavy Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Tie bars instead of threaded fasteners make track throwing less likely. Proposed undercarriage for tank or bulldozer has flanged edges to prevent rocks and other road debris from getting caught in track drive and damaging or casting off track. Improved track has no threaded fasteners to be loosened by road shock and vibration. Continuous chain of floating guide bars articulated at web junctions. Pins replace bolted connections. Guide bars and flanges on vehicle keep out stones.

  9. Impact of Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Reductions on Global Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2010-08-01

    The impact of a specified set of emissions reductions from heavy duty vehicles on climate change is calculated using the MAGICC 5.3 climate model. The integrated impact of the following emissions changes are considered: CO2, CH4, N2O, VOC, NOx, and SO2. This brief summarizes the assumptions and methods used for this calculation.

  10. Commercial Training Issues: Heavy Duty Alternative Fuel Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Douglas

    The needs and opportunities in the heavy-duty alternative fuel vehicle training arena were examined in an informal ethnographic study of the appropriateness and effectiveness of the instructional materials currently being used in such training. Interviews were conducted with eight instructors from the National Alternative Fuels Training Program…

  11. Commercial Training Issues: Heavy Duty Alternative Fuel Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Douglas

    The needs and opportunities in the heavy-duty alternative fuel vehicle training arena were examined in an informal ethnographic study of the appropriateness and effectiveness of the instructional materials currently being used in such training. Interviews were conducted with eight instructors from the National Alternative Fuels Training Program…

  12. HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE IN USE EMISSION PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Nylund, N; Ikonen, M; Laurikko, J

    2003-08-24

    Engines for heavy-duty vehicles are emission certified by running engines according to specified load pattern or duty cycle. In the US, the US Heavy-Duty Transient cycle has been in use already for a number of years, and Europe is, according to the requirements of the Directive 1999/96/EC gradually switching to transient-type testing. Evaluating the in-use emission performance of heavy-duty vehicles presents a problem. Taking engines out of vehicles for engine dynamometer testing is difficult and costly. In addition, engine dynamometer testing does not take into account the properties of the vehicle itself (i.e. mass, transmission etc.). It is also debatable, how well the standardized duty cycles reflect real-life -driving patterns. VTT Processes has recently commissioned a new emission laboratory for heavy-duty vehicles. The facility comprises both engine test stand and a fully transient heavy-duty chassis dynamometer. The roller diameter of the dynamometer is 2.5 meters. Regulated emissions are measured using a full-flow CVS system. The HD vehicle chassis dynamometer measurements (emissions, fuel consumption) has been granted accreditation by the Centre of Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES, Finland). A national program to generate emission data on buses has been set up for the years 2002-2004. The target is to generate emission factors for some 50 different buses representing different degree of sophistication (Euro 1 to Euro5/EEV, with and without exhaust gas aftertreatment), different fuel technologies (diesel, natural gas) and different ages (the effect of aging). The work is funded by the Metropolitan Council of Helsinki, Helsinki City Transport, The Ministry of Transport and Communications Finland and the gas company Gasum Oy. The International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles (IANGV) has opted to buy into the project. For IANGV, VTT will deliver comprehensive emission data (including particle size distribution and chemical and biological

  13. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles for 1995 and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toelle, R. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    A Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) designed to deliver 300,000 lb to a 540 n mi circular polar orbit may be required to meet national needs for 1995 and beyond. The vehicle described herein can accommodate payload envelopes up to 50 ft diameter by 200 ft in length. Design requirements include reusability for the more expensive components such as avionics and propulsion systems, rapid launch turnaround time, minimum hardware inventory, stage and component flexibility and commonality, and low operational costs. All ascent propulsion systems utilize liquid propellants, and overall launch vehicle stack height is minimized while maintaining a reasonable vehicle diameter. The ascent propulsion systems are based on the development of a new liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon booster engine and liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen upper stage engine derived from today's SSME technology. Wherever possible, propulsion and avionics systems are contained in reusable propulsion/avionics modules that are recovered after each launch.

  14. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXV, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM D-8 AND 824 MODELS, II--TIRES AND TIRE HARDWARE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM AND TO PROVIDE A DESCRIPTION OF HEAVY TIRES AND WHEELS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) THEORY OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, (2) COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, (3) MAINTENANCE TIPS (COOLING SYSTEM), (4)…

  15. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-08...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  18. 49 CFR 571.120 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... industry or manufacturer's designation for a rim by style or code. Weather side means the surface area of..., bus, or trailer, the tire's load rating shall be reduced by dividing by 1.10 before calculating the... Placarding Requirements. A placard, permanently affixed to the inside of the spare tire stowage area or...

  19. Computational Simulation of a Heavy Vehicle Trailer Wake

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J M; Dunn, T; McCallen, R; Salari, K

    2002-12-04

    To better understand the flow mechanisms that contribute to the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles, unsteady large-eddy simulations are performed to model the wake of a truncated trailer geometry above a no-slip surface. The truncation of the heavy vehicle trailer is done to reduce the computational time needed to perform the simulations. Both unsteady and time-averaged results are presented from these simulations for two grids. A comparison of velocity fields with those obtained from a wind tunnel study demonstrate that there is a distinct di.erence in the separated wake of the experimental and computational results, perhaps indicating the influence of the geometry simplification, turbulence model, boundary conditions, or other aspects of the chosen numerical approach.

  20. Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

  1. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials: Recent Progress and Future Plans

    SciTech Connect

    D. Ray Johnson; Sidney Diamond

    2001-05-14

    The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program provides enabling materials technology for the U.S. DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). The technical agenda for the program is based on an industry assessment and the technology roadmap for the OHVT. A five-year program plan was published in 2000. Major efforts in the program are materials for diesel engine fuel systems, exhaust aftertreatment, and air handling. Additional efforts include diesel engine valve-train materials, structural components, and thermal management. Advanced materials, including high-temperature metal alloys, intermetallics, cermets, ceramics, amorphous materials, metal- and ceramic-matrix composites, and coatings, are investigated for critical engine applications. Selected technical issues and planned and ongoing projects as well as brief summaries of several technical highlights are given.

  2. Noise reduction of diesel engine for heavy duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Y.; Arai, S.

    1989-01-01

    Noise reduction of diesel engines installed in heavy duty vehicles is one of the highest priorities from the viewpoints of meeting the regulations for urban traffic noise abatement and noise reduction in the cabin for lightening fatigue with comfortable long driving. It is necessary that noise reduction measures then be applied to those causes. All noise reduction measures for the diesel engine researched for the purpose of practical use are described in this paper.

  3. Profiling contextual factors which influence safety in heavy vehicle industries.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A

    2014-12-01

    A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes.

  4. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE LOAD ESTIMATION: DEVELOPMENT OF VEHICLE ACTIVITY OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Heavy-Duty Vehicle Modal Emission Model (HDDV-MEM) developed by the Georgia Institute of Technology(Georgia Tech) has a capability to model link-specific second-by-second emissions using speed/accleration matrices. To estimate emissions, engine power demand calculated usin...

  5. 77 FR 30765 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Summary II. Safety Problem A. Heavy Vehicle Crash Problem B. Contributing Factors in Rollover and Loss-of... Stability Control Systems--Phase I 2. Developing a Dynamic Test Maneuver and Performance Measure To Evaluate Roll Stability--Phase II (a) Test Maneuver Development (b) Performance Measure Development 3...

  6. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE LOAD ESTIMATION: DEVELOPMENT OF VEHICLE ACTIVITY OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Heavy-Duty Vehicle Modal Emission Model (HDDV-MEM) developed by the Georgia Institute of Technology(Georgia Tech) has a capability to model link-specific second-by-second emissions using speed/accleration matrices. To estimate emissions, engine power demand calculated usin...

  7. MANPRINT Evaluation of the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle-Heavy Variant (HMMWV-HV)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    knuckle injuries. Attaching and discon- necting the safety strap slows the operator’s ingress or egress. The sharp edges also cause numerous hand...seating position include: Vehicle B02, Cracked right front of hood during cross-country driving. Vehicle BOI, Hit low stump with right front tire... crack in stairwell and vent not putting enough cool air. Dust everywhere. Fan doesn’t work. Eat dust all day. The ambulance gets extremely hot in the

  8. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in FMVSS No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119, S5.1(b)). (h) Tire inflation pressure. (1) No motor vehicle shall be operated on a tire which has a cold inflation pressure less than that specified for the load being carried. (2) If the inflation pressure of the tire has been increased by heat because of the...

  9. Continued Development and Improvement of Pneumatic Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Englar

    2005-07-15

    The objective of this applied research effort led by Georgia Tech Research Institute is the application of pneumatic aerodynamic technology previously developed and patented by us to the design of an appropriate Heavy Vehicle (HV) tractor-trailer configuration, and experimental confirmation of this pneumatic configuration's improved aerodynamic characteristics. In Phases I to IV of our previous DOE program (Reference 1), GTRI has developed, patented, wind-tunnel tested and road-tested blown aerodynamic devices for Pneumatic Heavy Vehicles (PHVs) and Pneumatic Sports Utility Vehicles (PSUVs). To further advance these pneumatic technologies towards HV and SUV applications, additional Phase V tasks were included in the first year of a continuing DOE program (Reference 2). Based on the results of the Phase IV full-scale test programs, these Phase V tasks extended the application of pneumatic aerodynamics to include: further economy and performance improvements; increased aerodynamic stability and control; and safety of operation of Pneumatic HVs. Continued development of a Pneumatic SUV was also conducted during the Phase V program. Phase V was completed in July, 2003; its positive results towards development and confirmation of this pneumatic technology are reported in References 3 and 4. The current Phase VI of this program was incrementally funded by DOE in order to continue this technology development towards a second fuel economy test on the Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle. The objectives of this current Phase VI research and development effort (Ref. 5) fall into two categories: (1) develop improved pneumatic aerodynamic technology and configurations on smaller-scale models of the advanced Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle (PHV); and based on these findings, (2) redesign, modify, and re-test the modified full-scale PHV test vehicle. This second objective includes conduct of an on-road preliminary road test of this configuration to prepare it for a second series of SAE Type-U fuel

  10. Characterization of heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenthal, Douglas H.; Zielinska, Barbara; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Gautam, Mridul; Ferguson, Donald H.; Neuroth, Gary R.; Stevens, Kathy D.

    Emissions of heavy duty diesel-powered vehicles were measured at the Phoenix Transit Yard in South Phoenix between 31 March 1992 and 25 April 1992 using the West Virginia University Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Mobile Lab). Thirteen heavy-duty trucks and buses were tested over this period. The vehicles were operated with diesel No. 2 and Jet A fuels, with and without a fuel additive, and with and without particulate control traps. The chassis dynamometer Mobile Lab tested vehicles over the Central Business District (CBD) driving cycle. Particulate matter in the diluted exhaust was sampled proportionally from a total-exhaust dilution tunnel. Emission rates and compositions of PM 2.5 particulate mass, elements, ions, bulk organic and elemental carbon, and gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were averaged for various classes of fuels and particulate matter control. Emission rates for PM 2.5 mass averaged 0.2 and 1 g mile -1 for trucks and buses with and without particulate traps, respectively. Emission rates for elemental carbon averaged 0.02 and 0.5 g mile -1 for trucks and buses with and without particulate traps, respectively. Diesel particulate exhaust was comprised mainly of organic and elemental carbon (80-90%) and sulfate (up to 14%). The new diesel source composition profiles are similar to one determined earlier in Phoenix. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons comprised no more than a few percent of the particulate organic carbon but their relative abundances may be useful for distinguishing diesel emissions from those of other combustion sources.

  11. Vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program : FY 2008 benefits analysis, methodology and results --- final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering

    2008-02-29

    This report describes the approach to estimating the benefits and analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Vehicle Technologies (VT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identifying technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, and (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 08 the Heavy Vehicles program continued its involvement with various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. These changes are the result of a planning effort that first occurred during FY 04 and was updated in the past year. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. The market penetrations are used as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY08 Budget Request. The energy savings models are utilized by the VT program for internal project management purposes.

  12. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section... Visual tire inspection. No motor carrier subject to these regulations shall at any time operate any motor vehicle of a type to which this regulation is applicable on a tire or tires having a tread pattern which...

  13. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section... Visual tire inspection. No motor carrier subject to these regulations shall at any time operate any motor vehicle of a type to which this regulation is applicable on a tire or tires having a tread pattern which...

  14. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section... Visual tire inspection. No motor carrier subject to these regulations shall at any time operate any motor vehicle of a type to which this regulation is applicable on a tire or tires having a tread pattern which...

  15. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section... Visual tire inspection. No motor carrier subject to these regulations shall at any time operate any motor vehicle of a type to which this regulation is applicable on a tire or tires having a tread pattern which...

  16. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section... Visual tire inspection. No motor carrier subject to these regulations shall at any time operate any motor vehicle of a type to which this regulation is applicable on a tire or tires having a tread pattern which...

  17. 49 CFR 393.130 - What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vehicles shall be restrained in a manner that prevents articulation while in transit. (c) Securement of... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles... heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the...

  18. 49 CFR 393.130 - What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vehicles shall be restrained in a manner that prevents articulation while in transit. (c) Securement of... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles... heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the...

  19. 49 CFR 393.130 - What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicles shall be restrained in a manner that prevents articulation while in transit. (c) Securement of... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles... heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the...

  20. 49 CFR 393.130 - What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vehicles shall be restrained in a manner that prevents articulation while in transit. (c) Securement of... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles... heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the...

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Lisa A.; Rideout, Greg; Rosenblatt, Deborah; Hendren, Jill

    This paper summarizes greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions measurements obtained during several recent studies conducted by Environment Canada, Emissions Research and Measurement Division (ERMD). A variety of heavy-duty vehicles and engines operating on a range of different fuels including diesel, biodiesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), hythane (20% hydrogen, 80% CNG), and liquefied natural gas (LNG), and with different advanced aftertreatment technologies were studied by chassis dynamometer testing, engine dynamometer testing or on-road testing. Distance-based emission rates of CO 2, CH 4, and N 2O are reported. Fuel consumption calculated by carbon balance from measured emissions is also reported. The measurement results show, for heavy-duty diesel vehicles without aftertreatment, that while CO 2 emissions dominate, CH 4 emissions account for between 0% and 0.11% and N 2O emissions account for between 0.16% and 0.27% of the CO 2-equivalent GHG emissions. Both of the aftertreatment technologies (diesel oxidation catalyst and active regeneration diesel particle filter) studied increased N 2O emissions compared to engine out emissions while CH 4 emissions remain essentially unchanged. No effect on tailpipe GHG emissions was found with the use of up to 20% biodiesel when the engine was equipped with an oxidation catalyst. Biodiesel use did show some reductions in tailpipe GHG emissions as compared to ULSD without aftertreatment and with the use of a diesel particle filter. Natural gas and hythane also offer decreased GHG emissions (10-20%) at the tailpipe when compared with diesel. Emission factors (g L -1 fuel) for CH 4 and N 2O are suggested for heavy-duty vehicles fueled with diesel-based fuels and natural gas. These emission factors are substantially lower than those recommended for use by IPCC methodologies for developing national inventories.

  2. DOE/BNL Liquid Natural Gas Heavy Vehicle Program

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Wegrzyn; Wai-Lin Litzke; Michael Gurevich

    1998-08-11

    As a means of lowering greenhouse gas emissions, increasing economic growth, and reducing the dependency on imported oil, the Department of Energy and Brookhaven National Laboratory (DOE/ BNL) is promoting the substitution of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in heavy-vehicles that are currently being fueled by diesel. Heavy vehicles are defined as Class 7 and 8 trucks (> 118,000 pounds GVVV), and transit buses that have a fuel usage greater than 10,000 gallons per year and driving range of more than 300 miles. The key in making LNG market-competitive with all types of diesel fuels is in improving energy efficiency and reducing costs of LNG technologies through systems integration. This paper integrates together the three LNG technologies of: (1) production from landfills and remote well sites; (2) cryogenic fuel delivery systems; and (3) state-of-the-art storage tank and refueling facilities, with market end-use strategies. The program's goal is to develop these technologies and strategies under a ''green'' and ''clean'' strategy. This ''green'' approach reduces the net contribution of global warming gases by reducing levels of methane and carbon dioxide released by heavy vehicles usage to below recoverable amounts of natural gas from landfills and other natural resources. Clean technology refers to efficient use of energy with low environmental emissions. The objective of the program is to promote fuel competition by having LNG priced between $0.40 - $0.50 per gallon with a combined production, fuel delivery and engine systems efficiency approaching 45%. This can make LNG a viable alternative to diesel.

  3. Engine-Out Capabilities Assessment of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Baggett, Keithe; Thrasher, Chad; Bellamy, K. Scott; Feldman, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Engine-out (EO) is a condition that might occur during flight due to the failure of one or more engines. Protection against this occurrence can be called engine-out capability (EOC) whereupon significantly improved loss of mission may occur, in addition to reduction in performance and increased cost. A standardized engine-out capability has not been studied exhaustively as it pertains to space launch systems. This work presents results for a specific vehicle design with specific engines, but also uniquely provides an approach to realizing the necessity of EOC for any launch vehicle system design. A derived top-level approach to engine-out philosophy for a heavy lift launch vehicle is given herein, based on an historical assessment of launch vehicle capabilities. The methodology itself is not intended to present a best path forward, but instead provides three parameters for assessment of a particular vehicle. Of the several parameters affected by this EOC, the three parameters of interest in this research are reliability (Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC)), vehicle performance, and cost. The intent of this effort is to provide insight into the impacts of EO capability on these parameters. The effects of EOC on reliability, performance and cost are detailed, including how these important launch vehicle metrics can be combined to assess what could be considered overall launch vehicle affordability. In support of achieving the first critical milestone (Mission Concept Review) in the development of the Space Launch System (SLS), a team assessed two-stage, large-diameter vehicles that utilized liquid oxygen (LOX)-RP propellants in the First Stage and LOX/LH2 propellant in the Upper Stage. With multiple large thrust-class engines employed on the stages, engine-out capability could be a significant driver to mission success. It was determined that LOM results improve by a factor of five when assuming EOC for both Core Stage (CS) (first stage) and Upper Stage (US

  4. Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

  5. Initial Effects of Heavy Vehicle Trafficking on Vegetated Soils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    ER D C/ CR R EL T R -1 2 -6 Optimal Allocation of Land for Training and Non-training Uses ( OPAL ) Initial Effects of Heavy Vehicle...the outdoor loam test section. Optimal Allocation of Land for Training and Non-training Uses ( OPAL ) ERDC/CRREL TR-12-6 August 2012 Initial...mal Allocation of Land for Training and Non-Training Uses ( OPAL ) Pro- gram. The work was conducted by Nicole Buck and Sally Shoop of the Force

  6. Heavy vehicle automation: transitioning from civilian to military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misener, James A.; Shladover, Steven E.; Empey, Dan; Tan, Han-Shue

    2001-09-01

    We describe potential military robotics applications for the heavy vehicle automation and driver assistance research that has been conducted on at the California Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways (PATH). Specifically, we summarize the state of vehicle automation research at PATH by beginning with a short description of automated platoon operations with eight light duty passenger vehicles. Then we focus on automation of a Class 8 Freightliner Model FLD 125 tractor with 45-ft trailer, and lateral driver assist installed in a 10-wheel International snowplow. We also discuss full automation plans for a Kodiak 4000-ton/hour rotary snowblower, two 40-ft New Flyer buses, one 60-ft New Flyer articulated bus, and three Freightliner Century tractor-trailer combinations. We discuss benefits for civilian applications - congestion relief, driver safety, and fuel economy/emissions reductions. We then follow with a discussion of the benefits from potential military spin-ons which include, as dual-use applications, driver safety and fuel economy/emissions. We end by discussing the additional military benefit in the conduct of tactical resupply operations, where vehicles of similar weight class and performance as those experimented by PATH can be used in automated convoys with savings in manpower and survivability in addition to improved mission operations.

  7. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  8. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  9. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  10. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  11. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission standards...

  12. Scrap tires

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Scrap tires, one small part of the country's massive solid waste problem, are causing a disproportional headache. A city the size of Newark, N.J., for example, can pay up to $700,000 a year just to bury its waste tires, assuming it can find landfills to accept them. Many landfills no longer do, and in some areas, it is actually illegal. So stockpiles of scrap tires mount up and illegal dumping runs rampant. Scrap tires represent less than 1 percent of the nation's total solid waste. While we generate approximately a ton of solid waste per year per person, or 250,000,000 tons, we generate only one 20-pound tire per person, or 2,500,000 tons. Despite this small percentage, these tires present a special disposal/reuse challenge because of their size, shape, and physicochemical nature. Classified as a special waste, they are not generally collected with household waste by municipal authorities. Notwithstanding the unique disposal/reuse challenges of scrap tires, it must be stressed that a tire is essentially a petrochemical product than can be reused, can be a source of recoverable petrochemicals, or can be used as a fuel with a higher Btu value than coal. Thus what appears as a waste disposal challenge is also a resource recovery opportunity. Unfortunately, at present, only 30 percent of the country's scrap tires are being reclaimed or recycled. In terms of options, there are three viable areas in which to approach the waste tire problem: whole tire applications; physically processed tire applications; and physicochemical processes.

  13. Tire condition and drivers' practice in maintaining tires in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ratrout, Nedal T

    2005-01-01

    Tire blowouts and tread separation are a very hot safety issue in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Recent statistics compiled by the special forces for road security in the kingdom revealed that in the year 2001, 13% of the traffic accidents they attended to resulted from tire failure. This paper aims to assess the extent to which drivers are aware of the correct procedure for selecting and maintaining tires on their vehicles and evaluate the in-use condition of these tires. This was fulfilled via a field study in which a random sample of vehicles was stopped to check the condition of their tires and at the same time to interview their drivers on tire-related issues. It was concluded that drivers need proper education on how to select, use, and maintain tires. Hopefully, this will reduce the percentage of under-inflated tires and other incorrect practices found in this study.

  14. Quantifying on-road emissions from gasoline-powered motor vehicles: accounting for the presence of medium- and heavy-duty diesel trucks.

    PubMed

    Dallmann, Timothy R; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; DeMartini, Steven J; Harley, Robert A

    2013-12-03

    Vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic aerosol (OA), and black carbon (BC) were measured at the Caldecott tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Measurements were made in bore 2 of the tunnel, where light-duty (LD) vehicles accounted for >99% of total traffic and heavy-duty trucks were not allowed. Prior emission studies conducted in North America have often assumed that route- or weekend-specific prohibitions on heavy-duty truck traffic imply that diesel contributions to pollutant concentrations measured in on-road settings can be neglected. However, as light-duty vehicle emissions have declined, this assumption can lead to biased results, especially for pollutants such as NOx, OA, and BC, for which diesel-engine emission rates are high compared to corresponding values for gasoline engines. In this study, diesel vehicles (mostly medium-duty delivery trucks with two axles and six tires) accounted for <1% of all vehicles observed in the tunnel but were nevertheless responsible for (18 ± 3)%, (22 ± 6)%, and (45 ± 8)% of measured NOx, OA, and BC concentrations. Fleet-average OA and BC emission factors for light-duty vehicles are, respectively, 10 and 50 times lower than for heavy-duty diesel trucks. Using measured emission factors from this study and publicly available data on taxable fuel sales, as of 2010, LD gasoline vehicles were estimated to be responsible for 85%, 18%, 18%, and 6% of emissions of CO, NOx, OA, and BC, respectively, from on-road motor vehicles in the United States.

  15. Multiyear Program Plan: Reducing Friction and Wear in Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    R.R. Fessler; G.R. Fenske

    1999-12-13

    As described in its multiyear program plan for 1998-2000, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) envisions the development of a fuel-flexible, energy-efficient, near-zero-emissions, heavy-duty U.S. diesel engine technology devolving into all truck classes as a real and viable strategy for reducing energy requirements for commercial transport services and the rapidly growing multipurpose vehicle market (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles). Implementation of the OHVT program plan will have significant national benefits in energy savings, cleaner air, more jobs, and increased gross domestic product (GDP). Successful implementation will reduce the petroleum consumption of Class 1-8 trucks by 1.4 million barrels of oil per day by 2020 and over 1.8 million by 2030, amounting to a reduction in highway petroleum consumption of 13.2% and 18.6%, respectively. All types of regulated emissions will be reduced, that is, 20% drop in PM10 emissions (41,000 metric tons per year) by 203 0, 17% reduction in CO2 greenhouse gases (205 million metric tons per year), 7% reduction in NOx, 20% reduction in NMHC, and 30% reduction in CO. An increase of 15,000 jobs by 2020 is expected, as is an increase of $24 billion in GDP. The strategy of OHVT is to focus primarily on the diesel engine since it has numerous advantages. It has the highest efficiency of any engine today, 45% versus 30% for production gasoline engines; and it can be made more efficient at least to 55% and possibly up to 63%. It is the engine of choice for heavy vehicles (trucks), because it offers power, efficiency, durability, and reliability and is used extensively in rail, marine, and off-road applications. Its emission can be ultra-low to near zero, and the production infrastructure is already in place. The primary goals of OHVT are as follows: (1) Develop by 2002 the diesel-engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of light trucks, achieving a 35% fuel efficiency

  16. 49 CFR 397.17 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... is driven. However, the vehicle may be driven to the nearest safe place to perform the required... overheated tire to be removed and placed at a safe distance from the vehicle. The driver shall not...

  17. 49 CFR 571.110 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... battery, and special trim. Rim is used as defined in § 571.109. Rim diameter means nominal diameter of the bead seat. Rim size designation means rim diameter and width. Rim type designation means the industry... than the GAWR corresponding to the size designation of the tires fitted to the axle. S4.2.2.2When...

  18. 49 CFR 571.120 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (3) “J” indicates Japan Automobile Tire Manufacturers' Association, Inc. (4) “D” indicates Deutsche..., have a minimum print size of 2.4 millimeters (3/32 inches) high and be printed in black print on a..., have a minimum print size of 2.4 millimeters (3/32 inches) high and be printed in black print on a...

  19. Larval mosquito communities in discarded vehicle tires in a forested and unforested site: detritus type, amount, and water nutrient differences

    PubMed Central

    Kling, Lindsey J.; Juliano, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Discarded tires are an important habitat for larvae of multiple species of disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Although tire locations likely influence composition and abundance of vectors, there are few data linking vector populations to the characteristics of the aquatic tire environment. We sampled water-filled tires at three times at a forested and an unforested site to evaluate how differences in detritus inputs or nutrients in these two macrohabitats may be associated with composition of mosquito-dominated invertebrate communities. The forested site had significantly greater inputs of leaves, twigs, seeds, and fine detritus at the first sampling, but subsequent sampling indicated no differences in inputs of any detritus type. Total phosphorous levels were significantly greater in the forested site, but there was no difference in total nitrogen or total ion concentrations during any sampling. Chlorophyll a levels were not different between sites, even though light levels were greater and canopy cover was less at the unforested site. Culex restuans dominated at the unforested site, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus, Anopheles barberi, and Orthopodomyia signifera were found primarily in the forest. Tires at the forested site had significantly more species but not more individuals than at the unforested site. Leaf amount was a good predictor of densities of Oc. triseriatus and overall abundance of mosquitoes in the forest, whereas the amount of seeds was a good predictor of overall invertebrate richness and of Oc. triseriatus numbers in the unforested site. Differences in mosquito assemblage composition between forested and unforested locations may be explained by greater inputs of plant-based detritus and some nutrients, but other factors, such as macrohabitat or host preferences of adult mosquitoes, also may be important. PMID:18260510

  20. Larval mosquito communities in discarded vehicle tires in a forested and unforested site: detritus type, amount, and water nutrient differences.

    PubMed

    Kling, Lindsey J; Juliano, Steven A; Yee, Donald A

    2007-12-01

    Discarded tires are an important habitat for larvae of multiple species of disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Although tire locations likely influence composition and abundance of vectors, there are few data linking vector populations to the characteristics of the aquatic tire environment. We sampled water-filled tires at three times at a forested and an unforested site to evaluate how differences in detritus inputs or nutrients in these two macrohabitats may be associated with composition of mosquito-dominated invertebrate communities. The forested site had significantly greater inputs of leaves, twigs, seeds, and fine detritus at the first sampling, but subsequent sampling indicated no differences in inputs of any detritus type. Total phosphorous levels were significantly greater in the forested site, but there was no difference in total nitrogen or total ion concentrations during any sampling. Chlorophyll a levels were not different between sites, even though light levels were greater and canopy cover was less at the unforested site. Culex restuans dominated at the unforested site, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus, Anopheles barberi, and Orthopodomyia signifera were found primarily in the forest. Tires at the forested site had significantly more species but not more individuals than at the unforested site. Leaf amount was a good predictor of densities of Oc. triseriatus and overall abundance of mosquitoes in the forest, whereas the amount of seeds was a good predictor of overall invertebrate richness and of Oc. triseriatus numbers in the unforested site. Differences in mosquito assemblage composition between forested and unforested locations may be explained by greater inputs of plant-based detritus and some nutrients, but other factors, such as macrohabitat or host preferences of adult mosquitoes, also may be important.

  1. Factors in the fatigue of heavy vehicle drivers.

    PubMed

    Perttula, Pia; Ojala, Tarja; Kuosma, Eeva

    2011-04-01

    This study assessed work-related and driver-related factors in fatigue among Finnish heavy vehicle drivers. 683 professional drivers responded to a questionnaire, 27.8% of whom reported often feeling fatigue during their work shifts. Of the respondents, 27.5% reported having momentarily fallen asleep at the wheel while driving during the past year. Almost half (46.8%) of the fatigued drivers estimated the reasons for momentarily falling asleep were work-related. Long working shifts and short sleeps significantly increased the risk of momentarily falling asleep at the wheel. The risk of fatigue was the highest for the drivers who were unable to choose the time of their breaks.

  2. Age-related safety in professional heavy vehicle drivers: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Duke, Janine; Guest, Maya; Boggess, May

    2010-03-01

    With Australia facing a looming shortage of heavy vehicle drivers the question is raised as to whether it is desirable or prudent to encourage older professional heavy vehicle drivers to remain in the transport sector for longer, particularly those of heavy vehicles or recruit drivers of a younger age. To review age-related safety and identify other factors that contribute to accidents experienced by heavy vehicle drivers. A search was conducted of national and international peer-reviewed literature in the following databases: MedLine, Embase, Cinahl, PsychInfo and the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health & Safety. A manual search was performed to obtain relevant articles within selected journals. A limited number of studies reported age-specific accident rates for heavy vehicles for the spectrum of driver age that included drivers younger than 27 years and those over 60 years of age. Heavy vehicle drivers younger than 27 years of age demonstrated higher rates of accident/fatality involvement which decline and plateau until the age of 63 years where increased rates were again observed. Other contributing factors to heavy vehicle accidents include: long hours and subsequent sleepiness and fatigue, employer safety culture, vehicle configuration particularly multiple trailers, urbanisation and road classification. Drivers of heavy vehicles are over-involved until age 27 years however a characteristic 'U' shaped curve indicates a higher risk of accident involvement for both younger and older drivers. More detailed analyses of "at-fault" involvement and inability to avert an accident and other factors that contribute to accidents across the ages of heavy vehicle drivers may give further clarification to the degree of safety of both younger and older commercial heavy vehicle drivers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 78 FR 56171 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 535 RIN 2060-AR48; 2127-AL31 Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad... Exhaust emission standards for CO2, CH4, and N2O for heavy-duty vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds...

  4. Non-Tactical Vehicle Replacement for the Department of the Navy’s Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Fleet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    financial analysis was performed, estimating and comparing the life cycle cost of our current internal combustion fleet versus that of an electrical ...replace the existing medium- and heavy-duty non-tactical vehicle fleet. These technologies were electric , hybrid- electric , and compressed natural gas...the existing medium- and heavy-duty non-tactical vehicle fleet. These technologies were electric , hybrid- electric , and compressed natural gas. All

  5. 75 FR 43405 - Certification of Enforcement of the Heavy Vehicle Use Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Heavy Vehicle Use Tax (HVUT). This rule will bring FHWA's HVUT regulations up-to-date to be consistent with many changes that have impacted the regulation over the last 2 decades. DATES: Effective Date... tax on vehicles with a gross vehicle weight of 55,000 pounds and over using a sliding scale up to...

  6. Wheels and Tires: Understanding the Numbers on the Sides of Tires Might Lead to Longer Life Tires and Improved Driving Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Automotive wheels and tires require knowledge to understand their specifications and use. While the durability and useful life of tires have increased substantially over the last several decades, in all probability consumers will purchase a number of vehicle tires over their lifetime. Knowing how they are made and what the numbers mean will assist…

  7. Wheels and Tires: Understanding the Numbers on the Sides of Tires Might Lead to Longer Life Tires and Improved Driving Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Automotive wheels and tires require knowledge to understand their specifications and use. While the durability and useful life of tires have increased substantially over the last several decades, in all probability consumers will purchase a number of vehicle tires over their lifetime. Knowing how they are made and what the numbers mean will assist…

  8. Thermal management for heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks)

    SciTech Connect

    Wambsganss, M.W.

    2000-04-03

    Thermal management is a crosscutting technology that has an important effect on fuel economy and emissions, as well as on reliability and safety, of heavy-duty trucks. Trends toward higher-horsepower engines, along with new technologies for reducing emissions, are substantially increasing heat-rejection requirements. For example, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which is probably the most popular near-term strategy for reducing NO{sub x} emissions, is expected to add 20 to 50% to coolant heat-rejection requirements. There is also a need to package more cooling in a smaller space without increasing costs. These new demands have created a need for new and innovative technologies and concepts that will require research and development, which, due to its long-term and high-risk nature, would benefit from government funding. This document outlines a research program that was recommended by representatives of truck manufacturers, engine manufacturers, equipment suppliers, universities, and national laboratories. Their input was obtained through personal interviews and a plenary workshop that was sponsored by the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies and held at Argonne National Laboratory on October 19--20, 1999. Major research areas that received a strong endorsement by industry and that are appropriate for government funding were identified and included in the following six tasks: (1) Program management/coordination and benefits/cost analyses; (2) Advanced-concept development; (3) Advanced heat exchangers and heat-transfer fluids; (4) Simulation-code development; (5) Sensors and control components development; and (6) Concept/demonstration truck sponsorship.

  9. 49 CFR 570.62 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tires. 570.62 Section 570.62 Transportation Other... § 570.62 Tires. (a) Tread depth. The tread shall be not less than four thirty-seconds of an inch deep on each front tire of any vehicle other than a trailer and not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch on...

  10. 49 CFR 570.62 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tires. 570.62 Section 570.62 Transportation Other... § 570.62 Tires. (a) Tread depth. The tread shall be not less than four thirty-seconds of an inch deep on each front tire of any vehicle other than a trailer and not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch on...

  11. 49 CFR 570.62 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tires. 570.62 Section 570.62 Transportation Other... § 570.62 Tires. (a) Tread depth. The tread shall be not less than four thirty-seconds of an inch deep on each front tire of any vehicle other than a trailer and not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch on...

  12. 49 CFR 570.62 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tires. 570.62 Section 570.62 Transportation Other... § 570.62 Tires. (a) Tread depth. The tread shall be not less than four thirty-seconds of an inch deep on each front tire of any vehicle other than a trailer and not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch on...

  13. 49 CFR 570.62 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tires. 570.62 Section 570.62 Transportation Other... § 570.62 Tires. (a) Tread depth. The tread shall be not less than four thirty-seconds of an inch deep on each front tire of any vehicle other than a trailer and not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch on...

  14. The flight readiness and the future of the Boeing Delta IV Heavy expendable launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Michael D.; Marin, Dan; Wilkins, Mark

    2005-07-01

    In early December 2003, the first Delta IV Heavy launch vehicle was successfully rolled out of the Horizontal Integration Facility (HIF) and erected on Space Launch Complex (SLC) 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. The vehicle remains on the launch pad, undergoing a series of launch readiness tests in preparation for liftoff on a qualification flight in the fall of 2004. The Heavy launch vehicle represents the largest of the five vehicles of the Delta IV family, which consists of the Delta IV Medium, three Delta IV Medium vehicles with solid strap-on rocket motors (Medium-Plus variants), and the Delta IV Heavy. All vehicle configurations utilize a common booster core (CBC). The Heavy employs two additional CBCs, serving as liquid rocket boosters for added payload capability. The vehicle measures 71.7 m in height when fully stacked with a payload. This paper describes in detail the Delta IV Heavy launch vehicle and summarizes the flight readiness process in preparation for a successful flight, including wet dress rehearsals. A summary of the sequence of events of the Heavy qualification flight is also included.

  15. 49 CFR 571.119 - Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... designated in S5.1. (d) The maximum load rating and corresponding inflation pressure of the tire, shown as... assembly and inflate it to the inflation pressure corresponding to the maximum load rating marked on the... without interruption. (e) Immediately after running the tire the required time, measure the tire...

  16. United States commitment to heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabris, Edward A.

    Observers of the United States' space program will note progress toward the development of a new launch system capable of supporting the nation's future space missions. The process of defining mission requirements, developing technically and politically acceptable solutions, making policy decisions, and developing budget support in a democratic society is protracted, but eventually yields decisions that represent the public interest. The consensus developing within the United States on a new launch capability including heavy-lift is embodied in the Joint NASA/DoD National Launch System. This launch vehicle concept has emerged after more than five years of studies by NASA, the DoD and every major industrial aerospace contractor in the U.S. In July 1991, Vice President Quayle, in his capacity as Chairman of the National Space Council stated the Nation's commitment to support of the NLS. This paper reviews progress to date, and the involvement of the four major constituencies; the Executive Branch operating through the National Space Council, the Legislative Branch, the various elements of the DoD, and NASA. The evolution of launch system "requirements", along with the form, content and rationale for the various decisions that have been made will be described and discussed.

  17. Risk assessment in ramps for heavy vehicles--A French study.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, Veronique; Conche, Florence

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a study dealing with the risk for heavy vehicles in ramps. Two approaches are used. On one hand, statistics are applied on several accidents databases to detect if ramps are more risky for heavy vehicles and to define a critical value for longitudinal slope. χ(2) test confirmed the risk in ramps and statistical analysis proved that a longitudinal slope superior to 3.2% represents a higher risk for heavy vehicles. On another hand, numerical simulations allow defining the speed profile in ramps for two types of heavy vehicles (tractor semi-trailer and 2-axles rigid body) and different loads. The simulations showed that heavy vehicles must drive more than 1000 m on ramps to reach their minimum speed. Moreover, when the slope is superior to 3.2%, tractor semi-trailer presents a strong decrease of their speed until 50 km/h. This situation represents a high risk of collision with other road users which drive at 80-90 km/h. Thus, both methods led to the determination of a risky configuration for heavy vehicles: ramps with a length superior to 1000 m and a slope superior to 3.2%. An application of this research work concerns design methods and guidelines. Indeed, this study provides threshold values than can be used by engineers to make mandatory specific planning like a lane for slow vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality and control of their emissions].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Wang, Bo-Guang; Tang, Da-Gang

    2011-08-01

    Through an analysis of the characteristics of diesel vehicle emissions and motor vehicle emissions inventories, this paper examines the impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality in China as well as issues related to the control of their emissions. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Nitrogen oxides is one of the important precursors for the formation of secondary particles and ozone in the atmosphere, causing regional haze. Diesel particulate matter is a major toxic air pollutant with adverse effect on human health, and in particular, the ultrafine particles in 30-100 nm size range can pose great health risks because of its extremely small sizes. Motor vehicles have become a major source of air pollution in many metropolitan areas and city cluster in China, and among them the heavy-duty diesel vehicles are a dominant contributor of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions. Hence, controlling heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions should be a key component of an effective air quality management plan, and a number of issues related to heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions need to be addressed.

  19. Rubber friction and tire dynamics.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-12

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  20. Tire and runway surface research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    The condition of aircraft tires and runway surfaces can be crucial in meeting the stringent demands of aircraft ground operations, particularly under adverse weather conditions. Gaining a better understanding of the factors influencing the tire/pavement interface is the aim of several ongoing NASA Langley research programs which are described in this paper. Results from several studies conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility, tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and some recent aircraft accident investigations are summarized to indicate effects of different tire and runway properties. The Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program is described together with some preliminary test findings. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed towards solving aircraft ground operational problems related to the tire/pavement interface is given.

  1. FY2003 Annual Report: DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R C; Salari, K; Ortega, J; DeChant, L J; Roy, C J; Payne, J J; Hassan, B; Pointer, W D; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J; Walker, S; Yaste, D; Englar, R; Leonard, A; Rubel, M; Chatelain, P

    2003-10-24

    Objective: {sm_bullet} Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles. {sm_bullet} Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate potential of new drag-reduction devices.

  2. Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent flow over a heavy vehicle with drag reduction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangseung; Kim, Myeongkyun; You, Donghyun

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamic drag contributes to a considerable amount of energy loss of heavy vehicles. To reduce the energy loss, drag reduction devices such as side skirts and boat tails, are often installed to the side and the rear of a heavy vehicle. In the present study, turbulent flow around a heavy vehicle with realistic geometric details is simulated using large-eddy simulation (LES), which is capable of providing unsteady flow physics responsible for aerodynamic in sufficient detail. Flow over a heavy vehicle with and without a boat tail and side skirts as drag reduction devices is simulated. The simulation results are validated against accompanying in-house experimental measurements. Effects of a boat tail and side skirts on drag reduction are discussed in detail. Supported by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA) Grant NTIS 1615007940.

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Compliance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) is a free, desktop computer application that estimates the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel efficiency performance of specific aspects of heavy-duty vehicles.

  4. Heavy vehicle industry site visits: comments from companies and conclusions from technical committee

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R.

    1998-02-01

    This report documents the results of several visits with industry as part of the Department of Energy (DOE), office of Transportation Technology, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology, supported Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamics Project. The purpose of the DOE Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamics Project is to use government resources to bring the aerodynamic expertise available in government organizations and academia to bear in assisting the heavy vehicle industry to reduce aerodynamic drag on trucks. The obvious payback from this investment is the reduction in fuel usage and derivative reduction in the US's dependence on foreign oil imports. This report covers 2 projects: (1) The stated purpose of Project 1 was to provide near-term impact through emphasis on existing tools and capabilities and to focus on the trailer drag problem. (2) The stated purpose of Project 2 was to provide the tools necessary to accomplish the longer term goal of a fully-integrated, aerodynamic tractor-trailer combination.

  5. Urban driving cycle results of retrofitted diesel oxidation catalysts on heavy duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.F.; Rideout, G.

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents the emissions testing results of various heavy duty engines and vehicles with and without retrofitted diesel oxidation catalyst technology. 1987 Cummins L10 and 1991 DDC 6V92TA DDECII engine results over the US Heavy Duty Transient Test are presented for comparison to chassis test results. The vehicles in this study include two urban buses, two school buses and three heavy duty trucks. The Central Business District, New York Bus and New York Composite urban driving cycles have been used to evaluate baseline emissions and the catalyst performance on a heavy duty chassis dynamometer. The results demonstrate that 25--45% particulate reduction is readily achievable on a wide variety of heavy duty vehicles. Significant carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon reductions were also observed.

  6. Effect of Wide-Based Single Tires on Fuel Efficiency of Class 8 Combination Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Franzese, Oscar; Knee, Helmut E; Slezak, Lee

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 and 2008, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with several industry partners, collected real-world performance and situational data for long-haul operations of Class- 8 trucks from a fleet engaged in normal freight operations. Such data and information is useful to support Class-8 modeling of heavy-truck performance, technology evaluation efforts for energy efficiency, and to provide a means of accounting for real-world driving performance within heavy-truck research and analyses. This paper presents some general statistics, including distribution of idling times during long-haul trucking operations. However, the main focus is on the analysis of some of the extensive real-world information collected in this project, specifically on the assessment of the effect that different types of tires (i.e., dual tires vs. new generation single wide-based tires or NGSWBTs) have on the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks. The tire effect is also evaluated as a function of the vehicle load level. In all cases analyzed, the statistical tests performed strongly suggest that fuel efficiencies achieved when using all NGSWBTs or combinations of duals and NGSWBTs are higher than in the case of a truck equipped with all dual tires.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 86 - Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Including Light-Duty Trucks XII Appendix XII to... Appendix XII to Part 86—Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 86 - Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Including Light-Duty Trucks XII Appendix XII to... Appendix XII to Part 86—Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards... tank capacity of greater than 35 gallons, or which do not share a common fuel system with a...

  10. Exhaust Emission Rates for Heavy-Duty Onroad Vehicles in the Next Version of MOVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Derivation of the exhaust and crankcase emission rates for HC, CO, NOx, and PM emissions from medium and heavy-duty diesel, gasoline, and compressed natural gas vehicles. Including updates for emission rates for 2007 and later model year diesel vehicles

  11. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission standards...) Carbon monoxide. 7.3 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen. (A)0.2 grams per mile. (B) A manufacturer... grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen. (A)0.4 grams per mile. (B) A manufacturer may elect to...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., trading, and banking program. 86.1817-08 Section 86.1817-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program. Section 86.1817-08 includes text that...-cycle vehicles may participate in an NMHC averaging, banking and trading program to show compliance...

  13. Energy Consumption and Cost Savings of Truck Electrification for Heavy-Duty Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Lin, Zhenhong; Franzese, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Our paper evaluates the application of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and genset plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to Class-7 local delivery trucks and genset PHEV for Class-8 utility bucket trucks over widely real-world driving data performed by conventional heavy-duty trucks.

  14. 77 FR 39206 - Public Hearing on Proposed Rule for Heavy Vehicle Electronic Stability Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Vehicle Electronic Stability Control Systems AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... No. 136, Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles (77 FR 30766). The standard would... kilograms (26,000 pounds), to be equipped with an electronic stability control (ESC) system that meets...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission standards...) Carbon monoxide. 7.3 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen. (A)0.2 grams per mile. (B) A manufacturer... grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen. (A)0.4 grams per mile. (B) A manufacturer may elect to include...

  16. Exhaust Emission Rates for Heavy-Duty Onroad Vehicles in the Next Version of MOVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Derivation of the exhaust and crankcase emission rates for HC, CO, NOx, and PM emissions from medium and heavy-duty diesel, gasoline, and compressed natural gas vehicles. Including updates for emission rates for 2007 and later model year diesel vehicles

  17. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-2 Exemption of tires with...

  20. 49 CFR 573.10 - Reporting the sale or lease of defective or noncompliant tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... noncompliant tires. 573.10 Section 573.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... noncompliant tires. (a) Reporting requirement. Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, any person who knowingly and willfully sells or leases for use on a motor vehicle a defective tire or a tire that is not...

  1. 49 CFR 573.10 - Reporting the sale or lease of defective or noncompliant tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... noncompliant tires. 573.10 Section 573.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... noncompliant tires. (a) Reporting requirement. Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, any person who knowingly and willfully sells or leases for use on a motor vehicle a defective tire or a tire that is not...

  2. 49 CFR 573.10 - Reporting the sale or lease of defective or noncompliant tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... noncompliant tires. 573.10 Section 573.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... noncompliant tires. (a) Reporting requirement. Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, any person who knowingly and willfully sells or leases for use on a motor vehicle a defective tire or a tire that is not...

  3. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Original equipment tires on imported articles... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on...

  4. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-2 Exemption of tires with...

  5. 49 CFR 573.10 - Reporting the sale or lease of defective or noncompliant tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... noncompliant tires. 573.10 Section 573.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... noncompliant tires. (a) Reporting requirement. Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, any person who knowingly and willfully sells or leases for use on a motor vehicle a defective tire or a tire that is not...

  6. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Original equipment tires on imported articles... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on...

  7. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-2 Exemption of tires with...

  8. Processing methods, characteristics and adsorption behavior of tire derived carbons: a review.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Tawfik A; Gupta, Vinod Kumar

    2014-09-01

    The remarkable increase in the number of vehicles worldwide; and the lack of both technical and economical mechanisms of disposal make waste tires to be a serious source of pollution. One potential recycling process is pyrolysis followed by chemical activation process to produce porous activated carbons. Many researchers have recently proved the capability of such carbons as adsorbents to remove various types of pollutants including organic and inorganic species. This review attempts to compile relevant knowledge about the production methods of carbon from waste rubber tires. The effects of various process parameters including temperature and heating rate, on the pyrolysis stage; activation temperature and time, activation agent and activating gas are reviewed. This review highlights the use of waste-tires derived carbon to remove various types of pollutants like heavy metals, dye, pesticides and others from aqueous media. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aeromechanical stability analysis of a multirotor vehicle model representing a hybrid heavy lift airship (HHLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    Hybrid Heavy Lift Airship (HHLA) is a proposed candidate vehicle aimed at providing heavy lift capability at low cost. This vehicle consists of a buoyant envelope attached to a supporting structure to which four rotor systems, taken from existing helicopters are attached. Nonlinear equations of motion capable of modelling the dynamics of this coupled multi-rotor/support frame/vehicle system have been developed. Using these equations of motion the aeroelastic and aeromechanical stability analysis is performed aimed at identifying potential instabilities which could occur for this type of vehicle. The coupling between various blade, supporting structure and rigid body modes is identified. Furthermore, the effects of changes in buoyancy ratio (Buoyant lift/total weight) on the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle are studied. The dynamic effects found are of considerable importance for the design of such vehicles. The analytical model developed is also useful for studying the aeromechanical stability of single rotor and tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage systems.

  10. Aeromechanical stability analysis of a multirotor vehicle with application to hybrid heavy lift helicopter dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    The Hybrid Heavy Lift Helicopter (HHLH) is a potential candidate vehicle aimed at providing heavy lift capability at low cost. This vehicle consists of a buoyant envelope attached to a supporting structure. Four rotor systems are also attached to the supporting structure. Nonlinear equations of motion capable of modeling the dynamics of this multi-rotor/support frame/vehicle system have been developed and used to study the fundamental aeromechanical stability characteristics of this class of vehicles. The mechanism of coupling between the blades, supporting structure and rigid body modes is identified and the effect of buoyancy ratio (buoyant lift/total weight) on the vehicle dynamics is studied. It is shown that dynamics effects have a major role in the design of such vehicles. The analytical model developed is also useful for studying the aeromechanical stability of single rotor and tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage systems.

  11. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards...-duty vehicles (2003 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 1 in § 86.005-1(c)(1), or 2004 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 2 in § 86.005-1(c)(2)) fueled...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards...-duty vehicles (2003 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 1 in § 86.005-1(c)(1), or 2004 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 2 in § 86.005-1(c)(2)) fueled...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards...-duty vehicles (2003 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 1 in § 86.005-1(c)(1), or 2004 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 2 in § 86.005-1(c)(2)) fueled...

  14. Ground and Range Operations for a Heavy-Lift Vehicle: Preliminary Thoughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabelo, Luis; Zhu, Yanshen; Compton, Jeppie; Bardina, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and range operations for a Shuttle derived Heavy-Lift Vehicle being launched from the Kennedy Space Center on the Eastern range. Comparisons will be made between the Shuttle and a heavy lift configuration (SLS-ETF MPCV April 2011) by contrasting their subsystems. The analysis will also describe a simulation configuration with the potential to be utilized for heavy lift vehicle processing/range simulation modeling and the development of decision-making systems utilized by the range. In addition, a simple simulation model is used to provide the required critical thinking foundations for this preliminary analysis.

  15. Quantitative Effects of Vehicle Parameters on Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Kelly, Kenneth; Walkowicz, Kevin; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-16

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluations team recently conducted chassis dynamometer tests of a class 8 conventional regional delivery truck over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), West Virginia University City (WVU City), and Composite International Truck Local and Commuter Cycle (CILCC) drive cycles. A quantitative study was conducted by analyzing the impacts of various factors on fuel consumption (FC) and fuel economy (FE) by modeling and simulating the truck using NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim). Factors used in this study included vehicle weight, and the coefficients of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. The simulation results from a single parametric study revealed that FC was approximately a linear function of the weight, coefficient of aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance over various drive cycles. Among these parameters, the truck weight had the largest effect on FC. The study of the impact of two technologies on FE suggested that, depending on the circumstances, it may be more cost effective to reduce one parameter (such as coefficient of aerodynamic drag) to increase fuel economy, or it may be more beneficial to reduce another (such as the coefficient of rolling resistance). It also provided a convenient way to estimate FE by interpolating within the parameter values and extrapolating outside of them. The simulation results indicated that the FC could be reduced from 38.70 L/100 km, 50.72 L/100 km, and 38.42 L/100 km in the baseline truck to 26.78 L/100 km, 43.14 L/100 km and 29.84 L/100 km over the HHDDT, WVU City and CILCC drive cycles, respectively, when the U.S. Department of Energy's three targeted new technologies were applied simultaneously.

  16. 49 CFR 571.119 - Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... follows: (Mark on tires rated for single and dual load): Max load single __kg (__lb) at __kPa (__psi) cold. Max load dual __kg (__lb) at __kPa (__psi) cold. (Mark on tires rated only for single load): Max load __kg (__lb) at __kPa (__psi) cold. (e) The speed restriction of the tire, if 90 km/h (55 mph) or less...

  17. 49 CFR 571.119 - Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... follows: (Mark on tires rated for single and dual load): Max load single __kg (__lb) at __kPa (__psi) cold. Max load dual __kg (__lb) at __kPa (__psi) cold. (Mark on tires rated only for single load): Max load __kg (__lb) at __kPa (__psi) cold. (e) The speed restriction of the tire, if 90 km/h (55 mph) or less...

  18. 49 CFR 571.119 - Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... follows: (Mark on tires rated for single and dual load): Max load single __kg (__lb) at __kPa (__psi) cold. Max load dual __kg (__lb) at __kPa (__psi) cold. (Mark on tires rated only for single load): Max load __kg (__lb) at __kPa (__psi) cold. (e) The speed restriction of the tire, if 90 km/h (55 mph) or less...

  19. Vehicle concepts and technology requirements for buoyant heavy-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Several buoyant-vehicle (airship) concepts proposed for short hauls of heavy payloads are described. Numerous studies identified operating cost and payload capacity advantages relative to existing or proposed heavy-lift helicopters for such vehicles. Applications involving payloads of from 15 tons up to 800 tons were identified. The buoyant quad-rotor concept is discussed in detail, including the history of its development, current estimates of performance and economics, currently perceived technology requirements, and recent research and technology development. It is concluded that the buoyant quad-rotor, and possibly other buoyant vehicle concepts, has the potential of satisfying the market for very heavy vertical lift but that additional research and technology development are necessary. Because of uncertainties in analytical prediction methods and small-scale experimental measurements, there is a strong need for large or full-scale experiments in ground test facilities and, ultimately, with a flight research vehicle.

  20. An investigation of the effects of pneumatic actuator design on slip control for heavy vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jonathan I.; Cebon, David

    2013-01-01

    Progress in reducing actuator delays in pneumatic brake systems is opening the door for advanced anti-lock braking algorithms to be used on heavy goods vehicles. However, little has been published on slip controllers for air-braked heavy vehicles, or the effects of slow pneumatic actuation on their design and performance. This paper introduces a sliding mode slip controller for air-braked heavy vehicles. The effects of pneumatic actuator delays and flow rates on stopping performance and air (energy) consumption are presented through vehicle simulations. Finally, the simulations are validated with experiments using a hardware-in-the-loop rig. It is shown that for each wheel, pneumatic valves with delays smaller than 3 ms and orifice diameters around 8 mm provide the best performance.

  1. Research on identification method of heavy vehicle rollover based on hidden Markov model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhiguo; Wang, Yeqin; Hu, Xiaoming; Tao, Yukai; Wang, Jinsheng

    2017-07-01

    Aiming at the problem of early warning credibility degradation as the heavy vehicle load and its center of gravity change greatly; the heavy vehicle rollover state identification method based on the Hidden Markov Model (HMM, is introduced to identify heavy vehicle lateral conditions dynamically in this paper. In this method, the lateral acceleration and roll angle are taken as the observation values of the model base. The Viterbi algorithm is used to predict the state sequence with the highest probability in the observed sequence, and the Markov prediction algorithm is adopted to calculate the state transition law and to predict the state of the vehicle in a certain period of time in the future. According to combination conditions of Double lane change and steering, applying Trucksim and Matlab trained hidden Markov model, the model is applied to the online identification of heavy vehicle rollover states. The identification results show that the model can accurately and efficiently identify the vehicle rollover state, and has good applicability. This study provides a novel method and a general strategy for active safety early warning and control of vehicles, which has reference significance for the application of the Hidden Markov theory in collision, rear-end and lane departure warning system.

  2. 49 CFR 571.120 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Information. The owner's manual of the vehicle shall contain, in writing in the English language and in not... CFR 1.50) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 571.120 see the List of...

  3. Advanced Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, Handling, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Englar

    2001-05-14

    Research is being conducted at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) to develop advanced aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability, handling and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles by using previously-developed and flight-tested pneumatic (blown) aircraft technology. Recent wind-tunnel investigations of a generic Heavy Vehicle model with blowing slots on both the leading and trailing edges of the trailer have been conducted under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. These experimental results show overall aerodynamic drag reductions on the Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle of 50% using only 1 psig blowing pressure in the plenums, and over 80% drag reductions if additional blowing air were available. Additionally, an increase in drag force for braking was confirmed by blowing different slots. Lift coefficient was increased for rolling resistance reduction by blowing only the top slot, while downforce was produced for traction increase by blowing only the bottom. Also, side force and yawing moment were generated on either side of the vehicle, and directional stability was restored by blowing the appropriate side slot. These experimental results and the predicted full-scale payoffs are presented in this paper, as is a discussion of additional applications to conventional commercial autos, buses, motor homes, and Sport Utility Vehicles.

  4. Assessing the ground vibrations produced by a heavy vehicle traversing a traffic obstacle.

    PubMed

    Ducarne, Loïc; Ainalis, Daniel; Kouroussis, Georges

    2017-09-14

    Despite advancements in alternative transport networks, road transport remains the dominant mode in many modern and developing countries. The ground-borne motions produced by the passage of a heavy vehicle over a geometric obstacle (e.g. speed hump, train tracks) pose a fundamental problem in transport annoyance in urban areas. In order to predict the ground vibrations generated by the passage of a heavy vehicle over a geometric obstacle, a two-step numerical model is developed. The first step involves simulating the dynamic loads generated by the heavy vehicle using a multibody approach, which includes the tyre-obstacle-ground interaction. The second step involves the simulation of the ground wave propagation using a three dimensional finite element model. The simulation is able to be decoupled due to the large difference in stiffness between the vehicle's tyres and the road. First, the two-step model is validated using an experimental case study available in the literature. A sensitivity analysis is then presented, examining the influence of various factors on the generated ground vibrations. Factors investigated include obstacle shape, obstacle dimensions, vehicle speed, and tyre stiffness. The developed model can be used as a tool in the early planning stages to predict the ground vibrations generated by the passage of a heavy vehicle over an obstacle in urban areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Innovative Structural and Joining Concepts for Lightweight Design of Heavy Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jacky C. Prucz; Samir N. Shoukry; Gergis W. William

    2005-08-31

    Recent advances in the area of Metal Matrix Composites (MMC's) have brought these materials to a maturity stage where the technology is ready for transition to large-volume production and commercialization. The new materials seem to allow the fabrication of higher quality parts at less than 50 percent of the weight as compared to steel, especially when they are selectively reinforced with carbon, silicon carbide, or aluminum oxide fibers. Most of the developments in the MMC materials have been spurred, mainly by applications that require high structural performance at elevated temperatures, the heavy vehicle industry could also benefit from this emerging technology. Increasing requirements of weight savings and extended durability are the main drivers for potential insertion of MMC technology into the heavy vehicle market. Critical elements of a typical tractor-trailer combination, such as highly loaded sections of the structure, engine components, brakes, suspensions, joints and bearings could be improved through judicious use of MMC materials. Such an outcome would promote the DOE's programmatic objectives of increasing the fuel efficiency of heavy vehicles and reducing their life cycle costs and pollution levels. However, significant technical and economical barriers are likely to hinder or even prevent broad applications of MMC materials in heavy vehicles. The tradeoffs between such expected benefits (lower weights and longer durability) and penalties (higher costs, brittle behavior, and difficult to machine) must be thoroughly investigated both from the performance and cost viewpoints, before the transfer of MMC technology to heavy vehicle systems can be properly assessed and implemented. MMC materials are considered to form one element of the comprehensive, multi-faceted strategy pursued by the High Strength/Weight Reduction (HS/WR) Materials program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for structural weight savings and quality enhancements in heavy

  6. Traction Boot for Tires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-08

    34AD-D0 15 390 IN THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Patent Application NAME Or INVENTOR : Joseph G. Warner DLECTI TITLE Of INVENTION...this nature include tiro chains or a loop of track connecting fore and aft wh#ls of a tandem axle assembly. There are disadvqstages with these known...vehicles with tandeo axles . o ed imfd pubr𔃾fl1a 99214-255191 92 9 14 085 SUNMARX My invention ii a boot or temporary recap for a tire that can be

  7. Freedom car and vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program : FY 2007 benefits analysis, methodology and results -- final report.

    SciTech Connect

    SIngh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering

    2008-02-29

    This report describes the approach to estimating the benefits and analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identifying technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 05 the Heavy Vehicles program activity expanded its technical involvement to more broadly address various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. This broadening of focus has continued in subsequent activities. These changes are the result of a planning effort that occurred during FY 04 and 05. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. The market penetrations are used as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY07 Budget Request. The energy savings models are utilized by the FCVT program for internal project management purposes.

  8. FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program FY 2006. Benefits analysis : methodology and results - final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering, Inc.

    2006-01-31

    This report describes the approach to estimating benefits and the analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identification of technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 05 the Heavy Vehicles program activity expanded its technical involvement to more broadly address various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. This broadening of focus has continued in the activities planned for FY 06. These changes are the result of a planning effort that occurred during FY 04 and 05. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. These benefits estimates, along with market penetrations and other results, are then modeled as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY06 Budget Request.

  9. Algorithm research and realization of the turning control system for heavy transportation vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Hanguang; Yuan, Haiwen; Wang, Qiusheng; Zhao, Jingpo

    2012-05-01

    The dynamics of turning system which is a nonlinear system normally has great impact on the transportation speed of the vehicle having heavy load and large size. The dynamics of turning system depends on control algorithm and its implementation, but the existing control algorithms which having high dynamics in the application of heavy transportation vehicle are complex for realization and high hardware requirement. So, the nonlinear turning system is analyzed for improving its dynamics by researching new efficient control algorithm. The models of electromagnetic valve, hydraulic cylinder and turning mechanical part are built individually to get the open-loop model of the turning system following characteristics analyzed. According to the model, a new control algorithm for heavy transportation vehicle which combined PID with Bang-Bang control is presented. Then the close-loop model of turning system is obtained under Matlab/Simulink environment. By comparing the step response of different control algorithms in the same conditions, the new algorithm's validity is verified. On the basis of the analysis results, the algorithm is adopted to implement the turning control system by using CAN field bus and PLC controllers. Furthermore, the turning control system has been applied in one type of heavy transportation vehicle. It reduces the response time of turning system from seconds level to 250 ms, and the speed of heavy transportation vehicle increases from 5 km/h to 30 km/h. The application result shows that the algorithm and turning control system have met all the turning requirements. This new type of turning control algorithm proposed is simple in implementation for fast response of nonlinear and large-scale turning system of heavy transportation vehicle.

  10. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  11. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  12. Thermal management in heavy vehicles : a review identifying issues and research requirements.

    SciTech Connect

    Wambsganss, M. W.

    1999-01-15

    Thermal management in heavy vehicles is cross-cutting because it directly or indirectly affects engine performance, fuel economy, safety and reliability, engine/component life, driver comfort, materials selection, emissions, maintenance, and aerodynamics. It follows that thermal management is critical to the design of large (class 6-8) trucks, especially in optimizing for energy efficiency and emissions reduction. Heat rejection requirements are expected to increase, and it is industry's goal to develop new, innovative, high-performance cooling systems that occupy less space and are lightweight and cost-competitive. The state of the art in heavy vehicle thermal management is reviewed, and issues and research areas are identified.

  13. Heavy-lift launch vehicle options for future space exploration initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.; Harris, Ronald J.

    1990-10-01

    A review of present heavy-lift launch vehicles (HLLV) capable of placing heavy payloads in earth orbit is presented and the basis for an emerging consensus that an HLLV will be required in the near future is discussed. Some of the factors for the policies governing the roles and requirements for these vehicles in the future, such as cost, technology development, and lead time to first use are addressed. Potential Space Station Freedom application is discussed as well as application to the proposed initiatives for human exploration of Mars and the moon.

  14. Heavy-lift launch vehicle options for future space exploration initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.; Harris, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    A review of present heavy-lift launch vehicles (HLLV) capable of placing heavy payloads in earth orbit is presented and the basis for an emerging consensus that an HLLV will be required in the near future is discussed. Some of the factors for the policies governing the roles and requirements for these vehicles in the future, such as cost, technology development, and lead time to first use are addressed. Potential Space Station Freedom application is discussed as well as application to the proposed initiatives for human exploration of Mars and the moon.

  15. Heavy-lift launch vehicle options for future space exploration initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.; Harris, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    A review of present heavy-lift launch vehicles (HLLV) capable of placing heavy payloads in earth orbit is presented and the basis for an emerging consensus that an HLLV will be required in the near future is discussed. Some of the factors for the policies governing the roles and requirements for these vehicles in the future, such as cost, technology development, and lead time to first use are addressed. Potential Space Station Freedom application is discussed as well as application to the proposed initiatives for human exploration of Mars and the moon.

  16. The Effect of Heavy-Duty Diesel Emission Standards on U.S. Army Ground Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-05

    Program) - ‘Environmental Impact of Fuel Use on Military Engines ’ December 5, 2007 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...Standards • Emission Control Technology Discussion • Fuels and Lubricants Discussion • Current Army Ground Vehicle Engine Philosophy and Conclusion...P.J. Schihl Conclusion • The Army can not buy 2007 compliant COTS engines and directly integrate into current and new heavy-duty vehicles. P.J

  17. 49 CFR 573.10 - Reporting the sale or lease of defective or noncompliant tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... knowingly and willfully sells or leases for use on a motor vehicle a defective tire or a tire that is not... for Enforcement, NHTSA, 1200 New Jersey Ave., SE., Washington, DC 20590. (b) Exclusions from reporting...

  18. Demonstration of a heavy-duty vehicle chassis screening test for compliance testing heavy-duty engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, N.N.; McKain, D.L.; Hoppie, J.A.; Lyons, D.W.; Gautam, M.

    1998-07-01

    Emissions testing of new heavy-duty engines is performed to ensure compliance with governmental emissions standards. This testing involves operating the engine through the heavy-duty diesel transient Federal Test Procedure (FTP). While in-use engine emissions testing would be beneficial in aiding regions to meet standards dictated by the Clean Air Act, the process of removing the engine from the vehicle, fitting it to an engine dynamometer, testing, and refitting the engine in the chassis, combined with costs associated with removing the vehicle from service, is prohibitively expensive. A procedure for screening engine emissions testing with the engine in the vehicle using a chassis dynamometer was developed to mimic the FTP. Data from two engines and vehicles (a 195 hp Navistar T 444E in a single axle straight truck and a 370 hp Cummins N-14 in a tandem drive axle tractor) is presented as well as correlation between engine and chassis emissions tests. Also included was data gathered to gauge the effects of engine tampering and malfunctioning on emissions levels. It was concluded that engine and chassis emissions levels were well correlated with respect to oxides of nitrogen, but less well so with respect to particulate matter.

  19. Definition of avionics concepts for a heavy lift cargo vehicle, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A cost effective, multiuser simulation, test, and demonstration facility to support the development of avionics systems for future space vehicles is defined. The technology needs and requirements of future Heavy Lift Cargo Vehicles (HLCVs) are analyzed and serve as the basis for sizing of the avionics facility although the lab is not limited in use to support of HLCVs. Volume 2 is the technical volume and provides the results of the vehicle avionics trade studies, the avionics lab objectives, the lab's functional requirements and design, physical facility considerations, and a summary cost estimate.

  20. Foundation for Heavy Lift: Early Developments in the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, J. Craig

    2007-01-01

    The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) is NASA's primary vessel for safe, reliable delivery of the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) and other resources into Earth orbit, as articulated in the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration.' The Ares V launch concept is shown. The foundation for this heavy-lift companion to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is taking shape within NASA and with its government and industry partners. This paper will address accomplishments in the Ares V Launch Vehicle during 2006 and 2007 and offer a preview of future activities.

  1. Foundation for Heavy Lift - Early Developments in the Ares V Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig; Pannell, Bill; Lacey, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) is NASA's primary vessel for safe, reliable delivery of the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) and other resources into Earth orbit, as articulated in the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. The Ares V launch concept is shown. The foundation for this heavy-lift companion to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is taking shape within NASA and with its government and industry partners. This paper will address accomplishments in the Ares V Launch Vehicle during 2006 and 2007 and offer a preview of future activities.

  2. Definition of avionics concepts for a heavy lift cargo vehicle. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A cost effective, multiuser simulation, test, and demonstration facility to support the development of avionics systems for future space vehicles is examined. The technology needs and requirements of future Heavy Lift Cargo Vehicles (HLCVs) are analyzed and serve as the basis for sizing of the avionics facility, although the lab is not limited in use to support of HLCVs. Volume 1 provides a summary of the vehicle avionics trade studies, the avionics lab objectives, a summary of the lab's functional requirements and design, physical facility considerations, and cost estimates.

  3. Investigation of Tractor Base Bleeding for Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J; Salari, K; Storms, B

    2007-10-25

    One of the main contributors to the aerodynamic drag of a heavy vehicle is tractor-trailer gap drag, which arises when the vehicle operates within a crosswind. Under this operating condition, freestream flow is entrained into the tractor-trailer gap, imparting a momentum exchange to the vehicle and subsequently increasing the aerodynamic drag. While a number of add-on devices, including side extenders, splitter plates, vortex stabilizers, and gap sealers, have been previously tested to alleviate this source of drag, side extenders remain the primary add-on device of choice for reducing tractor-trailer gap drag. However, side extenders are not without maintenance and operational issues. When a heavy vehicle pivots sharply with respect to the trailer, as can occur during loading or unloading operations, the side extenders can become crushed against the trailer. Consequently, fleet operators are forced to incur additional costs to cover the repair or replacement of the damaged side extenders. This issue can be overcome by either shortening the side extenders or by devising an alternative drag reduction concept that can perform just as effectively as side extenders. To explore such a concept, we investigate tractor base bleeding as a means of reducing gap drag. Wind tunnel measurements are made on a 1:20 scale heavy vehicle model at a vehicle width-based Reynolds number of 420,000. The tractor bleeding flow, which is delivered through a porous material embedded within the tractor base, is introduced into the tractor-trailer gap at bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.018. To determine the performance of tractor base bleeding under more realistic operating conditions, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on a full-scale heavy vehicle within a crosswind for bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.13.

  4. 26 CFR 48.4071-3 - Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered... EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-3 Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet. (a)...

  5. 26 CFR 48.4071-3 - Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered... EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-3 Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet. (a)...

  6. 26 CFR 48.4071-3 - Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered... EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-3 Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet. (a) General...

  7. 26 CFR 48.4071-3 - Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered... EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-3 Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet. (a) General...

  8. Working group meeting on heavy vehicle aerodynamic drag: presentations and summary of comments and

    SciTech Connect

    Browand, F; Gutierrez, W; Leonard, A; McBride, D; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Roth, K; Rutledge, W; Salari, K.

    1998-09-28

    The first Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico on August 28, 1998. The purpose of the meeting was to review the proposed Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) and provide an update on the Group s progress. In addition, the technical details of each organization s activities were presented and discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), SNL, University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and NASA Ames Research Center. These presenters are part of a DOE appointed Technical Team assigned to developing the MYPP. The goal of the MYPP is to develop and demonstrate the ability to simulate and analyze aerodynamic flow around heavy truck vehicles using existing and advanced computational tools (A Multi-Year Program Plan for the Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles, R. McCallen, D. McBride, W. Rutledge, F. Browand, A. Leonard, .I. Ross, UCRL-PROP- 127753 Dr. Rev 2, May 1998). This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions from the Meeting participants, and outlines the future actions.

  9. Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Browand, F; Gutierrez, W; Leonard, A; McBride, D; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Roth, K; Rutledge, W; Salari, K

    1998-09-28

    The first Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico on August 28, 1998. The purpose of the meeting was to review the proposed Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) and provide an update on the Group"s progress. In addition, the technical details of each organization"s activities were presented and discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), SNL, University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and NASA Ames Research Center. These presenters are part of a DOE appointed Technical Team assigned to developing the MYPP. The goal of the MYPP is to develop and demonstrate the ability to simulate and analyze aerodynamic flow around heavy truck vehicles using existing and advanced computational tools (A Multi-Year Program Plan for the Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles, R. McCallen, D. McBride, W. Rutledge, F. Browand, A. Leonard, .I. Ross, UCRL-PROP- 127753 Dr. Rev 2, May 1998). This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions from the Meeting participants, and outlines the future action items.

  10. 78 FR 49963 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...Because EPA and NHTSA, on behalf of the Department of Transportation, received adverse comment on certain elements of the Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad Technical Amendments direct final rule published on June 17, 2013, we are withdrawing those elements of the direct final rule and republishing the affected sections without those elements.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF ON-ROAD EMISSION FACTORS FOR HEAVY- DUTY VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an EPA project the objectives of which are to: (1) define on-road emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs); (2) assess agreement between engine and chassis dynamometers and on-road emission factors; (3) evaluate current conversion factors for dynamome...

  12. Informal Market Survey of Training Issues: Heavy Duty Alternative Fuel Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Doug

    The needs and opportunities in the heavy-duty alternative fuel vehicle training arena were examined in an informal marketing survey. A list of 277 potential respondents was compiled from the 220 individuals in the National Alternative Fuels Training Program database and 57 names identified from journals in the field of alternative fuels. When 2…

  13. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards for complete... (2003 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 1 in § 86.005-1(c)(1), or 2004 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 2 in § 86.005-1(c)(2)) fueled by...

  14. US Department of Energy workshop on future fuel technology for heavy vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the workshop described in this report was to develop consensus on a program strategy for use of alternative fuels in heavy vehicles. Participants represented fuel providers, additive suppliers, the trucking industry, engine manufacturers, and government or national laboratory staff. Breakout sessions were co-facilitated by national laboratory staff and industry representatives.

  15. Personal exposure to asbestos and respiratory health of heavy vehicle brake mechanics.

    PubMed

    Cely-García, María Fernanda; Torres-Duque, Carlos A; Durán, Mauricio; Parada, Patricia; Sarmiento, Olga Lucía; Breysse, Patrick N; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos brake linings and blocks are currently used in heavy vehicle brake repair shops (BRSs) in Bogotá, Colombia. Some brake products are sold detached from their supports and without holes, requiring manipulation before installation. The aim of this study was to assess asbestos exposures and conduct a preliminary evaluation of respiratory health in workers of heavy vehicles in BRSs. To estimate asbestos exposures, personal and area samples were collected in two heavy vehicle BRSs. Each shop was sampled during six consecutive days for the entire work shift. Personal samples were collected on 10 workers including riveters, brake mechanics, and administrative staff. Among workers sampled, riveters had the highest phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) asbestos concentrations, with 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) personal exposures ranging between 0.003 and 0.157 f/cm(3). Respiratory health evaluations were performed on the 10 workers sampled. Three workers (30%) had circumscribed pleural thickening (pleural plaques), with calcifications in two of them. This finding is strongly suggestive of asbestos exposure. The results of this study provide preliminary evidence that workers in heavy vehicle BRSs could be at excessive risk of developing asbestos-related diseases.

  16. Alloy Design and Thermomechanical Processing of a Beta Titanium Alloy for a Heavy Vehicle Application

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, C.A.; Peter, W.H.

    2010-07-02

    With the strength of steel, but at half the weight, titanium has the potential to offer significant benefits in the weight reduction of heavy vehicle components while possibly improving performance. However, the cost of conventional titanium fabrication is a major barrier in implementation. New reduction technologies are now available that have the potential to create a paradigm shift in the way the United States uses titanium, and the economics associated with fabrication of titanium components. This CRADA project evaluated the potential to develop a heavy vehicle component from titanium powders. The project included alloy design, development of manufacturing practices, and modeling the economics associated with the new component. New Beta alloys were designed for this project to provide the required mechanical specifications while utilizing the benefits of the new fabrication approach. Manufacturing procedures were developed specific to the heavy vehicle component. Ageing and thermal treatment optimization was performed to provide the desired microstructures. The CRADA partner established fabrication practices and targeted capital investment required for fabricating the component out of titanium. Though initial results were promising, the full project was not executed due to termination of the effort by the CRADA partner and economic trends observed in the heavy vehicle market.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF ON-ROAD EMISSION FACTORS FOR HEAVY- DUTY VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an EPA project the objectives of which are to: (1) define on-road emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs); (2) assess agreement between engine and chassis dynamometers and on-road emission factors; (3) evaluate current conversion factors for dynamome...

  18. ON-ROAD EMISSIONS OF PCDDS AND PCDFS FROM HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work characterized emission factors, homologue profiles, and isomer patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from on-road sampling of three heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVS) under various conditions of city and highway drivi...

  19. A Comparison of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Options for the 1990’s .

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    This thesis compares attributes of the heavy lift launch vehicle options that are available for the United States to use in support of the Space ... Exploration Initiative. The systems compared are the Advanced Launch System, Shuttle-C, Saturn V/F-1 and Energia. The F-1 development history is presented

  20. Demonstration of Alternative Fuel, Light and Heavy Duty Vehicles in State and Municipal Vehicle Fleets

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, John H.; Polubiatko, Peter; Tucchio, Michael A.

    2002-02-06

    This project involved the purchase of two Compressed Natural Gas School Buses and two electric Ford Rangers to demonstrate their viability in a municipal setting. Operational and maintenance data were collected for analysis. In addition, an educational component was undertaken with middle school children. The children observed and calculated how electric vehicles could minimize pollutants through comparison to conventionally powered vehicles.

  1. A predictive tool for emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nigel N; Gajendran, Prakash; Kern, Stin M

    2003-01-01

    Traditional emissions inventories for trucks and buses have relied on diesel engine emissions certification data, in units of g/bhp-hr, processed to yield a value in g/mile without a detailed accounting of the vehicle activity. Research has revealed a variety of other options for inventory prediction, including the use of emissions factors based upon instantaneous engine power and instantaneous vehicle behavior. The objective of this paper is to provide tabular factors for use with vehicle activity information to describe the instantaneous emissions from each heavy-duty vehicle considered. To produce these tables, a large body of data was obtained from the research efforts of the West Virginia University-Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories (TransLabs). These data were available as continuous records of vehicle speed (hence also acceleration), vehicle power, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and hydrocarbons (HC). Data for particulate matter (PM) were available only as a composite value for a whole vehicle test cycle, but using a best effort approach, the PM was distributed in time in proportion to the CO. Emissions values, in g/sec, were binned according to the speed and acceleration of a vehicle, and it was shown that the emissions could be predicted with reasonable accuracy by applying this table to the original speed and acceleration data. The test cycle used was found to have a significant effect on the emissions value predicted. Tables were created for vehicles grouped by type (large transit buses, small transit buses, and tractor-trailers) and by range of model year. These model year ranges were bounded by U.S. national changes in emissions standards. The result is that a suite of tables is available for application to emissions predictions for trucks and buses with known activity, or as modeled by TRANSIMS, a vehicle activity simulation model from Los Alamos National Laboratories.

  2. Conversion of the exhaust emission results obtained from combustion engines of heavy-duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkisz, J.; Pielecha, J.

    2016-09-01

    The use of internal combustion engines as the drive for heavy-duty vehicles forces these engines to be tested on an engine dynamometer. Thus, these engines operate under forced conditions, which are significantly different from their actual application. To assess the ecology of such vehicles (or more accurately the engine alone) the emission of pollution per unit of work done by the engine must be determined. However, obtaining the results of unit emissions (expressed in grams of the compound per a unit of performed work) does not give the grounds for determining the mass of pollutants on a given stretch of the road travelled by the vehicle. Therefore, there is a need to change the emission value expressed in units referenced to the engine work into a value of road emissions. The paper presents a methodology of determining pollutant emissions of heavy-duty road vehicles on the basis of the unit emissions, as well as additional parameters determined on the basis of the algorithm presented in the article. A solution was obtained that can be used not only for heavy-duty vehicles, but was also extended to allow use for buses.

  3. A computer program (HEVSIM) for heavy duty vehicle fuel economy and performance simulation. Volume I: Description and analysis. Final report Mar-Oct 80

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents a description of a vehicle simulation program, which can determine the fuel economy and performance of a specified motor vehicle over a defined route as it executes a given driving schedule. Vehicle input accommodated by HEVSIM include accessories, engine, rear axle, converter, transmission, tires, aerodynamic drag coefficient, and shift logic. The report consists of three volumes. Volume I presents a description of the numerical approach and equations, Volume II is a user's manual, and Volume III contains the program listings.

  4. Combustion and emission analysis of heavy-duty vehicle diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhixin; Wang, Xue; Wang, Xiancheng; Zhou, Jingkai

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the research on combustion and emission characteristics of heavy-duty vehicle diesel engine, a bench test was carried out for PM and NOx emission for a certain type diesel engine under different speed and loads. Results shows that for this type of heavy-duty vehicle diesel engine, ignition delay is longer and the proportion of diffusion combustion increases under high speed of external characteristics conditions. Under the speed of 1400 r/min, ignition delay decreases with load increases, combustion duration shortened at first, then increases, the proportion of diffusion combustion increases. The ignition delay is longer and cylinder temperature is higher under lower speed external characteristics of diesel engine, the emissions of soot and NOx are heavier; with large load of external characteristics of diesel engine, the emissions of soot and NOx are heavy as well.

  5. Truck Rollover Characterization for Class-8 Tractor-Trailers Utilizing Standard Dual Tires and New-Generation Single Tires

    SciTech Connect

    Capps, Gary; Knee, Bill; Franzese, Oscar; Pollock, Paul; Coleman, Daniel; Janajreh, Ibrahim; Haas, Steven; Frey, Norm; Law, Harry; Johnson, Eric; Lawson, Robert; Petrolino, Joe; Rice, Dave

    2005-07-30

    The Heavy Truck Rollover Characterization Project is a major research effort conducted by the National Transportation Research Center, Inc. (NTRCI) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Dana Corporation (Dana), Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation (Michelin) and Clemson University (Clemson), under the NTRCIs Heavy Vehicle Safety Research Center (HVSRC) for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). ORNL provided the day-to-day management of the project. The expertise mix of this team coupled with complementary research needs and interests, and a positive can-do attitude provided an extremely positive experimental research opportunity for all involved. Furthermore, this team supplied significant and valuable resources that provided a strong positive benchmark regarding the ability to conduct research within a public-private partnership. The work conducted by this team focused on initial efforts to generate data and information on heavy truck rollover not currently available in the industry. It reflects efforts within Phases 1 and 2 of a longer-term four-phase research program. A 1999 Peterbilt 379 class-8 tractor and 2004 Wabash dry freight van trailer were the test vehicles utilized in this effort. Both were instrumented with a number of sensors to capture the dynamics of the tractor and trailer as it engaged in various testing maneuvers that included: an evasive maneuver, swept sine, constant radius, and a run-off-the-road maneuver. The run-off-the-road maneuver was discontinued because the test track could not safety accommodate such a maneuver. These maneuvers were carried out utilizing both standard dual tires and new-generation dual tires in six test series. Two test series also included the use of a wider-slider suspension. Outriggers were placed on the test vehicle to assure that an actual rollover would not occur, however, the tests were designed to generate lift-off of tires during the tests. One of the main objectives

  6. Thermal management concepts for higher efficiency heavy vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Wambsganss, M. W.

    1999-05-19

    Thermal management is a cross-cutting technology that directly or indirectly affects engine performance, fuel economy, safety and reliability, aerodynamics, driver/passenger comfort, materials selection, emissions, maintenance, and component life. This review paper provides an assessment of thermal management for large trucks, particularly as it impacts these features. Observations arrived at from a review of the state of the art for thermal management for over-the-road trucks are highlighted and commented on. Trends in the large truck industry, pertinent engine truck design and performance objectives, and the implications of these relative to thermal management, are presented. Finally, new thermal management concepts for high efficiency vehicles are described.

  7. Liquid Propellant Blast Yields for Delta IV Heavy Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    development of the mixing interfaces between the propellants in the CBC bulkhead chambers. The LO2 and LH2 equation-of-state ( EOS ) models are taken from...the CTH SESAME database for these materials [8]. The physical model used is a simplification of an actual vehicle, but is intended to capture the...material (0.8 cm thick 2024-T4 aluminum, CTH Mie-Grüneisen EOS [8]) were selected to provide a large factor of safety in order to reduce or eliminate

  8. Ground cloud related weather modification effects. [heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.

    1980-01-01

    The principal concerns about inadvertent weather modification by the solar power satellite system rocket effluents are discussed, namely the possibility that the ground cloud might temporarily modify local weather and the cumulative effects of nearly 500 launches per year. These issues are discussed through the consideration of (1) the possible alteration of the microphysical processes of clouds in the general area due to rocket effluents and debris and cooling water entrained during the launch and (2) the direct dynamical and thermodynamical responses to the inputs of thermal energy and moisture from the rocket exhaust for given ambient meteorological conditions. The huge amount of thermal energy contained in the exhaust of the proposed launch vehicle would in some situations induce a saturated, wet convective cloud or enhance an existing convective activity. Nevertheless, the effects would be limited to the general area of the launch site. The observed long lasting high concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei produced during and after a rocket launch may appreciably affect the frequency of occurrence and persistence of fogs and haze. In view of the high mission frequency proposed for the vehicle launches, a potential exists for a cumulative effect.

  9. Next Generation Heavy-Lift Launch Vehicle: Large Diameter, Hydrocarbon-Fueled Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holliday, Jon; Monk, Timothy; Adams, Charles; Campbell, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    With the passage of the 2010 NASA Authorization Act, NASA was directed to begin the development of the Space Launch System (SLS) as a follow-on to the Space Shuttle Program. The SLS is envisioned as a heavy lift launch vehicle that will provide the foundation for future large-scale, beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. Supporting the Mission Concept Review (MCR) milestone, several teams were formed to conduct an initial Requirements Analysis Cycle (RAC). These teams identified several vehicle concept candidates capable of meeting the preliminary system requirements. One such team, dubbed RAC Team 2, was tasked with identifying launch vehicles that are based on large stage diameters (up to the Saturn V S-IC and S-II stage diameters of 33 ft) and utilize high-thrust liquid oxygen (LOX)/RP engines as a First Stage propulsion system. While the trade space for this class of LOX/RP vehicles is relatively large, recent NASA activities (namely the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Study in late 2009 and the Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology Study of 2010) examined specific families within this trade space. Although the findings from these studies were incorporated in the Team 2 activity, additional branches of the trade space were examined and alternative approaches to vehicle development were considered. Furthermore, Team 2 set out to define a highly functional, flexible, and cost-effective launch vehicle concept. Utilizing this approach, a versatile two-stage launch vehicle concept was chosen as a preferred option. The preferred vehicle option has the capability to fly in several different configurations (e.g. engine arrangements) that gives this concept an inherent operational flexibility which allows the vehicle to meet a wide range of performance requirements without the need for costly block upgrades. Even still, this concept preserves the option for evolvability should the need arise in future mission scenarios. The foundation of this conceptual design is a focus on low

  10. Tapping the tire pile

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, L.

    1995-09-01

    What happens to car tires after they`ve exhausted their life on the road? Whether they are handed over to a tire dealer or tossed into the trash, many tires get a second life, reincarnated into products like doormats, park benches, and playground equipment. But the biggest single market for scrap tires is fuel; fuel that supplements the feedstock of paper mills, cement kilns, and even electric utility boilers. As well as offering a higher heating value than coal, tires can lower utilities` fuel costs and reduce polutant like nitrogen oxides and ash. But it`s the rare utility boiler that is amenable to burning tires successfully. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  11. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... described in this section do not apply to Otto-cycle medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) that are...

  12. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... described in this section do not apply to Otto-cycle medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) that are...

  13. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... described in this section do not apply to Otto-cycle medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) that are...

  14. Lunar Tire Close-up

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-23

    This is a close-up of an exact replica of the Apollo-era Lunar Roving Vehicle Wheel, of which twelve originals still rest on the surface of the Moon. The tire was designed to flex under load, without air, and was formed from a mesh of plated piano wire. Metal straps were hand riveted onto the mesh to reduce sinking into loose lunar soils. These replica wheels were tested in NASA Glenn's SLOPE Lab to establish a baseline for future improvements.

  15. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1998 thru September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  16. Longitudinal annoyance responses to a road traffic noise management strategy that reduced heavy vehicles at night.

    PubMed

    Brown, A L

    2015-01-01

    A traffic management strategy was designed to reduce trucks using an urban corridor. The intervention had potential to affect night-time truck flows, but did not target truck traffic in the day, or vehicles other than trucks at any hour. A two-year long panel study measured the community's response to this intervention, using five repeated measurements of response. There were significant reductions in the panel's response to noise, both for night-time annoyance and for interference with activities. This was remarkable given that noise monitoring showed that the intervention produced no change in conventional traffic noise indicators. However, there were measureable changes in the number of articulated truck movements at night, and the benefit can be attributed to reduction in the number of noise events from heavy vehicles. The parallel tracking of changes in reported noise effects and the numbers of heavy vehicles in the night hours in this longitudinal study provides strong support to the notion that noise effects at night depend on the number of noise events experienced, not only on the overall level of traffic noise. The latter appear to be unresponsive indicators by which to assess the noise-effect benefit of heavy vehicle reduction strategies.

  17. Investigating articulated heavy-vehicle crashes in Western Australia using a spatial approach.

    PubMed

    Gudes, Ori; Varhol, Richard; Sun, Qian Chayn; Meuleners, Lynn

    2017-09-01

    Recent developments in Western Australia's economy including widespread traffic congestion as well as road safety issues are increasingly becoming prominent. Previous studies relied on traditional statistical methods to investigate patterns and characteristics of motor vehicle crashes. Although useful, statistical analysis alone is incapable of providing a spatial context and is therefore unable to associate existing crash characteristics with a spatial distribution. To identify concentrations or "hotspots" of articulated heavy vehicle crashes in WA between the years 2001-2013, by using a spatial analysis approach. Spatial modelling and spatio-temporal analytical methods such as Emerging Hotspots were used to identify emerging hotspots on specific roads in Western Australia using the Integrated Road Information System (IRIS). The results suggest that the majority of articulated heavy vehicles crashes occurred in the vicinity or within the Perth metropolitan area. Based on spatial-temporal trend analyses, our findings highlight some regions that are emerging as areas of interest. This study was one of the first attempts to adopt a spatial analysis approach in studying heavy-vehicle crashes in Western Australia. Applying spatial methodologies to road safety data has the potential of obtaining previously undiscovered insights, which can be extended further, and provide future avenues to research in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Signal treatments to reduce heavy vehicle crash-risk at metropolitan highway intersections.

    PubMed

    Archer, Jeffery; Young, William

    2009-05-01

    Heavy vehicle red-light running at intersections is a common safety problem that has severe consequences. This paper investigates alternative signal treatments that address this issue. A micro-simulation analysis approach was adopted as a precursor to a field trial. The simulation model emulated traffic conditions at a known problem intersection and provided a baseline measure to compare the effects of: an extension of amber time; an extension of green for heavy vehicles detected in the dilemma zone at the onset of amber; an extension of the all-red safety-clearance time based on the detection of vehicles considered likely to run the red light at two detector locations during amber; an extension of the all-red safety-clearance time based on the detection of potential red-light runners during amber or red; and a combination of the second and fourth alternatives. Results suggested safety improvements for all treatments. An extension of amber provided the best safety effect but is known to be prone to behavioural adaptation effects and wastes traffic movement time unnecessarily. A green extension for heavy vehicles detected in the dilemma zone and an all-red extension for potential red-light runners were deemed to provide a sustainable safety improvement and operational efficiency.

  19. Final design report of a personnel launch system and a family of heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tupa, James; Merritt, Debbie; Riha, David; Burton, Lee; Kubinski, Russell; Drake, Kerry; Mann, Darrin; Turner, Ken

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to design both a Personnel Launch System (PLS) and a family of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (FHLLVs) that provide low cost and efficient operation in missions not suited for the Shuttle. The PLS vehicle is designed primarily for space station crew rotation and emergency crew return. The final design of the PLS vehicle and its interior is given. The mission of the FHLLVs is to place large, massive payloads into Earth orbit with payload flexibility being considered foremost in the design. The final design of three launch vehicles was found to yield a payload capacity range from 20 to 200 mt. These designs include the use of multistaged, high thrust liquid engines mounted on the core stages of the rocket.

  20. Scrap tires: Black gold or fool`s gold?

    SciTech Connect

    Glaz, S.

    1995-10-01

    Three years ago, a US EPA report estimated there were between 2 and 3 billion tires stockpiled in the US. Currently, according to the Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC, Washington, DC), the number of stockpiled tires totals 850 million. However, this reduction is not due to federal or state legislation; simply, the number was overestimated. Whatever the actual number, scrap tire mounds have been large enough to prompt 34 states to developed scrap tire funding programs aimed at eliminating the stockpiling of the some 250 million tires generated per year, while gradually eliminating the tires already stockpiled. However, of the 34 states, only Illinois, Oregon, Florida, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, are aggressively tackling the problem. In each of these five cases, state officials claim, the only viable way to reduce large quantities of tires quickly is through energy reuse, and, like any other disposal method, it costs money. To compensate for the costs of elimination, states are developing funding for scrap tire reduction programs by placing fees on tire disposal, tire purchase, or vehicle title transfer and registration.

  1. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program: Semiannual progress report, April 1996--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OTT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1, 2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for contributions to this report.

  2. Unregulated greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from current technology heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc; Carder, Daniel; Oshinuga, Adewale; Pasek, Randall; Hogo, Henry; Gautam, Mridul

    2016-11-01

    The study presents the measurement of carbonyl, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene), ammonia, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), and greenhouse gas emissions from modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles. Vehicles from different vocations that included goods movement, refuse trucks, and transit buses were tested on driving cycles representative of their duty cycle. The natural gas vehicle technologies included the stoichiometric engine platform equipped with a three-way catalyst and a diesel-like dual-fuel high-pressure direct-injection technology equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The diesel vehicles were equipped with a DPF and SCR. Results of the study show that the BTEX emissions were below detection limits for both diesel and natural gas vehicles, while carbonyl emissions were observed during cold start and low-temperature operations of the natural gas vehicles. Ammonia emissions of about 1 g/mile were observed from the stoichiometric natural gas vehicles equipped with TWC over all the driving cycles. The tailpipe GWP of the stoichiometric natural gas goods movement application was 7% lower than DPF and SCR equipped diesel. In the case of a refuse truck application the stoichiometric natural gas engine exhibited 22% lower GWP than a diesel vehicle. Tailpipe methane emissions contribute to less than 6% of the total GHG emissions. Modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas engines are equipped with multiple after-treatment systems and complex control strategies aimed at meeting both the performance standards for the end user and meeting stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions regulation. Compared to older technology diesel and natural gas engines, modern engines and after-treatment technology have reduced unregulated emissions to levels close to detection limits. However, brief periods of inefficiencies related to low exhaust thermal energy have been shown to

  3. Simulation of spray dispersion in a simplified heavy vehicle wake

    SciTech Connect

    Paschkewitz, J S

    2006-01-13

    Simulations of spray dispersion in a simplified tractor-trailer wake have been completed with the goal of obtaining a better understanding of how to mitigate this safety hazard. The Generic Conventional Model (GCM) for the tractor-trailer was used. The impact of aerodynamic drag reduction devices, specifically trailer-mounted base flaps, on the transport of spray in the vehicle wake was considered using the GCM. This analysis demonstrated that base flaps including a bottom plate may actually worsen motorist visibility because of the interaction of fine spray with large vortex flows in the wake. This work suggests that to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to design and evaluate spray mitigation strategies the jet or sheet breakup processes can be modeled using an array of injectors of small (< 0.1 mm) water droplets; however the choice of size distribution, injection locations, directions and velocities is largely unknown and requires further study. Possible containment strategies would include using flow structures to 'focus' particles into regions away from passing cars or surface treatments to capture small drops.

  4. Latex allergens in tire dust and airborne particles.

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, A G; Cass, G R; Weiss, J; Glovsky, M M

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of latex allergy has increased dramatically in the last 15 years due to exposure to natural rubber products. Although historically this health risk has been elevated in hospital personnel and patients, a recent survey has indicated a significant potential risk for the general population. To obtain a wide-spread source for latex exposure, we have considered tire debris. We have searched for the presence of latex allergens in passenger car and truck tire tread, in debris deposited from the atmosphere near a freeway, and in airborne particulate matter samples representative of the entire year 1993 at two sites in the Los Angeles basin (California). After extraction of the samples with phosphate buffered saline, a modified-ELISA inhibition assay was used to measure relative allergen potency and Western blot analyses were used to identify latex allergens. The inhibition studies with the human IgE latex assay revealed inhibition by the tire tread source samples and ambient freeway dust, as well as by control latex sap and latex glove extracts. Levels of extractable latex allergen per unit of protein extracted were about two orders of magnitude lower for tire tread as compared to latex gloves. Western blot analyses using binding of human IgE from latex-sensitive patients showed a band at 34-36 kDa in all tire and ambient samples. Long Beach and Los Angeles, California, air samples showed four additional bands between 50 and 135 kDa. Alternative Western blot analyses using rabbit IgG raised against latex proteins showed a broad band at 30-50 kDa in all samples, with additional bands in the urban air samples similar to the IgE results. A latex cross-reactive material was identified in mountain cedar. In conclusion, the latex allergens or latex cross-reactive material present in sedimented and airborne particulate material, derived from tire debris, and generated by heavy urban vehicle traffic could be important factors in producing latex allergy

  5. Latex allergens in tire dust and airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Miguel, A G; Cass, G R; Weiss, J; Glovsky, M M

    1996-11-01

    The prevalence and severity of latex allergy has increased dramatically in the last 15 years due to exposure to natural rubber products. Although historically this health risk has been elevated in hospital personnel and patients, a recent survey has indicated a significant potential risk for the general population. To obtain a wide-spread source for latex exposure, we have considered tire debris. We have searched for the presence of latex allergens in passenger car and truck tire tread, in debris deposited from the atmosphere near a freeway, and in airborne particulate matter samples representative of the entire year 1993 at two sites in the Los Angeles basin (California). After extraction of the samples with phosphate buffered saline, a modified-ELISA inhibition assay was used to measure relative allergen potency and Western blot analyses were used to identify latex allergens. The inhibition studies with the human IgE latex assay revealed inhibition by the tire tread source samples and ambient freeway dust, as well as by control latex sap and latex glove extracts. Levels of extractable latex allergen per unit of protein extracted were about two orders of magnitude lower for tire tread as compared to latex gloves. Western blot analyses using binding of human IgE from latex-sensitive patients showed a band at 34-36 kDa in all tire and ambient samples. Long Beach and Los Angeles, California, air samples showed four additional bands between 50 and 135 kDa. Alternative Western blot analyses using rabbit IgG raised against latex proteins showed a broad band at 30-50 kDa in all samples, with additional bands in the urban air samples similar to the IgE results. A latex cross-reactive material was identified in mountain cedar. In conclusion, the latex allergens or latex cross-reactive material present in sedimented and airborne particulate material, derived from tire debris, and generated by heavy urban vehicle traffic could be important factors in producing latex allergy

  6. Work-related non-crash heavy vehicle driver fatalities in Australia, 2000-9.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher B; Ibrahim, Joseph E; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the nature and mechanisms of a case series of Australian work-related non-crash heavy vehicle driver fatalities. The study used existing population-based mortality data on non-crash work-related heavy vehicle (gross vehicle mass >4.5 t) driver fatalities reported to Australian coroners between 2000 and 2009. There were 47 fatalities with a mean age of 46.5 years. Available toxicology detected that six of 16 drivers consumed illegal drugs or alcohol. The most frequent task was attending to cargo (n=22, 47%); 31 (66%) fatalities occurred when the driver was working alone. Brake issues (n=21, 45%) were the most frequent contributing factor, and crushing the most common mechanism (n=33, 70%), particularly between the vehicle and another object (n=22, 47%). Fatalities occurred in most jurisdictions averaging 4.7 per year overall. A large number of truck drivers die performing non-driving tasks. Crushing following vehicle rolling accounts for almost 50% of fatalities. Considering this pathway may provide prevention opportunities.

  7. Natural Gas as a Future Fuel for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wai-Lin Litzke; James Wegrzyn

    2001-05-14

    In addition to their significant environmental impacts, medium-duty and heavy-duty (HD) vehicles are high volume fuel users. Development of such vehicles, which include transit buses, refuse trucks, and HD Class 6-8 trucks, that are fueled with natural gas is strategic to market introduction of natural gas vehicles (NGV). Over the past five years the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) has funded technological developments in NGV systems to support the growth of this sector in the highly competitive transportation market. The goals are to minimize emissions associated with NGV use, to improve on the economies of scale, and to continue supporting the testing and safety assessments of all new systems. This paper provides an overview of the status of major projects under a program supported by DOE/OHVT and managed by Brookhaven National Laboratory. The discussion focuses on the program's technical strategy in meeting specific goals proposed by the N GV industry and the government. Relevant projects include the development of low-cost fuel storage, fueling infrastructure, and HD vehicle applications.

  8. Scrap tire recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1997-03-01

    As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

  9. FY 2004 Annual Report: DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R C; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Eastwood, C; Whittaker, K; DeChant, L J; Roy, C J; Payne, J L; Hassan, B; Pointer, W D; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J T; Walker, S; Yaste, D; Englar, R; Leonard, A; Rubel, M; Chatelain, P

    2004-11-18

    The objective of this report is: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; and (2) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate potential of new drag-reduction devices. The approaches used were: (1) Develop and demonstrate the ability to simulate and analyze aerodynamic flow around heavy truck vehicles using existing and advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools; (2) Through an extensive experimental effort, generate an experimental data base for code validation; (3) Using experimental data base, validate computations; (4) Provide industry with design guidance and insight into flow phenomena from experiments and computations; and (5) Investigate aero devices (e.g., base flaps, tractor-trailer gap stabilizer, underbody skirts and wedges, blowing and acoustic devices), provide industry with conceptual designs of drag reducing devices, and demonstrate the full-scale fuel economy potential of these devices.

  10. July 2004 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentation, Summary of Comments, and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Eastwood, C; DeChant, L; Hassan, B; Browand, F; Arcas, D; Ross, J; Heineck, J; Storms, B; Walker, S; Leonard, A; Roy, C; Whitfield, D; Pointer, D; Sofu, T; Englar, R; Funk, R

    2004-08-17

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held in Portland, Oregon on July 1, 2004. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a summary of achievements, discuss pressing issues, present a general overview of future plans, and to provide a forum for dialogue with the Department of Energy (DOE) and industry representatives. The meeting was held in Portland, because the DOE Aero Team participated in an exclusive session on Heavy Truck Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag at the 34th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit in Portland on the morning of July 1st, just preceding our Working Group meeting. Even though the paper session was on the last day of the Conference, the Team presented to a full room of interested attendees.

  11. A test manager's perspective of a test concept for a heavy lift vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pargeon, John I., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The developmment of a test concept is a significant part of the advanced planning activities accomplished for the Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E) of new systems. A test concept is generally viewed as a description, including rationale, of the test structure, evaluation methodology and management approach required to plan and conduct the IOT&E of a program such as a new heavy lift launch vehicle system. The test concept as presented in this paper is made up of an operations area, a test area, an evaluation area, and a management area. The description presented here is written from the perspective of one test manager, and represents his views of a possible framework of a test concept using examples for a potential IOT&E of a heavy lift launch vehicle.

  12. A test manager's perspective of a test concept for a heavy lift vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pargeon, John I., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The developmment of a test concept is a significant part of the advanced planning activities accomplished for the Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E) of new systems. A test concept is generally viewed as a description, including rationale, of the test structure, evaluation methodology and management approach required to plan and conduct the IOT&E of a program such as a new heavy lift launch vehicle system. The test concept as presented in this paper is made up of an operations area, a test area, an evaluation area, and a management area. The description presented here is written from the perspective of one test manager, and represents his views of a possible framework of a test concept using examples for a potential IOT&E of a heavy lift launch vehicle.

  13. Simulation of Thermal Signature of Tires and Tracks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    34.2255 36.4 34.69769 37.83 REFERENCES [1] T. G. Ebbott, R. L. Hohman, J. P. Jeusette, V. Kerchman,“Tire Temperatureand Rolling Resistance ... Prediction with Finite Element Analysis,” Tire Sci Technol, Vol. 27, 1999, pp. 2-21. [2] Wong, J. Y., Theory of Ground Vehicles, 3rd Ed., Wiley

  14. 49 CFR 571.117 - Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. 571... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.117 Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. S1. Scope... passenger car tires. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to require retreaded pneumatic passenger...

  15. 49 CFR 571.117 - Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. 571... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.117 Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. S1. Scope... passenger car tires. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to require retreaded pneumatic passenger...

  16. 77 FR 11190 - Yokohama Tire Company, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Yokohama Tire Company, Denial of Petition for Decision of... Denial. SUMMARY: Yokohama Tire Company (YTC),\\1\\ has determined that certain P215/60R15 93H AVID H4S passenger car replacement tires failed to comply with paragraph S5.5.1 of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety...

  17. 49 CFR 571.117 - Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. 571... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.117 Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. S1. Scope... passenger car tires. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to require retreaded pneumatic passenger...

  18. Size and composition distributions of particulate matter emissions: part 2--heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Robert, Michael A; Kleeman, Michael J; Jakober, Christopher A

    2007-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) were collected using a chassis dynamometer/dilution sampling system that employed filter-based samplers, cascade impactors, and scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements. Four diesel vehicles with different engine and emission control technologies were tested using the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) 5 mode driving cycle. Vehicles were tested using a simulated inertial weight of either 56,000 or 66,000 lb. Exhaust particles were then analyzed for total carbon, elemental carbon (EC), organic matter (OM), and water-soluble ions. HDDV fine (< or =1.8 microm aerodynamic diameter; PM1.8) and ultrafine (0.056-0.1 microm aerodynamic diameter; PM0.1) PM emission rates ranged from 181-581 mg/km and 25-72 mg/km, respectively, with the highest emission rates in both size fractions associated with the oldest vehicle tested. Older diesel vehicles produced fine and ultrafine exhaust particles with higher EC/OM ratios than newer vehicles. Transient modes produced very high EC/OM ratios whereas idle and creep modes produced very low EC/OM ratios. Calcium was the most abundant water-soluble ion with smaller amounts of magnesium, sodium, ammonium ion, and sulfate also detected. Particle mass distributions emitted during the full 5-mode HDDV tests peaked between 100-180 nm and their shapes were not a function of vehicle age. In contrast, particle mass distributions emitted during the idle and creep driving modes from the newest diesel vehicle had a peak diameter of approximately 70 nm, whereas mass distributions emitted from older vehicles had a peak diameter larger than 100 nm for both the idle and creep modes. Increasing inertial loads reduced the OM emissions, causing the residual EC emissions to shift to smaller sizes. The same HDDV tested at 56,000 and 66,000 lb had higher PM0.1 EC emissions (+22%) and lower PM0.1 OM emissions (-38%) at the higher load

  19. A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Pozuelo, Daniel; Olatunbosun, Oluremi; Yunta, Jorge; Yang, Xiaoguang; Diaz, Vicente

    2017-02-10

    The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic.

  20. LOW-COST COMPOSITES IN VEHICLE MANUFACTURE - Low-Cost Composites in Automotive and Heavy Vehicle Manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Glenn J.

    2006-11-01

    The automotive and heavy vehicle manufacturing markets are extremely sensitive to costs. Margins are not high in these markets and differences in fixed costs and national infrastructure between different companies and countries creates a highly competitive environment. Composites can offer tremendous competitive advantages in this industry to help differentiate between products by offering increased safety, strength, fuel efficiency, and recyclability. However, composites are by definition more complex than the largely monolithic materials they replace. This leads to a situation where the composite solution to a structural problem is often a higher-cost solution. To successfully implement a composite material into an engineering system there is a need to drive down the costs of the composite materials. This can be done through the use of low-cost raw material precursors, low-cost manufacturing methods, or by using composites of high specific stiffness so that less material is needed in the structure. In this issue we have gathered five papers describing some of the recent advances in the application of low-cost composites to automotive and heavy vehicle manufacturing. These papers cover metal-matrix composites (MMCs), carbon fiber and natural fiber polymer-based composites, and a unique reaction-processed cermet. The papers included here are by no means exhaustive of the increasing new composite applications in transportation manufacturing, but give a flavor of some of the current research directions.

  1. The experiences and perceptions of heavy vehicle drivers and train drivers of dangers at railway level crossings.

    PubMed

    Davey, Jeremy; Wallace, Angela; Stenson, Nick; Freeman, James

    2008-05-01

    Heavy vehicle-train collisions have the potential to be catastrophic in terms of fatalities, environmental disaster, delays in the rail network, and extensive damage to property. Heavy vehicles, such as 'Road Trains' and 'B-Doubles', are vulnerable road users due to their size and mass and require specific risk management solutions. The present study aimed to capture the experiences of heavy vehicle drivers and train drivers at road-rail level crossings, with a view to exploring the contributing factors toward such accidents. A series of semi-structured focus groups was conducted, with a total of 17 train drivers and 26 heavy vehicle drivers taking part. Though there were some differences between the groups in perceptions of the causes of heavy vehicle-level crossing incidents, discussion in both groups centred on design issues an behavioural issues. With regard to design, the configuration of level crossings was found to affect heavy vehicle driver visibility and effective vehicle clearance. With regard to behaviour, discussion centred around wilful violation of crossing protocols, often as a time-saving measure, as well as driver complacency due to high levels of familiarity. The implications of these factors for future level crossing safety initiatives are discussed.

  2. Computational Modeling of Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Tanner, John A. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains presentations and discussions from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Modeling of Tires. The workshop attendees represented NASA, the Army and Air force, tire companies, commercial software developers, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state of technology in the computational modeling of tires and to provide guidelines for future research.

  3. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1999 through September 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks.

  4. Emission factors for heavy metals from diesel and petrol used in European vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulles, Tinus; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Appelman, Wilfred; Verheul, Marc

    2012-12-01

    Heavy metals constitute an important group of persistent toxic pollutants occurring in ambient air and other media. One of the suspected sources of these metals in the atmosphere is combustion of transport fuels in road vehicles. However, estimates of the emissions of these metals from road vehicles as reported in national emission inventories show a very high variability in emission factors used. This paper provides high quality data on concentrations of heavy metals in fuels and derives default emission factors from these. The paper discusses these values against the emission estimates presently reported by the Parties to the LRTAP Convention. The measured concentrations of heavy metals in petrol and diesel fuel show a high variability between different samples taken at gas stations throughout Europe. Metal concentrations in road transport fuels vary over two orders of magnitude, but all remain in the ppb region (a few tenths of a ppb to a few hundred ppb for all metals). The frequency distributions of the measurements could be approximated by lognormal distributions. The emission factors, including 95 percent confidence intervals were derived from a statistical analysis of the survey data. We could not detect a significant difference between samples from different countries. The fuel based emission factors as derived in this study are complemented with those related to unintentional lubricant oil combustion. This allowed an estimation of total exhaust heavy metal emissions for UNECE Europe, indicating that As, Hg and Se exhaust emissions were dominated by fuel combustion while Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn exhaust emissions were dominated by lubricant oil combustion. The proposed emission factors were generally lower than previously published emission factors. National emissions of heavy metals from vehicle exhaust, estimated in this study are in many cases considerably lower than those reported by the countries for this source.

  5. The generation of tire cornering forces in aircraft with a free-swiveling nose gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, R. H.; Stubbs, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of various parameters on the cornering forces produced by a rolling aircraft tire installed on a tilted, free-swiveling nose gear. The parameters studied included tilt angle, trial, tire inflation pressure, rake angle, vertical load, and whether or not a twin tire configuration corotates. These parameters were evaluated by measuring the cornering force produced by an aircraft tire installed on the nose gear of a modified vehicle as it was towed slowly. Cornering force coefficient increased with increasing tilt angle. Increasing trial or rake angle decreased the magnitude of the cornering force coefficient. Tire inflation pressure had no effect on the cornering force coefficient. Increasing vertical load decreased the cornering force coefficient. When the tires of a twin tire system rotated independently, the cornering force coefficients were the same as those for the single-tire configuration. When the twin tire system was made to corotate, however, the cornering force coefficients increased significantly.

  6. A lateral dynamics of a wheelchair: identification and analysis of tire parameters.

    PubMed

    Silva, L C A; Corrêa, F C; Eckert, J J; Santiciolli, F M; Dedini, F G

    2017-02-01

    In vehicle dynamics studies, the tire behaviour plays an important role in planar motion of the vehicle. Therefore, a correct representation of tire is a necessity. This paper describes a mathematical model for wheelchair tire based on the Magic Formula model. This model is widely used to represent forces and moments between the tire and the ground; however some experimental parameters must be determined. The purpose of this work is to identify the tire parameters for the wheelchair tire model, implementing them in a dynamic model of the wheelchair. For this, we developed an experimental test rig to measure the tires parameters for the lateral dynamics of a wheelchair. This dynamic model was made using a multi-body software and the wheelchair behaviour was analysed and discussed according to the tire parameters. The result of this work is one step further towards the understanding of wheelchair dynamics.

  7. Size distribution of trace organic species emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Jakober, Chris A; Hannigan, Michael P; Kleeman, Michael J

    2007-03-15

    Size distributions of particulate hopanes, steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in the exhaust from four heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) operated under idle, creep, transient, and two high-speed driving modes. Particulate matter was collected using a chassis dynamometer and a dilution sampling system equipped with cascade impactors and filter samplers. Samples were extracted using organic solvents and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Size distributions of hopanes and steranes were functions of engine load conditions and vehicle technology. Hopanes and steranes peaked in size ranges larger than 0.18 microm aerodynamic particle diameter under light load conditions and less than 0.10 microm aerodynamic particle diameter under heavier load conditions. The eight hopane size distributions emitted from newertechnology (> 1998) vehicles were unimodal while the four hopane size distributions emitted from older technology vehicles (< 1992) were bimodal. Similar trends between older and newer vehicles were not observed for sterane size distributions. The PAH composition emitted from HDDVs was a function of driving cycle and vehicle technology. Light driving cycles produced quantifiable emissions of 3, 4, 5, and 6 ring PAHs (including coronene). Heavier driving cycles produced only the 3 and 4 ring PAHs in quantifiable amounts. PM1.8 and PM0.1 source profiles constructed using the relative abundance of hopanes and steranes to total organic carbon were functions of vehicle load condition. Increasing load reduced the relative abundance of motor oil tracers in the PM1.8 size fraction and increased the abundance of these tracers in the PM0.1 size fraction. The relative abundances of PAHs in the PM0.1 and PM1.8 size fractions emitted from the oldest vehicle tested (1985 HDDV) were significantly higher than for any other vehicle tested.

  8. A Multi-Year Program Plan for the Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    The project tasks and deliverables are as follows: Computations and Experiments--(1) Simulation and analysis of a range of generic shapes, simplified to more complex, representative of tractor and integrated tractor-trailer flow characteristics using computational tools, (2) The establishment of an experimental data base for tractor-trailer models for code/computational method development and validation. The first shapes to be considered will be directed towards the investigation of tractor-trailer gaps and mismatch of tractor-trailer heights. (3) The evaluation and documentation of effective computational approaches for application to heavy vehicle aerodynamics based on the benchmark results with existing and advanced computational tools compared to experimental data, and (4) Computational tools and experimental methods for use by industry, National Laboratories, and universities for the aerodynamic modeling of heavy truck vehicles. Evaluation of current and new technologies--(1) The evaluation and documentation of current and new technologies for drag reduction based on published literature and continued communication with the heavy vehicle industry (e.g., identification and prioritization of tractor-trailer drag-sources, blowing and/or suction devices, body shaping, new experimental methods or facilities), and the identification and analysis of tractor and integrated tractor-trailer aerodynamic problem areas and possible solution strategies. (2) Continued industrial site visits. It should be noted that ''CFD tools'' are not only the actual computer codes, but descriptions of appropriate numerical solution methods. Part of the project effort will be to determine the restrictions or avenues for technology transfer.

  9. May 2005 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentation, Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R C

    2005-08-17

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California on May 12th and 13th of 2005. The purpose of the first day's meeting, May 12th, was to provide a summary of achievements, discuss issues, present a general overview of future plans, and to offer a forum for dialogue with the Department of Energy (DOE) and representatives from industry, universities, and research and development organizations performing work related to heavy vehicle aerodynamics. This first meeting day was open to participants from industry and research organizations from both the US and Canada. The second day, May 13th, was attended only by representatives from the 9 organizations that form the DOE Consortium effort and their government sponsors. The purpose of the second day's meeting was to further discuss fiscal year 2005's activities, any further specific pressing issues, identify individual action items, and provide an overview of plans for fiscal year 2006. Based on discussions at the Meeting, the existing project goals remain unchanged and enhancing interactions with fleet owners and operators was emphasized: (1) Perform heavy vehicle computations and experiments, (2) Validate computations using experimental data, (3) Provide design guidance and insight into flow phenomena from experiments and computations, and (4) Investigate aero devices with emphasis on collaborative efforts with fleet owners and operators.

  10. Passenger car collision fatalities--with special emphasis on collisions with heavy vehicles.

    PubMed

    Björnstig, Ulf; Björnstig, Johanna; Eriksson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2004, 293 passenger car occupants died in collisions with other vehicles in northern Sweden (annual incidence: 3.3 per 100,000 inhabitants, 6.9 per 100,000 cars, or 4.8 per 10(9)km driven); half of these deaths involved heavy vehicles. The annual number of passenger car occupant deaths per 100,000 cars in car-truck/bus collisions has remained unchanged since the 1980s, but in car-car collisions it has decreased to one third of its former level. As crash objects, trucks and buses killed five times as many car occupants per truck/bus kilometer driven as did cars. The collisions were characterized by crashes in the oncoming vehicle's lane, under icy, snowy, or wet conditions; crashes into heavy vehicles generally occurred in daylight, on workdays, in winter, and on 90 and 70 km/h two-lane roads. Head and chest injuries accounted for most of the fatal injuries. Multiple fatal injuries and critical and deadly head injuries characterized the deaths in collisions with heavy vehicles. An indication of suicide was present in 4% of the deaths; for those who crashed into trucks, this percentage was doubled. Among the driver victims, 4% had blood alcohol levels above the legal limit of 0.2g/L. Frontal collision risks might be reduced by a mid-barrier, by building less injurious fronts on trucks and buses, by efficient skid prevention, and by use of flexible speed limits varying with road and light conditions.

  11. Proceedings of the ISTVS (International Society for Terrain-Vehicle Systems) Workshop on Measurement and Evaluation of Tire Performance under Winter Conditions, Alta, Utah, 11-14 April 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    J.W. Lane) .................... 99 Winter tire tests: 1980-81 (G.L. Blaisdell and W.L. Harrison) ........... 135 Some observations on tire technology from...drawbar technique with great success, but magnetic pickup mounted inside the brake with advancing tire technology found the drum. This eliminates wheel...tire D at the end of the test day result- ed in better tractive coefficients than at the beginning of the day. 151 SOME OBSERVATIONS ON TIRE

  12. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles.

  13. Control of semi-active anti-roll systems on heavy vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, E. J.; Cebon, D.

    2010-10-01

    Semi-active anti-roll systems, with a high and low roll stiffness, or, since cornering is typically a transient event, damping setting have the capacity to improve heavy vehicle stability while having very low power consumption. If a vehicle is travelling around a right-hand bend and a low roll damping setting is selected, the vehicle will roll outwards. If a high damping setting is then selected, the outward roll will be locked-in. When the vehicle enters a left-hand bend, the inward roll becomes locked-in. This has the potential to increase critical lateral acceleration by up to 12.5% if the vehicle's future course can be predicted accurately (e.g. with a Global Positioning System). However, if the vehicle does not follow the expected path, the critical lateral acceleration may be degraded. Exploiting the delay between a steer angle being applied and the lateral acceleration developing could avoid this problem. However, the benefits from such a system are considerably lower, up to a 2.4% improvement in critical lateral acceleration. Hence, a 'modal control strategy' is developed aimed at providing high levels of benefit while being robust to deviations from the expected path. The modal strategy is able to provide benefits of up to 11%, while being robust to most deviations.

  14. Advanced transportation system studies. Technical area 2: Heavy lift launch vehicle development. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Sections 10 to 13 of the Advanced Transportation System Studies final report are included in this volume. Section 10 contains a copy of an executive summary that was prepared by Lockheed Space Operations Company (LSOC) to document their support to the TA-2 contract during the first-year period of performance of the contract, May 1992 through May 1993. LSOC participated on the TA-2 contract as part of the concurrent engineering launch system definition team, and provided outstanding heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) ground operations requirements and concept assessments for Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) through an intercompany work transfer as well as providing specific HLLV ground operations assessments at the direction of NASA KSC through KSC funding that was routed to the TA-2 contract. Section 11 contains a copy of a vehicle-independent, launch system health management requirements assessment. The purpose of the assessment was to define both health management requirements and the associated interfaces between a generic advanced transportation system launch vehicle and all related elements of the entire transportation system, including the ground segment. Section 12 presents the major TA-2 presentations provided to summarize the significant results and conclusions that were developed over the course of the contract. Finally, Section 13 presents the design and assessment report on the first lunar outpost heavy lift launch vehicle.

  15. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program Semiannual Progress Report for April 2000 Through September 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, DR

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advantages LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NOx and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OTT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1, 2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. The design of advanced components for high-efficiency diesel engines has, in some cases, pushed the performance envelope for materials of construction past the point of reliable operation. Higher mechanical and

  16. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program Semiannual Progress Report for October 1998 Through March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.D.

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OIT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NOX and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulate. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OIT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1,2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. The design of advanced components for high-efficiency diesel engines has, in some cases, pushed the performance envelope for materials of construction past the point of reliable operation. Higher mechanical and

  17. Tests to Determine the Adhesive Power of Passenger-Car Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foerster, B.

    1956-01-01

    The concept of the adhesive power of a tire with respect to the road involves several properties which result from the purpose of the tire; namely, connecting link between vehicle and road: (1) The tire must transfer the tractive and braking forces acting in the direction of travel (tractive and braking adhesion); (2) The tire is to prevent lateral deviations of the vehicle from the desired direction of travel (track adhesion). Moreover, the rubber tire provides part of the springing of the vehicle. Above all, it has to level out the minor road irregularities; thus it smoothes, as it were, the road and simultaneously reduces the noise of driving. The springing properties of the tire affect the adhesive power. The tests described below comprise a determination of the braking and track adhesion of individual tires. The adhesion of driven wheels has not been investigated so far.

  18. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  1. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  2. Sideslip estimation for articulated heavy vehicles at the limits of adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Graeme; Cebon, David

    2016-11-01

    Various active safety systems proposed for articulated heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) require an accurate estimate of vehicle sideslip angle. However in contrast to passenger cars, there has been minimal published research on sideslip estimation for articulated HGVs. State-of-the-art observers, which rely on linear vehicle models, perform poorly when manoeuvring near the limits of tyre adhesion. This paper investigates three nonlinear Kalman filters (KFs) for estimating the tractor sideslip angle of a tractor-semitrailer. These are compared to the current state-of-the-art, through computer simulations and vehicle test data. An unscented KF using a 5 degrees-of-freedom single-track vehicle model with linear adaptive tyres is found to substantially outperform the state-of-the-art linear KF across a range of test manoeuvres on different surfaces, both at constant speed and during emergency braking. Robustness of the observer to parameter uncertainty is also demonstrated. Data supporting this research can be accessed at http://dx.doi.org/10.17863/CAM.1234

  3. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  4. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  5. A New Heavy-Lift Capability for Space Exploration: NASA's Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, J. Craig

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing new launch systems and preparing to retire the Space Shuttle by 2010, as directed in the United States (U.S.) Vision for Space Exploration. The Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Ares V heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) systems will build upon proven, reliable hardware derived from the Apollo-Saturn and Space Shuttle programs to deliver safe, reliable, affordable space transportation solutions. This approach leverages existing aerospace talent and a unique infrastructure, as well as legacy knowledge gained from nearly 50 years' experience developing space hardware. Early next decade, the Ares I will launch the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to the International Space Station (ISS) or to low-Earth orbit for trips to the Moon and, ultimately, Mars. Late next decade, the Ares V's Earth Departure Stage will carry larger payloads such as the lunar lander into orbit, and the Crew Exploration Vehicle will dock with it for missions to the Moon, where astronauts will explore new territories and conduct science and technology experiments. Both Ares I and Ares V are being designed to support longer future trips to Mars. The Exploration Launch Projects Office is designing, developing, testing, and evaluating both launch vehicle systems in partnership with other NASA Centers, Government agencies, and industry contractors. This paper provides top-level information regarding the genesis and evolution of the baseline configuration for the Ares V heavy-lift system. It also discusses riskbased, management strategies, such as building on powerful hardware and promoting common features between the Ares I and Ares V systems to reduce technical, schedule, and cost risks, as well as development and operations costs. Finally, it summarizes several notable accomplishments since October 2005, when the Exploration Launch Projects effort officially kicked off, and looks ahead at work planned for 2007

  6. Spacely's rockets: Personnel launch system/family of heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    During 1990, numerous questions were raised regarding the ability of the current shuttle orbiter to provide reliable, on demand support of the planned space station. Besides being plagued by reliability problems, the shuttle lacks the ability to launch some of the heavy payloads required for future space exploration, and is too expensive to operate as a mere passenger ferry to orbit. Therefore, additional launch systems are required to complement the shuttle in a more robust and capable Space Transportation System. In December 1990, the Report of the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, advised NASA of the risks of becoming too dependent on the space shuttle as an all-purpose vehicle. Furthermore, the committee felt that reducing the number of shuttle missions would prolong the life of the existing fleet. In their suggestions, the board members strongly advocated the establishment of a fleet of unmanned, heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLV's) to support the space station and other payload-intensive enterprises. Another committee recommendation was that a space station crew rotation/rescue vehicle be developed as an alternative to the shuttle, or as a contingency if the shuttle is not available. The committee emphasized that this vehicle be designed for use as a personnel carrier, not a cargo carrier. This recommendation was made to avoid building another version of the existing shuttle, which is not ideally suited as a passenger vehicle only. The objective of this project was to design both a Personnel Launch System (PLS) and a family of HLLV's that provide low cost and efficient operation in missions not suited for the shuttle.

  7. Spacely's rockets: Personnel launch system/family of heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    During 1990, numerous questions were raised regarding the ability of the current shuttle orbiter to provide reliable, on demand support of the planned space station. Besides being plagued by reliability problems, the shuttle lacks the ability to launch some of the heavy payloads required for future space exploration, and is too expensive to operate as a mere passenger ferry to orbit. Therefore, additional launch systems are required to complement the shuttle in a more robust and capable Space Transportation System. In December 1990, the Report of the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, advised NASA of the risks of becoming too dependent on the space shuttle as an all-purpose vehicle. Furthermore, the committee felt that reducing the number of shuttle missions would prolong the life of the existing fleet. In their suggestions, the board members strongly advocated the establishment of a fleet of unmanned, heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLV's) to support the space station and other payload-intensive enterprises. Another committee recommendation was that a space station crew rotation/rescue vehicle be developed as an alternative to the shuttle, or as a contingency if the shuttle is not available. The committee emphasized that this vehicle be designed for use as a personnel carrier, not a cargo carrier. This recommendation was made to avoid building another version of the existing shuttle, which is not ideally suited as a passenger vehicle only. The objective of this project was to design both a Personnel Launch System (PLS) and a family of HLLV's that provide low cost and efficient operation in missions not suited for the shuttle.

  8. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and Later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proposed Rule and Related Materials for: Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and Later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  9. Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 2. Volume 1: Heavy lift airship vehicle. Book 1: Overall study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A Heavy Lift Airship combining buoyant lift derived from a conventional helium-filled non-rigid airship hull with propulsive lift derived from conventional helicopter rotors was investigated. The buoyant lift essentially offsets the empty weight of the vehicle; thus the rotor thrust is available for useful load and to maneuver and control the vehicle. Such a vehicle is capable of providing a quantum increase in current vertical lifting capability. Certain critical deficiencies of past airships are significantly minimized or eliminated.

  10. Chassis dynamometer study of emissions from 21 in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Yanowitz, J.; Graboski, M.S.; Ryan, L.B.A.; Alleman, T.L.; McCormick, R.L.

    1999-01-15

    Regulated emissions from 21 in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles were measured on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer via three driving cycles using a low-sulfur diesel fuel. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and PM sulfate fraction were measured. For hot start tests, emissions ranged from 0.30 to 7.43 g/mi (mean 1.96) for PM; 4.15--54.0 g/mi (mean 23.3) for NO{sub x}; 2.09--86.2 g/mi (mean 19.5) for CO; and 0.25--8.25 g/mi (mean 1.70) for THC. When emissions are converted to a g/gal basis, the effect of driving cycle is eliminated for NO{sub x} and largely eliminated for PM. Sulfate comprised less than 1% of the emitted PM for all vehicles and test cycles. A strong correlation is observed between emissions of CO and PM. Cold starting at 77 F produced an 11% increase in PM emissions. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that in-use PM emissions have decreased at a slower rate than anticipated based on the stricter engine certification test standards put into effect since 1985. NO{sub x} emissions do not decrease with model year for the vehicles tested here. Smoke opacity measurements are not well correlated with mass emissions of regulated pollutants.

  11. A Near-Term, High-Confidence Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, William J.; Talay, Theodore A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of well understood, legacy elements of the Space Shuttle system could yield a near-term, high-confidence Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle that offers significant performance, reliability, schedule, risk, cost, and work force transition benefits. A side-mount Shuttle-Derived Vehicle (SDV) concept has been defined that has major improvements over previous Shuttle-C concepts. This SDV is shown to carry crew plus large logistics payloads to the ISS, support an operationally efficient and cost effective program of lunar exploration, and offer the potential to support commercial launch operations. This paper provides the latest data and estimates on the configurations, performance, concept of operations, reliability and safety, development schedule, risks, costs, and work force transition opportunities for this optimized side-mount SDV concept. The results presented in this paper have been based on established models and fully validated analysis tools used by the Space Shuttle Program, and are consistent with similar analysis tools commonly used throughout the aerospace industry. While these results serve as a factual basis for comparisons with other launch system architectures, no such comparisons are presented in this paper. The authors welcome comparisons between this optimized SDV and other Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle concepts.

  12. Tire footprint studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chawla, Mangal; Medzorian, John

    1995-01-01

    This presentation covers the results of tire footprint studies conducted in the Landing Gear Development Facility of the USAF Wright Laboratory at the Wright Patterson Air force Base, OH. Tire footprint studies are essential in understanding tire wear mechanisms and computing tire tread wear rates. The power input into the tread is the driving force for tread wear. Variables needed for power input calculations include the footprint pressure and slip velocity distributions. Studies were performed on the effects of power input distributions due to vertical load, camber, yaw, inflation pressure, and tire construction. For the present study, two tire constructions, one radial and the other bias, were selected. These tires were for the F-16 Block 30 fighter aircraft, both of which were previously worn. The present study was limited to steady straight roll with a 14,000 lb vertical load, a 310 psi inflation pressure, and zero yaw and camber. All tests were conducted on the Tire Force Machine (TFM) with a specialized sensor plate with embedded pressure sensors (X, Y, and Z) and slip sensors (X and Y). All tests were conducted for a table speed of 1 in/s. Tests on the TFM show that the power intensity distributions and total power for both tire constructions are quite similar for straight roll. Later on, tests were also conducted on a modified dynamometer which was overlaid with a grit wear surface. The tire speed was maintained at 40 miles per hour and yaw was set to four degrees. Dynamometer tests showed that radial tires have more tread wear than the bias tire; however, in the field, radial tires have longer life.

  13. Tire footprint studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Mangal; Medzorian, John

    1995-08-01

    This presentation covers the results of tire footprint studies conducted in the Landing Gear Development Facility of the USAF Wright Laboratory at the Wright Patterson Air force Base, OH. Tire footprint studies are essential in understanding tire wear mechanisms and computing tire tread wear rates. The power input into the tread is the driving force for tread wear. Variables needed for power input calculations include the footprint pressure and slip velocity distributions. Studies were performed on the effects of power input distributions due to vertical load, camber, yaw, inflation pressure, and tire construction. For the present study, two tire constructions, one radial and the other bias, were selected. These tires were for the F-16 Block 30 fighter aircraft, both of which were previously worn. The present study was limited to steady straight roll with a 14,000 lb vertical load, a 310 psi inflation pressure, and zero yaw and camber. All tests were conducted on the Tire Force Machine (TFM) with a specialized sensor plate with embedded pressure sensors (X, Y, and Z) and slip sensors (X and Y). All tests were conducted for a table speed of 1 in/s. Tests on the TFM show that the power intensity distributions and total power for both tire constructions are quite similar for straight roll. Later on, tests were also conducted on a modified dynamometer which was overlaid with a grit wear surface. The tire speed was maintained at 40 miles per hour and yaw was set to four degrees. Dynamometer tests showed that radial tires have more tread wear than the bias tire; however, in the field, radial tires have longer life.

  14. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.099-11 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. (a) Exhaust emissions from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines shall not exceed...

  15. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.099-11 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. (a) Exhaust emissions from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines shall not exceed...

  16. HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE MODAL EMISSION MODEL (HDDV-MEM): VOLUME I: MODAL EMISSION MODELING FRAMEWORK; VOLUME II: MODAL COMPONENTS AND OUTPUTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research outlines a proposed Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Modal Emission Modeling Framework (HDDV-MEMF) for heavy-duty diesel-powered trucks and buses. The heavy-duty vehicle modal modules being developed under this research effort, although different, should be compatible wi...

  17. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.099-11 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. (a) Exhaust emissions from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines shall not exceed...

  18. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.099-11 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. (a) Exhaust emissions from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines shall not exceed...

  19. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.008-10 Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...)(1) Exhaust emissions from new 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle HDEs shall not exceed:...

  20. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.008-10 Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...)(1) Exhaust emissions from new 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle HDEs shall not exceed:...

  1. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...: 3.0 grams carbon per test. (2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §...

  2. HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE MODAL EMISSION MODEL (HDDV-MEM): VOLUME I: MODAL EMISSION MODELING FRAMEWORK; VOLUME II: MODAL COMPONENTS AND OUTPUTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research outlines a proposed Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Modal Emission Modeling Framework (HDDV-MEMF) for heavy-duty diesel-powered trucks and buses. The heavy-duty vehicle modal modules being developed under this research effort, although different, should be compatible wi...

  3. Idle emissions from heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles at high altitude.

    PubMed

    McCormick, R L; Graboski, M S; Alleman, T L; Yanowitz, J

    2000-11-01

    Idle emissions of total hydrocarbon (THC), CO, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) were measured from 24 heavy-duty diesel-fueled (12 trucks and 12 buses) and 4 heavy-duty compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. The volatile organic fraction (VOF) of PM and aldehyde emissions were also measured for many of the diesel vehicles. Experiments were conducted at 1609 m above sea level using a full exhaust flow dilution tunnel method identical to that used for heavy-duty engine Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing. Diesel trucks averaged 0.170 g/min THC, 1.183 g/min CO, 1.416 g/min NOx, and 0.030 g/min PM. Diesel buses averaged 0.137 g/min THC, 1.326 g/min CO, 2.015 g/min NOx, and 0.048 g/min PM. Results are compared to idle emission factors from the MOBILE5 and PART5 inventory models. The models significantly (45-75%) overestimate emissions of THC and CO in comparison with results measured from the fleet of vehicles examined in this study. Measured NOx emissions were significantly higher (30-100%) than model predictions. For the pre-1999 (pre-consent decree) truck engines examined in this study, idle NOx emissions increased with model year with a linear fit (r2 = 0.6). PART5 nationwide fleet average emissions are within 1 order of magnitude of emissions for the group of vehicles tested in this study. Aldehyde emissions for bus idling averaged 6 mg/min. The VOF averaged 19% of total PM for buses and 49% for trucks. CNG vehicle idle emissions averaged 1.435 g/min for THC, 1.119 g/min for CO, 0.267 g/min for NOx, and 0.003 g/min for PM. The g/min PM emissions are only a small fraction of g/min PM emissions during vehicle driving. However, idle emissions of NOx, CO, and THC are significant in comparison with driving emissions.

  4. 76 FR 28502 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined...\\ Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company (Cooper) is a replacement equipment manufacturer incorporated in...

  5. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the CV990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.

  6. 49 CFR 570.9 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inch deep. (1) Inspection procedure. Passenger car tires have tread depth indicators that become exposed when tread depth is less than two thirty-seconds of an inch. Inspect for indicators in any two... vehicles other than passenger cars, it may be necessary to measure tread depth with a tread gauge. (b) Type...

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea, health-related factors, and long distance heavy vehicle crashes in Western Australia: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Meuleners, Lynn; Fraser, Michelle L; Govorko, Matthew H; Stevenson, Mark R

    2015-04-15

    To determine the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), health-related factors and the likelihood of heavy vehicle crashes in Western Australia (WA). This case-control study included 100 long-haul heavy vehicle drivers who were involved in a police-reported crash in WA during the study period (cases) and 100 long-haul heavy vehicle drivers recruited from WA truck stops, who were not involved in a crash during the past year (controls). Driver demographics, health, and fatigue-related characteristics were obtained using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Drivers were tested for OSA using a diagnostic Flow Wizard. Logistic regression was used to determine health-related factors associated with crash involvement among long distance heavy vehicle drivers. Heavy vehicle drivers diagnosed with OSA through the use of the FlowWizard were over three times more likely to be involved in a crash than drivers without OSA (adjusted OR: 3.42, 95% CI: 1.34-8.72). The risk of crash was significantly increased if heavy vehicle drivers reported a diagnosis of depression (adjusted OR: 6.59, 95% CI: 1.30-33.24) or had not completed fatigue management training (adjusted OR: 6.05, 95% CI: 1.80-20.24). Crash risk was 74% lower among older drivers (> 35 years) than younger drivers (adjusted OR: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.82). The results suggest that more rigorous screening and subsequent treatment of OSA and depression by clinicians as well as compulsory fatigue management training may reduce crashes among heavy vehicle drivers. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 409. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  8. Emission Control Research to Enable Fuel Efficiency: Department of Energy Heavy Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gurpreet Singh; Ronald L. Graves; John M. Storey; William P. Partridge; John F. Thomas; Bernie M. Penetrante; Raymond M. Brusasco; Bernard T. Merritt; George E. Vogtlin; Christopher L. Aardahl; Craig F. Habeger; M.L. Balmer

    2000-06-19

    The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies supports research to enable high-efficiency diesel engines to meet future emissions regulations, thus clearing the way for their use in light trucks as well as continuing as the most efficient powerplant for freight-haulers. Compliance with Tier 2 rules and expected heavy duty engine standards will require effective exhaust emission controls (after-treatment) for diesels in these applications. DOE laboratories are working with industry to improve emission control technologies in projects ranging from application of new diagnostics for elucidating key mechanisms, to development and tests of prototype devices. This paper provides an overview of these R and D efforts, with examples of key findings and developments.

  9. Idle emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles: review and recent data.

    PubMed

    Khan, A B M S; Clark, Nigel N; Thompson, Gregory J; Wayne, W Scott; Gautam, Mridul; Lyons, Donald W; Hawelti, Daniel

    2006-10-01

    Heavy-duty diesel vehicle idling consumes fuel and reduces atmospheric quality, but its restriction cannot simply be proscribed, because cab heat or air-conditioning provides essential driver comfort. A comprehensive tailpipe emissions database to describe idling impacts is not yet available. This paper presents a substantial data set that incorporates results from the West Virginia University transient engine test cell, the E-55/59 Study and the Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study. It covered 75 heavy-duty diesel engines and trucks, which were divided into two groups: vehicles with mechanical fuel injection (MFI) and vehicles with electronic fuel injection (EFI). Idle emissions of CO, hydrocarbon (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and carbon dioxide (CO2) have been reported. Idle CO2 emissions allowed the projection of fuel consumption during idling. Test-to-test variations were observed for repeat idle tests on the same vehicle because of measurement variation, accessory loads, and ambient conditions. Vehicles fitted with EFI, on average, emitted approximately 20 g/hr of CO, 6 g/hr of HC, 86 g/hr of NOx, 1 g/hr of PM, and 4636 g/hr of CO2 during idle. MFI equipped vehicles emitted approximately 35 g/hr of CO, 23 g/hr of HC, 48 g/hr of NOx, 4 g/hr of PM, and 4484 g/hr of CO2, on average, during idle. Vehicles with EFI emitted less idle CO, HC, and PM, which could be attributed to the efficient combustion and superior fuel atomization in EFI systems. Idle NOx, however, increased with EFI, which corresponds with the advancing of timing to improve idle combustion. Fuel injection management did not have any effect on CO2 and, hence, fuel consumption. Use of air conditioning without increasing engine speed increased idle CO2, NOx, PM, HC, and fuel consumption by 25% on average. When the engine speed was elevated from 600 to 1100 revolutions per minute, CO2 and NOx emissions and fuel consumption increased by >150%, whereas PM and HC emissions increased

  10. Optical strain measurement for fault detection in haul-truck tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchon, A.; Nobes, D. S.; Lipsett, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Tire condition is integral to the safe operation of heavy machinery, such as ultra-class haul trucks. A new approach to haul truck tire monitoring is being investigated based on optical strain measurement, which has the advantage of providing quantitative information from sensors that do not contact the tire. A laboratory-scale apparatus has been constructed to monitor a tire as it is subjected to various loads and pressures. Digital image correlation is used to calculate the deformation in the tire. Using this method, damage resulting from a horizontal and vertical cut created on the tire surface could be detected. A three-dimensional surface reconstruction of the tire was created to assist in the characterization of more complex damage types such as wear and fatigue. In addition to providing information for a possible industrial scale damage detection system, this apparatus will also further the understanding of damage mechanisms in tires.

  11. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Duty Cycles for Electric Powertrains

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Kenneth; Bennion, Kevin; Miller, Eric; Prohaska, Bob

    2016-03-02

    NREL's Fleet Test and Evaluation group has extensive in-use vehicle data demonstrating the importance of understanding the vocational duty cycle for appropriate sizing of electric vehicle (EV) and power electronics components for medium- and heavy-duty EV applications. This presentation includes an overview of recent EV fleet evaluation projects that have valuable in-use data that can be leveraged for sub-system research, analysis, and validation. Peak power and power distribution data from in-field EVs are presented for four different vocations, including class 3 delivery vans, class 6 delivery trucks, class 8 transit buses, and class 8 port drayage trucks, demonstrating the impacts of duty cycle on performance requirements.

  12. The Business Case for Spiral Development in Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Rebecca A.; Christensen, David L.; Keith, Edward L.

    2005-01-01

    Performance capabilities of a specific combination of the Space Shuttle external tank and various liquid engines in an in-line configuration, two-stage core vehicle with multiple redesigned solid rocket motor strap-ons are reexamined. This concept proposes using existing assets, hardware, and capabilities that are already crew-rated, flight certified, being manufactured under existing contracts, have a long history of component and system ground testing, and have been flown for over 20 yr. This paper goes beyond describing potential performance capabilities of specific components to discuss the overall system feasibility-from end to end, start to finish-describing the inherent cost advantages of the Spiral Development concept, which builds on existing capabilities and assets, as opposed to starting up a "fresh sheet" heavy-lift launch vehicle program from scratch.

  13. Recombinant botulinum neurotoxin A heavy chain-based delivery vehicles for neuronal cell targeting

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Mengfei; Chang, Li-Hsin; Pires-Alves, Melissa; Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Bloom, Jordan E.; Gu, Zhengrong; Aberle, Karla K.; Teymorian, Sasha A.; Bannai, Yuka; Johnson, Steven C.; McArdle, Joseph J.; Wilson, Brenda A.

    2011-01-01

    The long half-life of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) in cells poses a challenge in developing post-exposure therapeutics complementary to existing antitoxin strategies. Delivery vehicles consisting of the toxin heavy chain (HC), including the receptor-binding domain and translocation domain, connected to an inhibitory cargo offer a possible solution for rescuing intoxicated neurons in victims paralyzed from botulism. Here, we report the expression and purification of soluble recombinant prototype green fluorescent protein (GFP) cargo proteins fused to the entire BoNT/A-HC (residues 544–1295) in Escherichia coli with up to a 40 amino acid linker inserted between the cargo and BoNT/A-HC vehicle. We show that these GFP-HC fusion proteins are functionally active and readily taken up by cultured neuronal cells as well as by neuronal cells in mouse motor nerve endings. PMID:21051321

  14. Dynamic response analysis of a heavy commercial vehicle subjected to extreme road operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnaraj, K.; Mangalaramanan, S. P.; Lakshmana Rao, C.

    2009-08-01

    Wheel excitations measured on a heavy commercial vehicle by driving it through extreme road operating conditions, are considered as inputs to perform dynamic response analysis in a simulated laboratory and computational environment. From initial modal analysis results using finite elements, critical vehicle frame rail locations are identified for dynamic laboratory strain measurements on a six poster road load simulator that employs dynamic wheel excitations as input. Dynamic stresses calculated from measured strain values are then compared with computationally obtained stress results on each of these locations. This study also points out all geometric locations and vibration modes that may affect the design behavior of the frame members under extreme road operating conditions. The results obtained from this work can be considered for further fatigue life prediction and design optimization of chassis frame rail assembly.

  15. Aerodynamic Drag of Heavy Vehicles (Class 7-8): Simulation and Benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Rose McCallen, Dan Flowers, Tim Dunn; Jerry Owens; Fred Browand; Mustapha Hammache; Anthony Leonard; Mark Brady; Kambiz Salari; Walter Rutledge; James Ross; Bruce Storms; J. T. Heineck, David Driver; James Bell; Steve Walker; Gregory Zilliac

    2000-06-19

    This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. Experimental validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California (USC). Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and California Institute of Technology (Caltech) using state-of-the-art techniques.

  16. Systematic approach to analyzing and reducing aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R.; Browand, F.; Leonard, A.; Rutledge, W.

    1997-09-16

    This paper presents an approach for reducing aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by systematically analyzing trailer components using existing computational tools and moving on to the analyses of integrated tractor-trailers using advanced computational tools. Experimental verification and validation are also an important part of this approach. The project is currently in the development phase while we are in the process of constructing a Multi-Year Program Plan. Projects I and 2 as described in this paper are the anticipated project direction. Also included are results from past and current related activities by the project participants which demonstrate the analysis approach.

  17. HEAVY-DUTY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS MODEL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Class 2b-8 vocational truck manufacturers and Class 7/8 tractor manufacturers would be subject to vehicle-based fuel economy and emission standards that would use a truck simulation model to evaluate the impact of the truck tires and/or tractor cab design on vehicle compliance with any new standards. The EPA has created a model called “GHG Emissions Model (GEM)”, which is specifically tailored to predict truck GHG emissions. As the model is designed for the express purpose of vehicle compliance demonstration, it is less configurable than similar commercial products and its only outputs are GHG emissions and fuel consumption. This approach gives a simple and compact tool for vehicle compliance without the overhead and costs of a more sophisticated model. Evaluation of both fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from heavy-duty highway vehicles through a whole-vehicle operation simulation model.

  18. The GREET Model Expansion for Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hao; Burnham, Andrew; Wang, Michael; Hang, Wen; Vyas, Anant

    2015-05-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for a significant portion of the U.S. transportation sector’s fuel consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and air pollutant emissions. In our most recent efforts, we expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model to include life-cycle analysis of HDVs. In particular, the GREET expansion includes the fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and air pollutant emissions of a variety of conventional (i.e., diesel and/or gasoline) HDV types, including Class 8b combination long-haul freight trucks, Class 8b combination short-haul freight trucks, Class 8b dump trucks, Class 8a refuse trucks, Class 8a transit buses, Class 8a intercity buses, Class 6 school buses, Class 6 single-unit delivery trucks, Class 4 single-unit delivery trucks, and Class 2b heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans. These vehicle types were selected to represent the diversity in the U.S. HDV market, and specific weight classes and body types were chosen on the basis of their fuel consumption using the 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) database. VIUS was also used to estimate the fuel consumption and payload carried for most of the HDV types. In addition, fuel economy projections from the U.S. Energy Information Administration, transit databases, and the literature were examined. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s latest Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator was employed to generate tailpipe air pollutant emissions of diesel and gasoline HDV types.

  19. Heavy weight vehicle traffic and its relationship with antimony content in human blood.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Waldo; De Gregori, Ida; Basilio, Paola; Bravo, Manuel; Pinto, Marcela; Lobos, Maria Gabriela

    2009-05-01

    Brake pads systems are nowadays considered as one of the most important sources of antimony in airborne particulate matter. One way that antimony can enter the body is through the lungs and specially by the interaction of antimony with -SH groups present in erythrocyte membrane cells. In spite of that, there are no studies about antimony enrichment in blood of workers exposed to high vehicle traffic. Port workers are generally exposed to heavy weight vehicle traffic. In Chile the biggest marine port is found in Valparaíso City. In this study antimony in whole blood and its fractions (erythrocytes-plasma and erythrocytes membranes-cytoplasm) of 45 volunteers were determined. The volunteers were port workers from Valparaíso city, and two control groups, one from Valparaíso and another from Quebrada Alvarado, the latter being a rural area located about 100 Km away from Valparaíso. The results demonstrate that port workers are highly impacted by antimony emissions from heavy weight vehicle traffic showing an average concentration of 27 +/- 9 ng Sb kg(-1), 5-10 times higher than the concentration of antimony in the blood of control groups. These are the highest antimony levels in blood ever reported in the literature. The highest antimony percentages (>60%) were always found in the erythrocyte fractions. However, the exposure degree to vehicle traffic is significant over antimony distribution in plasma, erythrocytes and cytoplasm. This results shows that the antimony mass in the erythrocyte membranes, was approximately constant at 1.0 +/- 0.1 ng Sb g(-1) of whole blood in all blood samples analyzed.

  20. A new tire model for aircraft landing gear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsley, Ned J.

    1999-12-01

    The aircraft landing gear is, by nature of its function and subsequent design, a complex, multi-degree-of-freedom system. The stability of such a system requires further study, particularly at the tire-runway boundary condition. Presented here is an extensive literature search on previous work concerning the shimmy phenomenon, followed by a course of work defining the role which the tire plays. The tasks performed included deriving and discretizing the equations of motion for the tire, developing an empirical model for the tire's inflation loading characteristics, loading and rolling the tire in the vertical plane, laterally deflecting and twisting the tire's vertical plane, and discussing interaction of the tire model with landing gear dynamics models. Given identical inflation pressure and target vertical load, the dominant factor on out-of-plane stability response is the nonlinear softening effect of increasing air vehicle velocity. The most significant contribution of this work is the development of the tire model into a physically accurate, computationally inexpensive and fast desktop computer product for use as a landing gear system component in air vehicle ground operations simulations.

  1. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and NHTSA, on behalf of the Department of Transportation, each proposed rules to establish a comprehensive Heavy-Duty National Program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase fuel efficiency for onroad heavy-duty vehicles.

  2. 49 CFR 571.117 - Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.117 Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. S1. Scope... passenger car tires. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to require retreaded pneumatic...

  3. 49 CFR 571.138 - Standard No. 138; Tire pressure monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... those vehicles with dual wheels on an axle, according to the phase-in schedule specified in S7 of this... should stop and check your tires as soon as possible, and inflate them to the proper pressure. Driving on... or alternate tires or wheels on the vehicle that prevent the TPMS from functioning properly. Always...

  4. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  5. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  6. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  7. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  8. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  9. Determinants of the occupational environment and heavy vehicle crashes in Western Australia: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Meuleners, Lynn; Fraser, Michelle L; Govorko, Matthew H; Stevenson, Mark R

    2017-02-01

    To determine the association between a heavy vehicle driver's work environment, including fatigue-related characteristics, and the risk of a crash in Western Australia. This case-control study included 100 long-haul heavy vehicle drivers who were involved in a police-reported crash in WA and 100 long-haul heavy vehicle drivers recruited from WA truck stops, who were not involved in a crash in the previous 12 months. Driver demographics and driving details, work environment, vehicle and sleep-related characteristics were obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Drivers were tested for obstructive sleep apnoea using an overnight diagnostic device. Conditional multiple logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine work environment-related factors associated with crash involvement. After accounting for potential confounders, driving a heavy vehicle with an empty load was associated with almost a three-fold increased crash risk compared to carrying general freight (adjusted OR: 2.93, 95% CI: 1.17-7.34). Driving a rigid heavy vehicle was associated with a four-fold increased risk of crashing compared to articulated heavy vehicles (adjusted OR: 4.08, 95% CI: 1.13-14.68). The risk of crashing was almost five times higher when driving more than 50% of the trip between midnight and 5.59am (adjusted OR: 4.86, 95% CI: 1.47-16.07). Furthermore, the risk of crashing significantly increased if the time since the last break on the index trip was greater than 2h (adjusted OR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.14-4.17). Drivers with more than 10 years driving experience were 52% less likely to be involved in a crash (adjusted OR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.23-0.99). The results provide support for an association between a driver's work environment, fatigue-related factors, and the risk of heavy vehicle crash involvement. Greater attention needs to be paid to the creation of a safer work environment for long distance heavy vehicle drivers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. Innovative Structural and Joining Concepts for Lightweight Design of Heavy Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prucz, Jacky C; Shoukry, Samir N; William, Gergis W; Evans, Thomas H

    2006-09-30

    The extensive research and development effort was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2002 at West Virginia University (WVU) in order to investigate practical ways of reducing the structural weight and increasing the durability of heavy vehicles through the judicious use of lightweight composite materials. While this project was initially focused on specific Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) material, namely Aluminum/Silicon Carbide (Al/SiC) commercially referenced as ''LANXIDE'', the current research effort was expanded from the component level to the system level and from MMC to other composite material systems. Broadening the scope of this research is warranted not only by the structural and economical deficiencies of the ''LANXIDE'' MMC material, but also by the strong coupling that exists between the material and the geometric characteristics of the structure. Such coupling requires a truly integrated design approach, focused on the heaviest sections of a van trailer. Obviously, the lightweight design methods developed in this study will not be implemented by the commercial industry unless the weight savings are indeed impressive and proven to be economically beneficial in the context of Life Cycle Costs (LCC). ''Bulk Haul'' carriers run their vehicles at maximum certified weight, so that each pound saved in structural weight would translate into additional pound of cargo, and fewer vehicles necessary to transport a given amount of freight. It is reasonable to ascertain that a typical operator would be ready to pay a premium of about $3-4 for every additional pound of cargo, or every pound saved in structural weight. The overall scope of this project is to devise innovative, lightweight design and joining concepts for heavy vehicle structures, including cost effective applications of components made of metal matrix composite (MMC) and other composite materials in selected sections of such systems. The major findings generated by this research effort

  11. Rolling tires into rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-06-01

    For Envirotire (Lillington, North Carolina), producing quality crumb rubber this summer is all in a night`s work. The tire recycling facility has operated in Lillington, which is about an hour south of Raleigh, North Carolina, for about a year and a half, since October 1995. In the summer, the plant runs at night to save money in electricity costs by operating during off-peak hours; in the winter, daytime hours also can be off-peak. In contrast to the cryogenic systems used elsewhere to recycle tires, Envirotire`s system works on mechanical principles. Before the tires are even shredded, a worker cuts the white-walls out of the tires manually, so the white does not contaminate the black end-product. A worker places the tires manually on a conveyor, which feed them up to an initial shredder that sections them quickly into pieces. While the tires are on the conveyor, dividing strips on the conveyor mark off a place for each tire. The system takes nine new tires per minute.

  12. A New Heavy-Lift Capability for Space Exploration: NASA's Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing new launch systems in preparation for the retirement of the Space Shuttle by 2010, as directed in the United States (U.S.) Vision for Space Exploration. The Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Ares V heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) systems will build upon proven, reliable hardware derived from the Apollo Saturn (1961 to 1975) and Space Shuttle (1972 to 2010) programs to deliver safe, reliable, affordable space transportation solutions. This approach leverages existing aerospace talent and a unique infrastructure, as well as the vast amount of legacy knowledge gained from almost a half-century of hard-won experience in the space enterprise. Beginning early next decade, the Ares I will launch the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to the International Space Station (ISS) or to low-Earth orbit for trips to the Moon and, ultimately, Mars. Late next decade, the Ares V's Earth Departure Stage will carry larger payloads such as the lunar lander into orbit, and the Crew Exploration Vehicle will dock with it for missions to the Moon, where astronauts will explore new territories and conduct science and technology experiments. Both the Ares I and Ares V systems are being designed to support longer future trips to Mars. The Exploration Launch Projects Office, located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, is designing, developing, testing, and evaluating both launch vehicle systems in partnership with other NASA Centers, Government agencies, and industry contractors. This paper provides top-level information regarding the genesis and evolution of the baseline configuration for the Ares V heavy-lift system. It also touches on risk-based management strategies, such as building on powerful hardware and promoting common features between the Ares I and Ares V systems to reduce technical, schedule, and cost risks, as well as development and operations costs. Finally, it gives a summary of several

  13. A study of the cornering forces generated by aircraft tires on a tilted, free-swiveling nose gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, R. H.; Stubbs, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of various parameters on the cornering forces produced by a rolling aircraft tire installed on a tilted, free-swiveling nose gear. The parameters studied included tilt angle, trial, tire inflation pressure, rake angle, vertical load, and whether or not a twin tire configuration corotates. These parameters were evaluated by measuring the cornering force produced by an aircraft tire installed on the nose gear of a modified vehicle as it was towed slowly. Cornering force coefficient increased with increasing tilt angle. Increasing trial or rake angle decreased the magnitude of the cornering force coefficient. Tire inflation pressure had no effect on the cornering force coefficient. Increasing vertical load decreased the cornering force coefficient. When the tires of a twin tire system rotated independently, the cornering force coefficients were the same as those for the single-tire configuration. When the twin tire system was made to corotate, however, the cornering force coefficients increased significantly.

  14. Dynamic Tire Pressure Sensor for Measuring Ground Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application. PMID:23202206

  15. Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2012-11-07

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.

  16. Nucleation mode particles with a nonvolatile core in the exhaust of a heavy duty diesel vehicle.

    PubMed

    Rönkkö, Topi; Virtanen, Annele; Kannosto, Jonna; Keskinen, Jorma; Lappi, Maija; Pirjola, Liisa

    2007-09-15

    The characteristics of the nucleation mode particles of a Euro IV heavy-duty diesel vehicle exhaust were studied. The NOx and PM emissions of the vehicle were controlled through the use of cooled EGR and high-pressure fuel injection techniques; no exhaust gas after-treatment was used. Particle measurements were performed in vehicle laboratory and on road. Nucleation mode dominated the particle number size distribution in all the tested driving conditions. According to the on-road measurements, the nucleation mode was already formed after 0.7 s residence time in the atmosphere and no significant changes were observed for longer residence times. The nucleation mode was insensitive to the fuel sulfur content, dilution air temperature, and relative humidity. An increase in the dilution ratio decreased the size of the nucleation mode particles. This behavior was observed to be linked to the total hydrocarbon concentration in the diluted sample. In volatility measurements, the nucleation mode particles were observed to have a nonvolatile core with volatile species condensed on it. The results indicate that the nucleation mode particles have a nonvolatile core formed before the dilution process. The core particles have grown because of the condensation of semivolatile material, mainly hydrocarbons, during the dilution.

  17. Materials Approach to Fuel Efficient Tires

    SciTech Connect

    Votruba-Drzal, Peter; Kornish, Brian

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to design, develop, and demonstrate fuel efficient and safety regulation compliant tire filler and barrier coating technologies that will improve overall fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The program developed and validated two complementary approaches to improving fuel efficiency through tire improvements. The first technology was a modified silica-based product that is 15% lower in cost and/or enables a 10% improvement in tread wear while maintaining the already demonstrated minimum of 2% improvement in average fuel efficiency. The second technology was a barrier coating with reduced oxygen transmission rate compared to the state-of-the-art halobutyl rubber inner liners that will provide extended placarded tire pressure retention at significantly reduced material usage. A lower-permeance, thinner inner liner coating which retains tire pressure was expected to deliver the additional 2% reduction in fleet fuel consumption. From the 2006 Transportation Research Board Report1, a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance can reduce consumer fuel expenditures by 1 to 2 percent for typical vehicles. This savings is equivalent to 6 to 12 gallons per year. A 1 psi drop in inflation pressure increases the tire's rolling resistance by about 1.4 percent.

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Health-Related Factors, and Long Distance Heavy Vehicle Crashes in Western Australia: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Meuleners, Lynn; Fraser, Michelle L.; Govorko, Matthew H.; Stevenson, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), health-related factors and the likelihood of heavy vehicle crashes in Western Australia (WA). Methods: This case-control study included 100 long-haul heavy vehicle drivers who were involved in a police-reported crash in WA during the study period (cases) and 100 long-haul heavy vehicle drivers recruited from WA truck stops, who were not involved in a crash during the past year (controls). Driver demographics, health, and fatigue-related characteristics were obtained using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Drivers were tested for OSA using a diagnostic Flow Wizard. Logistic regression was used to determine health-related factors associated with crash involvement among long distance heavy vehicle drivers. Results: Heavy vehicle drivers diagnosed with OSA through the use of the FlowWizard were over three times more likely to be involved in a crash than drivers without OSA (adjusted OR: 3.42, 95% CI: 1.34–8.72). The risk of crash was significantly increased if heavy vehicle drivers reported a diagnosis of depression (adjusted OR: 6.59, 95% CI: 1.30–33.24) or had not completed fatigue management training (adjusted OR: 6.05, 95% CI: 1.80–20.24). Crash risk was 74% lower among older drivers (> 35 years) than younger drivers (adjusted OR: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08–0.82). Conclusion: The results suggest that more rigorous screening and subsequent treatment of OSA and depression by clinicians as well as compulsory fatigue management training may reduce crashes among heavy vehicle drivers. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 409. Citation: Meuleners L, Fraser ML, Govorko MH, Stevenson MR. Obstructive sleep apnea, health-related factors, and long distance heavy vehicle crashes in western Australia: a case control study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):413–418. PMID:25580608

  19. Yawed-Rolling Tire Mechanical Properties Testing of the Navy T-45 Aircraft Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.

    2000-01-01

    The T-45 Goshawk is a United States Navy Jet aircraft used primarily as a trainer. The aircraft design makes use of "off the shelf" hardware as much as possible and was found to have unusual directional control issues during around operations. The aircraft was involved in numerous pilot-induced-oscillation incidents as well as observed to have unusual directional control reactions to failed main gear tires, a condition that is normally handled relatively easily by conventional aircraft steering control techniques. The behavior of the aircraft's tires had previously been modeled in simulators as a result of approximations provided in 40-year-old reference publications. Since knowledge of the true tire cornering and braking behavior is essential to modeling, understanding, and fixing directional control problems, the United States Navy requested assistance from the NASA Langley Research Center's (LARC) Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to define the yawed-rolling mechanical properties of the T-45 aircraft tires. The purpose of this report is to document the results of testing the subject tires at the NASA LaRC ALDF in September 1998. Brief descriptions of the Instrumented Tire Test Vehicle (ITTV) are included to familiarize the reader with the ITTV capabilities, data acquisition system, test and measurement techniques, data accuracy, and analysis and presentation of the testing results.

  20. Hennepin County`s experience with heavy-duty ethanol vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    From November 1993 to October 1996, Hennepin County, which includes Minneapolis, field-tested two heavy-duty snowplow/road maintenance trucks fueled by ethanol. The overall objective of this program was to collect data from original equipment manufacturer alternative fuel heavy-duty trucks, along with comparable data from a similarly configured diesel-powered vehicle, to establish economic, emissions, performance, and durability data for the alternative fuel technology. These ethanol trucks, along with an identical third truck equipped with a diesel engine, were operated year round to maintain the Hennepin county roads. In winter, the trucks were run in 8-hour shifts plowing and hauling snow from urban and suburban roads. For the rest of the year, the three trucks were used to repair and maintain these same roads. As a result of this project, a considerable amount of data was collected on E95 fuel use, as well as maintenance, repair, emissions, and operational characteristics. Maintenance and repair costs of the E95 trucks were considerably higher primarily due to fuel filter and fuel pump issues. From an emissions standpoint, the E95 trucks emitted less particulate matter and fewer oxides of nitrogen but more carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Overall, the E95 trucks operated as well as the diesel, as long as the fuel filters were changed frequently. This project was a success in that E95, a domestically produced fuel from a renewable energy source, was used in a heavy-duty truck application and performed the same rigorous tasks as the diesel counterparts. The drawbacks to E95 as a heavy-duty fuel take the form of higher operational costs, higher fuel costs, shorter range, and the lack of over-the-road infrastructure.

  1. Studded and unstudded winter tires in fatal road accidents in Finland.

    PubMed

    Malmivuo, Mikko; Luoma, Juha; Porthin, Markus

    2017-07-04

    The aim of the study was to compare the safety effects of studded and unstudded winter tires based on fatal road accidents. The data included 958 road accidents involving a passenger car or van that occurred in Finland from November to March between 1997 and 2012. Comparing the proportions of winter tire type in accidents and in general traffic showed that the overall effect of tire type on the number of accidents was not significant, although studded tires reduced fatal accidents by 10-15%. Compared to unstudded tires, studded tires reduced accidents significantly only on bald ice in 2005-2012. Drivers using unstudded tires were more experienced and their profession was more frequently related to driving. In addition, the vehicle age was lower for vehicles with unstudded tires. On the other hand, the state of repair was less pertinent for unstudded than for studded tires. These confounding factors offset their effects to some degree. The risk of fatal road accidents in winter between studded and unstudded tires does not differ significantly. However, the accident risk has recently been substantially higher on bald ice for unstudded than for studded tires. The magnitude of this risk difference is difficult to determine without specific information on exposure by road surface.

  2. Associations between heavy-vehicle driver compensation methods, fatigue-related driving behavior, and sleepiness.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jason; Stevenson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing recognition that broader economic and organizational factors play a role in creating work environments that facilitate high-risk driving behavior. This study investigates the association between compensation methods for drivers, fatigue-related driving behavior, and sleepiness among Australian heavy-vehicle drivers. Specifically, we hypothesized that piece-rate compensation methods linked to performance outcomes would be associated with greater levels of fatigue-related driving behaviors and sleepiness. We examined data from a random sample of 346 long-haul heavy-vehicle drivers who had not been involved in a crash. A 40-min interview was conducted that elicited information regarding driver demographics, truck characteristics, and compensation arrangements. Specific details about drivers' behavior on their most recent trip including load(s) carried, distances driven, hours driven, rest breaks, and hours of sleep on the previous night were taken. The interview also included a standardized assessment of sleepiness using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A multivariate analysis of covariance demonstrated a significant multivariate effect for compensation methods across the combined, fatigue-related driving behavior dependent variables, F (10, 676)=2.80, p<.01. Between-subject effects demonstrated significant association between compensation methods and 4 of 5 fatigue-related variables under study, including kilometers driven per day, F (2, 340)=7.75, p<.001, hours driven per day, F (2, 341)=2.64, p<.05, total hours worked per week, F (2, 340)=5.27, p<.01, and mean driving time between breaks, F (2, 341)=4.45, p<.05. Post hoc tests revealed that piece-rate compensation methods were associated with higher levels of fatigue-related driving than non-piece-rate methods. Follow-up analysis also revealed higher caffeine and amphetamines use among piece-rate drivers for the purpose of staying awake while driving. Despite this, no association between

  3. Microwave Absorption Characteristics of Tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuzhe; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Peng, Zhiwei; Andriese, Matthew; Li, Bowen; Huang, Xiaodi; Wang, Xinli

    The recycling of waste tires has been a big environmental problem. About 280 million waste tires are produced annually in the United States and more than 2 billion tires are stockpiled, which cause fire hazards and health issues. Tire rubbers are insoluble elastic high polymer materials. They are not biodegradable and may take hundreds of years to decompose in the natural environment. Microwave irradiation can be a thermal processing method for the decomposition of tire rubbers. In this study, the microwave absorption properties of waste tire at various temperatures are characterized to determine the conditions favorable for the microwave heating of waste tires.

  4. Burning tires for fuel and tire pyrolysis: air implications

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.; Meardon, K.; Russell, D.

    1991-12-01

    The document was developed in response to increasing inquiries into the environmental impacts of burning waste tires in process equipment. The document provides information on the use of whole, scrap tires and tire-derived-fuel (TDF) as combustion fuel and on the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The use of whole tires and TDF as a primary fuel is discussed for dedicated tire-to-energy facilities. The use of whole tires and TDF as a supplemental fuel is discussed for cement manufacturing plants, electric utilities, pulp and paper mills, and other industrial processes. The focus of the document is on the impact of burning whole tires and TDF on air emissions. Test data are presented and, in most instances, compared with emissions under baseline conditions (no tires or TDF in the fuel). The control devices used in these industries are discussed and, where possible, their effectiveness in controlling emissions from the burning of whole tires or TDF is described. In addition, the report provides information on the processes themselves that use whole tires or TDF, the modifications to the processes that allowed the use of whole tires or TDF, and the operational experiences of several facilities using whole tires or TDF. The economic feasibility of using whole tires and TDF for the surveyed industries is discussed. Finally, contacts for State waste tire programs are presented.

  5. Comparison of Vehicle-Broadcasted Fuel Consumption Rates against Precise Fuel Measurements for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles and Engines

    DOE PAGES

    Pink, Alex; Ragatz, Adam; Wang, Lijuan; ...

    2017-03-28

    Vehicles continuously report real-time fuel consumption estimates over their data bus, known as the controller area network (CAN). However, the accuracy of these fueling estimates is uncertain to researchers who collect these data from any given vehicle. To assess the accuracy of these estimates, CAN-reported fuel consumption data are compared against fuel measurements from precise instrumentation. The data analyzed consisted of eight medium/heavy-duty vehicles and two medium-duty engines. Varying discrepancies between CAN fueling rates and the more accurate measurements emerged but without a vehicular trend-for some vehicles the CAN under-reported fuel consumption and for others the CAN over-reported fuel consumption.more » Furthermore, a qualitative real-time analysis revealed that the operating conditions under which these fueling discrepancies arose varied among vehicles. A drive cycle analysis revealed that while CAN fueling estimate accuracy differs for individual vehicles, that CAN estimates capture the relative fuel consumption differences between drive cycles within 4% for all vehicles and even more accurately for some vehicles. Furthermore, in situations where only CAN-reported data are available, CAN fueling estimates can provide relative fuel consumption trends but not accurate or precise fuel consumption rates.« less

  6. The role of sleepiness, sleep disorders, and the work environment on heavy-vehicle crashes in 2 Australian states.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mark R; Elkington, Jane; Sharwood, Lisa; Meuleners, Lynn; Ivers, Rebecca; Boufous, Soufiane; Williamson, Ann; Haworth, Narelle; Quinlan, Michael; Grunstein, Ron; Norton, Robyn; Wong, Keith

    2014-03-01

    Heavy-vehicle driving involves a challenging work environment and a high crash rate. We investigated the associations of sleepiness, sleep disorders, and work environment (including truck characteristics) with the risk of crashing between 2008 and 2011 in the Australian states of New South Wales and Western Australia. We conducted a case-control study of 530 heavy-vehicle drivers who had recently crashed and 517 heavy-vehicle drivers who had not. Drivers' crash histories, truck details, driving schedules, payment rates, sleep patterns, and measures of health were collected. Subjects wore a nasal flow monitor for 1 night to assess for obstructive sleep apnea. Driving schedules that included the period between midnight and 5:59 am were associated with increased likelihood of crashing (odds ratio = 3.42, 95% confidence interval: 2.04, 5.74), as were having an empty load (odds ratio = 2.61, 95% confidence interval: 1.72, 3.97) and being a less experienced driver (odds ratio = 3.25, 95% confidence interval: 2.37, 4.46). Not taking regular breaks and the lack of vehicle safety devices were also associated with increased crash risk. Despite the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea, it was not associated with the risk of a heavy-vehicle nonfatal, nonsevere crash. Scheduling of driving to avoid midnight-to-dawn driving and the use of more frequent rest breaks are likely to reduce the risk of heavy-vehicle nonfatal, nonsevere crashes by 2-3 times.

  7. Prevalence of refraction errors and color blindness in heavy vehicle drivers.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Haydar; Ozdemir, Levent; Arslan, Seher; Cetin, Ilhan; Ozeç, Ayşe Vural; Cetinkaya, Selma; Sümer, Haldun

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of eye disorders in heavy vehicle drivers. A cross-sectional type study was conducted between November 2004 and September 2006 in 200 driver and 200 non-driver persons. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed, including visual acuity, and dilated examination of the posterior segment. We used the auto refractometer for determining refractive errors. According to eye examination results, the prevalence of the refractive error was 21.5% and 31.3% in study and control groups respectively (P<0.05). The most common type of refraction error in the study group was myopic astigmatism (8.3%) while in the control group simple myopia (12.8%). Prevalence of dyschromatopsia in the rivers, control group and total group was 2.2%, 2.8% and 2.6% respectively. A considerably high number of drivers are in lack of optimal visual acuity. Refraction errors in drivers may impair the traffic security.

  8. DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag FY 2005 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R C; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Eastwood, C; Paschkewitz, J; Pointer, W D; DeChant, L J; Hassan, B; Browand, F; Radovich, C; Merzel, T; Plocher, D; Ross, J; Storms, B; Heineck, J T; Walker, S; Roy, C J

    2005-11-14

    Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At high way speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present a 12% improvement in fuel economy at highway speeds, equivalent to about 130 midsize tanker ships per year. Specific goals include: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; and (2) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate the potential of new drag-reduction devices.

  9. Heavy vehicle suspension parameters identification and estimation of vertical forces: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imine, H.; Madani, T.

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to estimate the vertical forces of heavy vehicle and identify the unknown dynamic parameters using sliding mode observer approach. This observation needs a good knowledge of dynamic parameters such as damping coefficient, spring stiffness, etc. In this paper, suspension stiffness and unsprung masses have been identified. Experimental results carried out on an instrumented tractor have been presented in order to show the quality of the state observation, parameters identification and force estimation. These estimation results are then compared to the measured one coming from the sensors installed in the tractor. Many scenarios have been tested. In this paper, the results coming from zigzag test have been shown and commented.

  10. Heavy-lift vehicle-launched Space Station method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Donald C. (Inventor); Delafuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Berka, Reginald B. (Inventor); Rickman, Steven L. (Inventor); Castro, Edgar O. (Inventor); Nagy, Kornel (Inventor); Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor); Pelischek, Timothy E. (Inventor); Schliesing, John A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a single heavy-lift launch to place a complete, operational space station on-orbit. A payload including the space station takes the place of a shuttle orbiter using the launch vehicle of the shuttle orbiter. The payload includes a forward shroud, a core module, a propulsion module, and a transition module between the core module and the propulsion module. The essential subsystems are preintegrated and verified on Earth. The core module provides means for attaching international modules with minimum impact to the overall design. The space station includes six control moment gyros for selectably operating in either LVLH (local-vertical local-horizontal) or SI (solar inertial) flight modes.

  11. Powertrain Test Procedure Development for EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Paul H.; Deter, Dean D.

    2016-07-01

    xiii ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to develop and evaluate powertrain test procedures that can accurately simulate real-world operating conditions, and to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of advanced medium- and heavy-duty engine and vehicle technologies. ORNL used their Vehicle System Integration Laboratory to evaluate test procedures on a stand-alone engine as well as two powertrains. Those components where subjected to various drive cycles and vehicle conditions to evaluate the validity of the results over a broad range of test conditions. Overall, more than 1000 tests were performed. The data are compiled and analyzed in this report.

  12. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... described in § 86.1230-96, diurnal plus hot soak measurements: 4.0 grams per test. (2) For the supplemental... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.099-11 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. (a...

  13. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.004-11 Section 86.004-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.004-11 Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles... diesel HDEs only). (iii) Particulate. (A) For diesel engines to be used in urban buses, 0.05 gram...

  14. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  15. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  16. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  17. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  18. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  19. Pneumatic tire-based piezoelectric power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makki, Noaman; Pop-Iliev, Remon

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs) currently mainly rely on Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) utilizing conventional fuels to recharge batteries in order to extend their range. Even though Piezo-based power generation devices have surfaced in recent years harvesting vibration energy, their output has only been sufficient to power up sensors and other such smaller devices. The permanent need for a cleaner power generation technique still remains. This paper investigates the possibility of using piezoceramics for power generation within the vehicle's wheel assembly by exploiting the rotational motion of the wheel and the continuously variable contact point between the pneumatic tire and the road.

  20. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MCMA-2003 Field Measurement Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, M.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L.; Slott, R. S.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Shorter, J. H.; Worsnop, D.; Zahniser, M.; Onasch, T.; Kolb, C. E.; Rogers, T.; Knighton, B.

    2004-12-01

    On-road vehicle emissions were measured in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) as part of an intensive, five-week, field campaign held in the spring of 2003 (April 1 - May 5). Vehicle emissions measurements were made during vehicle chase experiments using the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory. The mobile lab was equipped with a large suite of state-of-the-art analytical instruments for measuring both gas and particle phase chemical components from vehicle emissions in real time. The experiment represents a real-world sample of more than 200 in-use vehicles. The results presented here focus on heavy-duty gasoline (HDGT) and heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT), although measurements included pick up trucks, colectivos (microbuses), and private automobiles as well. The use of covariance and fitting methods for individual species vs. CO2 allows the estimation of individual emission ratios in a real time plume-based analysis. The variability of emission ratios within a vehicle class and during different driving modes (acceleration, idling, etc.) are explored. Results are reported as molar emission ratios of emission gases with carbon dioxide. These and other vehicle-related emissions measured during the campaign will be presented and discussed. These types of studies are important for the development of emission inventories and their use in air quality modeling studies in urban areas.

  1. ON-ROAD EMISSION SAMPLING OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first known program to characterize mobile heavy diesel vehicle emissions for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during highway and in-city driving routes was successfully conducted. The post-muffler exhaust of a diesel tractor haul...

  2. Joint measurements of black carbon and particle mass for heavy-duty diesel vehicles using a portable emission measurement system

    EPA Science Inventory

    The black carbon (BC) emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles(HDDVs) is an important source of urban atmospheric pollution and createsstrong climate-forcing impacts. The emission ratio of BC to totalparticle mass (PM) (i.e., BC/PM ratio) is an essential variable used toestimate t...

  3. 78 FR 53498 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Fuji Heavy Industries U.S.A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Fuji Heavy Industries U.S.A., Inc. AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration...

  4. ON-ROAD EMISSION SAMPLING OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first known program to characterize mobile heavy diesel vehicle emissions for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during highway and in-city driving routes was successfully conducted. The post-muffler exhaust of a diesel tractor haul...

  5. Joint measurements of black carbon and particle mass for heavy-duty diesel vehicles using a portable emission measurement system

    EPA Science Inventory

    The black carbon (BC) emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles(HDDVs) is an important source of urban atmospheric pollution and createsstrong climate-forcing impacts. The emission ratio of BC to totalparticle mass (PM) (i.e., BC/PM ratio) is an essential variable used toestimate t...

  6. Design and hardware-in-loop implementation of collision avoidance algorithms for heavy commercial road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, Vignesh; Subramanian, Shankar C.

    2016-07-01

    An important aspect from the perspective of operational safety of heavy road vehicles is the detection and avoidance of collisions, particularly at high speeds. The development of a collision avoidance system is the overall focus of the research presented in this paper. The collision avoidance algorithm was developed using a sliding mode controller (SMC) and compared to one developed using linear full state feedback in terms of performance and controller effort. Important dynamic characteristics such as load transfer during braking, tyre-road interaction, dynamic brake force distribution and pneumatic brake system response were considered. The effect of aerodynamic drag on the controller performance was also studied. The developed control algorithms have been implemented on a Hardware-in-Loop experimental set-up equipped with the vehicle dynamic simulation software, IPG/TruckMaker®. The evaluation has been performed for realistic traffic scenarios with different loading and road conditions. The Hardware-in-Loop experimental results showed that the SMC and full state feedback controller were able to prevent the collision. However, when the discrepancies in the form of parametric variations were included, the SMC provided better results in terms of reduced stopping distance and lower controller effort compared to the full state feedback controller.

  7. The impact of mental health symptoms on heavy goods vehicle drivers' performance.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Michael F; Staddon, Zoe; Sheridan, Judith; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2009-05-01

    High levels of psychological distress in fulltime employees are prevalent (4.5% per month). Symptoms of impaired mental health include difficulties with attention, concentration, motivation, decision-making, visuo-motor control, and psychomotor reaction times. There is limited research on the impact these symptoms have on heavy goods vehicle (HGV) drivers' performance. In this study 1324 HGV drivers were surveyed using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS) and the Health and Performance at Work Questionnaire (HPQ). Depression, anxiety and stress had little effect on driver absenteeism rates or self-rated driving performance. However, severe (1.5% of drivers) and very severe (1.8% of drivers) depression was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR=4.5 and 5.0, respectively) for being involved in an accident or near miss in the past 28 days. This odd ratio is akin to driving with a blood alcohol content of about 0.08%. Given the number of HGV vehicles and the prevalence of depression this equates to 10,950 HGV drivers with an increased statistical risk of an accident or near miss. As the impact of HGV accidents is potentially large, including loss of life, it would be sensible to extend the research findings here into an action plan.

  8. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program semiannual progress report for October 1996 through March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The design of advanced components for high-efficiency diesel engines has, in some cases, pushed the performance envelope for materials of construction past the point of reliable operation. Higher mechanical and tribological stresses and higher temperatures of advanced designs limit the engine designers; advanced materials allow the design of components that may operate reliably at higher stresses and temperatures, thus enabling more efficient engine designs. Advanced materials also offer the opportunity to improve the emissions, NVH, and performance of diesel engines for pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. The principal areas of research are: (1) cost effective high performance materials and processing; (2) advanced manufacturing technology; (3) testing and characterization; and (4) materials and testing standards.

  9. Human health impacts of biodiesel use in on-road heavy duty diesel vehicles in Canada.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Mathieu; Egyed, Marika; Taylor, Brett; Chen, Jack; Samaali, Mehrez; Davignon, Didier; Morneau, Gilles

    2013-11-19

    Regulatory requirements for renewable content in diesel fuel have been adopted in Canada. Fatty acid alkyl esters, that is, biodiesel, will likely be used to meet the regulations. However, the impacts on ambient atmospheric pollutant concentrations and human health outcomes associated with the use of biodiesel fuel blends in heavy duty diesel vehicles across Canada have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess the potential human health implications of the widespread use of biodiesel in Canada compared to those from ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD). The health impacts/benefits resulting from biodiesel use were determined with the Air Quality Benefits Assessment Tool, based on output from the AURAMS air quality modeling system and the MOBILE6.2C on-road vehicle emissions model. Scenarios included runs for ULSD and biodiesel blends with 5 and 20% of biodiesel by volume, and compared their use in 2006 and 2020. Although modeling and data limitations exist, the results of this study suggested that the use of biodiesel fuel blends compared to ULSD was expected to result in very minimal changes in air quality and health benefits/costs across Canada, and these were likely to diminish over time.

  10. Fuel Economy Improvement by Utilizing Thermoelectric Generator in Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Hu, T.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.

    2016-10-01

    Recent advances in thermoelectric technology have made exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (TEGs) promising for recovery of waste heat. Utilization of exhaust-based TEGs in heavy-duty vehicles was studied in this work. Given that the generated power is limited, the alternator is still indispensable. To improve the fuel economy, the generated electricity must be integrated into the automotive electrical system and consumed by electrical loads. Therefore, two feasible ways of integrating the generated electricity into the automotive electrical system are discussed: one in which the original alternator works only under certain conditions, i.e., the "thermostat" strategy, and another in which a smaller alternator is adopted and works together with the TEG, i.e., the "cooperative work" strategy. The overall performance and efficiency are obtained through simulation analysis. The simulation results show that both methods can improve the fuel economy, but the former provides better results. Moreover, if the electrical loads can be properly modified, the fuel economy is further improved. These simulation results lay a solid foundation for application of TEGs in vehicles in the future.

  11. Dynamic Analysis of Heavy Vehicle Medium Duty Drive Shaft Using Conventional and Composite Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Jain, Rajat; Patil, Pravin P.

    2016-09-01

    The main highlight of this study is structural and modal analysis of single piece drive shaft for selection of material. Drive shaft is used for torque carrying from vehicle transmission to rear wheel differential system. Heavy vehicle medium duty transmission drive shaft was selected as research object. Conventional materials (Steel SM45 C, Stainless Steel) and composite materials (HS carbon epoxy, E Glass Polyester Resin Composite) were selected for the analysis. Single piece composite material drive shaft has advantage over conventional two-piece steel drive shaft. It has higher specific strength, longer life, less weight, high critical speed and higher torque carrying capacity. The main criteria for drive shaft failure are strength and weight. Maximum modal frequency obtained is 919 Hz. Various harmful vibration modes (lateral vibration and torsional vibration) were identified and maximum deflection region was specified. For single-piece drive shaft the natural bending frequency should be higher because it is subjected to torsion and shear stress. Single piece drive shaft was modelled using Solid Edge and Pro-E. Finite Element Analysis was used for structural and modal analysis with actual running boundary condition like frictional support, torque and moment. FEA simulation results were validated with experimental literature results.

  12. Fuel Economy Improvement by Utilizing Thermoelectric Generator in Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Hu, T.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.

    2017-05-01

    Recent advances in thermoelectric technology have made exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (TEGs) promising for recovery of waste heat. Utilization of exhaust-based TEGs in heavy-duty vehicles was studied in this work. Given that the generated power is limited, the alternator is still indispensable. To improve the fuel economy, the generated electricity must be integrated into the automotive electrical system and consumed by electrical loads. Therefore, two feasible ways of integrating the generated electricity into the automotive electrical system are discussed: one in which the original alternator works only under certain conditions, i.e., the "thermostat" strategy, and another in which a smaller alternator is adopted and works together with the TEG, i.e., the "cooperative work" strategy. The overall performance and efficiency are obtained through simulation analysis. The simulation results show that both methods can improve the fuel economy, but the former provides better results. Moreover, if the electrical loads can be properly modified, the fuel economy is further improved. These simulation results lay a solid foundation for application of TEGs in vehicles in the future.

  13. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... clean-fuel fleet vehicles not regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall have a permanent legible label... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.305...

  14. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... clean-fuel fleet vehicles not regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall have a permanent legible label... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.305...

  15. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... clean-fuel fleet vehicles not regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall have a permanent legible label... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.305...

  16. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... clean-fuel fleet vehicles not regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall have a permanent legible label... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.305...

  17. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... clean-fuel fleet vehicles not regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall have a permanent legible label... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.305...

  18. Opportunities for Low Cost Titanium in Reduced Fuel Consumption, Improved Emissions, and Enhanced Durability Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, E.H.

    2002-07-22

    The purpose of this study was to determine which components of heavy-duty highway vehicles are candidates for the substitution of titanium materials for current materials if the cost of those Ti components is very significantly reduced from current levels. The processes which could be used to produce those low cost components were also investigated. Heavy-duty highway vehicles are defined as all trucks and busses included in Classes 2C through 8. These include heavy pickups and vans above 8,500 lbs. GVWR, through highway tractor trailers. Class 8 is characterized as being a very cyclic market, with ''normal'' year volume, such as in 2000, of approximately 240,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-7 are less cyclic, with ''normal'' i.e., year 2000, volume totaling approximately 325,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-8 are powered about 88.5% by diesel engines, and Class 2C at very roughly 83% diesel. The engine portion of the study therefore focused on diesels. Vehicle production volumes were used in estimates of the market size for candidate components.

  19. A study of aeroelastic and structural dynamic effects in multi-rotor systems with application to hybrid heavy lift vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    An aeroelastic model suitable for the study of aeroelastic and structural dynamic effects in multirotor vehicles simulating a hybrid heavy lift vehicle was developed and applied to the study of a number of diverse problems. The analytical model developed proved capable of modeling a number of aeroelastic problems, namely: (1) isolated blade aeroelastic stability in hover and forward flight, (2) coupled rotor/fuselage aeromechanical problem in air or ground resonance, (3) tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage problems, and (4) the aeromechanical stability of a multirotor vehicle model representing a hybrid heavy lift airship (HHLA). The model was used to simulate the ground resonance boundaries of a three bladed hingeless rotor model, including the effect of aerodynamic loads, and the theoretical predictions compared well with experimental results. Subsequently the model was used to study the aeromechanical stability of a vehicle representing a hybrid heavy lift airship, and potential instabilities which could occur for this type of vehicle were identified. The coupling between various blade, supporting structure and rigid body modes was identified.

  20. The challenge to NOx emission control for heavy-duty diesel vehicles in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Zhang, S. J.; Li, M. L.; Ge, Y. S.; Shu, J. W.; Zhou, Y.; Xu, Y. Y.; Hu, J. N.; Liu, H.; Fu, L. X.; He, K. B.; Hao, J. M.

    2012-10-01

    China's new "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" set a target for total NOx emission reduction of 10% for the period of 2011-2015. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) have been considered a major contributor to NOx emissions in China. Beijing initiated a comprehensive vehicle test program in 2008. This program included a sub-task for measuring on-road emission profiles of hundreds of HDDVs using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). The major finding is that neither the on-road distance-specific (g km-1) nor brake-specific (g kWh-1) NOx emission factors for diesel buses and heavy-duty diesel trucks improved in most cases as emission standards became more stringent. For example, the average NOx emission factors for Euro II, Euro III and Euro IV buses are 11.3 ± 3.3 g km-1, 12.5 ± 1.3 g km-1, and 11.8 ± 2.0 g km-1, respectively. No statistically significant difference in NOx emission factors was observed between Euro II and III buses. Even for Euro IV buses equipped with SCR systems, the NOx emission factors are similar to Euro III buses. The data regarding real-time engine performance of Euro IV buses suggest the engine certification cycles did not reflect their real-world operating conditions. These new on-road test results indicate that previous estimates of total NOx emissions for HDDV fleet may be significantly underestimated. The new estimate in total NOx emissions for the Beijing HDDV fleet in 2009 is 37.0 Gg, an increase of 45% compared to the previous study. Further, we estimate that the total NOx emissions for the national HDDV fleet in 2009 are approximately 4.0 Tg, higher by 1.0 Tg (equivalent to 18% of total NOx emissions for vehicle fleet in 2009) than that estimated in the official report. This would also result in 4% increase in estimation of national anthropogenic NOx emissions. More effective control measures (such as promotion of CNG buses and a new in-use compliance testing program) are urged to secure the goal of total NOx mitigation for the HDDV

  1. The challenge to NOx emission control for heavy-duty diesel vehicles in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Zhang, S. J.; Li, M. L.; Ge, Y. S.; Shu, J. W.; Zhou, Y.; Xu, Y. Y.; Hu, J. N.; Liu, H.; Fu, L. X.; He, K. B.; Hao, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    China's new "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" set a target for total NOx emission reduction of 10% for the period of 2011-2015. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) have been considered a major contributor to NOx emissions in China. Beijing initiated a comprehensive vehicle test program in 2008. This program included a sub-task for measuring on-road emission profiles of hundreds of HDDVs using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). The major finding is that neither the on-road distance-specific (g km -1) nor brake-specific (g kW h-1) NOx emission factors for diesel buses and heavy-duty diesel trucks improved in most cases as emission standards became more stringent. For example, the average NOx emission factors for Euro II, Euro III and Euro IV buses are 11.3±3.3 g km-1, 12.5± 1.3 g km-1, and 11.8±2.0 g km-1, respectively. No statistically significant difference in NOx emission factors was observed between Euro II and III buses. Even for Euro IV buses equipped with SCR systems, the NOx emission factors are similar to Euro III buses. The data regarding real-time engine performance of Euro IV buses suggest the engine certification cycles did not reflect their real-world operating conditions. These new on-road test results indicate that previous estimates of total NOx emissions for HDDV fleet may be significantly underestimated. The new estimate in total NOx emissions for the Beijing HDDV fleet in 2009 is 37.0 Gg, an increase of 45% compared to the previous study. Further, we estimate that the total NOx emissions for the national HDDV fleet in 2009 are approximately 4.0 Tg, higher by 1.0 Tg (equivalent to 18% of total NOx emissions for vehicle fleet in 2009) than that estimated in the official report. This would also result in 4% increase in estimation of national anthropogenic NOx emissions. More effective control measures (such as promotion of CNG buses and a new in-use compliance testing program) are urged to secure the goal of total NOxmitigation for the HDDV fleet

  2. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2008-12-09

    This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  3. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2008-01-01

    This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed. PMID:27873979

  4. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...: 3.0 grams carbon per test. (2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in § 86.1230...

  5. Velocity and normal tyre force estimation for heavy trucks based on vehicle dynamic simulation considering the road slope angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zeyu; Zhang, Yunqing; Yang, James

    2016-02-01

    A precise estimation of vehicle velocities can be valuable for improving the performance of the vehicle dynamics control (VDC) system and this estimation relies heavily upon the accuracy of longitudinal and lateral tyre force calculation governed by the prediction of normal tyre forces. This paper presents a computational method based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) method to estimate both longitudinal and lateral velocities and develops a novel quasi-stationary method to predict normal tyre forces of heavy trucks on a sloping road. The vehicle dynamic model is constructed with a planar dynamic model combined with the Pacejka tyre model. The novel quasi-stationary method for predicting normal tyre forces is able to characterise the typical chassis configuration of the heavy trucks. The validation is conducted through comparing the predicted results with those simulated by the TruckSim and it has a good agreement between these results without compromising the convergence speed and stability.

  6. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing: Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lascurain, Mary Beth; Capps, Gary J; Franzese, Oscar

    2013-10-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data

  7. Numerical analysis of tire/contact pressure using finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranoto, Sarwo Edy; Hidayat, Royan; Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between the road surface and vehicle's tire may significantly determine the stability of a vehicle. We could study the tire contact-pressure to road surfaces through a numerical simulation in this present study. In particular, the main purpose of the study was to present an illustration of the effect of the varied loads to the tire, which would affect the contact pressure on the road surface sand stress distribution on the tire by employing a commercial ABAQUS software, based on the finite element method. To make the process of data analysis easier, the tire was assumed to be made from natural rubber which composition consisted of 2 layers of the inner tire and 1 layer of carcass. In pre-conditions, the tire was given air pressure as much as 17 psi, and loads as much as 2 KN, 6 KN, and 10 KN; then, the air pressure was increased to be 30 psi; consequently, the simulation results of stress distribution and deformation on each of loads condition would be acquired. The simulation results indicated that the loads carried by the tire on the vehicle were an important factor to determine the tire-stress profile.

  8. Effects of Heavy, Tracked-Vehicle Disturbance on Forest Soil Properties at Fort Benning, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T.,JR.

    2004-05-20

    The purpose of this report is to describe the effects of heavy, tracked-vehicle disturbance on various measures of soil quality in training compartment K-11 at Fort Benning, Georgia. Predisturbance soil sampling in April and October of 2002 indicated statistically significant differences in soil properties between upland and riparian sites. Soil density was less at riparian sites, but riparian soils had significantly greater C and N concentrations and stocks than upland soils. Most of the C stock in riparian soils was associated with mineral-associated organic matter (i.e., the silt + clay fraction physically separated from whole mineral soil). Topographic differences in soil N availability were highly dependent on the time of sampling. Riparian soils had higher concentrations of extractable inorganic N than upland soils and also exhibited significantly greater soil N availability during the spring sampling. The disturbance experiment was performed in May 2003 by driving a D7 bulldozer through the mixed pine/hardwood forest. Post-disturbance sampling was limited to upland sites because training with heavy, tracked vehicles at Fort Benning is generally confined to upland soils. Soil sampling approximately one month after the experiment indicated that effects of the bulldozer were limited primarily to the forest floor (O-horizon) and the surface (0-10 cm) mineral soil. O-horizon dry mass and C stocks were significantly reduced, relative to undisturbed sites, and there was an indication of reduced mineral soil C stocks in the disturbance zone. Differences in the surface (0-10 cm) mineral soil also indicated a significant increase in soil density as a result of disturbance by the bulldozer. Although there was some tendency for greater soil N availability in disturbed soils, the changes were not significantly different from undisturbed controls. It is expected that repeated soil disturbance over time, which will normally occur in a military training area, would simply

  9. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semi-annual progress report for October 1997 through March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  10. Heavy-truck drivers' following behavior with intervention of an integrated, in-vehicle crash warning system: a field evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Shan; LeBlanc, David J; Sayer, James R; Flannagan, Carol

    2012-10-01

    This study is designed to evaluate heavy-truck drivers' following behavior and how a crash warning system influences their headway maintenance. Rear-end crashes are one of the major crash types involving heavy trucks and are more likely than other crash types to result in fatalities. Previous studies have observed positive effects of in-vehicle crash warning systems in passenger car drivers. Although heavy-truck drivers are generally more experienced, driver-related errors are still the leading factors contributing to heavy-truck-related rear-end crashes. Data from a 10-month naturalistic driving study were used. Participants were 18 professional heavy-truck drivers who received warnings during the last 8 months of the study (treatment period) but not during the first 2 months (baseline period). Time headway and driver's brake reaction time were extracted and compared with condition variables, including one between-subjects variable (driver shift) and five within-subjects variables (treatment condition, roadway types, traffic density, wiper state, and trailer configuration). The presence of warnings resulted in a 0.28-s increase of mean time headway with dense on-road traffic and a 0.20-s increase with wipers on. Drivers also responded to the forward conflicts significantly faster (by 0.26 s, a 15% enhancement) in the treatment condition compared with responses in the baseline condition. Positive effects on heavy-truck drivers' following performance were observed with the warning system. The installation of such in-vehicle crash warning systems can help heavy-truck drivers keep longer headway distances in challenging situations and respond quicker to potential traffic conflicts, therefore possibly increasing heavy-truck longitudinal driving safety.

  11. Characterization of Particle and Gas Phase Pollutant Emissions from Heavy- and Light-Duty Vehicles in a California Roadway Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchstetter, T.; Strawa, A.; Hallar, G.; Harley, R.; Kendall, G.; Hesson, J.; Stevenson, E.; Miguel, A.

    2004-12-01

    In summer 2004, particle and gas phase pollutant emissions from heavy-duty diesel and light-duty gasoline vehicles were characterized in the Caldecott tunnel, located east of San Francisco Bay. This measurement campaign was the latest of many in the tunnel. In addition to assessing temporal trends in pollutant emission rates, the study is of interest due to recent changes to gasoline composition in California - methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has been phased out and replaced in part with ethanol. The current study determined mass emission rates (in g of pollutant emitted per kg of fuel burned) of PM2.5, particulate black and organic carbon (BC and OC), and carbon monoxide (CO). The hygroscopicity and optical properties of PM2.5 emissions were also measured: optical absorption was measured using filter-based photometer methods and optical extinction and scattering were simultaneously measured in-situ with a new cavity ring-down instrument. Initial results of the study indicate substantial decreases in mass emission rates of PM2.5, BC, OC, and CO from both heavy-duty diesel and light duty-gasoline vehicles since 1997, when emission rates were previously measured at the tunnel. The decreases were greater for heavy-duty vehicles than for light-duty vehicles, but emission rates of the particulate species are, nonetheless, 10-20 times greater from heavy-duty vehicles. Hygroscopic growth was not evident when particulate matter was humidified from 40 to 80 percent relative humidity, indicating the hydrophobic nature of freshly emitted gasoline and diesel particles, which contained comparable amounts of OC and BC. Other results will be presented, including those pertaining to the measurement of aerosol optical absorption.

  12. Aerodynamic Design Criteria for Class 8 Heavy Vehicles Trailer Base Devices to Attain Optimum Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Salari, K; Ortega, J

    2010-12-13

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of its Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), and Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) effort has investigated class 8 tractor-trailer aerodynamics for many years. This effort has identified many drag producing flow structures around the heavy vehicles and also has designed and tested many new active and passive drag reduction techniques and concepts for significant on the road fuel economy improvements. As part of this effort a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design for aerodynamic drag reduction devices has been established. The objective of this report is to provide design guidance for trailer base devices to improve their aerodynamic performance. These devices are commonly referred to as boattails, base flaps, tail devices, and etc. The information provided here is based on past research and our most recent full-scale experimental investigations in collaboration with Navistar Inc. Additional supporting data from LLNL/Navistar wind tunnel, track test, and on the road test will be published soon. The trailer base devices can be identified by 4 flat panels that are attached to the rear edges of the trailer base to form a closed cavity. These devices have been engineered in many different forms such as, inflatable and non-inflatable, 3 and 4-sided, closed and open cavity, and etc. The following is an in-depth discussion with some recommendations, based on existing data and current research activities, of changes that could be made to these devices to improve their aerodynamic performance. There are 6 primary factors that could influence the aerodynamic performance of trailer base devices: (1) Deflection angle; (2) Boattail length; (3) Sealing of edges and corners; (4) 3 versus 4-sided, Position of the 4th plate; (5) Boattail vertical extension, Skirt - boattail transition; and (6) Closed versus open cavity.

  13. Shredded tires for electric generation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, M.V.; Hanson, W.C.

    1983-06-01

    The long-term effect of burning a blend of shredded tires and coal on the equipment and operation of the Elk River Station will only be determined when an adequate tire supply can be procured at a price which is low enough to economically justify the operation of this Station. The current price of power in the UPA system and the MAPP system dictates that the maximum price that can be paid for the shredded tire material in order to justify the base loaded operation of this Station at the 50% tire to coal fuel blend is about $15.00/ton. Negotiations with several organizations for the supply of shredded tires are underway. The initial indications are that shredded tires should be available for a price that would permit the continued operation of this Station. The question still remains whether a tire supplier can produce a large volume of shredded tires that will meet the 2'' particle size specification.

  14. Proposed Rule for Modification of Federal On Board Diagnostic Regulations for: Light Duty Vehicles, Light Duty Trucks, Medium Duty Passenger Vehicles, Complete Heavy Duty Vehicles and Engines Intended for Use in Heavy Duty Vehicles Weighing 14,000 Pounds

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Following is information for the proposed rule for the Modification of Federal On Board Diagnostic Regulations for Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, etc. Includes links to Federal Register and final rule.

  15. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2(TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 1; Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurry, J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 1, provides a summary description of the technical activities that were performed over the entire contract duration, covering three distinct launch vehicle definition activities: heavy-lift (300,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), medium-lift (50,000-80,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles, and single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles (25,000 pounds injected mass to a Space Station orbit).

  16. THE EFFECTS OF BIODIESEL BLENDS AND ARCO EC-DIESEL ON EMISSIONS from LIGHT HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, Thomas

    2001-08-05

    Chassis dynamometer tests were performed on 7 light heavy-duty diesel trucks comparing the emissions of a California diesel fuel with emissions from 4 other fuels: ARCO EC-diesel (EC-D) and three 20% biodiesel blends (1 yellow grease and 2 soy-based). The EC-D and the yellow grease biodiesel blend both showed significant reductions in THC and CO emissions over the test vehicle fleet. EC-D also showed reductions in PM emission rates. NOx emissions were comparable for the different fuel types over the range of vehicles tested. The soy-based biodiesel blends did not show significant or consistent emissions differences over all test vehicles. Total carbon accounted for more than 70% of the PM mass for 4 of the 5 sampled vehicles. Elemental and organic carbon ratios varied significantly from vehicle-to-vehicle but showed very little fuel dependence. Inorganic species represented a smaller portion of the composite total, ranging from 0.2 to 3.3% of the total PM. Total PAH emissions ranged from approximately 1.8 mg/mi to 67.8 mg/mi over the different vehicle/fuel combinations representing between 1.6 and 3.8% of the total PM mass.

  17. Evaluation of fuel consumption potential of medium and heavy duty vehicles through modeling and simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Delorme, A.; Karbowski, D.; Sharer, P.; Energy Systems

    2010-03-31

    The main objective of this report is to provide quantitative data to support the Committee in its task of establishing a report to support rulemaking on medium- and heavy-duty fuel efficiency improvement. In particular, it is of paramount importance for the Committee to base or illustrate their conclusions on established models and actual state-of-the art data. The simulations studies presented in the report have been defined and requested by the members of the National Academy committee to provide quantitative inputs to support their recommendations. As such, various technologies and usage scenarios were considered for several applications. One of the objective is to provide the results along with their associated assumptions (both vehicle and drive cycles), information generally missing from public discussions on literature search. Finally, the advantages and limitations of using simulation will be summarized. The study addresses several of the committee tasks, including: (1) Discussion of the implication of metric selection; (2) Assessing the impact of existing technologies on fuel consumption through energy balance analysis (both steady-state and standard cycles) as well as real world drive cycles; and (3) Impact of future technologies, both individually and collectively.

  18. Extent and variations in mobile phone use among drivers of heavy vehicles in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Troglauer, Thomas; Hels, Tove; Christens, Peter Falck

    2006-01-01

    A substantial body of research has shown that use of mobile phones while driving can impair driving performance and increase the risk of being involved in accidents. Similarly, mobile phone use seems to be an increasing activity thus representing a relevant traffic safety issue. This paper investigates the extent and variations in mobile phone use among drivers of heavy vehicles in Denmark. The data was collected through written questionnaires and had a response rate of 58%. It was found that more than 99% of the drivers used mobile phones while driving. Despite a prohibition of hand-held mobile phone use while driving 31% of the drivers reported to do so. Analysis of the variations in usage found a positive significant relationship between driving hours and phone use. A negative linear effect was found between age and phone use. Similarly, a positive significant association was found between the number of stops and the amount of phone use. 0.5% reported that their use of mobile phones had contributed to an accident, while 6% had experienced their mobile phone use causing a dangerous situation. However, 66% reported experiencing dangerous situations because of others road users' mobile phone use. Various implications of the findings are discussed particularly in relation to the drivers with high exposure.

  19. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from alternative fuels in Australian heavy vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Tom; Grant, Tim; Williams, David; Watson, Harry

    This paper quantifies the expected pre-combustion and combustion emissions of greenhouse gases from Australian heavy vehicles using alternative fuels. We use the term exbodied emissions for these full fuel-cycle emissions. The fuels examined are low sulfur diesel (LSD), ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULS), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), ethanol (from lignocellulose), biodiesel and waste oil. Biodiesel and ethanol have the lowest exbodied greenhouse gas emissions (in grams greenhouse gases per kilometre travelled). Biodiesel reduces exbodied greenhouse gas emissions from 41% to 51% whereas ethanol reduces emissions by 49-55%. In fact, both emit larger quantities of CO 2 than conventional fuels, but as most of the CO 2 is from renewable carbon stocks that fraction is not counted towards the greenhouse gas emissions from the fuel. The gaseous fuels (LPG, CNG) come next with emissions that range from 88% to 92% of diesel. The emissions of greenhouse gases from diesel are reduced if waste oil is used as a diesel extender, but the processing energy required to generate LSD and ULS in Australia increase their greenhouse gas emissions compared to diesel fuel. The extra energy required liquefy and cool LNG means that it has the highest exbodied greenhouse gas emissions of the fuels that were considered.

  20. Clutch fill control of an automatic transmission for heavy-duty vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fei; Chen, Huiyan; Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper an integrated clutch filling phase control for gearshifts on wet clutch transmissions is developed. In a clutch-to-clutch shift of an automatic transmission, in order to obtain smooth gearshift, it should synchronize the oncoming clutch and the off-going clutch timely as well as precise pressure control for the engagement of the oncoming clutch. However, before the oncoming clutch pressure starts to increase, the initial cavity of the clutch chamber has to be filled first. The filling time and stability of the fill phase are very important for the clutch control. In order to improve the shift quality of the automatic transmission which is equipped on heavy-duty vehicles, the electro-hydraulic clutch actuation system is analysed and modelled. A new fill phase control strategy is proposed based on the system analysis as well as the control parameters are optimized according to the variation of the oil temperature and engine speed. The designed strategy is validated by a simulation work. The results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy and parameters modified method can transit the shift process from the fill phase to the torque phase effectively.

  1. Prevalence of refraction errors and color blindness in heavy vehicle drivers

    PubMed Central

    Erdoğan, Haydar; Özdemir, Levent; Arslan, Seher; Çetin, Ilhan; Özeç, Ayşe Vural; Çetinkaya, Selma; Sümer, Haldun

    2011-01-01

    AIM To investigate the frequency of eye disorders in heavy vehicle drivers. METHODS A cross-sectional type study was conducted between November 2004 and September 2006 in 200 driver and 200 non-driver persons. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed, including visual acuity, and dilated examination of the posterior segment. We used the auto refractometer for determining refractive errors. RESULTS According to eye examination results, the prevalence of the refractive error was 21.5% and 31.3% in study and control groups respectively (P<0.05). The most common type of refraction error in the study group was myopic astigmatism (8.3%) while in the control group simple myopia (12.8%). Prevalence of dyschromatopsia in the rivers, control group and total group was 2.2%, 2.8% and 2.6% respectively. CONCLUSION A considerably high number of drivers are in lack of optimal visual acuity. Refraction errors in drivers may impair the traffic security. PMID:22553671

  2. A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Pozuelo, Daniel; Olatunbosun, Oluremi; Yunta, Jorge; Yang, Xiaoguang; Diaz, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic. PMID:28208631

  3. October 1998 working group meeting on heavy vehicle aerodynamic drag: presentations and summary of comments and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Browand, F; Heineck, J T; Leonard, A; McBride, D; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Rutledge, W; Salari, K; Storms, B

    1998-10-01

    A Working Group 1Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California on October 22, 1998. The purpose of the meeting was to present an overview of the computational and experimental approach for modeling the integrated tractor-trailer benchmark geometry called the Sandia IModel and to review NASA' s test plan for their experiments in the 7 ft x 10 ft wind tunnel. The present and projected funding situation was also discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and NASA Ames Research Center. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions. and outlines the future action items.

  4. April 2002 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Salari, K; Dunn, T; Ortega, J; Yen-Nakafuji, D; Browand, F; Arcas, D; Jammache, M; Leoard, A; Chatelain, P; Rubel, M; Rutledge, W; McWherter-Payne, M; Roy, Ca; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J T; Storms, B; Pointer, D; Sofu, T; Weber, D; Chu, E; Hancock, P; Bundy, B; Englar, B

    2002-08-22

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on April 3 and 4, 2002. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss technical details on the experimental and computational work in progress and future project plans. Representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), NASA Ames Research Center, University of Southern California (USC), and California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Volvo Trucks, and Freightliner Trucks presented and participated in discussions. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items.

  5. Effects of tire leachate on the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus and the native congener Aedes triseriatus.

    PubMed

    Villena, Oswaldo C; Terry, Ivana; Iwata, Kayoko; Landa, Edward R; LaDeau, Shannon L; Leisnham, Paul T

    2017-01-01

    Discarded vehicle tire casings are an important artificial habitat for the developmental stages of numerous vector mosquitoes. Discarded vehicle tires degrade under ultraviolet light and leach numerous soluble metals (e.g., barium, cadmium, zinc) and organic substances (e.g., benzothiazole and its derivatives [BZTs], polyaromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) that could affect mosquito larvae that inhabit the tire casing. This study examined the relationship between soluble zinc, a common marker of tire leachate, on mosquito densities in tire habitats in the field, and tested the effects of tire leachate on the survival and development of newly hatched Aedes albopictus and Aedes triseriatus larvae in a controlled laboratory dose-response experiment. In the field, zinc concentrations were as high as 7.26 mg/L in a single tire and averaged as high as 2.39 (SE ± 1.17) mg/L among tires at a single site. Aedes albopictus (37/42 tires, 81.1%) and A. triseriatus (23/42, 54.8%) were the most widespread mosquito species, co-occurred in over half (22/42, 52.4%) of all tires, and A. triseriatus was only collected without A. albopictus in one tire. Aedes triseriatus was more strongly negatively associated with zinc concentration than A. albopictus, and another common mosquito, C. pipiens, which was found in 17 tires. In the laboratory experiment, A. albopictus per capita rate of population change (λ') was over 1.0, indicating positive population growth, from 0-8.9 mg/L zinc concentration (0-10,000 mg/L tire leachate), but steeply declined to zero from 44.50-89.00 mg/L zinc (50,000-100,000 mg/L tire leachate). In contrast, A. triseriatus λ' declined at the lower concentration of 0.05 mg/L zinc (100 mg/L tire leachate), and was zero at 0.45, 8.90, 44.50, and 89.00 mg/L zinc (500, 10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 mg/L tire leachate). These results indicate that tire leachate can have severe negative effects on populations of container-utilizing mosquitoes at concentrations

  6. Effects of tire leachate on the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus and the native congener Aedes triseriatus

    PubMed Central

    Villena, Oswaldo C.; Terry, Ivana; Iwata, Kayoko; Landa, Edward R.; LaDeau, Shannon L.

    2017-01-01

    Discarded vehicle tire casings are an important artificial habitat for the developmental stages of numerous vector mosquitoes. Discarded vehicle tires degrade under ultraviolet light and leach numerous soluble metals (e.g., barium, cadmium, zinc) and organic substances (e.g., benzothiazole and its derivatives [BZTs], polyaromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) that could affect mosquito larvae that inhabit the tire casing. This study examined the relationship between soluble zinc, a common marker of tire leachate, on mosquito densities in tire habitats in the field, and tested the effects of tire leachate on the survival and development of newly hatched Aedes albopictus and Aedes triseriatus larvae in a controlled laboratory dose-response experiment. In the field, zinc concentrations were as high as 7.26 mg/L in a single tire and averaged as high as 2.39 (SE ± 1.17) mg/L among tires at a single site. Aedes albopictus (37/42 tires, 81.1%) and A. triseriatus (23/42, 54.8%) were the most widespread mosquito species, co-occurred in over half (22/42, 52.4%) of all tires, and A. triseriatus was only collected without A. albopictus in one tire. Aedes triseriatus was more strongly negatively associated with zinc concentration than A. albopictus, and another common mosquito, C. pipiens, which was found in 17 tires. In the laboratory experiment, A. albopictus per capita rate of population change (λ′) was over 1.0, indicating positive population growth, from 0–8.9 mg/L zinc concentration (0–10,000 mg/L tire leachate), but steeply declined to zero from 44.50–89.00 mg/L zinc (50,000–100,000 mg/L tire leachate). In contrast, A. triseriatus λ′ declined at the lower concentration of 0.05 mg/L zinc (100 mg/L tire leachate), and was zero at 0.45, 8.90, 44.50, and 89.00 mg/L zinc (500, 10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 mg/L tire leachate). These results indicate that tire leachate can have severe negative effects on populations of container-utilizing mosquitoes at

  7. Tire traces - discrimination and classification of pyrolysis-GC/MS profiles.

    PubMed

    Gueissaz, Line; Massonnet, Geneviève

    2013-07-10

    Tire traces can be observed on several crime scenes as vehicles are often used by criminals. The tread abrasion on the road, while braking or skidding, leads to the production of small rubber particles which can be collected for comparison purposes. This research focused on the statistical comparison of Py-GC/MS profiles of tire traces and tire treads. The optimisation of the analytical method was carried out using experimental designs. The aim was to determine the best pyrolysis parameters regarding the repeatability of the results. Thus, the pyrolysis factor effect could also be calculated. The pyrolysis temperature was found to be five time more important than time. Finally, a pyrolysis at 650°C during 15s was selected. Ten tires of different manufacturers and models were used for this study. Several samples were collected on each tire, and several replicates were carried out to study the variability within each tire (intravariability). More than eighty compounds were integrated for each analysis and the variability study showed that more than 75% presented a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 5% for the ten tires, thus supporting a low intravariability. The variability between the ten tires (intervariability) presented higher values and the ten most variant compounds had a RSD value above 13%, supporting their high potential of discrimination between the tires tested. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was able to fully discriminate the ten tires with the help of the first three principal components. The ten tires were finally used to perform braking tests on a racetrack with a vehicle equipped with an anti-lock braking system. The resulting tire traces were adequately collected using sheets of white gelatine. As for tires, the intravariability for the traces was found to be lower than the intervariability. Clustering methods were carried out and the Ward's method based on the squared Euclidean distance was able to correctly group all of the tire traces

  8. NASA evaluation of Type 2 chemical depositions. [effects of deicer deposition on aircraft tire friction performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Howell, W. Edward; Webb, Granville L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent findings from NASA Langley tests to define effects of aircraft Type 2 chemical deicer depositions on aircraft tire friction performance are summarized. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is described together with the scope of the tire cornering and braking friction tests conducted up to 160 knots ground speed. Some lower speed 32 - 96 km/hr (20 - 60 mph) test run data obtained using an Instrumented Tire Test Vehicle (ITTV) to determine effects of tire bearing pressure and transverse grooving on cornering friction performance are also discussed. Recommendations are made concerning which parameters should be evaluated in future testing.

  9. Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The sections in this report include: Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) Design Ground-rules; Operations Issues and Lessons Learned; Vertical-Takeoff/Landing Versus Vertical-Takeoff/Horizontal-Landing; SSTO Design Results; SSTO Simulation Results; SSTO Assessment Results; SSTO Sizing Tool User's Guide; SSto Turnaround Assessment Report; Ground Operations Assessment First Year Executive Summary; Health Management System Definition Study; Major TA-2 Presentations; First Lunar Outpost Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Design and Assessment; and the section, Russian Propulsion Technology Assessment Reports.

  10. Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Studies (ATSS) Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is Volume 2 of the final report for the contract. It provides documentation of selected technical results from various TA-2 analysis activities, including a detailed narrative description of the SSTO concept assessment results, a user's guide for the associated SSTO sizing tools, an SSTO turnaround assessment report, an executive summary of the ground operations assessments performed during the first year of the contract, a configuration-independent vehicle health management system requirements report, a copy of all major TA-2 contract presentations, a copy of the FLO launch vehicle final report, and references to Pratt & Whitney's TA-2 sponsored final reports regarding the identification of Russian main propulsion technologies.

  11. A hierarchical estimator development for estimation of tire-road friction coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xudong; Göhlich, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    The effect of vehicle active safety systems is subject to the friction force arising from the contact of tires and the road surface. Therefore, an adequate knowledge of the tire-road friction coefficient is of great importance to achieve a good performance of these control systems. This paper presents a tire-road friction coefficient estimation method for an advanced vehicle configuration, four-motorized-wheel electric vehicles, in which the longitudinal tire force is easily obtained. A hierarchical structure is adopted for the proposed estimation design. An upper estimator is developed based on unscented Kalman filter to estimate vehicle state information, while a hybrid estimation method is applied as the lower estimator to identify the tire-road friction coefficient using general regression neural network (GRNN) and Bayes' theorem. GRNN aims at detecting road friction coefficient under small excitations, which are the most common situations in daily driving. GRNN is able to accurately create a mapping from input parameters to the friction coefficient, avoiding storing an entire complex tire model. As for large excitations, the estimation algorithm is based on Bayes' theorem and a simplified “magic formula” tire model. The integrated estimation method is established by the combination of the above-mentioned estimators. Finally, the simulations based on a high-fidelity CarSim vehicle model are carried out on different road surfaces and driving maneuvers to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method. PMID:28178332

  12. A hierarchical estimator development for estimation of tire-road friction coefficient.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Göhlich, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    The effect of vehicle active safety systems is subject to the friction force arising from the contact of tires and the road surface. Therefore, an adequate knowledge of the tire-road friction coefficient is of great importance to achieve a good performance of these control systems. This paper presents a tire-road friction coefficient estimation method for an advanced vehicle configuration, four-motorized-wheel electric vehicles, in which the longitudinal tire force is easily obtained. A hierarchical structure is adopted for the proposed estimation design. An upper estimator is developed based on unscented Kalman filter to estimate vehicle state information, while a hybrid estimation method is applied as the lower estimator to identify the tire-road friction coefficient using general regression neural network (GRNN) and Bayes' theorem. GRNN aims at detecting road friction coefficient under small excitations, which are the most common situations in daily driving. GRNN is able to accurately create a mapping from input parameters to the friction coefficient, avoiding storing an entire complex tire model. As for large excitations, the estimation algorithm is based on Bayes' theorem and a simplified "magic formula" tire model. The integrated estimation method is established by the combination of the above-mentioned estimators. Finally, the simulations based on a high-fidelity CarSim vehicle model are carried out on different road surfaces and driving maneuvers to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method.

  13. Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.C.

    2002-11-14

    This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric drive system. Vehicles on U. S. highways have been propelled by ICEs for several decades. Heavy-duty vehicles have typically been fueled by diesel fuel, and light-duty vehicles have been fueled by gasoline. The hazards and risks posed by ICE vehicles are well understood and have been generally accepted by the public. The economy, durability, and safety of ICE vehicles have established a standard for other types of vehicles. Heavy-duty (i.e., heavy) HEVs have recently been introduced to U. S. roadways, and the hazards posed by these heavy HEVs can be compared with the hazards posed by ICE vehicles. The benefits of heavy HEV technology are based on their potential for reduced fuel consumption and lower exhaust emissions, while the disadvantages are the higher acquisition cost and the expected higher maintenance costs (i.e., battery packs). The heavy HEV is more suited for an urban drive cycle with stop-and-go driving conditions than for steady expressway speeds. With increasing highway congestion and the resulting increased idle time, the fuel consumption advantage for heavy HEVs (compared with conventional heavy vehicles) is enhanced by the HEVs' ability to shut down. Any increase in fuel cost obviously improves the economics of a heavy HEV. The propulsion system for a heavy HEV is more complex than the propulsion system for a conventional heavy vehicle. The heavy HEV evaluated in this study has in effect two propulsion systems: an ICE fueled by CNG and an electric drive system with additional complexity and failure modes. This additional equipment will result in a less

  14. Static and Fatigue Strength Evaluations for Bolted Composite/Steel Joints for Heavy Vehicle Chassis Components

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2004-09-14

    In May 2003, ORNL and PNNL began collaboration on a four year research effort focused on developing joining techniques to overcome the technical issues associated with joining lightweight materials in heavy vehicles. The initial focus of research is the development and validation of joint designs for a composite structural member attached to a metal member that satisfy the structural requirements both economically and reliably. Huck-bolting is a common joining method currently used in heavy truck chassis structures. The initial round of testing was conducted to establish a performance benchmark by evaluating the static and fatigue behavior of an existing steel/steel chassis joint at the single huck-bolt level. Both tension and shear loading conditions were considered, and the resulting static and fatigue strengths will be used to guide the joint design for a replacement composite/steel joint. A commercially available, pultruded composite material was chosen to study the generic issues related to composite/steel joints. Extren is produced by STRONGWELL, and it is a combination of fiberglass reinforcement and thermosetting polyester or vinyl ester resin systems. Extren sheets of 3.2 mm thick were joined to 1.4 mm SAE1008 steel sheets with a standard grade 5 bolt with 6.35 mm diameter. Both tension and shear loading modes were considered for the single hybrid joint under static and fatigue loading conditions. Since fiberglass reinforced thermoset polymer composites are a non-homogenous material, their strengths and behavior are dependent upon the design of the composite and reinforcement. The Extren sheet stock was cut along the longitudinal direction to achieve maximum net-section strength. The effects of various manufacturing factors and operational conditions on the static and fatigue strength of the hybrid joint were modeled and experimentally verified. It was found that loading mode and washer size have significant influence on the static and fatigue strength of

  15. The random field model of the spatial distribution of heavy vehicle loads on long-span bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhicheng; Bao, Yuequan; Li, Hui

    2016-04-01

    A stochastic model based on Markov random field is proposed to model the spatial distribution of vehicle loads on longspan bridges. The bridge deck is divided into a finite set of discrete grid cells, each cell has two states according to whether the cell is occupied by the heavy vehicle load or not, then a four-neighbor lattice-structured undirected graphical model with each node corresponding to a cell state variable is proposed to model the location distribution of heavy vehicle loads on the bridge deck. The node potential is defined to quantitatively describe the randomness of node state, and the edge potential is defined to quantitatively describe the correlation of the connected node pair. The junction tree algorithm is employed to obtain the systematic solutions of inference problems of the graphical model. A marked random variable is assigned to each node to represent the amplitude of the total weight of vehicle applied on the corresponding cell of the bridge deck. The rationality of the model is validated by a Monte Carlo simulation of a learned model based on monitored data of a cable-stayed bridge.

  16. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  17. Exhaust emissions from light- and heavy-duty vehicles: chemical composition, impact of exhaust after treatment, and fuel parameters.

    PubMed Central

    Westerholm, R; Egebäck, K E

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents results from the characterization of vehicle exhaust that were obtained primarily within the Swedish Urban Air Project, "Tätortsprojektet." Exhaust emissions from both gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles have been investigated with respect to regulated pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], hydrocarbon [HC], nitrogen oxides [NOx], and particulate), unregulated pollutants, and in bioassay tests (Ames test, TCDD receptor affinity tests). Unregulated pollutants present in both the particle- and the semi-volatile phases were characterized. Special interest was focused on the impact of fuel composition on heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions. It was confirmed that there exists a quantifiable relationship between diesel-fuel variables of the fuel blends, the chemical composition of the emissions, and their biological effects. According to the results from the multivariate analysis, the most important fuel parameters are: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content, 90% distillation point, final boiling point, specific heat, aromatic content, density, and sulfur content. PMID:7529699

  18. Building with Tires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Eugenio, Terrance

    Text, drawings, and photographs show how tires, no longer usable for transportation, were assembled in a variety of ways to make swings, climbers, tunnels, and walls for a homemade playground. With the support of community representatives and a local high school class, a playground in Brockton, Massachusetts, was built in four days from tires…

  19. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  20. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  1. Comparative risk analysis of dioxins in fish and fine particles from heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Leino, Olli; Tainio, Marko; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2008-02-01

    Dioxins and airborne fine particles are both environmental health problems that have been the subject of active public debate. Knowledge on fine particles has increased substantially during the last 10 years, and even the current, lowered levels in the Europe and in the United States appear to be a major public health problem. On the other hand, dioxins are ubiquitous persistent contaminants, some being carcinogens at high doses, and therefore of great concern. Our aim was to (a) quantitatively analyze the two pollutant health risks and (b) study the changes in risk in view of the current and forthcoming EU legislations on pollutants. We performed a comparative risk assessment for both pollutants in the Helsinki metropolitan area (Finland) and estimated the health effects with several scenarios. For primary fine particles: a comparison between the present emission situation for heavy-duty vehicles and the new fine particle emission standards set by the EU. For dioxins: an EU directive that regulates commercial fishing of Baltic salmon and herring that exceed the dioxin concentration limit set for fish meat, and a derogation (= exemption) from the directive for these two species. Both of these two decisions are very topical issues and this study estimates the expected changes in health effects due to these regulations. It was found that the estimated fine particle risk clearly outweighed the estimated dioxin risk. A substantial improvement to public health could be achieved by initiating reductions in emission standards; about 30 avoided premature deaths annually in the study area. In addition, the benefits of fish consumption due to omega-3 exposure were notably higher than the potential dioxin cancer risk. Both regulations were instigated as ways of promoting public health.

  2. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development for Auxiliary Power in Heavy Duty Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel T. Hennessy

    2010-06-15

    Changing economic and environmental needs of the trucking industry is driving the use of auxiliary power unit (APU) technology for over the road haul trucks. The trucking industry in the United States remains the key to the economy of the nation and one of the major changes affecting the trucking industry is the reduction of engine idling. Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC (Delphi) teamed with heavy-duty truck Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) PACCAR Incorporated (PACCAR), and Volvo Trucks North America (VTNA) to define system level requirements and develop an SOFC based APU. The project defines system level requirements, and subsequently designs and implements an optimized system architecture using an SOFC APU to demonstrate and validate that the APU will meet system level goals. The primary focus is on APUs in the range of 3-5 kW for truck idling reduction. Fuels utilized were derived from low-sulfur diesel fuel. Key areas of study and development included sulfur remediation with reformer operation; stack sensitivity testing; testing of catalyst carbon plugging and combustion start plugging; system pre-combustion; and overall system and electrical integration. This development, once fully implemented and commercialized, has the potential to significantly reduce the fuel idling Class 7/8 trucks consume. In addition, the significant amounts of NOx, CO2 and PM that are produced under these engine idling conditions will be virtually eliminated, inclusive of the noise pollution. The environmental impact will be significant with the added benefit of fuel savings and payback for the vehicle operators / owners.

  3. TODAY: EPAs 2015 Technology Showcase in Ann Arbor Spotlights Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today, Tuesday, October 13, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will host the third Vehicle Technology Showcase in Ann Arbor, Mich. The event will highlight advanced technology to increase fuel efficiency and reduce vehicle greenh

  4. Group photo to show NASA GRC's collaboration with Goodyear tires; The facility is called the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Group photo to show NASA GRC's collaboration with Goodyear tires; The facility is called the Simulated Lunar Operations (SLOPE) Laboratory and the test-vehicle is called Modular Mobility-Technology Demonstrator (MMTD)

  5. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 23.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire whose approved tire ratings (static and dynamic) are not exceeded— (1) By a load on each main wheel tire) to be compared to the static rating approved for such tires) equal to the corresponding static ground reaction under the design maximum...

  6. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 23.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire whose approved tire ratings (static and dynamic) are not exceeded— (1) By a load on each main wheel tire) to be compared to the static rating approved for such tires) equal to the corresponding static ground reaction under the design maximum...

  7. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tires. 23.733 Section 23.733 Aeronautics... § 23.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire whose approved tire ratings (static and dynamic) are not exceeded— (1) By a load on each main wheel tire) to be compared to the static rating...

  8. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  9. Size-resolved emissions of organic tracers from light- and heavy-duty vehicles measured in a California roadway tunnel.

    PubMed

    Phuleria, Harish C; Geller, Michael D; Fine, Philip M; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2006-07-01

    Individual organic compounds found in particulate emissions from vehicles have proven useful in source apportionment of ambient particulate matter. Species of interest include the hopanes, originating in lube oil, and selected PAHs generated via combustion. Most efforts to date have focused on emissions and apportionment PM10 or PM2.5 However, examining how these compounds are segregated by particle size in both emissions and ambient samples will help efforts to apportion size-resolved PM, especially ultrafine particles which have been shown to be more potent toxicologically. To this end, high volume size-resolved (coarse, accumulation, and ultrafine) PM samples were collected inside the Caldecott tunnel in Orinda, California to determine the relative emission factors for these compounds in different size ranges. Sampling occurred in two bores, one off-limits to heavy-duty diesel vehicles, which allows determination of the different emissions profiles for diesel and gasoline vehicles. Although tunnel measurements do not measure emissions over a full engine duty cycle, they do provide an average emissions profile over thousands of vehicles that can be considered characteristic of "freeway" emissions. Results include size-fractionated emission rates for hopanes, PAHs, elemental carbon, and other potential organic markers apportioned to diesel and gasoline vehicles. The results are compared to previously conducted PM2.5 emissions testing using dynamometer facilities and othertunnel environments.

  10. Total Particle Number Emissions from Modern Diesel, Natural Gas, and Hybrid Heavy-Duty Vehicles During On-Road Operation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyang; Quiros, David C; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Pradhan, Saroj; Hu, Shaohua; Huai, Tao; Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-06-20

    Particle emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) have significant environmental and public health impacts. This study measured total particle number emission factors (PNEFs) from six newly certified HDVs powered by diesel and compressed natural gas totaling over 6800 miles of on-road operation in California. Distance-, fuel- and work-based PNEFs were calculated for each vehicle. Distance-based PNEFs of vehicles equipped with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in this study have decreased by 355-3200 times compared to a previous retrofit DPF dynamometer study. Fuel-based PNEFs were consistent with previous studies measuring plume exhaust in the ambient air. Meanwhile, on-road PNEF shows route and technology dependence. For vehicles with OEM DPFs and Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, PNEFs under highway driving (i.e., 3.34 × 10(12) to 2.29 × 10(13) particles/mile) were larger than those measured on urban and drayage routes (i.e., 5.06 × 10(11) to 1.31 × 10(13) particles/mile). This is likely because a significant amount of nucleation mode volatile particles were formed when the DPF outlet temperature reached a critical value, usually over 310 °C, which was commonly achieved when vehicle speed sustained over 45 mph. A model year 2013 diesel HDV produced approximately 10 times higher PNEFs during DPF active regeneration events than nonactive regeneration.

  11. Contribution of transition metals in the reactive oxygen species activity of PM emissions from retrofitted heavy-duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Vishal; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2010-12-01

    We assessed the contribution of water-soluble transition metals to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) from four heavy-duty vehicles in five retrofitted configurations (V-SCRT, Z-SCRT, DPX, hybrid, and school bus). A heavy-duty truck without any control device served as the baseline vehicle. Particles were collected from all vehicle-configurations on a chassis dynamometer under three driving conditions: cruise (80 km h -1), transient UDDS, and idle. A sensitive macrophage-based in vitro assay was used to determine the ROS activity of collected particles. The contribution of water-soluble transition metals in the measured activity was quantified by their removal using a Chelex ® complexation method. The study demonstrates that despite an increase in the intrinsic ROS activity (per mass basis) of exhaust PM with use of most control technologies, the overall ROS activity (expressed per km or per h) was substantially reduced for retrofitted configurations compared to the baseline vehicle. Chelex treatment of DEPs water extracts removed a substantial (≥70%) and fairly consistent fraction of the ROS activity, which ascertains the dominant role of water-soluble metals in PM-induced cellular oxidative stress. However, relatively lower removal of the activity in few vehicle-configurations (V-SCRT, DPX and school bus idle), despite a large aggregate metals removal, indicated that not all species were associated with the measured activity. A univariate regression analysis identified several transition metals (Fe, Cr, Co and Mn) as significantly correlated ( R > 0.60; p < 0.05) with the ROS activity. Multivariate linear regression model incorporating Fe, Cr and Co explained 90% of variability in ROS levels, with Fe accounting for the highest (84%) fraction of the variance.

  12. Evaluating road surface conditions using dynamic tire pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yubo; Wu, H. Felix; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

    2014-03-01

    In order to best prioritize road maintenance, the level of deterioration must be known for all roads in a city's network. Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and International Roughness Index (IRI) are two standard methods for obtaining this information. However, IRI is substantially easier to measure. Significant time and money could be saved if a method were developed to estimate PCI from IRI. This research introduces a new method to estimate IRI and correlate IRI with PCI. A vehicle-mounted dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) system is used. The DTPS measures the signals generated from the tire/road interaction while driving. The tire/road interaction excites surface waves that travel through the road. DTPS, which is mounted on the tire's valve stem, measures tire/road interaction by analyzing the pressure change inside the tire due to the road vibration, road geometry and tire wall vibration. The road conditions are sensible to sensors in a similar way to human beings in a car. When driving on a smooth road, tire pressure stays almost constant and there are minimal changes in the DTPS data. When driving on a rough road, DTPS data changes drastically. IRI is estimated from the reconstructed road profile using DTPS data. In order to correlate IRI with PCI, field tests were conducted on roads with known PCI values in the city of Brockton, MA. Results show a high correlation between the estimated IRI values and the known PCI values, which suggests that DTPS-based IRI can provide accurate predictions of PCI.

  13. Influence of methane emissions and vehicle efficiency on the climate implications of heavy-duty natural gas trucks.

    PubMed

    Camuzeaux, Jonathan R; Alvarez, Ramón A; Brooks, Susanne A; Browne, Joshua B; Sterner, Thomas

    2015-06-02

    While natural gas produces lower carbon dioxide emissions than diesel during combustion, if enough methane is emitted across the fuel cycle, then switching a heavy-duty truck fleet from diesel to natural gas can produce net climate damages (more radiative forcing) for decades. Using the Technology Warming Potential methodology, we assess the climate implications of a diesel to natural gas switch in heavy-duty trucks. We consider spark ignition (SI) and high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) natural gas engines and compressed and liquefied natural gas. Given uncertainty surrounding several key assumptions and the potential for technology to evolve, results are evaluated for a range of inputs for well-to-pump natural gas loss rates, vehicle efficiency, and pump-to-wheels (in-use) methane emissions. Using reference case assumptions reflecting currently available data, we find that converting heavy-duty truck fleets leads to damages to the climate for several decades: around 70-90 years for the SI cases, and 50 years for the more efficient HPDI. Our range of results indicates that these fuel switches have the potential to produce climate benefits on all time frames, but combinations of significant well-to-wheels methane emissions reductions and natural gas vehicle efficiency improvements would be required.

  14. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Coppo, Francesco; Pepe, Gianluca; Roveri, Nicola; Carcaterra, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes. PMID:28287503

  15. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Coppo, Francesco; Pepe, Gianluca; Roveri, Nicola; Carcaterra, Antonio

    2017-03-12

    The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes.

  16. New approaches to recycling tires

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.

    1991-03-01

    Steel-belted radial tires are potentially one of the most recyclable products created by modern industry, although the potential has been barely tapped. Discarded tires pile up at an astonishing rate each year - 234 million in the US and 26 million passenger tire equivalents in Canada. They represent a mother lode of raw material waiting for modern day miners to transform them into recycled rubber, steel, fiber and energy. The tremendous increase in use of steel belted radials since the early 1970s has complicated their recyclability compared to the bias ply tire, but it has also accomplished waste reduction by tripling tire service life. Part one of this report describes processes being developed to convert tires to crumb rubber, as well as some potential uses of recycled rubber. Part two, to appear next month, will examine such uses as rubberized athletic tracks and highway asphalt.

  17. 49 CFR 571.138 - Standard No. 138; Tire pressure monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.138 Standard No. 138; Tire pressure monitoring... accordance with the instructions in the vehicle owner's manual. (d) System calibration/learning phase. (1...

  18. Tire deflation device

    DOEpatents

    Barker, Stacey G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-05

    A tire deflation device includes (1) a component having a plurality of bores, (2) a plurality of spikes removably insertable into the plurality of bores and (3) a keeper within each among the plurality of bores, the keeper being configured to contact a sidewall surface of a spike among the plurality of spikes and to exert force upon the sidewall surface. In an embodiment, the tire deflation device includes (a) a component including a bore in a material, the bore including a receiving region, a sidewall surface and a base surface, (b) a channel extending from the sidewall surface into the material, (c) a keeper having a first section housed within the channel and a second section which extends past the sidewall surface into the receiving region, and (d) a spike removably insertable into the bore.

  19. Scrap tire recycling in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The author discusses the problems associated with scrap tires. For example, surface storing of scrap tires poses a fire hazard and the rainwater trapped in the tire casings is an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes. Use as a fuel for energy production is unattractive as long as oil retails at its present low price. Past reclamation processes have not met expectations. Legislation alone is not the answer, because scrap tires cannot be regulated out of existence. However, the Minnesota state legislature has come up with an approach that seems to be successful. It has passed the Waste Tire Act, which not only formulates regulations but also provides funding for research and development. Thus, it has established a tire disposal fund for financing construction costs of tire recycling facilities. One of the outcomes was the construction of the St. Louis county Waste Tire Recycling Facility. Through a leasing arrangement with Minneapolis-based Rubber Elastomerics, Inc. (RRE), construction costs financed by the tire disposal fund eventually will be repaid by RRE to the fund. The arrangement is described in detail. By a process also described, RRE produces a product that can be used in thermoset and in thermoplastic compounds. The user can incorporate between 50 percent and 85 percent of the recycled product into a rubber or plastic compound without significantly affecting the physical properties of the compound.

  20. Heat generation in aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.

    1983-01-01

    A method was developed for calculating the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire while free rolling under load. The method uses an approximate stress analysis of each point in the tire as it rolls through the contact patch, and from this stress change the mechanical work done on each volume element may be obtained and converted into a heat release rate through a knowledge of material characteristics. The tire cross-section is then considered as a body with internal heat generation, and the diffusion equation is solved numerically with appropriate boundary conditions of the wheel and runway surface. Comparison with data obtained with buried thermocouples in tires shows good agreement.

  1. Heat generation in aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed for calculating the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire while free rolling under load. The method uses an approximate stress analysis of each point in the tire as it rolls through the contact patch, and from this stress change the mechanical work done on each volume element may be obtained and converted into a heat release rate through a knowledge of material characteristics. The tire cross-section is then considered as a body with internal heat generation, and the diffusion equation is solved numerically with appropriate boundary conditions of the wheel and runway surface. Comparison with data obtained with buried thermocouples in tires shows good agreement.

  2. May 2003 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T Y; Arcas, D; Leoard, A; Chatelain, P; Rubel, M; Roy, C; DeChant, L; Hassan, B; Ross, J; Satran, D; Walker, S; Heineck, J T; Englar, R; Pointer, D; Sofu, T

    2003-05-01

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on May 29-30, 2003. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss suggested guidance and direction for the design of drag reduction devices determined from experimental and computational studies. Representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE)/Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy/Office of FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), NASA Ames Research Center (NASA), University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Clarkson University, and PACCAR participated in the meeting. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, provides some highlighted items, and outlines the future action items.

  3. Comparison of life cycle greenhouse gases from natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fan; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-06-16

    The low-cost and abundant supply of shale gas in the United States has increased the interest in using natural gas for transportation. We compare the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs). For Class 8 tractor-trailers and refuse trucks, none of the natural gas pathways provide emissions reductions per unit of freight-distance moved compared to diesel trucks. When compared to the petroleum-based fuels currently used in these vehicles, CNG and centrally produced LNG increase emissions by 0-3% and 2-13%, respectively, for Class 8 trucks. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) powered with natural gas-produced electricity are the only fuel-technology combination that achieves emission reductions for Class 8 transit buses (31% reduction compared to the petroleum-fueled vehicles). For non-Class 8 trucks (pick-up trucks, parcel delivery trucks, and box trucks), BEVs reduce emissions significantly (31-40%) compared to their diesel or gasoline counterparts. CNG and propane achieve relatively smaller emissions reductions (0-6% and 19%, respectively, compared to the petroleum-based fuels), while other natural gas pathways increase emissions for non-Class 8 MHDVs. While using natural gas to fuel electric vehicles could achieve large emission reductions for medium-duty trucks, the results suggest there are no great opportunities to achieve large emission reductions for Class 8 trucks through natural gas pathways with current technologies. There are strategies to reduce the carbon footprint of using natural gas for MHDVs, ranging from increasing vehicle fuel efficiency, reducing life cycle methane leakage rate, to achieving the same payloads and cargo volumes as conventional diesel trucks.

  4. Tires as habitats for mosquitoes: a review of studies within the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A

    2008-07-01

    Discarded vehicle tires are a common habitat for a variety of container mosquito species. I reviewed the literature from the last 50 yr on mosquitoes collected within tires in the eastern United States with four objectives: to examine the historical and contemporary issues of tires as a habitat for mosquitoes, to identify tire-inhabiting species, to summarize findings from studies that focused on biotic and abiotic characteristics of tires, and to offer future directions to aid our understanding of tire-inhabiting mosquitoes. Thirty-two species have been documented, including seven invasives, with the most frequently encountered being Aedes triseriatus, Ae. albopictus, Ae. atropalpus, Culex restuans, Cx. pipiens, Cx. territans, Anopheles punctipennis, and Toxorhynchites rutilus. The proclivity of these species to occupy small containers is one possible explanation for their occurrence in tires. The native species Ae. triseriatus was abundant and the most often collected, particularly in central and northern regions, whereas the invasive Ae. albopictus was most abundant in the south. One half of the studies investigating aspects of the tire environment compared mosquito populations between sunlit and shaded tires, with the general finding that this factor alone led to dramatic differences in larval species composition and abundance patterns. Less frequently investigated factors, e.g., tire orientation, detritus, and proximity to humans, also were found to affect patterns of occupancy by mosquitoes. For the future, I suggest more surveys are needed in understudied areas, as well as quantitative experiments to determine habitat associations and community dynamics in tires, which are especially necessary to assist in understanding invasions. Discarded tires are important for studies of vector dynamics, because of their abundance near human populations and because they expand the habitat range of mosquitoes that vector pathogens.

  5. Evaluation of Ash Toxicity Generated From the Thermal Plasma Pyrolysis of Used Automobile Tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J. S.; Novog, D. R.; Jamal, S.

    1996-10-01

    The disposal of used tires represents a severe environmental problem. As the heat content of the rubber tires is even higher than that of coal it should be considered as a future source of alternate fuel for power generation. There have been attempts to burn old tires directly in cofired boilers for production of electricity. However, there are several environmental concerns since the combustion flue gas may contain a significant concentration heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, As, etc.). One technique currently being developed is the pyrolyzation of rubber tires by a thermal plasma to produce combustible gases. In this work, ashes generated during the plasma pyrolysis of used automobile tires using a DC Argon thermal plasma were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and produced syngas composition was analyzed by FT-IR.. The gas analysis indicates a significant quantity of combustible gases (CH4, C2H2, C2H4, CO, H2 etc..) was produced from the thermal plasma pyrolysis of used tires. The results also indicate that a majority of the heavy metals present in used tires were concentrated in the ashes deposited in reaction chamber wall and in the two-stage filtering system. Furthermore the heavy metal concentration decreases significantly with increasing distance from the plasma torch. Toxic components such as Zn, As and Cl were also collected in the filtering process.

  6. Emission rates of regulated pollutants from current technology heavy-duty diesel and natural gas goods movement vehicles.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Thiruvengadam, Pragalath; Pradhan, Saroj; Carder, Daniel; Kappanna, Hemanth; Gautam, Mridul; Oshinuga, Adewale; Hogo, Henry; Miyasato, Matt

    2015-04-21

    Chassis dynamometer emissions testing of 11 heavy-duty goods movement vehicles, including diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel technology, compliant with US-EPA 2010 emissions standard were conducted. Results of the study show that three-way catalyst (TWC) equipped stoichiometric natural gas vehicles emit 96% lower NOx emissions as compared to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) equipped diesel vehicles. Characteristics of drayage truck vocation, represented by the near-dock and local drayage driving cycles, were linked to high NOx emissions from diesel vehicles equipped with a SCR. Exhaust gas temperatures below 250 °C, for more than 95% duration of the local and near-dock driving cycles, resulted in minimal SCR activity. The low percentage of activity SCR over the local and near-dock cycles contributed to a brake-specific NOx emissions that were 5-7 times higher than in-use certification limit. The study also illustrated the differences between emissions rate measured from chassis dynamometer testing and prediction from the EMFAC model. The results of the study emphasize the need for model inputs relative to SCR performance as a function of driving cycle and engine operation characteristics.

  7. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2 (TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 3; Program Cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurry, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. The basic period of performance of the TA-2 contract was from May 1992 through May 1993. No-cost extensions were exercised on the contract from June 1993 through July 1995. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 3, provides a work breakdown structure dictionary, user's guide for the parametric life cycle cost estimation tool, and final report developed by ECON, Inc., under subcontract to Lockheed Martin on TA-2 for the analysis of heavy lift launch vehicle concepts.

  8. The heavy-duty vehicle future in the United States: A parametric analysis of technology and policy tradeoffs

    DOE PAGES

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett; West, Todd H.; ...

    2015-02-14

    Here, we present a parametric analysis of factors that can influence advanced fuel and technology deployments in U.S. Class 7–8 trucks through 2050. The analysis focuses on the competition between traditional diesel trucks, natural gas vehicles (NGVs), and ultra-efficient powertrains. Underlying the study is a vehicle choice and stock model of the U.S. heavy-duty vehicle market. Moreover, the model is segmented by vehicle class, body type, powertrain, fleet size, and operational type. We find that conventional diesel trucks will dominate the market through 2050, but NGVs could have significant market penetration depending on key technological and economic uncertainties. Compressed naturalmore » gas trucks conducting urban trips in fleets that can support private infrastructure are economically viable now and will continue to gain market share. Ultra-efficient diesel trucks, exemplified by the U.S. Department of Energy's SuperTruck program, are the preferred alternative in the long haul segment, but could compete with liquefied natural gas (LNG) trucks if the fuel price differential between LNG and diesel increases. However, the greatest impact in reducing petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions is had by investing in efficiency technologies that benefit all powertrains, especially the conventional diesels that comprise the majority of the stock, instead of incentivizing specific alternatives.« less

  9. The heavy-duty vehicle future in the United States: A parametric analysis of technology and policy tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2015-02-14

    Here, we present a parametric analysis of factors that can influence advanced fuel and technology deployments in U.S. Class 7–8 trucks through 2050. The analysis focuses on the competition between traditional diesel trucks, natural gas vehicles (NGVs), and ultra-efficient powertrains. Underlying the study is a vehicle choice and stock model of the U.S. heavy-duty vehicle market. Moreover, the model is segmented by vehicle class, body type, powertrain, fleet size, and operational type. We find that conventional diesel trucks will dominate the market through 2050, but NGVs could have significant market penetration depending on key technological and economic uncertainties. Compressed natural gas trucks conducting urban trips in fleets that can support private infrastructure are economically viable now and will continue to gain market share. Ultra-efficient diesel trucks, exemplified by the U.S. Department of Energy's SuperTruck program, are the preferred alternative in the long haul segment, but could compete with liquefied natural gas (LNG) trucks if the fuel price differential between LNG and diesel increases. However, the greatest impact in reducing petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions is had by investing in efficiency technologies that benefit all powertrains, especially the conventional diesels that comprise the majority of the stock, instead of incentivizing specific alternatives.

  10. A critical review of the effectiveness of I/M programs for monitoring PM emissions from heavy duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Van Houtte, Jeroen; Niemeier, Deb

    2008-11-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) are estimated to contribute up to 36% of particulate matter (PM) emissions in urban areas. In response, many agencies have established HDV inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs designed to target and repair vehicles with excess emissions. In this review, we conduct an international comparison of legislative context and HDV I/M program characteristics across Europe, North America, and Australia. The results of this analysis show that HDV-I/M programs vary greatly in terms of the ways in which testing is organized, for example, roadside versus periodic testing, whether the fleet is self-tested, and how nonfleet and age exemptions are handled. We also show how the I/M test criteria have changed little in the last 15 years while regulations for new heavy-duty diesel engine emissions have become increasingly stringent. In the U.S., HDV engine PM emissions limits were reduced by a factor of 26 between 1997 and 2007. Most I/M programs have continued to test according to EPA (and often with state legislative confirmation) guidance procedures having cut-points established in 1992. An analysis of data from Washington State show that only a minority of post-1997 vehicles actually exceeds the detection levels of the free-acceleration smoke-opacity test procedures, with the result that malfunctions of these vehicles may not actually be detected. From our review, it is clear that even with the potential adoption of new technologies and a more systematic and efficient framework for HDV-I/M, more research must be conducted in the efficacies of periodic versus roadside testing (and location selection), the use of evaluation methods like fail rates and opacity distributions, and finally, in development of better methods for identifying excess emissions with sensors and duty cycles.

  11. 77 FR 34129 - Heavy-Duty Highway Program: Revisions for Emergency Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... vehicles, such as dedicated ambulances and fire trucks, to perform mission-critical life- saving work without risking that abnormal conditions of the emission control system could lead to decreased engine... taking this action? (1) How does a DPF work? (2) Why are emergency vehicles having problems with...

  12. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  13. July 1999 working group meeting on heavy vehicle aerodynamic drag: presentations and summary of comments and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M; Browand, F; Flowers, D; Hammache, M; Landreth, G; Leonard, A; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Rutledge, W; Salari, K

    1999-08-16

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California on July 30, 1999. The purpose of the meeting was to present technical details on the experimental and computational plans and approaches and provide an update on progress in obtaining experimental results, model developments, and simulations. The focus of the meeting was a review of University of Southern California's (USC) experimental plans and results and the computational results from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the integrated tractor-trailer benchmark geometry called the Sandia Model. Much of the meeting discussion involved the NASA Ames 7 ft x 10 ft wind tunnel tests and the need for documentation of the results. The present and projected budget and funding situation was also discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), LLNL, SNL, USC, and California Institute of Technology (Caltech). This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items.

  14. March 1999 working group meeting on heavy vehicle aerodynamic drag: presentations and summary of comments and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M; Browand, F; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Salari, K

    1999-03-01

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California on March 11, 1999. The purpose of the meeting was to present technical details on the experimental and computational plans and approaches and provide an update on progress in obtaining experimental results, model developments, and simulations. The focus of the meeting was a review of the experimental results for the integrated tractor-trailer benchmark geometry called the Sandia Model in the NASA Ames 7 ft x 10 ft wind tunnel. The present and projected budget and funding situation was also discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and NASA Ames Research Center.This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items.

  15. Scrap tires: STATEing the facts

    SciTech Connect

    Dabaie, M.

    1994-10-01

    Starting with a piece of Minnesota legislation passed in 1984, state governments have spent the last 10 years attempting to clean up and find markets for decades worth of stockpiled tires, as well as the millions more generated each year. The US EPA estimates that 242 million scrap tires were generated in the US in 1990 alone. Of these, an alarming 188 million were disposed of illegally. At least 34 states have bans on the landfilling of whole, and in some cases even shredded, tires. Last year, 37 states considered scrap-tire-related bills, most of which were amendments to earlier legislation. Among the scrap tire legislation passed in the past year are comprehensive laws in Ohio and Colorado, including fees for the disposal of tires, most of which are paid by the consumer. Fees were increased in North Carolina and Texas, and a $2-per-tire fee was begun in Connecticut, while hauler registration requirements were enacted in California. This article discusses what five states are doing with the management of scrap tires. They are: Minnesota; Wisconsin; Texas; Oklahoma; and Illinois.

  16. Puncturing the scrap tire problem

    SciTech Connect

    Steuteville, R.

    1995-10-01

    The recovery of scrap tires is making major headway in the 1990s. In 1994, an estimated 55 percent of all scrap tires generated were diverted from landfills, compared to 11 percent five years ago. Within three to five years, the Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC), an industry group, predicts that there will be markets for 100 percent of the estimated 250 million plus scrap tires generated in the U.S. annually. At that point, it should be possible to start making a serious dent in the estimated 800 to 850 million scrap tires stockpiled around the country. About 4.5 million scrap tires get transformed into ground rubber products. Despite that relatively small number, this category holds significant promise. It also is the area with perhaps the most entrepreneurial activity. The reason is clear when the value added from increasingly intensive processing of tires is examined. When scrap rubber is ground for use in asphalt, new tires or a host of other products - the value goes up tremendously. A quarter inch minus grind generally sells for 14 to 22 cents/lb., or $280 to $440/ton. With smallerpieces, the value continues to climb. An `80 mesh,` or rubber that passes through a screen with 80 holes/linear inch, sells for30 to 45 cents/ lb. ($600 to $900/ton), which is higher than prices for aluminum cans two years ago.

  17. Development of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) for Heavy- & Medium-Duty Vehicle Compliance

    EPA Science Inventory

    A regulatory vehicle simulation program was designed for determining greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption by estimating the performance of technologies, verifying compliance with the regulatory standards and estimating the overall benefits of the program.

  18. Development of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) for Heavy- & Medium-Duty Vehicle Compliance

    EPA Science Inventory

    A regulatory vehicle simulation program was designed for determining greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption by estimating the performance of technologies, verifying compliance with the regulatory standards and estimating the overall benefits of the program.

  19. Prolonged Heavy Vehicle Driving Performance: Analysis of Different Types of Following Manoeuvre

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    vehicle are relatively low (i.e. when driving on rural, * open roads and when the driver is more familiar with the behaviour of the lead vehicle... Road Safety Following Manoeuvres Convoy Driving Fatigue Driver Performance Risk Assessment Prolonged Driving Truck Driving Driver Selection Time...suggested that much more empha- sis could usefully be placed on the identification of those rewards which reinforce both safe and dangerous driving, with a

  20. Removal of polychlorinated phenols in sequential anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors packed with tire chips

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.S.; Yoo, K.S.; Park, J.K.

    1999-05-01

    Scrap vehicle tire chips were used as packing material for sequential anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors to remove persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. Adsorption capacity of scrap tires was greater under acidic conditions than under basic conditions. However, it was only approximately 0.04 to 0.3% of that of activated carbon. The amount of biomass that attached to the surface of scrap tires was 3.16 and 3.72 mg volatile suspended solids/cm{sup 2} after 14 and 37 days, respectively. Two laboratory-scale, down-flow anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors packed with tire chips were operated to remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and 4-chlorophenol (CP). More than 98% of DCP was dehalogenated to CP in the anaerobic reactor, 70 to 98% of which was subsequently degraded in the aerobic reactor. Scrap tires did not cause any operational problems when used as biofilter media.